Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Arrest data contains information on people taken into custody by City of Pittsburgh police officers. More serious crimes such as felony offenses are more likely to...
Chappell, Allison T.; MacDonald, John M.; Manz, Patrick W.
A limited amount of research has examined the relationship between characteristics of police organizations and policing styles. In particular, few studies have examined the link between organizational structures and police officer arrest decisions. Wilson's (1968) pioneering case study of police organizations suggested that individual police…
Cooper, Hannah L F
War on Drugs policing has failed to reduce domestic street-level drug activity: the cost of drugs remains low and drugs remain widely available. In light of growing attention to police brutality in the United States, this paper explores interconnections between specific War on Drugs policing strategies and police-related violence against Black adolescents and adults in the United States. This paper reviews literature about (1) historical connections between race/ethnicity and policing in the United States; (2) the ways that the War on Drugs eroded specific legal protections originally designed to curtail police powers; and (3) the implications of these erosions for police brutality targeting Black communities. Policing and racism have been mutually constitutive in the United States. Erosions to the 4th Amendment to the Constitution and to the Posse Comitatus Act set the foundations for two War on Drugs policing strategies: stop and frisk and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. These strategies have created specific conditions conducive to police brutality targeting Black communities. Conclusions/Importance: War on Drugs policing strategies appear to increase police brutality targeting Black communities, even as they make little progress in reducing street-level drug activity. Several jurisdictions are retreating from the War on Drugs; this retreat should include restoring rights originally protected by the 4th Amendment and Posse Comitatus. While these legal changes occur, police chiefs should discontinue the use of SWAT teams to deal with low-level nonviolent drug offenses and should direct officers to cease engaging in stop and frisk.
Houborg, Esben; Kammersgaard, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael Mulbjerg
studies show ambiguous results. Criminal records do not indicate that particular people are singled out. Interviews with police officers indicate that appearance of persons and non-offending behavior can play a role in suspicion formation and legal action. The ambiguity of the results can be seen...
MacDonald, John; Fagan, Jeffrey; Geller, Amanda
The New York Police Department (NYPD) under Operation Impact deployed extra police officers to high crime areas designated as impact zones. Officers were encouraged to conduct investigative stops in these areas. City officials credited the program as one of the leading causes of New York City's low crime rate. We tested the effects of Operation Impact on reported crimes and arrests from 2004 to 2012 using a difference-in-differences approach. We used Poisson regression models to compare differences in crime and arrest counts before and after census block groups were designated as impact zones compared to census block groups in the same NYPD precincts but outside impact zones. Impact zones were significantly associated with reductions in total reported crimes, assaults, burglaries, drug violations, misdemeanor crimes, felony property crimes, robberies, and felony violent crimes. Impact zones were significantly associated with increases in total reported arrests, arrests for burglary, arrests for weapons, arrests for misdemeanor crimes, and arrests for property felony crimes. Impact zones were also significantly associated with increases in investigative stops for suspected crimes, but only the increase in stops made based on probable cause indicators of criminal behaviors were associated with crime reductions. The largest increase in investigative stops in impact zones was based on indicators of suspicious behavior that had no measurable effect on crime. The findings suggest that saturating high crime blocks with police helped reduce crime in New York City, but that the bulk of the investigative stops did not play an important role in the crime reductions. The findings indicate that crime reduction can be achieved with more focused investigative stops.
Full Text Available The New York Police Department (NYPD under Operation Impact deployed extra police officers to high crime areas designated as impact zones. Officers were encouraged to conduct investigative stops in these areas. City officials credited the program as one of the leading causes of New York City's low crime rate. We tested the effects of Operation Impact on reported crimes and arrests from 2004 to 2012 using a difference-in-differences approach. We used Poisson regression models to compare differences in crime and arrest counts before and after census block groups were designated as impact zones compared to census block groups in the same NYPD precincts but outside impact zones. Impact zones were significantly associated with reductions in total reported crimes, assaults, burglaries, drug violations, misdemeanor crimes, felony property crimes, robberies, and felony violent crimes. Impact zones were significantly associated with increases in total reported arrests, arrests for burglary, arrests for weapons, arrests for misdemeanor crimes, and arrests for property felony crimes. Impact zones were also significantly associated with increases in investigative stops for suspected crimes, but only the increase in stops made based on probable cause indicators of criminal behaviors were associated with crime reductions. The largest increase in investigative stops in impact zones was based on indicators of suspicious behavior that had no measurable effect on crime. The findings suggest that saturating high crime blocks with police helped reduce crime in New York City, but that the bulk of the investigative stops did not play an important role in the crime reductions. The findings indicate that crime reduction can be achieved with more focused investigative stops.
Hughes, Caitlin E; Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Maier, Larissa J; Winstock, Adam R
Drug law enforcement subsumes the majority of drug policy expenditure across the globe. Fuelled by knowledge that much of this investment is ineffective or counter-productive there have been increasing calls for cross-national comparisons to identify where policing approaches differ and what types of approaches may be more effective. Yet, to date cross-national comparison of drug law enforcement has proven a methodologically hazardous affair. Using a new drug policing module added to the 2017 Global Drug Survey, this study seeks to provide the first cross-national comparison of the incidence, nature and intensity of illicit drug-related police encounters amongst people who use drugs. The Global Drug Survey was administered in late 2016. Across 26 countries including Australia, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Switzerland, the UK and the USA a total of 45,942 people who had recently used drugs completed the drug policing module. Key variables assessed included the incidence and frequency of drug-related police encounters in the last 12 months that involved: a) being stopped and searched; b) encountering a drug detection dog; c) being given a caution or warning; d) being charged and arrested; and e) paying a bribe. Multi-level models were used to control for pre-existing national differences in drug use prevalence and non-drug specific policing (including the total number of police personnel in each country). Drug-related police encounters were most commonly reported in Italy and Scotland. Conversely, police encounters were most likely to lead to arrest in Norway, Finland and Sweden. The type and locations of encounters further differed across countries, with for example stop and search most reported in Greece and Colombia, and encounters with drug detection dogs most reported in Scotland, Italy, UK and Australia. Multi-level models showed that the incidence of reported policing encounters continued to differ significantly across countries after controlling for pre
Renden, P.G.; Landman, H.M.; Geerts, S.F.; Jansen, S.E.M.; Faber, G.S.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.
We investigated the effects of anxiety on the execution of police officers' arrest and self-defense skills. Police officers (n=13) performed three tasks in which they kicked, blocked, or restrained an opponent who attacked them with a rubber knife (low anxiety, LA) or a shock knife (high anxiety,
Prior research into factors predicting arrest in domestic violence cases is limited in three regards: (a) no examination of whether mandatory arrest policies are associated with increased risk of arrest across multiple jurisdictions; (b) little consideration of whether police organizational characteristics influence arrest in such cases; and (c)…
Patterson Thomas L
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis and TB (tuberculosis. Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing. Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32% of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs.
Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari
The mantra of evidence-based policy (EBP) suggests that endeavours to implement evidence-based policing will produce better outcomes. However there is dissonance between the rhetoric of EBP and the actuality of policing policy. This disjuncture is critically analysed using the case study of illicit drugs policing. The dissonance may be ameliorated…
Fairbairn, Nadia; Kaplan, Karyn; Hayashi, Kanna; Suwannawong, Paisan; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
Drug policy in Thailand has relied heavily on law enforcement-based approaches. Qualitative reports indicate that police in Thailand have resorted to planting drugs on suspected drug users to extort money or provide grounds for arrest. The present study sought to describe the prevalence and factors associated with this form of evidence planting by police among injection drug users (IDU) in Bangkok. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with evidence planting of drugs by police among a community-based sample of IDU in Bangkok. We also examined the prevalence and average amount of money paid by IDU to police in order to avoid arrest. 252 IDU were recruited between July and August, 2008, among whom 66 (26.2%) were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 122 (48.4%) participants reported having drugs planted on them by police. In multivariate analyses, this form of evidence planting was positively associated with midazolam use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.58 - 5.11), recent non-fatal overdose (AOR = 2.56; 95%CI: 1.40 - 4.66), syringe lending (AOR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.19 - 3.66), and forced drug treatment (AOR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.05 - 3.36). Among those who reported having drugs planted on them, 59 (48.3%) paid police a bribe in order to avoid arrest. A high proportion of community-recruited IDU participating in this study reported having drugs planted on them by police. Drug planting was found to be associated with numerous risk factors including syringe sharing and participation in government-run drug treatment programs. Immediate action should be taken to address this form of abuse of power reportedly used by police.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug policy in Thailand has relied heavily on law enforcement-based approaches. Qualitative reports indicate that police in Thailand have resorted to planting drugs on suspected drug users to extort money or provide grounds for arrest. The present study sought to describe the prevalence and factors associated with this form of evidence planting by police among injection drug users (IDU in Bangkok. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with evidence planting of drugs by police among a community-based sample of IDU in Bangkok. We also examined the prevalence and average amount of money paid by IDU to police in order to avoid arrest. Results 252 IDU were recruited between July and August, 2008, among whom 66 (26.2% were female and the median age was 36.5 years. In total, 122 (48.4% participants reported having drugs planted on them by police. In multivariate analyses, this form of evidence planting was positively associated with midazolam use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.58 - 5.11, recent non-fatal overdose (AOR = 2.56; 95%CI: 1.40 - 4.66, syringe lending (AOR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.19 - 3.66, and forced drug treatment (AOR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.05 - 3.36. Among those who reported having drugs planted on them, 59 (48.3% paid police a bribe in order to avoid arrest. Conclusion A high proportion of community-recruited IDU participating in this study reported having drugs planted on them by police. Drug planting was found to be associated with numerous risk factors including syringe sharing and participation in government-run drug treatment programs. Immediate action should be taken to address this form of abuse of power reportedly used by police.
Miller, Cari L.; Firestone, Michelle; Ramos, Rebeca; Burris, Scott; Ramos, Maria Elena; Case, Patricia; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Fraga, Miguel Angel; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Background Previous research has identified the impact of law enforcement practices on the behaviors and health of injection drug users (IDUs). We undertook a qualitative study of IDUs’ experiences of policing practices in two Mexican cities on the U.S. border. Methods In 2004, two teams of Mexican interviewers conducted in-depth interviews with IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (Cd. Juarez), Mexico who had injected drugs at least once in the prior month. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles and experiences with police. Field notes and transcribed interviews were analyzed to identify emergent themes. Results Among the 43 participants, most reported that it is common for IDUs to be arrested and detained for 36 hours for carrying sterile or used syringes. Most reported that they or someone they knew had been beaten by police. Interviews suggested 5 key themes relating to police influence on the risk environment: 1) impact of policing practices on accessibility of sterile syringes, 2) influence of police on choice of places to inject drugs (e.g., shooting galleries), 3) police violence, 4) police corruption, and 5) perceived changes in policing practices. Conclusion Findings suggest that some behavior of police officers in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez is inconsistent with legal norms and may be negatively influencing the risk of acquiring blood-borne infections among IDUs. Implementing a comprehensive and successful HIV prevention program among IDUs requires interventions to influence the knowledge, attitudes and practices of law enforcement officers. PMID:17997089
Miller, Cari L; Firestone, Michelle; Ramos, Rebeca; Burris, Scott; Ramos, Maria Elena; Case, Patricia; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Fraga, Miguel Angel; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Previous research has identified the impact of law enforcement practices on the behaviours and health of injection drug users (IDUs). We undertook a qualitative study of IDUs' experiences of policing practices in two Mexican cities on the U.S. border. In 2004, two teams of Mexican interviewers conducted in-depth interviews with IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez (Cd. Juarez), Mexico, who had injected drugs at least once in the prior month. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles and experiences with police. Field notes and transcribed interviews were analysed to identify emergent themes. Amongst the 43 participants, most reported that it is common for IDUs to be arrested and detained for 36h for carrying sterile or used syringes. Most reported that they or someone they knew had been beaten by police. Interviews suggested five key themes relating to police influence on the risk environment: (1) impact of policing practices on accessibility of sterile syringes, (2) influence of police on choice of places to inject drugs (e.g., shooting galleries), (3) police violence, (4) police corruption and (5) perceived changes in policing practices. Findings suggest that some behaviour of police officers in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez is inconsistent with legal norms and may be negatively influencing the risk of acquiring blood-borne infections amongst IDUs. Implementing a comprehensive and successful HIV prevention programme amongst IDUs requires interventions to influence the knowledge, attitudes and practices of law enforcement officers.
Johnston, K.; Houston, John
Representative bureaucracy theory postulates that passive representation leads to active representation of minority groups. This article investigates the passive representation of female police officers at leadership levels and the active representation of women vis-a-vis gender-based violence arrest rates in the UK. Much of the extant research on representative bureaucracy is located at street level, with evidence showing that discretionary power of minority bureaucrats can lead to active re...
Sutton, M; Hodgson, P
The widely held criminological 'knowledge' that foot patrol beat policing is ineffective at either arresting offenders or reducing crime is substantially supported by research conducted by Clarke and Hough (1984), which makes the claim that: '...a patrolling policeman in London could expect to pass within 100 yards of a burglary in progress, roughly once every eight years but not necessarily catch the burglar or even realise that the crime was taking place.' This claim has been repeated, appa...
Arredondo, J; Gaines, T; Manian, S; Vilalta, C; Bañuelos, A; Strathdee, S A; Beletsky, L
In 2009, Mexican Federal Government enacted "narcomenudeo" reforms decriminalizing possession of small amounts of drugs, delegating prosecution of retail drug sales to the state courts, and mandating treatment diversion for habitual drug users. There has been insufficient effort to formally assess the decriminalization policy's population-level impact, despite mounting interest in analagous reforms across the globe. Using a dataset of municipal police incident reports, we examined patterns of drug possession, and violent and non-violent crime arrests between January 2009 and December 2014. A hierarchical panel data analysis with random effects was conducted to assess the impact of narcomenudeo's drug decriminalization provision. The reforms had no significant impact on the number of drug possession or violent crime arrests, after controlling for other variables (e.g. time trends, electoral cycles, and precinct-level socioeconomic factors). Time periods directly preceding local elections were observed to be statistically associated with elevated arrest volume. Analysis of police statistics parallel prior findings that Mexico's reform decriminalizing small amounts of drugs does not appear to have significantly shifted drug law enforcement in Tijuana. More research is required to fully understand the policy transformation process for drug decriminalization and other structural interventions in Mexico and similar regional and international efforts. Observed relationship between policing and political cycles echo associations in other settings whereby law-and-order activities increase during mayoral electoral campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A variety of societal interventions in intimate partner violence have been established for decades, including the police actively arresting perpetrators. However, it is difficult to find consistent study results to show if arrest is effective. Moreover, there are far fewer studies on victims than on perpetrators. This study utilized the National Crime Victimization Survey to examine if victims whose partners were arrested were less revictimized than those whose partners were not arrested. Results clearly showed that arrest of perpetrators was effective in reducing revictimization, controlling for victims’ characteristics and the nature of violence incidents. Also, separated or divorced women showed the highest risk of revictimization. Comparisons with previous studies and implications on police policies are discussed.
Li, Simiao; Levick, Ani; Eichman, Adelaide; Chang, Judy C
Intimate partner violence (IPV) accounts for up to 50% of all calls to police. In an effort to standardize arrest criteria, mandatory arrest laws were established. It is unclear whether subsequent increased rates of female arrest are due to greater recognition of female IPV perpetrators or of women acting in self-defense. This study aims to understand the context and consequences of IPV-related arrest from perspectives of women arrested in a single metropolitan area. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with women arrested and court-ordered to attend IPV education groups at a women's shelter in the Northeast United States. Interviews addressed circumstances surrounding arrest, experience with past violence, and reasoning regarding use of partner violence. Two researchers independently coded transcripts and met to iteratively refine the code and review transcripts for themes. Eighteen women were interviewed. Major themes that emerged were as follows: (a) Women's use of violence occurred within the context of their own victimization; (b) the arrest included a complex interplay between subject, partner, and police; (c) women perceived police arrest decisions to be based on a limited understanding of context; and (d) women experienced both positive and negative consequences of arrest. Many relationships did not fall under the traditional victim/perpetrator construct. Rather, women's use of violence evolved, influenced by prior experiences with violence. More appropriate methods must be developed for making arrest decisions, guiding justice system responses, and developing interventions for couples experiencing IPV. Recognition that women's use of partner violence often represented either a retaliatory or self-defensive gesture within the context of prior victimization suggests that victims' interventions should not only focus on empowerment but also provide skills and strategies to avoid temptation to adopt aggression as a primary method of self
Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly J
To examine characteristics of youth sexting cases handled by police and their outcomes in response to clinical and other concerns about the risks of sexting behavior. Mail surveys were sent to a stratified national sample of 2712 law enforcement agencies followed by detailed telephone interviews with investigators about a nationally representative sample of sexting cases handled by police during 2008 and 2009 (n = 675). The cases involved "youth-produced sexual images" that constituted child pornography under relevant statutes according to respondents. US law enforcement agencies handled an estimated 3477 cases of youth-produced sexual images during 2008 and 2009 (95% confidence interval: 3282-3672). Two-thirds of the cases involved an "aggravating" circumstance beyond the creation and/or dissemination of a sexual image. In these aggravated cases, either an adult was involved (36% of cases) or a minor engaged in malicious, non-consensual, or abusive behavior (31% of cases). An arrest occurred in 62% of cases with an adult involved, in 36% of the aggravated youth-only cases, and in 18% of the "experimental" cases (youth-only and no aggravating elements). Most of the images (63%) were distributed by cell phone only and did not reach the Internet. Sex offender registration applied in only a few unusual cases. Many of the youth sexting cases that come to the attention of police include aggravating circumstances that raise concerns about health and risky sexual behavior, although some cases were relatively benign. Overall, arrest is not typical in cases with no adults involved.
Sigurdsson, J F; Gudjonsson, G H
This study investigates the effects of alcohol, drug intoxication and withdrawal symptoms on the mental state of criminal suspects and the nature of their confession. A total of 359 sentenced prisoners were approached on admission and 96% agreed to participate in the study. They completed a specially designed Confession Questionnaire, which asked them questions about their reasons for confessing to the police, their attitude towards their confession, their mental state at the time of the confession and the extent to which they had been under the influence of alcohol and drug intoxication at the time of crime and police interview. The confession rate for the sample was very high (92%), with serious traffic violators having the highest confession rate (95%) and sex offenders the lowest (83%). The findings illustrate that the "perception of proof", "internal need to confess" and "external pressure" are the main reasons why suspects confess. However, subjects were identified who had experienced a typical "prisoner's dilemma" phenomenon during the police interview because of a co-defendant. Alcohol and drug intoxication was very commonly reported both at the time of the offence and the police interview, but these were related to the nature of their offence. Although intoxication and withdrawal symptoms did not appear to seriously impair their coping during the police interview it was consistently reported as having made them confused.
Renden, P.G.; Nieuwenhuys, A.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.
We investigated how Dutch police officers perceive their preparation for arrest and self-defence skills (ASDS) and their ability to manage violence on duty. Furthermore, we assessed whether additional experience (i.e., by having encountered violence on duty or by practicing martial arts) and
Renden, P.G.; Landman, H.M.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.
We investigated whether officers with additional martial arts training experience performed better in arrest and self-defence scenarios under low and high anxiety and were better able to maintain performance under high anxiety than officers who just rely on regular police training. We were
Flath, Natalie; Tobin, Karin; King, Kelly; Lee, Alexandra; Latkin, Carl
Neighborhood-level characteristics, including police activity, are associated with HIV and Hepatitis C injection risk-behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, the pathways through which these neighborhood perceptions shape individual-level HIV risk behaviors are unclear. This study helps to explain perceived behaviors between perceived neighborhood police activity and HIV injection risk behavior (i.e., injection syringe/tool sharing in the previous 6 months). A sample of (n = 366) PWIDs who self-reported recent use were recruited using community-based outreach methods in Baltimore, Maryland. Neighborhood police perceptions were assessed by asking participants whether they would (1) be more likely to ask others to share injection tools in the context of heightened police activity and (2) be less likely to carry syringes with them due to fear of arrest. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to identify statistical relationships. Recent police encounters, frequency of heroin injection, and sociodemographic characteristics were controlled for in the model. Neighborhood police perceptions shaped injection-risk behavior. Half of the sample (49%) reported an aversion of carrying personal syringes, due to fear of arrest. Those who agreed they would be more likely to ask others to share injection equipment in the context of heightened police activity were more likely to share syringes (21% vs. 3%, p <.01). Adjusted models showed that syringe sharing was independently associated with asking to borrow equipment in neighborhoods with perceived heightened police activity (aPR: 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7, 3.0). This study sheds light on how police perceptions may influence injection risk behavior. While these relationships require further elucidation, this study suggests that public health interventions aiming to reduce HIV risk would benefit from improving community-police relationships.
Hayashi, Kanna; Ti, Lianping; Buxton, Jane A; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
Thailand has relied on drug law enforcement in an effort to curb illicit drug use. While anecdotal reports suggest that Thai police frequently use urine toxicology to identify drug users, little is known about the prevalence or impacts of this practice among people who inject drugs (IDU). Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with urine drug testing by police among IDU in Bangkok. Data were derived from a community-recruited sample of IDU in Bangkok participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project between July and October 2011. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of being subjected to urine toxicology testing by police using multivariate Poisson regression. In total, 438 IDU participated in this study, with 293 (66.9%) participants reporting having been tested for illicit drugs by police. In multivariate analyses, reports of drug testing by police were independently and positively associated with younger age (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR]: 1.28), a history of methamphetamine injection (APR: 1.22), a history of incarceration (APR: 1.21), having been in compulsory drug detention (APR: 1.43), avoiding healthcare (APR: 1.15), and HIV seropositivity (APR: 1.19), and negatively associated with access to voluntary drug treatment (APR: 0.82) (all p<0.05). A high proportion of IDU in Bangkok were subjected to drug testing by police. Young people and methamphetamine injectors were more likely to have been tested. The findings indicate that drug testing by police is associated with the compulsory drug detention system and may be interfering with IDU's access to healthcare and voluntary drug treatment. These findings raise concern about the widespread practice of drug testing by police and its associated impacts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Søgaard, Thomas F.; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M.
relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. Conclusion: The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness...... in local ‘drug policing assemblages’ characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms...
Renden, Peter G; Landman, Annemarie; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D
We investigated whether officers with additional martial arts training experience performed better in arrest and self-defence scenarios under low and high anxiety and were better able to maintain performance under high anxiety than officers who just rely on regular police training. We were especially interested to find out whether training once a week would already lead to better performance under high anxiety. Officers with additional experience in kickboxing or karate/jiu-jitsu (training several times per week), or krav maga (training once a week) and officers with no additional experience performed several arrest and self-defence skills under low and high anxiety. Results showed that officers with additional experience (also those who trained once a week) performed better under high anxiety than officers with no additional experience. Still, the additional experience did not prevent these participants from performing worse under high anxiety compared to low anxiety. Implications for training are discussed. Practitioner summary: Dutch police officers train their arrest and self-defence skills only four to six hours per year. Our results indicate that doing an additional martial arts training once a week may lead to better performance under anxiety, although it cannot prevent that performance decreases under high anxiety compared to low anxiety.
Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Yonamine, Maurício; Ramos, Andrea Luciana Martins; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Rodrigues, Caroline Rego; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos
The present study aimed to verify the prevalence of psychoactive drug use (amphetamines, methamphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opioids and benzodiazepines) among military police officers in the state of Goiás. Data were obtained from urine samples voluntarily provided by the officers participating in the study, who were informed of the study methods and signed a free and informed consent form. The samples were subject to screening analysis by immunochromatography (Multi-DrugOneStep Test®), with positive tests confirmed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data analyzed by descriptive statistics. The results indicated the presence of the following drugs: amphetamines (0.33%), cannabinoids (0.67%) and benzodiazepines (1.34%); 97.66% showed negative results. The positive cases were distributed as follows: benzodiazepines (57.1%); cannabinoids (28.6%) and amphetamines (14.3%). In conclusion, the detection of psychoactive substances in voluntary sampling of military police officers indicates the need to implement drug testing among active military officers and preventive public policies aimed at eliminating the abusive consumption of psychotropic drugs.
Søgaard, Thomas F; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M
Zonal banning of disorderly and intoxicated young people has moved to centre stage in debates about nightlife governance. Whereas existing research has primarily focused on the use of zonal banning orders to address problems of alcohol-related harm and disorder, this article highlights how zonal banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes. The paper demonstrates how the policing of drug-using clubbers is a growing priority for both police and private security agents. The article also demonstrates how the enforcement of zonal bans on drug-using clubbers involves complex collaborative relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness in local 'drug policing assemblages' characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms of jurisdiction involving divergent performances of spaces-, objects- and authorities of governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wilkins, Chris; Prasad, Jitesh; Parker, Karl; Rychert, Marta; Barnes, Helen Moewaka
New Zealand has unusual patterns of recreational substance use by international standards including low levels of cocaine and heroin use, and high methamphetamine use. This paper examines recent trends in alcohol and other drug use among police detainees in New Zealand over the past six years. The paper utilises data from the New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) study. NZ-ADUM interviewed approximately 800 police detainees each year at four central city police watch houses (i.e. Whangarei, Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch) from 2010 to 2015. The proportion of police detainees who had used methamphetamine in the previous year increased from 28% in 2012 to 36% in 2015. Drinking prior to arrest declined from 41% in 2013 to 28% in 2015. The use of cannabis in the past year declined slightly from 76% in 2011 to 69% in 2015. The proportion using ecstasy in the previous year steadily declined from 28% in 2011 to 19% in 2015. Only small minorities had recently used cocaine or an opioid. Use of methamphetamine and ecstasy increased in Christchurch. Growing methamphetamine use is consistent with record seizures of methamphetamine over the past 2-3 years. Increasing drug use in Christchurch may reflect factors related to the devastating earthquakes in 2011 and the subsequent city rebuild, including an influx of construction workers, more organised trafficking groups and earthquake-related stress. The decline in cannabis use may be related to the emergence of 'legal' synthetic cannabinoids. The decline in ecstasy use may be the result of recent domestic enforcement operations and the overall global shortage of MDMA. The decline in alcohol drinking may be due to the introduction of pre-charge formal warnings for minor alcohol and disorder offences, and new restrictions on alcohol premise opening hours. Acknowledgements: The New Zealand Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) research study is funded by the New Zealand Police and is conducted by SHORE and Whariki Research
Pinedo, Miguel; Beletsky, Leo; Alamillo, Nathan; Ojeda, Victoria D
Evidence-based public health and criminal justice policies aimed at addressing the structurally vulnerable population of persons who inject drugs (PWID) and who are involved in the immigrant enforcement and deportation system are lacking. Policing practices are critical structural determinants of HIV among PWID. PWID in Mexico who have been deported from the US are at elevated risk of HIV. From 2011 to 2013, 733 PWID were recruited to complete structured questionnaires, including past 6-month experiences with police. Eligible PWID were 18 years or older, had injected in the past month, and resided in Tijuana, Mexico with no intentions of moving. To determine if deportation status was associated with experiences of arrests and problematic policing practices, we conducted separate multivariate logistic regression models for independent policing variables. In multivariate analyses, deportation status was independently associated with higher odds of being arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.45; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.02-2.05), being asked for a bribe (AOR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.05-2.04), and being forced to leave a place of residence (AOR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.08-3.70) in the past 6 months. Results highlight a previously poorly understood elements of the US-deportation experience: migrants' experiences with law enforcement post-deportation and the role of deportation policies and practices as structural drivers of public health risk in destination countries. We provide policy recommendations for Mexico and the US based on our findings, which have potential application in other countries seeking to improve enforcement and related policing practices from a public health perspective. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012.Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample.This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings pertaining to the use of urine drug
Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas
Background Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as “patients” not “criminals,” Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Methods and Findings Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. Conclusions This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings
Hayashi, Kanna; Small, Will; Csete, Joanne; Hattirat, Sattara; Kerr, Thomas
Despite Thailand's commitment to treating people who use drugs as "patients" not "criminals," Thai authorities continue to emphasize criminal law enforcement for drug control. In 2003, Thailand's drug war received international criticism due to extensive human rights violations. However, few studies have since investigated the impact of policing on drug-using populations. Therefore, we sought to examine experiences with policing among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Bangkok, Thailand, between 2008 and 2012. Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 community-recruited PWID participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. Interviews explored PWID's encounters with police during the past three years. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was conducted to document the character of PWID's experiences with police. Respondents indicated that policing activities had noticeably intensified since rapid urine toxicology screening became available to police. Respondents reported various forms of police misconduct, including false accusations, coercion of confessions, excessive use of force, and extortion of money. However, respondents were reluctant to report misconduct to the authorities in the face of social and structural barriers to seeking justice. Respondents' strategies to avoid police impeded access to health care and facilitated transitions towards the misuse of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The study's limitations relate to the transferability of the findings, including the potential biases associated with the small convenience sample. This study suggests that policing in Bangkok has involved injustices, human rights abuses, and corruption, and policing practices in this setting appeared to have increased PWID's vulnerability to poor health through various pathways. Novel to this study are findings pertaining to the use of urine drug testing by police
Friedman, Samuel R; Tempalski, Barbara; Brady, Joanne E; West, Brooke S; Pouget, Enrique R; Williams, Leslie D; Des Jarlais, Don C; Cooper, Hannah L F
This paper reviews and then discusses selected findings from a seventeen year study about the population prevalence of people who inject drugs (PWID) and of HIV prevalence and mortality among PWID in 96 large US metropolitan areas. Unlike most research, this study was conducted with the metropolitan area as the level of analysis. It found that metropolitan area measures of income inequality and of structural racism predicted all of these outcomes, and that rates of arrest for heroin and/or cocaine predicted HIV prevalence and mortality but did not predict changes in PWID population prevalence. Income inequality and measures of structural racism were associated with hard drug arrests or other properties of policing. These findings, whose limitations and implications for further research are discussed, suggest that efforts to respond to HIV and to drug injection should include supra-individual efforts to reduce both income inequality and racism. At a time when major social movements in many countries are trying to reduce inequality, racism and oppression (including reforming drug laws), these macro-social issues in public health should be both addressable and a priority in both research and action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Thailand has traditionally pursued an aggressive enforcement-based anti-illicit drug policy in an effort to make the country "drug-free." In light of this ongoing approach, we sought to assess impacts of enforcement on drug use behaviors among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU in Thailand. We examined drug use patterns among IDU participating in a cross-sectional study conducted in Bangkok (n = 252. Participants were asked to provide data regarding patterns of drug use in the previous six months, including types of drugs consumed, method of consumption, frequency of use, and weekly income spent on drugs. We also conducted bivariate analyses to identify a possible effect of a reported increase in police presence on measures of drug use and related risk behaviors among study participants. One hundred fifty-five (61.5% individuals reported injection heroin use and 132 (52.4% individuals reported injection midazolam use at least daily in the past six months. Additionally, 86 (34.1% individuals reported at least daily injection Yaba and Ice (i.e., methamphetamine use. Participants in our study reported high levels of illicit drug use, including the injection of both illicit and licit drugs. In bivariate analyses, no association between increased police presence and drug use behaviors was observed. These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach.
Witcher, Robert; Dzierba, Amy L; Kim, Catherine; Smithburger, Pamela L; Kane-Gill, Sandra L
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves survival and neurologic function in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Many medications used to support TH have altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics during this treatment. It is unknown if or at what frequency the medications used during TH cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs). A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac arrest and treated with TH from January 2009 to June 2012 at two urban, university-affiliated, tertiary-care medical centres. Medications commonly used during TH were screened for association with significant ADRs (grade 3 or greater per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) using three published ADR detection instruments. A total of 229 patients were included, the majority being males with median age of 62 presenting with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in pulseless electrical activity or asystole. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus. There were 670 possible ADRs and 69 probable ADRs identified. Of the 670 possible ADRs, propofol, fentanyl, and acetaminophen were the most common drugs associated with ADRs. Whereas fentanyl, insulin, and propofol were the most common drugs associated with a probable ADR. Patients were managed with TH for a median of 22 hours, with 38% of patients surviving to hospital discharge. Patients undergoing TH after cardiac arrest frequently experience possible adverse reactions associated with medications and the corresponding laboratory abnormalities are significant. There is a need for judicious use and close monitoring of drugs in the setting of TH until recommendations for dose adjustments are available to help prevent ADRs.
Illegal drug use and abuse has increased in the Caribbean since the 1990s. In Grenada, statistical indicators such as admission rates to treatment facilities and drug arrests have provided evidence for the increased rates of illegal drug use and abuse. This study reviewed these statistical indicators and explored drug treatment options in Grenada from 2001 to 2009. A search of statistical records from the Drug Control Secretariat and the Grenada Drug Information Network/National Observatory on Drugs (GRENDIN/NOD) was performed. Literature review of relevant articles from search engines was used to support findings. Additionally, semi-structured interviews of key stakeholders from government and health agencies involved in drug prevention in Grenada were conducted to obtain information on recent developments surrounding drug arrests and treatments in Grenada. From 2001 to 2009, there were a 118% and a 23% increase in the arrest rate for males and females,respectively. There was also an increase in demand for drug treatment at the sole drug treatment facility. Preventive measures in schools and several forms of media programmes have raised awareness. However,drug use/abuse/activities still persist at a significant rate. Programmes that target improvement of treatment facilities and increased inter-agency collaboration may be successful in enhancing drug arrests and treatments.
Tenni, Brigitte; Carpenter, Jenae; Thomson, Nicholas
In many countries around the world sex work is criminalised and its regulatory control is therefore often in the hands of the police. In addition to the impact of this criminalised legal environment, much literature describes the negative impact that certain police practices can have on the ability of sex workers and the programs that work with sex workers to access essential HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services. This situation has resulted in persistent concentrated HIV epidemics among sex workers in many countries of the world. The need for multi-sector partnerships between police and HIV programs is increasingly recognised in various UN declarations and resolutions yet descriptions of the process or key ingredients required to actually establish and sustain these necessary partnerships between police and sex workers [or the programs that provide essential services to sex workers] are sparse. The paper seeks to establish key considerations and critical processes that are required to foster partnerships that if further investigated and scaled up, could result in an enhanced enabling environment for the provision of essential HIV services for sex workers around the globe. This paper is based on a realist review that investigated isolated examples of partnership formation between law enforcement and HIV programs working with sex workers. This methodology research is designed to work with complex social interventions and is based on the emerging 'realist' approach to evaluation. A realist review methodology was chosen given the paucity of relevant literature in this vein and the authors' familiarity with the grey literature and relationships with experts who work in this sphere. The review found that political and police leadership, civil society strengthening and police reform in relation to HIV, are critical factors and key ingredients in changing the enabling environment in which sex work takes place to ensure that HIV prevention, individual and
Full Text Available In many countries around the world sex work is criminalised and its regulatory control is therefore often in the hands of the police. In addition to the impact of this criminalised legal environment, much literature describes the negative impact that certain police practices can have on the ability of sex workers and the programs that work with sex workers to access essential HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services. This situation has resulted in persistent concentrated HIV epidemics among sex workers in many countries of the world. The need for multi-sector partnerships between police and HIV programs is increasingly recognised in various UN declarations and resolutions yet descriptions of the process or key ingredients required to actually establish and sustain these necessary partnerships between police and sex workers [or the programs that provide essential services to sex workers] are sparse. The paper seeks to establish key considerations and critical processes that are required to foster partnerships that if further investigated and scaled up, could result in an enhanced enabling environment for the provision of essential HIV services for sex workers around the globe. This paper is based on a realist review that investigated isolated examples of partnership formation between law enforcement and HIV programs working with sex workers. This methodology research is designed to work with complex social interventions and is based on the emerging 'realist' approach to evaluation. A realist review methodology was chosen given the paucity of relevant literature in this vein and the authors' familiarity with the grey literature and relationships with experts who work in this sphere. The review found that political and police leadership, civil society strengthening and police reform in relation to HIV, are critical factors and key ingredients in changing the enabling environment in which sex work takes place to ensure that HIV
Lancaster, Kari; Ritter, Alison; Hughes, Caitlin; Hoppe, Robert
This paper critically analyses the introduction of drug detection dogs as a tool for policing of illicit drugs in New South Wales, Australia. Using Kingdon's "multiple streams" heuristic as a lens for analysis, we identify how the issue of drugs policing became prominent on the policy agenda, and the conditions under which the…
The counterfeiting of medication is increasingly seen as a major threat to health, especially in the light of both the everyday reliance on and a broadening of world-wide access to pharmaceuticals. Exaggerated or real, this threat has inaugurated, this article argues, a shift from a drug safety regime to a drug security regime that governs the flow of pharmaceuticals and brings together markets, police, and health actors in new ways. This entails a shift from soft disciplinary means aimed at incremental and continued inclusion of defaulters, to one of drastically sovereign measures of exclusion and banishment aimed at fake goods and the people associated with them, in the name of health. Through a multi-sited ethnographic study, this article shows how such new drug security efforts play themselves out especially in (South) Africa, highlighting a modus operandi of spectacular performativity and of working through suspicion and association rather than factuality, producing value less so for those in need of health than for a petty security industry itself. © 2018 by the American Anthropological Association.
Myerburg, Robert J; Fenster, Jeffrey; Velez, Mauricio; Rosenberg, Donald; Lai, Shenghan; Kurlansky, Paul; Newton, Starbuck; Knox, Melenda; Castellanos, Agustin
Disappointing survival rates from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests encourage strategies for faster defibrillation, such as use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) by nonconventional responders. AEDs were provided to all Miami-Dade County, Florida, police. AED-equipped police (P-AED) and conventional emergency medical rescue (EMS) responders are simultaneously deployed to possible cardiac arrests. Times from 9-1-1 contact to the scene were compared for P-AED and concurrently deployed EMS, and both were compared with historical EMS experience. Survival with P-AED was compared with outcomes when EMS was the sole responder. Among 420 paired dispatches of P-AED and EMS, the mean+/-SD P-AED time from 9-1-1 call to arrival at the scene was 6.16+/-4.27 minutes, compared with 7.56+/-3.60 minutes for EMS (P<0.001). Police arrived first to 56% of the calls. The time to first responder arrival among P-AED and EMS was 4.88+/-2.88 minutes (P<0.001), compared with a historical response time of 7.64+/-3.66 minutes when EMS was the sole responder. A 17.2% survival rate was observed for victims with ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT/VF), compared with 9.0% for standard EMS before P-AED implementation (P=0.047). However, VT/VF benefit was diluted by the observation that 61% of the initial rhythms were nonshockable, reducing the absolute survival benefit among the total study population to 1.6% (P-AED, 7.6%; EMS, 6.0%). P-AED establishes a layer of responders that generate improved response times and survival from VT/VF. There was no benefit for victims with nonshockable rhythms.
Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
Introduction: Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Peters...
McCall, Kenneth; Nichols, Stephanie D; Holt, Christina; Ochs, Leslie; Cattabriga, Gary; Tu, Chunhao
To evaluate controlled substance prescribing trends available in the Maine Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) among individuals arrested for prescription drug "trafficking." The demographic characteristics of the individuals who had matching prescription records in the PMP within 90 days of the arrest were identified. A population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) and the Maine PMP. The study population consisted of persons arrested for trafficking prescription drugs in Maine during the 2014 calendar year from January 1 to December 31. There were 594 trafficking arrests reported by the Maine DAP in 2014. The study population consisted of the 235 persons (40%) with arrests involving controlled prescription medications. The mean age of these persons was 33 years (range 18-77 yrs), and 156 (66%) were male. Arrests involved 154 prescription opioids (65%), seven stimulants (3%), seven benzodiazepines (3%), and 77 unspecified controlled prescription drugs (33%). A minority of individuals (n=57, 24%) had a prescription record in the PMP that matched the substance involved in the arrest. Only one person with matching PMP and arrest records utilized ≥ 5 prescribers, while none used ≥ 5 pharmacies within 90 days before the arrest. Payment methods for matching prescriptions were commercial insurance (n=28, 49%), Medicaid (n=19, 33%), Medicare (n=5, 9%), and cash (n=5, 9%). The majority (76%) of persons arrested for prescription drug trafficking did not have PMP records and did not directly obtain the diverted medication from a licensed pharmacy. Traditional red flags, like cash payment and using multiple prescribers or pharmacies, were uncommon. Therefore, arrest records for diversion and PMPs are distinct and complementary tools for identifying individuals at risk for substance misuse. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico’s 2009 “narcomenudeo reform” decriminalized small amounts of drugs, shifting some drug law enforcement to the states and mandating drug treatment diversion instead of incarceration. Data from Tijuana suggested limited implementation of this harm reduction-oriented policy. We studied whether a police education program (PEP improved officers’ drug and syringe policy knowledge, and aimed to identify participant characteristics associated with improvement of drug policy knowledge. Methods Pre- and post-training surveys were self-administered by municipal police officers to measure legal knowledge. Training impact was assessed through matched paired nominal data using McNemar’s tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of improved legal knowledge, as measured by officers’ ability to identify conceptual legal provisions related to syringe possession and thresholds of drugs covered under the reform. Results Of 1750 respondents comparing pre- versus post training, officers reported significant improvement (p < 0.001 in their technical understanding of syringe possession (56 to 91% and drug amounts decriminalized, including marijuana (9 to 52%, heroin (8 to 71%, and methamphetamine (7 to 70%. The training was associated with even greater success in improving conceptual legal knowledge for syringe possession (67 to 96% (p < 0.001, marijuana (16 to 91%, heroin (11 to 91%, and methamphetamine (11 to 89%. In multivariable modeling, those with at least a high school education were more likely to exhibit improvement of conceptual legal knowledge of syringe possession (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–3.2 and decriminalization for heroin (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3–4.3, methamphetamine (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, and marijuana (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6–4. Conclusions Drug policy reform is often necessary, but not sufficient to achieve public health goals because of gaps in translating
Ma, Yi; Du, Chunhua; Cai, Thomas; Han, Qingfeng; Yuan, Huanhuan; Luo, Tingyan; Ren, Guoliang; Mburu, Gitau; Wang, Bangyuan; Golichenko, Olga; Zhang, Chaoxiong
Worldwide, people who use drugs (PWUD) are among the populations at highest risk for HIV infection. In China, PWUD are primarily sentenced to compulsory detainment centres, in which access to healthcare, including HIV treatment and prevention services, is limited or non-existent. In 2008, China's 2008 Anti-Drug Law encouraged the development and use of community-based drug dependence rehabilitation, yet there is limited evidence evaluating the efficacy and challenges of this model in China. In this study, we explore these challenges and describe how cooperation between law enforcement and health departments can meet the needs of PWUD. In 2015, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with all four staff members and 16 clients of the Ping An Centre No. 1 for community-based drug treatment, three local police officers and three officials from the local Centre for Disease Control. Interviews explored obstacles in implementing community-based drug dependence treatment and efforts to resolve these difficulties. Transcripts were coded and analyzed with qualitative data analysis software (MAXQDA 11). We identified three challenges to community-based drug treatment at the Ping An Centre No. 1: (1) suboptimal coordination among parties involved, (2) a divergence in attitudes towards PWUD and harm reduction between law enforcement and health officials and (3) conflicting performance targets for police and health officials that undermine the shared goal of treatment. We also identified the take-home methadone maintenance treatment model at the Ping An Centre No. 1 as an example of an early successful collaboration between the police, the health department and PWUD. To overcome barriers to effective community-based drug treatment, we recommend aligning the goals of law enforcement and public health agencies towards health-based performance indicators. Furthermore, tensions between PWUD and police need to be addressed and trust between them fostered, using community
Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
Introduction Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Results Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Conclusions Sexual violence
de Bruin, Marie L.; Langendijk, Pim N. J.; Koopmans, Richard P.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; Hoes, Arno W.
AIMS: QTc interval-prolonging drugs have been linked to cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest and sudden death. In this study we aimed to quantify the risk of cardiac arrest associated with the use of non-antiarrhythmic QTc-prolonging drugs in an academic hospital setting. METHODS: We performed a
Maden, A; Swinton, M; Gunn, J
The paper presents the results of a retrospective, self-report survey of pre-arrest drug use in a representative sample of 1751 men serving a prison sentence. Reported drugs used were cannabis (34%), opiates (9%), amphetamine (9%) and cocaine (5%), including 1% 'crack' users. Pre-arrest injecting was reported by 11% of inmates, including 68% of all opiate users and 57% of amphetamine users. Drug dependence was reported by 11%, including 7% dependent on opiates, 2% on amphetamines and 1% on cocaine. Relative to other drugs, the figure for cocaine is higher than is suggested by a previous clinic survey. Pre-arrest cannabis use was reported by 54% of black prisoners and 34% of white. White prisoners are more likely to report use of 'hard' drugs, drug dependence and injecting, but this masks a higher rate of cocaine use by black prisoners. Opiate use varied between health regions, from 3% of prisoners in the West Midlands to 25% of those from the Mersey region. These findings have implications for service provision and for an understanding of cultural influences on illicit drug use.
Goldenberg, Shira M; Chettiar, Jill; Simo, Annick; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate
To explore factors associated with early sex work initiation and model the independent effect of early initiation on HIV infection and prostitution arrests among adult sex workers (SWs). Baseline data (2010-2011) were drawn from a cohort of SWs who exchanged sex for money within the last month and were recruited through time location sampling in Vancouver, Canada. Analyses were restricted to adults ≥18 years old. SWs completed a questionnaire and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified associations with early sex work initiation (prostitution arrests among adult SWs. Of 508 SWs, 193 (38.0%) reported early sex work initiation, with 78.53% primarily street-involved SWs and 21.46% off-street SWs. HIV prevalence was 11.22%, which was 19.69% among early initiates. Early initiates were more likely to be Canadian born [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.42 to 19.02], inject drugs (AOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.5), and to have worked for a manager (AOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.6) or been coerced into sex work (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.14 to 4.44). Early initiation retained an independent effect on increased risk of HIV infection (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.2) and prostitution arrests (AOR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.2). Adolescent sex work initiation is concentrated among marginalized, drug, and street-involved SWs. Early initiation holds an independent increased effect on HIV infection and criminalization of adult SWs. Findings suggest the need for evidence-based approaches to reduce harm among adult and youth SWs.
Corsaro, Nicholas; Brunson, Rod K; McGarrell, Edmund F
The authors examined a strategic policing initiative that was implemented in a high crime Nashville, Tennessee neighborhood by utilizing a mixed-methodological evaluation approach in order to provide (a) a descriptive process assessment of program fidelity; (b) an interrupted time-series analysis relying upon generalized linear models; (c) in-depth resident interviews. Results revealed that the initiative corresponded with a statistically significant reduction in drug and narcotics incidents as well as perceived changes in neighborhood disorder within the target community. There was less-clear evidence, however, of a significant impact on other outcomes examined. The implications that an intensive crime prevention strategy corresponded with a reduction in specific forms of neighborhood crime illustrates the complex considerations that law enforcement officials face when deciding to implement this type of crime prevention initiative.
Morelato, Marie; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Ribaux, Olivier; Kirkbride, Paul; Roux, Claude
To date, forensic science has predominantly focused on generating evidence for judicial proceedings. While many recognise its broader and important contribution to the initial stages of the forensic process, resources do not seem to be employed efficiently. It is often discovered retrospectively that necessary information was previously available in a database or within existing files. Such information could have been proactively used in order to solve a particular case, a number of linked cases or better understand the criminal activity as a whole. This article reviews this broader contribution of forensic science, with a particular emphasis on drug intelligence at the Australian Federal Police (AFP) in Australia. Using the AFP as a model organisation, an overview of the current situation and the contribution of physical and chemical profiling are first discussed. The situation in Europe, and in particular in Switzerland, is also presented. It is argued that a change of attitude towards a more intelligence-led perspective is required in forensic science in general, and in drug profiling in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
De Bruin, Marie L; Langendijk, Pim N J; Koopmans, Richard P
-prolonging drugs (42/140). The risk was more pronounced in patients receiving doses > 1 defined daily dose (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1, 5.9), patients taking > 1 QTc-prolonging drug simultaneously (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.6, 14) and patients taking pharmacokinetic interacting drugs concomitantly (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.2, 13......). CONCLUSIONS: Use of non-antiarrhythmic QTc-prolonging drugs in hospitalized patients with several underlying disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiac arrest. The effect is dose related and pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions increase the risk substantially. Physicians caring for inpatients......AIMS: QTc interval-prolonging drugs have been linked to cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest and sudden death. In this study we aimed to quantify the risk of cardiac arrest associated with the use of non-antiarrhythmic QTc-prolonging drugs in an academic hospital setting. METHODS: We performed...
Análisis de la inclusión de la policía en la respuesta de emergencias al paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario Analysis of the inclussion of police personnel on the out of hospital cardiac arrest emergency response
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El presente estudio busca analizar una alternativa al pronóstico de paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario (PCE como problema de salud pública al involucrar a los cuerpos policiacos en la respuesta de emergencias. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó retrospectivamente un registro de PCE iniciado en junio de 2009. Se contrastó un modelo basado en un número limitado de ambulancias con primera respuesta por la policía. RESULTADOS: La mortalidad fue de 100%, tiempos de respuesta elevados y 10.8% recibió reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP por testigos presenciales. En 63.7% de los eventos la policía llegaba antes que la ambulancia y en 1.5% el policía dio RCP. El costo por vida salvada fue 5.8-60 millones de pesos en un modelo sólo con ambulancias vs. 0.5-5.5 millones de pesos en un modelo con primera respuesta policiaca. CONCLUSIONES: La intervención de la policía en la ciudad de Querétaro facilitaría la disminución de la mortalidad por PCE a un menor costo.OBJETIVE: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OCHA is a public health problem in which survival depends on community initial response among others. This study tries to analyze what's the proportional cost of enhancing such response by involving the police corps in it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively an OCHA registry started on June 2009. We contrasted a model with limited number of ambulances and police based first response. RESULTS: Mortality was 100%, response times high and 10.8% of the victims were receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR by bystanders. In 63.7% of the events the police arrived before the ambulance, in 1.5% of these cases the police provided CPR. The cost for each saved life was of 5.8-60 million Mexican pesos per life with only ambulance model vs 0.5-5.5 million Mexican pesos on a police first response model with 12 ambulances. CONCLUSIONS: In Queretaro interventions can be performed taking advantage of the response capacity of the
Werb, D; Wagner, K D; Beletsky, L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, S A
In 2009, Mexico passed legislation to decriminalize drug possession and improve access to addiction treatment. We undertook research to assess the implementation of the reform among a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. This study specifically sought to determine whether discretionary policing practices like extortion impact access to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in Tijuana, a city characterized by high levels of drug-related harms. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to construct longitudinal confounding models to determine the association between paying a police bribe and MMT enrolment among PWID in Tijuana enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Outcome of interest was MMT enrolment in the past six months. Data on police interactions and MMT enrolment were also obtained. Between October, 2011 and September, 2013, 637 participants provided 1825 observations, with 143 (7.8%) reports of MMT enrolment during the study period. In a final confounding model, recently reporting being forced to pay a bribe to police was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of accessing MMT (adjusted odds ratio=1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.81, p=0.043). However, in 56 (39.2%) cases, MMT enrolment ceased within six months. The majority of participant responses cited the fact that MMT was too expensive (69.1%). Levels of MMT access were low. PWID who experienced police extortion were more likely to access MMT at baseline, though this association decreased during the study period. Coupled with the costs of MMT, this may compromise MMT retention among PWID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer
Data were collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This paper reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths’ sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis results for recent cocaine and marijuana use, and self-reported engaging in risky sexual behavior. The across gender, multiple group model involved: (1) a confirmatory factor analysis of these variables, reflecting a latent variable labeled Risk, (2) a regression of Risk on the youths’ age, and (3) an examination of the covariance between Risk and the youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charge. Results indicate the youths’ STD status, drug use, and reported risky sexual behavior are interrelated phenomena, similarly experienced across gender. Age was the only correlate of Risk status that demonstrated a significant gender group difference. The youths’ race and seriousness of arrest charges did not significantly affect Risk, regardless of gender. Research and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21221415
Khaja, Misbahuddin; Lominadze, George; Millerman, Konstantin
BACKGROUND Tapentadol is a centrally acting opioid analgesic, with a dual mode of action, as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Tapentadol is used for the management of musculoskeletal pain, and neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old woman attended hospital for evaluation of an intractable headache. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were negative. She was found unresponsive in the bathroom on the day following hospital admission, and despite resuscitative measures, the patient died following cardiac arrest. Autopsy toxicology revealed significantly elevated levels of tapentadol, and bedside evidence suggested that the patient had self-administered this medication intravenously before her death. CONCLUSIONS We report a rare adverse effect of tapentadol causing respiratory depression leading to cardiac arrest. Medical examiners and forensic toxicologists should be aware of the toxicity of this novel opiate drug.
Otiashvili, David; Tabatadze, Mzia; Balanchivadze, Nino; Kirtadze, Irma
Since early 2000, intensive policing, wide scale street drug testing, and actions aimed at limiting the availability of specific drugs have been implemented in Georgia. Supporters of this approach argue that fear of drug testing and resulting punishment compels drug users to stop using and prevents youth from initiating drug use. It has been also stated that reduction in the availability of specific drugs should be seen as an indication of the overall success of counter-drug efforts. The aim of the current review is to describe the drug-related law enforcement response in Georgia and its impact on illicit drug consumption and drug-related harm. We reviewed relevant literature that included peer-reviewed scientific articles, stand-alone research reports, annual drug situation reports, technical reports and program data. This was also supplemented by the review of relevant legislation and judicial practices for the twelve year period between 2002 and 2014. Every episode of reduced availability of any "traditional" injection drug was followed by the discovery/introduction of a new injection preparation. The pattern of drug consumption was normally driven by users' attempts to substitute their drug of choice through mixing together available alternative substances. Chaotic poly-substance use and extensive utilization of home-made injection drugs, prepared from toxic precursors, became common. Massive random street drug testing had little or no effect on the prevalence of problem drug use. Intensive harassment of drug users and exclusive focus on reducing the availability of specific drugs did not result in reduction of the prevalence of injecting drug use. Repressive response of Georgian anti-drug authorities relied heavily on consumer sanctions, which led to shifts in drug users' behavior. In most cases, these shifts were associated with the introduction and use of new toxic preparations and subsequent harm to the physical and mental health of drug consumers.
Jezierski, Tadeusz; Adamkiewicz, Ewa; Walczak, Marta; Sobczyńska, Magdalena; Górecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra; Ensminger, John; Papet, Eugene
Some recent publications claim that the effectiveness of police canine drug detection is uncertain and likely minimal, and that the deterrent effect of dogs on drug users is low. It is also claimed that more scientific evidence is needed to demonstrate to what extent dogs actually detect drugs. The aim of this research was to assess experimentally, but in actual training and testing environments used by the Polish police, how effective dogs trained by the police were at illicit substance detection depending on factors such as type of drug, dog breed, dog experience with the searching site, and drug odor residuals. 68 Labrador retrievers, 61 German shepherds, 25 Terriers and 10 English Cocker Spaniels, of both sexes in each breed, were used. Altogether 1219 experimental searching tests were conducted. On average, hidden drug samples were indicated by dogs after 64s searching time, with 87.7% indications being correct and 5.3% being false. In 7.0% of trials dogs failed to find the drug sample within 10min. The ranking of drugs from the easiest to the most difficult to detect was: marijuana, hashish, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin. German shepherds were superior to other breeds in giving correct indications while Terriers showed relatively poor detection performance. Dogs were equally efficient at searching in well-known vs. unknown rooms with strange (i.e., non-target novelty) odors (83.2% correct indications), but they were less accurate when searching outside or inside cars (63.5% and 57.9% correct indications respectively). During police examination trials the dogs made more false alerts, fewer correct indications and searching time was longer compared to the final stage of the training. The drug odor may persist at a site for at least 48h. Our experiments do not confirm the recent reports, based on drug users' opinions, of low drug detection efficiency. Usefulness of drug detection dogs has been demonstrated here, even if their effectiveness may not be 100%, but
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Wareham, Jennifer
Knowledge of the rates and correlates of juvenile offenders' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) has been limited to samples of incarcerated youths comprised mostly of males. Data collected on 442 female and 506 male youths processed at a centralized intake facility enabled us to study this important public health problem among a sample of juvenile offenders at the front end of the justice system. Female-male, multi-group latent class analyses identified two subgroups, High Risk and Lower Risk, of youths described by a latent construct of risk based on drug test results, STD test results, and a classification for the seriousness of arrest charge. The results found: (1) a similar classification distinguished High Risk and Lower Risk male and female youths, and (2) important gender group differences in sexual risk related factors (e.g., substance use during sexual encounters). Among the youths in this sample who tested positive for an STD, 66% of the girls and 57% of the boys were released back into the community after arrest. Overall, our findings raise serious public health and social welfare concerns, for both the youths and the community. Prevention and intervention implications of these findings are also discussed.
Brian R. Basham
Full Text Available The past few decades has seen a high degree of scrutiny on police and police instructional techniques, with various researchers recommending engagement with adult learning principles. However, what is lacking in contemporary research is any discussion about the role of police instructors and whether they are able to engage with adult learning principles. This critical essay commences that discussion and offers suggestions on how to transition the police instructor to become an effective police educator. It is argued that police instructors undertake several informal roles that are in contrast to the role of an educator; and place the police instructor in an abnormal position of power. Further, it is proposed that the current required training qualification for police instructors is an inappropriate and ineffectual qualification for police educators. This critique concludes by offering some suggestions that are likely to overcome potential barriers to increasing the competency of police instructors.
Krameddine, Yasmeen I; Silverstone, Peter H
The police interact with homeless individuals frequently. However, there has been relatively little research on the attitudes of homeless individuals towards the police, and how police interactions may impact these. This is important since the attitudes of homeless individuals can impact how often they report crimes, and how well they support police when they are investigating crimes in this population. We interviewed 213 homeless individuals in a single city, representing approximately 10% of the total homeless population. They were interviewed at either homeless shelters, or events held specifically for the homeless population. Of these individuals, 75% were male, and 47% had interacted with a police officer within the past month. Self-reports suggested that 60% had a drug and/or alcohol issue and 78% had a mental illness. We found a highly statistically significant difference between the group that had been handcuffed and/or arrested compared to those that had not. This was across multiple domains and included how the individual regarded the police in terms of their empathy and communication skills, and how much they trusted the police. These changes were long-term, and if a homeless individual had been arrested or handcuffed (and verbal reporting suggested that being handcuffed was the by far the most important factor) then these negative attitudes lasted at least 2 years. The primary conclusion from this study is that when police handcuff a homeless individual, this can lead to long-term negative views about the police across several domains that appear to be long lasting, and were linked to feelings of not being respected by the police. It is therefore proposed that police officers should be made aware of the potential long-term negative consequences of this single action, and that police forces should consider providing specific training to minimize any unnecessary overuse of handcuffs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morelato, Marie; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Ribaux, Olivier; Kirkbride, Paul; Roux, Claude
Traditional forensic drug profiling involves numerous analytical techniques, and the whole process is typically costly and may be time consuming. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of prioritising techniques utilised at the Australian Federal Police (AFP) for the chemical profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). The outcome would provide the AFP with the ability to obtain more timely and valuable results that could be used in an intelligence perspective. Correlation coefficients were used to obtain a similarity degree between a population of linked samples (within seizures) and a population of unlinked samples (between different seizures) and discrimination between the two populations was ultimately achieved. The results showed that gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was well suited as a single technique to detect links between seizures and could be used in priority for operational intelligence purposes. Furthermore, the method was applied to seizures known or suspected (through their case information) to be linked to each other to assess the chemical similarity between samples. It was found that half of the seizures previously linked by the case number were also linked by the chemical profile. This procedure was also able to highlight links between cases that were previously unsuspected and retrospectively confirmed by circumstantial information. The findings are finally discussed in the broader forensic intelligence context, with a focus on how they could be successfully incorporated into investigations and in an intelligence-led policing perspective in order to understand trafficking markets. © 2014.
Kim, Ju-Hwa; Yoo, Hye-In; Kang, Han Sung; Ro, Jungsil [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sungpil, E-mail: email@example.com [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal sensitizes antimitotic drugs-treated cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal sensitizes them by prevention of G2 arrest and reduced cyclin D1 levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal also sensitizes them by increasing DNA damage and reducing p21 level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low concentration of Sal effectively sensitized the cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. -- Abstract: Here, we investigated whether Sal could sensitize cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. We demonstrated that Sal sensitized paclitaxcel (PAC)-, docetaxcel (DOC)-, vinblastin (VIN)-, or colchicine (COL)-treated cancer cell lines, suggesting that Sal has the ability to sensitize the cells to any form of microtubule-targeting drugs. Sensitization to the antimitotic drugs could be achieved with very low concentrations of Sal, suggesting that there is a possibility to minimize Sal toxicity associated with human cancer patient treatments. Sensitization by Sal increased apoptosis, which was observed by C-PARP production. Sal sensitized the cancer cells to antimitotic drugs by preventing G2 arrest, suggesting that Sal contributes to the induction of mitotic catastrophe. Sal generally reduced cyclin D1 levels in PAC-, DOC-, and VIN-treated cells. In addition, Sal treatment increased pH2AX levels and reduced p21 levels in antimitotic drugs-treated cells. These observations suggest that the mechanisms underlying Sal sensitization to DNA-damaging compounds, radiation, and microtubule-targeting drugs are similar. Our data demonstrated that Sal sensitizes cancer cells to antimitotic drugs by increasing apoptosis through the prevention of G2 arrest via conserved Sal-sensitization mechanisms. These results may contribute to the development of Sal-based chemotherapy for cancer patients treated with antimitotic drugs.
Vecino, Carmen; Villalbí, Joan R; Guitart, Anna; Espelt, Albert; Bartroli, Montserrat; Castellano, Yolanda; Brugal, M Teresa
The evolution of drug injection in public places is analysed using as indicator the number of syringes collected from public spaces, evaluating as well the influence of public health harm reduction interventions and of police actions, with a before and after quasi experimental study. Monthly syringe counts on the semester before and after each intervention were compared both in the involved district and in the city as a whole, using the U and z tests with a 95% confidence level. The average number of collected syringes drops from 13.132 in 2004 to 3.190 in 2012. Comparing indicators before and after health and police interventions, the opening of a facility with a supervised drug consumption room in the inner city was associated with a huge reduction in the number of abandoned syringes in the city, while its number did not rise in the district where the facility was located. The subsequent opening of another drug consumption room did not have a significant impact in collected syringes in the area. Some police interventions in 2005-2006 and 2011 had a significant impact in the indicators of the involved districts, while others did not. Harm reduction programs might have a favourable impact on drug injection in public spaces and related syringe presence. Some police interventions appear to have an impact while others do not or just have a modest local and temporary effect.
Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Childs, Kristina; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wareham, Jennifer
Data was collected on arrested youths processed at a centralized intake facility, including youths released back to the community and those placed in secure detention. This article reports the results of a test of a structural model involving newly arrested male and female youths' sexually transmitted diseases (STD) test results, urine analysis…
distribution of the drug should remain illegal. In the last century, numerous government commissions in several countries have come to virtually ...carrying 118 kilos of marihuana in its trunk. Meanwhile, in Agua Prieta, Sonora federal agents of the Attorney General’s office arrested Eugenio...drug problem occupied the police virtually around the clock. At the same time, the head of the Justice and Police Department said it was not true that
Mutsaers, Paul; van Nuenen, Tom; Karpiak, Kevin; Garriott, William
We offer an anthropological response to criminologists’ call for a penal theory of police, with a specific focus on the public condonation of police punishment. We support such a penal theory but criticize the criminologist’s explanation of the relative quiescence of “the public” in the face of
Hughes, Caitlin E.; Ritter, Alison; Lancaster, Kari; Hoppe, Robert
Background Significant research attention has been given to understanding the processes of drug policy reform. However, there has been surprisingly little analysis of the persistence of policy in the face of opposition and evidence of ineffectiveness. In this article we analysed just such a case –
McKinnon, Iain G; Thomas, Stuart Dm; Noga, Heather L; Senior, Jane
This paper is a scoping review of the available evidence regarding health care issues in police custody. It describes the types and prevalence of health disorders encountered in custody and provides an overview of current practice and recent innovations in police custody health care. In contrast to the health of prisoners, the health of police custody detainees has, until recently, received little academic or clinical attention. Studies on health care in police custody identified for this review are limited to a few geographical jurisdictions, including the UK, continental Europe, North America, and Australia. There are significant health concerns among police detainees including acute injury, chronic physical health problems, mental and cognitive disorders, and the risks associated with drug and alcohol intoxication or withdrawal. There is some evidence that deaths in police custody have reduced where attention has been paid to the latter issue. Police personnel continue to experience difficulties identifying detainees with health issues relevant to their safe detention, but research shows that the use of evidence-based screening tools improves detection of such morbidities. Innovations in police custody health care mainly relate to detainees with mental disorders, including improved identification of illness, timely access to mental health services, the protection of the rights of mentally disordered detainees, and the diversion of mentally disordered persons from the criminal justice system into appropriate health and social care interventions. There is a lack of rigorous research relating to interventions for physical health problems, protecting those at risk of substance withdrawal, and detainees with preexisting or peri-arrest injures. Research to improve the health of police custody detainees requires greater priority, focusing on case identification and service redesign to address high levels of morbidity and to facilitate health promotion and prevention
Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wegman, Martin P; Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L
The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys. After identifying correlated variables through bivariate testing, we built multi-group path models with pre-incarceration official and unofficial detention as exogenous variables and pre-incarceration composite HIV risk as an endogenous variable, controlling for potential confounders and estimating indirect effects. Overall, 463 (51%) prisoners reported at least one detention in the year before incarceration with an average of 1.3 detentions in that period. Unofficial detentions (13%) were less common than official detentions (41%). Optimal model fit was achieved (X (2)=5.83, p=0.44; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) GFI=0.99; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) CFI=1.00; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) RMSEA=0.00; PCLOSE=0.98) when unofficial detention had an indirect effect on HIV risk, mediated by drug addiction severity, with more detentions associated with higher addiction severity, which in turn correlated with increased HIV risk. The final model explained 35% of the variance in the outcome. The effect was maintained for both countries, but stronger for Kyrgyzstan. The model also holds for Kyrgyzstan using unique data on within-prison drug injection as the outcome, which was frequent in prisoners there. Detention by police is a strong correlate of addiction severity, which mediates its effect on HIV risk behaviour. This pattern suggests that police may target drug users and that such harassment may
Full Text Available Abstract In Indonesia, an ongoing government "war on drugs" has resulted in numerous arrests and anecdotal reports of abuse in detention, but to date there has been little documentation or analysis of this issue. JANGKAR (also known in English as the Indonesian Harm Reduction Network, a nongovernmental organization (NGO based in Jakarta, surveyed 1106 injecting drug users in 13 cities about their experiences of police abuse. Of those interviewed, 667 or 60% reported physical abuse by police. These findings indicate the importance of continuing efforts to promote police reform and harm reduction in Indonesia.
Hurenkamp, G. J.; Grundmeijer, H. G.; van der Ende, A.; Tytgat, G. N.; Assendelft, W. J.; van der Hulst, R. W.
BACKGROUND: It remains controversial whether successful H. pylori eradication leads to relief of dyspepsia and the subsequent arrest or tapering of acid-suppressant drug therapy, or to an aggravation of acid-related dyspepsia requiring more acid-suppressant drug intake. AIM: To evaluate
Full Text Available Iain G McKinnon,1,2 Stuart DM Thomas,3–5 Heather L Noga,6 Jane Senior7 1Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Academic Psychiatry, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, 2Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 3School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, 4Legal Intersections Research Centre, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 5Southern Clinical School, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia; 6School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada; 7Offender Health Research Network, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: This paper is a scoping review of the available evidence regarding health care issues in police custody. It describes the types and prevalence of health disorders encountered in custody and provides an overview of current practice and recent innovations in police custody health care. In contrast to the health of prisoners, the health of police custody detainees has, until recently, received little academic or clinical attention. Studies on health care in police custody identified for this review are limited to a few geographical jurisdictions, including the UK, continental Europe, North America, and Australia. There are significant health concerns among police detainees including acute injury, chronic physical health problems, mental and cognitive disorders, and the risks associated with drug and alcohol intoxication or withdrawal. There is some evidence that deaths in police custody have reduced where attention has been paid to the latter issue. Police personnel continue to experience difficulties identifying detainees with health issues relevant to their safe detention, but research shows that the use of evidence-based screening tools improves detection of such morbidities. Innovations in police custody health care mainly relate to detainees with mental disorders, including improved identification of illness
Bunzel, H.; Marcoul, P.
We develop a stylized dynamic model of highway policing in which a non-racist police officer is given incentives to arrest criminals, but faces a per stop cost of stop which increases when the racial mix of the persons he stops di.ers from the racial mix of the population.We define the fair jail
Wintemute, Garen J; Kass, Philip H; Stewart, Susan L; Cerdá, Magdalena; Gruenewald, Paul J
Background and objective Alcohol abuse is common in the USA and is a well-established risk factor for violence. Other drug use and criminal activity are risk factors as well and frequently occur together with alcohol abuse. Firearm ownership is also common; there are >50 million firearm owners in the USA. This study assesses the relationships between alcohol and drug abuse and future violence among firearm owners, which no prior research has done. Design and study population This records-based retrospective cohort study will involve all persons who legally purchased handguns in California in 2001—approximately 116 000 individuals—with follow-up through the end of 2013. Methods The principal exposures include prior convictions for alcohol-related and drug-related offenses. The primary outcome measure is an arrest following handgun purchase for a violent Crime Index offense: homicide, rape, robbery or aggravated assault. Subjects will be considered at risk for outcome events for only as long as their residence in California can be established independently of outcome events. Covariates include individual characteristics (eg, age, sex, criminal history, firearm purchase history) and community characteristics (eg, demographics, socioeconomic measures, firearm ownership and alcohol outlet density). We will employ survival analytic methods, expressing effects as HRs. Discussion The results of this large-scale study are likely to be generalisable and to have important implications for violence prevention policies and programmes. PMID:26498316
Alharbi, Fawaz F.; Souverein, Patrick C.; de Groot, Mark C. H.; Blom, Marieke T.; de Boer, Anthonius; Klungel, Olaf H.; Tan, Hanno L.
AimsSudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a complex multifactorial event and most commonly caused by ventricular tachycardia/ fibrillation (VT/ VF). Some antihypertensive drugs could induce hypokalaemia or hyperkalaemia, which may increase susceptibility to VT/VF and SCA. ObjectiveTo assess the association
Kudenchuk, Peter J; Leroux, Brian G; Daya, Mohamud; Rea, Thomas; Vaillancourt, Christian; Morrison, Laurie J; Callaway, Clifton W; Christenson, James; Ornato, Joseph P; Dunford, James V; Wittwer, Lynn; Weisfeldt, Myron L; Aufderheide, Tom P; Vilke, Gary M; Idris, Ahamed H; Stiell, Ian G; Colella, M Riccardo; Kayea, Tami; Egan, Debra; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Gray, Pamela; Gray, Randal; Straight, Ron; Dorian, Paul
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) commonly presents with nonshockable rhythms (asystole and pulseless electric activity). It is unknown whether antiarrhythmic drugs are safe and effective when nonshockable rhythms evolve to shockable rhythms (ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia [VF/VT]) during resuscitation. Adults with nontraumatic OHCA, vascular access, and VF/VT anytime after ≥1 shock(s) were prospectively randomized, double-blind, to receive amiodarone, lidocaine, or placebo by paramedics. Patients presenting with initial shock-refractory VF/VT were previously reported. The current study was a prespecified analysis in a separate cohort that initially presented with nonshockable OHCA and was randomized on subsequently developing shock-refractory VF/VT. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included discharge functional status and adverse drug-related effects. Of 37 889 patients with OHCA, 3026 with initial VF/VT and 1063 with initial nonshockable-turned-shockable rhythms were treatment-eligible, were randomized, and received their assigned drug. Baseline characteristics among patients with nonshockable-turned-shockable rhythms were balanced across treatment arms, except that recipients of a placebo included fewer men and were less likely to receive bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Active-drug recipients in this cohort required fewer shocks, supplemental doses of their assigned drug, and ancillary antiarrhythmic drugs than recipients of a placebo ( P lidocaine, and 6 (1.9%) placebo-treated patients survived to hospital discharge ( P =0.24). No significant interaction between treatment assignment and discharge survival occurred with the initiating OHCA rhythm (asystole, pulseless electric activity, or VF/VT). Survival in each of these categories was consistently higher with active drugs, although the trends were not statistically significant. Adjusted absolute differences (95% confidence
buy hashish from Geraldo Ferreira Pereira, and this latter denounced De. With the arrest of these four, investigators from the 24th Police District...corrupt "guardian" officials and those who prowl about in the high schools, movie theaters, and so on to instigate the use of drugs and provide prem
McKinnon, Iain; Grubin, Don
There have been few previous studies on the health needs of police detainees. London's Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) uses health screening procedures which have not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of health problems and 'mental vulnerability' in detainees in police custody, and the efficacy of current health screening procedures. Custody records from five London Boroughs were reviewed. Prevalence data for health problems and mental vulnerability was obtained from the anonymised records of 307 detainees who were referred to the Forensic Medical Examiner (FME). Data were analysed for the identification of physical and psychiatric morbidity. Injuries, epilepsy and asthma were the most common physical health problems noted. Drug and alcohol issues were also frequently encountered along with depression and self-harming behaviour and suicidal ideation. Morbidity was lower than that reported in other, interview based studies. Less than 2% of detainees were thought to require an Appropriate Adult to be present during police interview. A significant amount of health morbidity is present among detainees in police custody. Our findings suggest that current police screening procedures detect only a proportion of this. Further research is warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of health screening in police custody. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Havelund, Jonas; Lauritzen, Mikkel; Joern, Lise
The Danish police have changed their tactics in relation to their policing of football supporters. The changes have involved the development of a dialogue-based approach to the policing of football supporters. The changes seem to have contributed to a reduction in the number of arrests and footba...... strategic goals like conflict reduction and creating a more peaceful atmosphere at football matches....
Porter-Stransky, Kirsten A; Weinshenker, David
The protein β -arrestin ( β arr) 2 directly interacts with receptors and signaling pathways that mediate the behavioral effects of drugs of abuse, making it a prime candidate for therapeutic interventions. β arr2 drives desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors, including dopamine, opioid, and cannabinoid receptors, and it can also trigger G protein-independent intracellular signaling. β arr2 mediates several drug-induced behaviors, but the relationship is complex and dependent on the type of behavior (e.g., psychomotor versus reward), the class of drug (e.g., psychostimulant versus opioid), and the circuit being interrogated (e.g., brain region, cell type, and specific receptor ligand). Here we discuss the current state of research concerning the contribution of β arr2 to the psychomotor and rewarding effects of addictive drugs. Next we identify key knowledge gaps and suggest new tools and approaches needed to further elucidate the neuroanatomical substrates and neurobiological mechanisms to explain how β arr2 modulates behavioral responses to drugs of abuse, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Adrián Angel Angel Inchauspe
Full Text Available Since unexpected sudden deaths have been reported with the use of diversal non-cardiac drugs, cardio-safety experts focused their attention on security measures to improve survival rates in heart stoppages due to this prescribed drugs. Considering that prolongation of the QTc is a reliable marker of a menacing arrhythmia called torsade de pointes (TdP - that can progress to ventricular fibrillation, application of Bazett or Rautaharhu formulas can lead to a proper predictive valuation of a "torsadogenic risk".Case-analysis raises up the proposal that QTc or QTp will allow to identify high risk groups; performs a close pharmaco- vigilance and legally register ECG follow -up, avoiding unnecessary withdrawal of useful drugs from market.
Full Text Available This paper explores police stop and search practices in Toronto using the 2003-2012 data from Toronto Police Service. The findings demonstrate that for black youth, the number of stops and the stops/arrests ratios increased significantly by 42.7% and 44.9% respectively between 2003 and 2012, while for white youth, both indices decreased steadily during the same period. Moreover, they show that police stops of black youth occur most excessively in neighbourhoods where more white people reside and/or have higher crime rates. This article argues for the importance of a contextualized examination of police stops within the spatial context of neighbourhoods and calls for open and free access to police stop data, regular internal review by police, and community policing in Toronto.
Bull, James J; Barrick, Jeffrey E
Evolution in the form of selective breeding has long been harnessed as a useful tool by humans. However, rapid evolution can also be a danger to our health and a stumbling block for biotechnology. Unwanted evolution can underlie the emergence of drug and pesticide resistance, cancer, and weeds. It makes live vaccines and engineered cells inherently unreliable and unpredictable, and therefore potentially unsafe. Yet, there are strategies that have been and can possibly be used to stop or slow many types of evolution. We review and classify existing population genetics-inspired methods for arresting evolution. Then, we discuss how genome editing techniques enable a radically new set of approaches to limit evolution. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Police policy documents often articulate strategies and approaches that police organizations want to implement in their efforts to break down barriers with minority groups. However, most police policy documents are written for police audiences and not for members of the public. Police policy documents serve as a reflection of the aspirations of the agency and not necessarily the practice of the officers. Differential policing has been a salient experience for members of transgender communities because, as individuals who express gender in ways that deviate from the norm, they have experienced numerous documented cases of police mismanaged practice. In Australia, achieving police reform in the area of policing of diverse community groups has been difficult as new initiatives implemented to educate police officers about diverse groups such as transgender communities are scarce. My study sought to analyze a police policy document to assess how one police agency’s policy aspires to shape police contact/experiences with transgender people and how this document might shape intergroup identity differences between transgender people and the police. It is argued that the policy document will negatively affect police perceptions of transgender people and may enhance adverse perceptions of intergroup difference between police and transgender people. I also argue that using this document to achieve police reform in the area of policing of transgender people will be problematic as the policy document lacks substantial procedural guidelines regarding interaction with transgender people and may not favorably constrain discretionary police power.
Sondergaard, Kathrine B; Weeke, Peter; Wissenberg, Mads
Arrest Registry, all persons with OHCA during 2001-10 were identified. NSAID use 30 days before OHCA was categorized as follows: diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen, rofecoxib, celecoxib, and other. Risk of OHCA associated with use of NSAIDs was analysed by conditional logistic regression in case......-time-control models matching four controls on sex and age per case to account for variation in drug utilization over time. We identified 28 947 persons with OHCA of whom 3376 were treated with an NSAID up to 30 days before OHCA. Ibuprofen and diclofenac were the most commonly used NSAIDs and represented 51.0% and 21.......8% of total NSAID use, respectively. Use of diclofenac (odds ratio [OR], 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.82]) and ibuprofen [OR, 1.31 (95% CI 1.14-1.51)] was associated with a significantly increased risk of OHCA. Use of naproxen [OR, 1.29 (95% CI 0.77-2.16)], celecoxib [OR, 1.13 (95% CI 0...
Full Text Available The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a major mediator of physiological glutamate signaling, but its role in pathological glutamate signaling (excitotoxicity remains less clear, with indications for both neuro-toxic and neuro-protective functions. Here, the role of CaMKII in ischemic injury is assessed utilizing our mouse model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR. CaMKII inhibition (with tatCN21 or tatCN19o at clinically relevant time points (30 min after resuscitation greatly reduces neuronal injury. Importantly, CaMKII inhibition also works in combination with mild hypothermia, the current standard of care. The relevant drug target is specifically Ca2+-independent “autonomous” CaMKII activity generated by T286 autophosphorylation, as indicated by substantial reduction in injury in autonomy-incompetent T286A mutant mice. In addition to reducing cell death, tatCN19o also protects the surviving neurons from functional plasticity impairments and prevents behavioral learning deficits, even at extremely low doses (0.01 mg/kg, further highlighting the clinical potential of our findings.
Hunter, Kyle; Park, Ju Nyeong; Allen, Sean T; Chaulk, Patrick; Frost, Taeko; Weir, Brian W; Sherman, Susan G
The spaces in which drug use occurs constitutes a key aspect of the "risk environment" of people who inject drugs (PWID). We aimed to add nuance to the characterization of "safe" and "unsafe" spaces in PWID's environments to further understand how these spaces amplify the risk of morbidities associated with injection drug use. PWID were recruited through the Baltimore City syringe service program and through peer referral. Participants completed a socio-behavioral survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between utilization of public, semi-public and private spaces with arrest, non-fatal overdose, and receptive syringe sharing. The sample of PWID (N = 283) was mostly 45 years and older (54%), male (69%), Black (55%), and heroin users (96%). Compared to PWID who primarily used private settings, the adjusted odds of recent overdose were greater among PWID who mostly used semi-public and public locations to inject drugs. We also found independent associations between arrest and semi-public spaces, and between receptive syringe sharing and public spaces (all p spaces where PWID can reduce their risk of overdose, likelihood of arrest and blood-borne diseases, and the dual potential of the environment in promoting health and risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perkins, Gavin D; Quinn, Tom; Deakin, Charles D; Nolan, Jerry P; Lall, Ranjit; Slowther, Anne-Marie; Cooke, Matthew; Lamb, Sarah E; Petrou, Stavros; Achana, Felix; Finn, Judith; Jacobs, Ian G; Carson, Andrew; Smyth, Mike; Han, Kyee; Byers, Sonia; Rees, Nigel; Whitfield, Richard; Moore, Fionna; Fothergill, Rachael; Stallard, Nigel; Long, John; Hennings, Susie; Horton, Jessica; Kaye, Charlotte; Gates, Simon
Despite its use since the 1960s, the safety or effectiveness of adrenaline as a treatment for cardiac arrest has never been comprehensively evaluated in a clinical trial. Although most studies have found that adrenaline increases the chance of return of spontaneous circulation for short periods, many studies found harmful effects on the brain and raise concern that adrenaline may reduce overall survival and/or good neurological outcome. The PARAMEDIC-2 trial seeks to determine if adrenaline is safe and effective in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This is a pragmatic, individually randomised, double blind, controlled trial with a parallel economic evaluation. Participants will be eligible if they are in cardiac arrest in the out-of-hospital environment and advanced life support is initiated. Exclusions are cardiac arrest as a result of anaphylaxis or life threatening asthma, and patient known or appearing to be under 16 or pregnant. 8000 participants treated by 5 UK ambulance services will be randomised between December 2014 and August 2017 to adrenaline (intervention) or placebo (control) through opening pre-randomised drug packs. Clinical outcomes are survival to 30 days (primary outcome), hospital discharge, 3, 6 and 12 months, health related quality of life, and neurological and cognitive outcomes (secondary outcomes). Trial registration (ISRCTN73485024). Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Gaines, Tommi L; Beletsky, Leo; Arredondo, Jaime; Werb, Daniel; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Brouwer, Kimberly
In 2009, Mexico decriminalized the possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use in order to refocus law enforcement resources on drug dealers and traffickers. This study examines the spatial distribution of law enforcement encounters reported by people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico to identify concentrated areas of policing activity after implementation of the new drug policy. Mapping the physical location of law enforcement encounters provided by PWID (n = 461) recruited through targeted sampling, we identified hotspots of extra-judicial encounters (e.g., physical/sexual abuse, syringe confiscation, and money extortion by law enforcement) and routine authorized encounters (e.g., being arrested or stopped but not arrested) using point density maps and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic calculated at the neighborhood-level. Approximately half of the participants encountered law enforcement more than once in a calendar year and nearly one third of these encounters did not result in arrest but involved harassment or abuse by law enforcement. Statistically significant hotspots of law enforcement encounters were identified in a limited number of neighborhoods located in areas with known drug markets. At the local-level, law enforcement activities continue to target drug users despite a national drug policy that emphasizes drug treatment diversion rather than punitive enforcement. There is a need for law enforcement training and improved monitoring of policing tactics to better align policing with public health goals.
Cohn, Amy M; Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Rape tactics, rape incident characteristics, and mental health problems (lifetime depression, PTSD, and substance abuse) were investigated as correlates of eight different reasons for not reporting a rape to police among women who had experienced but did not report a rape to police (n = 441) within a national telephone household probability sample. Rape tactics (nonmutually exclusive) included drug or alcohol-facilitated or incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR; n = 119) and forcible rape (FR; n = 376). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted to extract a dominant set of patterns among the eight reasons for not reporting, and to reduce the set of dependent variables. PCA results indicated three unique factors: Not Wanting Others to Know, Nonacknowledgment of Rape, and Criminal Justice Concerns. Hierarchical regression analyses showed DAFR/IR and FR were both positively and significantly associated with Criminal Justice Concerns, whereas DAFR/IR, but not FR, was associated with Nonacknowledgment as a reason for not reporting to police. Neither DAFR/IR nor FR emerged as significant predictors of Others Knowing after controlling for fear of death or injury at the time of the incident. Correlations among variables showed that the Criminal Justice Concerns factor was positively related to lifetime depression and PTSD and the Nonacknowledgement factor was negatively related to lifetime PTSD. Findings suggest prevention programs should educate women about the definition of rape, which may include incapacitation due to alcohol or drugs, to increase acknowledgement and decrease barriers to police reporting.
Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Cunha, Luiz Carlos da; Yonamine, Maurício; Pucci, Liuba Laxor; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Souza, Camila Gabriela de; Mesquita, Guilherme Alves; Vieira, Ana Paula de Toledo; Vinhal, Ludmilla Barros; Dalastra, Janayna; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues
To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n=221) were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID). Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. The frequency of use was divided into: 1) lifetime use: tobacco-39.9%, alcohol-87.8%, cannabis-8.1%, cocaine-1.8%, stimulants-7.2%, solvents-10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-6.8%, LSD-0.5%, Bentyl®-0.5%, anabolic steroids-5.4%; 2) use in the previous year: tobacco-15.4%, alcohol-72.9%, stimulants-6.3%, solvents-0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%; 3) use in the previous 30 days: tobacco-14.5%, alcohol-57.5%, stimulants-5.0%, solvents-0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%. The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.
Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset provides the public with arrest information from the Montgomery County Central Processing Unit (CPU) systems. The data presented is derived from every...
International audience; Overview Police as an institution cannot be said to have inspired in-depth conceptualization effortsfrom criminology and criminal justice so far. Scholars in this area show a clear preference for empirically exploring what individual police officers do or think, and the policing concept they most readily converge towards tends to hinge on the use of force, a notion developed by ethnomethodologist, Egon Bittner. This concept holds that what constitutes policing as such ...
The emergence of police ordinances and police authorities in the early modern period has traditionally been seen as a way to discipline society in order to increase the power of the absolutist state. However, recent investigations of early modern policing in German and French regions show...
This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…
Belur, J.; Tilley, N.; Osrin, D.; Daruwalla, N.; Kumar, M.; Tiwari, V.
Police investigations involve determining whether a crime has been committed, and if so what type of crime, who has committed it and whether there is the evidence to charge the perpetrators. Drawing on fieldwork in Delhi and Mumbai, this paper explores how police investigations unfolded in the specific context of women’s deaths by burning in India. In particular, it focuses on the use of discretion despite its denial by those exercising it. In India, there are distinctive statutes relating to women’s suspicious deaths, reflecting the widespread expectation that the bride’s family will pay a dowry to the groom’s family and the tensions to which this may on occasion give rise in the early years of a marriage. Often, there are conflicting claims influencing how the woman’s death is classified. These in turn affect police investigation. The nature and direction of police discretion in investigating women’s deaths by burning reflect in part the unique nature of the legislation and the particular sensitivities in relation to these types of death. They also highlight processes that are liable to be at work in any crime investigation. It was found that police officers exercised unacknowledged discretion at seven specific points in the investigative process, with potentially significant consequences for the achievement of just outcomes: first response, recording the victim’s ‘dying declaration’, inquest, registering of the ‘First Information Report’, collecting evidence, arrest and framing of the charges. PMID:26376482
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Vera, Alicia; Martinez, Gustavo; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A
We aim to use conditional or moderated mediation to simultaneously test how and for whom an injection risk intervention was efficacious at reducing receptive needle sharing among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSWs-IDUs) in Mexico. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial. A total of 300 FSW-IDUs participated in Mujer Mas Segura in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and were randomized to an interactive injection risk intervention or a didactic injection risk intervention. We measured safe injection self-efficacy as the hypothesized mediator and policing behaviors (being arrested and syringe confiscation) as hypothesized moderators. In total, 213 women provided complete data for the current analyses. Conditional (moderated) mediation showed that the intervention affected receptive needle sharing through safe injection self-efficacy among women who experienced syringe confiscation. On average, police syringe confiscation was associated with lower safe injection self-efficacy (p = .04). Among those who experienced syringe confiscation, those who received the interactive (vs. didactic) intervention reported higher self-efficacy, which in turn predicted lower receptive needle sharing (p = .04). Whereas syringe confiscation by the police negatively affected safe injection self-efficacy and ultimately injection risk behavior, our interactive intervention helped to "buffer" this negative impact of police behavior on risky injection practices. The theory-based, active skills building elements included in the interactive condition, which were absent from the didactic condition, helped participants' self-efficacy for safer injection in the face of syringe confiscation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.7 Drug enforcement activities... initial, interim and final military police reports concerning drug investigations will be provided to the...
This article examines the development of community-based policing in the United States and the Netherlands. These two countries were selected because the United States has been the forerunner of research into the police and one of the first countries to attempt to introduce on a wide-scale, and
Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip
as exploring current strengths and opportunities for further development. One of the central issues that the report identifies are problems in terms of proactive verbal and friendly engagement from police ‘front line’ staff. The report goes on to provide a series of recommendations for the future development......”. But Professor Stott and his team go on to highlight an important breakdown in the nationally coordinated policing reforms that took place following the riots in Gothenburg in 2001, referred to as the Special Police Tactic. They assert that “the police can benefit from nationally unified clear and coherent...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....
Gomez, Marisela B
Studies show that policing, when violent, and community fragmentation have a negative impact on health outcomes. This current study investigates the connection of policing and community fragmentation and public health. Using an embedded case study analysis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 African-American female and male residents, ages 21-64 years of various neighborhoods of high arrest rates and health and socioeconomic depravation in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore residents' perceptions of policing, stress, community fragmentation, and solutions are presented. Analysis of the perceptions of these factors suggests that violent policing increases community fragmentation and is a public health threat. Approaches to address this public health threat are discussed.
Mahindhoratep, Tiao Saysouda; Lepresle, Aude; Chiadmi, Fouad; Schlatter, Joël; Boraud, Cyril; Chariot, Patrick
Traffic offences are a common cause of detention in police custody. We hypothesized that drug intoxication while driving could correspond to specific medical conditions of the detainees. Our objective was to evaluate medical features and addictive behaviours of suspected drug drivers and to collect data regarding assaults or injuries in these individuals. We conducted a prospective study (April 2010-December 2011) of suspected drug driving arrestees, who were compared to drink drivers or persons aged over 18 detained for other reasons. Data collected concerned persons' characteristics, reported assaults, and observed injuries. A total of 205 drivers were tested positive for drugs in blood, 116 were either positive for drugs in urine or saliva and negative in blood, or negative in urine. Cannabis-only users accounted for 201 of 205 drug drivers (98%). Suspected drug driving arrestees had good overall health rating. Drug drivers were younger than controls and requested more rarely medical examination (12% vs. 44%, Pcustody was better than that of controls and they were considered unconditionally fit for detention more frequently (99% vs. 77%, P<0.0001). We conclude that arrested drug drivers were young, healthy, and infrequently reported assaults or presented traumatic injuries, which does not put them in a high risk medical condition. Medical care could include brief interventions on addictive behaviours. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paul, A M; Young, N H; Price, G C
Non-medicine-assisted tracheal intubation in prehospital trauma is associated with a dismal prognosis. We wished to study the outcome of medical patients who underwent non-medicine-assisted tracheal intubation. This retrospective study of patients attending our university hospital emergency department was conducted over seven years. The tracheal intubation database was analysed to identify medical patients not in cardiac arrest undergoing tracheal intubation without medicines. Intensive care unit, hospital, 12-month mortality and patients' residence at 12 months were recorded. Eighty patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. The most common reason for intubation was definite airway compromise due to decreased conscious level (62.5%), then respiratory failure (26.3%) and finally potentially compromised airway due to a decreased conscious level (11.2%). Eighty-eight percent of patients with a definitely compromised airway were successfully intubated at first attempt compared with 66.7% of patients with a potentially compromised airway or respiratory failure (P= 0.03). Of 75 patients with complete data, 30 (40%) were survivors at 12 months, with all but two (6.7%) living at home. Non-medicine-assisted laryngoscopy leads to an increased first time tracheal intubation failure rate in patients with intact airway reflexes and, therefore, cannot be recommended as best practice.
The prevalence and relative risk of drink and drug driving in the Netherlands: a case-control study in the Tilburg police district : research in the framework of the European research programme IMMORTAL (Impaired Motorists, Methods of Roadside Testing and Assessment for Licensing).
Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Houwing, S.
Drink and drug driving can have an impact on the driving performance and accident risk. This epidemiological study, which forms part of the European project IMMORTAL, investigates the prevalence of eight defined drug groups, including alcohol, among drivers in the Tilburg police district. To examine
Ludmila Ribeiro; Victor Neiva e Oliveira; Alexandre Magno Alves Diniz
In recent years, Brazilian military police forces have adopted community policing programs in order to increase confidence in the institution and reduce crime rates. The objective of this study was to verify what the police frontline personnel understands by community policing and how they perceive the results of its implementation. A survey was conducted with 592 military policemen involved in operational activities in 32 military police companies of Belo Horizonte. The results point to a va...
Martha M. Rumore
Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Community outreach activities attended by Pittsburgh Police Officers, starting from January 1 2016. Includes Zone, Event Name, Location, Date and Time.
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...
Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie
and private organisations doing business-in-society. The case concerns the reformation of the Danish Police. In 2007 the Danish Police started implementing an extensive reform that affected all parts of the organisation. Despite thorough planning of the process including several change management initiatives...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...
Full Text Available In recent years, Brazilian military police forces have adopted community policing programs in order to increase confidence in the institution and reduce crime rates. The objective of this study was to verify what the police frontline personnel understands by community policing and how they perceive the results of its implementation. A survey was conducted with 592 military policemen involved in operational activities in 32 military police companies of Belo Horizonte. The results point to a vast plasticity of the concept, which came to mean any type of activity carried out by police officers and by the community without the formal cooperation of the police, making the category "community policing" a new name for old police practices.
Zeoli, April M.; Norris, Alexis; Brenner, Hannah
In the United States, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have enacted statutes that allow police officers to make warrantless arrests for domestic violence given probable cause; however, state laws differ from one another in multiple, important ways. Research on domestic violence warrantless arrest laws rarely describe them as anything…
Pressman, Mark R
Sleep driving is most often classified as a variant of sleepwalking, but should be distinguished from impaired driving due to misuse or abuse of sedative/hypnotic drugs. Z-drugs; zolpidem and zopiclone in particular, have been associated with the majority of reported cases of impaired driving. Numerous studies have found z-drugs in driving under influence (DUI) related police stops, arrests and accidents. Impaired drivers are reported to have 1) blood levels of z-drugs that exceed therapeutic ranges 2) failed to take the medication at the correct time or remain in bed for sufficient time and/or 3) combined z-drugs with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants and/or alcohol. Consistent with CNS depression, z-drug-impaired drivers may demonstrate cognitive function at low levels with drivers still able to understand and respond to questions while sleepwalkers are completely unable to understand or interact with police. Z-drug-impaired drivers are often severely physically impaired, unable to stand up or maintain balance while sleepwalkers are able to stand and walk unaided. Sleep driving and impaired driving due to z-drugs may overlap. Sleep driving and drug-impaired driving are statistically rare events, but due to the billions of doses prescribed each year may still result in numerous DUI related arrests and accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hirsch, Lior M; Wallace, Sarah K; Leary, Marion; Tucker, Kathryn D; Becker, Lance B; Abella, Benjamin S
Access to automated external defibrillators and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training are key determinants of cardiac arrest survival. State police officers represent an important class of cardiac arrest first responders responsible for the large network of highways in the United States. We seek to determine accessibility of automated external defibrillators and CPR training among state police agencies. Contact was attempted with all 50 state police agencies by telephone and electronic mail. Officers at each agency were guided to complete a 15-question Internet-based survey. Descriptive statistics of the responses were performed. Attempts were made to contact all 50 states, and 46 surveys were completed (92% response rate). Most surveys were filled out by police leadership or individuals responsible for medical programs. The median agency size was 725 (interquartile range 482 to 1,485) state police officers, with 695 (interquartile range 450 to 1,100) patrol vehicles ("squad cars"). Thirty-three percent of responding agencies (15/46) reported equipping police vehicles with automated external defibrillators. Of these, 53% (8/15) equipped less than half of their fleet with the devices. Regarding emergency medical training, 78% (35/45) of state police agencies reported training their officers in automated external defibrillator usage, and 98% (44/45) reported training them in CPR. One third of state police agencies surveyed equipped their vehicles with automated external defibrillators, and among those that did, most equipped only a minority of their fleet. Most state police agencies reported training their officers in automated external defibrillator usage and CPR. Increasing automated external defibrillator deployment among state police represents an important opportunity to improve first responder preparedness for cardiac arrest care. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Globalisation, immigration, and advancements in digital and information technologies present a range of complex socio-political, demographic, cultural and technological challenges for policing. Playing out across an increasingly diverse Australian society, these influences are progressively more likely to have a significant impact on policing, requiring a nuanced and flexible policing style with its attendant challenges for police education. Local challenges posed by regional and internationa...
Full Text Available Globalisation has increased the importance of international police cooperation. While cross-border law enforcement can be traced back as far as the Nineteenth Century, police cooperation today—such as Joint Investigation Teams, International Liaison Officers, and Interpol—only came about in the Twentieth Century. It was developed to counter transnational organised crime, such as drug crime and immigration crime, as well as terrorism. But, another aspect of international policing is that of peacekeeping; that is, the deployment of national police to countries during or after conflict to maintain law and order where the local police do not have sufficient capacities. This paper examines how women have been elevated in this police cooperation role, particularly Interpol and international peacekeeping. The discussion focuses on whether there are indications that internationally related tasks and agencies provide a more accepting environment for female police officers as opposed to a national police force setting.
One of the aspects of the military defense system is the need for protection, security and retrieval of property and persons belonging to the armed forces and resources, their capabilities and defense in general. This process is accomplished through taking a complex set of measures and activities by the authorities and units of the military police. The specificity of the research service of the military police is the focus of activities to find, capture and arrest the perpetrators...
Forrester, Andrew; Samele, Chiara; Slade, Karen; Jamieson-Craig, Thomas Kern; Valmaggia, Lucia Rita
Purpose: To examine the prevalence of suicide ideation amongst a group of people who had been arrested and taken into police custody, and were then referred to a mental health service operating in the police stations.Design/methodology/approach: A referred sample of 888 cases were collected over an 18-month period during 2012/13. Clinical assessments were conducted using a template in which background information was collected (including information about their previous clinical history, subs...
Skurtveit, Svetlana; Abotnes, Bjørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg S
Norwegian drugged drivers with benzodiazepine (BZD) detections have been studied with regard to drug use pattern and rearrest rate. During 1995, 3343 drivers were apprehended by the police in Norway due to the suspicion of influence by drugs. Blood samples from all drivers were sent to the National Institute of Forensic Toxicology (NIFT). The samples were analysed using a standard program covering the most commonly abused drugs on the marked in Norway. BZDs, representing some of the most frequently detected drugs, were found in approximately 30% (n = 1051) of the cases, represented by 14% (n = 150) female and 86% (n = 901) male drivers. In 8% of the cases, one BZD only was detected, half of these cases with one BZD could reflect therapeutic use. One or more BZDs were combined with illegal drug(s) (73%), other prescribed drugs (10%), and/or alcohol (24%). 62% of the drivers with BZD detections, had earlier been arrested for the same offence, or six cases per rearrested driver. The frequency of earlier arrests were lower for female (34%) than for male (67%) drivers. Alcohol was most frequently found for those arrested for the first time before 1992, while BZD or illegal drugs were most frequently found for those with their first arrest during 1992-1995. Our study shows that apprehended drivers using BZD are mainly represented by drug abusers due to frequent multi-drug use, blood concentrations representing doses above therapeutic levels and high rearrest rate for the same offence. A treatment program or other reactions, are thus necessary in addition to fines, prison penalty and suspension of driving licence.
Lokeshwar Bal L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of all cancers is characterized by increased-cell proliferation and decreased-apoptosis. The androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC is the terminal stage of the disease. Many chemokines and cytokines are suspects to cause this increased tumor cell survival that ultimately leads to resistance to therapy and demise of the host. The AIPC cells, but not androgen-responsive cells, constitutively express abundant amount of the pro-inflammatory chemokine, Interleukin-8 (IL-8. The mechanism of IL-8 mediated survival and therapeutic resistance in AIPC cells is unclear at present. The purpose of this report is to show the pervasive role of IL-8 in malignant progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC and to provide a potential new therapeutic avenue, using RNA interference. Results The functional consequence of IL-8 depletion in AIPC cells was investigated by RNA interference in two IL-8 secreting AIPC cell lines, PC-3 and DU145. The non-IL-8 secreting LNCaP and LAPC-4 cells served as controls. Cells were transfected with RISC-free siRNA (control or validated-pool of IL-8 siRNA. Transfection with 50 nM IL-8 siRNA caused >95% depletion of IL-8 mRNA and >92% decrease in IL-8 protein. This reduction in IL-8 led to cell cycle arrest at G1/S boundary and decreases in cell cycle-regulated proteins: Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B1 (both decreased >50% and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity by >50%. Further, the spontaneous apoptosis was increased by >43% in IL-8 depleted cells, evidenced by increases in caspase-9 activation and cleaved-PARP. IL-8 depletion caused significant decreases in anti-apoptotic proteins, BCL-2, BCL-xL due to decrease in both mRNA and post-translational stability, and increased levels of pro-apoptotic BAX and BAD proteins. More significantly, depletion of intracellular IL-8 increased the cytotoxic activity of multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. Specifically, the cytotoxicity of Docetaxel
officers are implicated with deliberate extrajudicial killings, are rarely punished in civil cases. In most cases, the suspected officers are...addition, some cases involve convicted offenders being unduly released from prisons back to the community where they continue with their deviant acts. 6...judicial processes, as well as the correctional facilities such as the prisons . The role of the police in the CJS is to investigate crime, arrest
Sam David Shemie
Full Text Available Technological advances, particularly in the capacity to support, replace or transplant failing organs, continue to challenge and refine our understanding of human death. Given the ability to reanimate organs before and after death, both inside and outside of the body, through reinstitution of oxygenated circulation, concepts related to death of organs (e.g. cardiac death are no longer valid. This paper advances the rationale for a single conceptual determination of death related to permanent brain arrest, resulting from primary brain injury or secondary to circulatory arrest. The clinical characteristics of brain arrest are the permanent loss of capacity for consciousness and loss of all brainstem functions. In the setting of circulatory arrest, death occurs after the arrest of circulation to the brain rather than death of the heart. Correspondingly, any intervention that resumes oxygenated circulation to the brain after circulatory arrest would invalidate the determination of death.
Carter, David L.
Community policing and Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) are evolving initiatives that can respond to changing social problems and demands. However, many of the challenges faced by both programs arise out of the fundamentals of human nature. Among the greatest barriers to overcome are: (1) the resistance to change that affects law…
Are government-approved products containing new psychoactive substances perceived to be safer and more socially acceptable than alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs? Findings from a survey of police arrestees in New Zealand.
Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris; Parker, Karl; Witten, Karen
In July 2013, New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA), which established a legal regulated market for government-approved products containing new psychoactive substances (NPS). One of the aims of the PSA was to separate the market for approved NPS products from unapproved products and illegal drugs. The aim of this study was to explore perceived health risks and social acceptability of government-approved NPS compared to unapproved NPS and other drugs. About 834 police arrestees were surveyed about the health risks and social acceptability of regularly using nine drug types, including approved and unapproved synthetic cannabinoids (SC) and 'party pills' (PP) under the interim PSA regime. Statistical analyses included fitted analysis of variance and logistic ordinal regression models. Approved SC were considered riskier to health than (natural) cannabis, alcohol, approved and unapproved PP, tobacco and ecstasy, but safer than unapproved SC and methamphetamine. Younger participants (16-29 years) were more likely than older participants (30+ years) to give approved SC a high health-risk score. Approved SC were considered less socially acceptable than alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, but more socially acceptable than methamphetamine, unapproved SC and unapproved PP. Frequent SC users were more likely to rate the social acceptability of approved legal SC higher than other drug users. Approved PP received more positive health and social acceptability scores than approved SC. The PSA was partially successful at separating approved NPS from other drugs. High health-risk and low social acceptability scores for approved SC may reflect the absence of product testing during the interim PSA market. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Marzano, Lisa; Smith, Mark; Long, Matthew; Kisby, Charlotte; Hawton, Keith
Police officers are frequently the first responders to individuals in crisis, but generally receive little training for this role. We developed and evaluated training in suicide awareness and prevention for frontline rail police in the UK. To investigate the impact of training on officers' suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Fifty-three participants completed a brief questionnaire before and after undertaking training. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with 10 officers to explore in greater depth their views and experiences of the training program and the perceived impact on practice. Baseline levels of suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge were mixed but mostly positive and improved significantly after training. Such improvements were seemingly maintained over time, but there was insufficient power to test this statistically. Feedback on the course was generally excellent, notwithstanding some criticisms and suggestions for improvement. Training in suicide prevention appears to have been well received and to have had a beneficial impact on officers' attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Further research is needed to assess its longer-term effects on police attitudes, skills, and interactions with suicidal individuals, and to establish its relative effectiveness in the context of multilevel interventions.
Full Text Available Leadership skills and experience in leadership have a special significance for every police force at every level of the organization. Legal daily tasks performed every day by the police, the different ways used in the performance of specific legal tasks assigned and, without doubt, the way of the leadership of the police services in the process of taking these measures, affect often the police to be not rare in the focus of criticism. This is done especially by the part of society known as uncooperative with the police. Ensuring good leadership in the police is a must for a civilized society; it is an assurance to protect the freedoms and rights of every individual, the stability and security of society as a whole. Education and schooling of police leaders is undoubtedly an important component for providing good leadership to the police. The same service for every citizen and social group should characterize the daily work of every police leader. Police undoubtedly belongs to all people and not of any political party. Therefore, each leader must have the imagination for dynamic developments within the police and society in general. The participation of leaders in various police actions would be an incentive for workers and other commanding staff. Leadership from office is a poison to sound relations in the unit (James, 1960, 261. A tool that helps the leader in his/her work, especially in the realization of the objectives set by him/herself - is how he/she supervises or controls the results of the police organization.
Hemenway, David; Hicks, James G
In almost all states in the United States, to carry a concealed handgun legally requires a permit from the police. Many states have changed from may-issue laws (where the local police chief has discretion about to whom to issue a license) to shall-issue laws (where the police chief must issue a permit if the applicant passes a computerized federal background check). Studies conflict on the effect on crime. None considered the situation in may-issue states when police used discretion and refused to issue a permit. We provide suggestive evidence from a December 2013 survey of police chiefs in Massachusetts' 351 cities and towns. Of the 121 responding police chiefs, a large majority favored retaining police discretion. Chiefs issued few discretionary denials - median 2 per year, citing providing false information, a history of assault (often domestic violence), a history of drug or alcohol abuse, or of mental-health issues as the most common reasons for denial.
Full Text Available Globalisation, immigration, and advancements in digital and information technologies present a range of complex socio-political, demographic, cultural and technological challenges for policing. Playing out across an increasingly diverse Australian society, these influences are progressively more likely to have a significant impact on policing, requiring a nuanced and flexible policing style with its attendant challenges for police education. Local challenges posed by regional and international migration, and national and international challenges posed by the cross-jurisdictional nature of crime in a global society are key sociological and criminological factors that police education programs must keep pace with. In a time of such global fluidity, it is argued that designers of police curricula must reassess the underlying principles that have historically shaped police education in Australia. This is a critical discussion that examines two key areas associated with globalisation and proposes the adoption of a definition of global literacies as a guiding principle for police education in the twenty-first century. The study concludes by offering three specific recommendations for the redevelopment of future police curricula.
HyungBin Moon; Hyunhong Choi; Jongsu Lee; Ki Soo Lee
This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward int...
Schumann, Cornelia; Asmal, Laila; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Emsley, Robin
Little is known about the reasons why people with schizophrenia have contact with police, especially prior to the first episode of illness. To investigate the prevalence and correlates of police contact in first-episode schizophrenia. The prevalence and type of police contact was established among all 110 patients presenting to psychiatric services in one catchment area during a first episode of schizophrenia and among 65 non-mentally ill controls, by participant and collateral interview and from records. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were also recorded and the two groups compared. The first episode of schizophrenia patients had more contact with police than controls, despite the higher prevalence of conduct disorder symptoms among the controls. The patients were not, however, more likely to be incarcerated or arrested. Among the patients, over half of the police call-outs occurred during the period of untreated psychosis. Positive psychotic symptoms were independently associated with police contact, after allowing for socio-demographics. As over a third of people in a first episode of schizophrenia had been in contact with the police - more than twice the proportion among non-psychotic controls - and contact was associated with untreated positive psychotic symptoms, better early detection and treatment of psychosis seems indicated. In the meantime, police services may be playing an important role in reducing the duration of untreated psychosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This article aims to examine the intervention approach of the police in handling domestic violence and the reasons behind the inactive response of police to domestic violence situations in Hong Kong. The study adopted a qualitative approach to data collection that included 20 in-depth interviews to survivors and 2 interviews to police officers. Findings of this study show that the police are likely to adopt a non-intervention or mediation approach rather than arrest approach because of their distrust of abused women. The police have different reactions in responding to domestic violence issues namely (1) stereotyping the victims, (2) cynical interpretation of women's motivation in reporting, and (3) disbelieve the problem is solvable. All these reactions are associated with the trust of the police that hold on domestic violence issues stems from the dominant patriarchy ideology. The beliefs of police are shaped by the male-dominated police occupational culture, which is characterized by sexism and suspicion. Such beliefs coupled with traditional family values and the dependency discourses prevalent in society have concealed the truth and reality of domestic violence.
... government and its partisan interests, and do not want to be misunderstood in their intention to serve the people, then simply increasing the capacity of public order policing will not help. On the contrary, we might end up (again) with a permanent occupying army. Instead the police have to become more explicitly partisan ...
Alang, Sirry; McAlpine, Donna; McCreedy, Ellen; Hardeman, Rachel
We investigated links between police brutality and poor health outcomes among Blacks and identified five intersecting pathways: (1) fatal injuries that increase population-specific mortality rates; (2) adverse physiological responses that increase morbidity; (3) racist public reactions that cause stress; (4) arrests, incarcerations, and legal, medical, and funeral bills that cause financial strain; and (5) integrated oppressive structures that cause systematic disempowerment. Public health scholars should champion efforts to implement surveillance of police brutality and press funders to support research to understand the experiences of people faced with police brutality. We must ask whether our own research, teaching, and service are intentionally antiracist and challenge the institutions we work in to ask the same. To reduce racial health inequities, public health scholars must rigorously explore the relationship between police brutality and health, and advocate policies that address racist oppression.
William I. Robinson
Full Text Available As part of my research for a book manuscript on the crisis of global capitalism I recently finished writing (Robinson forthcoming, I decided to re-read the classic 1978 study conducted by the noted socialist and cultural theorist Stuart Hall and several of his colleagues, Policing the Crisis. The authors show in that book how the restructuring of capitalism as a response to the crisis of the 1970s - which was the last major crisis of world capitalism until the current one hit in 2008 -led in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to an "exceptional state," by which they meant a situation in which there was an ongoing breakdown of consensual mechanisms of social control and a growing authoritarianism.
Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn
Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State's Rockefeller Drug Laws and educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple disadvantages that impoverished African American families struggling with substance use or sale experience. These disadvantages accumulated intergenerationally, in a snowball effect, making it difficult for participants to maintain stable lives. Findings explored the tension between participants' lived experiences and the multiple ways they either assimilated or resisted their oppression. New sensitive policies informed by standpoint, intersectionality, and Afrocentric perspectives must be developed to increase the availability of meaningful employment and strengthening impoverished African American communities.
Vy Han; John R. Marshall
History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED) by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’...
Footer, Katherine Ha; Silberzahn, Bradley E; Tormohlen, Kayla N; Sherman, Susan G
Sex workers are disproportionately infected with HIV worldwide. Significant focus has been placed on understanding the structural determinants of HIV and designing related interventions. Although there is growing international evidence that policing is an important structural HIV determinant among sex workers, the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. We conducted a systematic review of quantitative studies to examine the effects of policing on HIV and STI infection and HIV-related outcomes (condom use; syringe use; number of clients; HIV/STI testing and access) among cis and trans women sex workers. Databases included PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Sociological Abstracts, Popline, Global Health (OVID), Web of Science, IBSS, IndMed and WHOLIS. We searched for studies that included police practices as an exposure for HIV or STI infection or HIV-related outcomes. Of the 137 peer-reviewed articles identified for full text review, 14 were included, representing sex workers' experiences with police across five settings. Arrest was the most commonly explored measure with between 6 and 45% of sex workers reporting having ever been arrested. Sexual coercion was observed between 3 and 37% of the time and police extortion between 12 and 28% across studies. Half the studies used a single measure to capture police behaviours. Studies predominantly focused on "extra-legal policing practices," with insufficient attention to the role of "legal enforcement activities". All studies found an association between police behaviours and HIV or STI infection, or a related risk behaviour. The review points to a small body of evidence that confirms policing practices as an important structural HIV determinant for sex workers, but studies lack generalizability with respect to identifying those police behaviours most relevant to women's HIV risk environment.
In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the
... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.17 Police Intelligence. (a) The... the point where it factually establishes a criminal offense, an investigation by the military police... exchanged between Department of Defense (DOD) law enforcement agencies, military police, USACIDC, local...
Zeoli, April M.; Norris, Alexis; Brenner, Hannah
Warrantless arrest laws for domestic violence (DV) are generally classified as discretionary, preferred, or mandatory, based on the level of power accorded to police in deciding whether to arrest. However, there is a lack of consensus in the literature regarding how each state's law should be categorized. Using three classification schemes, this…
Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD greatly expanded arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV. By 2000, MPV accounted for 15% of all arrests. The NYPD's supporters report this arrest activity is just part of quality-of-life (QOL policing, which seeks to promote order in public locations by aggressively patrolling for behaviors that offend the general population. The NYPD's critics contend the NYPD has disproportionately targeted poor, black and Hispanic communities. Methods This paper analyzes the geographic distribution of MPV arrests from 1992 to 2003 to evaluate these alternative perspectives. A sequence of maps identify that the focus of MPV arrests shifted over time. Results In the early 1990s, most MPV arrests were recorded in the lower half of Manhattan (NYC's business and cultural center and by the transit police. However, in the later 1990s and into the 2000s, most MPV arrests were recorded in high poverty, minority communities outside the lower Manhattan area and by the NYPD's policing of low-income housing projects. Conclusion These findings suggest that current levels of MPV arrests in NYC may not be justifiable, at least based solely on the purpose of QOL policing. Accordingly, we suggest the NYPD seriously consider less stringent measures for public marijuana smokers, especially for use outside of highly public locations in recessed locations hidden from open view (like the stairwell of a housing project. Alternatives could include Desk Appearance Tickets, fines, or simply requiring smokers to desist, discard their product, and move along.
Reports a continuing longitudinal study begun in 1967 of attitudinal and behavioral change among recruits in the Philadelphia Police Department. Behavioral components are secrecy and mandatory mutual assistance. Comparisons are made with attitudes of detectives and experienced Patrolmen. (DB)
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...
Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth; Moxham-Hall, Vivienne; Ritter, Alison; Weatherburn, Don; MacCoun, Robert
Australian and international street-level drug law enforcement deploy many strategies in efforts to prevent or deter illicit drug offending. Limited evidence of deterrence exists. This study assessed the likely impacts of four Australian policing strategies on the incidence and nature of drug use and supply at a common policing target: outdoor music festivals. A purpose-built national online survey (the Drug Policing Survey) was constructed using five hypothetical experimental vignettes that took into account four policing strategies (High Visibility Policing, Riot Policing, Collaborative Policing, and policing with Drug Detection Dogs) and a counter-factual (no police presence). The survey was administered in late 2015 to 2115 people who regularly attend festivals. Participants were block-randomised to receive two vignettes and asked under each whether they would use, possess, purchase, give or sell illicit drugs. Compared to 'no police presence', any police presence led to a 4.6% point reduction in engagement in overall illicit drug offending: reducing in particular willingness to possess or carry drugs into a festival. However, it had minimal or counterproductive impacts on purchasing and supply. For example, given police presence, purchasing of drugs increased significantly within festival grounds. Offending impacts varied between the four policing strategies: Drug Detection Dogs most reduced drug possession but High Visibility Policing most reduced overall drug offending including supply. Multivariate logistic regression showed police presence was not the most significant predictor of offending decisions at festivals. The findings suggest that street-level policing may deter some forms of drug offending at music festivals, but that most impacts will be small. Moreover, it may encourage some perverse impacts such as drug consumers opting to buy drugs within festival grounds rather than carry in their own. We use our findings to highlight trade-offs between the
Full Text Available Royal Commissions and Inquiries have investigated every police force in Australia in relation to their integrity, accountability and effectiveness—a factor of major importance to every citizen in maintaining their freedom, safety and security. The crucial question this paper poses is whether such tribunals are effective or otherwise in terms of the benefits and outcomes accrued from their findings. The paper is in the form of a critical discussion which investigates and analyses the Inquiries using the method of desk research of official documents over the last 50 years from which it identifies common findings and recommendations contained in the official discourse. The research concludes that lessons have not been learned in relation to policing operations, accountability and integrity in a number of cases and highlights a variety of adverse issues that persist into current policing practice.
The limited ability of police to assist victims of domestic violence is often viewed as an institutional failure; a consequence of a lack of resources or inadequate training. This article presents key findings from a qualitative study of perceptions of and attitudes towards domestic violence in the South African township of ...
B.R. van Gelderen (Benjamin R.)
textabstractDuring my work as a police officer, I encountered many emotional demanding situations in which my colleagues and I often seemed to act unfelt emotions or suppressed emotions that would better not be displayed at that particular moment. For instance, during my first weeks of duty I
Full Text Available Abstract Background and rationale The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has from its start been concentrated among injecting drug users. Vietnam instituted the 2006 HIV/AIDS Law which includes comprehensive harm reduction measures, but these are unevenly accepted and inadequately implemented. Ward police are a major determinant of risk for IDUs, required to participate in drug control practices (especially meeting quotas for detention centres which impede support for harm reduction. We studied influences on ward level police regarding harm reduction in Hanoi to learn how to better target education and structural change. Methods After document review, we interviewed informants from government, NGOs, INGOs, multilateral agencies, and police, using semi-structured guides. Topics covered included perceptions of harm reduction and the police role in drug law enforcement, and harm reduction training and advocacy among police. Results Police perceive conflicting responsibilities, but overwhelmingly see their responsibility as enforcing drug laws, identifying and knowing drug users, and selecting those for compulsory detention. Harm reduction training was very patchy, ward police not being seen as important to it; and understanding of harm reduction was limited, tending to reflect drug control priorities. Justification for methadone was as much crime prevention as HIV prevention. Competing pressures on ward police create much anxiety, with performance measures based around drug control; recourse to detention resolves competing pressures more safely. There is much recognition of the importance of discretion, and much use of it to maintain good social order. Policy dissemination approaches within the law enforcement sector were inconsistent, with little communication about harm reduction programs or approaches, and an unfounded assumption that training at senior levels would naturally reach to the street. Discussion Ward police have not been systematically included
Full Text Available This study analyzes different attitudes toward introduction of smart policing technologies in cybercrime policing among the Korean public and police. Policing is essential for a sustainable community. Technological advances in policing have both positive and negative aspects, making it essential to investigate perceptions of both public and police when introducing smart policing technologies. A discrete choice experiment was undertaken to survey preferences of the public and police toward introduction of such technologies and conduct simulation analysis to compare changes in the acceptance of various scenarios. The study divides cybercrime policing into prevention and investigation. The sample included 500 members of the public and 161 police officers. The results show that the public thinks an increase in yearly taxes and invasion of privacy are the most important factors. Conversely, the police think factors enhancing the efficiency of policing are most important. Moreover, when smart policing technologies are introduced, the public and police perceive more utility in the prevention and investigation of cybercrime, respectively. Few studies in this field separate the prevention and investigation of crimes, or compare perceptions of the public and police toward the introduction of smart policing technologies. This study’s quantitative analysis provides insights lacking in previous literature.
Training and education constitutes the backbone of a significant amount of police activity and expenditure in developing the most important resources involved in policing work. It also involves an array of actors and agencies, such as educational institutions which have a long and important relationship with police organisations. This book examines the role of education and training in the development of police in the contemporary world. Bringing together specialist scholars and practitio...
Dembo, Richard; Schmeidler, James; Wareham, Jennifer; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocio
The issue of delinquency among truant youths is insufficiently documented in the literature. There is a need to elucidate this issue, and assess the efficacy of interventions to reduce this problem behavior. The present National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded study addressed this gap by examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI),…
Sandoval, Ruben; Martinez, Douglas R.
Recently, incidents of police abuse against Hispanics have increased so rapidly that the phenomenon has been called an epidemic. Of special concern to Hispanic leaders is the lack of Federal intervention in these police brutality cases. A list of 56 documented cases involving police brutality against Hispanics is included. (Author/NQ)
This duty is distilled into standard policing to enforce law and order in the wake of a secured/safe environment. The standard of ... The paper recommended some important strategies for effective policing which includes re-orientation of the police, proper training, provision of firearms, motivation and public responsibility.
Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.
In New Zealand, selected sworn police officers called youth aid officers participate in discussions and deliberations concerning the actions required to restore the sense of community balance upset by the actions of juvenile offenders. The author explores a representative sample of all sworn police officers serving in the New Zealand Police,…
Aydinli and Hasan Yon, “ Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism ,” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011...Hasan Yon. “ Transgovernmentalism Meets Security: Police Liaison Officers, Terrorism, and Statist Transnationalism .” Governance 24, no. 1 (2011): 55... Transgovernmentalism , Intergovernmentalism, Regionalism, Effectiveness, International Police Cooperation Organizations 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY
Although speed plays a large part in the occurrence of crashes, drivers often exceed the speed limit. The police use various methods when carrying out their speed surveillance. In the Netherlands positive effects have been found of speed surveillance with radar cars (without stopping). It is to be
Full Text Available In a democracy, it is generally understood that the police serve at the will of the people and are accountable through police governance. This usually consists of elected and/or appointed officials whose primary legal authority is to set policy and appoint the police leaders whom they hold accountable for ensuring that effective policing operations are carried out. It is widely held in common law jurisdictions that the governing body is limited in their role and cannot get involved in “operational policing issues.” In June 2010, the G20 world leaders’ conference was held in Toronto, Canada. The events surrounding the police actions during this conference caused a great deal of concern and led the Toronto Police Services Board, who are the governing authority for the Toronto Police Service, to commission a review to look at their own role. The findings in relation to “board” involvement in the operational side of policing challenged a long held belief regarding the limited role of governance in police operations. These findings will be examined in relation to the lack of board expertise and the challenges faced by police leaders to adapt and develop their attitudes, skills and abilities to respond to any expansion of governance authority.
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.
Allison Louise Skinner
Full Text Available Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community. In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.
Skinner, Allison L; Haas, Ingrid J
Racial disparities in policing and recent high-profile incidents resulting in the deaths of Black men have ignited a national debate on policing policies. Given evidence that both police officers and Black men may be associated with threat, we examined the impact of perceived threat on support for reformed policing policies. Across three studies we found correlational evidence that perceiving police officers as threatening predicts increased support for reformed policing practices (e.g., limiting the use of lethal force and matching police force demographics to those of the community). In contrast, perceiving Black men as threatening predicted reduced support for policing policy reform. Perceived threat also predicted willingness to sign a petition calling for police reform. Experimental evidence indicated that priming participants to associate Black men with threat could also reduce support for policing policy reform, and this effect was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice. Priming participants to associate police officers with threat did not increase support for policing policy reform. Results indicate that resistance to policing policy reform is associated with perceiving Black men as threatening. Moreover, findings suggest that publicizing racially charged police encounters, which may conjure associations between Black men and threat, could reduce support for policing policy reform.
The core baseline of Intelligence-led Policing is the aim of increasing efficiency and quality of police work, with a focus on crime analysis and intelligence methods as tools for informed and objective decisions both when conducting targeted, specialized operations and when setting strategic...... priorities. This book critically addresses the proliferation of intelligence logics within policing from a wide array of scholarly perspectives. It considers questions such as: •How are precautionary logics becoming increasingly central in the dominant policing strategies? •What kind of challenges...... and the blurred and confrontational lines that can be observed between prevention, intelligence and investigation in police work....
Girard, V; Bonin, J P; Tinland, A; Farnarier, C; Pelletier, J F; Delphin, M; Rowe, M; Simeoni, M C
) described police as sometimes using less coercion than the outreach team, and noted that they were more fearful of psychiatrists than police. Formal initiatives between mental health outreach teams and police departments involve some common street practices. This study demonstrates the potential for closer working relationships between the two parties to help persons who are homeless with mental illnesses receive needed care, and to reduce inappropriate coercion including involuntary hospitalization and arrests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Broll, Ryan; Huey, Laura
Increasing public awareness of cyberbullying, coupled with several highly publicized youth suicides linked to electronic bullying, have led lawmakers and politicians to consider new criminal legislation specifically related to cyberbullying. However, little is known about how the police currently respond to cyberbullying, and it is not clear…
Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress and associated physical and mental health related issues are not addressed in Indian police personnel with adequate importance. Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted among police personnel (both male and female in Calicut urban police district, Kerala state, India. Police personnel from all designations (ranks, except from the all India services (Indian Police Service were included in the study. Data were collected using a specifically designed datasheet covering socio-demographic profile, physical and mental health related details which was prepared by researchers. Occupational stress was measured using Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-OP and Organisational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-ORG. Result: The study found that both operational and organisational stress was significant among the police officers. Organisational stress was experienced in moderate level by 68% and in high level by 14%. Operational stress scores were in the moderate range in 67% and in high range in 16.5%. The younger age group (21-35 years and lower level rank police personnel had higher stress. Stress was higher among female police personnel compared to males. While 23% of them had been diagnosed with physical illnesses, a significant four per cent of them with mental illness, and 29% of them reported substance abuse. Conclusion: The results point to the high level of stress among Indian police personnel and the need for urgent interventions from the government to address the occupational stress.
Gahide, Sophie; Lepresle, Aude; Boraud, Cyril; Mahindhoratep, Tiao S; Chariot, Patrick
The deprivation of liberty in police custody can be associated with violent situations and traumatic injuries. The rare available data did not mention whether alleged assaults occurred at the time of the arrest or during custody. Our objectives were to describe the frequency of recent traumatic injuries observed in detainees at the time of medical examination and to record detainees' self-reports of received physical violence, either before being arrested, at the time of the arrest, or during custody. In 2694 consecutive detainees examined in a suburban area near Paris, we compared persons' characteristics in four groups, according to the existence of alleged assaults or the presence of recent traumatic injuries, or both. Detainees reported to be victims of physical assaults in 25% of cases (686 of 2694): 374 assaults of 686 (55%) occurred at the time of arrest and 87 of 686 (13%) during custody. The opinion of assaulted detainees on custody was worse than non-assaulted detainees. Detainees alleging assaults by the police, whatever the time of the assault, accounted for 396 cases (15%). Three quarters of detainees (547 of 686, 79%) alleging assaults had recent traumatic injuries. When we considered all detainees, medical examination showed recent traumatic injuries in 724 of 2694 (27%). Injured detainees were declared unfit for detention more frequently than non-injured non-assaulted detainees (Pcustody. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.
In this paper, we compare and contrast a Bayesian spatially varying coefficient process (SVCP) model with a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model for the estimation of the potentially spatially varying regression effects of alcohol outlets and illegal drug activity on violent crime in Houston, Texas. In addition, we focus on the inherent coefficient shrinkage properties of the Bayesian SVCP model as a way to address increased coefficient variance that follows from collinearity in GWR models. We outline the advantages of the Bayesian model in terms of reducing inflated coefficient variance, enhanced model flexibility, and more formal measuring of model uncertainty for prediction. We find spatially varying effects for alcohol outlets and drug violations, but the amount of variation depends on the type of model used. For the Bayesian model, this variation is controllable through the amount of prior influence placed on the variance of the coefficients. For example, the spatial pattern of coefficients is similar for the GWR and Bayesian models when a relatively large prior variance is used in the Bayesian model.
Rhodes, Tim; Simic, Milena; Baros, Sladjana; Platt, Lucy; Zikic, Bojan
To explore female and transvestite sex workers' perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia. Qualitative interview study. Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia. 31 female and transvestite sex workers. Violence, including police violence, was reported as a primary concern in relation to risk. Violence was linked to unprotected sex and the reduced capacity for avoiding sexual risk. Participants reported that coerced sex was routinely provided to the police in exchange for freedom from detainment, arrest, or fine, and was enforced by the perceived threat of violence, sometimes realised. Accounts contained multiple instances of physical and sexual assault, presented as abuses of police authority, and described policing as a form of moral punishment. This was largely through non-physical means but was also enforced through physical violence, especially towards transvestite and Roma sex workers, whose experience of police violence was reported as relentless and brutal and connected with broader social forces of discrimination in this setting, especially towards Roma. Preventing violence towards sex workers, which can link with vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections, is a priority in Serbia. This requires monitoring perpetrators of violence, providing legal support to sex workers, and creating safer environments for sex work.
A random sample of 28 out of 86 brothels along the G. B. Road in India revealed that almost 60% of the prostitutes were children. The law does not punish prostitutes who are older than 18 and do not solicit business publicly, but it does punish running a brothel, living on the earnings of prostitutes, procuring or inducing people to become prostitutes, and soliciting in public places. The law, which is mostly used to harass prostitutes, invokes penalties of imprisonment for procuring or trafficking and for forcible detention for the purpose of prostitution while creating a special police force to stop trafficking, special courts to deal with cases, and protective homes for "rescued" girls. The law fails to punish clients or make provisions for the rehabilitation of rescued women. Offenses rarely end in convictions. In fact, police officers extort money from traffickers, prostitutes, and madams and abet the system of prostitution through a scheme of false registration of the girls that creates the fiction that they are not minors and creates a debt paid by the madams that places the girls in virtual bondage. There is a set rate for police bribes, depending upon the size of the brothel. Police also are clients themselves and/or extort money from clients. When arrests are made (to make police records look good), police deliberately target adult prostitutes instead of the minors because it is harder to get the minors released back into prostitution. The police are reluctant to release records about prostitution and are complicit when madams present false affirmations that they are relatives of minor girls to get them released from juvenile remand homes. The girls are recruited from impoverished families in the countryside who are paid for giving their daughters in false marriages.
Medical examination is a right for every person detained in police custody in France. Examination of detainees usually takes place in the police station so that the doctor can assess the conditions in which the detainee is being held. In some cases, such as type I diabetes care, detainees need to be examined and treated in a hospital. Doctors are subject to a duty of care and prevention. Description of recent traumatic injuries is part of the doctor's mission. They should prescribe any ongoing treatment which needs to be continued, as well as any emergency treatment required. Custody officers may monitor the detainee and administer medication. Doctor's opinion should be given in a national standard document. If the doctor considers that the custody conditions are disgraceful, they may refuse to express an opinion as to whether the detainee is fit for custody.
Cecilia Hansen Löfstrand
Full Text Available This article draws upon two separate studies on policing in Sweden, both investigating “ethnic diversity” as a discourse and a practice in the performance of policing functions: one interview study with minority police officers from a county police authority and one ethnographic study of private security officers. To examine how “diversity policing” and the “policing of diversity” are performed by policing actors, their strategic reliance on an ethnically diverse workforce is examined. The official discourse in both contexts stressed “diversity policing” as a valuable resource for the effective execution of policing tasks and the legitimation of policing functions. There was, however, also another, more unofficial discourse on ethnicity that heavily influenced the policing agents’ day-to-day work. The resulting practice of “policing diversity” involved situated activities on the ground through which “foreign elements” in the population were policed using ethnicized stereotypes. Diversity in the policing workforce promoted the practice of ethnic matching, which, ironically, in turn perpetuated stereotypical thinking about Swedish “others”. A conceptual framework is developed for understanding the policing strategies involved and the disjuncture found between the widely accepted rationalities for recruiting an ethnically diverse workforce and the realities for that workforce’s effective deployment at the street level.
Olsen, Douglas P; Brous, Edie
Editor's note: On July 26, 2017, Alex Wubbels, the charge nurse on the burn unit at the University of Utah Hospital in Salt Lake City, was arrested for refusing to allow a police officer to draw blood from an unconscious patient in her care. Her arrest, during which she was forcefully placed in handcuffs and dragged out of the hospital, was documented on body camera video and drew national attention. We asked our ethical and legal contributing editors to provide some insight on the issues of this case.
analysis, the establishment of criminal databases , and the use of polygraph tests. He believed in training all police officers in criminal...level of mutual confidence. There was a lack of formal crime prevention studies in the country. There was a lack of a criminal database arranging...Iraq, 1953, 23. 56 John F. Devlin. "Baath Party: Rise and Metamorphosis." JSTOR . December 1991. http://www.jstor.org/stabel/2165277 (accessed January
Thakur Mohan Shrestha
Full Text Available Peace, security, rule of law, and sustainable development are driving principles in a democratic notion of developing country like Nepal. "3Is': Injustice, Insecurity and Imbalance have been reflecting in the post transitional Nepal. The study came with the objectives of investigating the peoples' perceptions on the adaptation of policing, the challenges and expectation. The information was collected from 1111(N respondents all over the country from different ways of life, applying mixed method questionnaire survey and interview. The research show the need of system based policing like 'intelligence-led'; 'police public partnership', and 'proactive' respectively. The influence of politicization, political instability, external influence, lack of role model leadership, open border, rampant corruption, nepotism-favoritism, lack of research are the major challenges in the security organizations. Furthermore, most educated and high profile personalities have less interest to encourage their generation in police services. People are expecting proficient and accountable police forces. Keywords: Policing, Challenges, People's Expectation
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Report. 635.17 Section 635.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.17 Military Police Report. (a... received or observed by military police. (2) Serve as a record of all military police and military police...
Rosenbloom, Tova; Pereg, Avihu; Perlman, Amotz
The policy of a public organization, such as police, may shape the norms and the behavior of the citizens. In line with this, police officers are expected by the public to comply with traffic laws and serve as an example for the citizenry. This study used on-site observations of civilian and police driver, comparing police officers' compliance with traffic laws to that of civilians. We compared driver compliance with traffic laws for drivers in 3 groups of vehicles: traffic police cars, non-traffic police cars, and civilian cars. Four hundred sixty-six vehicles were observed and compared by vehicle type and whether a uniform was worn by the driver. We observed safety belt usage, signaling before turning, cellular phone usage, and giving way to traffic (measured by merging time). We found evidence that generally drivers in police cars use seat belts while driving more that drivers in civilian cars do. In particular, more traffic police car drivers used seat belts than non-traffic police car drivers do. In addition, drivers in civilian cars and non-traffic police cars waited longer periods of time before merging right into traffic compared to traffic police car drivers. Our findings supported the notion that on-duty police officers, and traffic police officers in particular, adhere more closely to traffic laws compared to civilian drivers. As the general public compliance with traffic laws is affected by the police perceived legitimacy, the publication of these results can both boost public cooperation with the police and encourage police officers to continue providing positive role models to the public.
and notes: The lack of embeddedness of prodemocracy elites is reflected in the idealized view of democracy they embrace. They portray democracy as...Additionally, for individual police officers, policing is their livelihood in a competitive job market with extremely high unemployment. Thus, the police
Fink, J M; Wagner, J P; Congleton, J J; Rock, J C
This study evaluated police officers' exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units. Exposure measurements were taken at approximated ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in patrol vehicles. Comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers' published maximum power density specifications and actual measured power densities taken at the antenna faces of those units. Four speed-enforcement agencies and one transportation research institute provided 54 radar units for evaluation; 17 different models, encompassing 4 frequency bands and 3 antenna configurations, were included. Four of the 986 measurements taken exceeded the 5 mW/cm2 limit accepted by the International Radiation Protection Association and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, though none exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, American National Standards Institute, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, or Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 10 mW/cm2. The four high measurements were maximum power density readings taken directly in front of the radar. Of the 812 measurements taken at the officers' seated ocular and testicular positions, none exceeded 0.04 mW/cm2; the highest of these (0.034 mW/cm2) was less than 1% of the most conservative current safety standards. High exposures in the limited region directly in front of the radar aperture are easily avoided with proper training. Results of this study indicate that police officer exposure to microwave radiation is apparently minimal. However, because of uncertainty in the medical and scientific communities concerning nonionizing radiation, it is recommended that law enforcement agencies implement a policy of prudent avoidance, including purchasing units with the lowest published maximum power densities, purchasing dash/rear deck-mounted units with antennae mounted outside the patrol vehicle, and training police officers to use the "stand-by" mode
.... Local police agencies have previously not had a formal role in radiological security. This thesis explores policy initiatives, based on community policing principles conducted at the local police level, which will enhance security at locations where radiological materials are kept.
Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.
Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the police’ to control the guilds and fix the prices on bread, meat, beer and other life necessities in order to avoid scarcity among the urban poor. In 1682–83 the Danish king established a police force in Copenhagen and the other market towns. The goal of the metropolitan police was to increase the population of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food policing was more a question of feeding the poor with the town’s own products.
Hendriks, Frank; van Hulst, Merlijn
The police is one of the most prominent organizations in the frontline of public administration. In order to deal with high external expectations, the organization has been said to develop and nurture multiple police cultures. Applying Grid Group Cultural Theory, or GGCT, we address the following
Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.
The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…
Over the past two decades the theories and strategies associated with institutional reform of the police as public agency have been a source of invigoration for ... Criminology, Faculty of Law at the University of Cape. Town. Elrena van der Spuy*. Elrena.firstname.lastname@example.org. Title: Police reform from the bottom up: officers ...
Lee, Daniel E.
Regrettably, cheating is widespread on all levels of our educational system. Effective monitoring and judicial review processes that ensure that students who cheat are subjected to appropriate disciplinary action are essential. However, policing is not enough. We must go beyond policing to change the culture of the classroom in ways that…
Describes a successful community-oriented policing program at the University of South Alabama which has cut crime rates while not requiring extra funding. Discusses the reorganization of the police department, efforts targeting children, university services started by the deputy chief, and other new crime prevention and training initiatives. (EV)
Aug 7, 2017 ... to be abused due to the influence of social evils such as corruption, favouritism, dishonesty, fraud, tribalism, ethnicity and even villagism. These social problems are not peculiar to the Nigeria Police alone. They are ..... At this stage, the suspect sometimes through his lawyer has to negotiate with the Police ...
The study was conducted to examine the stress associated with policing in Nigeria, the strategies for coping ... Police officers who experienced stress took to alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and religiousity to cope with ..... It does appear that the habit of drinking alcohol to overcome stress is a global phenomenon that ...
This article describes three studies on several aspects of police custody in The Netherlands. The first study shows that the quality of accommodation, facilities, interaction and differential treatment are substandard in Dutch police stations, but dependent of the organisational size, degree of
According to Arase and Iwuofor (2007) training is an invaluable tool for the effective policing of any society. An untrained or ill-trained police officer lacks the requisite knowledge, skill and attitude for effective crime control and is also a threat to the society. Regular training programmes should be organized to enhance ...
Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Westerveld, Gre J.; Hutter, Renée C.; Olff, Miranda; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.
This study i) describes the number of police personnel with PTSD who are working and those who are on sick leave before and after an out-patient-clinic treatment program and ii) examines which factors are related to return to work. Police personnel treated for PTSD (n=121). In this retrospective
Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the stress associated with policing in Nigeria, the strategies for coping with stress and the outcomes. A total number of 300 police officers randomly selected participated in the survey. The participants responded to. Work Stress Inventory (WSI). They also responded to self- ...
José Garriga Zucal
Full Text Available Este artigo reflete sobre o conjunto de práticas policiais comumente referido como “faro policial.” Esse sistema, que distingue os cidadãos de criminosos por seus gestos, tons de voz, formas do corpo, roupas, etc, é generalizado entre os membros da polícia e interpretados por eles como muito eficaz no reconhecimento e captura de criminosos. Propomo-nos a revelar a formação desses valores e práticas do ponto de vista da polícia. Do seu ponto de vista, o “faro” é um atributo positivo adquirido por meio da experiência de trabalho. Propomos a estudar a ligação entre o “faro” com certos sujeitos sociais estigmatizados e a relação com as formas de discriminação que se interpenetram em todo o tecido da sociedade. The article Uses and Representation of the ‘Police Nose’ among Officers of The Buenos Aires Police Force reflects on the set of police practices commonly referred to as “police sense of smell”. This system, which distinguishes citizens from criminals by their gestures, tones of voice, body language, clothes, etc. is widespread among police officers and seen by them as highly effective in the recognition and arrest of criminals. We propose to reveal the formation of these values and practices from the police’s point of view. In their eyes, the “police nose” is a positive skill acquired through work experience. We propose to study the connection between the “nose” and certain stigmatized social subjects and relations with forms of discrimination that penetrate the whole make-up of society. Key words: police, violence, stigma, police nose, agency
Full Text Available In this article we analyse professional police and community policing in view of professionalism, strategy and structures. We aim to find ways for synthesizing these models that are usually seen as incompatible. Unlike many earlier studies of police organizations or strategies, we view strategies in the organization at the corporate, functional and operational levels, and argue that by combining them with functional and divisional principles of structuring, it is possible to place professional strategy at the core of policing, while using the community policing strategy mainly as a component part of the strategy in the framework of divisional organization. This way it is possible to avoid the risk of alienating police from the community and to ensure the successful implementation of corporate strategy through providing professional police units that perform the narrow functions, with quick and adequate information from the community.
This article explores the efforts of early modern authorities to provide food security in three different Danish towns in order to understand the goals and methods of early modern food policing. As in other European countries, urban authorities were expected as part of the regulation called ‘the...... of the capital and thus increase the military-fiscal power of the absolutist state, by providing food security and even a comfortable life. In practice, the vigilant policing of bakers, butchers and brewers proved difficult. The positive economic effect of food policing was doubted early on and was reduced...... as a means to avoid food riots at the end the 18th century. In a major provincial market town like Aalborg, the food trade was policed in a similar manner by the town council and the police, but especially the intermediate trade proved difficult to stop. In a tiny, agrarian market town like Sæby, food...
Conclusions: All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within 10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care (with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care the rate of survival is higher.
Argues that legalization is not the solution to drug-related problems. Proposes increased emphasis on the small retailers of drugs, and mandatory urinalysis for heroin, cocaine, and PCP for those arrested for typical drug-related crimes. (FMW)
Cardiorespiratory arrest outside hospital occurs in approximately 1/10,000 children a year in resource-rich countries, with two-thirds of arrests occurring in children under 18 months of age. Approximately 45% of cases have undetermined causes, including sudden infant death syndrome. Of the rest, 20% are caused by trauma, 10% by chronic disease, and 6% by pneumonia. We conducted a systematic review aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for non-submersion out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest in children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: airway management and ventilation (bag-mask ventilation and intubation), bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, direct-current cardiac shock, hypothermia, intravenous sodium bicarbonate, standard dose of intravenous adrenaline (epinephrine), and training parents to perform resuscitation.
Rakesh Kumar Soni
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to measure the daily routine preference, daytime sleepiness, and psychological distress experiences, because of split shift system job in a sample in traffic police personnel of Raipur city, India. To measure such parameters we used the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (OPSQ, General Health Questionnaire and the Distress. To evaluate differences between age, body mass index, period of service length and drug / alcohol use for all the subjects (traffic police personnel the t-test and chi-square test were used. Total Hundred male traffic police personnel participated and out of which most of them were found to belong in the evening active category. This study also indicates increased prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and (EDS high level of psychological distress as measured by the GHQ-12 among few police workers. Moreover, a number of participants reported significant distress levels, when measured with distress thermometer. In nutshell, the study sample suggests adaptive coping strategies of traffic police personnel working in split shift system profession can be attributed to their evening (E-type circadian preferences.
Full Text Available The Africans detained in Austria have been targeted by police by their skin color, often are arrested with violence, are poorly defended by assigned defense lawyers, given longer sentences than Austrian citizens and have less access to alternatives or bail.A modified form of the United Nations Crime Victim questionnaire was administered to all the African prisoners at the Vienna’s Central Detention Facility. It revealed that the Africans were not only victims of violence (sometimes even torture and crimes (assault-58%, burglary-32%, fraud-27%, bribery-33% in their home countries, but also 24 percent had experienced assault, 16% theft, and 13% had been defrauded in Austria-much higher rates than the EU citizen. On the other hand, the Africans are rarely charged with burglary, robbery, or violent crimes. They are primarily arrested for the possession or sale of narcotic drugs (83% and an additional four percent for resisting arrest. This is primarily the result of insufficient financial support provided to asylum seekers and the prohibition to work pending their determination of immigrant status. Because of the long appeal processes and the practical impossibility of deporting certain nationalities, a type of underground community is taking root where simple survival is the determining factor whether to commit a non-violent offence. Les Africains détenus en Autriche sont visés par la police à cause de la couleur de leur peau; ils sont souvent arrêtés avec violence, sont mal défendus par leurs avocats de défense, doivent passer de plus longues périodes en prison que des citoyens autrichiens ayant commis un crime pareil, et ils ont moins d'accès aux mesures extrajudiciaires et au système de liberté sous caution. Une forme modifiée du questionnaire de victimes de crime des Nations Unies fut administrée à tous les prisonniers africains au Service Central de la Détention de Vienne. Les résultats indiquèrent que les Africains furent
Zanetta Junior, Luiz Cera; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo de Morais [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas]. E-mail: email@example.com
This paper presents the main calculations of the line arresters impact on outage rates, by focusing their effects on critical current curves, in presence of the power frequency voltage. The present critical results obtained will help in the understanding of some variables during the outrage calculations. Energy stresses on arresters due to first stroke are also evaluated in function of tower foot resistance. The transmission line studied, has a shielded 138 kV line configuration, single circuit typical of Brazilian SE region. The alternative with Zn O arresters consider their installation at every tower, in the two lower phases b and c. (author)
Hengst-Bruggeling, M. den; Graaf, H.A.L.M. de; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van
lntelligence-led policing is a concept of policing that has been applied throughout the world. Despite some encouraging reports, the effect of intelligence-led policing is largely unknown. This paper presents a method with which it is possible to identify intelligence-led policing's potential to
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police and the USACIDC. 637.4 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.4 Military Police and the USACIDC. (a) The military police or the USACIDC are authorized to investigate allegations of...
Fite, Paula J; Wynn, Porche'; Pardini, Dustin A
The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to disproportionate minority arrest. The study included 481 Black and White boys who were followed from childhood to early adulthood. A higher incidence of early risk factors accounted for racial differences related to any juvenile arrest, as well as differences in violence- and theft-related arrests. However, increased exposure to early risk factors did not explain race differences in drug-related arrests. Minimal support was found for the hypothesis that a differential sensitivity to risk factors accounts for disproportionate rate of minority male arrests. In sum, most racial discrepancies in juvenile male arrests were accounted for by an increased exposure to childhood risk factors. Specifically, Black boys were more likely to display early conduct problems and low academic achievement and experience poor parent-child communication, peer delinquency, and neighborhood problems, which increased their risk for juvenile arrest. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Chariot, Patrick; Beaufrère, Aurélie; Denis, Céline; Dang, Catherine; Vincent, Renaud; Boraud, Cyril
The annual number of detainees held in police custody in France is approximately 700,000. Medical data regarding arrestees are scarce across countries. We present the medical characteristics of detainees kept in police custody, including addictive behaviours and high-risk medical situations. We conducted a prospective study over 1 year in a suburban area near Paris. A total of 19,098 medical examinations were performed on 13,317 individuals. The examinations mainly concerned male subjects (18,116 of 19,098, 95 %). Median age was 24 years (range 13-83). Medical examination was requested by the detainee in 6,638 of 16,801 cases (40 %). Assaults were reported in 4,052 of 17,312 cases (23 %) and occurred at the time of arrest in most cases (2,243, 13 %). A total of 2,394 of 13,317 detainees (18 %) had at least one chronic somatic disorder including asthma (603, 5 %), diabetes (263, 2 %) and arterial hypertension (205, 2 %). A history of psychiatric disorder was reported by 6 % of individuals (674 of 11,787). Regular alcohol drinking was reported by 58 % of detainees. Illicit drug use mainly involved cannabis (4,021 cases, 30 %). In 14,661 of 19,098 cases (77 %), detainees were considered to be unconditionally fit for detention in custody, and 274 detainees (1 %) were declared unfit to be detained. The present study showed a high frequency of alcohol or substance use and reported assaults or traumatic lesions in arrestees. Attending physicians should pay particular attention to addictive behaviours and traumatic injuries in arrestees, both for immediate care and for prevention.
Full Text Available Bei dieser überarbeiteten soziologischen Dissertation der Universität Bielefeld handelt es sich um eine klar gegliederte, theoretisch fundierte Untersuchung der (Bayerischen Polizei, ihrer Leitbilder, Arbeitspraktiken, Auseinandersetzungen und deren Veränderungen durch die sprunghaft angestiegenen Zahlen von Frauen. Sie reiht sich in mittlerweile vielfältige deutsch- und englischsprachige Publikationen ein. In der Auseinandersetzung mit geschichtswissenschaftlichen Darstellungen zum Thema (Kapitel 2.2.1 werden leider viele offensichtliche Fehler und unhaltbare Klischees verbreitet. Auch die jeweils „Relevanzen“ genannten Kapitelzusammenfassungen sind nicht, was dieser Begriff vermuten lässt. Eine leichte Straffung, die Streichung modischer Begriffe (wie „Diskursstränge“, „faktische Ent-Vergeschlechtlichung“, „Variabilität von Egalität und Differenz“ und „Thematisierung, De-Thematisierung und Re-Thematisierung“ sowie unsinniger Ausführungen (wie S. 73 Ende des Absatzes 3.1 hätten der Veröffentlichung gut getan.This volume, a revised sociological dissertation for the University of Bielefeld, is a clearly constructed and theoretically sound examination of the (Bavarian police, their inspirations, work practices, conflicts, and changes due to the sudden rise of women in the force. It finds its rightful place among the now numerous publications on the subject in both German and English. Unfortunately, however, the historical presentation of the theme (chapter 2.2.1 displays many errors and perpetuates clichés. In addition, the chapter summaries—entitled “relevancies"—are not that which they profess to be. The publication would have been well served by slight reductions and by deleting popular terms (for example “discourse strands,” “factual de-gendering”, “variability of equality and difference”, and “thematizing, de-thematizing, and re-thematizing” as well as useless explanations (such as at the
There has been a growing interest among academicians, researchers and policy-makers in promoting community policing as a modern way to deal with crimes and community problems. Community policing is a philosophy of policing based on the concept that police officers and citizens working together in creative ways to control crimes. The purpose of this research is to get the perspectives of kids/teens regarding crime and police since this segment of society is most vulnerable to crimes. This will...
Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Aguilar-Ponce, José Luis; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; Meneses, Abelardo; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael
Since Warburg proposed in 1956 that cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis due to mitochondrial damage, numerous researchers have assumed that glycolysis is the predominant ATP supplier for cancer cell energy-dependent processes. However, chemotherapeutic strategies using glycolytic inhibitors have been unsuccessful in arresting tumor proliferation indicating that the Warburg hypothesis may not be applicable to all existing neoplasias. This review analyzes recent information on mitochondrial metabolism in several malignant neoplasias emphasizing that, although tumor cells maintain a high glycolytic rate, the principal ATP production may derive from active oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, anti-mitochondrial drug therapy may be an adequate adjuvant strategy to arrest proliferation of oxidative phosphorylation-dependent neoplasias.
Perez Martin, J.M.; Fernandez Freire, P.; Labrador, V.; Hazen, M.J.
We reported recently that the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine, at supratherapeutic concentrations, exerts antiproliferative effects in mammalian Vero cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. This motivates us to examine rigorously whether growth arrest was associated with structural changes in cellular organization during mitosis. In the present work, we found that exposure of the cells to carbamazepine led to an increase in mitotic index, mainly due to the sustained block at the metaphase/anaphase boundary, with the consequent inhibition of cell proliferation. Indirect immunofluorescence, using antibodies directed against spindle apparatus proteins, revealed that mitotic arrest was associated with formation of monopolar spindles, caused by impairment of centrosome separation. The final consequence of the spindle defects induced by carbamazepine, depended on the duration of cell cycle arrest. Following the time course of accumulation of metaphase and apoptotic cells during carbamazepine treatments, we observed a causative relationship between mitotic arrest and induction of cell death. Conversely, cells released from the block of metaphase by removal of the drug, continued to progress through mitosis and resume normal proliferation. Our results show that carbamazepine shares a common antiproliferative mechanism with spindle-targeted drugs and contribute to a better understanding of the cytostatic activity previously described in Vero cells. Additional studies are in progress to extend these initial findings that define a novel mode of action of carbamazepine in cultured mammalian cells
A current trend that has emerged as a result of the information age is information-seeking behavior. From individuals to large social institutions, information-seeking behavior is utilized to attain a wide variety of goals. This body of work investigates the information-seeking behaviors of police officers who work in police stations in the…
Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.
A. Ogorodova (Anna); T. Spronken (Taru)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ In October 2013, the European Union adopted a Directive, which guarantees, inter alia, the right of access to a lawyer to suspects of criminal offences from the outset of police custody and during police interrogation. However, adoption of the relevant legislation is
Recent years have seen an increasing privatization of the security sector, leading to an intermingling of private and public policing and a possible "value-shift" for the overall security policy. Systematic comparative research between police and private security values is, however, still lacking.
Full Text Available The police are invariably severely reduced or even cease to be active in times of conflict. Policing as an activity, however, persists, with local groups taking up the role of maintaining order and combating crime. Such local policing is very diverse in its practices and in the nature of its links with the state. Using examples of local policing practices in four sub-Saharan conflicts, this article considers different patterns of harnessing local capacity to provide policing services. The patterns range from authorities utilising existing local policing providers or initiating new local responses, to local non-government organisations [NGOs] seeking to fill policing gaps left by the state, or long-established local provision continuing unchanged. Each response, whether one of cooperation, delegation, neglect or abandonment, is evaluated for its effectiveness, and lessons to be learned from their practices are offered. Together the four case studies suggest new pathways to achieving police effectiveness and reform in challenging conflict environments.
Sothiselvam, Shanmugapriya; Liu, Bo; Han, Wei; Ramu, Haripriya; Klepacki, Dorota; Atkinson, Gemma Catherine; Brauer, Age; Remm, Maido; Tenson, Tanel; Schulten, Klaus; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Mankin, Alexander S
Translation arrest directed by nascent peptides and small cofactors controls expression of important bacterial and eukaryotic genes, including antibiotic resistance genes, activated by binding of macrolide drugs to the ribosome. Previous studies suggested that specific interactions between the nascent peptide and the antibiotic in the ribosomal exit tunnel play a central role in triggering ribosome stalling. However, here we show that macrolides arrest translation of the truncated ErmDL regulatory peptide when the nascent chain is only three amino acids and therefore is too short to be juxtaposed with the antibiotic. Biochemical probing and molecular dynamics simulations of erythromycin-bound ribosomes showed that the antibiotic in the tunnel allosterically alters the properties of the catalytic center, thereby predisposing the ribosome for halting translation of specific sequences. Our findings offer a new view on the role of small cofactors in the mechanism of translation arrest and reveal an allosteric link between the tunnel and the catalytic center of the ribosome.
Ringh, Mattias; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Hollenberg, Jacob; Jonsson, Martin; Fredman, David; Nordberg, Per; Järnbert-Pettersson, Hans; Hasselqvist-Ax, Ingela; Riva, Gabriel; Svensson, Leif
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by bystanders is associated with increased survival rates among persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We investigated whether rates of bystander-initiated CPR could be increased with the use of a mobile-phone positioning system that could instantly locate mobile-phone users and dispatch lay volunteers who were trained in CPR to a patient nearby with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We conducted a blinded, randomized, controlled trial in Stockholm from April 2012 through December 2013. A mobile-phone positioning system that was activated when ambulance, fire, and police services were dispatched was used to locate trained volunteers who were within 500 m of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; volunteers were then dispatched to the patients (the intervention group) or not dispatched to them (the control group). The primary outcome was bystander-initiated CPR before the arrival of ambulance, fire, and police services. A total of 5989 lay volunteers who were trained in CPR were recruited initially, and overall 9828 were recruited during the study. The mobile-phone positioning system was activated in 667 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: 46% (306 patients) in the intervention group and 54% (361 patients) in the control group. The rate of bystander-initiated CPR was 62% (188 of 305 patients) in the intervention group and 48% (172 of 360 patients) in the control group (absolute difference for intervention vs. control, 14 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 6 to 21; Pmobile-phone positioning system to dispatch lay volunteers who were trained in CPR was associated with significantly increased rates of bystander-initiated CPR among persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (Funded by the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation and Stockholm County; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01789554.).
Igor Rosa Dias de Jesus
Full Text Available The Pacification Police Unit (UPP is a new model for public security and policing, aimed at ensuring local security and, above all, reduce, or even, extinguish violent crime linked to drug trafficking, and approach people and police. The purpose of this article is measuring the operational efficiency of all UPPs installed in the state of Rio de Janeiro by the beginning of 2011 by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. For this, it was used the CCR model – input-oriented – developed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes, which allows an objective assessment of the overall efficiency, identifying the sources of inefficiencies and the needed targets to achieve the efficiency in each UPP. The results converge to a reduction of the amount of policemen in all communities out of the efficiency frontier.
WADA is now undertaking a two-year review of the WADA Code and we believe it is time for WADA to reconsider the ban on the use of recreational drugs which are not performance-enhancing. We believe that it is no part of the responsibility of WADA to police the personal lifestyles of athletes; inde......, such as marijuana, from its Prohibited List of Substances and to stop testing for such drugs at sporting competitions....
Full Text Available From the very beginning of modern policing there were a number of problems; not the least of these was the difficulty that the police had in identifying those they had arrested. This was important for a number of reasons including the need to prove ages and previous convictions against persons charged before a court. Due to the size of London and its large, mobile population, this was particularly difficult in the Metropolitan Police area. The police had to rely largely on personal knowledge in order to prove identifications and contacts at police stations. Initially officers attended Police/Magistrates courts at remand hearings to try to bring about identifications, this was followed by attendances at Remand Prisons but the system only started to show results when prison warders were included. The other step taken was to visit the Convict Prisons to inspect prisoners prior to their release, again in this they were assisted by warders. Initially uniformed officers were used in these tasks but eventually detective officers took over the role, they were later replaced by officers from the Convict Supervision Office. The problem was eventually resolved at the very end of the Victorian period with the introduction of fingerprinting.
Drogas y novelas policíacas: el género negro como vehículo de articulación de una problemática social / Illegal drugs and the detective novel: the noir genre as vehicle for articulating a social issue
Jorge González del Pozo
Full Text Available RESUMEN: La novela policíaca española reciente utiliza el contexto socio-político alrededor de la investigación que narra preocupándose más por la problemática humana que por la resolución del caso per se. Desde el fin de la dictadura hasta el comienzo del siglo XXI numerosos escritores han retratado el impacto del consumo de drogas ilegales y el narcotráfico en España. Este tipo de narrativa se dispone como un espacio para que implicados, víctimas e instituciones se pronuncien ante esta realidad y permite que se orqueste un discurso socialmente comprometido sobre la situación de estas sustancias. ABSTRACT: Recent Spanish detective novels have used the sociopolitical context surrounding the actual investigation narrated in the text in order to express a stronger concern about the issues in society than about the criminal case per se. Since the end of dictatorship until the beginning of twenty-first century, several authors have portrayed the impact of the consumption of and trafficking in illegal drugs in Spain. This kind of narrative lays a suitable ground for individuals, collectives and institutions involved with these substances to comment on this situation and to convey a socially committed discourse regarding this problem.
Maceachern, Alison D; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Jackson, Sharon
Child protection is an area of police work which has expanded in the last decade, leading to an increase in the number of police officers working in departments which specialise in investigating cases of child abuse. Police officers in this field may be at greater risk of experiencing secondary traumatic stress but there remains a paucity of research in this area of policing. Analogies can be drawn to existing research in policing and with social service workers involved in child protection. The paper finishes off with implications for police forces to ensure safe working environments and appropriate counselling for employees.
. Another concern with the program is that it may lead to tensions between state and local law enforcement and the local community. If the program creates an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust by community members toward state and local law enforcement agents, even law abiding individuals may choose to avoid interaction with law enforcement agents. This can make victims and witnesses hesitant to come forward, for fear that their undocumented status will be uncovered. Such a situation inhibits law enforcement’s ability to do its job and can, ironically, make communities less safe. This study explores the effects of implementation of the 287(g program in Frederick County, Maryland on the arrests of Hispanics. Using data from individual arrest records from the Frederick County Sheriff’s Office , which has a 287(g agreement with ICE, and the Frederick Police Department, which does not, I analyze the changes in arrests between the two agencies before and after the 287(g program was implemented in 2008. I find that overall, the arrests of Hispanics fell, suggesting that the Hispanic community avoided interaction with law enforcement when the program began. However, I also find that the program led to a significantly higher number of arrests of Hispanics by the Sheriff’s Office than would have occurred in its absence, indicating that attention was focused toward the Hispanic community as a result of the program. These results suggest that, if the program is to continue, additional safeguards are needed to prevent abuses and civil rights violations.
Mikhail Vladimirovich Kolesnikov
Full Text Available Objective to determine the position of house arrest in the system of preventive measures and to identify the main problems of criminal procedural regulation that prevent its broader use during the preliminary investigation and trial. Methods dialectical approach to the analysis of social phenomena allowing to view them in static and dynamic aspect evolutionarysynergetic paradigm providing the opportunity to explore the phenomenon under investigation with respect to the system subordinate and coordinating relationships within the system. Dialectical approach and the evolutionarysynergetic paradigm determined the choice of specific methods of research historical comparative law comparative formallegal statistical. Results the problems arising with application of house arrest are grouped by author depending on the structure of the provisions of Article 107 of the CriminalProcedural Code of the Russian Federation. The first group of problems includes the determination of the location of the accused suspect under house arrest and the scope of the legal restrictions imposed. The second group includes the establishment of terms of house arrest and their subsequent renewal or change of the preventive measure. The third group is the identification of persons to which the house arrest will be the best preventive measure. The results of the study allow to make proposals to change the current wording of Art. 107 of the CriminalProcedural Code of Russia. Scientific novelty a comprehensive study of current state of the normativelegal regulation of house arrest in the context of its practical application. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature of preventive measures related to the restraint of personal liberty of the accused. nbsp
The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A sharp reduction in heroin supply in Australia in 2001 was followed by a large but transient increase in cocaine use among injecting drug users (IDU in Sydney. This paper assesses whether the increase in cocaine use among IDU was accompanied by increased rates of violent crime as occurred in the United States in the 1980s. Specifically, the paper aims to examine the impact of increased cocaine use among Sydney IDU upon police incidents of robbery with a weapon, assault and homicide. Methods Data on cocaine use among IDU was obtained from the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS. Monthly NSW Police incident data on arrests for cocaine possession/use, robbery offences, homicides, and assaults, were obtained from the Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research. Time series analysis was conducted on the police data series where possible. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives from law enforcement and health agencies about the impacts of cocaine use on crime and policing. Results There was a significant increase in cocaine use and cocaine possession offences in the months immediately following the reduction in heroin supply. There was also a significant increase in incidents of robbery where weapons were involved. There were no increases in offences involving firearms, homicides or reported assaults. Conclusion The increased use of cocaine among injecting drug users following the heroin shortage led to increases in violent crime. Other States and territories that also experienced a heroin shortage but did not show any increases in cocaine use did not report any increase in violent crimes. The violent crimes committed did not involve guns, most likely because of its stringent gun laws, in contrast to the experience of American cities that have experienced high rates of cocaine use and violent crime.
Schwartz, Jennifer; Steffensmeier, Darrell J.; Feldmeyer, Ben
Constructionist theories suggest the national rise in female violence arrests may be policy-generated because arrest statistics are produced by violent behavior and changing official responses (e.g., net-widening enforcement policies). Normative theories attribute the rise to female behavior changes (e.g., in response to increased freedoms or hardships). We examine whether any narrowing of the arrest gender gap is borne out across offense types of varying measurement reliability, in victimization data, and across two post-arrest criminal justice stages. Advanced time-series analyses over 1980–2003 support the constructionist position – first, all sources show little or no increase in women’s rates for the more reliably measured offenses of homicide and robbery, and for rape; second, the assault gender gap narrows for arrests, but holds stable in victimization data; third, the assault gender gap narrows moderately for convictions, but is stable for imprisonment, indicating spill-over effects of more expansive arrest policies. Several factors have produced greater female representation in “criminal assault” arrests including (i) proactive policing targeting and formally responding to minor violence and in private contexts, (ii) interventionist developmental epistemologies that blur distinctions among violence types and circumstances, (iii) the rise of social movements recognizing “hidden” victims, (iv) law and order political messages stressing greater accountability, and (v) the somewhat greater decline in male compared to female violence in the late 1990s. The problem of women’s violence is largely a social construction. Rather than women becoming more violent, changes in the management of violence increasingly mask differences in the violence levels of women and men. PMID:25589794
Søgaard, Thomas Friis; Houborg, Esben; Tutenges, Sébastien
partnership policing has employed a police perspective and a top-down approach, thus emphasizing organizational ties between policing bodies, this article uses a bottom-up, interactional approach, with a focus on bouncers’ everyday experiences and understandings of partnerships with the police. Our findings...... show that the formation of informal police-bouncer networks has significantly increased the degree of police influence in private nightlife environments such as bars and nightclubs. Our findings also indicate that inter-agency trust building is crucial to the collaborative willingness and capability...
Eric L. Nelson
Full Text Available Problem: Even though reforms in the past 40 years mandated police response to domestic violence (DV crime, and in many states also mandated arrest, never-the-less baseline rates of DV prosecution remain low. Background: The nature of prosecution is reviewed, noting that nearly all criminal cases are resolved through plea bargaining in state and federal cases. Thus, the nature of plea bargaining is examined from a perspective of negotiable currency. Past research demonstrates that if multiple crimes are described and listed in the first responding police officer’s written report, there is a substantially greater odds that the suspect will be prosecuted and found guilty. Those extra charges can be dropped by prosecutors in exchange for a plea of guilt. Purpose: This empirical study examines a discretionary best practices crime investigation method that can be operationalized by first responding police officers, in situ, to determine whether its use leads to a significant increase in rates of prosecution and criminal conviction for DV crime. The methodology is the choice to thoroughly investigate each DV crime to uncover concurrent and also past-but-still-chargeable crimes. This optional work is time-consuming because children, neighbors, the 911 caller, and others must be contacted and interviewed. Method: Randomly selected police reports (n = 366 were found to contain 22 combinations of crime codes listed as violations, for DV and other concurrent crimes. The reports were evaluated on a number of prosecutorial outcomes. Frequency statistics were calculated, and logistic regression was used to confirm key relationships. Results: Only one third of all submitted reports listed more than one crime. For those investigations that did lead to prosecution, 97% resolved through plea bargaining. Most single charge misdemeanor DV police reports were found to be “dead upon arrival” at the prosecutor’s office, with only 29% resulting in any type of
The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has informed CERN that the recommendations of the Geneva Police Department relating to the prevention of crime are available on the Internet at the following URL: http://www.geneve.ch/police/prevention/. On another prevention-related matter, the Mission has sent a communiqué regarding theft committed by bogus policemen in Geneva. This communiqué can be consulted in the 'Miscellanea' section of the Relations with the Host States Service's website. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 firstname.lastname@example.org www.cern.ch/relations
Many studies have emphasized the pluralization of policing and the interactions between security providers. However, such studies generally employ a top-down and structural approach, emphasizing the organizational ties between policing bodies. This article employs an ethnographic approach to
Chariot, Patrick; Briffa, Hugo; Lepresle, Aude; Lefèvre, Thomas; Boraud, Cyril
Health issues among arrestees are a worldwide concern for which only local policies have been established. Physicians attending detainees in police custody are expected to decide whether the detainee's health status is compatible with detention in a police station and make any useful observations. A high degree of heterogeneity in the information collected by the physician and transmitted to the police has been observed. We analyzed the content and limitations of available documents and developed a model that could serve as a guide for any attending physician. The document presented here has been used in France on over 50,000 occasions since June 2010. We developed a two-page template consisting of (1) a standard medical certificate to be sent to the authority who requested the doctor's attendance and (2) a confidential medical record, not sent to the requesting authority. We evaluated perceived health by the three global health indicators of the Minimum European Health Module and used DSM IV criteria for the evaluation of addictive disorders. In the case of recent traumatic injuries, the certificate has also included the collection of data on traumatic injuries and the contexts of their occurrence. The proposed certificate achieved several goals, by protecting the interests of the person examined, in case of poor conditions of arrest or detention, protecting doctors in cases of legal proceedings, and allowing epidemiological data to be collected. The certificate may also contribute to an international awareness of medical care for detainees in police custody. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
O'Rourke, M F; Donaldson, E; Geddes, J S
As many as 1000 lives are lost annually from cardiac arrest in commercial aircraft. Ventricular fibrillation (VF), the most common mechanism, can be treated effectively only with prompt defibrillation, whereas the current policy of most airlines is to continue cardiopulmonary resuscitation pending aircraft diversion. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of making semiautomatic external defibrillators (AEDs) available for use on airline passengers with cardiac arrest. AEDs were installed on international Qantas aircraft and at major terminals, selected crew were trained in their use, and all crew members were trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Supervision was provided by medical volunteers or (remotely) by airline physicians. During a 64-month period, AEDs were used on 109 occasions: 63 times for monitoring an acutely ill passenger and 46 times for cardiac arrest. Twenty-seven episodes of cardiac arrest occurred in aircraft, often (11 of 27 [41%]) unwitnessed, and they were usually (21 of 27 [78%]) associated with asystole or pulseless idioventricular rhythm. All 19 arrests in terminals were witnessed; VF was present in 17 (89%). Overall, defibrillation was initially successful in 21 of 23 cases (91%). Long-term survival from VF was achieved in 26% (2 of 6 in aircraft and 4 of 17 in terminals). The ability to monitor cardiac rhythm aided decisions on diversion, which was avoided in most passengers with asystole or idioventricular rhythm. AEDs in aircraft and terminals, with appropriate crew training, are helpful in the management of cardiac emergencies. Survival from VF is practicable and is comparable with the most effective prehospital ambulance emergency services. Costly aircraft diversions can be avoided in clearly futile situations, enhancing the cost-effectiveness of the program.
Colombians Luisa Amanda Arango and Guillermina Suarez were arrested tonight by the police while carrying cocaine worth $5.5 million to Ecuador. The women...Gonzalez Lopez, Rafael Ruiz Per- alta, Moises Herrera Medina and Octavio Amezquita Mendez as they were pack- aging marihuana. The prisoners and the...Escalera, Jose Escobedo Moreno , Pedro Sanchez Torres, Santana Torres Moreno , Patricio Escobedo Moreno and Jose Garcia Escobedo were arrested. At the
W6 9RS ENGLAND Proteccion Civil c/Evaristo 5 Miguel 8 28008 Madrid, SPAIN Hubert Williams Police Foundation 1001 22nd Street NW Suite 200 Washington...operations during natural and technological disasters; the remaining 24 studies examined police or fire response to riots or civil disturbances. Of the 26...but instead focus upon either general police activity (Wilson, 1968) or police operations during civil disturbances (Westley, 1957; Masotti and Bowen
Frazier, Joseph B
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Student Police Unity League as an effective program at fostering more positive views of the police from black citizens operating by the core tenants provided by Intergroup Contact Theory. It was expected that black students who participated in the Student Police Unity League would report higher levels of trust, legitimacy, willingness to work with the police, outcome justice, and lower level of perceived racial profiling. While the majority of the ...
Research on police brutality against ethnic groups is increasing, particularly in Latino communities. Findings suggest a pattern of abuse, often without evidence of a crime and without appropriate review of police action. It is suggested that abuse will abate only when police departments operate openly and undergo public scrutiny. (MSE)
The Community Policing Resource Centres (CPRCs), as they are called, have a support base that draws upon five departments - Health, Women and Child, Education, Scheduled Castes and Other Back Classes, and Land Rural Development. The Punjab Police have a small budget for training in community policing, but no ...
Carlier, I. V.; Lamberts, R. D.; Fouwels, A. J.; Gersons, B. P.
The assumed relationship between dissociation and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined. From a group of police officers who had experienced a traumatic event, the authors assessed the chronic dissociative symptoms of 42 police officers with PTSD, 50 police officers with
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Police Codes (MPC). 635.20 Section 635... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.20 Military Police... attached military police units are notified for mobilization, relocation, activation, or inactivation. (c...
..., an investigation by the military police, U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) or other... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.5 Police...
This article presents 20 reasons why it is usually easy for police to get confessions from individuals with mental retardation. It urges that police training be seen as everyone's responsibility and that individuals with mental retardation be prepared for possible police interrogation. (DB)
Waardenburg, L.; Sergeeva, A.; Huysman, Marleen
This research focuses on the consequences of the shift to data-driven work for daily police work. Our ongoing ethnographic field study of a team of police officers shows that predictive policing algorithms inscribe a different crime theory-in-use – i.e., the understanding of why crime occurs and how
Neurological Outcome; Cardiac Arrest; Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest; Brain Anoxia Ischemia; Hypoxia, Brain; Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain; Cardiac Arrest With Successful Resuscitation; Cardiac Arrest, Out-Of-Hospital; Brain Injuries
Devroe, E.; Petrov, M.
In this article, which is embedded in the special issue of the Journal which focuses on the comparative research project ‘Policing European Metropolises’, the general aim is to provide an answer to the research question: ‘Are underlying Anglo-American assumptions regarding trends towards plural
Barnes, Sue; Michalowicz, Karen Dee
Discusses police officers' use of mathematics when reconstructing an accident scene; and the history of algebra, including al-Khwarizmi's works on the theory of equations, the Rhind Papyrus, a Chinese and an Indian manuscript on systems of linear and quadratic equations, and Diophantus'"syncopated algebra." (10 references) (EK)
Full Text Available This article looks to analyze the preparation process the Belizean police force goes through with the objective of training the officers for duty. It also has the purpose of detailing the entrails the officers have to confront in their way up the corporate ladder as they develop into a professional police officer. Seen from a regional objectivity, Belize has been singled out to be in the center of numerous regional and hemispherical security problems; it is facing several of the same security challenges as its neighbors and explains the use of armed forces at the service of the public safety and the necessity to upgrade their law enforcement tactics and practices. The country also participates in many several mutual support instruments designed to assist and receive preparation and instruction from other nation’s police bodies. An example of that international aid came in a report from 2008 entitled "Review of the Belize Department" written by a Jamaican consultant in which the Police Plan elaborated in 2006 was analyzed and critiqued pointed out the strong and weak points of that project.
Hochstedler, Ellen; Dunning, Christine M.
Studied the effect of satisfaction with transmittal of information on general job satisfaction in a survey of 822 police officers. Results indicated the association between job satisfaction and communication satisfaction was not as strong as hypothesized. Communication with immediate supervisor was rated as most important. (Author/JAC)
This article sketches the views and experiences of police officials responsible for enforcing liquor legislation in the Nyanga precinct of Cape Town. It is intended as a complementary response to Herrick & Charman's article, Shebeens and crime: The multiple criminalities of South African liquor and its regulation (SACQ 45) ...
Vollaard, B.; Koning, P.
In this paper, we present evidence on the effect of greater numbers of police personnel on victimisation of crime and experience of nuisance. We make use of individual data from a Dutch victimisation survey unique in its size, duration and scope. By using individual victimisation data we provide
Bove, Vincenzo; Gavrilova, Evelina
Sparked by high-profile confrontations between police and citizens in Ferguson, Missouri, and elsewhere, many commentators have criticized the excessive militarization of law enforcement. We investigate whether surplus military-grade equipment acquired by local police departments from the Pentagon has an effect on crime rates. We use temporal variations in US military expenditure and between-counties variation in the odds of receiving a positive amount of military aid to identify the causal e...
López Alvarado, Mauricio
Since the 1990s, Mexican police organizations made it evident that they were incapable of handling public security and had unprecedented levels of corruption and police-related crimes. To face these cases of police incompetence and misconduct, reforms to the law enforcement system were designed and
Edwards, Lorrine D; Smith, Katherine L; Savage, Theodore
A pilot project was conducted in Dane County, Wisconsin, to evaluate the frequency of individuals driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). Evidentiary blood specimens, collected from subjects arrested for Operating While Intoxicated (OWI), were compared to oral fluid (OF) results obtained with the Alere DDS2®, a handheld screening device. The project objectives were to evaluate (i) the Alere DDS2® for use by police officers in the field, (ii) the frequency of individuals DUID and drugs combined with alcohol among OWI cases, (iii) the differences between detecting drugs in OF and in blood, and (iv) the effect of the laboratory drug testing cancellation policy (LCP) when the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) exceeds 0.100 g/100 mL. Following the arrest and collection of blood, subjects were asked to voluntarily participate in the project and provide an OF specimen. The OF was presumptively screened with the Alere DDS2® for six drug categories including (ng/mL) amphetamine (50), benzodiazepines (temazepam, 20), cocaine (benzoylecgonine, 30), methamphetamine (50), opioids (morphine, 40) and THC (delta-9-THC, 25). Results obtained with the OF screening instrument were not confirmed. A total of 104 subjects (22 female, 82 male), ages 18-72, were included in the project. Blood specimens were tested by gas chromatography-headspace (GCHS-FID) for volatiles, enzyme immunoassay (Siemens Viva-E Drug Testing System), and an alkaline basic drug screen with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. To compensate for differences between the EIA and the Alere DDS2® drug categories, results from the enzyme immunoassay and the alkaline basic drug screen were combined for purposes of comparing OF to blood. Seventy-six of 104 (73%) subjects arrested for OWI were driving under the influence of alcohol; 71 of the 76 had a BAC exceeding 0.10 g/100 mL. Subjects with a BAC exceeding the LCP, screened positive for drugs in both OF (n = 29) and blood (n = 28). Overall, one
Full Text Available The review of theories on police legitimacy aims at introducing the subject with a multidisciplinary approach. It quotes criminological, sociological as well as psychological and institutional theories of legitimacy, in order to provide the reader a rich framework, in which the findings of the presented current empirical studies can be evaluated. Police legitimacy is conceived as a social phenomenon, closely related to social norms such as socially constructed police roles and models of policing. The prevailing normative model of police legitimacy in criminology is discussed in greater detail, including critical outlook on procedural fairness as the assumed main source of police empirical legitimacy. Recent findings concerning legal socialization and theories of legitimization myths are high- lighted in order to supplement the micro-level oriented criminological literature on police legitimacy. Possible future pathways of legitimacy research in criminology are discussed.
Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Pollini, Robin A; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Mantsios, Andrea; Abramovitz, Daniela A; Rhodes, Tim; Latkin, Carl A; Loza, Oralia; Alvelais, Jorge; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L
We examined correlates of HIV infection among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico, a city bordering the United States, which is situated on major migration and drug trafficking routes. IDUs aged > or =18 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants underwent antibody testing for HIV and syphilis and structured interviews. Weighted logistic regression identified correlates of HIV infection. Of 1056 IDUs, the median age was 37 years, 86% were male, and 76% were migrants. HIV prevalence was higher in female participants than in male participants (8% vs. 3%; P = 0.01). Most IDUs testing HIV-positive were previously unaware of their serostatus (93%). IDUs reported injecting with a median of 2 people in the prior 6 months and had been arrested for having injection stigmata (ie, "track-marks") a median of 3 times. Factors independently associated with HIV infection were being female, syphilis titers consistent with active infection, larger numbers of recent injection partners, living in Tijuana for a shorter duration, and being arrested for having track-marks. Individual, social, and environmental factors were independently associated with HIV infection among IDUs in Tijuana. These findings suggest the need to intervene not solely on individual risk behaviors but on social processes that drive these behaviors, including problematic policing practices.
Full Text Available Administrative police, fundamental form of public administration, which aims to ensure public order and the protection of human rights, through prevention, knows no uniform conceptualization in the European states. However, it appears in various forms in national systems and is sustained and strengthened by EU policies whose objectives aim at the establishment of an area of freedom, security and justice with respect for fundamental rights and the different legal systems and traditions of the Member States and to ensure a high level of security through measures of preventing crime, racism and xenophobia. This article aims to show how the concept of administrative police is reflected in the European Union, the complementary and coordinating role of the latter, and the need for a uniform legal framework in European national systems which can allow the shaping of a European model.
Daisy Sofía Rodríguez-Ugueto
Full Text Available The need to improve professional practices in the Venezuelan police is essential at the present time. The present work is inserted in this problematic from the formative perspective. It analyzes the main theoretical references regarding the training process of the police officer, their historical tendencies, as well as the essential limitations revealed in the educational context of the National Experimental University of Security in Caracas. All this epistemological and praxiological approach made it possible to propose the integrative logic of the contextualized intervention practice of this professional, through a new system of theoretical relations. For this, we used scientific research methods, such as: analysis-synthesis, empirical methods and techniques, historical-logical and holistic-dialectic for the theoretical elaboration of the proposed model.
This article outlines the role of the custody nurse in assessing an individual's fitness to be detained. It addresses all aspects of the assessment, including consent, responsibilities and the structure of the clinical examination. It explores ways to ensure that the detainee's rights and welfare are maintained and their healthcare needs are met. It offers guidance on preparing a care plan for detained individuals that the police can implement.
and accusations of eavesdropping by the NSA revealed just how politi- cally and legally sensitive the issue was ( Whistleblower Says NSA May Have...Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 1, Spring 1977, pp. 33–40. Schumacher, Gord, “Extra-Jurisdictional Policing: A National Dilemma ...Tabatha, “Decades of Duty After Dark,” Information Week, October 2009. “ Whistleblower Says NSA May Have Listened to Millions of Americans’ Calls
This paper aims to explore the materiality of algorithmic governance by looking at the political, social and bureaucratic negotiations that building an information system entails. Through a study of the Crime and Criminal Tracking System in India (CCTNS), it will look at the failure of smart policing in India as a complex mix of politics, bureaucratic inefficiency and social norms. The paper is based on Bowker and Star’s (1999) study of infrastructures where they have argued that physical, ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. Methods This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. Results The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. Conclusion HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users.
Thanh, Duong Cong; Moland, Karen Marie; Fylkesnes, Knut
Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users.
Waldir Miguel dos Santos Júnior
Full Text Available This work aims to identify the importance of police investigation to the democratic rule of law, from revisiting the origins of the police investigation work will seek to demonstrate that research can and should extricate the inquisitorial logic enshrined in the Brazilian criminal proceedings under the influence of European law. From there, the work tries to demonstrate the requirements of democratic rule of law research. Therefore, the adversarial system will be analyzed, to comply with the democratic demands. Is emphasizing as fundamental rights guarantee the work will seek to demonstrate the incompatibility of research based exclusively on the inquisitorial tradition and the building of a democratic criminal proceedings, since such a perspective was the result of a whole inquisitive heritage and Brazil is marked by characteristic of paradigm of the welfare state and / or Police therefore contrary to the tenets of democratic rule of law.
Anglin, Deidre M; Lighty, Quenesha; Yang, Lawrence H; Greenspoon, Michelle; Miles, Rashun J; Slonim, Tzachi; Isaac, Kathleen; Brown, Monique J
Everyday discrimination contributes negatively to depressive symptomatology among Blacks in the US and being arrested could add to this depression. Using data from the National Survey on American Life, the present study determined the association between an arrest history and major depressive disorder (MDD), while accounting for discrimination among African Americans, US-born Afro-Caribbeans and first-generation Black immigrants. Findings from logistic regression analyses adjusted for discrimination suggested an arrest history is associated with 12-month MDD (Adjusted OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.02-2.10) and lifetime MDD (Adjusted OR=1.56 CI=1.17-2.09). Accounting for drug and alcohol dependence attenuated the association between arrest history and 12-month MDD, but not lifetime MDD. The associations between arrest history and both 12-month and lifetime MDD, and discrimination and lifetime MDD varied by ethnic/immigrant group. Specifically, while the association between arrest history and MDD (both 12-month and lifetime) was strongest among US-born Afro-Caribbeans, evidence consistent with the immigrant paradox, the association between discrimination and lifetime MDD was particularly relevant for first-generation Black immigrants, suggesting discrimination may hinder the protection of first-generation status. Mental health prevention and treatment programs should target the stress associated with being arrested and experiencing discrimination among US Blacks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.
With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.
Full Text Available Police reform is thought to require a police force to break with its past. This is notably so in the aftermath of conflict or regime change. In practice, however, most police forces are selectively reconstituted, and their development is influenced as much by legacy issues as by international standards filtered through local norms. This article uses the experience of Somalia’s three regional police forces to reconsider the relationship between past and present projects to build police authority and capacity, and what this says about institutional memory in the absence of documentation. In Somalia, as in other clan or tribal-based societies, police development is influenced by a blend of security levels, political imperatives, pragmatism, international resources and memories of past practices, with group experience playing a more significant role than institutional memory. The only identifiable general principle is the need for political settlements and tactical flexibility – that is, for stability.
Liu, Siyu; Liu, Jianhong
The process-based model of policing garnered considerable support in the discourse on police legitimacy. However, findings are largely based on Western contexts, and little attention has been paid to the model advanced by Tyler that police legitimacy helps promote compliance. Using a high school sample ( N = 711) from China, we follow Tankebe's operationalization and examine the role of legitimacy in youth support for the police and whether legitimacy helps predict compliance with the law. Findings indicate that procedural justice and shared values are strong predictors of youth support to the police, and this support positively predicts compliance with the law. Distributive fairness exerts an independent effect on compliance while having been questioned by the police is negatively related to compliance.
Bloksgaard, Lotte; Fekjær, Silje Bringsrud; Møberg, Rasmus Juul
characteristics into account? The data in this paper are part of the quantitative research project ‘Recruitment, Education and Careers in the Police: A European Longitudinal Study’ (RECPOL) . The project has a longitudinal research design, following police recruits over time by regularly surveys......This paper contributes to the debates of continuity and change of gender segregation in the labour market by analyzing perceptions of gender and competences in relation to different police tasks among police students in six European countries. The police is a male-dominated occupation associated...... : at the beginning and end of their police education, and three and six years into their professional life. This paper analyses data from phase one in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Scotland, Spain (Catalonia) and Iceland....
Beletsky, Leo; Thomas, Rachel; Shumskaya, Natalya; Artamonova, Irina; Smelyanskaya, Marina
Recognition of the police's role in shaping HIV spread and prevention among people who inject drugs, sex workers, and other at-risk groups has generated interest in educational interventions targeting law enforcement. With input from civil society, trainings covering HIV prevention science, policy, and occupational safety were developed and delivered to cadets and active-duty police across Kyrgyzstan. We administered a multi-site cross-sectional survey of Kyrgyz police to assess whether having undergone HIV trainings was associated with improved legal and public health knowledge, positive attitudes toward public health programs and policies, occupational safety awareness, and intended practices . In a 313-officer sample, 38% reported undergoing the training. In a multivariate analysis, training was associated with the officer being significantly more likely to support referring individuals to public health organizations (aOR 2.21; 95%CI 1.33-3.68), expressing no intent to extrajudicially confiscate syringes (aOR 1.92; 95%CI 1.09-3.39), and better understanding sex worker detention procedure (aOR 2.23; 95%CI 1.19-4.46), although trainee knowledge of policy on routine identification checks for sex workers was significantly lower (aOR 3.0; 95%CI 1.78-5.05). Training was also associated with improved occupational safety knowledge (aOR 3.85; 95%CI 1.66-8.95). Kyrgyzstan's experience suggest that police trainings have the potential to improve the integration of policing and public health efforts targeting at-risk groups. Regardless of the legal environment, such structural approaches should be considered elsewhere in Central Asia and beyond. As these initiatives gain acceptance, further research is needed to inform their design and tailoring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article examines the role and applicability of marketing in a public service organisation. It is argued that the changing external environment now facing many police agencies requires them to develop a marketing orientation if they are to continue to be effective. Obstacles to achieving this as well as the key factors that impinge on the public "image" of the police force are discussed. The authors then focus on a major study of the Dublin population's perception of its police force, t...
Rubén Hernández-Murillo; John Knowles
State-wide reports on police traffic stops and searches summarize very large populations, making them potentially powerful tools for identifying racial bias, particularly when statistics on search outcomes are included. But when the reported statistics conflate searches involving different levels of police discretion, standard tests for racial bias are not applicable. This paper develops a model of police search decisions that allows for non-discretionary searches and derives tests for racial...
Samuel R Friedman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was developed. METHODS: This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993-2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents from 1993-1995 to 2004-2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993-1995 mortality rates to (partially control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes. RESULTS: In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in 'hard drug' arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be
Abstract. Inability of a heart to contract effectually or its failure to contract prevents blood from circulating efficiently, causing circulatory arrest or cardiac arrest or cardiopulmonary arrest. The unexpected cardiac arrest is medically referred to as sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Poor survival rate of patients with SCA is one of the.
Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Kirzhanova, Valentina; Shelkovnikova, Olga; Volnov, Venyamin; Blagovo, Dmitri; Rylkov, Andrei
Evidence highlights the prison as a high risk environment in relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission associated with injecting drug use. We undertook qualitative studies among 209 injecting drug users (IDUs) in three Russian cities: Moscow (n = 56), Volgograd (n = 83) and Barnaul in western Siberia (n = 70). Over three-quarters (77%) reported experience of police arrest related to their drug use, and 35% (55% of men) a history of imprisonment or detention. Findings emphasize the critical role that penitentiary institutions may play as a structural factor in the diffusion of HIV associated with drug injection in the Russian Federation. While drugs were perceived to be generally available in penitentiary institutions, sterile injection equipment was scarce and as a consequence routinely shared, including within large groups. Attempts to clean borrowed needles or syringes were inadequate, and risk reduction was severely constrained by a combination of lack of injecting equipment availability and punishment for its possession. Perceptions of relative safety were also found to be associated with assumptions of HIV negativity, resulting from a perception that all prisoners are HIV tested upon entry with those found HIV positive segregated. This study shows an urgent need for HIV prevention interventions in the Russian penitentiary system.
Ömer Gökhan Ulum
Full Text Available With this study, 105 public order police officers in the national police forces were surveyed in order to assess their needs when using English on the job. In other words, this study aimed at examining the needs, functions and problems of 105 police officers serving at the department of public order. The findings from the questionnaire with open ended questions displayed that, (1 speaking and listening are the most important skills, (2 four language skills are moderately difficult, (3 there are motivational factors important to learn English, and (4 the functional use of English is important for the public order police officers. Recommendations and pedagogical implications were suggested.
Full Text Available This study starts from a recognition that the German police have a significant potential to promote integration in contemporary multiethnic Germany. It employs three measures of Islamophobic attitudes and contact quality amongst a sample of 727 German police officers, and relates these to measures of job satisfaction, political affiliation, individual responsibility, and recognition. The data reveal Islamophobia to be significantly linked to these variables. Detailed analyses indicate that the respondents’ experience of policing may produce levels of dissatisfaction that impacts upon their outgroup attitudes. The implications of this for initiatives to promote police-Muslim relations are explored.
The destruction caused by substance abuse extends to all of Philadelphia's nearly 200,000 students. The greatest damage is incurred through using legal addictive drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. This article describes Philadelphia's collaboration with police, the Drug Enforcement Agency, and the U.S. Attorney's office to combat this problem. (MLH)
Full Text Available This article analyzes the Pacifying Police Units (UPPs which, beginning in 2008, took over control of some of the favelas in Rio de Janeiro that were previously ruled by armed drugs gangs. Local authorities have implemented a “community and proximity police” program, in order to attain pacification and put an end to a violent and militarized approach to policing in marginalized urban areas. However, contrary to the institutional rhetoric, the pacification of the favelas has manifested itself as a militarized occupation with clear limits on its territorial reach and effectiveness. An analysis of police strategies and practices shows that the UPPs have not sought to convince the residents of the favelas to regard them as a legitimate force, a fact which in turn has been responsible for the major failure of the project: it has failed to put an end to the power of the gangs in these pacified territories. Therefore, this article contributes to the debate on the legitimacy of the police, one of the key subjects of the “policing studies” undertaken in the field of social sciences. Our observations are the result of a an ethnographic study of five months, during which the author observed the daily work of the policemen of three UPPs and conducted 93 indepth interviews with them and 25 with residents of the pacified favelas.
Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil Pesquisa sobre uso de drogas psicotrópicas em 12 unidades da Polícia Militar nos municípios de Goiânia e Aparecida de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil
Sérgio Henrique Nascente Costa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. METHOD: Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n = 221 were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. RESULTS: The frequency of use was divided into: 1 lifetime use: tobacco - 39.9%, alcohol - 87.8%, cannabis - 8.1%, cocaine - 1.8%, stimulants - 7.2%, solvents - 10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants - 6.8%, LSD - 0.5%, Bentyl® - 0.5%, anabolic steroids - 5.4%; 2 use in the previous year: tobacco - 15.4%, alcohol - 72.9%, stimulants - 6.3%, solvents - 0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants - 3.7%; 3 use in the previous 30 days: tobacco - 14.5%, alcohol - 57.5%, stimulants - 5.0%, solvents - 0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants - 3.7%. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência do uso de drogas psicotrópicas por membros da Polícia Militar no Estado de Goiás, Brasil. MÉTODO: Estudo realizado de março a outubro de 2008 em 12 unidades da Polícia Militar dos municípios de Goiânia e Aparecida de Goiânia. Participantes voluntários (n = 221 foram entrevistados sobre uso de drogas utilizando-se questionário desenvolvido pelo Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID. A estatística descritiva foi usada para determinar a prevalência de uso de drogas lícitas e ilícitas na amostra estudada. RESULTADOS: A frequência de
Mazerolle, Lorraine; Antrobus, Emma; Bennett, Sarah; Eggins, Elizabeth
Truancy is a major social issue that is linked to a range of poor outcomes across the life course, including poor educational outcomes, drug and alcohol abuse, and antisocial behavior. Interventions that seek to reduce truancy problems range from school-based police officers to programs that reward good attendance to community-based interventions. This study reports primary outcome results of a randomized trial of a collaborative, police-school partnership that sought to reduce truancy and increase students' willingness to attend school. Using school attendance and students' self-report survey data, we find that the police-school partnership intervention shows promise for reducing truancy and improving students' willingness to attend school. We conclude that police-school partnerships that foster the willingness of young people to attend school should be examined in future evaluation research and be considered in the development of truancy prevention programs.
Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.
Full Text Available Background: Chronic fatigue is a problem affecting a still growing number of people. Among them there are representatives of different professions who are forced to cope not only with occupational stress, but also with the problem of fatigue. The police is one of such occupational groups, in which exposure to stressful and often traumatic situations, contact with those who violate the law, shift work and contact with superiors can play a key role in the development of chronic fatigue. However, chronic fatigue, induced by the above mentioned factors, does not affect all police officers since its occurrence also depends on many personal traits, including temperament. Material and methods: We studied a group of 61 police officers of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian garrison. The study was conducted using the Buss and Plomin EAS (emotionality, activity, sociability Temperament Questionnaire, CIS-20R (community, innovation, survey Questionnaire, developed by Vercoulen et al. and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Results: The results indicated the relationship between chronic fatigue and emotionality. Statistical analyses showed a negative correlation between the nature of emotional components, distress, fear, anger, and the general rate of chronic fatigue. There was no statistically significant correlation between age, and service experience and the level of chronic fatigue. Conclusions: The results indicate that the officers of the study group show dramatically high levels of chronic fatigue. The results also revealed that temperament characteristics, such as sociability and activity, reported in the literature as factors reducing fatigue and stress, did not show relevance to chronic fatigue in the study group. Med Pr 2015;66(6:793–801
be seen from a public opinion survey conducted in the early 1980s by a German marketing group seeking to gauge the general desire for a completely...kidnapped by BR. 1982 Dozier freed during operation by Nucleo Operativo Cetrale di Sicurezza (NOCS), police antiterrorism task force. 1982 Law
changing order in Africa, despite the acknowledgement that 'law and ... subcultural features such as machismo, conservatism, cynicism, and ... organisation). Before conducting any interviews with the police themselves, it was important to spend time in the unit understanding. What the current activities of the unit were, what ...
Tromp, R. Hans; Lindhoud, Saskia
Phase separation in a capillary tube with one of the phases fully wetting the capillary wall is arrested when the typical size of the phase domains reaches the value of the diameter of the tube. The arrested state consists of an alternating sequence of concave-capped and convex-capped cylindrical
Cardiorespiratory arrest outside hospital occurs in approximately 1/10,000 children a year in resource-rich countries, with two thirds of arrests occurring in children under 18 months of age. Approximately 40% of cases have undetermined causes, including sudden infant death syndrome . Of the rest, 20% are caused by trauma, 10% by chronic disease, and 6% by pneumonia.
Cardiorespiratory arrest outside hospital occurs in approximately 1/10,000 children a year in resource-rich countries, with two-thirds of arrests occurring in children under 18 months of age. Approximately 45% of cases have undetermined causes, including sudden infant death syndrome. Of the rest, 20% are caused by trauma, 10% by chronic disease, and 6% by pneumonia.
Snyder, Howard N.
This bulletin examines the national and state juvenile arrest rate in 2000 using data reported annually by local law enforcement agencies nationwide to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting program. Results indicate that the murder rate in 2000 was the lowest since 1965; juvenile arrests for violence in 2000 were the lowest since 1988; few juveniles…
Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.
This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…
The Geneva cantonal police have set up a toll-free telephone line to deal with questions and requests from the public as rapidly and simply as possible. The number is 0800 800 844, and the line will be open from 8 a.m. to 2 a.m. every day from 2 June to 30 June 2008. 0800 800 844 Detailed security recommendations for the individual matches will be posted at http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite_en.asp
Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Hein, Maria; Chung, Sophia; Franke, Warren D; Anderson, Amanda A
The aim of this study is to examine a resilience training intervention that impacts autonomic responses to stress and improves cardiovascular risk, psychological, and physiological outcomes in police. Officers [(n = 38) 22 to 54 years] modified emotional and physical responses to stress using self-regulation. Measurements include psychological and physiological measures [eg, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, C-reactive protein)] obtained at three time intervals. Age was significantly (P resilience intervention improves certain responses to job stress with greater benefits for younger participants.
Full Text Available The task of this study was to investigate the level of satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. The aim of this research was to examine whether the police treat all victims of crime equally responsibly, or whether there is a significant difference in the satisfaction of various categories of crime victims with various aspects of police work and behavior. On an occasional sample of 150 examinees, we analyzed the level of satisfaction of crime victims in relation to the expectations of the police regarding the reported criminal offenses and then the level of satisfaction towards different aspects of work and conduct of the police, such as reporting crime to the police, environmental conditions of interview and human compassion/empathy of police officers. The results indicate a significant difference in the satisfaction of specified aspects of police work among different categories of victims. Most dissatisfaction was expressed by members of the LGBT community and convicted persons when they appear in the role of victims. The research makes recommendations for improving the quality of the work and behavior of the police towards victims of crime.
Full Text Available From May 28th, 1926, to April 25th, 1974, Portugal endured Europe’s longer dictatorship. In those years, milliards of anti-fascist militants passed through the political prisons, where they were tortured to reveal information about their organisations, and so contribute to their dismantlement. Many of those prisoners were unable to resist torture and – to use the jargon – “talked under interrogation”. A confession would not only make easier to prove, in court, their membership in forbidden organisations, but allow the arrest of other activists. It would also determine the banishment from the organisation. The case of one of those militants, who, after being arrested by the political police, PIDE, yields under torture and, after confessing his activity and denouncing his comrades, becomes a traitor, is the starting point for an analysis of the interrogation methods, the use of torture, the psychological mechanisms that may have contributed to the prisoner’s reversion. The author searches to obtain answers to the question “for what reason does one resist or yield under torture?”
López-Herce Cid, J; Domínguez Sampedro, P; Rodríguez Núñez, A; García Sanz, C; Carrillo Alvarez, A; Calvo Macías, C; Bellón Cano, J M
To analyze the characteristics and outcome of cardiorespiratory arrest secondary to trauma in children. We performed a secondary analysis of data from a prospective, multicenter study of cardiorespiratory arrest in children. Data were recorded according to the Utstein style. Twenty-eight children (age range: 7 days to 16 years) with cardiorespiratory arrest secondary to trauma were evaluated. The outcome variables were return of spontaneous circulation, sustained (more than 20 minutes) return of spontaneous circulation (initial survival), and survival at hospital discharge (final survival) in relation to the characteristics of the cardiorespiratory arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Neurological and general performance outcome was assessed by means of the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scale and the Pediatric Overall Performance Category scale. Return of spontaneous circulation was obtained in 18 patients (64.2 %), initial survival was achieved in 14 (50 %) and final survival was achieved in three (10.7 %) (two without neurological sequelae and one with vegetative status). Final survival was significantly higher in patients with respiratory arrest (33.3 %) than in those with cardiac arrest (4.5 %), p = 0.04. Final survival was also higher in patients with a duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation shorter than 20 minutes (27.2 %) than in the remaining patients (0 %), p =0.05. The two survivors without neurologic sequelae had respiratory arrest. Survival until hospital discharge in children with cardiorespiratory arrest secondary to trauma is lower than that in children with cardiorespiratory arrest. Patients with respiratory arrest when resuscitation is started and those with a duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of less than 20 minutes showed better survival than the remaining patients.
Full text: The Police Scientific Development Branch (Pdb) of the UK Home Office evaluates technologies, develops equipment and detection standards for the police and security communities. PSDB's guidance helps to protect critical sites, including nuclear sites, in the United Kingdom. PSDB evaluates doors, walls, fences, locks, glazing and other barrier to determine whether they meet national and European standards against conventional physical attack. PSDB also evaluates intruder-detection systems. If solutions for security problems do not exist commercially, it might help to develop them. Examples include computer machine-vision systems to guide a pan-tilt-zoom camera automatically, and to assess intruder alarms. PSDB's automatic alarm verification system (AMETHYST) is now being installed for test at a nuclear power station on England's south coast. PSDB has used its analysis of the effects of exploding bombs on building materials to influence building codes. The PSDB also evaluates technologies for crime investigation, surveillance, explosive detection and bomb search. PSDB uses its experience to help train security practitioners to select, specify, and audit security at critical sites, including sites that handle nuclear materials. PSDB's technologies and advice have helped to protect the UK against terrorist attacks. Its expertise can be made available to help meet other European needs. (author)
Full Text Available Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.
Marstrand, Peter; Corell, Pernille; Henriksen, Finn Lund
OBJECTIVES: When the cause of an aborted cardiac arrest is unclear the initiation of therapy, counseling and family screening is challenging. METHODS: We included 43 unselected, prospectively identified cardiac arrest survivors with or without a diagnosis. Family history for cardiac disease...... and supplemental electrocardiograms were evaluated for additional diagnostic information. RESULTS: 43 cardiac arrest survivors were included, 34 (79%) were male and the average age was 48years (range 23-64, SD 13.0). The most common etiologies identified in cardiac arrest survivors were ischemic heart disease (33......%), cardiomyopathies (14%), miscellaneous (e.g. drug induced arrhythmias, coronary spasms) (12%) and channelopathies (5%). Family history of cardiac disease - even inheritable conditions - was not indicative of etiology in cardiac arrest survivors. Supplemental ECGs were abnormal in 10 of 43 patients; in the majority...
Introduction: In the Police Forces Hypertension, Diabetes, Renal Insufficiency and Thyroid Derangement (HyDRIT) pilot study we explored the prevalence, risk factors, awareness, treatment adequacy and complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other non-communicable diseases among adult Police Forces ...
It argues that they should be applauded for doing so, but draws attention to how difficult it can be to persuade governments to address the deep-rooted social and economic problems associated with crises in policing rather than focus on reforming the police institution, its policies, procedures and practices.
Sliedrecht, K.Y.; van der Houwen, F.; Schasfoort, M.
In this article we compare the role of formulations in the construction of narratives in two institutional settings: police interrogations and job interviews. The data, 20 police interrogations (22. h) and 20 job interviews (14. h), are analyzed from a conversation analytic perspective (e.g.
Petrosino, Anthony; Guckenburg, Sarah; Fronius, Trevor
Background: Schools experience a wide range of crime and disorder, victimizing students and staff, and undermining attempts to create a safe and orderly environment for student learning. Police have long established programs with schools, but there has been no systematic review of evaluations of these programs, outside of police-led prevention…
The words 'corruption' and 'Nigerian factor' are used interchangeably to mean the same thing in this paper. There is no gainsaying that corruption in the police system leaves much to be worried. The position which the Nigeria Police occupied is beyond mere protection of lives and property of the citizens. They are indeed ...
A declaration by the Mental Health Care Act (Act 17 of 2002) authorised police officers to assist mental health care users (MHCUs) they come across and needed help. As such, the purpose of the study was to explore the knowledge and skills of police officers regarding mental illness and the handling of MHCUs.
Zascerinska, Jelena; Aleksejeva, Ludmila
Introduction: The modern issues of global developmental trends require contemporary police officers to become more cognizant and more responsive to the emerging needs of human safety in the constantly changing environment. Education provides student police officers with the appropriate skills and competences for innovation based on creativity.…
After months of negotiation between the police force and the minister of the interior on the renewal of the collective agreement, the police trade unions began threatening industrial action and strikes in December 2007. The courts were divided on the issue, with some ruling out strikes as a means of
Institute IACP International Association of Chiefs of Police IED improvised explosive device ILP intelligence led policing IQ intelligence quotient ...Education & Training (E): This topic starts with a holistic approach of raising the terrorism intelligence quotient (IQ) within each individual...actively gather intelligence and detect terrorists. L.E.A.D asserts that HS starts with hometown security, which begins by individual local LE
Reynolds, Joshua J; Estrada-Reynolds, Victoria; Nunez, Narina
Although there is a substantial body of work examining attitudes towards the police, no measure has been developed to consistently capture citizens' beliefs regarding police legitimacy. Given that police conduct has garnered a great deal of attention, particularly in the last few years, the current research sought to develop a scale measuring perceptions of police legitimacy. Across multiple studies, items were created and the scale's factor structure explored (Study 1 and Study 2), the factor structure was confirmed (Study 3a), and the predictive validity of the scale was tested (Studies 3b-3d). Results provided evidence for a reliable and valid 34-item scale with a single-factor solution that predicted multiple outcomes, including justification of a police shooting (Study 3b) and resource allocation to a police charity (Study 3c), as well as correlations with self-reported criminal activity, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation (Study 3d). We hope this scale will be useful in the study of police legitimacy, expanding the current literature, and improving police-community relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
The paper further identifies some challenges that plague the police as an institution in the present democratic era. In spite of pervading problems and consequent challenges, the paper identities prospects in the sustenance of policing in the present democratic dispensation. To achieve this, the paper concludes with good ...
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8118] Determination Concerning the Bolivian Military and Police Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of State, including that set forth in the ``International... for assistance for Bolivian military and police are in the national security interest of the United...
Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick
This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…
This article increases the body of knowledge on the origins of plural policing in a continental setting, more specifically in Belgium. Compared to other European countries, Belgium occupies a unique position, which can be explained by its particular constitutional setting. While non-police public
Juvenile Violence, Policing and Access to Justice in Latin America. Latin America is experiencing alarming trends in kidnapping, narcotics trafficking, gang violence, homicide, police brutality and gender-based violence. Many of these crimes involve young people, either as perpetrators or victims of violence. Through ...
South Africa boasts the largest private security sector in the entire world, reflecting deep anxieties about violence, security, and governance. Twilight Policing is an ethnographic study of the daily policing practices of armed response officers—a specific type of private security officer—and their
This study is a content analysis of newspaper coverage of police activities in Nigeria from January to March, 2012. Three national dailies (the Nation, the Punch and Daily Sun) were studied. Among the specific objectives were to determine the volume of coverage of the activities of Nigeria Police by selected newspapers, ...
Bruijnes, Merijn; Linssen, Johannes Maria; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Theune, Mariet; Wapperom, Sjoerd; Broekema, Chris; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vincze, Laura
We analysed a corpus of enacted police interviews to get insight into the social behaviour of interviewees and police officers in this setting. We (exhaustively) collected the terms used to describe the interactions in those interviews. Through factor analysis, we showed that the theories
Strating, M.; Bakker, R. H.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Groothoff, J. W.
Background The variety of tasks that characterize police work highlights the importance of being in good physical condition. Aims To take a first step at standardizing the administration of a job-related test to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of the core tasks of police
... results provide further evidence of the presence of the code of silence covering various forms of police misconduct. At least one quarter of the respondents would protect a fellow officer who verbally abused citizens, covered up police driving under the influence (DUI) accident, accepted gratuities, or failed to react to graffiti.
the police either go unanswered or when answered, police lack the capacity for rapid response thus arriving .... correction system in so far as society is involved in dealing with those who violate our criminal laws. .... motivated and extra judicial killings by security forces, the use of excessive force including torture by security ...
Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick
Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.
Havelund, Jonas; Joern, Lise; Rasmussen, Kristian
Several studies stress the importance of thorough knowledge of supporter culture in order to assess the actual level of risk at football matches thereby ensuring a balanced approach by the police in order to avoid conflict situations. This study examines how Danish police officers perceive...... and categorise football supporters on the basis of a field-based observational study and a qualitative interview study undertaken at the East Jutland Police department in Denmark in the period 2008–2009. The main findings show a general lack of knowledge of supporter culture as well as scepticism towards...... engaging in dialogue with football supporters. As a consequence of these findings, the East Jutland Police department initiated an educational programme on dialogue policing in 2010. The programme has been successfully evaluated and is now implemented on a national basis....
Grieve-Eglin, Leandra; Haseeb, Sohaib; Wamboldt, Rachel; Baranchuk, Adrian
Marijuana is considered a drug of low-toxicity, however its chronic and excessive use is regarded as a risk factor for general and cardiovascular health. Although investigated for therapeutic benefits, it can evoke electrocardiographic abnormalities in a dose-dependent manner. We report a case of a 54-year-old female who presented to the emergency department (ED) experiencing intermittent episodes of presyncope with tingling sensations around the left-side of the mouth and arm following acute inhalation of marijuana. Documented episodes of sinus arrest were noted.
Csete, Joanne; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kazatchkine, Michel; Altice, Frederick; Balicki, Marek; Buxton, Julia; Cepeda, Javier; Comfort, Megan; Goosby, Eric; Goulão, João; Hart, Carl; Horton, Richard; Kerr, Thomas; Lajous, Alejandro Madrazo; Lewis, Stephen; Martin, Natasha; Mejía, Daniel; Mathiesson, David; Obot, Isidore; Ogunrombi, Adeolu; Sherman, Susan; Stone, Jack; Vallath, Nandini; Vickerman, Peter; Zábranský, Tomáš; Beyrer, Chris
of non-injected opioids to treat dependence among those who inject opioids, known as opioid substitution therapy (OST). Police seeking to boost arrest totals have been found to target facilities that provide these services to find, harass, and detain large numbers of people who use drugs. Drug paraphernalia laws that prohibit possession of injecting equipment lead PWID to fear carrying syringes and force them to share equipment or dispose of it unsafely. Policing practices undertaken in the name of the public good have demonstrably worsened public health outcomes. Amongst the most significant impacts of pursuit of drug prohibition identified by the Commission with respect to infectious disease is the excessive use of incarceration as a drug-control measure. Many national laws impose lengthy custodial sentences for minor, non-violent drug offenses; people who use drugs (PWUD) are over-represented in prison and pretrial detention. Drug use and drug injection occur in prisons, though their occurrence is often denied by officials. HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission occurs among prisoners and detainees, often complicated by co-infection with TB and in many places multidrug-resistant TB, and too few states offer prevention or treatment services in spite of international guidelines that urge comprehensive measures, including provision of injection equipment, for people in state custody. Mathematical modelling undertaken by the Commission illustrates that incarceration and high HCV risk in the post-incarceration period can contribute importantly to national HCV incidence amongst PWID in a range of countries with varying levels of incarceration, different average prison sentences, durations of injection, and OST coverage levels in prison and following release. For example, in Thailand where PWID may spend nearly half their injection careers in prison, an estimated 63% of incident HCV infection could occur in prison. In Scotland, where prison sentences are shorter
Boschman, J S; Hulshof, C T J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K
Mandatory medical examinations (MMEs) of workers should be based on the health and safety requirements that are needed for effectively performing the relevant work. For police personnel in the Netherlands, no job-specific MME exists that takes the specific tasks and duties into account. To provide the Dutch National Police with a knowledge base for job-specific MMEs for police personnel that will lead to equitable decisions from an occupational health perspective about who can perform police duties. We used a stepwise mixed-methods approach in which we included interviews with employees and experts and a review of the national and international literature. We determined the job demands for the various police jobs, determined which were regarded as specific job demands and formulated the matching health requirements as specific as possible for each occupation. A total of 21 specific job demands were considered relevant in different police jobs. These included biomechanical, physiological, physical, emotional, psychological/cognitive and sensory job demands. We formulated both police-generic and job-specific health requirements based on the specific job demands. Two examples are presented: bike patrol and criminal investigation. Our study substantiated the need for job-specific MMEs for police personnel. We found specific job demands that differed substantially for various police jobs. The corresponding health requirements were partly police-generic, and partly job-specific. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
McDonald, James Russell
This paper reflects my experiences developing a course within the Criminal Justice Technology Associates of Science degree program at Valencia College that fuses topics unique to peace and police studies. The key challenge in developing this course was in confronting the paradox of the police as instruments of both peace and conflict. In dealing…
Watson, Amy C.; Angell, Beth; Vidalon, Theresa; Davis, Kristin
Despite increased recent attention to improving the quality of encounters between police officers and people with serious mental illness, there are no measures available for assessing how consumers perceive their interactions with police officers. Drawing upon conceptual frameworks developed within social psychology, this study reports the…
The ASTM Cooperative Test Program Data were used to compare the static (K/sub Ia/) and dynamic (K/sud ID/, K/sub IDm/) approaches to crack arrest. K/sub Ia/ is not dependent on K/sub Q/. This is consistent with the requirements of the static approach, but not the dynamic one which requires that K/sub Ia/ decrease with K/sub Q/ if K/sub ID/ (= K/sub IDm/) is a constant. K/sub ID/ increases systematically with K/sub Q/ at a rate that is consistent with calculations based on the use of a constant value for K/sub Ia/ which is equal to its measured mean value. Only in the limiting case of very short crack jumps (associated with very low average crack speeds) can K/sub ID/ be identified as a minimum value at which K/sub ID/ = K/sub IDm/. In this case K/sub IDm/ approx. K/sub Ia/ approx. K/sub Im/. The latter is the idealized minimum value of K that will support the continued propagation of a running crack
to police misconduct towards ethnic minorities. Criminology professors Brad Smith and Malcolm Holmes discuss concerns about misconduct and...Brutality: An Examination of Civil Rights Criminal Complaints,” Criminology 41, no. 4 (2003): 1037– 1038. 13 Hryniewicz, “Civilian Oversight as a Public...minorities into the complaint process. As mentioned in the literature review, criminology professors Brad Smith and Malcolm Holmes voice concern that a
Sun, Lei; Lin, Renhao; Zhu, Xianwei
Virtualization Technology has attracted more and more attention. As a popular open-source virtualization tools, XEN is used more and more frequently. Xsm, XEN security model, has also been widespread concern. The safety status classification has not been established in the XSM, and it uses the virtual machine as a managed object to make Dom0 a unique administrative domain that does not meet the minimum privilege. According to these questions, we design a Hybrid multiple police model named SV_HMPMD that organically integrates multiple single security policy models include DTE,RBAC,BLP. It can fullfill the requirement of confidentiality and integrity for security model and use different particle size to different domain. In order to improve BLP’s practicability, the model introduce multi-level security labels. In order to divide the privilege in detail, we combine DTE with RBAC. In order to oversize privilege, we limit the privilege of domain0.
Swartz, James A.; Lurigio, Arthur J.
Past studies of the mediating effects of substance use on the criminal justice involvement of the mentally ill have tended to focus on a single disorder, schizophrenia, and on violent crimes. This study examined the generality of the relationships among psychiatric disorders, substance use, and arrests for violent, nonviolent, and drug-related…
Demirtas, Derya; Brooks, Steven C.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Chan, Timothy C.Y.
Background: Public access automated external defibrillator (AED) deployment and community cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) programs should target geographical areas with high risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Although these long-term, location-based interventions implicitly assume
Full Text Available Aim: To assess the health problems of the police personnel under Vijayawada police commisionerate 2. To make the health check ups regular and 3. To make the physical fitness programme mandatory for them.Study design: cross sectional study Methodology: Health check up was done for 617 police personnel from 12.11.09 to 4.12.09. In the morning hours, a group of junior doctors, paramedical staff and technicians visited the police dispensary to do the general check up, take blood samples and ECG. The following afternoon a group of specialists visited to check the same patients along with their reports to make the final diagnosis. Results: Out of 617 police personnel 259 (42% were overweight/obese, lack of physical activity was found in 397 (64% of them, alcohol consumption was present in 148 (24% and smoking in 136 (22% of the police personnel. Diabetes was diagnosed in 229 (37% and hypertension in 203 (33%. Anemia was detected in 154 (25%, visual abnormalities in 59 (10%, lipid abnormalities in 185 (30%, liver function test abnormalities in 31 (5%, ECG abnormalities in 25 (4%, renal function abnormalities in 6 (1%. Conclusion: A Physical fitness Schedule along with Stress alleviation techniques to be made mandatory for the police personnel to keep them physically and mentally fit, to perform critical job functions, to alleviate stress, and to improve their quality of life. Routine health checkups should be done to detect lurking dangers.
DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)
A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.
Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.
Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…
Bundgaard, Kristian; Hansen, Steen M; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark
AIM: This study aimed to examine rates of redeemed prescriptions of antidepressants and anxiolytics, used as markers for cerebral dysfunction in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors, and examine the association between bystander CPR and these psychoactive drugs. METHODS: We included all......,001 30-day survivors, 174 (8.6% died and 12.0% redeemed a first prescription for an antidepressant and 8.2% for an anxiolytic drug within one year after arrest. The corresponding frequencies for redeemed prescribed drugs among age- and sex-matched population controls were 7.5% and 5.2%, respectively...
... pattern of abnormal conduct or erratic behavior; (iii) Arrest for a conviction of a drug related offense... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use... Procedures § 707.10 Drug testing for reasonable suspicion of illegal drug use. (a)(1) It may be necessary to...
The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…
In order to enhance the quality of work life of female police personnel, it is recommended that the Ministry of Police Affairs in Nigeria should provide some form of training for female police personnel that would help improve their quality of work life. Keywords: Gender, job demands, quality of work life, police personnel, ...
Nielsen, Nathalie H; Winkel, Bo G; Kanters, Jørgen K
Mutations in one of the ion channels shaping the cardiac action potential can lead to action potential prolongation. However, only in a minority of cardiac arrest cases mutations in the known arrhythmia-related genes can be identified. In two patients with arrhythmia and cardiac arrest, we...... characteristics and drug sensitivity. Both patients also carried a D85N polymorphism in KCNE1, which was neither found to influence the Kv1.5 nor the Kv7.1 channel activity. We conclude that although the two N-terminal Kv1.5 mutations did not show any apparent electrophysiological phenotype, it is possible...
Robinson, Philip S; Shall, Emma; Rakhit, Roby
Leadership skills directly correlate with the quality of technical performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and clinical outcomes. Despite an improved focus on non-technical skills in CPR training, the leadership of cardiac arrests is often variable. To assess the perceptions of leadership and team working among members of a cardiac arrest team and to evaluate future training needs. Cross-sectional survey of 102 members of a cardiac arrest team at an Acute Hospital Trust in the UK with 892 inpatient beds. Responses sought from doctors, nurses and healthcare assistants to 12 rated statements and 4 dichotomous questions. Of 102 responses, 81 (79%) were from doctors and 21 (21%) from nurses. Among specialist registrars 90% agreed or strongly agreed that there was clear leadership at all arrests compared with between 28% and 49% of nurses and junior doctors respectively. Routine omission of key leadership tasks was reported by as many as 80% of junior doctors and 50% of nurses. Almost half of respondents reported non-adherence with Advanced Life Support (ALS) guidelines. Among junior members of the team, 36% felt confident to lead an arrest and 75% would welcome further dedicated cardiac arrest leadership training. Leadership training is integrated into the ALS (Resus Council, UK) qualification. However, this paper found that in spite of this training; standards of leadership are variable. The findings suggest a pressing need for further dedicated cardiac arrest leadership training with a focus on improving key leadership tasks such as role assignment, team briefing and debriefing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This question is from the 2015 Chapel Hill Community Survey.Have you interacted with the Town’s Police Department in any of the following ways within the past 2...
The custody nurse role was introduced in 2003 following changes to legislation, which allowed nurses and paramedics to care for people in police custody. Before this, the work was done solely by doctors.
Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris; Ratnieks, Francis
In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.
O'Sullivan, Maureen; Frank, Mark G; Hurley, Carolyn M; Tiwana, Jaspreet
Although most people are not better than chance in detecting deception, some groups of police professionals have demonstrated significant lie detection accuracy. One reason for this difference may be that the types of lies police are asked to judge in scientific experiments often do not represent the types of lies they see in their profession. Across 23 studies, involving 31 different police groups in eight countries, police officers tested with lie detection scenarios using high stakes lies (i.e., the lie was personally involving and/or resulted in substantial rewards or punishments for the liar) were significantly more accurate than law enforcement officials tested with low stakes lies. Face validity and construct validity of various lie scenarios are differentiated.
Davies, Toby P; Fry, Hannah M; Wilson, Alan G; Bishop, Steven R
In August 2011, several areas of London experienced episodes of large-scale disorder, comprising looting, rioting and violence. Much subsequent discourse has questioned the adequacy of the police response, in terms of the resources available and strategies used. In this article, we present a mathematical model of the spatial development of the disorder, which can be used to examine the effect of varying policing arrangements. The model is capable of simulating the general emergent patterns of the events and focusses on three fundamental aspects: the apparently-contagious nature of participation; the distances travelled to riot locations; and the deterrent effect of policing. We demonstrate that the spatial configuration of London places some areas at naturally higher risk than others, highlighting the importance of spatial considerations when planning for such events. We also investigate the consequences of varying police numbers and reaction time, which has the potential to guide policy in this area.
This paper will seek to show how social, political, cultural, and environmental factors have combined to impede Iraqi police development in ways that are predictable, understandable, and, with external help, resolvable...
Huddleston, Louis D
...: Can America continue to serve as the world's policeman? America's challenge for the 1990s is to avoid the trappings of world policing that past superpowers have experienced throughout history "a la Pax Britannica...
Jansen, R.J.; Van Egmond, R.; De Ridder, H.; Silvester, S.
Operational police work can be characterized by the continuous switching between surveillance, responding to incidents, and office activities. Transitions between these activities are initiated by radio contact, messages on a mobile data terminal, or personal observations. The “information
Full Text Available Policing has been described as a stressful occupation. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a measure that could be used by the South African Police Service (SAPS to identify the frequency and intensity of occupational stressors and to assess the differences between the stressors for race, rank and gender groups. A cross sectional survey design was used. Stratified random samples (N = 2145 were taken of police members of nine provinces in South Africa. The Police Stress Inventory was developed as a measuring instrument. Three internally consistent factors were extracted through principal component analysis with a direct oblimin rotation. These factors were labelled Job Demands, Lack of Support and Crime-related Stressors. The most important stressors identified were other officers not doing their job, inadequate or poor quality equipment, inadequate salaries, and seeing criminals go free. Analysis of variance showed differences in stressors for rank, race and gender groups.
Smit, S.K.; Vries, A. de
Het politiewerk gaat ingrijpend veranderen door de invoering van Predictive Policing. Door verfijnde algoritmen los te laten op big data over eerdere incidenten – en die hoeveelheid gegevens neemt alleen maar toe – kan de politie straks misdaden voorspellen.
Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva
Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.
.... The corruption and abuse found in the Iraqi police services cannot simply be explained by poor leadership, the actions of a few corrupt individuals, or even the competing agendas of the various...
Weeke, Peter; Jensen, Aksel; Folke, Fredrik
Antipsychotic drugs have been associated with sudden cardiac death, but differences in the risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) associated with different antipsychotic drug classes are not clear. We identified all OHCA in Denmark (2001-2010). Risk of OHCA associated with antipsychotic drug...... use was evaluated by conditional logistic regression analysis in case-time-control models. In total, 2,205 (7.6%) of 28,947 OHCA patients received treatment with an antipsychotic drug at the time of event. Overall treatment with any antipsychotic was associated with OHCA (odds ratio [OR]= 1.53, 95...
Violanti, John M; Ma, Claudia C; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Gu, Ja K; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Burchfiel, Cecil M
Police work is generally sedentary although there may be situations that require physical endurance and strength, such as foot chases and arresting suspects. Factors such as excessive body fat can impede an officer's physical ability to deal with such occurrences. Our objective was to examine associations between officers' body fat percentage (BF%) and performance on a standardized fitness protocol. Data were obtained from fitness screening among 1,826 male and 115 female officers in a large US police agency. The screening consisted of a 2.4-km run, push-ups, sit-ups, and sit-and-reach test. Sex-specific body fat percentages were estimated from skinfold thickness measured using calipers. Linear regression models were used to examine unadjusted and adjusted mean scores of fitness tests across BF% tertiles. The prevalence of overall fitness was 4.3 times greater in male officers and 3.6 times greater in female officers having the lowest BF% tertile compared with the highest tertile (30.3% vs 7.1% and 46.0% vs 12.8%, respectively). BF% was linearly and positively associated with the time of 2.4-km run ( p sit-ups ( p sit-and-reach ( p sit-and-reach ( p = 0.122). Associations were independent of age, race/ethnicity, rank, and duty station. Overall, BF% was inversely associated with fitness levels in male and female officers. Future longitudinal studies should be initiated to explore the potentially causal relationship between BF% and fitness in law enforcement officers.
Motorists deal with traffic police officers on a daily basis. In Russia, the operations of the traffic police are not transparent. Mass surveys show that contacts with traffic police officers represent a key source of corruption in this country. This article discusses the links between corruption in the traffic police and road safety. Corruption in the traffic police has a positive impact on road safety in Russia, a middle-income country. It suppresses economic growth and thus reduces the int...
Gary L. Jones
When the threat level of foreign stability operations increases, military police units can make an effective contribution, especially when conducted with the Australian Federal Police. It is argued that, if Australian military police can apply police harmonisation techniques and improve their ability to conduct civilian-like policing duties, then their role in future rule-of-law operations are likely to be more effective.
making discussed in Section E of this literature review. Much like police in the United Kingdom, Australian police share a common background and...main continent of Australia. Tasmanian police experienced an increase in use of force complaints that started in the mid- 1990s and peaked around the...Victoria (Australia) police officers routinely carry firearms.151 Nevertheless, police in the Australian state of Victoria rarely shoot and kill
discretion in their duty of maintaining law and order to be specific, in their investigation of crime even if it were to be an obvious wide-goose chase.' As to whether police duty is executive or administrative, it has been held that police performs both duties as was held in UTB v Ukabia39. In this case, it was held that whenever ...
expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government...still evolving. Referenced materials are drawn from online sources to include newspaper articles, editorials, magazine articles, and blog ...The White House Blog , accessed October 11, 2016, https://www.whitehouse.gov/ blog /2015/ 05/18/launching-police-data-initiative. 60 “The Police
This article is a first attempt to analyze the underlying reasons behind the unprofessional behavior of the Kyrgyz military and police during ethnic conflict in Osh on June 10-14, 2010. It argues that the higher military leadership in Bishkek shares a common distrust of the Tashkent regime and overall uncertainly about power sharing two months after regime change, while lower level personnel may have provoked the Uzbek minority, because of their nationalist feelings (the majority of police an...
Jens Chr. Andvig; Odd-Helge Fjeldstad
Crime and the fear of being hit by crime and small-scale violence are key economic and social problems in most developing countries, not least felt strongly by the poor. Extensive corruption in the police, experienced or perceived, contributes seriously to the problem. A key question raised in the paper is: How is police corruption linked to the wider processes of development – including crime, violence and poverty? The paper examines (i) how and why corruption may arise in the daily routines...
Wijckmans, Belinda; Klima, Noel; Vanhauwaert, Rosita
This second toolbox in the series published by the EUCPN Secretariat focuses on the main theme of the Cyprus Presidency, which is community policing. The theme is explored and elaborated in four different ways, through: a theoretical paper; a survey among the European Member States on the organisation of community policing in their country, followed by an in-depth discussion during two round table sessions; a workshop/ seminar with various experts and a particular focus on radicalisation, or ...
Costa, Marcos; Júnior, Horácio Accioly; Oliveira, José; Maia, Eulália
To diagnose the occurrence and stage of stress among military police enlisted personnel and officers in the city of Natal (the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), and to determine the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms. This cross-sectional descriptive study investigated a sample of 264 individuals from a population of 3,193 military personnel from the Natal police command. The data were collected between June 2004 and January 2005 using Lipp's Adult Stress Symptoms Inventory (Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp). The research assessed: (1) presence of stress, (2) the stage of stress (alert, resistance, near-burnout, and burnout), (3) the prevalence of physical and mental symptoms, and (4) the relationship between stress and police unit, rank, gender, drinking, smoking, educational level, marital status, age, years of police service, and salary. No stress symptoms were found in 52.6% of the sample; 47.4% had symptoms. Of the 47.4% of the police personnel with stress symptoms, they were distributed as: 3.4% in the alert stage, 39.8% in the resistance stage, 3.8% in the near-burnout stage, and 0.4% in the burnout stage. Psychological symptoms were recorded in 76.0% of the police personnel with stress, and physical symptoms in 24.0% of them. Of the variables investigated, only gender was related to stress (P = 0.0337), with the female police personnel being more likely to suffer from stress. The levels of stress and symptoms do not indicate a critical situation of fatigue. However, it is recommended that the police take preventive actions, including implementing an effective program for the diagnosis of, training on, and control of stress.
I. A. Zikratov
Full Text Available This paper focuses on aspects of information security for group of mobile robotic systems with swarm intellect. The ways for hidden attacks realization by the opposing party on swarm algorithm are discussed. We have fulfilled numerical modeling of potentially destructive information influence on the ant shortest path algorithm. We have demonstrated the consequences of attacks on the ant algorithm with different concentration in a swarm of subversive robots. Approaches are suggested for information security mechanisms in swarm robotic systems, based on the principles of centralized security management for mobile agents. We have developed the method of forming a self-organizing information security management system for robotic agents in swarm groups implementing POM (Police Office Model – a security model based on police offices, to provide information security in multi-agent systems. The method is based on the usage of police station network in the graph nodes, which have functions of identification and authentication of agents, identifying subversive robots by both their formal characteristics and their behavior in the swarm. We have suggested a list of software and hardware components for police stations, consisting of: communication channels between the robots in police office, nodes register, a database of robotic agents, a database of encryption and decryption module. We have suggested the variants of logic for the mechanism of information security in swarm systems with different temporary diagrams of data communication between police stations. We present comparative analysis of implementation of protected swarm systems depending on the functioning logic of police offices, integrated in swarm system. It is shown that the security model saves the ability to operate in noisy environments, when the duration of the interference is comparable to the time necessary for the agent to overcome the path between police stations.
Angeles Police Department MFF Mobile Field Force MPD Madison Police Department NCAA National Collegiate Athletic Association NFL National...a person’s identity is determined by acceptance to a specific group.28 This relationship gives the person a sense of esteem and belonging, while...individualization is the concept of losing one’s self identify to the dynamic of a crowd. In 1946, Jung argued, “being in a crowd leads to the loss of one’s
V. M. Kiikov
Full Text Available In the article analysis of general theoretic approaches towards competent and motivated behavior definitions, the model of police officer social competence was proposed along with the ways of its study. Based on development theory conception the initial validation of social competence logical system as a mean of cadets’ social competence evaluation was considered in the article. Additionally, the determination of personality development level as possibility for definition and evaluation of cadets’ social competence based on social behavior theory perspectives was considered. As well the social features of social competence of lawenforcement officers were discussed and the theoretical construction for schematized representation of police cadets’ social competence structure is presented. The model includes: social norms related to police activity; motivation to sociallyoriented activity; social intelligence, as integrative characteristic of cognitive and operational processes; emotional steadiness and communication skills. It was stated that the main characteristic of police cadets’ social competence is efficiency of interaction between police and community. The other important factor influencing social competence is professional activity and in our case it is lawenforcement. The social environment of departmental educational institution was explored as a main factor contributing to development of police cadets’ social competence components.
Sherman, Susan G; Footer, Katherine; Illangasekare, Samantha; Clark, Erin; Pearson, Erin; Decker, Michele R
Worldwide, female sex workers (FSWs) have high rates of HIV. Many factors that escalate their risk lay outside of their control, primarily in the environments in which they practice sex. An understudied yet powerful risk environment is that of police. We qualitatively explored sex workers' interactions with police in their personal and professional lives. Thirty-five FSWs were purposively sampled in Baltimore, MD, in 2012. Women discussed experiences of police verbal harassment, sexual exploitation, extortion, and a lack of police responsiveness to 911 calls in emergencies, largely partner violence. Women's mistrust of police was often developed at an early age and further reinforced by interactions in their personal and professional lives. The study underscores the need for targeting police in reducing sex workers' HIV and other risks. The case for police's role in generating risk is evident, which could be addressed through structural interventions targeting both police practices and policies.
Armour, J; Duncan, M
Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.
Kitson, Anthony J.
The UK Home Office has held a long term interest in facial recognition. Work has concentrated upon providing the UK police with facilities to improve the use that can be made of the memory of victims and witnesses rather than automatically matching images. During the 1970s a psychological coding scheme and a search method were developed by Aberdeen University and Home Office. This has been incorporated into systems for searching prisoner photographs both experimentally and operationally. The coding scheme has also been incorporated in a facial likeness composition system. The Home Office is currenly implementing a national criminal record system (Phoenix) and work has been conducted to define and demonstrate standards for image enabled terminals for this application. Users have been consulted to establish suitable picture quality for the purpose, and a study of compression methods is in hand. Recently there has been increased use made by UK courts of expert testimony based upon the measurement of facial images. We are currently working with a group of practitioners to examine and improve the quality of such evidence and to develop a national standard.
López-Herce, Jesús; García, Cristina; Domínguez, Pedro; Carrillo, Angel; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; Calvo, Custodio; Delgado, Miguel Angel
To analyse the present day characteristics and outcome of cardio-respiratory arrest in children in Spain. An 18-month prospective, multicentre study analysing out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardio-respiratory arrest in children. Two hundred and eighty-three children between 7 days and 17 years of age with cardio-respiratory arrest. Data were recorded according to the Utstein style. The outcome variables were the sustained return of spontaneous circulation (initial survival), and survival at 1 year (final survival). Three hundred and eleven cardio-respiratory arrest episodes, composed of 70 respiratory arrests and 241 cardiac arrests in 283 children were studied. Accidents were the most frequent cause of out-of-hospital arrest (40%), and cardiac disease was the leading cause (31%) of in-hospital arrest. Initial survival was 60.2% and 1 year survival was 33.2%. The final survival was higher in patients with respiratory arrest (70%) than in patients with cardiac arrest (21.1%) (P arrest in children remains high. Survival after respiratory arrest is significantly higher than after cardiac arrest. The duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempt is the best indicator of mortality of cardio-respiratory arrest in children.
Ahlner, Johan; Holmgren, Anita; Jones, Alan Wayne
Drunk or drug-impaired drivers represent a major public health and societal problem worldwide. Because over 95% of drivers killed on the roads in Sweden are autopsied, reliable information is available about the use of alcohol and/or other drug before the crash. This retrospective 4-year study (2008-2011) used a forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE) to evaluate the concentrations of alcohol and other drugs in blood samples from drivers killed in road-traffic crashes. The mean age of all victims (N = 895) was 48 ± 20 years, and the majority were male (86%). In 504 drivers (56%), the results of toxicological analysis were negative and these victims were older; mean age (± SD) 47 ± 20 years, than alcohol positive cases (35 ± 14 years) and illicit drug users (34 ± 15 years). In 21% of fatalities, blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) was above the statutory limit for driving (0.2 g/L), although the median BAC was appreciably higher (1.72 g/L). Illicit drugs (mainly amphetamine and cannabis) were identified in ~7% of victims, either alone (2.5%), together with alcohol (1.8%) or a prescription drug (2%). The psychoactive prescription drugs identified were mainly benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics and tramadol, which were found in the blood of 7.6% of crash victims. The high median BAC in fatally-injured drivers speaks strongly towards alcohol-induced impairment as being responsible for the crash. Compared with alcohol, the prevalence of illicit and psychoactive prescription drugs was fairly low despite a dramatic increase in the number of drug-impaired drivers arrested by the police after a zero-tolerance law was introduced in 1999.
Scantlebury, Arabella; Fairhurst, Caroline; Booth, Alison; McDaid, Catriona; Moran, Nicola; Parker, Adwoa; Payne, Rebecca; Scott, William J; Torgerson, David; Webber, Martin; Hewitt, Catherine
intervention group were more likely to have a mental health tag applied to them than incidents assigned to control stations (adjusted odds ratio 1.41, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.71, p = 0.001). The review of 100 incidents suggests that there may be incidents involving individuals with mental health issues that are not being recorded as such (Kappa coefficient 0.65). There was no statistically significant difference in the likelihood of Section 136 of the Mental Health Act being applied to an incident. The bespoke one day mental health training delivered to frontline officers by mental health professionals did not reduce the number of incidents reported to the police control room up to six months after its delivery; however training may have a positive effect on how the police record incidents involving individuals with mental health problems. Our trial has shown that conducting pragmatic trials within the police setting is feasible and acceptable. There is a wealth of routinely collected police data that can be utilised for research and further collaboration between police forces and academia is encouraged. ISRCTN (ISRCTN11685602). The authors confirm that all ongoing and related trials for this drug/intervention are registered.
Full Text Available Dysautonomia in Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS rarely causes serious cardiovascular complications, such as sinus arrest. Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS is recognized as a variant of GBS. There have been few reports regarding the association between MFS and dysautonomia. We describe a case of a 68-year-old man with ophthalmoplegia, bulbar palsy, truncal ataxia, and areflexia. He was diagnosed with MFS because he exhibited the classical clinical triad and had elevated serum anti- GQ1b immunoglobulin G levels. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of his head was normal. His 24-hour Holter recording showed sinus arrest. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, whereupon his symptoms gradually improved. This included the sinus arrest, which was considered a symptom of dysautonomia in MFS. Therefore, clinicians should be mindful of dysautonomia not only in GBS patients, but also in cases of MFS.
Full Text Available Community policing programmes are widely perceived and promoted as an important solution for the pressing problems of insecurity in contemporary Latin American cities, and for improving citizen-police relationships. By drawing on the results of empirical fieldwork conducted in Mexico City, the article presents a critical analysis of the local community policing effort. The article demonstrates that this policing effort is overly determined by a local context, characterized by clientelism, political factionalism and police corruption, which therefore renders its contribution to a sustainable improvement of local accountability and police legitimacy unlikely. Against this background the article calls for more empirical studies on this topic and a greater sensitivity for the embeddedness of policing programmes within a wider political context. Resumen: Colaboración ciudadana en América Latina: Lecciones de Ciudad de México Los programas de colaboración ciudadana son ampliamente percibidos y presentados como una importante solución para los apremiantes problemas de inseguridad en las ciudades latinoamericanas de hoy, y para mejorar las relaciones entre la ciudadanía y la policía. Basándonos en los resultados de trabajo de campo realizado en Ciudad de México, en el presente artículo se ofrece un análisis crítico del programa local de policía comunitaria y se demuestra que está excesivamente determinado por un contexto local caracterizado por el clientelismo, las lealtades políticas y la corrupción policial. Por eso, el aporte del programa a un mejoramiento sustentable de la rendición de cuentas local y de legitimidad policial es improbable. Contra este telón de fondo, en el artículo se demandan más estudios empíricos sobre el tema y una mayor sensibilidad para la integración de los programas de policía comunitaria dentro de un contexto político más amplio.
Jacob J. Bustad
Full Text Available In this article, we explore the relationship between public recreation policy and planning and the transformation of urban governance in the context of the Police Athletic League centers in Baltimore, Maryland. In light of contemporary discussions of the role of youth programs for sport and physical activity within post-industrial cities, the origination, development, and eventual demise of Baltimore’s network of Police Activity League centers is an instructive, if disheartening, saga. It illustrates the social and political rationales mobilized in justifying recreation policy and programming, the framing of sport and physical activity as preventative measures towards crime and juvenile delinquency, and the precarity of such initiatives given the efficiency-driven orthodoxies of neoliberal urban entrepreneurialism (Harvey, 1989. This analysis emphasizes how the PAL centers were designed to ‘fill the void’ left by a declining system of public recreation, thereby providing an example of a recreation program as part of the “social problems industry” (Pitter & Andrews 1997.
Full Text Available Media and police professionals are bound together in interdependent, and often tense, working relationships. For different purposes both professions need to work effectively together while simultaneously retaining independence from each other. These complex inter-reliant relationships create unique challenges that often call for improvement. This essay examines whether relationships between interdependent professional organizations can be improved through a collaborative problem-solving intervention, based on the interactive methods of facilitated dialogue and appreciative inquiry. The article describes a case study of a large Canadian police agency working with local media outlets to improve their working relationship. It highlights the importance of conflict analysis followed by effective change management strategies in implementation of collaborative solutions that meet everyone’s needs. This case study illustrates dynamics that generalize to organizations that have strong organizational cultures and are highly independent and simultaneously required to work together. Some examples of such organizations are military, prison guards, scholars, medical professionals, social workers, teachers, lawyers and most government agenciesLes médias et les corps policiers sont à la fois interreliés et interdépendants, et leur collaboration est souvent tendue. Dans divers objectifs, ils doivent travailler efficacement ensemble tout en maintenant leur propre autonomie. Ces relations complexes donnent lieu à des difficultés auxquelles il faut remédier. Cet essai porte sur les améliorations pouvant être apportées dans les relations entre deux organisations professionnelles interdépendants par l’entremise d’une intervention visant à résoudre les problèmes fondée sur des méthodes interactives de facilitation du dialogue et d’interrogation appréciative. Cet article décrit un cas où une grande agence policière canadienne a collabor
Full Text Available Several approaches can be employed for information gathering from human sources, differing in their theoretical basis, goals, realisation, and ethical acceptability. The paper critically presents and compares two prevalent approaches to suspect interrogation used by the police. The older, prevalent interrogation approach focuses on obtaining suspects’ incriminating statements and admissions, which severely elevates the risk of false confessions. Consequently, this interrogation approach is termed accusatorial or coercive since suspects are forced to admit to a crime. The newer interrogation approach is the information-gathering approach, also known as the investigative interview. It focuses on gathering accurate information in order to exclude or accuse a suspect in a criminal investigation. In comparison with coercive interrogation models, the information-gathering approach has a lower probability of false confessions since suspects are exposed to significantly lower levels of psychological pressure. Moreover, it is ethically more acceptable, has scientific grounds, enables the gathering of more accurate information, and has been found to be at least as effective as the coercive approach in criminal investigations. The investigative interview relies mainly on findings from social psychology. An analysis of coercive interrogation models reveals that they have no scientific basis and as such rely mainly on uncorroborated common-sense assumptions from authorities. In developed countries, coercive interrogation models are increasingly being replaced by the information-gathering approach, a trend connected with the enforcement of high human rights standards and a higher awareness of risks associated with coercive interrogation methods by the general public, academia, and professionals alike.
percent were in the depend- ency category. According to specialist Mauricio Knobel, at the present time 35 percent of the Argentine university...and Justice, and Agriculture, Livestock and Campesino Affairs. 37 Article 2. Herewith the functions of the unit for implementation of Prodes " Ch ...paste were arrested today at the port of Leticia, Amazonas , the police reported« The persons apprehended were in a place known as "Los Lagos" [The Lakes
Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Grigoleit, Lisa; Hess, Cornelius; Madea, Burkhard; Musshoff, Frank
An interrelation between consumption of illegal drugs and committing an indictable offence has been repeatedly discussed in literature. In a retrospective study serum concentrations of illegal and legal drugs as well as data originating from police reports and examinations by physicians taking blood from individuals being suspected to be under the influence of drugs were evaluated. Results from 4816 cases were available. Property offences were the most frequent type (36%) as well as consumption of cannabinoids (55%). Psychophysiological conditions of consumers were compared with according serum concentrations. Close correlations between stimulating drugs and violence associated crime could not be found. Stimulated as well as sedated behaviour occurring following the consumption of various drugs might be the reason for no clear correlation between types of offence and consumed illegal or legal drugs in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chi, Keon S.
This report highlights Florida's house arrest program, a new alternative to prison incarceration viewed as a significant criminal justice experiment. The implementation and operation of the community control program is decribed, specific goals and objectives of the community control program are listed, and a preliminary assessment is offered.…
Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Long-Him-Nam, Nelly; Bastien, Olivier
Percutaneous extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is now widespread for treating acute cardiac failure. ECLS has been used for treating in-hospital and out of hospital cardiac arrests. A systematic review of literature was performed in order to assess the results. Nine studies of in-hospital cardiac arrests were published between 2003 and January 31, 2011. They included 724 patients, 208 of which survived without significant neurological sequelae (28.7 %). In the other patients, the initial disease and the consequences of low flow brought multiorgan failure, or ECLS resulted in haemorrhage and ischaemia. Low flow lasted between 42 and 105 min (mean 54min). ECLS was used after out of hospital cardiac arrests in 3 studies published between 2008 and January 31, 2011. They included 110 patients of which only 6 survived (4.4 %) despite strict inclusion criteria. Low flow lasted between 60 and 120 min (mean 98 min.) According to these results the use of ECLS should be encouraged after in-hospital cardiac arrest and training in cardiorespiratory resuscitation should be improved in global population and health professionals.
excitation like perioral twitching or tinnitus, seizures in our case. The occurrence of cardiac arrest was within a ten minute period after submucosal infiltration of 6 ml lignocaine 2% (120 mg) and. 1:200,000 epinephrine (30 μg). Further, the rapid onset and offset of symptoms would likely correlate with epinephrine and not ...
This Bulletin summarizes 2007 juvenile crime and arrest data reported by local law enforcement agencies across the country and cited in the FBI report, "Crime in the United States 2007." The Bulletin describes the extent and nature of juvenile crime that comes to the attention of the justice system. It serves as a baseline for comparison for…
Denis, Céline; Paret, Céline; Chariot, Patrick
to identify characteristics of victims of sexual assault or domestic violence who consulted in a Department of Forensic Medicine without a formal complaint to the police. observational study (03/01/2014-08/31/2015) of individuals (age>15years) consulting in a Department of Forensic Medicine near Paris, France, after a sexual assault or domestic violence. Among the individuals who were examined in the department of Forensic Medicine, we compared the individuals who had not complained to the police to those who had complained to the police. A hundred and nine individuals have consulted without a prior complaint to the police, including 73 persons after domestic violence (i.e. 4% of all persons examined with or without a complaint to the police) and 36 persons after a sexual assault (i.e. 8% of all persons examined). Regarding domestic violence, the proportion of persons presenting recent traumatic injuries was lower among those who did not complain to the police than among those who did (64% vs. 78%, P=0.008). Regarding sexual violence, the persons who did not complain to the police were more frequently uncertain about the assault (42% vs. 13%, P<0.001), reported more frequently a recent alcohol or drug intake (42% vs. 26%, P=0.039) and less frequently showed extragenital traumatic injuries than the persons who did complain to the police (22% vs. 43%, P=0.016). the persons examined who had not complained to the police accounted for less than one in 20. The extension of the activity of a Department of Forensic Medicine to persons who do not want to be involved in a judicial process is not sufficient for the majority of victims to consult a forensic physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BackgroundPolice work tends to impose a high degree of stress and amultiplicity of stressful situations which can affect thephysical, mental and interpersonal relationships of policepersonnel. The objective of the present study was to assessthe level of stress among police personnel and to find theassociation of various factors with the level of stress amongpolice personnel.MethodA cross-sectional study was conducted among 102 policepersonnel in Wardha city. A structured questionnaire basedon The Professional Life Stress Test by Fontana was given toall participants. A grading scale was used to linkparticipant’s verbal descriptions of perceived stress to anumerical scoring system being given scores between zeroand five. The total score obtained for each respondent wasconsidered as a measure of stress level.ResultsDifferent stressors that were identified among the policepersonnel included criticism by superiors, excess work, norewards, inadequate value given to abilities andcommitments and no satisfaction from work. Seventyparticipants scored >15 which indicated that stress in theworkplace was a problem, while 32 participants scored ≤15,indicating stress in the workplace was not a problem. Asignificant association was found with between age group,marital status, education and working hours and the level ofstress among police personnel.ConclusionThe majority of police personnel studied were under stressat their workplace due to a variety of stressors. Thisindicates the necessity to modify the organizationalenvironment within the police force.
Nelson, K V; Smith, A P
Police are exposed to a wide range of stressors and this is especially true in developing countries such as Jamaica. Exposure to psychosocial stressors and use of maladaptive coping styles can result in mental ill-health. To examine the relationship between work characteristics, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers and to test whether work characteristics are indirectly associated with mental health outcomes through perceived job stress and job satisfaction. Police officers from the Jamaican police force completed a questionnaire using a cross-sectional design. We analysed the data using hierarchical regression. The study group consisted of 134 police officers; the response rate was 94%. Negative work characteristics, lower levels of positive work factors and work support and emotion-focused coping styles were associated with increased levels of depression (F(8, 125) = 7.465, P health outcomes was mediated by perceived stress. Job satisfaction mediated the relationship between positive work characteristics and depression. Stress management and intervention programmes should address modifiable work conditions, monitor stress levels and reduce maladaptive coping. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.
... Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? Updated:Mar 15,2018 People often use these ... The heart attack symptoms in women can be different than men. What is cardiac arrest? Sudden cardiac ...
Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD accounts for up to 450,000 deaths every year in the United States (Zipes et al. (2006. Most cases of sudden cardiac death occur in subjects with no prior history of heart disease (Myerburg et al. (1998. The incidence of sudden death in a general population has been shown to increase contemporaneously with substance abuse (Phillips et al. (1999. The causative association of sudden death with cocaine, methadone, and volatile agents is well established (Adgey et al. (1995 and Isner et al. (1986. We describe a case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest temporally related to abuse of the synthetic cannabinoid street drug known as K2. To our knowledge, there are no previously documented cases of sudden cardiac death associated with synthetic cannabinoids although they have been linked to myocardial infarction in teenagers despite normal coronary angiography (Mir et al. (2011.
Kawamura, Hironao; Kozuka, Masahiro; Itamoto, Naoki; Ishii, Masaru
There is possibility that lightning strokes to transmission lines with large peaks and/or long duration of currents cause arrester failures. Hence it is important to evaluate reliability of transmission lines considering arrester failures caused by lightning strokes. Actually, arrester failures were caused by a winter lightning stroke to the tower top of one circuit transmission line. In this letter, the lightning stroke associated with the arrester failures is evaluated based on observation of electromagnetic field and analysis by EMTP simulation.
Kobayashi, A. S.; Yang, K. H.
The results of past dynamic crack arrest experiments involving structural ceramics and ceramic composites are reviewed and analyzed. The lack of dynamic crack arrest in very brittle materials is discussed and contrasted with dynamic crack arrest in somewhat brittle metallic and polymeric materials. Numerical analyses show that the lack of crack arrest is due to reduced dynamic fracture resistance of the material and is not due to the kinetic energy.
Objective: Intraoperative cardiac arrests are not uncommon and are related to both surgical and anaesthetic factors. This study aimed to examine the factors which predispose to a periopeartive cardiac arrest, to assess the appropriateness of therapy and the outcome. Materials and Methods: All perioperative cardiac arrests ...
only 4 out of the 14 cardiac arrests. Only 2(14%) out of 14 cardiac arrests recovered to home discharge, one of them with significant neurological deficit. Majority of arrests were due to hypoxia from airway problems that were not detected early. There is need to improve on patient monitoring, knowledge of CPR and intensive ...
Koubar, Sahar H.; Younes, Eliane
Central Diabetes Insipidus is often an overlooked complication of cardiopulmonary arrest and anoxic brain injury. We report a case of transient Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) following cardiopulmonary arrest. It developed 4 days after the arrest resulting in polyuria and marked hypernatremia of 199?mM. The latter was exacerbated by replacing the hypotonic urine by isotonic saline.
Sahar H. Koubar
Full Text Available Central Diabetes Insipidus is often an overlooked complication of cardiopulmonary arrest and anoxic brain injury. We report a case of transient Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI following cardiopulmonary arrest. It developed 4 days after the arrest resulting in polyuria and marked hypernatremia of 199 mM. The latter was exacerbated by replacing the hypotonic urine by isotonic saline.
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation in place of arrest. 935.125 Section 935... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Peace Officers § 935.125 Citation in place of arrest. In any case in which a peace officer may make an arrest without a warrant, he may issue and serve a citation if he...
Kudenchuk, Peter J; Brown, Siobhan P; Daya, Mohamud; Rea, Thomas; Nichol, Graham; Morrison, Laurie J; Leroux, Brian; Vaillancourt, Christian; Wittwer, Lynn; Callaway, Clifton W; Christenson, James; Egan, Debra; Ornato, Joseph P; Weisfeldt, Myron L; Stiell, Ian G; Idris, Ahamed H; Aufderheide, Tom P; Dunford, James V; Colella, M Riccardo; Vilke, Gary M; Brienza, Ashley M; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Gray, Pamela C; Gray, Randal; Seals, Norman; Straight, Ron; Dorian, Paul
Antiarrhythmic drugs are used commonly in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for shock-refractory ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia, but without proven survival benefit. In this randomized, double-blind trial, we compared parenteral amiodarone, lidocaine, and saline placebo, along with standard care, in adults who had nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, shock-refractory ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia after at least one shock, and vascular access. Paramedics enrolled patients at 10 North American sites. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge; the secondary outcome was favorable neurologic function at discharge. The per-protocol (primary analysis) population included all randomly assigned participants who met eligibility criteria and received any dose of a trial drug and whose initial cardiac-arrest rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia was refractory to shock. In the per-protocol population, 3026 patients were randomly assigned to amiodarone (974), lidocaine (993), or placebo (1059); of those, 24.4%, 23.7%, and 21.0%, respectively, survived to hospital discharge. The difference in survival rate for amiodarone versus placebo was 3.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.4 to 7.0; P=0.08); for lidocaine versus placebo, 2.6 percentage points (95% CI, -1.0 to 6.3; P=0.16); and for amiodarone versus lidocaine, 0.7 percentage points (95% CI, -3.2 to 4.7; P=0.70). Neurologic outcome at discharge was similar in the three groups. There was heterogeneity of treatment effect with respect to whether the arrest was witnessed (P=0.05); active drugs were associated with a survival rate that was significantly higher than the rate with placebo among patients with bystander-witnessed arrest but not among those with unwitnessed arrest. More amiodarone recipients required temporary cardiac pacing than did recipients of lidocaine or placebo. Overall, neither
Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom
Police agencies devote vast resources to minimising the time that it takes them to attend the scene of a crime. Despite this, the long-standing consensus is that police response time has no meaningful effect on the likelihood of catching offenders. We revisit this question using a uniquely rich...... preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.6 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of detection. A faster response time also decreases the number of days that it takes for the police to detect a crime, conditional on eventual detection. We find stronger effects for thefts than...... for violent offenses, although the effects are large for every type of crime. We identify the higher likelihood that a suspect will be named by a victim or witness as an important mechanism though which response time makes a difference....
Ervyn Norza Céspedes
Full Text Available Este documento presenta la descripción estadística de los logros operativos de la Policía Nacional en el año 2010, los cuales se ajustan a las estrategias gubernamentales e institucionales encaminadas al despliegue efectivo de acciones preventivas, disuasivas y de control. Asimismo, contiene los aspectos relevantes de la principal estrategia operativa de la Policía Nacional, denominada Plan Nacional de Vigilancia por Cuadrantes, y los alcances del control social formal ejercido por la Policía sobre los delincuentes y la delincuencia; además, pasa por una revisión de los postulados teóricos y empíricos, tanto del control social como de las características de los victimarios, la impunidad y las herramientas para combatir el delito.
Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Moon, Mikyung; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Wilson, Annerose; Hein, Maria; Hood, Kristin; Franke, Warren D
Police officers have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Reductions in occupational physical activity may contribute to the risk, yet there have been few efforts to characterize the physical demands of police work beyond self-report. To compare measured physical activity between work and off-duty hours and assess the effects of stress on physical activity. Officers (n = 119) from six departments wore a pattern recognition monitor for 96 hours to measure total energy expenditure (kilocalorie per hour) (1k/cal = 4184 joules), activity intensity, and step count per hour. Participants were more active on their off-duty days than at work; the effects of stress on physical activity seemed moderated by sex. Police work is primarily a sedentary occupation, and officers tend to be more active on their off-duty days than during their work hours.
Geoffrey M. Steeves
Full Text Available Brazilian homicide rates are among the highest in the world, inclusive of actual war zones. However, the character of Brazil's violence is changing. Recent analyses highlight a trend of dispersion of violence such that homicide rates in urban areas, traditionally the most violent places, have stagnated and declined while smaller cities and rural areas experienced a marked increase. An incipient explanation is that this trend is related to greater economic dynamism in the smaller cities, unaccompanied by increased policing. This article's empirical analysis uses locational Hoover indexes to express the dispersions of violence and economic activity, and also generates a proxy to measure the geographic concentration of police forces. Using panel data across all 26 states from 1995 to 2011, we find evidence of a correlation between dispersion of violence and GDP to less urban areas, and ambiguous results regarding police concentration.
Full Text Available This paper illustrates how the New Zealand Police use non-financial annual report disclosures in response toadverse media publicity. This longitudinal case study spans the reporting periods ending 30 June 2000through to 30 June 2007. It involves a detailed examination of the narrative disclosures and images containedin the annual reports, including the Commissioner’s Overview and the Outcome Reports during this time.Three controversial items covered by the media were traced through the annual reports to establish whetherthe New Zealand Police use image repair discourse supplemented by semiotics in non-financial annual reportdisclosures to repair organisational legitimacy. The analysis found that non-financial disclosures together withimage repair discourse strategies were used by the New Zealand Police, a public sector agency, to repairorganisational legitimacy. This paper provides a valuable contribution to researchers and practitioners as itextends the understanding of how public sector agencies use non-financial annual report disclosures.
Antón Fernández de Rota Irimia
Full Text Available This essay outlines different forms of Western sexual police from the Seventeen Century to the present. The genealogy will approach the problem from the point of view of hermaphroditism and transvestism. By “sexual police” I mean the determinations, forms, norms and ethos that defines sex through times, as well as the categories of which it is composed, and what is permitted and is possible to do, see and say through these sexual categories. This essay, pays special attention to the fears and its embodiment in some paradigmatic figures. In particular, it analyzes the historical meaning of sexual “monstrosity”, key to understand the different polices, including the own sexual police of gender feminism.
Full Text Available In early 2012, 76 heavily armed police conducted a raid on a house in Auckland, New Zealand. The targets were Kim Dotcom, a German national with a NZ residency visa, and several colleagues affiliated with Megaupload, an online subscription-based peer-to-peer (P2P file sharing facility. The alleged offences involved facilitating unlawful file sharing and United States federal criminal copyright violations. Following the raid, several court cases provide valuable insights into emerging ‘global policing’ practices (Bowling and Sheptycki 2012 based on communications between sovereign enforcement agencies. This article uses these cases to explore the growth of ‘extraterritorial’ police powers that operate ‘across borders’ (Nadelmann 1993 as part of several broader transformations of global policing in the digital age.
J. van der Poel (Agnes)
textabstractSince the early 1990s several developments have taken place in the hard drug scene in the Netherlands. Key elements in these developments were harm reduction measures, introduction of crack, open drug scenes, police interventions, drug-related nuisance, low-threshold care facilities and
Full Text Available This article aims at a consistent search of the opinions about the judicial police as one of the subjects, contained in the Albanian criminal procedural law. In article 30 of the Albanian Criminal Procedure Code, are sanctioned the functions, division, addiction and judicial police duties. In the initial phase, the preliminary investigations are the basis of criminal proceedings. This phase includes evidences that cannot be replicated, the security measures are set, it is performed the notice of suit and necessary datas are collected. Searching, tracking, capture and bringing before trial of the perpetrators is considered as one of the oldest activities of human being. The need to ensure these regulations and the aim to prevent the consequences of any criminal activity has forced societies and different states to establish special investigative bodies (investigation and to determine by time their rights and obligations. So judicial police organs were provided and charged with competences and legal responsibility for the detection, crime preventions and research, capturing and bringing before the court, individuals or groups who commit criminal activities. From a comparative overview of legislation of the judicial police in several countries around the world, it is shown that there is no extreme change in structures and organizational patterns of these bodies, missions, powers and responsibilities they exercise (Elezi, 1997, 13. Judicial police in Albania has also been and is one of the important subjects of the criminal proceedings. In the historical perspective these bodies have had mixed origins and nature, and in different times they were military or civilian institutions. In this context, main purpose of this paper is the analysis of judicial police in
Granfeldt, Asger; Wissenberg, Mads; Hansen, Steen Møller
Aim To identify factors associated with a non-shockable rhythm as first recorded heart rhythm. Methods Patients ≥18 years old suffering out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between 2001 and 2012 were identified in the population-based Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Danish administrative registries were...... used to identify chronic diseases (within 10 years) and drug prescriptions (within 180 days). A multivariable logistic regression model, including patient related and cardiac arrest related characteristics, was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with non-shockable rhythm. Results...... compared to patients with shockable rhythm. In the adjusted multivariable regression model, pre-existing non-cardiovascular disease and drug prescription were associated with a non-shockable rhythm e.g. chronic obstructive lung disease (OR 1.44 [95% CI: 1.32–1.58]); and the prescription for antidepressants...
Ann I. Ogbo
Full Text Available The success of a security outfit depends on the strategies and structure of the organisation. The study aims to unravel the possible ways of positioning the Nigerian Police force for effective service delivery through strategic restructuring. Nigerian police was instituted by the colonial authors on the threshold of oppression to achieve subjection and control. Upon this pattern of operation, the Nigerian police force lost the confidence of the public. To position this agency for desired performance, several changes should be made in the strategies and structure of the force, de-emphasizing on the issues that are no longer recent problems and emphasizing on the current bane of the nation, such as corruption and insecurity. This paper adopted the mono-method qualitative approach which made use of secondary sources of data collection. Findings, revealed that the department of the Force that was responsible for information and intelligent gathering, the CID has lied dormant for long a time due to lack of adequate structure as a background that will add value to the department. Furthermore, the force was bedevilled with poor information gathering due to lack of trust and confidence in the police force, the level of motivation was found to be low, as there were no insurance policies for the Force. It is thus obvious to note that the Nigerian police force has suitable strategies that are capable of a sustainable performance, but it is challenged by lack of corresponding structure to work out the strategies. The study proposed that one DIG in addition to the twelve DIGs should be integrated to man a department with the duty of developing and maintaining good relationship with the public, and providing EFCC, ICPC and other crime related agencies with the needed force in discharging their duties. Finally, there is a need for an upward review of the reward and compensation package of the Nigerian Police Force as a way of stepping up on motivation
Wim Bonckaert; Kristel Vuerinckx; Johan Billen; Rob L. Hammond; Laurent Keller; Tom Wenseleers
In some ants, bees, and wasps, workers kill or "police" male eggs laid by other workers in order to maintain the reproductive primacy of the queen. Kin selection theory predicts that multiple mating by the queen is one factor that can selectively favor worker policing. This is because when the queen is mated to multiple males, workers are more closely related to the queen's sons than to the sons of other workers. Earlier work has suggested that reproductive patterns in the German wasp Vespula...
Juliana Buck Gianini
Full Text Available Faced by a growing debate on the needed reestablishment of ethics in our criminal justice system, we discuss the importance of ethics in the Judiciary Police affairs. The paper is divided into three sections. Firstly, we introduce the concepts of ethics, as well as the moral principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Secondly, we discuss the Civil Police work by describing the whole procedure chain, i.e., from the crime time up to the court trial. At last, we present a few proposals already in development regarding ethics, such as those promoted by the "Brazilian-European Conference for Corruption Prevention".
Gomes, A. Rui; Afonso, Jorge M. P.
This study describes the professional experience of military police officers from the Portuguese Republican National Guard (N = 95). We focused on the mainEste estudio analiza la experiencia profesional de agentes de la policía militar de la Guarda Nacional Republicana portuguesa (N = 95). Se centró en las principales fuentes y consecuencias del estrés, así como en las estrategias de afrontamiento. El protocolo de evaluación incluyó una pregunta cerrada y cuatro abiertas. Se realizó una categ...
Full Text Available The social construction of frontline employees’ client service plays a major role in organisational success. This study illuminated why frontline personnel are reluctant to accept organisational change which is in line with new policing philosophies. Applying modernist qualitative methodology, and particularly grounded theory within a case study design a ‘process satisfaction model’ was developed with the aim to improve employee satisfaction with internal processes and ultimately service delivery. This model may be used for change in the South African Police Service SAPS and other government departments.
high crime area known for illegal drug sales and prostitution . The area is mixed residential and business that contains a lot of vacant buildings...assessment. Not Determined Low Risk Medium Risk High Risk Compliance The overall perception by the officers of how compliant the subjects are being
that 663,032 were arrested for possession only. Legalizing the recreational use of marijuana would immediately bring relief to law enforcement...mid-2010, Calderon’s aggressive push resulted in the seizure of nearly one hundred tons of cocaine, sixty-five hundred tons of marijuana , nine...those arrested on non-violent drug charges stood at over 1.5 million. Of that, 757,969 were arrested for violating a marijuana related law and of
John M. Violanti
Conclusion: Depressive symptoms were inversely associated with BAR among police officers who were current smokers and together may be considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease among police officers. Further prospective research is warranted.
This article reflects on the personal, epistemological and methodological dilemmas of conducting (auto)ethnographic fieldwork within the police organisation. The argument is that positionality and ascribed identities complicate existing dilemmas of using participant observation within the police
being of police employees. The study adopted the descriptive survey, using 250 police employees from five local government areas of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. The three instruments used were authored-constructed questionnaires by adapting ...
, computerised database maintained by the South African Police Service. In principle, it records all public order policing activity, including all crowd incidents. While IRIS data is, potentially, a unique source for protest event analysis, it should be ...
Belenko, Steven; Dembo, Richard; Weiland, Doris; Rollie, Matthew; Salvatore, Christopher; Hanlon, Alexandra; Childs, Kristina
Background Adolescent offenders may be at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). With previous research and interventions focused on incarcerated adolescents, data are needed on STD prevalence and risk factors among newly arrested youth released to the community, a far larger subgroup. Methods Participants were recruited from all arrested youth processed at the Hillsborough County, Florida Juvenile Assessment Center during the last half of 2006 (506 males, 442 females). Participants voluntarily providing urine samples for drug testing as part of standard protocol were also consented to having their specimens split and tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, using an FDA-approved nucleic acid amplification test. Results STD prevalence was similar to those previously reported among incarcerated adolescents: 11.5% tested positive for chlamydia, 4.2% for gonorrhea, and 13.2% for either or both infections. Prevalence was significantly higher among females: 19.2% of females had either or both infections compared with 10.5% of males. Prevalence was higher for 17 to 18 year olds (15.2% of males, 25.5% of females), blacks, detained youths, drug users, and those engaged in sexual risk behaviors. Previous STD testing experience was limited. Conclusions The study indicated that a voluntary STD screening protocol is feasible for arrested youth entering the juvenile justice system, and these offenders are at high risk for STDs. Because most arrested youths are released back to the community, routine testing and treatment of recently arrested youths, and expanded access to risk reduction and prevention programs, can yield substantial public health benefits. PMID:18461014
Weeke, P; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Folke, F
being the most frequently used type of antidepressant (50.8%). Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs; odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, confidence interval (CI): 1.14-2.50) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; OR = 1.21, CI: 1.00-1.47) were both associated with comparable increases in risk of OHCA.......17-12.2). An association between cardiac arrest and antidepressant use could be documented in both the SSRI and TCA classes of drugs....
Sutton, Robert M.; Friess, Stuart H.; Maltese, Matthew R.; Naim, Maryam Y.; Bratinov, George; Weiland, Theodore R.; Garuccio, Mia; Bhalala, Utpal; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Becker, Lance B.; Berg, Robert A.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines assume that cardiac arrest victims can be treated with a uniform chest compression (CC) depth and a standardized interval administration of vasopressor drugs. This non-personalized approach does not incorporate a patient’s individualized response into ongoing resuscitative efforts. In previously reported porcine models of hypoxic and normoxic ventricular fibrillation (VF), a hemodynamic-directed resuscitation improved short-term survival compared...
Rich, Preston B; Douillet, Christelle; Buchholz, Valorie; Overby, David W; Jones, Samuel W; Cairns, Bruce A
Abstract Introduction Stasilon® is a novel hemostatic woven textile composed of allergen-free fibers of continuous filament fiberglass and bamboo yarn. The development of this product resulted from controlled in vitro thrombogenic analysis of an array of potentially hemostatic textile materials and it has been cleared for both external and internal use by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the arrest of hemorrhage. The goal of the study was to assess the hemostatic and adhesiv...
Full Text Available The introduction of new media as a means of communication by the police triggers interesting questions about the impact of such new developments, such as the effect on people’s safety perceptions. Since communication is mostly overlooked as a possible determinant of safety perception, this led to a research project into the relationship between Twitter use by community policing officers and citizen’s perceptions of safety. This article reports on a part of this study, an experiment on framing and other linguistic effects of tweets by police officers. To assess the aforementioned relationship, it is important to examine how the precise content of a community policing officer’s tweet is perceived by the public. In an experimental setting the effects of gain versus loss frames, implicit versus explicit advice and style of addressing have been tested, with regard to safety perceptions and several related factors. The results show that gain framed tweets yield significantly more positive responses concerning opinion about police performance, perceived risk of burglary or assault, safety perception and marginally for perceived crime level in the neighbourhood. Including an explicitly or implicitly formulated piece of advice in the tweets doesn’t make a difference in any of the queried variables and style of addressing has only small effects: formal address leads to slightly more positive opinions about police performance than impersonal address. The results show that formulation aspects – specifically framing – are worth taking into account in safety communications and that this type of research is beneficial for studying effects of social media.
English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J
Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hartley, Tara A.; Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.
Policing is a stressful occupation and working in this environment may make officers more vulnerable to adverse psychological and physiological outcomes. The impact of prior military experience on work stress and coping strategies has not been well-studied in police. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine differences in levels of police-related stress and coping in officers with and without military experience. Participants were 452 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-me...
Do police officers possess certain personality characteristics that make them unique compared to the non-police population? This question has been the subject of an extensive line of research. Several researchers have found evidence of a so-called police personality, while other researchers have failed to detect personality differences between the police and the public. Also, some researchers have found that officers differ from each other in terms of job performance, and that personality dif...
The unique position in society and the specific functions make the police one of the key holders of protection of the fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens. At the same time, their position and function provide police officers significant opportunities to violate the same freedoms and rights, by resorting to various forms of violation and abuse of power. This dual nature of the police authority gives us reason to question the police from a completely different angle - as a source ...
Introduction: Policing is a public health issue. The police often encounter vulnerable populations. Police officers have wide discretionary powers, which could impact on how they support vulnerable populations. In encountering vulnerable populations the police officers are required to be professional; maintaining mental health in the face of challenges is part of professionalism. Their encounters with vulnerable populations might influence their mental health which in turn might influence the...
Indonesia Republic State Police is a tool that plays a role in maintaining state security and public order, enforce the law and provide protection, guidance, and service to the community within the framework of maintaining internal security “. According to Police Act Number 2 of Year 2002 in Article 18 explained that the police were given the authority under certain circumstances to do according to his own judgment or be known as a functional discretionary powers which puts persons of police ...
Ames, Joseane; Souza, Daniele Zago
To identify the main counterfeit drugs seized by the Brazilian Federal Police and the states where seizures have been made. A retrospective descriptive study on expert reports produced by criminal investigators of the Federal Police between January 2007 and September 2010, in relation to counterfeit drugs, was carried out. The drugs with greatest numbers of seizures were selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors that are used for treating male erectile dysfunction (Cialis® and Viagra®, mean = 66% ), followed by anabolic steroids (Durateston® and Hemogenin®: 8.9% and 5.7%, respectively). The greatest proportions of the counterfeit drugs were seized in the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina (both Southeastern Brazil) and São Paulo (Southeastern), and the number of non-authentic drugs sent for investigation increased by more than 200% over the study period. There were increases in seizures of smuggled drugs found together with counterfeit drugs: 67% of the seizures included at least one smuggled drug. Counterfeiting of drugs is a severe public health problem. Identification of the classes of counterfeit drugs present in Brazil and the main Brazilian states with this problem may facilitate future preventive and suppressive actions by the Brazilian bodies responsible for such actions.
Porlier, Magali; Porlier, Ludovic; Lefort, Hugues
The cardiovascular risk of women is specific and polymorphous. Delays in treatment in women are evident and caused by multiple social and anthropological factors as well as changes to lifestyle habits which are becoming similar to those of men. Young women thereby have a higher risk of sudden death than the rest of the female and general population. A nurse who experienced cardiorespiratory arrest at the age of 30 shares her story. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Keyes, Paul H; Rams, Thomas E
An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.
Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.
Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993
Aksnes, Tonje Amb; Jacobsen, Dag
Body packers are persons who smuggle illegal drugs by swallowing condoms or plastic cylinders containing such substances. Body stuffers are drug dealers or drug abusers who swallow illegal drugs in an effort to conceal evidence during an arrest or in fear of being arrested. We report four cases and discuss management. Asymptomatic body packers may be managed conservatively with laxatives and water-soluble contrast medium. This method allows an accurate follow-up with abdominal radiography. If patients develop abdominal pain or signs and symptoms of intoxication, surgical intervention should be considered. Both types of patients should be monitored carefully.
... provide security for public housing residents. 960.505 Section 960.505 Housing and Urban Development... provide security for public housing residents. (a) Police officer. For purpose of this subpart E, “police... security for residents of a public housing development, the PHA may allow police officers who would not...
Roč. 22, č. 1 (2016), s. 171-187 ISSN 0928-1371 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010012 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : willingness to cooperate with the police * police legitimacy * trust in the police Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2016
Perez Trujillo, Monica; Ross, Stuart
Assessing and responding to risk are key elements in how police respond to domestic violence. However, relatively little is known about the way police make judgments about the risks associated with domestic violence and how these judgments influence their actions. This study examines police decisions about risk in domestic violence incidents when…
Hoggert, James; Stott, Clifford
In the wake of the 2011 ‘riots’, public order policing tactics in England and Wales have once again been brought into question. Yet, the riots came two years since police regulatory authorities in the UK called for fundamental reforms to the policing of public order. Questions are raised about why...
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accounting for military police record disclosure... § 635.14 Accounting for military police record disclosure. (a) AR 340-21 prescribes accounting policies and procedures concerning the disclosure of military police records. (b) Provost Marshals/Directors of...
Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Police personnel form the backbone for safety and security of a community hence their health is of utmost importance. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of police personnel employed in police stations of ...
... Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Police-Led Diversion Programs... Collection: Proposed new collection; comments requested (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Police-Led... information to determine the national prevalence of police-led diversion programs and provide a portrait of...
Braga, Anthony A.; Hureau, David M.; Papachristos, Andrew V.
Background: A small but growing body of research evidence suggests that place-based police interventions generate significant crime control gains. While place-based policing strategies have been adopted by a majority of U.S. police departments, very few agencies make a priori commitments to rigorous evaluations. Objective: Recent methodological…
Igun, Sylvester Nosakhare
The study examined Extrinsic motivation as correlates of work attitude of the Nigeria Police Force and its implications for counselling. 300 Police personnel were selected by random sampling technique from six departments that make up police force Headquarters, Abuja. The personnel were selected from each department using simple sampling…
Abstract. Social values such as safety and security needs of members of society are necessary to ensure a sustainable quality of life for all; guaranteed and protected by the ... Improved police-public relations and dedicated police service delivery will become more and more inevitable. Keywords: Crime, Police, South Africa ...
A sulphur dioxide converter and pollution arrester system are disclosed which involves the treatment of smoke and/or contaminated air emanating from a combustion area by passage through a zone achieving turbulence into a water spray contained first treating chamber. The turbulence zone, into which an atomized catalyst is introduced, serves to create a longer path for cooling as well as increased centrifugal motion to the solid particles in the contaminated air and also the formation of sulphur trioxide. In other words, the arrangement is such that pollution arresting action is provided in the form of ''slinging'' resulting from tangential directional movement and, when combining with the water spray in the first treating chamber, the ultimate formation of sulphuric acid. Subsequently, the contaminated air, containing amounts of sulphurous and sulphuric acids, passes through a second treating chamber, where airflow throughout the system is occasioned by action at the outlet end, such as the vacuum created by a flue and not by independent mechanical means. The arrangement serves to a twofold purpose, i.e. to minimize or arrest pollution and to convert sulphur dioxide, a component of high sulphur coal, into commercially valuable sulphuric acid
Mary P. Mercer
Full Text Available Introduction: The development of cardiac arrest centers and regionalization of systems of care may improve survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. This survey of the local EMS agencies (LEMSA in California was intended to determine current practices regarding the treatment and routing of OHCA patients and the extent to which EMS systems have regionalized OHCA care across California. Methods: We surveyed all of the 33 LEMSA in California regarding the treatment and routing of OHCA patients according to the current recommendations for OHCA management. Results: Two counties, representing 29% of the California population, have formally regionalized cardiac arrest care. Twenty of the remaining LEMSA have specific regionalization protocols to direct all OHCA patients with return of spontaneous circulation to designated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI-capable hospitals, representing another 36% of the population. There is large variation in LEMSA ability to influence inhospital care. Only 14 agencies (36%, representing 44% of the population, have access to hospital outcome data, including survival to hospital discharge and cerebral performance category scores. Conclusion: Regionalized care of OHCA is established in two of 33 California LEMSA, providing access to approximately one-third of California residents. Many other LEMSA direct OHCA patients to PCI-capable hospitals for primary PCI and targeted temperature management, but there is limited regional coordination and system quality improvement. Only one-third of LEMSA have access to hospital data for patient outcomes.
Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Hartley, Tara A; Vila, Bryan; Burchfiel, Cecil M
Police officers may be injury prone due to fatigue, erratic work hours, and insufficient sleep. This study explored injury incidence among police officers across shifts. Day-to-day shift data from computerized payroll records (1994-2010) were available from a mid-sized urban police department (n = 430). Sleep duration, shift activity level, returning to work after days off, and injury incidence over time were also examined. Age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for injury on the midnight shift was 72% larger than the day shift (IRR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.26-2.36) and 66% larger than the afternoon shift (IRR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.23-2.25). Injury incidence for the first day back on the midnight shift was 69% larger than day shift (IRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.23-2.32) and 54% larger than the afternoon shift (IRR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.36-1.76). High activity level combined with midnight shift work put officers at increased injury risk (IRR = 2.31; P = 0.0003). Probability of remaining free of injury was significantly higher for day shift than midnight shift (P < 0.0001). Higher injury risk was associated with night shift work in police officers. Night shift combined with high work activity was strongly associated with injury risk. There was a significantly higher probability of not being injured on day compared to midnight or afternoon shifts. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Boschman, J. S.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.
Background Mandatory medical examinations (MMEs) of workers should be based on the health and safety requirements that are needed for effectively performing the relevant work. For police personnel in the Netherlands, no job-specific MME exists that takes the specific tasks and duties into account.
Purpose - The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine cross-cultural perception and cooperation between black, Curacaoan and white Dutch police officers in The Netherlands. It also, compares the findings with similar research carried out in the Dutch Internal Revenue Service.
This article argues that a necessary condition for improvements to take place in the SAPS relates to improving the top leadership of the organisation. Fortunately, the National Development Plan provides a starting point as to how this can be achieved.'Police supervisors at any level need to be aware that their behaviour has ...
The Community Policing Resource Centres (CPRCs), as they are called, have a support base that draws upon five departments - Health, Women and Child, ... IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.
in the 1950s and early 1960s as military conditions of service in their respective homes improved, the Masvingo-Gutu ... always clear in the various histories of these formations, both police and military, that they were composed of many ..... where water is usually scarce and never navigable. At such times the Northern native ...
Up till today, it is somehow very disturbing that despite the constitutional power granted to the police to maintain public peace, safety and general security in Nigeria the quality of security has nothing to be proud of and it has no doubt generated a great deal of controversies. In the past two decades events confirm a total ...
This included many with previous military experience. As the British South Africa Police (BSAP) evolved from a paramilitary occupation force into a professional law enforcement organisation, extra-territorial recruits were phased out in favour of local men fluent in local languages with western-style education. Despite this ...
Margolis, Gary J.; Shtull, Penny R.
Campus police officers are often among the initial contacts for behavioral incidents involving people with mental illness. Their training and access to resources influence decisions to direct the individual to support services and/or through campus disciplinary processes and/or the criminal justice system. Over the past decade, there has been an…
Full Text Available Restorative justice is a new, different response to crime, response that offers and tries to establish justice again. Not going into aims, impact and basic principles of restorative justice, as well as into substance of different restorative practices, in this article we will concentrate on restorative interventions that lead to avoidance of the formal justice system. Concretely, we will analyze the role of the police in applying restorative interventions in the juvenile justice system. Particular emphasis will be put on the meaning and the aim of diversion procedures towards juvenile offenders that have committed minor offences and more serious ones for which they come in conflict with the law. In the foreign expert literature the concept of restorative policing is recognized (restorative approach in police conduct, as an attempt to introduce a new reform in performing police affairs. This subject should be approached very carefully and fundamentally, if we want consistent implementation of the new tendency and practices in the juvenile justice systems in accordance with the international standards.
With nightmare visions of a gunman stalking school halls, districts often rush to hire police officers to patrol their campuses after news of a school shooting. Critics of that impulsive response, which has been in high gear nationwide since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shootings in December, acknowledge the concern for student and staff…
Hawley, Karri S.; Garrity, April W.; Cherry, Katie E.
The authors examined police officers' knowledge of memory changes in adulthood utilizing the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ). The KMAQ is a 28-item true/false questionnaire that covers a broad range of topics related to normal memory aging due to maturational processes and pathological memory aging, such as adult dementia. Results…
Lavigne, Sam; Clifton, Brian; Tseng, Francis
Financial crime is a rampant but hidden threat. In spite of this, predictive policing systems disproportionately target "street crime" rather than white collar crime. This paper presents the White Collar Crime Early Warning System (WCCEWS), a white collar crime predictive model that uses random forest classifiers to identify high risk zones for incidents of financial crime.
Rorschach and a Free Drawing and a brief psychijatrc inserview.S Thi information is then asse-_bled and a decision is =nde whether or not to disqualify...Additionally, source trait profiles have been developed by Cattell for various occupations to include policement, musicians , medical personnel, teachers
van Steden, R.; Miltenburg, E; Boutellier, J.C.J.
There is a lively and long-running debate in the literature about what community policing is and how it works in everyday practice. We contribute to this expanding body of knowledge by minutely sifting and classifying the things neighbourhood coordinators (a kind of community officers) do in
In 1998, in an attempt to undo the long-standing neglect of domestic violence, legislators placed a set of duties on the police in relation to domestic violence, and coupled these with a unique system of accountability relations and practices. This article examines the effect of these in three ways: a review, both of complaints of ...
. L Freeman, C McDonald. Abstract. In order for a single South African police station to operate optimally, or indeed at any level of functionality at all, it is required to form cooperative relations with a host of external institutions. This is in addition ...
Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.
Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six
Rural farmers are not only facing challenges of severe drought blamed on the El Nino weather pattern, but the stock theft as well. The South African Police's annual crime statistics report and surveys indicates that rural livestock farmers are mostly affected by stock theft in South Africa. The costs paid by these farmers to ...
Wang, Meizhen; Schaefer, Amy L; Dandekar, Ajai A; Greenberg, E Peter
The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that uses a quorum sensing signal cascade to activate expression of dozens of genes when sufficient population densities have been reached. Quorum sensing controls production of several key virulence factors, including secreted proteases such as elastase. Cooperating groups of bacteria growing on protein are susceptible to social cheating by quorum-sensing defective mutants. A possible way to restrict cheater emergence is by policing where cooperators produce costly goods to sanction or punish cheats. The P. aeruginosa LasR-LasI quorum sensing system controls genes including those encoding proteases and also those encoding a second quorum-sensing system, the RhlR-RhlI system, which controls numerous genes including those for cyanide production. By using RhlR quorum sensing mutants and cyanide synthesis mutants, we show that cyanide production is costly and cyanide-producing cooperators use cyanide to punish LasR-null social cheaters. Cooperators are less susceptible to cyanide than are LasR mutants. These experiments demonstrate policing in P. aeruginosa, provide a mechanistic understanding of policing, and show policing involves the cascade organization of the two quorum sensing systems in this bacterium.
A national survey was carried out in all the 103 public sector and 38 private sector facilities in Malawi providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to determine uptake of ART and subsequent treatment outcomes in police force personnel. All patients registered for ART and their subsequent treatment outcomes were censored on ...
Smit, S.K.; Vries, A. de; Kleij, R. van der; Vliet, P.J. van
Predictive Policing is niets anders dan politiewerk aan de hand van voorspellingen over criminaliteit. Door verfijnde algoritmen los te laten op big data kan de politie straks misdaden voorspellen en dáár aanwezig zijn waar de kans op een volgend incident het grootst is. Deze publicatie gaat in op
Southern Rhodesia were dominated by African men from neighbouring territories such as Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia and Portuguese East Africa who had entered the regional migrant labour system. This included many with previous military experience. As the British South Africa Police (BSAP) evolved from a ...
Chan, J B
The advent of public-sector managerialism has brought with it a new principle of police accountability in Western democracies such as Australia and Britain. The new accountability gives emphasis to managerial rather than legal or public-interest standards, favours external oversight combined with self-regulation rather than centralized control, and promotes risk management rather than rule enforcement. This article makes use of the experience of an Australian police force to show that the new accountability has not been successful in holding police accountable, while elements of the old accountability have re-emerged to dominate public debates. It is argued that in the area of police governance, the neo-liberal state does not necessarily pursue a coherent strategy of 'acting at a distance' (cf. Miller and Rose 1990), partly because of the inability of accountability technologies to deliver substantially the promised policy outcomes and partly because of the sensitivity of its political arm to the public's moral outrage against corruption (cf. Garland 1996).
often seeking a terrorist, insurgent, and criminal nexus for synergy (called Grey Stew herein to describe the phenomenon). This newer form of...situation in the country. Pakistan was chosen to be the recipient of a comprehensive law enforcement and policing assistance package based on two
Mar 21, 2013 ... This article is concerned with the process of en masse recruitment implemented within the South African ... It also has not necessarily contributed to 'better policing' in South Africa. While it may have increased the potential that the SAPS will enjoy legitimacy, ... overview of data that show the impact of this.
De Bruin, M L; van Hemel, N M; Leufkens, H G M
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the validity of hospital discharge diagnosis regarding ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. METHODS: We identified patients whose record in the PHARMO record linkage system database showed a code for ventricular or unspecified cardiac arrhythmias according to cod...... according to ICD-9-CM as paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular flutter, ventricular premature beats, or cardiac arrest) have a high PPV and are useful for selecting events in epidemiological studies on drug-induced arrhythmias.......OBJECTIVE: We investigated the validity of hospital discharge diagnosis regarding ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. METHODS: We identified patients whose record in the PHARMO record linkage system database showed a code for ventricular or unspecified cardiac arrhythmias according to codes...... of the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM). The validity of ICD codes for ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest (427.1, 427.4, 427.41, 427.42, 427.5, 427.69) and ICD codes for unspecified cardiac arrhythmias (427.2, 427.60, 427.8, 427.89, 427.9) was ascertained...
Chai, Peter R; Hack, Jason B
Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) is a potential antidote for severe overdose of certain lipophilic drugs. Cocaine overdose is often fatal and has no antidote. The use of ILE after cocaine-induced cardiac arrest has been suggested but is not well characterized. The objective of the study is to determine if ILE would reverse cocaine-induced cardiac arrest in a rat model. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats with intra-arterial and intravenous access were sedated with isoflurane and split into 2 cocaine dose groups, then given either ILE or normal saline (NS) intravenously (IV)-group A, 7 animals received cocaine (10 mg/kg IV) with 6 of 7 given ILE (15 mg/kg IV) and 1 of 7 given NS (equal volume); group B, 5 animals received cocaine (5 mg/kg IV) with 3 of 5 given ILE (15 mg/kg IV) and 2 of 5 given NS (equal volume). Closed chest compressions were initiated for asystole and continued for 15 minutes with rhythm checks every minute. All 12 rats experienced cardiac arrest after cocaine bolus. Resuscitation was successful in 1 of 7 rats in group A and 0 of 5 in group B. Intravenous lipid emulsion administration did not affect outcome of cocaine-induced cardiac arrest compared with control in this model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Tao; Xie, Zi-ping; Huang, Zhan-sen; Li, Hao; Wei, An-yang; Di, Jin-ming; Xiao, Heng-jun; Zhang, Zhi-gang; Cai, Liu-hong; Tao, Xin; Qi, Tao; Chen, Di-ling; Chen, Jun
In this study, one immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell line (BPH) and four human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, 22Rv1, PC-3, and DU-145) were treated with Ganoderma Lucidum triterpenoids (GLT) at different doses and for different time periods. Cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle were analyzed using flow cytometry and chemical assays. Gene expression and binding to DNA were assessed using real-time PCR and Western blotting. It was found that GLT dose-dependently inhibited prostate cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. GLT-induced apoptosis was due to activation of Caspases-9 and -3 and turning on the downstream apoptotic events. GLT-induced cell cycle arrest (mainly G1 arrest) was due to up-regulation of p21 expression at the early time and down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and E2F1 expression at the late time. These findings demonstrate that GLT suppresses prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis, which might suggest that GLT or Ganoderma Lucidum could be used as a potential therapeutic drug for prostate cancer.
Full Text Available Arrest in flagrante delicto is one of the cases in which the international and national legal framework allows the restriction of the right to freedom. Currently, the individual and his fundamental rights are in the focus of human society. Some of them are absolute and some others have a relative character. The right to freedom, notwithstanding its importance, is a right of relative character but with cases of its restriction exhaustively defined. The protection of this right is extended both in horizontal perspective versus the actions of other persons, providing a legal-criminal defense and in vertical context, in the face of repressive power of the state, which adopted the most significant position in the case of someone’s arrest or detention. The latter constitute an indicator of an incomparable relation between the force of state power and a person’s vulnerability. The exact meaning of arrest in flagrante delicto and its application only in the conditions and criteria set out by the criminal procedural legislation prevents arbitrary restriction of the right to freedom. A key importance in the analysis of this institute is attached to ECtHR jurisprudence that is consolidated and detailed in addressing the right to freedom. The respect and application of standards affirmed by this court on part of the state institutions directly affects the consolidation of rule of law. The criminal procedural legislation has consented to the general principle according to which “only the judge has the power to apply a security measure restricting personal liberty, a measure that has continuous effects over time, although such measures have a specific maximum duration”. According to this approach, the arrest in flagrante delicto is qualified due to its character, as a temporary measure applied in situations of emergency when the procedure for security measure cannot be effectively applied. As already known, it is linked with the power of judicial
Childs, Kristina; Dembo, Richard; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James
Variations in drug use have been found across individual-level factors and community characteristics, and by type of drug used. Relatively little research, however, has examined this variation among juvenile offenders. Based on a sample of 924 newly arrested juvenile offenders, two multilevel logistic regression models predicting marijuana test…
Robert W. Balch, “The Police Personality: Fact or Fiction?,” The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology , and Police Science 63, no. 1 (March 1972): 109...Trust,” Theoretical Criminology 9, no. 4 (November 1, 2005): 464–465, doi:10.1177/1362480605057727. 92 police officers, even those in areas with...ois_ill_pe_2012_2.pdf. Balch, Robert W. “The Police Personality: Fact or Fiction?” The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology , and Police Science 63, no. 1 (March
Chang, Sheng-Wen; Coulson, N. Edward; Wang, Ping
The control of drug activity currently favors supply-side policies: drug suppliers in the U.S. face a higher arrest rate and longer sentences than demanders. We construct a simple model of drug activity with search and entry frictions in labor and drug markets. Our calibration analysis suggests a strong “dealer replacement effect.” As a result, given a variety of community objectives, it is beneficial to lower supplier arrests and raise the demand arrest rate from current values. A 10% shift from supply-side to demand-side arrests can reduce the population of potential drug dealers by 22–25,000 and raise aggregate local income by $380–400 million, at 2002 prices. (JEL Classification: D60, J60, K42, H70) PMID:27616878
Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser
with electrocardiographic documentation of VT/VF were included. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SCA and OPD. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed regarding age, sex, cardiovascular risk-profile, disease severity, and current use of respiratory drugs. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use......: A higher risk of SCA was observed in patients with OPD (n = 190 cases [15%], 622 controls [11%]) than in those without OPD (OR adjusted for cardiovascular risk-profile 1.4 [1.2-1.6]). In OPD patients with a high cardiovascular risk-profile (OR 3.5 [2.7-4.4]) a higher risk of SCA was observed than in those...
Granfeldt, Asger; Wissenberg, Mads; Hansen, Steen Møller
of COPD in OHCA patients is associated with an increased prevalence of non-shockable rhythm. METHODS: This study included OHCA patients ≥40 years from the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry (2001-2014). Population-based registries were used to identify chronic diseases and drug prescriptions. COPD was defined......INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a non-shockable rhythm as presenting rhythm in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Whether the severity of the underlying disease is related to presenting rhythm is unknown. We hypothesize that increased severity...
Pavel A. Sungurov
Full Text Available Process of organizational and regular changes in police authority in the territory of Western Siberia in the conditions of social cataclysm, growth of criminalization, revolutionary promotion and strengthening influence of crime on all aspects of life of society in 1905–1917 is researched. Since 1908 in the provincial centers the Tobolsk and Tomsk provinces the detective police is founded, and also additional (supernumerary police positions at the expense of public institutions, private firms and persons were everywhere entered. The nedoukoplektovannost of staff of police officers was observed. Actually the problem of professional training of police personnel was not solved. Especially difficult situation was observed in the small cities and villages where absence or an insignificant staff of police caused alarm in inhabitants for their safety. Despite reforms, police authority in the region neither quantitatively, nor qualitatively did not correspond to realities of local life.
Van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Fürst, Matthias Alois; Heinze, Jürgen
being expressed, but there can be asymmetries among workers in performing the actual behaviour. Here, we show that workers of the ant Pachycondyla inversa specialize in policing behaviour. In two types of behavioural assays, workers developed their ovaries and laid eggs. In the first experiment......Most animal societies are non-clonal and thus subject to conflicts. In social insects, conflict over male production can be resolved by worker policing, i.e. eating of worker-laid eggs (WLE) or aggression towards reproductive workers. All workers in a colony have an interest in policing behaviour......, reproductive workers were introduced into queenright colonies. In the second experiment, WLE were introduced. By observing which individuals policed, we found that aggressive policing was highly skewed among workers that had opportunity to police, and that a similar tendency occurred in egg policing. None...
Full Text Available In the traditional traffic police scheduling and dispatching, the applications of the position information are restricted. This paper presented a model of the traffic police on-duty behavior analysis based on time series, in order to improve the efficiency of traffic police scheduling and dispatching system. Firstly, it proposes the steps for the behavior analysis of individual traffic police on-duty. Secondly, it elaborates division method of individual traffic police on-duty behavior from background element definition and semantic concept description. Thirdly the paper builds a model concerning individual traffic police on duty behavior by applying state automaton. Finally it describes the implementation methods of key technologies on individual traffic police on duty behavior.
Full Text Available Yutaka Nakashima,1 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,2 Masanobu Okayama,3 Eiji Kajii31Department for Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 2Division of General Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan; 3Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, JapanAbstract: A 23-year-old man became unconscious while jogging. He immediately received basic life support from a bystander and was transported to our hospital. On arrival, his spontaneous circulation had returned from a state of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity. Following admission, hyperthyroidism led to a suspicion of thyroid storm, which was then diagnosed as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest. Although hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac arrest including ventricular fibrillation is rare, it should be considered when diagnosing the cause of treatable cardiac arrest.Keywords: hyperthyroidism, ventricular fibrillation, treatable cardiac arrest, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest
Carrillo Alvarez, A; Martínez Gutiérrez, A; Salvat Germán, F
Cardiorespiratory arrest in children with severe disease does not usually present suddenly or unexpectedly but is often the result of a progressive deterioration of respiratory and/or circulatory function. Before failure of these functions occurs, there is a series of clinical signs that serve as a warning. Health professionals should not only evaluate clinical signs of respiratory and/or circulatory insufficiency but should also be able to identify these warning signs as early as possible, preferably in the compensation phase, given that the possibility that this process can be reversed by therapeutic measures decreases as the process progresses.
Thomachot, L; Arnal, J M; Vialet, R; Albanèse, J; Martin, C
We report the case of a 51-year-old patient admitted after a transient cardiorespiratory arrest. The abdominal CT scan revealed the presence of hepatic portal venous gas. At laparotomy, a diffuse mesenteric ischaemia was diagnosed. The patient died from multiple organ failure in the subsequent hours. Necrotic bowel is associated with hepatic portal venous gas in 50% of the cases and the current mortality rate is 85%. Gas originates either through intestinal transmucosal passage, either by intraportal bacterial gas production, or through both mechanisms.
A Strategic Analysis of the Quality in Police Investigation : Comparing Police Investigators’ to Investigation Trainers’ Responses in Qualitative Interviews, With a Brief Discussion of Educational Consequences after July 22
The purpose of this study was to statistically investigate whether there were any differences between police investigators and investigation trainers with regard to how they reflect upon quality in police investigation. The samples consisted of 27 investigation trainers from the Norwegian Police University College and 90 police investigators from all of the 27 police districts in Norway. Data were collected through open-ended interviews based on the SWOT paradigm, and coded on SWOT and IGLO. ...
INTRODUCTION: It is thought that patients with cardiomyopathy have an increased risk of cardiac arrest on induction of anesthesia, but there is little available data. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and potential risk factors for cardiac arrest upon induction of anesthesia in children with cardiomyopathy in our institution. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed. Eligible patients included patients admitted between 1998 and 2008 with the International Statistical Classification of Disease code for cardiomyopathy (ICD-9 code 425) who underwent airway intervention for sedation or general anesthesia in the operating room, cardiac diagnostic and interventional unit (CDIU) or intensive care unit. Patients undergoing emergency airway intervention following cardiovascular collapse were excluded. For each patient, we recorded patient demographics, disease severity, anesthesia location, and anesthetic technique. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients with cardiomyopathy underwent a total of 236 anesthetic events, and four cardiac arrests were identified. One was related to bradycardia (HR<60), two were attributed to bradycardia in association with severe hypotension (systolic blood pressure<45), and the fourth arrest was related to isolated severe hypotension. Two occurred in the operating suite and two in the CDIU. There was no resulting mortality. One patient progressed to heart transplantation. Multiple combinations of anesthetic drugs were used for induction of anesthesia. CONCLUSION: We performed a review of the last 10 years of anesthesia events in children with cardiomyopathy. We report four cardiac arrests in two patients and 236 anesthetic events (1.7%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest review of these patients to date but is limited by its retrospective nature. The low cardiac arrest incidence prevents the identification of risk factors and the development of a cardiac arrest risk predictive clinical
G. Omar, Yasser; Massey, Michael; Wiuff Andersen, Lars
the microcirculation flow index (MFI) at 6 and 24h in the cardiac arrest patients, and within 6h of emergency department admission in the sepsis and control patients. RESULTS: We evaluated 30 post-cardiac arrest patients, 16 severe sepsis/septic shock patients, and 9 healthy control patients. Sublingual...... markers in the post-cardiac arrest state. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the sublingual microcirculation in post-cardiac arrest patients, severe sepsis/septic shock patients, and healthy control patients using Sidestream Darkfield microscopy. Microcirculatory flow was assessed using...
Julio César González Sandoval
Full Text Available Las nuevas funciones asignadas por ley al Ministerio Público son una necesidad dentro del marco global de modernización del Sistema de Justicia Penal Nicaragüense ya que, en el nuevo proceso penal, la Policía continuará cumpliendo con las atribuciones y funciones establecidas tanto en la Constitución Política como en la Ley No. 228 (Ley de la Policía Nacional. Pero una nueva ley buena y necesaria, además de ser obedecida, necesita legitimidad social que la haga viable en su aplicación, sin que las instituciones que han acumulado experiencia en el campo de la investigación criminal pierdan identidad y capacidad de desarrollo.
Full Text Available This study investigated the injuries sustained by an Australian specialist police division. Injury records spanning four-years were analyzed. The role being performed when the injury occurred, injury cause, body part injured, and injury-related costs were quantified. The percentage of personnel injured multiple times was documented. One hundred and thirty eight personnel reported injuries, 58 of these on multiple occasions. This resulted in 229 injuries and 76 claims being raised. Half of the injuries occurred during operational policing tasks, however training activities accounted for >30% of injuries. The most common injury was strain/sprain, and upper body injuries were 2.5-times more common than lower-body or torso injuries. 1107 shifts were lost, and injuries cost the organization $487,159 (Australian Dollars over the four-year period. The injury costs (both financial and in manpower may prompt policy makers to review the current training and post-injury rehabilitation protocols.
Full Text Available This article is a first attempt to analyze the underlying reasons behind the unprofessional behavior of the Kyrgyz military and police during ethnic conflict in Osh on June 10-14, 2010. It argues that the higher military leadership in Bishkek shares a common distrust of the Tashkent regime and overall uncertainly about power sharing two months after regime change, while lower level personnel may have provoked the Uzbek minority, because of their nationalist feelings (the majority of police and army personnel are ethnic Kyrgyz and overall frustration with the fragmented political leadership. The situation was further exacerbated by the lack of political control over the security forces and their lack of adequate training to deal with civic unrest.
Ciprani, Fabrizio; Moroni, Maria; Conte, Giovanni
The planning of specific health surveillance programs for police officers is extremely complex due to difficulty in predictability and variety of occupational hazards. Even in the case of conventional occupational risk factors clearly identified by current regulations, particular working conditions may require specific assessment to effectively identify and quantify the risk of occupational exposure. An extensive program of health surveillance, aimed at promoting overall health and effectiveness of the operators, would be really desirable, in order to help better address a number of risks that cannot be easily predicted. The progressive increase in the average age of the working population and the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases, may also suggest the need for health surveillance procedures designed to verify continued unqualified suitability to police service, providing for the identification of diversified suitability profiles in relation to age and state of health: accordingly, in regard to our field of interest, there is a close link between medico-legal eligibility and occupational medicine.
Full Text Available Le 30 juin 1880, alors que la République semble encore fragile et mal assurée, le directeur de la Sûreté générale adresse au ministre de l’Intérieur un rapport qui tire les enseignements des actions récemment menées par ses services et expose ce que devraient être les missions, les pratiques et l’organisation d’une police politique républicaine qui reste encore à inventer. Ce texte, d’un grand intérêt pour qui veut connaître les méthodes, l’organisation d’une police à l’état embryonnaire, s’...
Hohl, Bernadette C; Wiley, Shari; Wiebe, Douglas J; Culyba, Alison J; Drake, Rebecca; Branas, Charles C
Homicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States and the leading cause of death for adolescents who are African American. Large cities have disproportionate homicide rates. To determine the relationships between exposures to drugs and alcohol at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels and adolescent firearm homicide and to inform new approaches to preventing firearm violence. Population-based case-control study from January 2010 to December 2012 of all 13- to 20-year-olds who were homicide victims in Philadelphia during the study period matched to randomly selected 13- to 20-year-old controls from the general population. Individual drug and alcohol use at the time of injury, history of drug and alcohol use, caregiver drug and alcohol use, and neighborhood availability of alcohol and illegal drugs. We also controlled for age, race, school suspensions, arrests, and neighborhood ethnicity. Adolescent firearm homicide identified from police and medical examiner's reports. We enrolled 161 adolescent homicide cases, including 157 (97.5%) firearm homicide cases and 172 matched controls, including 166 (96.5%) firearm homicide controls. Adolescents with a history of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.1; 95% CI, 1.2-14.0) or drug use (AOR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7-11.6) had increased odds of firearm homicide. Adolescents whose caregiver had a history of drug use had increased odds of firearm homicide (AOR, 11.7; 95% CI, 2.8-48.0). Adolescents in neighborhoods with high densities of alcohol outlets (AOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.1) and moderate or high drug availability had increased odds of firearm homicide (AOR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1-10.3 vs AOR, 7.5; 95% CI, 2.2-25.8). Almost all adolescent homicides in Philadelphia between 2010 and 2012 were committed with a firearm. Substance use at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels was associated with increased odds of adolescent firearm homicide; drug use was associated at all 3 levels and
Zetas employ thousands of people that range in age from young kids playing in the street to older citizens, whose jobs vary from white collar ...favor legitimately buying vehicles or renting houses instead of stealing or committing crimes that would cause bystanders to call the police.208...drugs from the supply chain, little significance of that 4 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
already high on drugs." Syed Meir said: "We want to get rid of the favourite haunts of drug addicts." [Text] [Kuala Lumpur NEW STRAITS TIMES in... corruption of minors. No Matamoros police _ officer has carried out to date this judicial order. Later, after the Scorpio Lounge had been closed, the
Miller, B L
In cardiac arrest research, prior informed consent is not available to resolve the conflict between the rights and well-being of subjects and the possible benefit to future patients. The right to autonomy is the fundamental right that is protected by the legal doctrine of informed consent. As a fundamental right, it cannot be balanced against other goods. Rather, it is a constraint, or trump, on the balancing of goods and can be overridden only for a narrow range of reasons: its recognition in a given case conflicts with another basic right, infringing the right will prevent great harm to others, and excluding a particular case from its scope will recognize and advance the right in the long run. Proxy consent, deferred consent, and presumed consent to cardiac arrest research are examined to determine if they qualify as justified infringements of the right to autonomy. The conclusion is that only presumed consent can be used, provided that the researcher can honestly say that outside of the randomized clinical trial of two or more treatments, a physician would have no basis for choosing one over the others.
Hyo Shik Kim
Full Text Available A 65-year-old man was transferred from the Department of Vascular Surgery to Nephrology because of cardiac arrest during hemodialysis. He underwent incision and drainage for treatment of a buttock abscess. Nafamostat mesilate was used as an anticoagulant for hemodialysis to address bleeding from the incision and drainage site. Sudden cardiac arrest occurred after 15 minutes of dialysis. The patient was treated in the intensive care unit for 5 days. Continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration was started without any anticoagulant in the intensive care unit. Conventional hemodialysis was reinitiated, and nafamostat mesilate was used again because of a small amount of continued bleeding. Ten minutes after hemodialysis, the patient complained of anaphylactic signs and symptoms such as dyspnea, hypotension, and facial swelling. Epinephrine, dexamethasone, and pheniramin were injected under the suspicion of anaphylactic shock, and the patient recovered. Total immunoglobulin E titer was high, and skin prick test revealed weak positivity for nafamostat mesilate. We first report a case of anaphylactic shock caused by nafamostat mesilate in Korea.