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Sample records for pole scaphoid nonunion

  1. Novel Treatment of a Scapholunate Ligament Injury with Proximal Pole Scaphoid Nonunion

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    Gaspar, Michael P.; Kane, Patrick M.; Jacoby, Sidney M.; Culp, Randall W.

    2016-01-01

    Background  Nonunion of scaphoid proximal pole fractures presents a challenging management dilemma to hand surgeons. This problem is further complicated in the uncommon concurrence of scapholunate (SL) ligament disruption. Case Description  A 39-year-old male patient presented with new-onset wrist pain following a remote history of a proximal pole scaphoid fracture sustained as a teenager, which was treated nonoperatively. Six months before presentation, the patient sustained a fall while snowboarding. The patient was found to have a chronic nonunion of his scaphoid proximal pole with an associated SL ligament disruption. As the proximal fragment was too small to be amenable to fixation, the patient was treated with an arthroscopic partial scaphoid excision and SL ligament reconstruction using a scapholunateintercarpal screw placed percutaneously. At 26 months, the patient exhibited no pain, near-normal strength, and wrist motion, and expressed a high-level of satisfaction from his surgery. Literature Review  Although cases of SL ligament disruption with concomitant proximal scaphoid fractures have been reported, to our knowledge, this is the first report of SL ligament rupture occurring in the setting of a preexisting proximal pole scaphoid nonunion. Clinical Relevance  We report the use of SL ligament reconstruction augmented with intercarpal screw fixation, and excision of the proximal pole scaphoid nonunion. This minimallyinvasive approach may be a particularly useful option in young, active patients such as our own, where a motion-sacrificing salvage procedure would be less than ideal. PMID:27616829

  2. Proximal Pole Scaphoid Nonunion Reconstruction With 1,2 Intercompartmental Supraretinacular Artery Vascularized Graft and Compression Screw Fixation.

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    Morris, Mark S; Zhu, Andy F; Ozer, Kagan; Lawton, Jeffrey N

    2018-02-06

    To review the incidence of union of patients with proximal pole scaphoid fracture nonunions treated using a 1,2 intercompartmental supraretinacular artery (1,2 ICSRA) vascularized graft and a small compression screw. This is a retrospective case series of 12 patients. Calculations of the size of the proximal pole fragment relative to the total scaphoid were performed using posteroanterior view scaphoid radiographs with the wrist in ulnar deviation and flat on the cassette. Analyses were repeated 3 times per subject, and the average ratio of proximal pole fragment relative to the entire scaphoid was calculated. We reviewed medical records, radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) scans of these 12 patients. The CT scans that were performed after an average of 12 weeks were ultimately used to confirm union of the scaphoid fractures. One patient was unable to have a CT so was excluded from the final calculation. All 11 (100%) scaphoid fractures that were assessed by CT were found to be healed at the 12-week assessment point. The mean proximal pole fragment size was 18% (range, 7%-27%) of the entire scaphoid. The 1,2 ICSRA vascularized graft and compression screw was an effective treatment for patients with proximal pole scaphoid fractures. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bone graft in the treatment of nonunion of the scaphoid with necrosis of the proximal pole: a literature review.

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    Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Lech, Osvandré Luiz Canfield; Barreto Filho, Danilo; Strack, Daniel Paulo; Candido, Larissa Knapp

    2017-01-01

    Scaphoid fractures are the most common fractures of the carpal bones, corresponding to 60%. Of these, 10% progress to nonunion; moreover, 3% can present necrosis of the proximal pole. There are various methods of treatment using vascularized and non-vascularized bone grafts. To evaluate and compare the rate of scaphoid consolidation with necrosis of the proximal pole using different surgical techniques. The authors conducted a review of the literature using the following databases: PubMed and BIREME/LILACS, where 13 case series were selected (ten with use of vascularized bone grafts and three of non-vascularized bone grafts), according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. In most cases VBGs were used, especially those based on the 1,2 intercompartmental supraretinacular artery, due to greater reproducibility in performing the surgical technique.

  4. A Scapholunate Ligament-Sparing Technique Utilizing the Medial Femoral Condyle Corticocancellous Free Flap to Reconstruct Scaphoid Nonunions With Proximal Pole Avascular Necrosis.

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    Kazmers, Nikolas H; Thibaudeau, Stephanie; Levin, L Scott

    2016-09-01

    This article demonstrates a technique for the treatment of scaphoid fracture waist and proximal pole nonunions with avascular necrosis using a free vascularized medial femoral condyle flap. We present our surgical technique and representative case examples in which the scapholunate ligament, a key structure required to preserve carpal kinematics, is spared. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. MR imaging of avascular scaphoid nonunion before and after vascularized bone grafting

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    Anderson, Suzanne E.; Tschering-Vogel, Dechen; Martin, Matthias [University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Department of Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, California (United States); Nagy, Ladislav [University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of chronic nonunion of the scaphoid with proximal pole avascular necrosis before and after insertion of a vascularized bone graft, using computed tomography (CT) as the imaging gold standard. A retrospective study was performed involving MR imaging (n=26), CT scans (n=37) and radiographs (n=52) of 13 men (mean age 29 years, age range 20-38 years) with avascular scaphoid nonunion. Avascular necrosis of the scaphoid proximal pole was confirmed intraoperatively (n=13). MR images were acquired preoperatively and following placement of a vascularized bone graft. Scaphoid MR signal characteristics were assessed for evidence of vascular bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the bone marrow of the proximal pole of the scaphoid and compared with the gold standard of CT. Surgical and clinical notes were reviewed with a minimum 3 year imaging and clinical follow-up in all patients. Graft incorporation with revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid was documented in 9 patients (69%). Graft failure with persistent pseudoarthrosis and avascular necrosis of the scaphoid was seen in 4 patients (31%). MR imaging is useful to determine whether vascularized bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid has occurred in the setting of avascular scaphoid nonunion. (orig.)

  6. MR imaging of avascular scaphoid nonunion before and after vascularized bone grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Suzanne E.; Tschering-Vogel, Dechen; Martin, Matthias; Steinbach, Lynne S.; Nagy, Ladislav

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of chronic nonunion of the scaphoid with proximal pole avascular necrosis before and after insertion of a vascularized bone graft, using computed tomography (CT) as the imaging gold standard. A retrospective study was performed involving MR imaging (n=26), CT scans (n=37) and radiographs (n=52) of 13 men (mean age 29 years, age range 20-38 years) with avascular scaphoid nonunion. Avascular necrosis of the scaphoid proximal pole was confirmed intraoperatively (n=13). MR images were acquired preoperatively and following placement of a vascularized bone graft. Scaphoid MR signal characteristics were assessed for evidence of vascular bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the bone marrow of the proximal pole of the scaphoid and compared with the gold standard of CT. Surgical and clinical notes were reviewed with a minimum 3 year imaging and clinical follow-up in all patients. Graft incorporation with revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid was documented in 9 patients (69%). Graft failure with persistent pseudoarthrosis and avascular necrosis of the scaphoid was seen in 4 patients (31%). MR imaging is useful to determine whether vascularized bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid has occurred in the setting of avascular scaphoid nonunion. (orig.)

  7. Angular Stable Miniplate Fixation of Chronic Unstable Scaphoid Nonunion.

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    Schormans, Philip M J; Brink, Peter R G; Poeze, Martijn; Hannemann, Pascal F W

    2018-02-01

    Background  Around 5 to 15% of all scaphoid fractures result in nonunion. Treatment of long-lasting scaphoid nonunion remains a challenge for the treating surgeon. Healing of scaphoid nonunion is essential for prevention of scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse and the subsequent predictable pattern of radiocarpal osteoarthritis. Purpose  The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of fixation of the scaphoid nonunion with a volar angular stable miniplate and cancellous bone grafting. We hypothesized that this technique could be successful, even in patients with previous surgery for nonunion and in patients with a long duration of nonunion. Patients and Methods  A total of 21 patients enrolled in a single-center prospective cohort study. Healing of nonunion was assessed on multiplanar computed tomography scan of the wrist at a 3-month interval. Functional outcome was assessed by measuring grip strength, range of motion, and by means of the patient-rated wrist and hand evaluation (PRWHE) questionnaire. Results  During follow-up, 19 out of 21 patients (90%) showed radiological healing of the nonunion. The range of motion did not improve significantly. Postoperative PRWHE scores decreased by 34 points. Healing occurred regardless of the length of time of the nonunion (range: 6-183 months) and regardless of previous surgery (38% of patients). Conclusion  Volar angular stable miniplate fixation with autologous cancellous bone grafting is a successful technique for the treatment of chronic unstable scaphoid nonunion, even in patients with long-lasting nonunion and in patients who underwent previous surgery for a scaphoid fracture. Rotational interfragmentary stability might be an important determining factor for the successful treatment of unstable scaphoid nonunion. Level of Evidence  Level IV.

  8. Using computed tomography to assist with diagnosis of avascular necrosis complicating chronic scaphoid nonunion.

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    Smith, Michael L; Bain, Gregory I; Chabrel, Nick; Turner, Perry; Carter, Chris; Field, John

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to investigate use of long axis computed tomography (CT) in predicting avascular necrosis of the proximal pole of the scaphoid and subsequent fracture nonunion after internal fixation. In addition, we describe a new technique of measuring the position of a scaphoid fracture and provide data on its reproducibility. Thirty-one patients operated on by the senior author for delayed union or nonunion of scaphoid fracture were included. Preoperative CT scans were independently assessed for increased radiodensity of the proximal pole, converging trabeculae, degree of deformity, comminution, and fracture position. Intraoperative biopsies of the proximal pole were obtained and histologically assessed for evidence of avascular necrosis. The radiologic variables were statistically compared with the histologic findings. The presence of avascular necrosis was also compared with postoperative union status, identified on longitudinal CT scans. Preoperative CT features that statistically correlated with histologic evidence of avascular necrosis were increased radiodensity of the proximal pole and the absence of any converging trabeculae between the fracture fragments. The radiologic changes of avascular necrosis and the histologic confirmation of avascular necrosis were associated with persistent nonunion. Preoperative longitudinal CT of scaphoid nonunion is of great value in identifying avascular necrosis and predicting subsequent fracture union. If avascular necrosis is suspected based on preoperative CT, management options include vascularized bone grafts and bone morphogenic protein for younger patients and limited wrist arthrodesis for older patients. Diagnostic II.

  9. An alternative graft fixation technique for scaphoid nonunions treated with vascular bone grafting.

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    Korompilias, Anastasios V; Lykissas, Marios G; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis P; Gkiatas, Ioannis; Beris, Alexandros E

    2014-07-01

    To present our experience with vascularized bone grafting based on the 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery for the management of established scaphoid nonunion and to investigate the efficacy of graft immobilization with a combination of Kirschner wires and transarticular external fixation. A retrospective chart and radiographic review was conducted for patients with the diagnosis of scaphoid nonunion of the proximal pole or the waist treated with the 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery-based vascularized graft and fixed with a combination of Kirschner wires and transarticular external fixation between 2007 and 2011. We observed 23 consecutive patients for a mean of 34 ± 4 months. All patients were males with mean age of 25 ± 5 years. All patients had scaphoid nonunion and associated humpback deformity. The mean duration of nonunion was 7 ± 1 months. All scaphoid nonunions united after the index procedure at a mean of 10 ± 1 weeks. Two patients had avascular necrosis of the proximal pole based on the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings. After surgery, deformity correction was achieved in all patients, as recorded by the decrease in the lateral intrascaphoid angle and the increase in the dorsal scaphoid angle. At the last follow-up, no patients reported wrist pain. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score improved significantly from 32 ± 12 before the operation to 5 ± 3 at the last postoperative visit. All patients showed statistically significant improvement in the range of motion and the grip strength of the involved wrist. The results of this study support the combined use of Kirschner wires and transarticular external fixation for fixation of a 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery-based vascular bone graft in the treatment of scaphoid nonunions. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of scaphoid nonunion with avascular necrosis using 1,2 intercompartmental supraretinacular arterial bone graft

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    Mohamad Dehghani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: 1,2 ICSRA, introduced by Aidembery et al., is a well-established technique, with up to 100% union rate among different studies . The purpose of our study was to evaluate the outcome of scaphoid nonunion undergoing 1,2 ICSRA bone graft in Iran. Materials and Methods: All participants who presented sequentially over a period of 24 months between 2010 and 2013 with nonunion scaphoid fracture with AVN in proximal pole were included in the study. Anteroposterior and lateral view plain radiographs of carpal bones were obtained for diagnosis of nonunion, and a diagnosis of avascular necrosis was made by MRI of the scaphoid. Subjects underwent 1,2 ICSRA bone graft surgery. Patients were assessed based on radiographs and the Mayo Wrist Score (MWS questionnaire on before and after surgery. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 18 by paired t test. Results: Overall, 16 patients (100% male were included in the study. Mean age of subjects was 27.50 ± 5.86 (18 to 38. Mean Mayo score was 36.63 ± 8.92 and 83.75 ± 9.22 before and 6 month after surgery, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001. after 8 weeks, 10 (62.5% had union, and after 12 weeks, all subjects had union. Nine (56.25% of our patients had excellent functional outcome, 5 (31.25% had good and 2 (12.5% had satisfactory functional outcome. Conclusion: 1,2 ICSRA is a proper pedicle of vascularized bone graft due to the ease of visibility and dissection. The functional results and union rates were satisfactory in our study.

  11. Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the distal pole of the scaphoid

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    Bhavuk Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Post traumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of scaphoid is very rare. We present a case of 34 years old male, drill operator by occupation with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of the scaphoid. The patient was managed conservatively and was kept under regular follow-up every three months. The patient was also asked to change his profession. Two years later, the patient had no pain and had mild restriction of wrist movements (less than 15 degrees in either direction. The radiographs revealed normal density of the scaphoid suggesting revascularization.

  12. Non-vascularized iliac bone grafting for scaphoid nonunion with avascular necrosis.

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    Kim, Jihyeung; Park, Jin Woo; Chung, Jeehyeok; Jeong Bae, Kee; Gong, Hyun Sik; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2018-01-01

    We present the surgical outcomes of non-vascularized bone grafting taken from the iliac crest in 24 patients with scaphoid nonunion and avascular necrosis. The Fisk-Fernandez technique was used in 11 patients, and cancellous bone grafting was used in 13 patients. Bony union was achieved in 22 of the 24 patients. Non-vascularized iliac bone grafting can be used for the surgical management of scaphoid nonunion with avascular necrosis. Although revascularization of the proximal fragment after surgery was not evaluated, bony union was confirmed in nearly all patients. IV.

  13. Analysis of ulnar variance as a risk factor for developing scaphoid nonunion.

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    Lirola-Palmero, S; Salvà-Coll, G; Terrades-Cladera, F J

    2015-01-01

    Ulnar variance may be a risk factor of developing scaphoid non-union. A review was made of the posteroanterior wrist radiographs of 95 patients who were diagnosed of scaphoid fracture. All fractures with displacement less than 1mm treated conservatively were included. The ulnar variance was measured in all patients. Ulnar variance was measured in standard posteroanterior wrist radiographs of 95 patients. Eighteen patients (19%) developed scaphoid nonunion, with a mean value of ulnar variance of -1.34 (-/+ 0.85) mm (CI -2.25 - 0.41). Seventy seven patients (81%) healed correctly, and the mean value of ulnar variance was -0.04 (-/+ 1.85) mm (CI -0.46 - 0.38). A significant difference was observed in the distribution of ulnar variance (pvariance less than -1mm, and ulnar variance greater than -1mm. It appears that patients with ulnar variance less than -1mm had an OR 4.58 (CI 1.51 to 13.89) with pvariance less than -1mm have a greater risk of developing scaphoid nonunion, OR 4.58 (CI 1.51 to 13.89) with p<.007. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. What is the Optimal Treatment of Atrophic Scaphoid Non-Union?

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    Alper Cirakli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of the treatment method of autogenous iliac wing or radius bone graft and fixation with screw applied to cases of scaphoid non-union. Material and Method: A retrospective evaluation was made of 89 cases between 2000 and 2014. Postoperative measurements were taken of both wrists%u2019 movement with a goniometer and muscle strength was assessed with a dynamometer. Fractures were evaluated radiologically according to the Herbert-Fisher System and the functional results according to the Herbert-Fisher Classification System and the Mayo Clinic Modified Wrist Scoring System. The data were input to the SPSS system and evaluated with the Shapiro-Wilk test. Results: Non-union were on the right side in 47 and the left side in 42 cases. The fracture was seen to be in the waist in 60 cases (67.5%, in the proximal third in 27 cases (30.3% and in the distal third in two cases (2.2%. The mean follow-up period was 16.4 months (range, 5-72 months. Definitive findings of union were observed in 71 cases. The mean time to union was 14.9 weeks (range, 8-40 weeks. Discussion: The grafting procedure applied is an invasive technique but if it is considered that there are negative effects of open surgery on the feeding of the scaphoid bone, then in the treatment of scaphoid non-union which is atrophic non-union, ultimately autogenous bone grafting and screw fixation is a safe and successful method and because of the pain created by an iliac wing graft, radius distal bone graft can be considered more appropriate.

  15. Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion: Is intravenous contrast agent necessary in MRI?

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    Schmitt, R., E-mail: schmitt.radiologie@herzchirurgie.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cardiovascular Center, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Christopoulos, G.; Wagner, M. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cardiovascular Center, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Krimmer, H. [Department of Hand Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Fodor, S. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cardiovascular Center, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Schoonhoven, J. van; Prommersberger, K.J. [Department of Hand Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study is to assess the diagnostic value of intravenously applied contrast agent for diagnosing osteonecrosis of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion, and to compare the imaging results with intraoperative findings. Materials and methods: In 88 patients (7 women, 81 men) suffering from symptomatic scaphoid nonunion, preoperative MRI was performed (coronal PD-w FSE fs, sagittal-oblique T1-w SE nonenhanced and T1-w SE fs contrast-enhanced, sagittal T2*-w GRE). MRI interpretation was based on the intensity of contrast enhancement: 0 = none, 1 = focal, 2 = diffuse. Intraoperatively, the osseous viability was scored by means of bleeding points on the osteotomy site of the proximal scaphoid fragment: 0 = absent, 1 = moderate, 2 = good. Results: Intraoperatively, 17 necrotic, 29 compromised, and 42 normal proximal fragments were found. In nonenhanced MRI, bone viability was judged necrotic in 1 patient, compromised in 20 patients, and unaffected in 67 patients. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed 14 necrotic, 21 compromised, and 53 normal proximal fragments. Judging surgical findings as the standard of reference, statistical analysis for nonenhanced MRI was: sensitivity 6.3%, specificity 100%, positive PV 100%, negative PV 82.6%, and accuracy 82.9%; statistics for contrast-enhanced MRI was: sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 98.6%, positive PV 92.9%, negative PV 94.6%, and accuracy 94.3%. Sensitivity for detecting avascular proximal fragments was significantly better (p < 0.001) in contrast-enhanced MRI in comparison to nonenhanced MRI. Conclusion: Viability of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion can be significantly better assessed with the use of contrast-enhanced MRI as compared to nonenhanced MRI. Bone marrow edema is an inferior indicator of osteonecrosis. Application of intravenous gadolinium is recommended for imaging scaphoid nonunion.

  16. Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion: Is intravenous contrast agent necessary in MRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Christopoulos, G.; Wagner, M.; Krimmer, H.; Fodor, S.; Schoonhoven, J. van; Prommersberger, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study is to assess the diagnostic value of intravenously applied contrast agent for diagnosing osteonecrosis of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion, and to compare the imaging results with intraoperative findings. Materials and methods: In 88 patients (7 women, 81 men) suffering from symptomatic scaphoid nonunion, preoperative MRI was performed (coronal PD-w FSE fs, sagittal-oblique T1-w SE nonenhanced and T1-w SE fs contrast-enhanced, sagittal T2*-w GRE). MRI interpretation was based on the intensity of contrast enhancement: 0 = none, 1 = focal, 2 = diffuse. Intraoperatively, the osseous viability was scored by means of bleeding points on the osteotomy site of the proximal scaphoid fragment: 0 = absent, 1 = moderate, 2 = good. Results: Intraoperatively, 17 necrotic, 29 compromised, and 42 normal proximal fragments were found. In nonenhanced MRI, bone viability was judged necrotic in 1 patient, compromised in 20 patients, and unaffected in 67 patients. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed 14 necrotic, 21 compromised, and 53 normal proximal fragments. Judging surgical findings as the standard of reference, statistical analysis for nonenhanced MRI was: sensitivity 6.3%, specificity 100%, positive PV 100%, negative PV 82.6%, and accuracy 82.9%; statistics for contrast-enhanced MRI was: sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 98.6%, positive PV 92.9%, negative PV 94.6%, and accuracy 94.3%. Sensitivity for detecting avascular proximal fragments was significantly better (p < 0.001) in contrast-enhanced MRI in comparison to nonenhanced MRI. Conclusion: Viability of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion can be significantly better assessed with the use of contrast-enhanced MRI as compared to nonenhanced MRI. Bone marrow edema is an inferior indicator of osteonecrosis. Application of intravenous gadolinium is recommended for imaging scaphoid nonunion.

  17. Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion: is intravenous contrast agent necessary in MRI?

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    Schmitt, R; Christopoulos, G; Wagner, M; Krimmer, H; Fodor, S; van Schoonhoven, J; Prommersberger, K J

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to assess the diagnostic value of intravenously applied contrast agent for diagnosing osteonecrosis of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion, and to compare the imaging results with intraoperative findings. In 88 patients (7 women, 81 men) suffering from symptomatic scaphoid nonunion, preoperative MRI was performed (coronal PD-w FSE fs, sagittal-oblique T1-w SE nonenhanced and T1-w SE fs contrast-enhanced, sagittal T2*-w GRE). MRI interpretation was based on the intensity of contrast enhancement: 0 = none, 1 = focal, 2 = diffuse. Intraoperatively, the osseous viability was scored by means of bleeding points on the osteotomy site of the proximal scaphoid fragment: 0=absent, 1 = moderate, 2 = good. Intraoperatively, 17 necrotic, 29 compromised, and 42 normal proximal fragments were found. In nonenhanced MRI, bone viability was judged necrotic in 1 patient, compromised in 20 patients, and unaffected in 67 patients. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed 14 necrotic, 21 compromised, and 53 normal proximal fragments. Judging surgical findings as the standard of reference, statistical analysis for nonenhanced MRI was: sensitivity 6.3%, specificity 100%, positive PV 100%, negative PV 82.6%, and accuracy 82.9%; statistics for contrast-enhanced MRI was: sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 98.6%, positive PV 92.9%, negative PV 94.6%, and accuracy 94.3%. Sensitivity for detecting avascular proximal fragments was significantly better (p<0.001) in contrast-enhanced MRI in comparison to nonenhanced MRI. Viability of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion can be significantly better assessed with the use of contrast-enhanced MRI as compared to nonenhanced MRI. Bone marrow edema is an inferior indicator of osteonecrosis. Application of intravenous gadolinium is recommended for imaging scaphoid nonunion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new variant of scaphoid reconstruction: Treatment of scaphoid non-union with avascular bone interponate and high compression screw (Synthes

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    Eder, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid fractures as frequently overseen injuries often result in scaphoid non-unions, that need to be treated to prevent carpal collapse and secondary cartilage damage. Vital bone tissue and compression of fracture and bone graft ends seem to be crucial in for ossification and final bone healing. In the present study we compare our results using a high compression screw (HCS Synthes to results in the literature using different kinds of internal fixation including compression screws of various types. We present 22 patients with scaphoid non-unions treated with a bone graft and a HCS Synthes. We evaluated our post-operative results. The Manchester-Modified Disability of the Shoulder, Arm and Hand–Score (M-Dash imposed with an average of 29.8 points (MD=29 / SD=9.46 / MIN=18 / MAX=48. None of the re-evaluated patients sorrowed for pain in rest. Five patients stated pain (ranging from 4 to 8 on numeric analogue scale after heavy burden (e.g. boxing, weight lifting.In exploring the range of motion of the operated hand we deliver the following results: dorsal extension: average 72.73° (MD=80° / SD=17.23° / MIN=30° / MAX=85°, flexion: average 73.64° (MD=80° / SD=8.97° / MIN=60° / MAX=80°, ulnar deviation: average 39.09°, (MD=40° / SD=2.02° / MIN=35° / MAX=40°, radial deviation: average 29.09°, (MD=30° / SD=3.01° / MIN=20° / MAX=30°. Additionally a performance testing was conducted: fist clenching sign: complete without pain in 100%, pinch grip: complete in 100%, moderate pain in n=1 (8.33%, opposition digitus manus I–V complete in 100%, moderate pain n=2 (16.67%. Three patients with persisting fracture gap had a scaphoid bone fractured in the proximal third; one patient even with a very small proximal fragment. One persisting non-union was localized in the middle third (period between injury and operation = . In conclusion, our patients showed better healing rates compared to results presented in the literature. Non-unions

  19. Is dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI useful for assessing proximal fragment vascularity in scaphoid fracture delayed and non-union?

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    Ng, Alex W.H.; Griffith, James F.; Li, Alvin [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Taljanovic, Mihra S. [The University of Arizona Health Network, Department of Medical Imaging, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., P.O. Box 245067, Tucson, AZ (United States); Tse, W.L.; Ho, P.C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-07-15

    To assess dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) as a measure of vascularity in scaphoid delayed-union or non-union. Thirty-five patients (34 male, one female; mean age, 27.4 {+-} 9.4 years; range, 16-51 years) with scaphoid delayed-union and non-union who underwent DCE MRI of the scaphoid between September 2002 and October 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Proximal fragment vascularity was classified as good, fair, or poor on unenhanced MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and DCE MRI. For DCE MRI, enhancement slope, E{sub slope} comparison of proximal and distal fragments was used to classify the proximal fragment as good, fair, or poor vascularity. Proximal fragment vascularity was similarly graded at surgery in all patients. Paired t test and McNemar test were used for data comparison. Kappa value was used to assess level of agreement between MRI findings and surgical findings. Twenty-five (71 %) of 35 patients had good vascularity, four (11 %) had fair vascularity, and six (17 %) had poor vascularity of the proximal scaphoid fragment at surgery. DCE MRI parameters had the highest correlation with surgical findings (kappa = 0.57). Proximal scaphoid fragments with surgical poor vascularity had a significantly lower E{sub max} and E{sub slope} than those with good vascularity (p = 0.0043 and 0.027). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy of DCE MRI in predicting impaired vascularity was 67, 86, 67, 86, and 80 %, respectively, which was better than that seen with unenhanced and post-contrast MRI. Flattened time intensity curves in both proximal and distal fragments were a feature of protracted non-union with a mean time interval of 101.6 {+-} 95.5 months between injury and MRI. DCE MRI has a higher diagnostic accuracy than either non-enhanced MRI or contrast enhanced MRI for assessing proximal fragment vascularity in scaphoid delayed-union and non-union. For proper interpretation of contrast

  20. The Comparison Of Results For The Bone Grafting In Treatment Of Scaphoid Nonunion With And Without Avascular Necrosis

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    Iman Qomashi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The varieties of treatment methods for the scaphoid nonunion have always been a discussable issue for orthopaedic surgeons. The current study, considered to be review for treatment results of the patients who sustained the scaphoid nonunion with or without avascular necrosis and compared these two groups clinically and radiologically. Methods: The clinical and radiologic files of the patients who sustained the scaphoid nonunion and underwent surgical treatment between 2004 and 2009 in our hospital, were collected and in the final follow-up, 37 patients and 38 nonunions underwent physical exam, grip power test, DASH questionnaire and radiography. Results: Avascular necrosis was detected in 22 cases and 16 cases had no avascular necrosis changes. Following open reduction and bone grafing, union was seen in 36 cases, and nonunion in 2 cases which one was in the avascular necrosis group and another in without avascular necrosis group. The comparison of the residual pain, range of motion, DASH score and grip power in two groups, did not show a meaningful difference (p>0.05. Conclusion: Although multiple studies indicated that in the presence of the avascular necrosis in the proximal fragment of the scaphiod, possibility of union in the conventional graft methods was lower than vascular pedicle grafts, but this study demonstrated that the conventional treatment method yet was associated with a considerable successs and a reliable treatment method.

  1. Accuracy of enhanced and unenhanced MRI in diagnosing scaphoid proximal pole avascular necrosis and predicting surgical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.G. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Wang, D.T. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Chhabra, A.B. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Orthopedics, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Determine the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of unenhanced and enhanced MRI in diagnosing scaphoid proximal pole (PP) avascular necrosis (AVN) and correlate whether MRI can help guide the selection of a vascularized or nonvascularized bone graft. The study was approved by the IRB. Two MSK radiologists independently performed a retrospective review of unenhanced and enhanced MRIs from 18 patients (16 males, 2 females; median age, 17.5 years) with scaphoid nonunions and surgery performed within 65 days of the MRI. AVN was diagnosed on the unenhanced MRI when a diffusely decreased T1-W signal was present in the PP and on the enhanced MRI when PP enhancement was less than distal pole enhancement. Surgical absence of PP bleeding was diagnostic of PP AVN. Postoperative osseous union (OU) was assessed with computed tomography and/or radiographs. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for PP AVN were 71, 82 and 78 % for unenhanced and 43, 82 and 67 % for enhanced MRI. Patients with PP AVN on unenhanced MRI had 86 % (6/7) OU; 100 % (5/5) OU with vascularized bone grafts and 50 % (1/2) OU with nonvascularized grafts. Patients with PP AVN on enhanced MRI had 80 % (4/5) OU; 100 % (3/3) OU with vascularized bone grafts and 50 % (1/2) OU with nonvascularized grafts. Patients with viable PP on unenhanced and enhanced MRI had 91 % (10/11) and 92 % (12/13) OU, respectively, all but one with nonvascularized graft. When PP AVN is evident on MRI, OU is best achieved with vascularized grafts. If PP AVN is absent, OU is successful with nonvascularized grafts. (orig.)

  2. Accuracy of enhanced and unenhanced MRI in diagnosing scaphoid proximal pole avascular necrosis and predicting surgical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.G.; Wang, D.T.; Chhabra, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Determine the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of unenhanced and enhanced MRI in diagnosing scaphoid proximal pole (PP) avascular necrosis (AVN) and correlate whether MRI can help guide the selection of a vascularized or nonvascularized bone graft. The study was approved by the IRB. Two MSK radiologists independently performed a retrospective review of unenhanced and enhanced MRIs from 18 patients (16 males, 2 females; median age, 17.5 years) with scaphoid nonunions and surgery performed within 65 days of the MRI. AVN was diagnosed on the unenhanced MRI when a diffusely decreased T1-W signal was present in the PP and on the enhanced MRI when PP enhancement was less than distal pole enhancement. Surgical absence of PP bleeding was diagnostic of PP AVN. Postoperative osseous union (OU) was assessed with computed tomography and/or radiographs. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for PP AVN were 71, 82 and 78 % for unenhanced and 43, 82 and 67 % for enhanced MRI. Patients with PP AVN on unenhanced MRI had 86 % (6/7) OU; 100 % (5/5) OU with vascularized bone grafts and 50 % (1/2) OU with nonvascularized grafts. Patients with PP AVN on enhanced MRI had 80 % (4/5) OU; 100 % (3/3) OU with vascularized bone grafts and 50 % (1/2) OU with nonvascularized grafts. Patients with viable PP on unenhanced and enhanced MRI had 91 % (10/11) and 92 % (12/13) OU, respectively, all but one with nonvascularized graft. When PP AVN is evident on MRI, OU is best achieved with vascularized grafts. If PP AVN is absent, OU is successful with nonvascularized grafts. (orig.)

  3. Accuracy of enhanced and unenhanced MRI in diagnosing scaphoid proximal pole avascular necrosis and predicting surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, M G; Wang, D T; Chhabra, A B

    2015-11-01

    Determine the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of unenhanced and enhanced MRI in diagnosing scaphoid proximal pole (PP) avascular necrosis (AVN) and correlate whether MRI can help guide the selection of a vascularized or nonvascularized bone graft. The study was approved by the IRB. Two MSK radiologists independently performed a retrospective review of unenhanced and enhanced MRIs from 18 patients (16 males, 2 females; median age, 17.5 years) with scaphoid nonunions and surgery performed within 65 days of the MRI. AVN was diagnosed on the unenhanced MRI when a diffusely decreased T1-W signal was present in the PP and on the enhanced MRI when PP enhancement was less than distal pole enhancement. Surgical absence of PP bleeding was diagnostic of PP AVN. Postoperative osseous union (OU) was assessed with computed tomography and/or radiographs. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for PP AVN were 71, 82 and 78% for unenhanced and 43, 82 and 67% for enhanced MRI. Patients with PP AVN on unenhanced MRI had 86% (6/7) OU; 100% (5/5) OU with vascularized bone grafts and 50% (1/2) OU with nonvascularized grafts. Patients with PP AVN on enhanced MRI had 80% (4/5) OU; 100% (3/3) OU with vascularized bone grafts and 50% (1/2) OU with nonvascularized grafts. Patients with viable PP on unenhanced and enhanced MRI had 91% (10/11) and 92% (12/13) OU, respectively, all but one with nonvascularized graft. When PP AVN is evident on MRI, OU is best achieved with vascularized grafts. If PP AVN is absent, OU is successful with nonvascularized grafts.

  4. Titanium template for scaphoid reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, M; Schaefer, D J; Schumacher, R; Müller-Gerbl, M; Honigmann, P

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of a non-united scaphoid with a humpback deformity involves resection of the non-union followed by bone grafting and fixation of the fragments. Intraoperative control of the reconstruction is difficult owing to the complex three-dimensional shape of the scaphoid and the other carpal bones overlying the scaphoid on lateral radiographs. We developed a titanium template that fits exactly to the surfaces of the proximal and distal scaphoid poles to define their position relative to each other after resection of the non-union. The templates were designed on three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions and manufactured using selective laser melting technology. Ten conserved human wrists were used to simulate the reconstruction. The achieved precision measured as the deviation of the surface of the reconstructed scaphoid from its virtual counterpart was good in five cases (maximal difference 1.5 mm), moderate in one case (maximal difference 3 mm) and inadequate in four cases (difference more than 3 mm). The main problems were attributed to the template design and can be avoided by improved pre-operative planning, as shown in a clinical case. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The treatment of scaphoid nonunion using the Ilizarov fixator without bone graft, a study of 18 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumbaširević Marko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Evaluating the safety and efficacy of the Ilizarov fine-wire compression/distraction technique in the treatment of scaphoid nonunion (SNU, without the use of bone graft. Design A retrospective review of 18 consecutive patients in one centre. Patients and Methods 18 patients; 17 males; 1 female, with a mean SNU duration of 13.9 months. Patients with carpal instability, humpback deformity, carpal collapse, avascular necrosis or marked degenerative change, were excluded. Following frame application the treatment consisted of three stages: the frame was distracted 1 mm per day until radiographs showed a 2-3 mm opening at the SNU site (mean 10 days; the SNU site was then compressed for 5 days, at a rate of 1 mm per day, with the wrist in 15 degrees of flexion and 15 degrees of radial deviation; the third stage involved immobilization with the Ilizarov fixator for 6 weeks. The technique is detailed herein. Results Radiographic (CT and clinical bony union was achieved in all 18 patients after a mean of 89 days (70-130 days. Mean modified Mayo wrist scores improved from 21 to 86 at a mean follow-up of 37 months (24-72 months, with good/excellent results in 14 patients. All patients returned to their pre-injury occupations and levels of activity at a mean of 117 days. Three patients suffered superficial K-wire infections, which resolved with oral antibiotics. Conclusions In these selected patients this technique safely achieved bony union without the need to open the SNU site and without the use of bone graft.

  6. Conservative management of fracture scaphoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Conservative management of fracture scaphoid with cast is still the most common modality of management, but the results following this protocol are not always satisfactory. Methods : Twenty five patients with fracture scaphoid were treated with a below elbow scaphoid cast and were followed up for minimum duration of one year. On follow up patients were examined clinicoradiologically and functional results were evaluated using the modification of the Mayo wrist scoring chart. Results : Nineteen fractures showed union, two were malunited and five went for nonunion. Two fractures developed avascular necrosis and three patients had wrist arthritis on follow up. Nineteen patients had excellent functional results, one had good results and six patients had poor results. Patients with delayed diagnosis had nonunion and poor functional results. Patients with premature removal of cast had comparatively inferior results Conclusion : For displaced unstable fracture, open reduction and internal fixation should be the preferred modality of treatment as cast treatment gives unacceptably high rate of malunion and nonunion with poor functional results.

  7. Distribution of Scaphoid Nutrient Foramina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood supply to the scaphoid comes mainly from the radial artery and the proximal pole has been shown to have limited interosseous supply. (7, 8). Alternative blood supply comes from the dorsal, laterovolar and distal groups of extraossoeus blood vessels that enter the bone via foramina on the surface of the bone (7).

  8. Scaphoid Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kim, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 25-year-old, right-handed male presented to the emergency department with left wrist pain after falling from a skateboard onto an outstretched hand two-weeks prior. He otherwise had no additional concerns, including no complaints of weakness or loss of sensation. On physical exam, there was tenderness to palpation within the anatomical snuff box. The neurovascular exam was intact. Plain films of the left wrist and hand were obtained. Significant findings: The anteroposterior (AP plain film of this patient demonstrates a full thickness fracture through the middle third of the scaphoid (red arrow, with some apparent displacement (yellow lines and subtle angulation of the fracture fragments (blue line. Discussion: The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured carpal bone accounting for 70%-80% of carpal fractures.1 Classically, it is sustained following a fall onto an outstretched hand (FOOSH. Patients should be evaluated for tenderness with palpation over the anatomical snuffbox, which has a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 40%.2 Plain films are the initial diagnostic modality of choice and have a sensitivity of 70%, but are commonly falsely negative in the first two to six weeks of injury (false negative of 20%.3 The Mayo classification organizes scaphoid fractures as involving the proximal, mid, and distal portions of the scaphoid bone with mid-fractures being the most common.3 The proximal scaphoid is highly susceptible to vascular compromise because it depends on retrograde blood flow from the radial artery. Therefore, disruption can lead to serious sequelae including osteonecrosis, arthrosis, and functional impairment. Thus, a low threshold should be maintained for neurovascular evaluation and surgical referral. Patients with non-displaced scaphoid fractures should be placed in a thumb spica splint.3 Patients with even suspected scaphoid fractures should be placed in a thumb spica splint and re

  9. [NITINOL shape memory staple for osteosynthesis of the scaphoid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Reiner; Schlageter, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Reconstruction of the scaphoid with use of NITINOL shape "memory" staples. Unstable fractures and nonunion of the middle third of the scaphoid, which need open reduction and internal fixation from palmar. The staples can only be used, if the arms of the staples can be inserted parallel to and at a distance of 3 mm to the fracture line. Allergy to nickel. Cases in which the arms of the staple cannot be inserted parallel to and at best 3 mm apart from the fracture line. In fractures, open reduction of the scaphoid through a palmar approach. If necessary, interposition of a bone graft and Kirschner wire transfixation. Drilling of the drill holes parallel and at a distance of 3 mm to the fracture line. Insertion of the NITINOL staple. In nonunion, excision of the fibrous nonunion, refreshening of the fracture surfaces, interposition of a bone graft and, if needed, fixation with a Kirschner wire. Drilling of the drill holes for the NITINOL staple and insertion of the staple. Within a few minutes the warming-up staple contracts and thereby compresses the scaphoid. Immobilization in a short cast with thumb support for 6 weeks. Control for bone healing by radiographs or computed tomography. Staples, which do not cause hardware problems, are not removed. Kirschner wires are removed after bone healing. From October 1995 to December 2006, the authors used NITINOL staples for 65 osteosyntheses of the scaphoid. Indications were 15 unstable fractures, 47 nonunions, and three partial necroses. 61 out of 65 scaphoids healed without further surgery, three of the 61 patients showed a delayed healing. Two of the four nonunions were related to the use of the NITINOL staples. Seven staples were removed, one for loosening. NITINOL shape memory staples have proven to be very helpful for osteosynthesis in fractures and nonunion of the scaphoid, if the prerequisites are given for their use.

  10. Variable Bone Density of Scaphoid: Importance of Subchondral Screw Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanstrom, Morgan M; Morse, Kyle W; Lipman, Joseph D; Hearns, Krystle A; Carlson, Michelle G

    2018-02-01

    Background  Ideal internal fixation of the scaphoid relies on adequate bone stock for screw purchase; so, knowledge of regional bone density of the scaphoid is crucial. Questions/Purpose  The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional variations in scaphoid bone density. Materials and Methods  Three-dimensional CT models of fractured scaphoids were created and sectioned into proximal/distal segments and then into quadrants (volar/dorsal/radial/ulnar). Concentric shells in the proximal and distal pole were constructed in 2-mm increments moving from exterior to interior. Bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Results  Bone density of the distal scaphoid (453.2 ± 70.8 HU) was less than the proximal scaphoid (619.8 ± 124.2 HU). There was no difference in bone density between the four quadrants in either pole. In both the poles, the first subchondral shell was the densest. In both the proximal and distal poles, bone density decreased significantly in all three deeper shells. Conclusion  The proximal scaphoid had a greater density than the distal scaphoid. Within the poles, there was no difference in bone density between the quadrants. The subchondral 2-mm shell had the greatest density. Bone density dropped off significantly between the first and second shell in both the proximal and distal scaphoids. Clinical Relevance  In scaphoid fracture ORIF, optimal screw placement engages the subchondral 2-mm shell, especially in the distal pole, which has an overall lower bone density, and the second shell has only two-third the density of the first shell.

  11. scaphoid dimensions and appropriate screw sizes in a kenyan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no side to side differences in the total length or the distal pole. Conclusion: Scaphoid screws .... gender differences in prehension may contribute to .... differences between males and females. Sports. Med Arthroscopy Review. 2002 ...

  12. Biomechanical Strength of Retrograde Fixation in Proximal Third Scaphoid Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Charles A; Boden, Allison L; Hutton, William C; Gottschalk, Michael B

    2018-04-01

    Current techniques for fixation of proximal pole scaphoid fractures utilize antegrade fixation via a dorsal approach endangering the delicate vascular supply of the dorsal scaphoid. Volar and dorsal approaches demonstrate equivalent clinical outcomes in scaphoid wrist fractures, but no study has evaluated the biomechanical strength for fractures of the proximal pole. This study compares biomechanical strength of antegrade and retrograde fixation for fractures of the proximal pole of the scaphoid. A simulated proximal pole scaphoid fracture was produced in 22 matched cadaveric scaphoids, which were then assigned randomly to either antegrade or retrograde fixation with a cannulated headless compression screw. Cyclic loading and load to failure testing were performed and screw length, number of cycles, and maximum load sustained were recorded. There were no significant differences in average screw length (25.5 mm vs 25.6 mm, P = .934), average number of cyclic loading cycles (3738 vs 3847, P = .552), average load to failure (348 N vs 371 N, P = .357), and number of catastrophic failures observed between the antegrade and retrograde fixation groups (3 in each). Practical equivalence between the 2 groups was calculated and the 2 groups were demonstrated to be practically equivalent (upper threshold P = .010). For this model of proximal pole scaphoid wrist fractures, antegrade and retrograde screw configuration have been proven to be equivalent in terms of biomechanical strength. With further clinical study, we hope surgeons will be able to make their decision for fixation technique based on approaches to bone grafting, concern for tenuous blood supply, and surgeon preference without fear of poor biomechanical properties.

  13. Scaphoid fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Scaphoid fractures are rare in childhood. Diagnosis is very difficult to establish because carpal bones are not fully ossified. In suspected cases comparative or delayed radiography is used, as well as computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and bone scintigraphy. Majority of scaphoid fractures are treated conservatively with good results. In case of delayed fracture healing various types of treatment are available. Objective. To determine the mechanism of injury, clinical healing process, types and outcome of treatment of scaphoid fractures in children. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed patients with traumatic closed fracture of the scaphoid bone over a ten-year period (2002-2011. The outcome of the treatment of “acute” scaphoid fracture was evaluated using the Mayo Wrist Score. Results. There were in total 34 patients, of mean age 13.8 years, with traumatic closed fracture of the scaphoid bone, whose bone growth was not finished yet. Most common injury mechanism was fall on outstretched arm - 76% of patients. During the examined period 31 children with “acute” fracture underwent conservative treatment, with average immobilization period of 51 days. Six patients were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 25 patients, after completed rehabilitation, functional results determined by the Mayo Wrist Score were excellent. Conclusion. Conservative therapy of “acute” scaphoid fractures is an acceptable treatment option for pediatric patients with excellent functional results.

  14. Fresh fractures of the scaphoid : A rationale method of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chari P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Scaphoid, among all carpal bones, is very vulnerable for fracture due to its unique shape and situation with greater articular surface. All scaphoid fractures are being treated with below elbow POP thumb spica casts keeping hand in ball throwing position. A few scaphoid fractures through the waist take longer time to unite, if not end in nonunion. These fractures were found to be displaced unimpacted trans-scaphoid fractures through the waist. Method : The effect of various positions of hand, wrist and forearm over unimpacted displaced scaphoid fractures through the waist were studied on dissected hand specimens and in patients with skiagrams. It was observed that possible radial deviation of hand over neutrally held wrist and forearm would result in anatomical reduction with impaction between the fragments. Added compression effect at site of fracture, necessary for early fracture healing, is produced by passively abducting the first metacarpal bone. Results : Of 68 scaphoid fractures under study, 24 and 41 were displaced and undisplaced ones through the waist respectively. All of them united in eight to ten weeks time as any fracture, when immobilised undisturbed with anatomic reduction and added compression between the fragments except one displaced fracture which took eight more weeks of immobilization for union and revascularilization of proximal fragment. Conclusion : This study showed that all scaphoid fractures in particular those through waist when rigidly immobilized unite as any fracture in eight to ten weeks provided the proximal fragment maintains proper blood supply. Otherwise it would further eight week of immobilization for the proximal fragment to get revascularize following union.

  15. Neglected isolated scaphoid dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryoon Baek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of isolated scaphoid dislocation in a 40-year-old male that was undiagnosed for 2 months. The patient was treated by open reduction, Kirschner wire fixation, interosseous ligament repair using a suture anchor and Blatt's dorsal capsulodesis. At 6 years followup, his radiographs of wrist showed a normal carpal alignment with a scapholunate gap of 3 mm and no evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN of the scaphoid.

  16. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Bilateral Symmetry of the Scaphoid: An Anatomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. L. ten Berg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative 3D CT imaging techniques provide displacement analysis of the distal scaphoid fragment in 3D space, using the matched opposite scaphoid as reference. Its accuracy depends on the presence of anatomical bilateral symmetry, which has not been investigated yet using similar techniques. Our purpose was to investigate symmetry by comparing the relative positions of distal and proximal poles between sides. We used bilateral CT scans of 19 adult healthy volunteers to obtain 3D scaphoid models. Left proximal and distal poles were matched to corresponding mirrored right sides. The left-to-right positional differences between poles were quantified in terms of three translational and three rotational parameters. The mean (SD of ulnar, dorsal, and distal translational differences of distal poles relative to proximal poles was 0.1 (0.6; 0.4 (1.2; 0.2 (0.6 mm and that of palmar rotation, ulnar deviation, and pronation differences was −1.1 (4.9; −1.5 (3.3; 1.0 (3.7°, respectively. These differences did not significantly differ from zero and thus were not biased to left or right side. We proved that, on average, the articular surfaces of scaphoid poles were symmetrically aligned in 3D space. This suggests that the contralateral scaphoid can serve as reference in corrective surgery. No level of evidence is available.

  17. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Pascal; Göttgens, Kevin W A; van Wely, Bob J; Kolkman, Karel A; Werre, Andries J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2011-05-06

    The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences.Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning).Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory.Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation evaluated by CT-scanning, functional

  18. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poeze Martijn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%, non-union (5-21% and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32% which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning. Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation

  19. Computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging versus bone scintigraphy for clinically suspected scaphoid fractures in patients with negative plain radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, Wouter H.; Wang, Junfeng; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Kloen, Peter; Maas, Mario; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Doornberg, Job N.

    2015-01-01

    In clinically suspected scaphoid fractures, early diagnosis reduces the risk of non-union and minimises loss in productivity resulting from unnecessary cast immobilisation. Since initial radiographs do not exclude the possibility of a fracture, additional imaging is needed. Computed tomography (CT),

  20. Vascularized osseous graft for scaphoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Daza, Carlos Hernan; Mathoulin, Cristophe

    2004-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for treatment of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid is osteo-synthesis with Kirschnet wires and cortical sponge grafts. Results reported by different teams using this procedure show no more than 90% osseous consolidation, especially in cases where vascularisation of the proximal fragment of the scaphoid is compromised. Here we present a series of ten cases of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid, treated using a new surgical technique involving a vascularized osseous graft of the distal radius. Using this procedure we obtained 100% consolidation, with no complications either during the procedure or immediately post-operatively. Patients returned to work in week 15 on average. In 4 cases we observed discomfort in the area of the scar, which was successfully treated using local cortisone injection. The results obtained are very similar to those seen in the literature on the different techniques for vascularized osseous grafts for pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid

  1. Intraosseous rotation of the scaphoid: assessment by using a 3D CT model - an anatomic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidle, Gernot; Gabl, Markus [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Trauma Surgery, Innsbruck (Austria); Rieger, Michael [Regional Hospital Hall, Department of Radiology, Hall in Tirol (Austria); Klauser, Andrea Sabine; Thauerer, Michael [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Hoermann, Romed [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology-Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess intraosseous rotation as the third dimension of scaphoid anatomy on a 3D CT model using common volume rendering software to impact anatomical reconstruction of scaphoid fractures. CT images of 13 cadaver wrist pairs were acquired. Reference axes for the alignment of distal and proximal scaphoid poles were defined three-dimensionally. Two methods for rotation measurement - the reference axis method (RAM) and the scapho-trapezio-trapezoidal joint method (STTM) - were developed and compared by three independent observers. Rotation measured by the RAM averaged 66.9 ± 7 for the right and 67.2 ± 5.8 for the left wrists. Using the STTM there was a mean rotation of 68.6 ± 6.6 for the right and 68.6 ± 6.8 for the left wrists. The overall results showed a significant variability of the measured values between different specimens (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between left and right wrists of the same specimen, neither for the RAM (P = 0.268) nor for the STTM (P = 0.774). Repeatability coefficients between the observers were low, indicating good repeatability. The presented methods are practical tools to quantify intraosseous rotation between distal and proximal scaphoid poles using common volume rendering software. For clinical application the opposite side provides the best reference values to assess malrotation in scaphoid fracture cases. (orig.)

  2. MR imaging of scaphoid fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Louise; Radev, Dimitar; Eriksen, Rie Østbjerg

    2017-01-01

    the importance of early MRI and hereby predict bone bruise with the help of fat suppression sequence; however, only a limited selection articles compares various fat suppression techniques. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and T2 fat saturation (FAT SAT......) sequences, sectional directed along the scaphoid bone axis. In relation to background fat intensity suppression, this study sought the sequence that best evaluated posttraumatic bone marrow edema (bone bruise) on scaphoid injury musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 1.5 T extremity scanner......). Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifty-one patients with relevant trauma and positive clinical test for scaphoid bone fractures, exceeding no more than 14 days, underwent MRI examinations. A fast STIR and T2 FAT SAT fast spin echo sequence (FSE) were obtained using a comparable parameter setting (scan...

  3. The role of MR imaging in scaphoid disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantanas, Apostolos; Dailiana, Zoe; Malizos, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    The scaphoid bone of the wrist is one of the most commonly fractured bones in the body. Due to its importance in the biomechanics and functionality of the wrist, it is important to depict and characterize the type of injury. Plain radiographs and scintigraphy may fail to disclose the type and severity of the injury. In patients with normal initial plain radiographs, MR imaging can discriminate occult fractures from bone bruises and may also demonstrate ligamentous disruption. MR imaging can also discriminate the proximal pole viability versus avascular necrosis secondary to previous fracture, which is important for treatment planning. Treatment of non-united fractures with vascularized grafts can be evaluated with contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Idiopathic osteonecrosis or Preiser's disease was originally described after trauma. The non-traumatic disorders of the scaphoid include post-traumatic osteoarthritis, inflammatory bone marrow edema in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and osteomyelitis. MR imaging is helpful in all the above disorders to demonstrate early bone marrow edema, cartilage degeneration and associated subchondral marrow changes. The most commonly found tumors in the scaphoid are usually benign and include enchondroma, osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. MR imaging is not mandatory for the initial diagnosis, which should be based on plain X-ray findings. (orig.)

  4. The role of MR imaging in scaphoid disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanas, Apostolos [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Heraklion (Greece); University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavrakia, Heraklion (Greece); Dailiana, Zoe; Malizos, Konstantinos [University of Thessaly, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Health Sciences, Larissa (Greece)

    2007-11-15

    The scaphoid bone of the wrist is one of the most commonly fractured bones in the body. Due to its importance in the biomechanics and functionality of the wrist, it is important to depict and characterize the type of injury. Plain radiographs and scintigraphy may fail to disclose the type and severity of the injury. In patients with normal initial plain radiographs, MR imaging can discriminate occult fractures from bone bruises and may also demonstrate ligamentous disruption. MR imaging can also discriminate the proximal pole viability versus avascular necrosis secondary to previous fracture, which is important for treatment planning. Treatment of non-united fractures with vascularized grafts can be evaluated with contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Idiopathic osteonecrosis or Preiser's disease was originally described after trauma. The non-traumatic disorders of the scaphoid include post-traumatic osteoarthritis, inflammatory bone marrow edema in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and osteomyelitis. MR imaging is helpful in all the above disorders to demonstrate early bone marrow edema, cartilage degeneration and associated subchondral marrow changes. The most commonly found tumors in the scaphoid are usually benign and include enchondroma, osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. MR imaging is not mandatory for the initial diagnosis, which should be based on plain X-ray findings. (orig.)

  5. Factors associated with union time of acute middle-third scaphoid fractures: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao H

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hongfang Zhao,* Siyu Tian,* Lingde Kong,* Jiangbo Bai,* Jian Lu, Bing Zhang, Dehu Tian Department of Orthopedics, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the union time of acute middle-third scaphoid fractures following treatments and to analyze the effect of different factors on late union.Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with acute middle-third scaphoid fracture at our institution between January 2013 and December 2017. Patient demographics, fracture characteristics, and treatment strategy, such as age, gender, body mass index, habit of smoking, sides of injury, dominant hand, ulnar variance, multiple fractures, and treatment methods, were investigated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify possible predictive factors.Results: A total of 132 patients with scaphoid fracture were included in our study. Operation was performed in 67 patients (50.8%, and conservative treatment was performed in the other 65 patients (49.2%. The union time was 7.2±0.5 weeks. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, late diagnosis (odds ratio, 1.247; 95% CI, 1.022–1.521 and conservative treatment method (odds ratio, 1.615; 95% CI, 1.031–2.528 were identified as 2 independent predictors of late union in scaphoid fractures patients. Other parameters were not demonstrated to be predictive factors.Conclusion: Late diagnosis and conservative treatment were two factors associated with late union. Long time of follow-up is necessary for patient with these factors. Keywords: predictive factors, union time, nonunion, scaphoid fractures, multivariable analysis

  6. Multiplanar reconstruction computed tomography for diagnosis of scaphoid waist fracture union: a prospective cohort analysis of accuracy and precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, P.F.W.; Brouwers, L.; Gottgens, K.W.A.; Poeze, M.; Brink, P.R.G. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery and Traumasurgery, PO Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Zee, D. van der; Stadler, A.; Weijers, R. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of radiology, PO Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    To examine reliability and validity concerning union of scaphoid fractures determined by multiplanar reconstruction computed tomography randomized at 6, 12, and 24 weeks after injury. We used Fleiss' kappa to measure the opinions of three observers reviewing 44 sets of computed tomographic scans of 44 conservatively treated scaphoid waist fractures. We calculated kappa for the extent of consolidation (0-24 %, 25-49 %, 50-74 %, or 75-100 %) on the transverse, sagittal and coronal views. We also calculated kappa for no union, partial union, and union, and grouped the results for 6, 12, and 24 weeks after injury. As the reference standard for union, CT scans were performed at a minimum of 6 months after injury to determine validity. Overall inter-observer agreement was found to be moderate ({kappa} = 0.576). No union ({kappa} = 0.791), partial union ({kappa} = 0.502), and union ({kappa} = 0.683) showed substantial, moderate, and substantial agreement, respectively. The average sensitivity of multiplanar reconstruction CT for diagnosing union of scaphoid waist fractures was 73 %. The average specificity was 80 %. Our results suggest that multiplanar reconstruction computed tomography is a reliable and accurate method for diagnosing union or nonunion of scaphoid fractures. However, inter-observer agreement was lower with respect to partial union. (orig.)

  7. Multiplanar reconstruction computed tomography for diagnosis of scaphoid waist fracture union: a prospective cohort analysis of accuracy and precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannemann, P.F.W.; Brouwers, L.; Gottgens, K.W.A.; Poeze, M.; Brink, P.R.G.; Zee, D. van der; Stadler, A.; Weijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    To examine reliability and validity concerning union of scaphoid fractures determined by multiplanar reconstruction computed tomography randomized at 6, 12, and 24 weeks after injury. We used Fleiss' kappa to measure the opinions of three observers reviewing 44 sets of computed tomographic scans of 44 conservatively treated scaphoid waist fractures. We calculated kappa for the extent of consolidation (0-24 %, 25-49 %, 50-74 %, or 75-100 %) on the transverse, sagittal and coronal views. We also calculated kappa for no union, partial union, and union, and grouped the results for 6, 12, and 24 weeks after injury. As the reference standard for union, CT scans were performed at a minimum of 6 months after injury to determine validity. Overall inter-observer agreement was found to be moderate (κ = 0.576). No union (κ = 0.791), partial union (κ = 0.502), and union (κ = 0.683) showed substantial, moderate, and substantial agreement, respectively. The average sensitivity of multiplanar reconstruction CT for diagnosing union of scaphoid waist fractures was 73 %. The average specificity was 80 %. Our results suggest that multiplanar reconstruction computed tomography is a reliable and accurate method for diagnosing union or nonunion of scaphoid fractures. However, inter-observer agreement was lower with respect to partial union. (orig.)

  8. OSTEOID OSTEOMA IN SCAPHOID: CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Antônio Lourenço; de Araújo Filho, Raimundo; Puentes, Rulby; Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Piluski, Paulo Faiad; Lech, Osvandré

    2012-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a benign osteoblastic tumor that is unusual in the hand. A location in the carpal bones is infrequent, which leads to errors in diagnosing it because of polymorphism of the clinical symptoms. Reviewing the literature shows that nine cases of osteoid osteoma in the scaphoid have been reported. Here, one case of osteoid osteoma in the scaphoid that was initially treated as De Quervain's stenosing tenosynovitis is reported, with a definitive diagnosis that was delayed for five years.

  9. OSTEOID OSTEOMA IN SCAPHOID: CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Antônio Lourenço; de Araújo Filho, Raimundo; Puentes, Rulby; Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Piluski, Paulo Faiad; Lech, Osvandré

    2015-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a benign osteoblastic tumor that is unusual in the hand. A location in the carpal bones is infrequent, which leads to errors in diagnosing it because of polymorphism of the clinical symptoms. Reviewing the literature shows that nine cases of osteoid osteoma in the scaphoid have been reported. Here, one case of osteoid osteoma in the scaphoid that was initially treated as De Quervain's stenosing tenosynovitis is reported, with a definitive diagnosis that was delayed for five years. PMID:27047881

  10. Diagnosis of scaphoid fracture: optimal imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geijer M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mats Geijer Center for Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital and Lund University, Lund, Sweden Abstract: This review aims to provide an overview of modern imaging techniques for evaluation of scaphoid fracture, with emphasis on occult fractures and an outlook on the possible evolution of imaging; it also gives an overview of the pathologic and anatomic basis for selection of techniques. Displaced scaphoid fractures detected by wrist radiography, with or without special scaphoid views, pose no diagnostic problems. After wrist trauma with clinically suspected scaphoid fracture and normal scaphoid radiography, most patients will have no clinically important fracture. Between 5% and 19% of patients (on average 16% in meta-analyses will, however, have an occult scaphoid fracture which, untreated, may lead to later, potentially devastating, complications. Follow-up imaging may be done with repeat radiography, tomosynthesis, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, or bone scintigraphy. However, no method is perfect, and choice of imaging may be based on availability, cost, perceived accuracy, or personal preference. Generally, MRI and bone scintigraphy are regarded as the most sensitive modalities, but both are flawed by false positive results at various rates. Keywords: occult fracture, wrist, radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, radionuclide imaging

  11. The Role of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in a Child with Sport-Induced Avascular Necrosis of the Scaphoid: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Beytullah Koc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the scaphoid in children is very rare and there is currently no consensus when conservative or operative treatment is indicated. A 10-year-old boy, practicing karate, presented with acute pain in his left wrist after falling on the outstretched hand. Imaging showed a scaphoid waist fracture with signs of an ongoing AVN. The diagnosis of AVN was confirmed with signal loss of the scaphoid on MRI T1. A dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed for further assessment of the proximal pole vascularity and treatment planning. As dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI showed fair perfusion of the proximal pole, an adequate healing potential with conservative treatment was estimated. We achieved union and good function with cast immobilization for fourteen weeks. This case study showed dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to be a valuable tool in assessing whether conservative or operative treatment is indicated to achieve union and good functional outcome.

  12. Infected nonunion of tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Madhav Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced

  13. Usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the evaluation of the viability of acute scaphoid fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larribe, Maud [Hopital La Conception, Service d' imagerie medicale, Marseille (France); Hopital Sainte Marguerite, Service d' imagerie medicale, Marseille (France); Gay, Andre [Hopital La Conception, Service de chirurgie de la main, Marseille (France); Freire, Veronique [Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Department of Radiology, Notre-Dame Hospital, Montreal, QC (Canada); Bouvier, Corinne [Hopital La Timone, Service d' anatomopathologie, Marseille (France); Chagnaud, Christophe; Souteyrand, Philippe [Hopital La Conception, Service d' imagerie medicale, Marseille (France)

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing the viability of the proximal pole of the scaphoid in patients with acute scaphoid fractures. Eighteen consecutive patients with acute scaphoid fracture who underwent dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI 7 days or less before surgery were prospectively included between August 2011 and December 2012. All patients underwent MR imaging with unenhanced images, enhanced images, and dynamic enhanced images. A radiologist first classified the MRI results as necrotic or viable based on T1- and T2-weighted images only, followed by a second blinded interpretation, this time including analysis of pre- and post-gadolinium administration images and a third blinded interpretation based on the time-intensity curve of the dynamic enhanced study. The standard of reference was the histologic assessment of a cylindrical specimen of the proximal pole obtained during surgery in all patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for unenhanced, enhanced, and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI studies. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 67, 67, 50, and 80 % for unenhanced images, 83, 100, 100, and 92 for enhanced images, and 83, 92, 83, and 92 for dynamic contrast-enhanced images. Our data are consistent with previously reported data supporting contrast-enhanced MRI for assessment of viability, and showing that dynamic imaging with time-intensity curve analysis does not provide additional predictive value over standard delayed enhanced imaging for acute scaphoid fracture. (orig.)

  14. Usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the evaluation of the viability of acute scaphoid fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larribe, Maud; Gay, Andre; Freire, Veronique; Bouvier, Corinne; Chagnaud, Christophe; Souteyrand, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing the viability of the proximal pole of the scaphoid in patients with acute scaphoid fractures. Eighteen consecutive patients with acute scaphoid fracture who underwent dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI 7 days or less before surgery were prospectively included between August 2011 and December 2012. All patients underwent MR imaging with unenhanced images, enhanced images, and dynamic enhanced images. A radiologist first classified the MRI results as necrotic or viable based on T1- and T2-weighted images only, followed by a second blinded interpretation, this time including analysis of pre- and post-gadolinium administration images and a third blinded interpretation based on the time-intensity curve of the dynamic enhanced study. The standard of reference was the histologic assessment of a cylindrical specimen of the proximal pole obtained during surgery in all patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for unenhanced, enhanced, and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI studies. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 67, 67, 50, and 80 % for unenhanced images, 83, 100, 100, and 92 for enhanced images, and 83, 92, 83, and 92 for dynamic contrast-enhanced images. Our data are consistent with previously reported data supporting contrast-enhanced MRI for assessment of viability, and showing that dynamic imaging with time-intensity curve analysis does not provide additional predictive value over standard delayed enhanced imaging for acute scaphoid fracture. (orig.)

  15. Scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis: Frequency, pathogenesis and course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, K.; Teifke, A.; Benning, R.; Dahm, M.; Thelen, R.; Schild, H.

    1989-06-01

    Eighty-three scaphoid pseudo-arthroses were found amongst 1.104 scaphoid examinations. Sixtyseven were present at the first examination and 16 pseudo-arthroses developed amongst 252 scaphoid fractures. Men were affected predominantly, particularly in the 20 to 40-year old group. Fractures in the proximal third of the scaphoid and vertical oblique fractures had a particular tendency to pseudo-arthrosis formation. The operative treatment of choice is a Matti-Russe bone graft. Only one patient in seven with definite scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis showed firm fusion. (orig.).

  16. Scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis: Frequency, pathogenesis and course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, K.; Teifke, A.; Benning, R.; Dahm, M.; Thelen, R.; Schild, H.; Mainz Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-three scaphoid pseudo-arthroses were found amongst 1.104 scaphoid examinations. Sixtyseven were present at the first examination and 16 pseudo-arthroses developed amongst 252 scaphoid fractures. Men were affected predominantly, particularly in the 20 to 40-year old group. Fractures in the proximal third of the scaphoid and vertical oblique fractures had a particular tendency to pseudo-arthrosis formation. The operative treatment of choice is a Matti-Russe bone graft. Only one patient in seven with definite scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis showed firm fusion. (orig.) [de

  17. Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes After Scaphoid Fracture: Injury and Treatment Patterns in National Football League Combine Athletes Between 2009 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatshe, Gilbert; Godin, Jonathan A; Chahla, Jorge; Cinque, Mark E; Kennedy, Nicholas I; Sanchez, George; Beaulieu-Jones, Brendin R; LaPrade, Robert F; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-12-01

    To report on the clinical and radiologic outcomes and complications after surgical treatment in National Football League (NFL) Combine athletes with a history of a scaphoid fracture. The medical records of 2,285 athletes participating in the NFL Combine from 2009 to 2015 were evaluated for a history of scaphoid, hand, or wrist injury. Clinical outcomes, including grip strength, pinch test, range of motion, and presence of pain and stiffness, were recorded. Imaging studies were evaluated for the percentage of healing, fixation treatment type, hardware complications, radiographic deformity, and presence of osteoarthritis. Of the 2,285 athletes evaluated, 56 presented with a history of a scaphoid fracture. Most fractures were in the middle and proximal aspects of the scaphoid. Of the scaphoid fractures, 76% (43 players) were treated with screw fixation. Of the athletes, 36 (72%) had normal range of motion of the affected wrist, 52 (93%) reported no pain, and 44 (83%) reported no stiffness in the affected wrist. The grip strength and pinch strength were 91% and 96%, respectively, of the uninjured side. The fracture was healed in 75% of the cases; however, 34% had degenerative changes. Hardware complications were found in 15% of the athletes. Good clinical outcomes can be achieved after scaphoid fractures in prospective NFL athletes. However, the rates of nonunion (25%), degenerative changes (34%), and hardware complications (15%) in this study suggest the need for close postoperative radiographic follow-up in this population of patients because their athletic demands may lead to higher rates of the aforementioned complications. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Scaphoid Waist Internal Fixation for Fractures Trial (SWIFFT) protocol: a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of cast treatment versus surgical fixation for the treatment of bi-cortical, minimally displaced fractures of the scaphoid waist in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Joseph; Brealey, Stephen; Choudhary, Surabhi; Cook, Liz; Costa, Matthew; Fairhurst, Caroline; Hewitt, Catherine; Hodgson, Stephen; Jefferson, Laura; Jeyapalan, Kanagaratnam; Keding, Ada; Leighton, Paul; Rangan, Amar; Richardson, Gerry; Rothery, Claire; Taub, Nicholas; Thompson, John; Torgerson, David

    2016-06-04

    A scaphoid fracture is the most common type of carpal fracture affecting young active people. The optimal management of this fracture is uncertain. When treated with a cast, 88 to 90 % of these fractures unite; however, for the remaining 10-12 % the non-union almost invariably leads to arthritis. The alternative is surgery to fix the scaphoid with a screw at the outset. We will conduct a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of 438 adult patients with a "clear" and "bicortical" scaphoid waist fracture on plain radiographs to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of plaster cast treatment (with fixation of those that fail to unite) versus early surgical fixation. The plaster cast treatment will be immobilisation in a below elbow cast for 6 to 10 weeks followed by mobilisation. If non-union is confirmed on plain radiographs and/or Computerised Tomogram at 6 to 12 weeks, then urgent surgical fixation will be performed. This is being compared with immediate surgical fixation with surgeons using their preferred technique and implant. These treatments will be undertaken in trauma units across the United Kingdom. The primary outcome and end-point will be the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (a patient self-reported assessment of wrist pain and function) at 52 weeks and also measured at 6, 12, 26 weeks and 5 years. Secondary outcomes include an assessment of radiological union of the fracture; quality of life; recovery of wrist range and strength; and complications. We will also qualitatively investigate patient experiences of their treatment. Scaphoid fractures are an important public health problem as they predominantly affect young active individuals in the more productive working years of their lives. Non-union, if untreated, can lead to arthritis which can disable patients at a very young age. There is a rapidly increasing trend for immediate surgical fixation of these fractures but there is insufficient evidence from existing RCTs to support

  19. Modified Carpal Box Technique in the Diagnosis of Suspected Scaphoid Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, F.; Mester, S.; Cseh, G.; Bener, A.; Nyarady, J.; Lovasz, G. [Pecs Univ. (Hungary). Medical School

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To establish and test the clinical efficacy of a new diagnostic algorithm with the extensive utilization of modified carpal box radiography (mX-CB) in the detection of scaphoid fractures. Material and Methods: Initial and early follow-up radiographic evaluation of 146 suspected scaphoid fractures were carried out by mX-CB. Patients with unconfirmed diagnosis were referred to CT. Patients were followed for 1 year after injury. Sensitivity, specificity and interobserver agreement of reading mX-CB images were determined statistically. Results: No non-union or avascular necrosis was seen at 1 year after the injury. 90% of the fractures were diagnosed by mX-CB, only 6.8% of the patients needed referral to CT. Sensitivity of mX-CB at initial presentation was 81.6%. Interobserver agreement was very high among evaluators of mX-CB images. Conclusion: Extensive utilization of mX-CB as primary and early follow-up investigation resulted in high initial diagnostic accuracy and low referral rate to a more expensive diagnostic modality.

  20. Cone-beam CT in diagnosis of scaphoid fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlund, Rolf; Lapidus, Gunilla; Baecklund, Jenny [Capio St Goeran' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Skorpil, Mikael [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-02-15

    This prospective study investigated the sensitivity of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), a low dose technique recently made available for extremity examinations, in detecting scaphoid fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used as gold standard for scaphoid fractures. A total of 95 patients with a clinically suspected scaphoid fracture were examined with radiography and CBCT in the acute setting. A negative CBCT exam was followed by an MRI within 2 weeks. When a scaphoid fracture was detected on MRI a new CBCT was performed. Radiography depicted seven scaphoid fractures, all of which were also seen with CBCT. CBCT detected another four scaphoid fractures. With MRI another five scaphoid fractures were identified that were not seen with radiography or with CBCT. These were also not visible on the reexamination CBCT. Sensitivity for radiography was 44, 95 % confidence interval 21-69 %, and for CBCT 69 %, 95 % confidence interval 41-88 % (p = 0.12). Several non-scaphoid fractures in the carpal region were identified, radiography and CBCT depicted 7 and 34, respectively (p < 0.0001). CBCT is a superior alternative to radiography, entailing more accurate diagnoses of carpal region fractures, and thereby requiring fewer follow-up MRI examinations. However, CBCT cannot be used to exclude scaphoid fractures, since MRI identified additional occult scaphoid fractures. (orig.)

  1. Chondroblastoma of the scaphoid: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign Chondroblastoma generally occur in the epiphysis of long bones and rarely arise in carpal bones. We report a young male with chondroblastoma of scaphoid treated with curettage, bone grafting and K-wire fixation. At the last follow-up, 4 years after surgery, the patient was asymptomatic without recurrence.

  2. Positioning of the wrist for scaphoid radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Ferenc; Sebestyen, Andor; Balint, Lehel; Mester, Sandor; Szabo, Gyorgy; Nyarady, Jozsef; Weninger, Csaba; Angyal, Miklos; Lovasz, Gyorgy

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this cadaver study was to determine the ideal position of the wrist for scaphoid radiography. Materials and methods: Four cadaver wrists were rotated around their longitudinal axis in 15 deg. increments and exposures were taken. Seven postero-anterior images were taken as well. Thus, 18 images of each wrist were available for assessment. Views were determined in which the main anatomic regions of the scaphoid were visualized undistorted. The size and localization of the overlap of other carpal bones were also evaluated. Finally, views with the best visualization of anatomic landmarks were selected. The results of these three investigations were compared to literature data. Results: We consider the following four images the most valuable in the diagnostic imaging of scaphoid bone: (1) Postero-anterior view in ulnar deviation of wrist and fist position of the hand; (2) oblique view in 60 deg. of pronation; (3) oblique view in 60 deg. of supination; (4) lateral view. Conclusion: We concluded that our four views are sufficient for proper radiographic evaluation of the scaphoid

  3. Palmar dislocation of scaphoid and lunate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Koulali Idrissi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A palmar dislocation of scaphoid and lunate is uncommon. We have found only 19 reported cases in the literature. We reported a simultaneous, divergent dislocation. The closed reduction followed by percutaneous pinning has given a good result without avascular necrosis of any carpal bone.

  4. Missed isolated volar dislocation of the scaphoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Lise; Larsen, Søren; Jørring, Stig

    2007-01-01

    A patient presented with volar dislocation of the scaphoid, the diagnosis of which had been missed for two weeks. He was treated with open reduction through a combined volar and dorsal approach with decompression of the median nerve, internal fixation, and a cast for eight weeks. One year postope...... postoperatively the functional result was good. A radiograph showed no sign of avascular necrosis....

  5. PSEUDARTHROSIS OF THE SCAPHOID IN IMMATURE SKELETONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Bentes, Ádria Simone Ferreira; Neto, Miguel Flores do Amaral; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lech, Osvandré

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature individuals, taking into consideration its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, as well as its controversies. Knowledge of this subject makes it possible for patients to be given appropriate treatment immediately. Pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature patients is a rare condition that results from error or lack of diagnosis of a fracture. Thus, careful clinical and radiographic examination should be performed in order to confirm or rule out this diagnosis. Several treatment methods have been reported and have shown good results. These include conservative plaster cast treatment, bone graft without osteosynthesis, bone graft with Kirschner wires, percutaneous screws and bone graft with compression screws. The treatment performed depends on the characteristics of the pseudarthrosis and the surgeon's experience. PMID:27042636

  6. PSEUDARTHROSIS OF THE SCAPHOID IN IMMATURE SKELETONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Bentes, Ádria Simone Ferreira; Neto, Miguel Flores do Amaral; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lech, Osvandré

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature individuals, taking into consideration its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, as well as its controversies. Knowledge of this subject makes it possible for patients to be given appropriate treatment immediately. Pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature patients is a rare condition that results from error or lack of diagnosis of a fracture. Thus, careful clinical and radiographic examination should be performed in order to confirm or rule out this diagnosis. Several treatment methods have been reported and have shown good results. These include conservative plaster cast treatment, bone graft without osteosynthesis, bone graft with Kirschner wires, percutaneous screws and bone graft with compression screws. The treatment performed depends on the characteristics of the pseudarthrosis and the surgeon's experience.

  7. Scaphoid Fracture Fixation with an Acutrak? Screw

    OpenAIRE

    Loving, Vilert A.; Richardson, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of fixation of a scaphoid fracture using an Acutrak? screw. This screw is cannulated and headless, which allows it to be implanted below the surface of the bone. It uses the same concept of variable thread pitch as the Herbert screw, but unlike the Herbert screw, is fully threaded, with continuously varying pitch along its length. This variable pitch creates constant compression across a fracture as the screw is advanced, and gives the screw its unique appearance. This featur...

  8. Congenital Scaphoid Megalourethra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Obara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A congenital megalourethra is an enlargement of the pendulous urethra without evidence of distal obstruction. A 1-month-old boy presented to us with complaint of weak stream, ballooning of the penis before and during voiding and post voiding dribbling, since birth. Physical examination and cystourethroscope confirmed the diagnosis of congenital scaphoid megalourethra. He underwent reduction urethroplasty. During postoperative follow up, he had normal looking penis with good urinary stream.

  9. Enchondroma of the scaphoid: a case report | Ali | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enchondroma represents a common bone tumor of the hand. The scaphoid is a rare location. We report the case of a scaphoid enchondroma presenting as chronic wrist pain following a relatively minor trauma. The diagnosis was suggested by radiological study and then confirmed by histological study after biopsy.

  10. [New research progress on atrophic nonunion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Qiang; Zhang, Bo-Xun; Chen, Hua; Tang, Pei-Fu; Wang, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Occurance of atrophic nonunion is a complex process. Previous studies suggested that atrophic nonunion was mainly due to lack of blood supply of fracture fragments, but recent studies found that blood supply was not deficiency in middle and late stages, indicating that decreased osteogenic factors and blood supply in early stages might play an important role in morbidity. Current effective treatment measures for atrophic nonunion mainly include bone graft and fixation,physical therapy, local injection therapy. All-round preventive could reduce incidence of atrophic nonunion. Atrophic nonunion is still a troublesome complication of fractures in orthopaedics, and more attention should be paid for its effective prevention and treatment. The paper summarized recent original articles about atrophic nonunion and reviewed the occurrence mechanisms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment measures of this disease.

  11. Hypertrophic Nonunion Humerus Mimicking an Enchondroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although fractures of humeral shaft show excellent results with conservative management, nonunion does occur. Case Report. We bring forth the case of a young male with a 1.5-year-old hypertrophic nonunion of the humerus mimicking an enchondroma. The initial X-ray images of the patient appeared to be an enchondroma, which only on further evaluation and histopathological analysis was diagnosed conclusively to be a hypertrophic nonunion. Discussion. Enchondromas are often incidentally diagnosed benign tumours. It is however not common to misdiagnose a hypertrophic nonunion to be an enchondroma. We present this case to highlight the unique diagnostic dilemma the treating team had to face.

  12. Computed tomography for suspected scaphoid fractures: comparison of reformations in the plane of the wrist versus the long axis of the scaphoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, Wouter H.; Doornberg, Job N.; Ring, David; Maas, Mario; Muhl, Maaike; van Dijk, C. Niek; Goslings, J. Carel

    2014-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of occult scaphoid fractures remains difficult. We tested the null hypothesis that, for diagnosis of true fractures among suspected scaphoid fractures, computed tomography (CT) reformations along the long axis of the scaphoid have the same accuracy as reformations made relative

  13. Tibia shaft fractures: costly burden of nonunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova Evgeniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tibia shaft fractures (TSF are common for men and women and cause substantial morbidity, healthcare use, and costs. The impact of nonunions on healthcare use and costs is poorly described. Our goal was to investigate patient characteristics and healthcare use and costs associated with TSF in patients with and without nonunion. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical claims in large U.S. managed care claims databases (Thomson Reuters MarketScan®, 16 million lives. We studied patients ≥ 18 years old with a TSF diagnosis (ICD-9 codes: 823.20, 823.22, 823.30, 823.32 in 2006 with continuous pharmaceutical and medical benefit enrollment 1 year prior and 2 years post-fracture. Nonunion was defined by ICD-9 code 733.82 (after the TSF date. Results Among the 853 patients with TSF, 99 (12% had nonunion. Patients with nonunion had more comorbidities (30 vs. 21, pre-fracture and were more likely to have their TSF open (87% vs. 70% than those without nonunion. Patients with nonunion were more likely to have additional fractures during the 2-year follow-up (of lower limb [88.9% vs. 69.5%, P  Conclusions Nonunions in TSF’s are associated with substantial healthcare resource use, common use of strong opioids, and high per-patient costs. Open fractures are associated with higher likelihood of nonunion than closed ones. Effective screening of nonunion risk may decrease this morbidity and subsequent healthcare resource use and costs.

  14. Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon with scaphoid megalourethra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We here report a rare association of megalourethra with pouch colon with prune belly syndrome. We also provide a newer embryological and prognostic perspective to this association. Keywords: megalourethra, prune belly syndrome pouch colon, scaphoid ...

  15. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: Nonunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkman Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunions occur in 5-10% of fractures and are characterized by the failure to heal without further intervention. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy has been developed as an alternative to surgery in the treatment of nonunions. We describe a systematic review on trials of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy for healing of nonunions. We searched the electronic databases Medline and the Cochrane library for articles on ultrasound and healing of nonunions published up to 2008. Trials selected for the review met the following criteria: treatment of at least one intervention group with low intensity pulsed ultrasound; inclusion of patients (humans with one or more nonunions (defined as "established" or as a failure to heal for a minimum of eight months after initial injury; and assessment of healing and time to healing, as determined radiographically. The following data were abstracted from the included studies: sample size, ultrasound treatment characteristics, nonunion location, healing rate, time to fracture healing, fracture age, and demographic information. We found 79 potentially eligible publications, of which 14 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, eight studies were used for data abstraction. Healing rates averaged 87%, (range 65.6%-100% among eight trials. Mean time to healing was 146.5 days, (range 56-219 days. There is evidence from trials that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound may be an effective treatment for healing of nonunions. More homogeneous and larger controlled series are needed to further investigate its efficacy.

  16. Application of monorail fixator for femoral gap nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Hemendra-Kumar; Jaiman, Ashish; Khatkar, Vipin; Sharma, Vinod-Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Difficult femoral nonunion takes account of infective nonunion and aseptic gap nonunion. Limb length discrepancy and nonunion need to be tackled simultaneously. Conventionally Ilizarov ring fixator is in vogue but it has some limitations. To overcome these, monorail fixator is an effective alternative. Persistent good results can be obtained if we can get a perfect anatomical alignment and good regeneration.

  17. Clinical diagnostic evaluation for scaphoid fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, Wouter H.; Henny, Erik P.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Kamminga, Sjoerd P.; van Enst, Wynanda A.; Kloen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of available clinical evaluation tests for scaphoid fractures and to compare their diagnostic accuracies. PWe performed a systematic review of all studies assessing diagnostic characteristics of clinical evaluation in scaphoid fractures by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane,

  18. 21 CFR 888.3760 - Wrist joint carpal scaphoid polymer prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wrist joint carpal scaphoid polymer prosthesis. 888.3760 Section 888.3760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... scaphoid polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint carpal scaphoid polymer prosthesis is a one...

  19. Osteosynthesis for symptomatic ulnar styloid nonunion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, Ryoji; Kimori, Kenji; Kawagoe, Hiroyuki; Tsuge, Kenya; Ikuta, Yosikazu

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed cases of osteosynthesis for symptomatic ulnar styloid nonunion. Since 1998, 13 cases of ulnar styloid nonunion have been treated by osteosynthesis. The patients were 10 men and 3 women, with a mean age of 27 years (range 11-65). The nonunion site was located in the middle in one case, in the base in 8 cases, and in the epiphyseal region in 4 cases. Osteosynthesis was performed with tension band wiring in all cases, and cancellous bone graft was performed in 12 of 13 cases. Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability was found by radiograph or CT in four cases; in two of these, osteosynthesis alone did not improve DRUJ instability and additional DRUJ stabilization was performed. One patient whose treatment failed to correct nonunion did not seek further treatment. In another case, an additional surgery was performed 1 week after the initial surgery to correct displacement of the fragment. The mean follow-up period was 15 months (range 8-45 months). According to Hauck's criteria, final pain was evaluated as excellent in nine cases, good in three cases, including the case resulting in nonunion, and fair in one case. (author)

  20. Nonunion of an isolated cuboid fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ed; Fazal, Muhammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Nonunion of an isolated undisplaced cuboid fracture is unusual. We report a case of symptomatic nonunion of an isolated cuboid fracture after nonoperative treatment. Fracture union was achieved with surgery, and the patient returned to full activities.

  1. Application of monorail fixator for femoral gap nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Hemendra Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Difficult femoral nonunion takes account of infective nonunion and aseptic gap nonunion. Limb length discrepancy and nonunion need to be tackled simultaneously. Conventionally Ilizarov ring fixator is in vogue but it has some limitations. To overcome these, monorail fixator is an effective alternative. Persistent good results can be obtained if we can get a perfect anatomical alignment and good regeneration. Key words: Femur; Ilizarov technique; External fixators

  2. Diaphyseal long bone nonunions - types, aetiology, economics, and treatment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Markus; Biehl, Christoph; Budak, Matthäus; Thormann, Ulrich; Heiss, Christian; Alt, Volker

    2018-02-01

    The intention of the current article is to review the epidemiology with related socioeconomic costs, pathophysiology, and treatment options for diaphyseal long bone delayed unions and nonunions. Diaphyseal nonunions in the tibia and in the femur are estimated to occur 4.6-8% after modern intramedullary nailing of closed fractures with an even much higher risk in open fractures. There is a high socioeconomic burden for long bone nonunions mainly driven by indirect costs, such as productivity losses due to long treatment duration. The classic classification of Weber and Cech of the 1970s is based on the underlying biological aspect of the nonunion differentiating between "vital" (hypertrophic) and "avital" (hypo-/atrophic) nonunions, and can still be considered to represent the basis for basic evaluation of nonunions. The "diamond concept" units biomechanical and biological aspects and provides the pre-requisites for successful bone healing in nonunions. For humeral diaphyseal shaft nonunions, excellent results for augmentation plating were reported. In atrophic humeral shaft nonunions, compression plating with stimulation of bone healing by bone grafting or BMPs seem to be the best option. For femoral and tibial diaphyseal shaft fractures, dynamization of the nail is an atraumatic, effective, and cheap surgical possibility to achieve bony consolidation, particularly in delayed nonunions before 24 weeks after initial surgery. In established hypertrophic nonunions in the tibia and femur, biomechanical stability should be addressed by augmentation plating or exchange nailing. Hypotrophic or atrophic nonunions require additional biological stimulation of bone healing for augmentation plating.

  3. Fractures of the bilateral distal radius and scaphoid: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Korhan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bilateral fractures of the distal radius and scaphoid are extremely rare injuries. Case presentation A patient with bilateral comminuted, displaced distal fractures of the radius and bilateral fractures of the scaphoid was treated via internal fixation of the scaphoid fractures with Herbert screws and internal fixation of the distal radius fractures with locked volar plating. Conclusion Rigid internal fixation of distal radius and scaphoid fractures is mandatory to start early active rehabilitation of the wrist without the need for wrist immobilization with a plaster or external skeletal fixation.

  4. Comparison of CT and MRI for Diagnosis of Suspected Scaphoid Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, Wouter; Doornberg, Job N.; Ring, David; van Dijk, C. Niek; Maas, Mario; Goslings, J. Carel

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is no consensus on the optimum imaging method to use to confirm the diagnosis of true scaphoid fractures among patients with suspected scaphoid fractures. This study tested the null hypothesis that computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have the same

  5. Training Improves Interobserver Reliability for the Diagnosis of Scaphoid Fracture Displacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, Geert A.; Guitton, Thierry G.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Ring, David; Osterman, A. Lee; Wahegaonkar, Abhijeet L.; Ladd, Amy; Barquet, Antonio; van Vugt, Arie B.; Shyam, Ashok K.; Swigart, Carrie; Coles, Chad P.; Zalavras, Charalampos; Goldfarb, Charles A.; Cassidy, Charles; Allan, Christopher; Beingessner, Daphne; Kalainov, David M.; Eygendaal, Denise; Sancheti, Parag; Feibel, Robert J.; Rocha, Steve; Grosso, Elena; Frihagen, Frede; Dyer, George S. M.; Athwal, George S.; Goslings, J. Carel; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Harris, Ian; Fanuele, Jason C.; Lawton, Jeff; Jiuliano, John; McAuliffe, John; Capo, John T.; Conflitti, Joseph M.; Segalman, Keith; Egol, Kenneth; Ponsen, Kornelis J.; Jeray, Kyle; Lattanza, Lisa; Catalano, Louis; Swiontkowski, Marc; Boyer, Martin; Richardson, Martin; Soong, Maximillian; Baskies, Michael; Prayson, Michael; McKee, Michael; Chen, Neal C.; Kloen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of displacement in scaphoid fractures is notorious for poor interobserver reliability. We tested whether training can improve interobserver reliability and sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of scaphoid fracture displacement on radiographs and CT scans. Sixty-four

  6. Primary total aseptic necrosis of the scaphoid bone. Report of three cases. Les osteonecroses aseptiques primitives totales du scaphoide. A propos de trois cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnot, J Y; Frajman, J M; Bocquet, L [Hopital Bichat, 75 - Paris (FR)

    1990-11-01

    Idiopathic avascular necrosis of the entire scaphoid bone is uncommon. We report three cases treated by resection of the first row of carpal bones. Scintigraphy, CT-scan and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for the diagnosis.

  7. Tomosynthesis: A new radiologic technique for rapid diagnosis of scaphoid fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, N; Murphy, L; Lyons, F; Jones, J; MacMahon, P; Cashman, J

    2016-12-21

    Scaphoid fractures constitute 71% of all carpal bone fractures. 1 Early diagnosis and treatment has significant bearing on fracture union rates and better clinical outcomes. While displaced fractures can be readily seen on plain radiograph, undisplaced fractures can require advanced imaging modalities to confirm that diagnosis. Advanced imaging such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computerised tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy are routinely used for the diagnosis of scaphoid fractures but require significant radiation exposure, increased cost and can be difficult to access. 2 Tomosynthesis is an emerging imaging modality which uses conventional x-ray systems to produce cross-sectional images. There has yet to be extensive research carried out investigating the diagnostic value of tomosynthesis in scaphoid fractures. The aim of this study is to optimise patient positioning for the diagnosis of scaphoid fractures in a cadaveric model and compare the diagnostic yield of tomography to conventional CT. Using four cadaveric specimens, three limb positions were examined in unfractured and fractured scaphoids to determine the optimal limb positions required for visualisation of the scaphoid. As a result of this study, the optimal position for visualisation of the scaphoid and diagnosis of scaphoid fractures has been determined. The results demonstrate that tomosynthesis is as effective as CT scanning in identifying scaphoid fractures in both sensitivity and specificity. By comparison to CT, tomosynthesis is cheaper, has lower radiation exposure, requires fewer hospital resources and can be performed quickly. Tomosynthesis is a valid diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of scaphoid fractures. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonunions of the distal tibia treated by reamed intramedullary nailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richmond, Jeffrey; Colleran, Kevin; Borens, Olivier; Kloen, Peter; Helfet, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of reamed intramedullary nailing in the treatment of nonunions of the distal one-fourth of the tibia. Nonunions of the distal tibia are particularly difficult to treat given the short distal segment, the proximity to the ankle joint, and the

  9. Vascularized bone graft in scaphoid fractures. Anatomical details and clinical indications. A cases series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara A, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    The fracture of scaphoid continues being a challenge for orthopedist and hand surgeons. Objective. To show the anatomical details of the bony strip from the second metacarpal in corpses injected with green latex and the results of the surgical technique in a series of patients with scaphoid pseudarthrosis. Materials and methods. We carry out an initial anatomical analysis before employing the surgical technique in clinical setting, and then we did a descriptive study of patients with pseudarthrosis of scaphoid,treated with vascularized bony graft by the first metacarpal artery. Results. All patients consolidated and improved in the pain scale, they did not have mobility deterioration or residual carpus instability, after ten years of observations. Conclusions. The vascularized graft is a useful option in the management of the pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid.

  10. Scaphoid and lunate movement in different ranges of carpal radioulnar deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin Bo; Xu, Jing; Xie, Ren Guo

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate scaphoid and lunate movement in radial deviation and in slight and moderate ulnar deviation ranges in vivo. We obtained computed tomography scans of the right wrists from 20° radial deviation to 40° ulnar deviation in 20° increments in 6 volunteers. The 3-dimensional bony structures of the wrist, including the distal radius and ulna, were reconstructed with customized software. The changes in position of the scaphoid and lunate along flexion-extension motion (FEM), radioulnar deviation (RUD), and supination-pronation axes in 3 parts--radial deviation and slight and moderate ulnar deviation--of the carpal RUD were calculated and analyzed. During carpal RUD, scaphoid and lunate motion along 3 axes--FEM, RUD, and supination-pronation--were the greatest in the middle third of the measured RUD (from neutral position to 20° ulnar deviation) and the smallest in radial deviation. Scaphoid motion along the FEM, RUD, and supination-pronation axes in the middle third was about half that in the entire motion range. In the middle motion range, lunate movement along the FEM and RUD axes was also the greatest. During carpal RUD, the greatest scaphoid and lunate movement occurs in the middle of the arc--slight ulnar deviation--which the wrist frequently adopts to accomplish major hand actions. At radial deviation, scaphoid and lunate motion is the smallest. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Deceptive appearance of normal variant of scaphoid bone in a teenage patient: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad N. Bhatti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid fractures are a common injury in late teens and mid twenties with a peak period in skeletally immature children at about 15 years of age, although considered to be rare in first decade of life, its exact incidence in early teen age remains to be a subject of debate. We report an unusual case of anatomical variation of scaphoid bone at the level of waist which could potentially cause diagnostic confusion. A 14-years-old boy presented in the fracture clinic 2 weeks after injury to his Right wrist which was managed in a scaphoid cast. X-ray examinations, both at the time of injury and later on in the fracture clinic revealed features suspicious of a fracture at the level of waist of the scaphoid bone, however the clinical examination did not correlate with imaging, in view of that radiological imaging of the unaffected side was performed for comparison, which revealed it to be an anatomical variant of scaphoid at this age. To our knowledge there are very few cases of such variation reported in literature in this age group of patients. This case highlights the importance of anatomical variants in scaphoid bone in this age group, which might pose a diagnostic challenge and the need for appropriate management plan and reassurance to avoid unnecessary anxiety.

  12. Nonunion of acetabular fractures: evaluation with interactive multiplanar CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Brooker, A.F. Jr.; Magid, D.

    1989-01-01

    Nonunions involving fractures of the acetabulum are reportedly rare, with few citings and little discussion in the literature. It is possible that acetabular nonunions go undetected because imaging of the acetabulum is difficult by conventional radiography. We report two cases of fracture nonunion involving the weight-bearing surface of the acetabulum diagnosed with the aid of computed tomography (CT) and a newly developed interactive 2D/3D orthotool that uniquely processes and reformats routine CT data. The interactive 2D/3D orthotool is a sophisticated computer program that allows dynamic viewing of standard multiplanar reconstructions in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes as well as multiple oblique projections. The 2D/3D orthotool provides on screen correlation of two-dimensional multiplanar images with three-dimensional reconstructions of the pelvis. The authors found this capability ideally suited for studying fractures with off-axis orientation such as those through the acetabular dome, greatly facilitating the diagnosis of nonunion

  13. Effectiveness of plate augmentation for femoral shaft nonunion after nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Jung Lin

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: Plate augmentation with retention of the nail with autologous bone grafting may be an effective and reliable alternative in treating nonunion of the femoral shaft fracture after open reduction and internal fixation with intramedullary nail.

  14. Successful treatment of recalcitrant nonunions with combined magnetic field stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, J A

    1997-01-01

    Nonunions and delayed unions have been classically defined by Bassett as an arrest of the fracture healing process at an intermediary stage of repair, at which time the fracture gap is bridged by fibrocartilage. It is estimated that approximately 10-20 % of long bone fractures in the United States will result in delayed unions when compared to the average rate of healing for the location and type of fracture. Many of these will go on to a nonunion if biological or biomechanical factors are not optimized to enhance healing. Additional commorbities such as smoking, ethanol abuse, malnutrition, malabsorption and altered neurologic conditions can contribute to delayed unions or nonunions. Even despite appropriate and aggressive early management of long bone fractures, a certain percentage still lack progression of healing and go on to nonunion. Classical surgical management of nonunions includes obtaininjg fracture stabilization with ORIF techniques and bone grafting, with reported clinical successes ranging from 50-80%. Those that fail to achieve union despite classical management are indeed recalcitrant nonunions.

  15. Classifications of Acute Scaphoid Fractures: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Berg, Paul W; Drijkoningen, Tessa; Strackee, Simon D; Buijze, Geert A

    2016-05-01

    Background In the lack of consensus, surgeon-based preference determines how acute scaphoid fractures are classified. There is a great variety of classification systems with considerable controversies. Purposes The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the different classification systems, clarifying their subgroups and analyzing their popularity by comparing citation indexes. The intention was to improve data comparison between studies using heterogeneous fracture descriptions. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature based on a search of medical literature from 1950 to 2015, and a manual search using the reference lists in relevant book chapters. Only original descriptions of classifications of acute scaphoid fractures in adults were included. Popularity was based on citation index as reported in the databases of Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar. Articles that were cited <10 times in WoS were excluded. Results Our literature search resulted in 308 potentially eligible descriptive reports of which 12 reports met the inclusion criteria. We distinguished 13 different (sub) classification systems based on (1) fracture location, (2) fracture plane orientation, and (3) fracture stability/displacement. Based on citations numbers, the Herbert classification was most popular, followed by the Russe and Mayo classifications. All classification systems were based on plain radiography. Conclusions Most classification systems were based on fracture location, displacement, or stability. Based on the controversy and limited reliability of current classification systems, suggested research areas for an updated classification include three-dimensional fracture pattern etiology and fracture fragment mobility assessed by dynamic imaging.

  16. Role of MRI in the diagnosis and management of patients with clinical scaphoid fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibrewal, Saket; Jayakumar, Prakash; Vaidya, Sujit; Ang, Swee Chai

    2012-01-01

    The American College of Radiologists (ACR) recognises the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the investigation of choice in patients with a clinically suspected scaphoid fracture but normal plain radiographs. The Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in the UK produces no similar guidelines, as evidenced by the inconsistent management of such cases in hospitals around the UK. In discussion with our musculoskeletal radiologists, we implemented new guidelines to standardise management of our patients and now report our findings. A consecutive series of 137 patients referred to the orthopaedic department with clinically suspected scaphoid fracture but normal series of plain radiographs were prospectively followed up over a two-year period. We implemented the use of early MRI for these patients and determined its incidence of detected scaphoid injury in addition to other occult injuries. We then prospectively examined results of these findings on patient management. Thirty-seven (27%) MRI examinations were normal with no evidence of a bony or soft-tissue injury. Soft-tissue injury was diagnosed in 59 patients (43.4%). Of those, 46 were triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears (33.8%) and 18 were intercarpal ligament injuries (13.2 %). Bone marrow oedema with no distinct fracture was discovered in 55 cases (40.4%). In 17 (12.5%) cases, this involved only the scaphoid. In the remainder, it also involved the other carpal bones or distal radius. Fracture(s) were diagnosed on 30 examinations (22.0%). MRI should be regarded as the gold standard investigation for patients in whom a scaphoid fracture is suspected clinically. It allows the diagnosis of occult bony and soft-tissue injuries that can present clinically as a scaphoid fracture; it also helps exclude patients with no fracture. We believe that there is a need to implement national guidelines for managing occult scaphoid fractures.

  17. Surgical treatment of rib fracture nonunion: A single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, M B; Houwert, R M; van Heerde, S; de Steenwinkel, M; Hietbrink, F; Leenen, L P H

    2018-03-01

    In contrast to the emerging evidence on the operative treatment of flail chest, there is a paucity of literature on the surgical treatment of rib fracture nonunion. The purpose of this study was to describe our standardized approach and report the outcome (e.g. patient satisfaction, pain and complications) after surgical treatment of a rib fracture nonunion. A single centre retrospective cohort study was performed at a level 1 trauma centre. Symptomatic rib nonunion was defined as a severe persistent localized pain associated with the nonunion of one or more rib fractures on a chest CT scan at least 3 months after the initial trauma. Patients after initial operative treatment of rib fractures were excluded. Nineteen patients (11 men, 8 women), with symptomatic nonunions were included. Fourteen patients were referred from other hospitals and 8 patients received treatment from a pain medicine specialist. The mean follow-up was 36 months. No in-hospital complications were observed. In 2 patients, new fractures adjacent to the implant, without new trauma were observed. Furthermore 3 patients requested implant removal with a persistent nonunion in one patient. There was a mean follow-up of 36 months, the majority of patients (n = 13) were satisfied with the results of their surgical treatment and all patients experienced a reduction in the number of complaints. Persisting pain was a common complaint. Three patients reporting severe pain used opioid analgesics on a daily or weekly basis. Only 1 patient needed ongoing treatment by a pain medicine specialist. Surgical fixation of symptomatic rib nonunion is a safe and feasible procedure, with a low perioperative complication rate, and might be beneficial in selected symptomatic patients in the future. In our study, although the majority of patients were satisfied and the pain level subjectively decreases, complaints of persistent pain were common. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk profile of patients developing nonunion of the clavicle and outcome of treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The most common complication following treatment of a clavicle fracture is nonunion. Most nonunions are symptomatic and treatment is mostly operative. The aim of this study was to describe risk profiles of patients developing nonunion and what outcome is observed following operative...... of functionality and patient reported satisfaction and remission of symptoms was done a minimum of six months post-operatively by mail. Response rate was 60%. RESULTS: The overall nonunion rate was 7.5%. Nine nonunions were initially treated operatively. Risk factors associated with nonunion of our series...

  19. Magnet pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  20. Stress Fracture and Nonunion of Coronoid Process in a Gymnast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hetling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gymnasts have high mechanical loading forces of up to 14 times body weight. Overuse lesions are typical in wrists and stress fractures in the olecranon, while isolated fractures of the coronoid process are uncommon. We present a case of retraumatized nonunion stress fracture of the ulnar coronoid process. Case Description. A 19-year-old gymnast presented with elbow pain after training. Imaging confirmed an old fracture of the coronoid process. We describe a 6-month multiphase return to competition rehabilitation program, which allowed him to compete pain-freely. Literature Review. Acute and overuse injuries in gymnasts are known but no nonunion of the coronoid process has been described before. Only one case of stress fracture of coronoid process in a gymnast was reported. Purpose and Clinical Relevance. We could successfully and conservatively return to sport a reactivated nonunion of a stress fracture of the coronoid process.

  1. The treatment of nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunions with im nail exchange versus augmentation plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin; Kim, Sul Gee; Yoon, Han Kook; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results between exchange nailing (EN) and augmentation plating (AP) with a nail left in situ for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunion after femoral nailing. : Retrospective data analysis, November 1996-March 2006. A level I trauma center. Eighteen patients with 18 nonisthmal femoral nonunions. Seven patients with 7 fractures treated for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunions after femoral nailing with EN and 11 patients with 11 fractures treated for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunions after nailing with AP combined with bone grafting. Union and complications. Five nonunions in the EN group failed to achieve union (72% failure rate), whereas all 11 pseudarthroses in the AP group obtained osseous union. Fisher exact test showed a higher nonunion rate of EN compared with AP for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunion (odds ratio, 6.5; P = 0.002). AP with autogenous bone grafting may be a better option than EN for nonisthmal femoral nonunions.

  2. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa as a cause of persistent femoral nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of postoperative infection which presented as nonunion fracture femur in a 30-year-old man due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa . This is the first report of Rhodotorula infection in a patient with fracture nonunion. The patient underwent repeated surgical debridement and received intensive antibiotic therapy before the diagnosis was made. The diagnosis could have been made earlier if the fungal etiology had been suspected earlier. Early suspicion and diagnosis of infection with atypical yeasts could be under-reported because of difficulties in accurate diagnosis and a tendency of attributing isolates to specimen contamination.

  3. Non-Anatomical Surgical Solutions for Difficult Non-Unions: Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Zaki Said, Galal; Farouk, Osama Ahmed; Galal Said, Hatem; Mohamed El-Sharkawi, Mohamed Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Non-union occurs when bone healing ceases and does not continue without some type of intervention. Classification of non-union is traditionally based on the amount of callus or bone healing at the fracture site. Successful treatment of non-union often depends on appropriate reduction and realignment of the fracture, bone grafting if necessary, and stabilization. This may not be possible in some neglected and complicated non-unions. Under these circumstances, modification of the stand...

  4. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  5. Atrophic femoral nonunion with bone loss: treatment with monorail transport: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, David M; Voss, Frank R

    2004-08-01

    Nonunions are an uncommon outcome of femoral fractures. Atrophic nonunions with a leg length discrepancy secondary to bone loss are often the most difficult to treat, and the treatment options are limited. We present a case that uses concomitant monolateral external fixation and intramedullary nailing to heal a nonunion and perform a simultaneous 7-cm lengthening procedure in a 33-year-old female.

  6. Congenital scaphoid megalourethra associated with posterior urethral valve: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Achyut Kulkarni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital scaphoid megalourethra is a very rare congenital anomaly of the anterior urethra in males. Here, a case of scaphoid megalourethra and posterior urethral valves is presented. A one and half year old male child came to us with complaints of ballooning at the tip of penis since birth. Micturating cystourethrogram showed a dilated glanular urethra. The patient underwent a Nesbitt’s longitudinal reduction urethroplasty with a single-staged, single layered repair. Post-operatively, the child passed a healthy stream of urine without straining

  7. Scaphoid Stress Fracture in High-Level Gymnast: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Nakamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an 18-year-old high-level gymnast who sustained a stress fracture of the scaphoid associated with a distal radial epiphysiolysis. Clinical evaluation demonstrated decreased range of motion of the affected wrist and insidious pain on the snuffbox and tenderness on the distal radial physis. He was submitted to surgical treatment with scaphoid percutaneous fixation and radial styloid process in situ fixation. Clinical features improved, and he got back to competition 6 months after surgery without symptoms and with complete range of motion.

  8. Isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis treatment using resurfacing arthroplasty with scaphoid anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humada Álvarez, G; Simón Pérez, C; García Medrano, B; Faour Martín, O; Marcos Rodríguez, J J; Vega Castrillo, A; Martín Ferrero, M A

    The aim of this study is to show the results of scaphotrapeziotrapezoid (STT) joint osteoarthritis treatment performing resurfacing arthroplasty with scaphoid anchorage. An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was performed. Ten patients with isolated STT joint osteoarthritis were studied between 2013 and 2015. The mean follow-up time was 26months. Clinical results, functional and subjective scores were reviewed. The patients were satisfied, achieving an average of 2.1 (0-3) on the VAS score and 16 (2 to 28) in the DASH questionnaire, and returning to work in the first three months post-surgery. Recovery of range of motion compared to the contralateral wrist was 96% in extension, 95% in flexion, 87% in ulnar deviation and 91% in radial deviation. The average handgrip strength of the wrist was 95% and pinch strength was 95% compared to the contralateral side. There were no intraoperative complications or alterations in postoperative carpal alignment. Resurfacing arthroplasty is proposed as a good and novel alternative in treating isolated SST joint arthritis. Achieving the correct balance between the strength and mobility of the wrist, without causing carpal destabilisation, is important to obtain satisfactory clinical and functional results. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  9. Outcome of Management of Humerus Diaphysis Non-union This ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    patients with nonunion of the humeral diaphysis were reviewed. ... 3 failures occurred of whom one was a smoker and diabetic, another had a loose ... as absence of radiographic signs of union and persistent pain on clinical ... Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Score for 13 activities of daily living 9 requiring full shoulder and elbow.

  10. Treatment of Atrophic Nonunion - A Report of Two Cases | Omeonu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULT: Long periods of limb immobilization in traditional fracture treatment often result to ... or nail do not give rigid fixation due to bone softening and often result to serial nonunion. ... a bloodless transformation of bone callus which avoids exposure of fracture site and soft tissue stripping is best suited for treating infected ...

  11. Three-stage treatment protocol for recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ching-Hou; Chiu, Yen-Chun; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Wu, Chin-Hsien

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we proposed a three-stage treatment protocol for recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion and aimed to analyze the clinical results. We retrospective reviewed 12 consecutive patients with recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion undergoing our three-stage treatment protocol from January 2010 to December 2014 in our institute. The three-stage treatment protocol comprised debridement of the nonunion site, lengthening to eliminate leg length discrepancy, deformity correction, stabilization with a locked plate, filling of the defect with cement spacer for inducing membrane formation, and bone reconstruction using a cancellous bone autograft (Masquelet technique) or free vascularized fibular bone graft. The bone union time, wound complication, lower limbs alignment, amount of lengthening, knee range of motion, and functional outcomes were evaluated. Osseous union with angular deformity lengthening was 5.88 cm (range 3.5-12 cm). Excellent or good outcomes were obtained in 9 patients. Although the current study involved only a small number of patients and the intervention comprised three stages, we believe that such a protocol may be a valuable alternative for the treatment of recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion.

  12. Can we trust intraoperative culture results in nonunions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael P; Altman, Daniel T; Altman, Gregory T; Sewecke, Jeffrey J; Ehrlich, Garth D; Hu, Fen Z; Nistico, Laura; Melton-Kreft, Rachel; Gause, Trent M; Costerton, John W

    2014-07-01

    To identify the presence of bacterial biofilms in nonunions comparing molecular techniques (multiplex polymerase chain reaction and mass spectrometry, fluorescent in situ hybridization) with routine intraoperative cultures. Thirty-four patients with nonunions were scheduled for surgery and enrolled in this ongoing prospective study. Intraoperative specimens were collected from removed implants, surrounding tissue membrane, and local soft tissue followed by standard culture analysis, Ibis's second generation molecular diagnostics (Ibis Biosystems), and bacterial 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the tissue specimens reacted with the FISH probes, which were chosen based on the Ibis analysis. Thirty-four patient encounters were analyzed. Eight were diagnosed as infected nonunions by positive intraoperative culture results. Ibis confirmed the presence of bacteria in all 8 samples. Ibis identified bacteria in a total of 30 of 34 encounters, and these data were confirmed by FISH. Twenty-two of 30 Ibis-positive samples were culture-negative. Four samples were negative by all methods of analysis. No samples were positive by culture, but negative by molecular techniques. Our preliminary data indicate that molecular diagnostics are more sensitive for identifying bacteria than cultures in cases of bony nonunion. This is likely because of the inability of cultures to detect biofilms and bacteria previously exposed to antibiotic therapy. Diagnostic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. Outcomes after operative management of symptomatic rib nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Erich M; Hill, Brian W; Lafferty, Paul M; Cole, Peter A

    2015-06-01

    To report the outcomes of rib reconstruction after painful nonunion. Retrospective case series. Level I trauma center. Between November 2007 and May 2013, 10 patients who presented with 16 rib nonunions and disabling pain were treated with reconstruction of their nonunited rib fractures. Rib nonunion reconstruction predominately with iliac crest bone graft and a tension band plate with a locked precontoured plating system for ribs. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, and number of rib nonunions were recorded. Operative procedure, length of follow-up, complications, Short Form Survey 36, and a patient questionnaire were also captured and documented. Eight of the 10 patients sustained their original fractures from a fall. Outcomes were available for the 10 patients at a mean follow-up of up of 18.6 months (range, 3-46 months). All 16 ribs went on to union with a mean time from reconstruction to union of 14.7 weeks (range, 12-24 weeks). At final follow-up, the mean mental and physical component Short Form Survey 36 scores were 54.4 and 43.5, respectively. Eight of the 10 patients were able to return to work and/or previous activities without limitations. Complications included 1 wound infection that resolved after irrigation and debridement with adjunctive antibiotics. One symptomatic implant was removed. Ten patients with 16 symptomatic rib nonunions were reconstructed using autologous bone graft and implant/mesh fixation manifesting in successful union with improved patient function and a low rate of complications. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  14. Management of complex long bone nonunions using limb reconstruction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Kumar Seenappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of complex nonunions is difficult due to the presence of infection, deformities, shortening and multiple surgeries in the past. Complex nonunions are traditionally managed by Ilizarov fixation. The disadvantages of Ilizarov are poor patient compliance, inconvenience of the frame and difficult frame construction. We conducted a study on 30 long bone complex nonunions treated by the limb reconstruction system (LRS. Materials and Methods: Between April 2009 and September 2012, we treated 30 cases of complex nonunion of long bone with the LRS. 28 were male and 2 females. Average shortening was 5.06 cm and 14 cases presented with infected implants. Initially we managed with implant removal, radical debridement followed by fixation with the LRS. In 16 cases, corticotomy and lengthening was done. The average duration of treatment was 9.68 months. We compressed the fracture site at the rate of 0.25 mm per day for 1-2 weeks and distracted the corticotomy at the rate of 1 mm/day till lengthening was achieved. Result: The union occurred in 89.28% cases and eradication of infection in 91.66% cases. Average lengthening done was 4.57 cm. We had 79% excellent, 11% good and 10% poor bony result and fnctional result was excellent in 40% cases, good in 50% and failure in 10% cases using ASAMI scoring system. Conclusion: LRS is an alternative to the Ilizarov fixation in their management of complex nonunion of long bones. It is less cumbersome to the patient and more surgeon and patient friendly.

  15. A Scaphoid Stress Fracture in a Female Collegiate-Level Shot-Putter and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Kohring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid stress fractures are rare injuries that have been described in young, high-level athletes who exhibit repetitive loading with the wrist in extension. We present a case of an occult scaphoid stress fracture in a 22-year-old female Division I collegiate shot-putter. She was successfully treated with immobilization in a thumb spica splint for 6 weeks. Loaded wrist extension activities can predispose certain high-level athletes to sustain scaphoid stress fractures, and a high index of suspicion in this patient population may aid prompt diagnosis and management of this rare injury.

  16. Introducing a Clinical Practice Guideline Using Early CT in the Diagnosis of Scaphoid and Other Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pincus, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We developed and implemented clinical practice guideline (CPG using computerized tomography (CT as the initial imaging method in the emergency department management of scaphoid fractures. We hypothesized that this CPG would decrease unnecessary immobilization and lead to earlier return to work.Methods: This observational study evaluated implementation of our CPG, which incorporated early wrist CT in patients with “clinical scaphoid fracture”: a mechanism of injury consistent with scaphoid fracture, anatomical snuff box tenderness, and normal initial plain x-rays. Outcome measures were the final diagnosis as determined by orthopaedic review of the clinical and imaging data. Patient outcomes included time to return to work and patient satisfaction as determined by telephone interview at ten days.Results: Eighty patients completed the study protocol in a regional emergency department.In this patient population CT detected 28 fractures in 25 patients, including six scaphoid fractures, five triquetral fractures, four radius fractures, and 13 other related fractures. Fifty-three patients had normal CT. Eight of these patients had significant ongoing pain at follow up and had an MRI, with only two bone bruises identified. The patients with normal CTs avoided prolonged immobilization (mean time in plaster 2.7 days and had no or minimal time off work (mean 1.6 days. Patient satisfaction was an average 4.2/5.Conclusion: This CPG resulted in rapid and accurate management of patients with suspected occult scaphoid injury, minimized unnecessary immobilization and was acceptable to patients.[WestJEM. 2009;10(4:227-232.

  17. Training improves interobserver reliability for the diagnosis of scaphoid fracture displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijze, Geert A; Guitton, Thierry G; van Dijk, C Niek; Ring, David

    2012-07-01

    The diagnosis of displacement in scaphoid fractures is notorious for poor interobserver reliability. We tested whether training can improve interobserver reliability and sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of scaphoid fracture displacement on radiographs and CT scans. Sixty-four orthopaedic surgeons rated a set of radiographs and CT scans of 10 displaced and 10 nondisplaced scaphoid fractures for the presence of displacement, using a web-based rating application. Before rating, observers were randomized to a training group (34 observers) and a nontraining group (30 observers). The training group received an online training module before the rating session, and the nontraining group did not. Interobserver reliability for training and nontraining was assessed by Siegel's multirater kappa and the Z-test was used to test for significance. There was a small, but significant difference in the interobserver reliability for displacement ratings in favor of the training group compared with the nontraining group. Ratings of radiographs and CT scans combined resulted in moderate agreement for both groups. The average sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of diagnosing displacement of scaphoid fractures were, respectively, 83%, 85%, and 84% for the nontraining group and 87%, 86%, and 87% for the training group. Assuming a 5% prevalence of fracture displacement, the positive predictive value was 0.23 in the nontraining group and 0.25 in the training group. The negative predictive value was 0.99 in both groups. Our results suggest training can improve interobserver reliability and sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the diagnosis of scaphoid fracture displacement, but the improvements are slight. These findings are encouraging for future research regarding interobserver variation and how to reduce it further.

  18. Utilising magnetic resonance imaging as the gold-standard in management of suspected scaphoid fractures in the emergency department setting

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasubbu, B

    2017-02-01

    Scaphoid fractures are the most common carpal bone fracture. Up to 40% of scaphoid fractures can be missed at initial presentation and investigation. Follow-up plain film radiograph has overall poor sensitivity and reliability. MRI has been shown to have an almost 100% sensitivity and specificity and so is the gold standard in scaphoid fracture diagnosis. Additionally, early specialist involvement is recommended. We proposed that following a designated pathway, there would be no significant increase in MRI requests. Following implementation of a pathway for the management of suspected scaphoid fractures in St James’s Hospital in 2012 re-auditing demonstrated that management changed to either MRI directly after initial x-ray (16\\/145, 11%), MRI after second x-ray (9\\/28, 32%) or orthopaedic follow-up (19\\/28, 68%). The number of MRIs requested was consistent with our predictors of demand. Thus, our new protocol maximises diagnostics, cost effectiveness and quality of patient care.

  19. Management of diabetic neuropathic foot and ankle malunions and nonunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Stapleton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of diabetic neuropathic foot and ankle malunions and/or nonunions is often complicated by the presence of broken or loosened hardware, Charcot joints, infection, osteomyelitis, avascular bone necrosis, unstable deformities, bone loss, disuse and pathologic osteopenia, and ulcerations. The author discusses a rational approach to functional limb salvage with various surgical techniques that are aimed at achieving anatomic alignment, long-term osseous stability, and adequate soft tissue coverage. Emphasis is placed on techniques to overcome the inherent challenges that are encountered when surgically managing a diabetic nonunion and/or malunion. Particular attention is directed to the management of deep infection and Charcot neuroarthropathy in the majority of the cases presented.

  20. Hydatid disease: A rare cause of fracture nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Aggarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is an infrequent parasitic infestation caused by cestode, most commonly, Echinococcus granulosus. Bone involvement is distinctly uncommon. We would like to share our experience of a rare case of hydatid disease of femur in a 24-year-old male who presented with nonunion of subtrochanteric fracture. Histopathology showed typical lamellated wall and dagger-shaped hooklets. In view of its rarity, hydatid disease often remains an unsuspected infection of the bone.

  1. Force interaction and 3D pole movement in double poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, T; Holmberg, H-C

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze double poling using combined kinetic and 3D kinematic analysis at high skiing speeds as regards pole force components, pole angles and pole behavior during the poling and swing phase. The hypothesis was that a horizontal pole force is more predictive for maximal skiing speed (V(max)) than the resultant pole force. Sixteen elite skiers performed a double-poling V(max) test while treadmill roller skiing. Pole forces and 3D kinematics of pole movement at a speed of 30 km/h were analyzed and related to V(max). The duration of the "preparation phase" showed the strongest relationship with V(max) (r=0.87, Pmax) compared with the resultant pole force. Impact force was not related to V(max). At high skiing speeds, skiers should aim to combine high pole forces with appropriate timing of pole forces and appropriate pole and body positions during the swing and poling phase. The emphasis in training should be on the development of specific strength capacities for pole force production and the utilization of these capacities in double-poling training sessions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Sacral Fracture Nonunion Treated by Bone Grafting through a Posterior Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunion of a sacral fracture is a rare but serious clinical condition which can cause severe chronic pain, discomfort while sitting, and significant restriction of the level of activities. Fracture nonunions reportedly occur most often after nonoperative initial treatment or inappropriate operative treatment. We report a case of fracture nonunion of the sacrum and pubic rami that resulted from non-operative initial treatment, which was treated successfully using bone grafting through a posterior approach and CT-guided percutaneous iliosacral screw fixation combined with anterior external fixation. Although autologous bone grafting has been the gold standard for the treatment of pelvic fracture nonunions, little has been written describing the approach. We utilized a posterior approach for bone grafting, which could allow direct visualization of the nonunion site and preclude nerve root injury. By this procedure, we were able to obtain the healing of fracture nonunion, leading to pain relief and functional recovery.

  3. Economic burden of illness among US patients experiencing fracture nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu N

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ning Wu,1 Yuan-chi Lee,1 Daniel Segina,2 Hallie Murray,3 Teresa Wilcox,1 Luke Boulanger1 1United BioSource Corporation, Lexington, MA, USA; 2Department of Orthopaedics, Holmes Regional Trauma Center, Melbourne, FL, USA; 3Biomet Spine and Bone Healing Technologies, Parsippany, NJ, USA Objectives: To compare economic outcomes in a real-world study of patients with fracture nonunion receiving non-invasive electrical bone growth stimulation (EBGS, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation (LIPUS, or other non-stimulation fracture management interventions (No-stim. Methods: Medical and pharmacy claims from a US commercially-insured population were analyzed to select adult patients newly diagnosed with a fracture nonunion between July 2006 and September 2009. The date of initial nonunion diagnosis was set as the index date. Three cohorts were constructed based on the first treatment prescribed post index date: EBGS, LIPUS, or No-stim. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and health care costs 9 months before and 1 year after the index date were assessed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare health care costs between cohorts in the post index period. Results: 11,628 patients (mean age 45.4 years; 45.7% males with a fracture nonunion were identified within the three treatment groups (EBGS: 29.5%, LIPUS: 12.3%, and No-stim: 58.2%. In the post-index period, EBGS patients were significantly less likely to receive fracture-related treatments when compared to the LIPUS (33.6% vs 42.2%, P < 0.01 and the No-stim (33.6% vs 60.3%, P < 0.01 cohorts. Additionally, after adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, the EBGS cohort had significantly lower predicted health care-associated costs 1 year post index date when compared to the LIPUS (mean: $21,632 vs $23,964, P < 0.01 and the No-stim (mean: $21,632 vs $23,843, P < 0.01 cohorts. Furthermore, the predicted fracture-related costs (FRC of EBGS patients were also

  4. Unicameral bone cyst of the scaphoid: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdan, Mohammad; Zarezadeh, Abolghasem; Gaulke, Raulf; Eshaghi, Mohammad Amin; Shemshaki, Hamidreza

    2012-08-01

    Unicameral bone cysts are benign, fluid-filled lesions that occur mostly in long bones (proximal humerus, 50-60%; femur, 30%) of male children aged 5 to 15 years. Occurrence in the scaphoid of an adult is rare. We report 2 such patients who presented with wrist pain, with and without a history of trauma. Both underwent curettage and bone grafting (harvested from the distal radius) and achieved good functional recovery.

  5. Surfing Behind a Boat: Quality and Reliability of Online Resources on Scaphoid Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Mujtaba; Mohamed, Osama; Berzins, Arvids; Aljabi, Yasser; Mahmood, Talat; Chenouri, Shojaeddin; O'Grady, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Patients seeking information and advice on treatment of scaphoid fractures unknowingly confront longstanding medical controversies surrounding the management of this condition. However, there are no studies specifically looking into the quality and reliability of online information on scaphoid fractures. We identified 44 unique websites for evaluation using the term "scaphoid fractures". The websites were categorized by type and assessed using the DISCERN score, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria and the Health on the net (HON) code. The majority of websites were commercial (n = 13) followed by academic (n = 12). Only seven of the websites were HON certified. The mean DISCERN score was 43.8. Only 4 websites scored 63 or above representing excellent quality with minimal shortcomings but 13 websites scored 38 or below representing poor or very poor quality. The mean JAMA benchmark criteria score was 2.2. The Governmental and Non-Profit Organizations category websites had the highest mean JAMA benchmark score. The websites that displayed the HON-code seal had higher mean DISCERN scores and higher mean JAMA benchmark scores compared to websites that did not display the seal. Good quality health information is certainly available on the Internet. However, it is not possible to predict with certainty which sites are of higher quality. We suggest clinicians should have a responsibility to educate their patients regarding the unregulated nature of medical information on the internet and proactively provide patients with educational resources and thus help them make smart and informed decisions.

  6. Gap nonunion of tibia treated by Huntington′s procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zile S Kundu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gap nonunion that may occur following trauma or infection is a challenging problem to treat. The patients with intact or united fibula, preserved sensation in the sole, and adequate vascularity, were managed by tibialization (medialization of the fibula (Huntington′s procedure, to restore continuity of the tibia. The goal of this retrospective analysis study is to report the mid-term results following the Huntington′s procedure. Materials and Methods: 22 patients (20 males and two females age 16-34 years with segmental tibial loss more than 6 cm were operated for tibialization of fibula. The procedure was two-staged in seven and single-staged in the rest 15 patients, where the lateral aspect of the leg was relatively supple. In the two-staged procedure, the distal tibiofibular synostosis was performed six-to-eight weeks after the proximal procedure. Weightbearing (protected was started in a long leg cast after six-to-eight weeks of the second stage and continued for six-to-eight months, followed by the use of a brace. Results: The fibula started showing signs of hypertrophy within the first year after the procedure and it was more than double in breath after the four-year period. Full and unprotected weightbearing on the operated leg was achieved at an average time of 16 months. At the final followup, ten patients were very satisfied, seven satisfied, and five fairly satisfied. One patient had persistent nonunion at the proximal synostotic site even after bone grafting and secondary fixation. Conclusion: Huntington′s procedure is a safe and simple salvage procedure and remains an excellent option for treating difficult infected nonunion of the tibia in the selected indications.

  7. Successful reconstruction for complex malunions and nonunions of the tibia and femur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, Geert A.; Richardson, Shawn; Jupiter, Jesse B.

    2011-01-01

    Information regarding the long-term outcomes of the treatment of lower-extremity fracture malunion and nonunion is lacking. Twenty-nine secondarily referred patients with complex malunion or nonunion of the tibia or femur, treated by a single surgeon, were followed for a median of twenty years

  8. Osseous union in cases of nonunion in long bones treated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the incidence of osseous union in cases of nonunion of long bones managed by open reduction and compression plating. : Between November, 2003 and June, 2005, 53 patients with nonunion of long bones were treated by open reduction and internal fixation and followed up. The follow up period for each ...

  9. Scaphoid fracture: Bone marrow edema detected with dual-energy CT virtual non-calcium images and confirmed with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dareez, Nazeer M.; Engesland, Eirin; Lindland, Elisabeth S. [Department of Radiology, SSHF Arendal, Arendal (Norway); Dahlslett, Kristine H. [Haukelands Universitetssjukehus, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway)

    2017-12-15

    We aimed to determine whether bone marrow edema (BME) in acute traumatic scaphoid fracture could be demonstrated with dual-energy CT (DECT) using MRI as the gold standard. In recent years, virtual non-calcium (VNCa) images have been used to demonstrate BME in trauma cases, for example, in vertebral compression fractures, hip trauma to detect occult fractures and knee fractures. We present three cases of acute scaphoid trauma. Two patients had subtle or invisible fractures on x-ray and conventional CT images, while DECT VNCa images clearly visualized the BME, which was confirmed by MRI. One patient had negative findings on both VNCa and MRI images. The DECT VNCa algorithm is a promising technique to demonstrate BME in scaphoid fractures, with potential for increasing the diagnostic value of CT in this type of injury. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography of scaphoid fixation screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filli, Lukas; Marcon, Magda; Scholz, Bernhard; Calcagni, Maurizio; Finkenstädt, Tim; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) of scaphoid fixation screws. FDCT has gained interest in imaging small anatomic structures of the appendicular skeleton. Angiographic C-arm systems with flat detectors allow fluoroscopy and FDCT imaging in a one-stop procedure emphasizing their role as an ideal intraoperative imaging tool. However, FDCT imaging can be significantly impaired by artefacts induced by fixation screws. Following ethical board approval, commercially available scaphoid fixation screws were inserted into six cadaveric specimens in order to fix artificially induced scaphoid fractures. FDCT images corrected with the algorithm were compared to uncorrected images both quantitatively and qualitatively by two independent radiologists in terms of artefacts, screw contour, fracture line visibility, bone visibility, and soft tissue definition. Normal distribution of variables was evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In case of normal distribution, quantitative variables were compared using paired Student's t tests. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for quantitative variables without normal distribution and all qualitative variables. A p value of < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistically significant differences. Metal artefacts were significantly reduced by the correction algorithm (p < 0.001), and the fracture line was more clearly defined (p < 0.01). The inter-observer reliability was "almost perfect" (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.85, p < 0.001). The prototype correction algorithm in FDCT for metal artefacts induced by scaphoid fixation screws may facilitate intra- and postoperative follow-up imaging. Flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) is a helpful imaging tool for scaphoid fixation. The correction algorithm significantly reduces artefacts in FDCT induced by scaphoid fixation screws. This may facilitate intra

  11. [Treatment of postoperative nonunion of fracture of lower limb with bone grafting by intervertebral disc endoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlin; Tan, Yu'e; Ye, Jun; Han, Fangmin

    2012-02-01

    To explore the effectiveness of bone grafting by intervertebral disc endoscope for postoperative nonunion of fracture of lower limb. Between August 2004 and August 2008, 40 patients (23 males and 17 females) with postoperative nonunion of femoral and tibial fracture, aged 20-63 years (mean, 41.5 years) were treated. Nonunion of fracture occurred at 10-16 months after internal fixation. During the first operation, the internal fixation included interlocking intramedullary nailing of femoral fracture in 12 cases and plate in 16 cases, and interlocking intramedullary nailing of tibial fractures in 9 cases and plate in 3 cases. The X-ray films showed hypertrophic nonunion in 24 cases, common nonunion in 3 cases, and atrophic nonunion in 13 cases. The average operation time was 61 minutes (range, 40-80 minutes), and the blood loss was 80-130 mL (mean, 100 mL). The hospitalization time were 6-11 days (mean, 8.1 days). Incisions healed by first intention in all patients with no complication of infection or neurovascular injury. Forty patients were followed up 10-16 months (mean, 12.3 months). The X-ray films showed that all patients achieved healing of fracture after 4-10 months (mean, 6.8 months). No pain, disfunction, or internal fixation failure occurred. Bone grafting by intervertebral disc endoscope is an effective method for treating postoperative nonunion of femoral and tibial fracture.

  12. Spatial resolution requirements in digital radiography of scaphoid fractures. An ROC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, A.; Laurin, S.; Karner, G.; Herrlin, K.; Hochbergs, P.; Jonsson, K.; Rudling, O.; Sandstroem, S.; Sloth, M.; Svahn, G.; Pettersson, H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the spatial resolution requirements in digital radiography of scaphoid fractures. Material and Methods: Included in the study were 60 scaphoid radiographs with and 60 without fractures of the scaphoid bone. The film-screen images were digitized using pixel sizes of 115, 170, and 340 μm along with 170 μm with a 10:1 wavelet compression. The digital images were displayed on a 1280 x 1024 x 8 bits monitor, and 5 observers evaluated the images in 5 randomized sessions. The results for each pixel size were then compared to the film-screen images by ROC analysis. Results: The mean area under the ROC curves was larger for the film-screen images than for the digital images at all resolutions. However, this difference was not significant when the areas under the ROC curves for the film-screen images were compared to the digital images of 115, 170, and 170 μm with 10:1 compression. There was a significant difference for the 340-μm pixel size in favour of the film-screen images. The mean ROC curves for the digital images were very similar for the 115 and 170 μm pixel sizes, although slightly better for 115 μm. At 170 μm, the compression seemed to have a relatively small negative effect on the diagnostic performance; the deterioration was greater when the pixel size was increased to 340 μm. There was no obvious correlation between diagnostic performance and the experience of the observers in using workstations. Conclusions: The pixel size of 170 μm is adequate for the detection of subtle fractures, even after wavelet compression by a ratio of 10:1. (orig.)

  13. Use of bone marrow derived stem cells in a fracture non-union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod C. Raulo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an attempt of using in vitro cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from bone marrow in joining of a fracture non-union. Bone marrow cells were obtained and differentially centrifuged for MSCs that were grown in vitro in mesenchymal stem cell basal medium aseptically, for 10 d. The cell mass was injected around the fracture non-union. Healthy conditions of development of tissue regeneration at the trauma site and due bone joining were recorded. It is concluded that in vitro cultured MSCs had a blithesome effect on the fracture non-union.

  14. A Rare Complete Metacarpal Pseudoepiphysis in a Teenager With a Scaphoid Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Rachel B; Colberg, Ricardo E

    2017-11-01

    A 13-yr-old adolescent boy presented with wrist pain after falling off a scooter onto his outstretched hand. Radiographs revealed a nondisplaced hairline fracture of the scaphoid bone and an irregular radiolucent line in the proximal metaphysis of the second metacarpal bone, consistent with an anomalous growth plate, or complete pseudoepiphysis. Complete pseudoepiphysis is a rare finding, with only a few cases reported. Learning about the common locations of growth plates and the radiographic differences between normal, injured, and anomalous growth plates can help decrease physician error and improve patient outcomes.

  15. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  16. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  17. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for nonunion after nonoperative treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Xiao, J; Ji, F; Xie, Y; Hao, Y

    2015-04-01

    The optimal treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures remains controversial. Nonunion is usually considered to be an uncommon complication following a nonoperatively treated clavicle fracture. Not every midshaft clavicular fractures shares the same risk of developing nonunion after nonoperative treatment. The present study was performed to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic independent factors that are independently predictive of nonunion in patients with midshaft clavicular fractures after nonoperative treatment. We performed a retrospective study of a series of 804 patients (391 men and 413 women with a median age of 51.3 years) with a radiographically confirmed midshaft clavicle fracture, which was treated nonoperatively. There were 96 patients who underwent nonunion. Putative intrinsic (patient-related) and extrinsic (injured-related) risk factors associated with nonunion were determined with the use of bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. By bivariate analysis, the risk of nonunion was significantly increased by several intrinsic risk factors including age, sex, and smoking and extrinsic risk factors including displacement of the fracture and the presence of comminution (P<0.05 for all). On multivariate analysis, smoking (OR=4.16, 95% CI: 1.01-14.16), fracture displacement (OR=7.81, 95% CI: 2.27-25.38) and comminution of fracture (OR=3.86, 95% CI: 1.16-13.46) were identified as independent predictive factors. The risk factors for nonunion after nonoperative treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures are multifactorial. Smoking, fracture displacement and comminution of fracture are independent predictors for an individual likelihood of nonunion. Further studies are still required to evaluate these factors in the future. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sandwich allografts for long-bone nonunions in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanesarajah, Varun; Shapiro, Jay R; Sponseller, Paul D

    2015-02-18

    Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta often develop nonunions, as internal fixation has limited applicability in this condition. We report the outcomes of a modified "sandwich technique" in the treatment of long-bone nonunions in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta; this technique brings circumferential stabilization and normal collagen to the nonunion site. From May 2003 through February 2012, twelve patients (eight females, four males; median age, 39.0 years; range, eleven to seventy-eight years) who had osteogenesis imperfecta (Sillence type I [three], type III [eight], and type IV [one]) and a combined total of thirteen nonunions (two humeral, two radial, three femoral, four tibial, and two ulnar; median duration, 15.0 months; range, six to 204 months) were treated at our institution with compressed sandwich allograft cortical struts. The struts were fashioned to be wide enough to allow for increased osteoconductive surface area and to approximate a hemicylindrical shape. Treatment history and demographics data were acquired through retrospective chart review. Follow-up radiographs were analyzed by two attending orthopaedic surgeons to determine radiographic findings. The median follow-up time was 4.6 years (range, 2.1 to 10.3 years). All thirteen nonunions, including one requiring a second graft procedure, healed with abundant, smooth allograft incorporation, resulting in an initial healing rate of 92% because of a refracture in one patient. This patient's nonunion ultimately healed with additional allograft struts and a new intramedullary rod. One patient required removal of prominent screws. The final follow-up examinations revealed no pain or refracture at the original nonunion site. All patients regained their prefracture level of function. Sandwich allograft struts constitute a durable, safe method for the stabilization and healing of persistent long-bone nonunions in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. All patients showed incorporation of the

  19. Bone Scan in Detection of Biological Activity in Nonhypertrophic Fracture Nonunion

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Sunny J.; Rabadiya, Bhavdeep

    2017-01-01

    Biological activity of the fracture site is very important factor in treatment planning of fracture nonunion. If no biological activity is detected, then an autologous bone graft can be supplemented or osteogenic supplementations, such as bone morphogenetic protein is given. If biological activity is present, then secure fixation is sufficient to achieve bony union. Biological activity of nonunions is usually assessed by conventional radiographs. The presence of callus formation is usually as...

  20. MRT of scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis using Gd-DTPA. Staging and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.J.; Beutel, F.; Wilhelm, K.; Tempka, A.; Schedel, H.; Haas, R.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    During a period of two years, 134 patients with pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid were examined by conventional radiography and by MRI in the course of a prospective study. The aim of the study was to define radiological staging using contrast enhanced MRI in order to improve the prognostic criteria. All MRI examinations were carried out with a 1.5 Tesla scanner (SP63) using a surface coil and T 1 weighted spin echo sequences in sagittal and frontal projection and frontal FLASH T 2 -sequences and axial spin echo T 2 sequences. The T 1 weighted SE sequences in frontal projection were carried out before and after iv contrast (0.1 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg KG). All sequences were compared with conventional radiographs and the operative findings. Eight patients in stage 0 showed high signal intensity of both fragments in T 1 weighted SE sequences and at surgery there was good vascularisation. In 22 cases there was reduced signal intensity in at least one fragment (stage I). 45 patients with scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis showed complete signal loss but marked contrast uptake with still vital nuclei at surgery (stage II). In 22 patients, there was no increase in signal intensity after contrast and complete loss of vitality of the fragments at surgery. Staging was not possible in 37 patients because of previous operative intervention. The use of contrast enhanced MRI provides additional information compared with conventional radiography or plain MRI. (orig.) [de

  1. Osteoma osteoide em escafoide: relato de caso Osteoid osteoma in scaphoid: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lourenço Severo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O osteoma osteoide é um tumor benigno osteoblástico, incomum na mão. A localização nos ossos do carpo é infrequente, a qual leva a erros no diagnóstico em decorrência do polimorfismo de sinais clínicos. Na revisão bibliográfica foram referidos nove casos de osteoma osteoide no escafoide. Relata-se um caso de osteoma osteoide no escafoide, tratado inicialmente como tenossinovite estenosante de De Quervain, tendo diagnóstico definitivo retardado por cinco anos.Osteoid osteoma is a benign osteoblastic tumor that is unusual in the hand. A location in the carpal bones is infrequent, which leads to errors in diagnosing it because of polymorphism of the clinical symptoms. Reviewing the literature shows that nine cases of osteoid osteoma in the scaphoid have been reported. Here, one case of osteoid osteoma in the scaphoid that was initially treated as De Quervain's stenosing tenosynovitis is reported, with a definitive diagnosis that was delayed for five years.

  2. South Pole rockets, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Iwane

    1977-01-01

    Wave-particle interaction was observed, using three rockets, S-210 JA-20, -21 and S-310 JA-2, launched from the South Pole into aurora. Electron density and temperature were measured with these rockets. Simultaneous observations of waves were also made from a satellite (ISIS-II) and at two ground bases (Showa base and Mizuho base). Observed data are presented in this paper. These include electron density and temperature in relation to altitude; variation of electron (60 - 80 keV) count rate with altitude; VLF spectra measured by the PWL of S-210 JA-20 and -21 rockets and the corresponding VLF spectra at the ground bases; low-energy (<10 keV) electron flux measured by S-310 JA-2 rocket; and VLF spectrum measured with S-310 JA-2 rocket. Scheduled measurements for the next project are also briefly described. (Aoki, K.)

  3. Ilizarov′s method for treatment of nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Manish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonunion in diaphyseal fractures of the humerus can be treated by various modalities like plating and bone grafting, exchange nailing, fibular strut grafting and Ilizarov′s method of ring fixation. To achieve union in infected nonunion in which multiple surgeries have already been done is further challenging. We conducted a prospective study wherein the outcome of the treatment of nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus by Ilizarov′s method was analyzed. Materials and Methods: Nineteen patients with diaphyseal nonunion of the humerus were treated by Ilizarov′s external fixator. These included nonunion after plating (n=11, intramedullary nailing (n=1 or conservative methods (n=7. In post-surgical infected nonunion (n=6, the implants were removed, debridement done, bone fragments were docked followed by application of ring fixator and compression. In aseptic nonunion (n=13, distraction for three weeks followed by compression was the protocol. Early shoulder and elbow physiotherapy was instituted. The apparatus was removed after clinical and radiological union and the results were assessed for bone healing and functional status. Results: Fracture union was achieved in all the 19 cases. Pin site infection was seen in 2 cases (10.52%. The bone healing results were excellent in eighteen cases (94.73% and good in one case (5.26%.The functional results were found to be excellent in fourteen cases (73.68%, good in four (21.05% and fair in one case (5.26%. Conclusion: Ilizarov′s method is an excellent option for treatment of septic and aseptic non union of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus as it addresses all the problems associated with non union of the humerus like infection, deformity and joint stiffness.

  4. For early diagnosis of the fracture healing, nonunion and avascular necorsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. C.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Y. C.; Whang, I. S.; Kim, H. S.

    1981-01-01

    Complications of non-union and avascular necrosis during fracture healing process are the most important problems. Early detection of the evidence of non-union and avascular necrosis and follow-up study of fracture healing process will reduce complications and sequellae in fracture patients. Femoral neck and tibial shaft are the most important fracture sites where non-union and/or avascular necorsis are frequently developed. Osteomedullography was performed in 30 cases of fracture, 21 femoral neck, 8 tibial shafts and 1 talar neck, in the Department of Radiology of national Medical Center during the period form August 1977 to March 1981. The following results were obtained: 1. 16 patients of femoral neck fracture were performed osteomedullography one. Non-union showing no crossing vein through the fracture site was noted in 12 cases from 16 patients. 4 cases from the 12 patients of non-union showed decreased viability but 2 case revealed good viability of the femoral head. 1 case from 4 case of good union of fracture showed no evidence of viability of the femoral head. 2. More than twice of osteomedullography were performed in 5 cases of femoral neck fracture, and crossing vein was not appeared in 4 cases at 3 weeks after fracture. 3 cases showed crossing veins at 6 weeks, and 1 case revealed evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 9 weeks. 3. In 8 cases of tibial shaft fracture, 4 cases were non-union. Another 4 cases revealed intraosseous veins crossing in fracture site or additional Kaski's osteomedullographic signs, indicating bony union. 4. One talar neck fracture showed bony union with decreased viability of the bony on 12 months after fracture. 5. Osteomedullography is considered as very important study for the early diagnosis of the fracture healing, non-union and avascular necrosis

  5. For early diagnosis of the fracture healing, nonunion and avascular necorsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y C; Lee, S H; Lee, Y C; Whang, I S; Kim, H S [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    Complications of non-union and avascular necrosis during fracture healing process are the most important problems. Early detection of the evidence of non-union and avascular necrosis and follow-up study of fracture healing process will reduce complications and sequellae in fracture patients. Femoral neck and tibial shaft are the most important fracture sites where non-union and/or avascular necorsis are frequently developed. Osteomedullography was performed in 30 cases of fracture, 21 femoral neck, 8 tibial shafts and 1 talar neck, in the Department of Radiology of national Medical Center during the period form August 1977 to March 1981. The following results were obtained: 1. 16 patients of femoral neck fracture were performed osteomedullography one. Non-union showing no crossing vein through the fracture site was noted in 12 cases from 16 patients. 4 cases from the 12 patients of non-union showed decreased viability but 2 case revealed good viability of the femoral head. 1 case from 4 case of good union of fracture showed no evidence of viability of the femoral head. 2. More than twice of osteomedullography were performed in 5 cases of femoral neck fracture, and crossing vein was not appeared in 4 cases at 3 weeks after fracture. 3 cases showed crossing veins at 6 weeks, and 1 case revealed evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 9 weeks. 3. In 8 cases of tibial shaft fracture, 4 cases were non-union. Another 4 cases revealed intraosseous veins crossing in fracture site or additional Kaski's osteomedullographic signs, indicating bony union. 4. One talar neck fracture showed bony union with decreased viability of the bony on 12 months after fracture. 5. Osteomedullography is considered as very important study for the early diagnosis of the fracture healing, non-union and avascular necrosis.

  6. Osteomedullography: for early diagnosis of the fracture healing, nonunion and avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. C.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Y. C.; Whang, I. S.; Kim, H. S.

    1981-01-01

    Complications of non-union and avascular necrosis during fracture healing process are the most important problem. Early detection of the evidence of non-union and avascular necrosis and follow-up study of fracture healing process will reduce complications and sequellae in fracture patients. Femoral neck and tibial shaft are the most important fracture sites where non-union and/or avascular necrosis are frequently developed. Osteomedullography was performed in 30 cases of fracture, 21 femoral neck, 8 tibial shafts and 1 talar neck, in the Department of Radiology of National Medical Center during the period from August 1977 to March 1981. The following results were obtained: 1. 16 patients of femoral neck fracture were performed osteomedullography once. Non-union showing no crossing vein through the fracture site was noted in 12 cases from 16 patients. 4 cases from the 12 patients of non-union showed decreased viability but 2 case revealed good viability of the femoral head. 1 case from 4 cases of good union of fracture showed no evidence of viability of the femoral head. 2. More than twice of osteomedullography were performed in 5 cases of femoral neck fracture, and crossing vein was not appeared in 4 cases at 3 weeks after fracture. 3 cases showed crossing veins at 6 weeks, and 1 case revealed evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 9 weeks. 3. In 8 cases of tibial shaft fracture, 4 cases were non-union. Another 4 cases revealed intraosseous veins crossing in fracture site or additional Kaski's osteomedullographic signs, indicating bony union. 4. One talar neck fracture showed bony union with decreased viability of the body on 12 month after fracture. 5. Osteomedullography is considered as very important study for the early diagnosis of the fracture healing, non-union and avascular necrosis

  7. Osteomedullography: for early diagnosis of the fracture healing, nonunion and avascular necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y C; Lee, S H; Lee, Y C; Whang, I S; Kim, H S [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    Complications of non-union and avascular necrosis during fracture healing process are the most important problem. Early detection of the evidence of non-union and avascular necrosis and follow-up study of fracture healing process will reduce complications and sequellae in fracture patients. Femoral neck and tibial shaft are the most important fracture sites where non-union and/or avascular necrosis are frequently developed. Osteomedullography was performed in 30 cases of fracture, 21 femoral neck, 8 tibial shafts and 1 talar neck, in the Department of Radiology of National Medical Center during the period from August 1977 to March 1981. The following results were obtained: 1. 16 patients of femoral neck fracture were performed osteomedullography once. Non-union showing no crossing vein through the fracture site was noted in 12 cases from 16 patients. 4 cases from the 12 patients of non-union showed decreased viability but 2 case revealed good viability of the femoral head. 1 case from 4 cases of good union of fracture showed no evidence of viability of the femoral head. 2. More than twice of osteomedullography were performed in 5 cases of femoral neck fracture, and crossing vein was not appeared in 4 cases at 3 weeks after fracture. 3 cases showed crossing veins at 6 weeks, and 1 case revealed evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 9 weeks. 3. In 8 cases of tibial shaft fracture, 4 cases were non-union. Another 4 cases revealed intraosseous veins crossing in fracture site or additional Kaski's osteomedullographic signs, indicating bony union. 4. One talar neck fracture showed bony union with decreased viability of the body on 12 month after fracture. 5. Osteomedullography is considered as very important study for the early diagnosis of the fracture healing, non-union and avascular necrosis.

  8. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  9. Prospective clinical trial of surgical intervention for painful rib fracture nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John

    2014-06-01

    We performed a prospective clinical trial of resection with or without plate fixation for symptomatic rib fracture nonunion three or more months postinjury with 6-month postoperative followup. The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and RAND 36 Health Survey were administered and activity level (sedentary, ambulatory, moderately active, vigorous), functional status (disabled, nonphysical labor, physical labor), and work status (employed, unemployed, retired, student) were queried pre- and postoperatively. Twenty-four patients 4 to 197 months (median, 16 months) postinjury underwent surgical intervention for one to four rib fracture nonunions (median, two nonunions). Evidence of intercostal nerve entrapment was present in nine patients (38%). MPQ Present Pain Intensity and Pain Rating Index and RAND 36 Physical Functioning, Role Physical, Social Functioning, Role Social, Bodily Pain, Vitality, Mental Health, and General Health were significantly improved at six months compared with study entry (P rib fracture nonunion may improve chronic pain and disability but without change in functional or work status. Resection of adjacent nonunions with significant gaps may lead to chest wall hernia.

  10. Evaluation of the pole figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera B, E.; Macias B, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the present work it's shown the possibility of obtaining a pole-figure from the data generated in a conventional X-ray equipment, with a commercial goniometer and no electronic device to process the data. The way to plot the pole-figure on-line is by means of measuring the diffractogram and plot manually the stereographic projections. The atainable precision is very low in such a cumbersome process. In this paper we substitute such method by storing the data in a punched tape from a conventional teletype. The data is processed in a computer and the pole-figure is recorded by a plotter attached to the computer. (author)

  11. Regge poles and alpha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuleneer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The direct Regge pole model as a means of describing resonances in elastic particle scattering has been used for the analysis of the so-called ''anormalous large angle scattering'' of alpha particles by spinless nuclei. (Z.M.)

  12. Evaluation of a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography of scaphoid fixation screws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Finkenstaedt, Tim; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman [University Hospital of Zurich, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Marcon, Magda [University Hospital of Zurich, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Udine, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, Udine (Italy); Scholz, Bernhard [Imaging and Therapy Division, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany); Calcagni, Maurizio [University Hospital of Zurich, Division of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) of scaphoid fixation screws. FDCT has gained interest in imaging small anatomic structures of the appendicular skeleton. Angiographic C-arm systems with flat detectors allow fluoroscopy and FDCT imaging in a one-stop procedure emphasizing their role as an ideal intraoperative imaging tool. However, FDCT imaging can be significantly impaired by artefacts induced by fixation screws. Following ethical board approval, commercially available scaphoid fixation screws were inserted into six cadaveric specimens in order to fix artificially induced scaphoid fractures. FDCT images corrected with the algorithm were compared to uncorrected images both quantitatively and qualitatively by two independent radiologists in terms of artefacts, screw contour, fracture line visibility, bone visibility, and soft tissue definition. Normal distribution of variables was evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In case of normal distribution, quantitative variables were compared using paired Student's t tests. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for quantitative variables without normal distribution and all qualitative variables. A p value of < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistically significant differences. Metal artefacts were significantly reduced by the correction algorithm (p < 0.001), and the fracture line was more clearly defined (p < 0.01). The inter-observer reliability was ''almost perfect'' (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.85, p < 0.001). The prototype correction algorithm in FDCT for metal artefacts induced by scaphoid fixation screws may facilitate intra- and postoperative follow-up imaging. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography of scaphoid fixation screws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filli, Lukas; Finkenstaedt, Tim; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman; Marcon, Magda; Scholz, Bernhard; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) of scaphoid fixation screws. FDCT has gained interest in imaging small anatomic structures of the appendicular skeleton. Angiographic C-arm systems with flat detectors allow fluoroscopy and FDCT imaging in a one-stop procedure emphasizing their role as an ideal intraoperative imaging tool. However, FDCT imaging can be significantly impaired by artefacts induced by fixation screws. Following ethical board approval, commercially available scaphoid fixation screws were inserted into six cadaveric specimens in order to fix artificially induced scaphoid fractures. FDCT images corrected with the algorithm were compared to uncorrected images both quantitatively and qualitatively by two independent radiologists in terms of artefacts, screw contour, fracture line visibility, bone visibility, and soft tissue definition. Normal distribution of variables was evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In case of normal distribution, quantitative variables were compared using paired Student's t tests. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for quantitative variables without normal distribution and all qualitative variables. A p value of < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistically significant differences. Metal artefacts were significantly reduced by the correction algorithm (p < 0.001), and the fracture line was more clearly defined (p < 0.01). The inter-observer reliability was ''almost perfect'' (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.85, p < 0.001). The prototype correction algorithm in FDCT for metal artefacts induced by scaphoid fixation screws may facilitate intra- and postoperative follow-up imaging. (orig.)

  14. A novel treatment approach to infected nonunion of long bones without systemic antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrouha, Karim Z; Raad, Michael E; Saghieh, Said S

    2018-04-01

    Infected nonunion of long bones may require intravenous antibiotics over a lengthy period which may result in a high rate of complications. This study aims to assess the efficacy of local antibiotics used as a replacement to prolonged intravenous therapy. Thirteen patients with infected nonunion of long bones who failed at least one previous surgery were included. The infection was treated through extensive debridement, application of antibiotic-impregnated calcium sulphate pellets and the bone stabilized with external fixation. These patients were monitored for union and infection by clinical signs, laboratory values, and radiographs over a period of 24 months. The results support an eradication of infection and union in all patients with no antibiotic-associated complications. Local antibiotic delivery using calcium sulphate pellets provides an effective method for treatment of nonunion in long bones and is free of the complications from the intravenous route.

  15. Management of complex femoral nonunion with monorail external fixator: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Hemendra Kumar; Garg, Mohit; Singh, Balvinder; Jaiman, Ashish; Khatkar, Vipin; Khare, Shailender; Batra, Sumit; Sharma, Vinod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate 30 patients who underwent distraction osteogenesis with monorail external fixator for complex femoral nonunion. Complex femoral nonunion includes infective non-union, gap nonunion, and limb-length discrepancy secondary to traumatic bone loss, which needs specialized treatment to ensure the functional integrity of femoral bone. 30 patients, including 28 male and 2 female (aged 22-62 years) patients, underwent surgical debridement followed by bone transport with monorail fixator. The lengthening index, radiographic consolidation index, functional status, bone healing, and various problems, obstacles, and complications encountered during the treatment were assessed. Patients underwent a mean of 2.2 (range 1-4) surgeries before presentation. The mean bone defect after surgical debridement was 5.83 cm (range 2-16 cm). The mean treatment duration was 204.7 days (range 113-543 days). The mean lengthening index was 13.06 days/cm with range from 12 to 16 days/cm. Mean maturation index was 23.51 days/cm with range from 17 to 45.5 days/cm. In our study, bone result was excellent in 17, good in 9, fair in 3, and poor in 1 patient. In our study functional outcome is excellent in 9 [30%], good in 14 [46.67%], fair in 5, and poor in 2 patients. In our study, we encountered 34 problems, 17 obstacles, and 8 complications. We concluded that monorail external fixator is an effective treatment option for complex nonunion femoral shaft fracture and its functional outcome is comparable with any other treatment options. Lack of complications and its effectiveness makes monorail external fixator the treatment of choice for complex nonunion femoral shaft.

  16. Tension band plating of a nonunion anterior tibial stress fracture in an athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Jarrad A; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis J; Rick Hatch, George F

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a rare technique of tension band plating of the anterior tibia in the setting of a nonunion stress fracture. Surgical management with an intramedullary nail is a viable and proven option for treating such injuries. However, in treating elite athletes, legitimate concerns exist regarding the surgical disruption of the extensor mechanism and the risk of anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nail use. The described surgical technique demonstrates the use of tension band plating as an effective treatment of delayed union and nonunion anterior tibial stress fractures in athletes without the potential risks of intramedullary nail insertion. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Acute peg in hole docking in the management of infected non-union of long bones

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Mir, Mohammed Ramzan; Ahmed, Molvi Sajjad; Afzal, Suhail; Butt, Mohammed Farooq; Badoo, A. R.; Dar, Irshad Tabasum; Hussain, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    The Ilizarov method has been studied extensively in the management of non-union of long bones. In most cases this involves filling of defects present primarily or after débridement by bone transport. Acute docking over gaps longer than 2 cm has not been adequately studied, however. The purpose of this paper is to report the efficacy of acute peg in hole docking as a bone graft-sparing modality in the management of infected non-union of long bones.

  18. Acute peg in hole docking in the management of infected non-union of long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Mir, Mohammed Ramzan; Ahmed, Molvi Sajjad; Afzal, Suhail; Butt, Mohammed Farooq; Badoo, A R; Dar, Irshad Tabasum; Hussain, Anwar

    2008-08-01

    The Ilizarov method has been studied extensively in the management of non-union of long bones. In most cases this involves filling of defects present primarily or after débridement by bone transport. Acute docking over gaps longer than 2 cm has not been adequately studied, however. The purpose of this paper is to report the efficacy of acute peg in hole docking as a bone graft-sparing modality in the management of infected non-union of long bones.

  19. Omentalisation as adjunctive treatment of an infected femoral nonunion fracture: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAlinden A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A three-year-old male working border collie with an infected femoral nonunion fracture was managed in a two-stage procedure involving debridement and omentalisation, followed by stabilisation with a bone plate and an autogenous cancellous bone graft. Osseous union was documented radiographically 16 weeks after surgery. Telephone follow-up one year later revealed the dog had returned to full working function without evidence of lameness. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first clinical case described in the veterinary literature using omentalisation as an adjunct to the management of an infected, biologically inactive nonunion fracture.

  20. Intramedullary nailing for the treatment of aseptic femoral shaft non-unions after plating failure: effectiveness and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megas, Panagiotis; Syggelos, Spyros A; Kontakis, Georgios; Giannakopoulos, Andreas; Skouteris, Georgios; Lambiris, Elias; Panagiotopoulos, Elias

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective, multicentre study aimed to evaluate reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) for the treatment of 30 cases of aseptic femoral shaft non-union after plating failure. Following nailing, 29 non-unions had healed by a mean 7.93 months. In one case a hypertrophic non-union required renailing after 8 months, using a nail of greater diameter, and united within five further months. Healing times were not related to whether the fracture was open or closed, the type non-union or the type of fracture. The delay from the initial plating to intramedullary nailing had a statistically significant effect on healing time and final outcome. This treatment is cost effective and should be implemented as soon as the non-union is diagnosed.

  1. Non-union of the trapezium: rare consequence of a rare injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Deepak; Jones, Matthew; Mahon, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Fractures of the trapezium are rare and easily missed. As these injuries are often imperceptible on plain radiographs, diagnosis in the ED setting is challenging. We report a case of an isolated fracture of the trapezium which was picked up as a non-union 5 months after the injury following persistence of symptoms. PMID:29765589

  2. Does Computed Tomography Change our Observation and Management of Fracture Non-Unions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ydo V. Kleinlugtenbelt

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the interobserver reliability of MDCT scan is not greater than conventional radiographs for determining non-union. However, a MDCT scan did lead to a more invasive approach in equivocal cases. Therefore a MDCT is only recommended for making treatment strategies in those cases.

  3. Multiple Rib Nonunion: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation and Iliac Crest Bone Graft Aspirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel J; Begly, John; Tejwani, Nirmal

    2017-08-01

    Rib fractures are a common chest injury that can typically be treated nonoperatively. However, a percentage of these will go on to nonunion, either because of unique characteristics of the fracture itself or because of a variety of poor healing factors of the host. If a patient has continued symptomology beyond 3 months, surgeons may consider operative management. Although isolated resection of fibrous scar tissue from the nonunion site may be sufficient in some cases, it may also be necessary to provide additional structural integrity to the rib depending on the extent of the fracture pattern and resection. This goal can be achieved operatively with rib plating and bone grafting to promote healing. This video demonstrates the use of plating in the treatment of rib nonunion. It begins with relevant background information on rib fractures and nonunions, then details the approach, open reduction and internal fixation of 3 ribs using plates and bone graft aspirate. Pearls and pitfalls are included during the surgical technique aspect of the video to both help guide surgeons new to the procedure and provide potentially advantageous technical details to more experienced surgeons.

  4. Implant failure caused by non-union of bisphosphonate-associated subtrochanteric femur fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Barry James

    2014-04-03

    Bisphosphonate use has been identified as a contributory factor in atypical subtrochanteric fracture of the femur. These fractures are commonly treated with an intramedullary device. We present a case of implant failure of an intrameduallary device caused by non-union of an atypical subtrochanteric fracture.

  5. Nonunion of the femoral neck: possibilities and limitations of the various treatment modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaymakers, Ernst L. F. B.; Marti, René K.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays in cases of nonunions of the femoral neck, the surgeon is tempted to perform prosthetic replacement of the hip, more so if there is also evidence of avascular necrosis of the head of femur. This provides rapid pain relief and allows early mobilization. However, long-term results of hip

  6. Time-lagged effects of weather on plant demography: drought and Astragalus scaphoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Crone, Elizabeth E; Ramula, Satu; Tyre, Andrew J

    2018-04-01

    Temperature and precipitation determine the conditions where plant species can occur. Despite their significance, to date, surprisingly few demographic field studies have considered the effects of abiotic drivers. This is problematic because anticipating the effect of global climate change on plant population viability requires understanding how weather variables affect population dynamics. One possible reason for omitting the effect of weather variables in demographic studies is the difficulty in detecting tight associations between vital rates and environmental drivers. In this paper, we applied Functional Linear Models (FLMs) to long-term demographic data of the perennial wildflower, Astragalus scaphoides, and explored sensitivity of the results to reduced amounts of data. We compared models of the effect of average temperature, total precipitation, or an integrated measure of drought intensity (standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index, SPEI), on plant vital rates. We found that transitions to flowering and recruitment in year t were highest if winter/spring of year t was wet (positive effect of SPEI). Counterintuitively, if the preceding spring of year t - 1 was wet, flowering probabilities were decreased (negative effect of SPEI). Survival of vegetative plants from t - 1 to t was also negatively affected by wet weather in the spring of year t - 1 and, for large plants, even wet weather in the spring of t - 2 had a negative effect. We assessed the integrated effect of all vital rates on life history performance by fitting FLMs to the asymptotic growth rate, log(λt). Log(λt) was highest if dry conditions in year t - 1 were followed by wet conditions in the year t. Overall, the positive effects of wet years exceeded their negative effects, suggesting that increasing frequency of drought conditions would reduce population viability of A. scaphoides. The drought signal weakened when reducing the number of monitoring years. Substituting space for time

  7. Reconstruction with distraction osteogenesis for juxta-articular nonunions with bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Tamon; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sakurakichi, Keisuke; Yamashiro, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Koji; Tomita, Kasuro

    2005-06-01

    Nonunions of a juxta-articular lesion with bone loss, which represent a challenging therapeutic problem, were treated using external fixation and distraction osteogenesis. Seven juxta-articular nonunions (five septic and two aseptic) were treated. The location of the nonunion was the distal femur in four patients, the proximal tibia in one patient, and the distal tibia in two patients. All of them were located within 5 cm from the affected joints. Preoperative limb shortening was present in six cases, averaging 2.9 cm (range, 1-7 cm). The reconstructive procedure consisted of refreshment of the nonunion site, deformity correction, stabilization by external fixation, and lengthening to eliminate leg length discrepancy or to fill the defect. Shortening-distraction was applied to six patients and bone transport to one patient for reconstruction. Intramedullary nailing to reduce the duration of external fixation was simultaneously performed in two cases. All the patients had at least 1 year of follow-up evaluation. Osseous union without angular deformity or leg length discrepancy greater than 1 cm was achieved in all patients. The mean amount of lengthening was 5.8 cm (range, 2.2-10.0 cm). The mean external fixation period was 219 days (range, 98-317 days), and the mean external fixation index was 34.4 days/cm (range, 24.5-47.6 days/cm). All patients reported excellent pain reduction. There were no recurrences of infection in five patients with prior history of osteomyelitis. The functional results were categorized as excellent in two, good in three, and fair in two. Despite the length of postoperative external fixation, distraction osteogenesis can be a valuable alternative for the treatment of juxta-articular nonunions.

  8. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can assess vascularity within fracture non-unions and predicts good outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoierer, Oliver; Bender, Daniel; Schmidmaier, Gerhard [University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg Trauma Research Group, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Bloess, Konstantin; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-Andre [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Burkholder, Iris [University of Applied Sciences of the Saarland, Department of Nursing and Health, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can assess vascularity within non-unions and predicts clinical outcome in combination with the clinical Non-Union Scoring System (NUSS). Fifty-eight patients with non-unions of extremities on CT underwent 3-T DCE MRI. Signal intensity curves obtained from a region-of-interest analysis were subdivided into those with more intense contrast agent uptake within the non-union than in adjacent muscle (vascularised non-union) and those with similar or less contrast uptake. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the Tofts model K{sub trans}, K{sub ep}, iAUC and V{sub e} were correlated with union at CT 1 year later (n = 49). Despite inserted osteosynthetic material, DCE parameters could be evaluated in 57 fractures. The sensitivity/specificity of vascularised non-unions as an indicator of good outcome was 83.9 %/50.0 % compared to 96.8 %/33.3 % using NUSS (n = 49). Logistic regression revealed a significant impact of NUSS on outcome (P = 0.04, odds ratio = 0.93). At first examination, median iAUC (initial area under the enhancement curve) for the ratio non-union/muscle was 10.28 in patients with good outcome compared with 3.77 in non-responders (P = 0.023). K{sub trans}, K{sub ep} and V{sub e} within the non-union were not significantly different initially (n = 57) or 1 year later (n = 19). DCE MRI can assess vascularity in fracture non-unions. A vascularised non-union correlates with good outcome. (orig.)

  9. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can assess vascularity within fracture non-unions and predicts good outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoierer, Oliver; Bender, Daniel; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Bloess, Konstantin; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-Andre; Burkholder, Iris

    2014-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can assess vascularity within non-unions and predicts clinical outcome in combination with the clinical Non-Union Scoring System (NUSS). Fifty-eight patients with non-unions of extremities on CT underwent 3-T DCE MRI. Signal intensity curves obtained from a region-of-interest analysis were subdivided into those with more intense contrast agent uptake within the non-union than in adjacent muscle (vascularised non-union) and those with similar or less contrast uptake. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the Tofts model K trans , K ep , iAUC and V e were correlated with union at CT 1 year later (n = 49). Despite inserted osteosynthetic material, DCE parameters could be evaluated in 57 fractures. The sensitivity/specificity of vascularised non-unions as an indicator of good outcome was 83.9 %/50.0 % compared to 96.8 %/33.3 % using NUSS (n = 49). Logistic regression revealed a significant impact of NUSS on outcome (P = 0.04, odds ratio = 0.93). At first examination, median iAUC (initial area under the enhancement curve) for the ratio non-union/muscle was 10.28 in patients with good outcome compared with 3.77 in non-responders (P = 0.023). K trans , K ep and V e within the non-union were not significantly different initially (n = 57) or 1 year later (n = 19). DCE MRI can assess vascularity in fracture non-unions. A vascularised non-union correlates with good outcome. (orig.)

  10. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  11. Poling of UV-written Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Hübner, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months......We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months...

  12. Decoupling the Wrist: A Cadaveric Experiment Examining Wrist Kinematics Following Midcarpal Fusion and Scaphoid Excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jennifer A.; Bednar, Michael S.; Havey, Robert M.; Murray, Wendy M.

    2016-01-01

    At the wrist, kinematic coupling (the relationship between flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation) facilitates function. Although the midcarpal joint is critical for kinematic coupling, many surgeries, such as four-corner fusion (4CF) and scaphoid-excision four-corner fusion (SE4CF), modify the midcarpal joint. This study examines how 4CF and SE4CF influence kinematic coupling by quantifying wrist axes of rotation. Wrist axes of rotation were quantified in eight cadaveric specimens using an optimization algorithm, which fit a two-revolute joint model to experimental data. In each specimen, data measuring the motion of the third metacarpal relative to the radius was collected for three conditions (nonimpaired, 4CF, SE4CF). The calculated axes of rotation were compared using spherical statistics. The angle between the axes of rotation was used to assess coupling, as the nonimpaired wrist has skew axes (i.e., angle between axes approximately 60°). Following 4CF and SE4CF, the axes are closer to orthogonal than those of the nonimpaired wrist. The mean angle (±95 percent confidence interval) between the axes was 92.6° ± 25.2° and 99.8° ± 22.0° for 4CF and SE4CF, respectively. The axes of rotation defined in this study can be used to define joint models, which will facilitate more accurate computational and experimental studies of these procedures. PMID:27705062

  13. Nonunion of the external maxillary distraction in cleft lip and palate: analysis of possible reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongmei; Genecov, David G; Barcelo, Raul

    2010-10-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is an effective way to treat severe maxillary deficiency in patients with cleft lip and palate. It has been reported to have long-term stability and low relapse rate compared with conventional maxillary osteotomy in large maxillary movement. However, complications such as nonunion are seldom reported. While developing our external distraction techniques, we had 4 nonunion cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the possible reasons for these conditions by comparing them to patients successfully treated at 1 craniofacial institute. Fifty-six patients with CLP deformities treated with external maxillary distraction from 2000 to 2006 in 1 craniofacial center were reviewed. Among them, 17 had full records and follow-up time of more than 1 year. They had rigid external halo distraction with dental splint after a high Le Fort I osteotomy. Distraction was started at 5 days with a rate of 1 mm per day until the maxilla acquired the planned correction. Consolidation time ranged from 4 weeks to 3 months. Patients' general information, DO protocol, and cephalometric radiograph measurements before DO, immediately after DO, and follow-ups were evaluated. Thirteen of 17 patients successfully completed DO, whereas 4 others developed dental occlusion relapse 2 to 3 months after device removal. Later jaw surgery showed nonunion at the distraction sites. These were our first patients treated with external distraction. Their consolidation time was from 4 to 6 weeks with a mean of 5.2 weeks. After increasing the consolidation time up to 12 weeks, all of the other 13 patients had successful results without nonunion. Their mean consolidation time was 9.8 weeks. The nonunion group had significantly shorter consolidation time, older age, and larger distraction osteogenesis (DO) advancement than the successful group statistically. There was also a greater percentage of bilateral CLP patients in the nonunion group than in the

  14. Two-dimensional fusion imaging of planar bone scintigraphy and radiographs in patients with clinical scaphoid fracture: an imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Lonsdale, Markus Georg; Jensen, T D

    2009-01-01

    . Bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive for the detection of fractures, but exact localization of scintigraphic lesions may be difficult and can negatively affect diagnostic accuracy. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of image fusion of planar bone scintigraphy and radiographs on image interpretation......BACKGROUND: Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now considered the gold standard in second-line imaging of patients with suspected scaphoid fracture and negative radiographs, bone scintigraphy can be used in patients with pacemakers, metallic implants, or other contraindications to MRI....... CONCLUSION: Image fusion of planar bone scintigrams and radiographs has a significant influence on image interpretation and increases both diagnostic confidence and interobserver agreement....

  15. Patellar Shape-Memory Fixator for the Treatment of Comminuted Fractures of the Inferior Pole of the Patella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Shang, Hui-Juan; Xu, Shuo-Gui; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Chun-Cai; Fu, Qing-Ge

    2011-07-01

    Comminuted and displaced fractures of the inferior pole of the patella are not easy to reduce and it is difficult to fix the fragments soundly enough to allow early movement of the knee. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the internal fixation technique with Patellar Shape-Memory Fixator (PSMF) in acute comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patella. We retrospectively studied 25 patients with comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patella who were treated with PSMF and followed up for a mean period of 26 months (14 to 60). All the fractures healed at a mean of 6 weeks (5 to 7). The mean grading at the final follow-up was 29.5 points (27 to 30) using the Bostman score, with no observable restriction of movement. No breakage of the PSMF or infection occurred. No delayed union, nonunion, and infection were seen. This technique preserved the length of the patella, reduced the comminuted fragments of the inferior pole and avoided long-term immobilization of the knee.

  16. INNOVATIVE CLUSTER OR COMPETITIVENESS POLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the situation of clusters in Romania and their areas of activity and innovation in entrepreneurship Romanian state. It is made also a territorial distribution of clusters on the eight regions. The findings lead to the conclusion that there are some clusters that have the vocation to become poles of competitiveness in areas such as renewable energy, automotive, electronics, health, biotechnology, mechatronics or ICT (Information and Communication Technology which represent the resources for future of the Romanian economy. Regarding the degree of innovation of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the level is relatively modest, 30.8% of all enterprises being innovative. If we were to answer the question the title suggests, we would say "yes" to both since the innovative cluster as well as the competitiveness pole promotes par excellence, innovation through study, research and stimulation of creativity. And this is more than enough to support economic growth of Romania and maintain the competitiveness worldwide.

  17. Pole counting and resonance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.

    1992-01-01

    S-wave resonances occurring close to an inelastic threshold can be classified according to the number of nearby poles they possess. One then has a useful possibility of distinguishing dynamical alternatives by objective appeal to data. Making this quantitative entails developing suitable effective range expansions for various realizations of potential scattering. A key application is deciding the make-up of f 0 (976) (S*). (author)

  18. Surgical Management of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Repetitive Stress Epiphyseal Fracture Nonunion in Elite Sport Climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Yasser; Lutter, Chris; Schoeffl, Isabelle; Schoeffl, Volker; Flohe, Sascha

    2017-11-14

    Repetitive stress fracture of the middle phalanx epiphysis is an injury specific to elite adolescent sport climbers. As sport climbing becomes increasingly popular in younger age groups, an increased number of these injuries have been reported in recent years. To date, treatment of these fractures has been nonsurgical, with strict rest and physiotherapy prescribed until fracture union. However, when these patients present in a delayed fashion with an established nonunion, nonsurgical treatment may fail, leading to disabling chronic pain and/or digital deformity in some cases. In this article, we present 2 cases of surgical treatment for finger middle phalanx repetitive stress epiphyseal fracture nonunion, using a percutaneous spot drilling epiphysiodesis technique. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cast immobilization with and without immobilization of the thumb for nondisplaced and minimally displaced scaphoid waist fractures: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, G. A.; Goslings, J. C.; Rhemrev, S. J.; Weening, A. A.; van Dijkman, B.; Doornberg, J. N.; Ring, D.; Terra, Maaike P.; Macmahon, Peter J.; Coerkamp, Emile G.; van der Woude, H. J.; de Jong, Vincent M.; Beeres, Frank J. P.; de Haseth, Kristin B.; Souer, J. Sebastiaan; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Mudgal, Chaitanya S.; van der Vlies, Cees H.; Blazar, Philip; Day, Charles S.; Fostvedt, Sigi; Kloen, Peter; van Dijk, C. Niek; Maas, Mario; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Haverlag, Robert; Scholtes, Vanessa A. B.; Jellema-de Bont, Jolanda J. M.; Thomassen, Bregje J.; Hollander, Peter den; de Muinck Keizer, Robert-Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to test the null hypothesis that there was no difference in the percentage of the fracture line of scaphoid waist fractures that demonstrated bridging bone on computed tomography (CT) 10 weeks after injury between patients treated in a below-elbow

  20. The Critical Size Defect as an Experimental Model for Craniomaxillofacial Nonunions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    1976, p. 125. 59. Stanley, R.R. and Rice, D.H.: Osteogenesis From a Free Periosteal Graft in Mandibular Reconstruction. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg... embryologically , the calvaria develops from a 17 rane precursor and thus resembles the membranous bones of the face. .nmically, the calvaria consists of...Nonunion in Dogs. Clin. Orthop. 187:260, 1984. 24 49. Paff, G.r.: Anatamy of the Read and Neck . Philadelphia, W.R. Saunders Co., 1973, p. 77. 50

  1. Transfracture abduction osteotomy: A solution for nonunion of femoral neck fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairamchander Pingle

    2014-01-01

    femur with or without bone graft, valgus osteotomy or hip arthroplasty. We conducted a retrospective analysis of cases of nonunion of femoral neck fracture treated by transfracture abduction osteotomy (TFAO. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 35 years (1974-2008, 30 patients with nonunion of femoral neck fractures were treated with TFAO over a period of 35 years (1974-2008, All patients were less than 50 years of age. Absence of clinical and radiological signs of union after four months was considered as nonunion. Patients more than 50 years of age were excluded from the study. Union was assessed at 6 months radiologically. Limb length was measured at six months. The mean duration of femoral neck fracture was 19 months (range 4 months 10 years. Results were analyzed in terms of radiological union at six months. Average followup was five years and six months. Results: Consistent union was noted at the followup after six months in 29 cases. One case was lost to followup after five and one-half months postoperatively. However, the fracture had united in this case at the last followup. Average shortening of the limb at six months was 1.9 cm. Average neck shaft angle was 127° (range 120-145°. Five cases went into AVN but were asymptomatic. Two cases required reoperation due to back out of Moore′s pins. These were reopened and cancellous screws were inserted in the same tracks. Conclusions: Consistent union of nonunion femoral neck fracture was noted at the followup after six months in 29 cases. The major drawback of the procedure is immobilization of the patient in the hip spica for eight weeks.

  2. Contemporary Management of Mandibular Fracture Nonunion-A Retrospective Review and Treatment Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Benjamin T; Wang, Howard D; Cusano, Alessandro; Manson, Paul N; Nam, Arthur J; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2018-02-06

    Nonunion is an uncommon complication after mandibular fractures. The purpose of this investigation was to compare outcomes of patients with mandibular fracture nonunion who were treated with a 1- versus 2-stage approach and propose a pragmatic treatment algorithm for surgical management based on preoperative characteristics. The authors conducted a retrospective study consisting of patients who presented to 2 level 1 trauma centers for the management of mandibular fracture nonunion over a 10-year period. The primary predictor variable was 1- versus 2-stage treatment. Outcomes were examined to propose a treatment algorithm. Eighteen patients were included in the study. The sample's mean age was 44.0 ± 19.3 years and most were men (88.9%). Mandibular angle and body accounted for 77.8% of cases. A single-stage approach was used in 13 patients (72.2%). Bone grafts or vascularized bone flaps were required in 13 patients (72.2%). Patients who required 2-stage treatments had intraoral soft tissue defects. Mean length of follow-up was 13.3 ± 20.4 months. All patients achieved bony union, with complications occurring in 5 patients (27.8%). The authors' 10-year experience was used to formulate a treatment algorithm based on bony defect size and soft tissue status, which can be used to inform optimal surgical management. Nonunion of mandibular fractures is an infrequent and complex condition requiring careful and deliberate surgical management. A single-stage approach is appropriate in most cases and does not negatively affect outcomes. Bony defect size and soft tissue status are essential parameters for determining the approach and timing of reconstruction. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Coupled external fixator and skin flap transposition for treatment of exposed and nonunion bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-gang; Ding, Jing; Wang, Neng

    2011-02-01

    To discuss the effect of coupled external fixator and skin flap transposition on exposed and nonunion bones. The data of 12 cases of infected nonunion and exposed bone following open fracture treated in our hospital during the period of March 1998 to June 2008 were analysed. There were 10 male patients, 2 female patients, whose age were between 19-52 years and averaged 28 years. There were 10 tibial fractures and 2 femoral fractures. The course of diseases lasted for 12-39 months with the mean period of 19 months. All the cases were treated by the coupled external fixator and skin flap transposition. Primary healing were achieved in 10 cases and delayed healing in 2 cases in whom the tibia was exposed due to soft tissue defect and hence local flap transposition was performed. All the 12 cases had bony union within 6-12 months after operation with the average time of 8 months. They were followed up for 1-3 years and all fractures healed up with good function and no infection recurrence. The coupled external fixator and skin flap transposition therapy have shown optimal effects on treating infected, exposed and nonunion bones.

  4. Central bone grafting for nonunion of fractures of the tibia: a retrospective series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzewicz, M; Morgan, S J; Linford, E; Thwing, J I; de Resende, G V P; Smith, W R

    2009-04-01

    Nonunion of the tibia associated with bone loss, previous infection, obliteration of the intramedullary canal or located in the distal metaphysis poses a challenge to the surgeon and significant morbidity to patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 24 patients who were treated by central bone grafting and compared them to those of 20 who were treated with a traditional posterolateral graft. Central bone grafting entails a lateral approach, anterior to the fibula and interosseous membrane which is used to create a central space filled with cancellous iliac crest autograft. Upon consolidation, a tibiofibular synostosis is formed that is strong enough for weight-bearing. This procedure has advantages over other methods of treatment for selected nonunions. Of the 24 patients with central bone grafting, 23 went on to radiographic and clinical union without further intervention. All healed within a mean of 20 weeks (10 to 48). No further bone grafts were required, and few complications were encountered. These results were comparable to those of the 20 patients who underwent posterolateral bone grafting who united at a mean of 31.3 weeks (16 to 60) but one of whom required below-knee amputation for intractable sepsis. Central bone grafting is a safe and effective treatment for difficult nonunions of the tibia.

  5. Nonunion of the humerus following intramedullary nailing treated by Ilizarov hybrid fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, M; Khodadadyan, C; Maitino, P D; Hoffmann, R; Südkamp, N P

    1998-02-01

    A case of a posttraumatic humeral shaft nonunion, after intramedullary stabilization with a Seidel nail, is presented. Severe osteoporosis, an oligotrophic nonunion, subclinical infection, and adhesive capsulitis of the glenohumeral joint were present. Due to the subclinical infection and severe osteoporosis, other major invasive therapeutic options such as intramedullary nailing or compression plating and bone grafting were not applicable. Nonoperative treatment was also not indicated secondary to the pain and disability present. External fixation with the Ilizarov hybrid fixator seemed to offer a minimally invasive treatment modality without the need of additional bone grafting. After fourteen weeks of "callus massage," consisting of closed alternating compression and distraction with an Ilizarov hybrid fixator, osseous consolidation was achieved. Eight months after Ilizarov treatment the patient had returned to work as a mechanic. At the one-year follow-up examination, the patient presented pain free and with near normal shoulder and elbow motion, with stable osseous consolidation of the humerus. In some cases of nonunion of the humerus shaft, when standard treatment options are not recommended, external fixation with an Ilizarov hybrid fixator may offer a salvage procedure with a successful clinical outcome.

  6. Nonvascularized fibular grafting in nonunion of femoral neck fracture: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Tripathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunion of femoral neck fractures following primary fixation and neglected femoral neck fracture in young adults is a challenging task. Every effort should be directed toward hip joint salvage in these patients. Among different available options of hip salvage, nonvascularized fibular graft (NVFG osteosynthesis is simple, easy to perform, and a successful technique. In this review, the available literature on NVFG in neglected and nonunion femoral neck fractures has been analyzed. After review of 15 articles on NVFG, the average nonunion rate was estimated to be 7.86% (range 0-31%. Six articles that evaluated the preoperative and postoperative osteonecrosis reported improvement in 50% patients. The clinical and/or functional outcome was good to excellent in 56-96% patients following fibular osteosynthesis. Few complications such as coxa vara deformity, limb shortening, and intraarticular penetration of the graft or hardware have been reported. However, there are minimal donor site morbidities such as mild ankle pain, transient loss of toe flexors and extensors and transient lateral popliteal nerve palsy.

  7. Modeling Staphylococcus epidermidis-Induced Non-Unions: Subclinical and Clinical Evidence in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Barbara Lovati

    Full Text Available S. epidermidis is one of the leading causes of orthopaedic infections associated with biofilm formation on implant devices. Open fractures are at risk of S. epidermidis transcutaneous contamination leading to higher non-union development compared to closed fractures. Although the role of infection in delaying fracture healing is well recognized, no in vivo models investigated the impact of subclinical low-grade infections on bone repair and non-union. We hypothesized that the non-union rate is directly related to the load of this commonly retrieved pathogen and that a low-grade contamination delays the fracture healing without clinically detectable infection. Rat femurs were osteotomized and stabilized with plates. Fractures were infected with a characterized clinical-derived methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (10(3, 10(5, 10(8 colony forming units and compared to uninfected controls. After 56 days, bone healing and osteomyelitis were clinically assessed and further evaluated by micro-CT, microbiological and histological analyses. The biofilm formation was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The control group showed no signs of infection and a complete bone healing. The 10(3 group displayed variable response to infection with a 67% of altered bone healing and positive bacterial cultures, despite no clinical signs of infection present. The 10(5 and 10(8 groups showed severe signs of osteomyelitis and a non-union rate of 83-100%, respectively. The cortical bone reaction related to the periosteal elevation in the control group and the metal scattering detected by micro-CT represented limitations of this study. Our model showed that an intra-operative low-grade S. epidermidis contamination might prevent the bone healing, even in the absence of infectious signs. Our findings also pointed out a dose-dependent effect between the S. epidermidis inoculum and non-union rate. This pilot study identifies a relevant preclinical model to assess the

  8. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Dawson, Richard Nils [Voorheesville, NY; Qu, Ronghai [Clifton Park, NY; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich [Moscow, RU

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  9. [18F]FDG PET accurately differentiates infected and non-infected non-unions after fracture fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenter, Vera; Albert, Nathalie L.; Brendel, Matthias; Fendler, Wolfgang P.; Bartenstein, Peter; Cyran, Clemens C.; Friederichs, Jan; Mueller, Jan-Philipp; Militz, Matthias; Hungerer, Sven; Hacker, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Complete fracture healing is crucial for good patient outcomes. A major complication in the treatment of fractures is non-union. The pathogenesis of non-unions is not always clear, although implant-associated infections play a significant role, especially after surgical treatment of open fractures. We aimed to evaluate the value of [ 18 F]FDG PET in suspected infections of non-union fractures. We retrospectively evaluated 35 consecutive patients seen between 2000 and 2015 with suspected infection of non-union fractures, treated at a level I trauma center. The patients underwent either [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT (N = 24), [ 18 F]FDG PET (N = 11) plus additional CT (N = 8), or conventional X-ray (N = 3). Imaging findings were correlated with final diagnosis based on intraoperative culture or follow-up. In 13 of 35 patients (37 %), infection was proven by either positive intraoperative tissue culture (N = 12) or positive follow-up (N = 1). [ 18 F]FDG PET revealed 11 true-positive, 19 true-negative, three false-positive, and two false-negative results, indicating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of 85 %, 86 %, 79 %, 90 %, and 86 %, respectively. The SUV max was 6.4 ± 2.7 in the clinically infected group and 3.0 ± 1.7 in the clinically non-infected group (p <0.01). The SUV ratio was 5.3 ± 3.3 in the clinically infected group and 2.6 ± 1.5 in the clinically non-infected group (p <0.01). [ 18 F]FDG PET differentiates infected from non-infected non-unions with high accuracy in patients with suspected infections of non-union fractures, for whom other clinical findings were inconclusive for a local infection. [ 18 F]FDG PET should be considered for therapeutic management of non-unions. (orig.)

  10. Successful treatment of nonunion in severe finger injury with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Michaela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Severe injuries of the hand or single fingers require immediate treatment but surgical fixation methods are limited depending on soft tissue damage. Thus, it is very common that severe soft tissue damage along with poor osteosynthetic bone fixation results in a delayed healing process or nonunion. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been proven to stimulate bone formation in in vitro studies and also to significantly accelerate nonunion healing in animal studies and clinical trials but to date there are no data with respect to nonunion in phalanx fracture. Case presentation We report a case in which we successfully used LIPUS in a 19-year-old Caucasian man with a nonunion of his ring finger after injury and first treatment with K-wire osteosynthesis. Conclusion We recommend that LIPUS be considered as an option to treat nonunions in fractures of the hand, especially because it is a soft tissue conserving method with a good functional result.

  11. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    synthetic error prone secondary pole-pole potential data. 1. Introduction. Analytical signal .... The meaning of the rest of the parameters is self- evident. The three ..... interpretation using 3-D analytic signal; Geophysics 57. 116–125. Starostenko ...

  12. Sport related stress fracture of the clavicle with non-union: Case report and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Demitri; Kastanos, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    Stress fractures are relatively uncommon sports injuries and when they do occur, are mostly found in the lower limb. Stress fractures of the clavicle are particularly rare, having been described in a number of non-sport related pathologies, such as nervous tics and post radical neck dissection. In sport, there have only been seven cases reported in the literature. We report on a clavicle stress fracture in a 47-year-old male, partaking in recreational weight lifting activities. This is the first reported case of a non-union stress fracture of the clavicle. The patient underwent an open reduction and internal fixation and made a full recovery. PMID:21264151

  13. Non-unions force wage cut-backs in pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, D

    1984-03-01

    Faced with another year of high unemployment and shrinking markets, Western Canada's unionized pipeline construction trades have taken a step toward stabilizing the industry. The unions have struck a bargain to combat an increasing number of non-union open shops. Management and labor cooperated to insure that the unions regain their share of the pipeline construction market. The pipeline construction boom has ended, with an overcapacity, a downturn in sales, and few major projects on the drawing boards. The bargains included wage reductions of 30%, daily living allowance reductions of nearly 50%, the elimination of double time, and the use of composite crews.

  14. Management of infected non-union tibia by intercalary bone transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirwani, M.A.; Siddiqui, A.; Soomro, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ilizarov ring fixator in treating infected non-union tibia by intercalary bone transport. Sixteen patients, all males, aged 20-60 years (mean 32 years), with infected non-union tibia (Lax/Cierney Type IV Osteomyelitis); the commonest cause being open fracture and the commonest site being lower 1/3rd. In infected non-union of tibia with draining sinus, wound swab was sent for culture and sensitivity, and sinogram done. Debridement and sequestrectomy was done, leaving behind a gap ranging from 2-8 cms (mean 4.5 cms) and ilizarov ring fixator, a transport assembly, applied. A navigation wire was passed through medial malleolus, irrigation system set up and the wound closed in a single layer. Proximal metaphyseal corticotomy was done. Irrigation with 2-3 litres of normal saline with appropriate antibiotic was continued for five days. On the 5th day irrigation system was removed and the transport started. Patients remained on partial weight bearing till soft tissue healing occured. Transport took place over the navigation wire at the rate of 1mm/day till docking achieved. Full weight bearing was allowed after soft tissue healing; knee and ankle physiotherapy was started from day one. Navigation wire was removed after 2-3 weeks of docking. Follow up ranged from 12-27 months (mean 16 months). Union was achieved at the docking site in all the cases at the time of frame removal i.e. 8-13 months. The duration of union at docking site ranged from 3.5 months to 6 months (mean 4.5 months). Two patients needed bone graft at the docking site. The regenerate was broken in one case due to fall which was treated in cast. All the patients were satisfied except a 60 years old who had severe osteoarthritis of knee. Pin tract infection occurred on and off in all the patients; appropriate antibiotic was given. The infection subsided in all the cases except two in whom debridement was followed by application of a local flap. Intercalary bone transport by

  15. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in a Volleyball Player Due to Nonunion of the First Rib Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttmann, Kathleen T; Satiani, Bhagwan; Vaccaro, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Fracture of the first rib with ensuing callus formation is a rare cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. We report a case of a 17-year-old female volleyball player who presented with months of chronic arm pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated nonunion fracture of the first rib. Physical therapy had been unsuccessful in relieving the pain, and surgical management was performed with resection of the first rib through a transaxillary approach with complete resolution of symptoms. Inflammation surrounding such fractures may destroy tissue planes, making dissection more technically difficult.

  16. The treatment of infected nonunion of the tibia following intramedullary nailing by the Ilizarov method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megas, Panagiotis; Saridis, Alkis; Kouzelis, Antonis; Kallivokas, Alkiviadis; Mylonas, Spyros; Tyllianakis, Minos

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Ilizarov method and circular external fixator in order to eradicate the infection and restore bone union, limb anatomy and functionality in cases with infected nonunion of the tibia following intramedullary nailing. During 7 years nine patients suffering from infected nonunion of the tibia after intramedullary nailing were treated in our department. The series comprised seven men and two women with an average age of 39.7 years (range 21-75 years). The patients had previously undergone an average of 4.8 operations (range 3-6 operations). Active purulent bone infection occurred in all nine patients. Bone defect was present in all patients with a mean size of 5 cm (range 2-12 cm). In three cases with bone defect less than 2 cm, monofocal compression osteosynthesis technique was used. In the rest cases where bone defect exceeded 2 cm, bifocal consecutive distraction-compression osteosynthesis technique was applied. Three patients required a local gastrocnemius flap. The mean follow-up period was 26.6 months (range 13-42 months). Results were evaluated using Paley's functional and radiological scoring system. Bone union was achieved in all nine patients without recurrence of infection during the follow-up period. Bone results were graded as excellent in five cases and good in the rest four cases. Functional results were graded as excellent in three cases, good in four and fare in two cases. Mean external fixation time was 187.4 days (range 89-412 days) and mean lengthening index was 32 days/cm (range 27-39 days/cm). Complications observed included eight grade II pin tract infections, axial deformity at the lengthening site in two cases and at the nonunion site in another two cases. Ankle joint stiffness was detected in five cases. The Ilizarov method may be an effective method in infected nonunions of the tibia following intramedullary nailing. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two-Dimensional Image Fusion of Planar Bone Scintigraphy and Radiographs in Patients with Clinical Scaphoid Fracture: An Imaging Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O.M.; Lonsdale, M.N.; Jensen, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    . Bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive for the detection of fractures, but exact localization of scintigraphic lesions may be difficult and can negatively affect diagnostic accuracy. Purpose: To investigate the influence of image fusion of planar bone scintigraphy and radiographs on image interpretation......Background: Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now considered the gold standard in second-line imaging of patients with suspected scaphoid fracture and negative radiographs, bone scintigraphy can be used in patients with pacemakers, metallic implants, or other contraindications to MRI....... Conclusion: Image fusion of planar bone scintigrams and radiographs has a significant influence on image interpretation and increases both diagnostic confidence and interobserver agreement Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/3...

  18. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Implantation in Combination with Platelet Lysate Product Is Safe for Reconstruction of Human Long Bone Nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labibzadeh, Narges; Emadedin, Mohsen; Fazeli, Roghayeh; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Seyedeh Esmat; Moghadasali, Reza; Mardpour, Soura; Azimian, Vajiheh; Ghorbani Liastani, Maede; Mirazimi Bafghi, Ali; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Aghdami, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Nonunion is defined as a minimum of 9 months since injury without any visible progressive signs of healing for 3 months. Recent literature has shown that the application of mesenchymal stromal cells is safe, in vitro and in vivo, for treating long bone nonunion. The present study was performed to investigate the safety of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) implantation in combination with platelet lysate (PL) product for treating human long bone nonunion. In this case series clinical trial, orthopedic surgeons visited eighteen patients with long bone nonunion, of whom 7 complied with the eligibility criteria. These patients received mesenchymal stromal cells (20 million cells implanted once into the nonunion site using a fluoroscopic guide) in combination with PL product. For evaluation of the effects of this intervention all the patients were followed up by taking anterior-posterior and lateral X-rays of the affected limb before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the implantation. All side effects (local or systemic, serious or non-serious, related or unrelated) were observed during this time period. From a safety perspective the MSC implantation in combination with PL was very well tolerated during the 12 months of the trial. Four patients were healed; based on the control Xray evidence, bony union had occurred. Results from the present study suggest that the implantation of bone marrow-derived MSCs in combination with PL is safe for the treatment of nonunion. A double blind, controlled clinical trial is required to assess the efficacy of this treatment (Registration Number: NCT01206179).

  19. Perceived safety climate, job demands, and coworker support among union and nonunion injured construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Marion; Baltz, Davis; Gassel, Margy; Kirsch, Luz; Vaccaro, Diane

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated injured construction workers' perceptions of workplace safety climate, psychological job demands, decision latitude, and coworker support, and the relationship of these variables to the injury severity sustained by the workers. Injury severity was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), which evaluates functional limitations. Worker perceptions of workplace variables were determined by two instruments: (a) the Safety Climate Measure for Construction Sites and (b) the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The overall model explained 23% of the variance in injury severity, with unique contributions provided by union status, the Safety Climate Score, and Psychological Job Demands. A positive significant correlation was found between injury severity and the Safety Climate Scores (r = .183, P = .003), and between the Safety Climate Scores and union status (r = .225, P safety climate on 5 of the 10 safety climate items. Union workers were more likely than nonunion workers to: (a) perceive their supervisors as caring about their safety; (b) be made aware of dangerous work practices; (c) have received safety instructions when hired; (d) have regular job safety meetings; and (e) perceive that taking risks was not a part of their job. However, with regard to the 49-item JCQ, which includes Coworker Support, the responses between union and nonunion workers were very similar, indicating an overall high degree of job satisfaction. However, workers who experienced their workplace as more safe also perceived the level of management (r = -.55, P demands, need to be identified.

  20. Metrópoles desgovernadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Maricato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de sua importância econômica, política, social, demográfica, cultural, territorial e ambiental, há, nas metrópoles brasileiras, uma significativa falta de governo, evidenciada pelas incipientes iniciativas de cooperação administrativa intermunicipal e federativa. Este artigo aborda as mudanças estruturais - no processo de urbanização/ metropolização - devidas à reestruturação produtiva do capitalismo global, e, na escala nacional, trata da mudança no marco institucional - jurídico/político - que passou de concentrador e centralizador, durante o regime militar, para descentralizador e esvaziado, após a Constituição de 1988. O recuo verificado nas políticas sociais durante os anos 1980 e 1990, notadamente em transporte, habitação e saneamento, além do desmonte dos organismos metropolitanos, conduziu nossas metrópoles a um destino de banalização das tragédias urbanas. Em que pese sua urgência, a questão metropolitana não sensibiliza nenhuma força política ou instituição que lhe atribua lugar de destaque na agenda nacional.Despite its economic, political, social, demographic, cultural, territorial and environmental importance, there is a significant lack of government in the brazilian metropolises, evidenced by the incipient initiatives of intermunicipal and federative administrative cooperation. This article analyses the structural changes - in the process of urbanization/metropolization - due to the productive restructuring of global capitalism, and, in a national scale, analyses the change in the institutional mark - legal/political - which passed from concentrator and centralizer, during the Military Regimen, to decentralized and emptied, after 1988 Constitution. The downturn verified in social policies during the years 1980 and 1990, notably in transport, housing and sanitation, besides the dismantling of the metropolitan agencies, has led our cities to the trivialization of urban tragedies. Despite

  1. Radiologically occult scaphoid and wrist fractures. Preliminary results in comparison of 0.2-T and 1.0-T units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenseher, M.J.; Trattnig, S.; Happel, B.; Bankier, A.; Rand, T.; Imhof, H.; Gaebler, C.; Kukla, C.

    1997-01-01

    The study was performed to determine the diagnostic value of different MR systems and field strengths in patients with occult scaphoid and wrist fractures. Twelve patients with clinical suspicion of a scaphoid fracture but normal plain radiographs were examined by MRI. A dedicated 0.2-T unit (Esaote) and a 1.0-T unit (NT10, Philips) were used. Coronal T1W-SE, STIR, and T2*W-GE sequences were obtained with both systems. Images were evaluated for a bone marrow abnormality, a trabecular or cortical fracture line, and were compared to the 6-week follow-up radiographs. Seven wrist fractures were found at 0.2 T and 1.0 T, proven in the follow-up radiographs. A bone marrow abnormality was present in all seven fractures on both systems. Trabecular and cortical fracture lines were visualized at 0.2 T in four cases and at 1.0 T in seven cases. Low-field MR imaging at 0.2 T and mid-field MR imaging at 1.0 T seem to be equivalent in the diagnosis of a fracture in radiographically occult scaphoid and wrist fractures. In the visualization of fracture details, important for therapeutic and prognostic considerations, 1.0 T seems to be superior. (orig.) [de

  2. Holography with a Landau pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faedo, Antón F. [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Mateos, David [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys 23, ES-08010, Barcelona (Spain); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tarrío, Javier [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine CP 231, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N{sub f} quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale Λ{sub LP}. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E≪Λ{sub LP} no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E≲Λ{sub LP} the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T≲Λ{sub LP} the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ>d−1.

  3. Holography with a Landau pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N f quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale Λ LP . The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E≪Λ LP no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E≲Λ LP the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T≲Λ LP the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ>d−1.

  4. Utility poles not affected by CCA decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Venzio, H. [Arch Wood Protection Canada, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    A voluntary decision by industry to move non-industrial use of treated lumber products away from pressure-treated wood containing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative was announced by the Environmental Protection Agency on February 12, 2002. Although new alternative wood preservatives would be used, this decision does not affect utility poles, which will continue to be sold and installed. The author provides a brief historical outline concerning the creation of CCA in 1933 and its subsequent uses. CCA has many advantages, including clean surface of the poles, ground line treatment that is not required thus eliminating the requirement to rotate the poles during extended storage periods. Conductivity is low, as is corrosivity without affecting the bending characteristics of the wood. The injection of a refined hydrocarbon oil emulsion in the outer layer of the pole after the treatment with CCA is offered by some pole producers to facilitate gaff penetration. Sawing, drilling and nailing are also made easier. Water repellents can be added to the treating solution to improve climbability, slowing down the absorption and release of moisture. Warranties, extending for 50-year periods, are offered by some companies against wood-destroying organisms. The North American Wood Pole Coalition (NAWPC) was formed in 1998 to promote the use of wood poles, and publishes brochures and technical bulletins to that effect.

  5. Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.

  6. Tree-loop duality relation beyond single poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierenbaum, Isabella [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Buchta, Sebastian; Draggiotis, Petros; Malamos, Ioannis; Rodrigo, German [Valencia Univ. Paterna (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular

    2012-11-15

    We develop the Tree-Loop Duality Relation for two- and three-loop integrals with multiple identical propagators (multiple poles). This is the extension of the Duality Relation for single poles and multi-loop integrals derived in previous publications. We prove a generalization of the formula for single poles to multiple poles and we develop a strategy for dealing with higher-order pole integrals by reducing them to single pole integrals using Integration By Parts.

  7. Outcome of nonunion fractures in dogs treated with fixation, compression resistant matrix, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Anna M; Kapatkin, Amy S; Fuller, Mark C; Verstraete, Frank J M; Arzi, Boaz

    2017-03-20

    To report the use of compression resistant matrix (CRM) infused with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) prospectively in the healing of nonunion long-bone fractures in dogs. A longitudinal cohort of dogs that were presented with nonunion fractures were classified and treated with CRM soaked with rhBMP-2 and fracture fixation. They were followed with serial radiographs and evaluated for healing times and complications according to the time frame and definitions previously established for orthopaedic clinical cases. Eleven nonunion fractures in nine dogs were included. Median healing time was 10 weeks (range: 7-20 weeks). Major perioperative complications due to bandage morbidity were encountered in two of 11 limbs and resolved. All other complications were minor. They occurred perioperatively in eight of 11 limbs. Minor follow-up complications included short-term in one of two limbs, mid-term in one of three, and long-term in four of five limbs. Nine limbs returned to full function and two limbs returned to acceptable function at the last follow-up. Nonunion fractures given a poor prognosis via standard-of-care treatment were successfully repaired using CRM with rhBMP-2 accompanying fixation. These dogs, previously at high risk of failure, returned to full or acceptable function.

  8. Negligence claims following non-union and malunion of long bone fractures: An analysis of 15 years of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, C W; Harrison, W D; Nayagam, S; Narayan, B

    2016-10-01

    Non-unions and malunions are recognised to be complications of the treatment of long bone fractures. No previous work has looked at the implications of these complications from a medicolegal perspective. A complete database of litigation claims in Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery was obtained from the NHS Litigation Authority. Two separate modalities of the treatment of long bone fractures were examined i) non-union and ii) acquired deformity. The type of complaint, whether defended or not, and costs were analysed. There were claims of which 97 related to non-union and 32 related to postoperative limb deformity. The total cost was £8.2 million over a 15-year period in England and Wales. Femoral and tibial non-unions were more expensive particularly if they resulted in amputation. Rotational deformity cost nearly twice as much as angulation deformities. The cosmetic appearances of rotational malalignment and amputation results in higher compensation; this reinforces an outward perception of outcome as being more important than harmful effects. Notwithstanding the limitations of this database, there are clinical lessons to be gained from these litigation claims. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. One-stage lengthening using a locked nailing technique for distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Chuan; Lee, Zhon-Liau

    2004-02-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a one-stage lengthening using a locked nail technique for the treatment of distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening. Retrospective. University hospital. During a 6-year period, 36 distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening (>1.5 cm) were treated by the one-stage lengthening technique. Indications for this technique were distal femoral shaft aseptic or quiescent infected nonunions, 1.5-5 cm shortening, and a fracture level suitable for the insertion of two distal locked screws. The surgical technique involved skeletal traction using the femoral condyle, local débridement, lengthening by lengthening was 2.5 cm (range 1.5-3.5 cm). One-stage lengthening using the locked nailing technique to treat distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening can achieve a high success rate and low complication rate. The key to successful treatment is the patient's complete cooperation with strictly protected weight bearing until the fracture has healed.

  10. Cold Hole Over Jupiter's Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Observations with two NASA telescopes show that Jupiter has an arctic polar vortex similar to a vortex over Earth's Antarctica that enables depletion of Earth's stratospheric ozone.These composite images of Jupiter's north polar region from the Hubble Space Telescope (right) and the Infrared Telescope Facility (left) show a quasi-hexagonal shape that extends vertically from the stratosphere down into the top of the troposphere. A sharp temperature drop, compared to surrounding air masses, creates an eastward wind that tends to keep the polar atmosphere, including the stratospheric haze, isolated from the rest of the atmosphere.The linear striations in the composite projections are artifacts of the image processing. The area closest to the pole has been omitted because it was too close to the edge of the planet in the original images to represent the planet reliably.The composite on the right combines images from the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope taken at a wavelength of 890 nanometers, which shows stratospheric haze particles.The sharp boundary and wave-like structure of the haze layer suggest a polar vortex and a similarity to Earth's stratospheric polar clouds. Images of Jupiter's thermal radiation clinch that identification. The composite on the left, for example, is made from images taken with Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mid-Infrared Large-Well Imager at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility at a wavelength of 17 microns. It shows polar air mass that is 5 to 6 degrees Celsius (9 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit) colder than its surroundings, with the same border as the stratospheric haze. Similar observations at other infrared wavelengths show the cold air mass extends at least as high as the middle stratosphere down to the top of the troposphere.These images were taken Aug. 11 through Aug. 13, 1999, near a time when Jupiter's north pole was most visible from Earth. Other Infrared Telescope Facility images at frequencies sensitive to the

  11. [{sup 18}F]FDG PET accurately differentiates infected and non-infected non-unions after fracture fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenter, Vera; Albert, Nathalie L.; Brendel, Matthias; Fendler, Wolfgang P.; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Cyran, Clemens C. [University of Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Friederichs, Jan; Mueller, Jan-Philipp; Militz, Matthias; Hungerer, Sven [BG Trauma Center Murnau, Department of Reconstructive Arthroplasty, Murnau (Germany); PMU Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Hacker, Marcus [University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-03-15

    Complete fracture healing is crucial for good patient outcomes. A major complication in the treatment of fractures is non-union. The pathogenesis of non-unions is not always clear, although implant-associated infections play a significant role, especially after surgical treatment of open fractures. We aimed to evaluate the value of [{sup 18}F]FDG PET in suspected infections of non-union fractures. We retrospectively evaluated 35 consecutive patients seen between 2000 and 2015 with suspected infection of non-union fractures, treated at a level I trauma center. The patients underwent either [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT (N = 24), [{sup 18}F]FDG PET (N = 11) plus additional CT (N = 8), or conventional X-ray (N = 3). Imaging findings were correlated with final diagnosis based on intraoperative culture or follow-up. In 13 of 35 patients (37 %), infection was proven by either positive intraoperative tissue culture (N = 12) or positive follow-up (N = 1). [{sup 18}F]FDG PET revealed 11 true-positive, 19 true-negative, three false-positive, and two false-negative results, indicating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of 85 %, 86 %, 79 %, 90 %, and 86 %, respectively. The SUV{sub max} was 6.4 ± 2.7 in the clinically infected group and 3.0 ± 1.7 in the clinically non-infected group (p <0.01). The SUV{sub ratio} was 5.3 ± 3.3 in the clinically infected group and 2.6 ± 1.5 in the clinically non-infected group (p <0.01). [{sup 18}F]FDG PET differentiates infected from non-infected non-unions with high accuracy in patients with suspected infections of non-union fractures, for whom other clinical findings were inconclusive for a local infection. [{sup 18}F]FDG PET should be considered for therapeutic management of non-unions. (orig.)

  12. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  13. The pole tide in deep oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fluid-dynamical theory of the pole tide is examined by describing the oceanic response to the Chandler wobble and assessing its implications for mantle anelasticity and low-frequency ocean dynamics. The Laplace tide equations accounting for bottom friction are given, and a spherical harmonic approach is delineated in which the time-independent portion of the tide height is expanded. Pole-tide height and related inertia products are linearly proportional to wobble amplitude, and the final equations are modified to account for mantle elasticity and oceanic loading. Results for pole tide effects are given for various earth models with attention to the role of boundary constraints. A dynamic effect is identified which lengthens the Chandler period by about 1 day more than static lengthening, a contribution that suggests a vigorous low-frequency response. The values derived are shown to agree with previous models that do not incorporate the effects of the pole tide.

  14. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  15. Application of Local Vibrations in Delayed and Non-Union Fractures: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of local vibration treatments (LV) in delayed-union and non-union fractures, through therapeutic exercise vibration (TEV) practice, analysing the radiological trend. The Medical Engineering Service of the Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata in collaboration with the Chair-Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Boscosystem company, is developing a device dedicated to LV application, to favour bone regeneration and muscle strengthening. This case report analyses the bone activity of a male patient presenting a right tibial fracture, treated with TEV. At the end of the TEV program, clinical results confirmed independent ambulation with disappearance of perimalleolar edema, while radiographic images revealed the presence of bone repair activity around the fracture line.

  16. Application of Local Vibrations in Delayed and Non-Union Fractures: a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of local vibration treatments (LV) in delayed-union and non-union fractures, through therapeutic exercise vibration (TEV) practice, analysing the radiological trend. The Medical Engineering Service of the Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata in collaboration with the Chair-Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Boscosystem company, is developing a device dedicated to LV application, to favour bone regeneration and muscle strengthening. This case report analyses the bone activity of a male patient presenting a right tibial fracture, treated with TEV. At the end of the TEV program, clinical results confirmed independent ambulation with disappearance of perimalleolar edema, while radiographic images revealed the presence of bone repair activity around the fracture line.

  17. Nonunion of the femoral neck: Possibilities and limitations of the various treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaymakers Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in cases of nonunions of the femoral neck, the surgeon is tempted to perform prosthetic replacement of the hip, more so if there is also evidence of avascular necrosis of the head of femur. This provides rapid pain relief and allows early mobilization. However, long-term results of hip arthroplasties, especially in younger people and in the presence of osteopenia, are not always as expected; and a less radical approach is worth considering. The intertrochanteric valgization osteotomy, described by Pauwels, is an excellent alternative for healthy patients up to 65 years of age with a nonunion of the femoral neck. A union rate of 80-90% of the nonunion is described by most authors. Leg length inequallity, rotational and angular deformities can be corrected at the same time. During the period 1973-1995, we performed valgization osteotomy according to Pauwels in 66 patients of, 18-72 years old (mean 49.5 years. 24 (37% of our patients died 4 months to 24 years (mean: 9.5 years after the operation. Union of the femoral neck was achieved in 58 (88% of the 66 patients; union of the osteotomy in 65 patients (99%. A good or excellent result was achieved in 62% (23 uneventful and 13 with healed, necrosis/arthrosis without need for further treatment of our patients. However, the method has its limits. We feel if there is too little bone stock inside the femoral head, a valgization osteotomy does not give good result. The radiographic signs of avascular necrosis in patients over 30 years of age is considered a contraindication for an osteotomy. However our results show that it is worthwhile trying to save the joint of young patients even in case of a segmental collapse. In the race between revascularization and collapse, often revascularization is the winner. We deliberately give nature its chance and don′t rely on the result of bleeding from drill holes in the head, nuclear scans and other methods to estimate vascularity. A secondary total hip

  18. Treatment of midshaft clavicular nonunion with plate fixation and autologous bone grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Vaesel, M T; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1995-01-01

    We studied the results of 16 consecutive midshaft clavicular nonunions operated on at the Shoulder and Elbow Clinic during the period from 1990 to 1993. All patients were treated with rigid 3.5 mm plate fixation and autologous cancellous bone grafting. Union of the fractures was achieved in all...... except one case, with a reconstruction ratio (restoration of bone length) of 0.96 (range 0.88 to 1.03). At follow-up 12 of 16 patients had returned to their preinjury activity level and according to the Constant score had obtained an excellent result. Two patients were graded as good, one as fair......, and one had a failure. Thirteen of 16 patients were satisfied with the cosmetic outcome, assessing their cosmetic result as either good or excellent. Rigid plate fixation and restoration of clavicular length with autologous cancellous bone graft is recommended for the treatment of symptomatic clavicular...

  19. Reamed intramedullary exchange nailing in the operative treatment of aseptic tibial shaft nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierholzer, Christian; Friederichs, Jan; Glowalla, Claudio; Woltmann, Alexander; Bühren, Volker; von Rüden, Christian

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a standardized treatment protocol regarding the rate of secondary bone union, complications, and functional outcome. This study was started as a prospective study in a single Level I Trauma Centre between 2003 and 2012. The study group consisted of 188 patients with the diagnosis of an aseptic tibial shaft nonunion. Exchange nailing was performed following a standardized surgical protocol. Long-term follow-up was analyzed for rate of bone healing and functional outcome. Osseous healing was achieved in 182 out of 188 patients (97 %). In 165 out of 188 patients (88 %), bone healing was observed timely and uneventfully after a single exchange nailing procedure. An open approach was necessary in 32 patients (17 %). Twenty-three patients (12 %) required additional therapy such as extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Post-operative complications were observed in seven patients (4 %). Almost all patients demonstrated osseous healing within 12 months, with the majority of osseous healing occurring within six months. A relevant shortening of the fractured tibia was observed in 20 out of 188 patients (11 %). After a median follow-up of 23 months (range 12-45 months), outcome was evaluated using the assessment system of Friedman/Wyman. In summary, 154 out of 188 patients (82 %) had a good functional long-term result. Reamed intramedullary exchange nailing including correction of axis alignment is a safe and effective treatment of aseptic tibial shaft nonunion with a high rate of bone healing and a good radiological and functional long-term outcome.

  20. The potential of wood-based composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Cheng Piao; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Wood-based composite utility poles are receiving increasing attention in the North American pole market. This interest is being driven by many increasing factors such as increasing: (1) disposal costs of solid wood poles, (2) liability and environmental concerns with traditional means of disposal of solid wood poles, (3) cost and concerns of long-term...

  1. Pole shifting with constrained output feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, D.; Mensah, S.; Boisvert, J.

    1984-03-01

    The concept of pole placement plays an important role in linear, multi-variable, control theory. It has received much attention since its introduction, and several pole shifting algorithms are now available. This work presents a new method which allows practical and engineering constraints such as gain limitation and controller structure to be introduced right into the pole shifting design strategy. This is achieved by formulating the pole placement problem as a constrained optimization problem. Explicit constraints (controller structure and gain limits) are defined to identify an admissible region for the feedback gain matrix. The desired pole configuration is translated into an appropriate cost function which must be closed-loop minimized. The resulting constrained optimization problem can thus be solved with optimization algorithms. The method has been implemented as an algorithmic interactive module in a computer-aided control system design package, MVPACK. The application of the method is illustrated to design controllers for an aircraft and an evaporator. The results illustrate the importance of controller structure on overall performance of a control system

  2. POLE somatic mutations in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joana; Pinto, Carla; Pinto, Diana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Silva, Romina; Peixoto, Ana; Rocha, Patrícia; Veiga, Isabel; Santos, Catarina; Santos, Rui; Cabreira, Verónica; Lopes, Paula; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2017-12-01

    Despite all the knowledge already gathered, the picture of somatic genetic changes in colorectal tumorigenesis is far from complete. Recently, germline and somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit (POLE) gene have been reported in a small subset of microsatellite-stable and hypermutated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), affecting the proofreading activity of the enzyme and leading to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. To evaluate the role of POLE mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis, namely in advanced CRC, we searched for somatic mutations by Sanger sequencing in tumor DNA samples from 307 cases. Microsatellite instability and mutation analyses of a panel of oncogenes were performed in the tumors harboring POLE mutations. Three heterozygous mutations were found in two tumors, the c.857C>G, p.Pro286Arg, the c.901G>A, p.Asp301Asn, and the c.1376C>T, p.Ser459Phe. Of the POLE-mutated CRCs, one tumor was microsatellite-stable and the other had low microsatellite instability, whereas KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were found in one tumor each. We conclude that POLE somatic mutations exist but are rare in advanced CRC, with further larger studies being necessary to evaluate its biological and clinical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Predictors associated with nonunion and symptomatic malunion following non-operative treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures-a systematic review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ann Louise; Troelsen, Anders; Ban, Ilija

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to survey existing literature in order to identify all reported predictors associated with nonunion or symptomatic malunion in adult patients with displaced midshaft clavicle fractures treated non-operatively. METHOD: A systematic literature search in Medline...... was carried out in order to identify publications in English, reporting on predictors for nonunion and malunion in adults with displaced midshaft clavicle fractures. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight publications were included in this systematic review. RESULTS: A total of 2,117 midshaft...... factors associated with nonunion were identified, six of these (displacement, comminution, shortening, age, gender and smoking) were reported as predictors for nonunion. Outcome definitions varied among the studies. CONCLUSION: The included publications varied greatly in design, sample size, and quality...

  4. Pole lengths influence O2-cost during double poling in highly trained cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Camilla Høivik; Rud, Bjarne; Myklebust, Håvard; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    In elite cross-country skiing, double poling is used in different terrain. This study compared O 2 -cost and kinematics during double poling with four different pole lengths [self-selected (SS), SS - 5 cm, SS + 5 cm, SS + 10 cm] at Low versus Moderate incline. Thirteen highly trained male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD 23 ± 3 years; 182 ± 4 cm; 77 ± 6 kg) completed eight submaximal trials with roller skis on a treadmill at two conditions: "Low incline" (1.7°; 4.5 m s -1 ) and "Moderate incline" (4.5°; 2.5 m s -1 ) with each of the four pole lengths. O 2 -cost and 3D body kinematics were assessed in each trial. In Low incline, SS + 10 cm induced a lower O 2 -cost than all the other pole lengths [P size (ES) 0.5-0.8], whereas no differences were found between the remaining pole lengths (P > 0.05; ES 0.2-0.4). In Moderate incline, significant differences between all pole lengths were found for O 2 -cost, with SS - 5 cm > SS > SS + 5 cm > SS + 10 cm (P differences in O 2 -cost between SS and the other pole lengths were greater in Moderate incline than Low incline (SS - 5 cm; 1.5%, ES 0.8, SS + 5 cm; 1.3%, ES 1.0, and SS + 10 cm; 1.9%, ES 1.0, all P difference was found in cycle, poling or reposition times between pole lengths. However, at both conditions a smaller total vertical displacement of center of mass was observed with SS + 10 cm compared to the other pole lengths. Increasing pole length from SS - 5 cm to SS + 10 cm during double poling induced lower O 2 -cost and this advantage was greater in Moderate compared to Low incline.

  5. Proximal Row Carpectomy for Coexisting Kienböck’s Disease and Giant Intraosseous Ganglion of the Scaphoid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Morón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiologies of Keinböck’s disease and intraosseous ganglion remain unknown. Both entities are rare and the coexistence of these two pathologies in the same patient and hand is even less frequent. We report the case of a 40-year-old man with a longstanding history of martial arts practice (karate who developed an avascular necrosis of the lunate concomitant with a giant intraosseous ganglion of the scaphoid bone successfully managed by proximal row carpectomy. We review the literature of these two diseases.

  6. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  7. PNRA. South-pole directory listing

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Carpen?, Andrea; Ramorino, Chiara; Rossi, Lucio

    1992-01-01

    In the following all DATA-SET descriptors (DSD) contained in the "South-Pole Directory" (vers. 1992) are listed. The "South-Pole Directory" was a joint project between ENEA and CNR. The IEI/CNR took care of the data digitalization and check and of the english translation (where necessary). The ARF/CNR and the Progetto Antartide/ENEA joined the IEI/CNR in defining the acronyms of the Sensor_Names and of the Source_Names, together with the short and long names for the Data_Centers. Finally, the...

  8. Shape change in the atlas with congenital midline non-union of its posterior arch: a morphometric geometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Luis; Palancar, Carlos; Pastor, Francisco; Llidó, Susana; Sanchís-Gimeno, Juan Alberto; Bastir, Markus

    2017-10-01

    The congenital midline non-union of the posterior arch of the atlas is a developmental variant present at a frequency ranging from 0.7% to 3.9%. Most of the reported cases correspond to incidental findings during routine medical examination. In cases of posterior non-union, hypertrophy of the anterior arch and cortical bone thickening of the posterior arches have been observed and interpreted as adaptive responses of the atlas to increased mechanical stress. We sought to determine if the congenital non-union of the posterior arch results in a change in the shape of the atlas. This study is an analysis of the first cervical vertebrae from osteological collections through morphometric geometric techniques. A total of 21 vertebrae were scanned with a high-resolution three-dimensional scanner (Artec Space Spider, Artec Group, Luxembourg). To capture vertebral shape, 19 landmarks and 100 semilandmarks were placed on the vertebrae. Procrustes superimposition was applied to obtain size and shape data (MorphoJ 1.02; Klingenberg, 2011), which were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA) and mean shape comparisons. The PCA resulted in two components explaining 22.32% and 18.8% of the total shape variance. The graphic plotting of both components indicates a clear shape difference between the control atlas and the atlas with posterior non-union. This observation was supported by statistically significant differences in mean shape comparisons between both types of vertebra (patlas is associated with significant changes in the shape of the vertebra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intramedullary stabilization and over-nail lengthening as two-stage treatment of femoral nonunion with shortening. Case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kącki, Wojciech; Jasiewicz, Barbara; Radło, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Nonunion is one of the most serious complications of long bone fractures. It may be accompanied by a shortening of the segment. The authors describe the case of a 21-year-old woman with a post-traumatic nonunion with shortening of the femur. Treatment was divided into two stages: first, a previously placed nail was removed and new intramedullary stabilization was carried out while bone defects were filled with a bone graft substitute and platelet rich plasma was administered. After the nonunion had healed, the femur was lengthened over an external fixator and an intramedullary nail, resulting in equality of limb length. After eight years of follow-up, the lower limbs remain equal with a properly aligned long axis of the lower limb operated on and a full range of motion in the joints. The treatment strategy described in our article may be an alternative to one-stage surgery if the patient does not consent to it or in the presence of contraindications, but it is associated with a longer treatment time and necessity of additional surgeries.

  10. Recurrent hydatosis at the site of non-union humerus fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nourbakhsh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is still endemic in several regions of the world and is caused by two species of tapeworms, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus alveolaris. It primary involves liver and lung, and bone involvement is relatively rare (0.2-4%, where it is most commonly seen in the spine. The skeletal involvement is usually due to secondary extension such as hematogenous spread. The disease has usually a silent manifestation until a complication exists; so, many cases are diagnosed intraoperatively. Treatment of hydatid disease because of its bone involvement and spillage of fluid with subsequent contamination seeding is difficult, so it has a high mortality rate and many cases will recur. Therefore, we can prevent these occurrences if we treat hydatid disease completely and in the primary stage. Adjuvant medical treatment, if the diagnosis is known, prevents systemic spread and recurrence. Here, we present a primary recurrent hydatosis at the site of non-union humerus fracture. We have pointed out osseous hydatosis as one of the important differential diagnoses in destructive bone lesions and the necessity of its radical resection.

  11. Atypical Chronic Ankle Instability in a Pediatric Population Secondary to Distal Fibula Avulsion Fracture Nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashry, Saad R; El Gamal, Tarek A; Platt, Simon R

    Chronic ankle instability is a disabling condition, often occurring as a result of traumatic ankle injury. A paucity of published data is available documenting chronic ankle instability in the pediatric population. Much of the data has been confined to the adult population. We present 2 cases of chronic ankle instability, 1 in a 12-year-old and 1 in a 9-year-old patient. Unlike the typical adult etiology, the cause of instability was a dysfunctional lateral ligamentous complex as a consequence of bony avulsion of the tip of the fibula. Both patients had sustained a twisting injury to the ankle. The fractures failed to unite. The nonunion resulted in dysfunction of the anterior talofibular ligament with consequent chronic ankle instability. At the initial clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging was requested for both patients. In patient 1 (12 years old), the fracture was fixed with 2 headless screws and was immobilized in a plaster cast for 6 weeks. In patient 2 (9 years old), because of the small size of the avulsed fragment, fixation was not possible. A modified Gould-Broström procedure was undertaken, facilitating repair of the avulsed fragment using anchor sutures. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors associated with nonunion, delayed union, and malunion in foot and ankle surgery in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Humphers, Jon M; Fluhman, Benjamin L; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of bone healing complications in diabetic patients is believed to be high after foot and ankle surgery. Although the association of hyperglycemia with bone healing complications has been well documented, little clinical information is available to show which diabetes-related comorbidities directly affect bone healing. Our goal was to better understand the risk factors associated with poor bone healing in the diabetic population through an exploratory, observational, retrospective, cohort study. To this end, 165 diabetic patients who had undergone arthrodesis, osteotomy, or fracture reduction were enrolled in the study to assess the risk factors associated with nonunion, delayed union, and malunion after elective and nonelective foot and/or ankle surgery. Bivariate analyses showed that a history of foot ulcer, peripheral neuropathy, and surgery duration were statistically significantly associated with bone healing complications. After adjusting for other covariates, only peripheral neuropathy, surgery duration, and hemoglobin A1c levels >7% were significantly associated statistically with bone healing complications. Of the risk factors we considered, peripheral neuropathy had the strongest association with bone healing complications. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Visit to the South Pole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    For these reasons, I could not buy many of the essential things .... Geomagnetic South Pole at 78° 27' S, 106° 48' E at an altitude of 3,488 metres on approximately .... Smokers at the station were often found searching for used cigarette butts.

  14. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  15. Stabilization, pole placement, and regular implementability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belur, MN; Trentelman, HL

    In this paper, we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a-given linear, differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding a suitable,

  16. Quasiparticle pole strength in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that single-particle-like behavior in nuclear matter is much less probable than Brueckner theory suggests. In particular, the quasiparticle pole strength is evaluated for nuclear matter and it is shown that, contrary to the spirit of Brueckner theory, low momentum states play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of z/sub k/sub F/. (auth)

  17. Pole masses of quarks in dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, L.V.; Kalmykov, M.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Pole masses of quarks in quantum chromodynamics are calculated to the two-loop order in the framework of the regularization by dimensional reduction. For the diagram with a light quark loop, the non-Euclidean asymptotic expansion is constructed with the external momentum on the mass shell of a heavy quark

  18. Rotor pole refurbishment for hydrogenerators: insulation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.R.; Rux, L.

    2005-01-01

    Rotor poles for Unit 1 at Lower Granite Powerhouse were removed from the rotor and shipped to a repair facility for refurbishment. Upon inspection, it was found that all of the pole bodies exhibited a distinct bow, center to end, on the pole mounting surface. In some cases, the deflection was as much as 0.106 inch. Concerns were raised about how this condition might affect the ability to properly insulate and/or re-seat the poles. This paper presents details of the rotor pole and field winding evaluation, the problems encountered, and the solutions implemented to successfully refurbish the rotor poles and field winding. (author)

  19. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ilizarov Methods in the Treatment of Infected Nonunion of Tibia and Femur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yin

    Full Text Available Infected nonunion of tibia and femur are common in clinical practice, however, the treatment of these diseases has still been a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Ilizarov methods can eradicate infection, compensate bone defects and promote the bone union through progressive bone histogenesis. The objective of this systematic review was to review current available studies reporting on Ilizarov methods in the treatment of infected nonunion of tibia and femur, and to perform meta-analysis of bone and functional results and complications to evaluate the efficacy of Ilizarov methods.A comprehensive literature search was performed from the SCI, PubMed, Cochrane Library; and Embase between January 1995 and August 2015. Some major data were statistically analyzed using weighted means based on the sample size in each study by SPSS 13.0, including number of patients, mean age, mean previous surgical procedures, mean bone defects, mean length of follow-up, bone union, complications per patient, external fixation time, and external fixation index(EFI. Bone results (excellent, good, fair and poor rate, functional results (excellent, good, fair and poor rate and complications were analyzed by Stata 9.0.A total of 590 patients from 24 studies were included in this systematic review. The average of bone union rate was 97.26% in all included studies. The poor rate in bone results and functional results was 8% (95%CI, 0.04-0.12; I2 = 44.1%, P = 0.065 and 10% (95%CI, 0.05-0.14; I2 = 34.7%, P = 0.121 in patients with infected nonunion of tibia and femur treated by Ilizarov methods. The rate of refracture, malunion, infectious recurrence, knee stiffness, amputation, limb edema and peroneal nerve palsy was respectively 4%, 7%, 5%, 12%, 4%, 13% and 13%.Our systematic review showed that the patients with infected nonunion of tibia and femur treated by Ilizarov methods had a low rate of poor bone and functional results. Therefore, Ilizarov methods may be a good choice

  20. Anterior versus posterior approach in reconstruction of infected nonunion of the tibia using the vascularized fibular graft: potentialities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Sherif M; El-Mofty, Aly O; Amin, Sherif N

    2002-01-01

    The potentialities, limitations, and technical pitfalls of the vascularized fibular grafting in infected nonunions of the tibia are outlined on the basis of 14 patients approached anteriorly or posteriorly. An infected nonunion of the tibia together with a large exposed area over the shin of the tibia is better approached anteriorly. The anastomosis is placed in an end-to-end or end-to-side fashion onto the anterior tibial vessels. To locate the site of the nonunion, the tibialis anterior muscle should be retracted laterally and the proximal and distal ends of the site of the nonunion debrided up to healthy bleeding bone. All the scarred skin over the anterior tibia should be excised, because it becomes devitalized as a result of the exposure. To cover the exposed area, the fibula has to be harvested with a large skin paddle, incorporating the first septocutaneous branch originating from the peroneal vessels before they gain the upper end of the flexor hallucis longus muscle. A disadvantage of harvesting the free fibula together with a skin paddle is that its pedicle is short. The skin paddle lies at the antimesenteric border of the graft, the site of incising and stripping the periosteum. In addition, it has to be sutured to the skin at the recipient site, so the soft tissues (together with the peroneal vessels), cannot be stripped off the graft to prolong its pedicle. Vein grafts should be resorted to, if the pedicle does not reach a healthy segment of the anterior tibial vessels. Defects with limited exposed areas of skin, especially in questionable patency of the vessels of the leg, require primarily a fibula with a long pedicle that could easily reach the popliteal vessels and are thus better approached posteriorly. In this approach, the site of the nonunion is exposed medial to the flexor digitorum muscle and the proximal and distal ends of the site of the nonunion debrided up to healthy bleeding bone. No attempt should be made to strip the scarred skin off

  1. Predictors of the accuracy of quotation of references in peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature in relation to publications on the scaphoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijze, G A; Weening, A A; Poolman, R W; Bhandari, M; Ring, D

    2012-02-01

    Using inaccurate quotations can propagate misleading information, which might affect the management of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of quotation inaccuracy in the peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature related to the scaphoid. We randomly selected 100 papers from ten orthopaedic journals. All references were retrieved in full text when available or otherwise excluded. Two observers independently rated all quotations from the selected papers by comparing the claims made by the authors with the data and expressed opinions of the reference source. A statistical analysis determined which article-related factors were predictors of quotation inaccuracy. The mean total inaccuracy rate of the 3840 verified quotes was 7.6%. There was no correlation between the rate of inaccuracy and the impact factor of the journal. Multivariable analysis identified the journal and the type of study (clinical, biomechanical, methodological, case report or review) as important predictors of the total quotation inaccuracy rate. We concluded that inaccurate quotations in the peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature related to the scaphoid were common and slightly more so for certain journals and certain study types. Authors, reviewers and editorial staff play an important role in reducing this inaccuracy.

  2. Fatigue failure and cracking in high mast poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive research project to investigate the fatigue : cracking and failure of galvanized high mast illumination poles (HMIP). Ultrasonic inspection of : poles throughout the state has revealed the presence...

  3. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  4. Second-harmonic imaging of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2000-01-01

    Electric-field poled silica-based waveguides are characterized by measurements of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and of the linear electro-optic effect (LEO). A SHG scanning technique allowing for high-resolution imaging of poled devices is demonstrated. Scans along the direction of the poling...

  5. Permanent magnet machine and method with reluctance poles and non-identical PM poles for high density operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    2010-05-18

    A method and apparatus in which a stator (11) and a rotor (12) define a primary air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one source (23, 40), and preferably two sources (23, 24, 40) of DC excitation are positioned for inducing DC flux at opposite ends of the rotor (12). Portions of PM material (17, 17a) are provided as boundaries separating PM rotor pole portions from each other and from reluctance poles. The PM poles (18) and the reluctance poles (19) can be formed with poles of one polarity having enlarged flux paths in relation to flux paths for pole portions of an opposite polarity, the enlarged flux paths communicating with a core of the rotor (12) so as to increase reluctance torque produced by the electric machine. Reluctance torque is increased by providing asymmetrical pole faces. The DC excitation can also use asymmetric poles and asymmetric excitation sources. Several embodiments are disclosed with additional variations.

  6. Physics on the Z-pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Tsunehiko; Kurihara, Yoshimasa; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Keisuke

    1994-01-01

    JLC will provide a high luminosity of 2.0 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 on the Z-pole. To realize the Z-pole running we need to add a transport line to bypass unnecessary part of the main linac. With this high luminosity, the third angle of the unitality triangle (sin 2φ 3 ) can be measured in B s (B s ) → pK s channel with 3σ sensitivity in 1 year when sin 2φ 3 = -0.5, Xs = 10, and the branching ratio of the channel is 2 x 10 -5 . Also sin 2 θw can be measured with accuracy of Δsin 2 θw/sin 2 θw = 0.1%. (J.P.N.)

  7. Sun's pole-equator flux differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvedere, G [Istituto di Astronomia dell' Universita di Catania, Italy; Paterno, L [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Italy

    1977-04-01

    The possibility that large flux differences between the poles and the equator at the bottom of the solar convective zone are compatible with the small differences observed at the surface is studied. The consequences of increasing the depth of the convective zone due to overshooting are explored. A Boussinesq model is used for the convective zone and it is assumed that the interaction of the global convection with rotation is modelled through a convective flux coefficient whose perturbed part is proportional to the local Taylor number. The numerical integration of the equations of motion and energy shows that coexistence between large pole-equator flux differences at the bottom and small ones at the surface is possible if the solar convective zone extends to a depth of 0.4 R(Sun). The angular velocity distribution inside the convective zone is in agreement with the ..cap alpha omega..-dynamo theories of the solar cycle.

  8. Exchange nailing for nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia: our results and an analysis of the risk factors for failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, S T J; Mills, L A; Frantzias, J; Baren, J P; Keating, J F; Simpson, A H R W

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the failure of exchange nailing in nonunion of tibial diaphyseal fractures. A cohort of 102 tibial diaphyseal nonunions in 101 patients with a mean age of 36.9 years (15 to 74) were treated between January 1992 and December 2012 by exchange nailing. Of which 33 (32%) were initially open injuries. The median time from primary fixation to exchange nailing was 6.5 months (interquartile range (IQR) 4.3 to 9.8 months). The main outcome measures were union, number of secondary fixation procedures required to achieve union and time to union. Univariate analysis and multiple regression were used to identify risk factors for failure to achieve union. Multiple causes for the primary nonunion were found for 28 (27%) tibiae, with infection present in 32 (31%). Six patients were lost to follow-up. Further surgical procedures were required in 35 (36%) nonunions. Other fixation modalities were required in five fractures. A single nail exchange procedure achieved union in 60/96 (63%) of all nonunions. Only 11 out of 31 infected nonunions (35.4%) healed after one exchange nail procedure. Up to five repeated exchange nailings, with or without bone grafting, ultimately achieved union in 89 (93%) fractures. The median time to union after exchange nailing was 8.7 months (IQR 5.7 to 14.0 months). Univariate analysis confirmed that an oligotrophic/atrophic pattern of nonunion (p = 0.002), a bone gap of 5 mm or more (p = 0.04) and infection (p exchange nailing Multiple regression analysis found that infection was the strongest predictor of failure (p Exchange nailing is an effective treatment for aseptic tibial diaphyseal nonunion. However, in the presence of severe infection with a highly resistant organism, or extensive sclerosis of the bone, other fixation modalities, such as Ilizarov treatment, should be considered. Exchange nailing is an effective treatment for aseptic tibial diaphyseal nonunion. ©2016 The British Editorial

  9. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  10. Effects of third fragment size and displacement on non-union of femoral shaft fractures after locking for intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J R; Kim, H-J; Lee, K-B

    2016-04-01

    The femoral shaft fractures with large fragments makes anatomical reduction challenging and often results in non-union. In some studies, the degree of fragment displacement was reported to have affected non-union, but the association between the one fragment size and degree of displacement has not been fully clarified. Therefore we performed a retrospective study to assess: (1) the more influential factor of non-union: the degree of fragment displacement, or the fragment size? (2) the non-union rates according to different sizes and degrees of displacement. The degree of displacement is the more potent factor of non-union than the third fragment size in femoral shaft fractures. We assessed retrospectively 64 cases, which could be followed up for longer than one year. Fragments were divided according to the length of their long axis into three groups: group A (0-3.9cm), (n=21); group B (4-7.9cm), (n=22); group C (8cm or more), (n=21). Fragment displacement was also assessed in the proximal (P) or distal (D) end to the nearest cortex of the femoral shaft, and divided into the following groups: group P1 (n=44) or D1 (n=47), (0-9mm); group P2 (n=10) or D2 (n=11), (10-19mm); group P3 (n=7) or D3 (n=3), (20-29mm); and group P4 (n=3) or D4 (n=3), (30mm or more). The bone union rate was 86% in the small (less than 8cm) fragment groups and 71% in the large (8cm or more) fragment group (P=0.046). With respect to the degree of displacement, the union rate was lower (P=0.001) and the average union time was longer (P=0.012) in the 20mm or more group for both the proximal fragment part and the distal fragment part (P=0.002, P=0.014). A logistic regression analysis underlined the displacement in the proximal site (OR: 0.298, 95% CI: 0.118-0.750) as in the distal site (OR: 0.359, 95% CI: 0.162-0.793) as a larger effect on union rate than the fragment size that as no effect in logistic regression (OR 3.8, 95% CI: 0.669-21.6). Non-union develops significantly more frequently in

  11. Current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor with 8 salient poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Kazuaki; Hirata, Katsuhiro; Niguchi, Noboru; Kohara, Akira

    2017-12-01

    We propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor for a traction motor of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, which consists of 10 salient poles in the rotor and 12 slots in the stator. However, iron losses of this motor in high rotation speed ranges is large because the number of salient poles is large. In this paper, we propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor that consists of 8 salient poles and 12 slots. The characteristics of the 10-pole-12-slot and 8-pole-12-slot current superimposition variable flux reluctance motors are compared using finite element analysis under vector control.

  12. Current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor with 8 salient poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahara Kazuaki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor for a traction motor of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, which consists of 10 salient poles in the rotor and 12 slots in the stator. However, iron losses of this motor in high rotation speed ranges is large because the number of salient poles is large. In this paper, we propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor that consists of 8 salient poles and 12 slots. The characteristics of the 10-pole-12-slot and 8-pole-12-slot current superimposition variable flux reluctance motors are compared using finite element analysis under vector control.

  13. Functional outcome and cost-effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of acute scaphoid fractures: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Pascal F W; Essers, Brigitte A B; Schots, Judith P M; Dullaert, Koen; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2015-04-11

    Physical forces have been widely used to stimulate bone growth in fracture repair. Addition of bone growth stimulation to the conservative treatment regime is more costly than standard health care. However, it might lead to cost-savings due to a reduction of the total amount of working days lost. This economic evaluation was performed to assess the cost-effectiveness of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) compared to standard health care in the treatment of acute scaphoid fractures. An economic evaluation was carried out from a societal perspective, alongside a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial involving five centres in The Netherlands. One hundred and two patients with a clinically and radiographically proven fracture of the scaphoid were included in the study and randomly allocated to either active bone growth stimulation or standard health care, using a placebo. All costs (medical costs and costs due to productivity loss) were measured during one year follow up. Functional outcome and general health related quality of life were assessed by the EuroQol-5D and PRWHE (patient rated wrist and hand evaluation) questionnaires. Utility scores were derived from the EuroQol-5D. The average total number of working days lost was lower in the active PEMF group (9.82 days) compared to the placebo group (12.91 days) (p = 0.651). Total medical costs of the intervention group (€1594) were significantly higher compared to the standard health care (€875). The total amount of mean QALY's (quality-adjusted life year) for the active PEMF group was 0.84 and 0.85 for the control group. The cost-effectiveness plane shows that the majority of all cost-effectiveness ratios fall into the quadrant where PEMF is not only less effective in terms of QALY's but also more costly. This study demonstrates that the desired effects in terms of cost-effectiveness are not met. When comparing the effects of PEMF to standard health care in terms of QALY's, PEMF

  14. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, Alberto; Adumitroaie, V.

    2017-01-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars,...... of magnitude more precise. This has implications for the distribution of heavy elements in the interior, including the existence and mass of Jupiter's core. The observed magnetic field exhibits smaller spatial variations than expected, indicative of a rich harmonic content....

  15. Post-traumatic nonunion of the clavicle in a 4-year-old boy and the importance of vitamin D level testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplantier, Neil L; Waldron, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Clavicle fractures in children are common and usually go on to achieve solid union with closed treatment. A limited number of pediatric clavicle fracture nonunion cases have been reported in the literature, none of which were directly associated with hypovitaminosis D. We report the youngest case to our knowledge in a 4-year-old vitamin D-deficient male with a 6-month-old right midshaft clavicle fracture nonunion that was treated successfully with vitamin D supplementation, followed by open reduction and internal fixation with autologus iliac crest bone grafting.

  16. Tent-Poles of the Bestseller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Vistisen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for understanding and analysing how the passive audience of a media event turns into active stakeholders. The starting point is the cross-media content quadrant (Jensen and Vistisen, 2012), which shows how the producer’s control is distributed on social media...... platforms, while storytelling evolves around a tent-pole, for example, a bestseller or blockbuster. To further explain how the audience engages, a three-step rhetoric model largely based on Bitzer (1998) and Tolkien (1971) is developed and explained....

  17. Infrared solar physics from the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake

    1989-01-01

    Infrared (IR) observations of the sun could greatly benefit from the quality of the South Pole as an IR site, and the potential for multi-day sequences of uninterrupted observations. A nearly continuous picture of the evolution of the magnetic field in solar active regions could be obtained using vector magnetographs, especially vector magnetographs which incorporate IR array detectors. Observations of the sun over a range of wavelengths in the IR continuum could also be used to study the vertical propagation characteristics of the solar p-mode oscillations.

  18. Complex conjugate poles and parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiburzi, B.C.; Detmold, W.; Miller, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate parton and generalized parton distributions in Minkowski space using a scalar propagator with a pair of complex conjugate poles. Correct spectral and support properties are obtained only after careful analytic continuation from Euclidean space. Alternately the quark distribution function can be calculated from modified cutting rules, which put the intermediate state on its complex mass shells. Distribution functions agree with those resulting from the model's Euclidean space double distribution which we calculate via nondiagonal matrix elements of twist-two operators. Thus one can use a wide class of analytic parametrizations of the quark propagator to connect Euclidean space Green functions to light-cone dominated amplitudes

  19. Neglected nonunion of phalangeal neck fractures of the thumb in children: the outcome of delayed bone grafting in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2012-03-01

    Over a 12-year period, the author treated a total of 5 adults (mean age, 23 years) with neglected nonunion of phalangeal neck fractures of the thumb that were sustained in early childhood. Cosmetically, the affected thumb was shorter and smaller than the contralateral thumb. The thumb tip was flail and thumb pinch was weak. X-rays showed a nonunited phalangeal neck fracture with no radiologic evidence of avascular necrosis of the phalangeal head. All patients underwent iliac crest bone grafting. Bone union was obtained in all patients. At final follow-up (mean, 9 months), all patients were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance of the thumb. The thumb length increased by an average of 6 mm (range, 5-8 mm). Pinch improved in the range of 69% to 87% of the power of the contralateral thumb. However, there was restricted range of motion of the interphalangeal joint (mean range of motion of 10 degree only). It was concluded that delayed bone grafting of neglected nonunions of pediatric phalangeal neck fractures of the thumb is a worthwhile procedure and has a high satisfaction rate.

  20. Reduced rates of non-union with modified periacetabular osteotomy using peracetic-acid sterilized cancellous allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilew, Georgi I; Janz, Viktor; Renner, Lisa; Perka, Carsten; Pruss, Axel

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the clinical and radiological results of periacetabular osteotomies (PAO) using Kirschner wire fixation and an allogeneic cancellous bone graft. This retrospective cohort study included 73 patients (85 PAOs). The allografts were processed from distal femur of cadaveric donors, defatted, sterilized with a peracetic-acid ethanol solution and freeze-dried. The clinical outcome, as measured by the Harris Hip Scores (HHS), the complication rate and the acetabular correction, as measured by radiological parameters, were compared. The postoperative femoral head coverage and HSS were significantly improved. Major complications occurred in five cases (6 %), but in no case did we observe a non-union or a graft-associated adverse effect. Fixation of the acetabular fragment with Kirschner wires in combination with an allogeneic cancellous bone graft is a safe method, with a low complication rate, no loss of correction and can prevent the occurrence of non-union with a high degree of probability.

  1. Design of a portable CAT scanner for utility pole inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Work is under way at the University of Missouri, Columbia (UMC) to design, build, and test a portable computerized axial tomography (CAT) device for the nondestructive, field imaging of wooden utility poles. CAT is a well-established medical technology that has recently been applied to a number of industrial applications. Wooden utility poles are prone to rot and decay at ground level; current techniques to assess this loss of strength are relatively primitive, i.e., tapping the pole (hitting the pole with a hammer) or boring into the pole for samples and then testing inside the bore hole with an electrical pulse device. The accuracy in identifying poles needing replacement using these techniques is ∼ 70%. Since the cost of replacing a pole ranges from hundreds to thousands of dollars, an accurate, nondestructive method is needed. CAT can accurately image a wooden utility pole (since the size, density, and atomic elements of a pole are similar to the human head to torso), as was confirmed by imaging poles using the UMC nuclear engineering EMI-1010 medical scanner. Detailed images have been produced showing the ring structure of the wood and voids due to rot or decay. Images approaching this quality have also been produced on living trees using semiportable systems by other researchers

  2. Metallic artifacts from internal scaphoid fracture fixation screws: comparison between C-arm flat-panel, cone-beam, and multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenstaedt, Tim; Morsbach, Fabian; Calcagni, Maurizio; Vich, Magdalena; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Alkadhi, Hatem; Runge, Val M; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare image quality and extent of artifacts from scaphoid fracture fixation screws using different computed tomography (CT) modalities and radiation dose protocols. Imaging of 6 cadaveric wrists with artificial scaphoid fractures and different fixation screws was performed in 2 screw positions (45° and 90° orientation in relation to the x/y-axis) using multidetector CT (MDCT) and 2 flat-panel CT modalities, C-arm flat-panel CT (FPCT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT), the latter 2 with low and standard radiation dose protocols. Mean cartilage attenuation and metal artifact-induced absolute Hounsfield unit changes (= artifact extent) were measured. Two independent radiologists evaluated different image quality criteria using a 5-point Likert-scale. Interreader agreements (Cohen κ) were calculated. Mean absolute Hounsfield unit changes and quality ratings were compared using Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Artifact extent was significantly smaller for MDCT and standard-dose FPCT compared with CBCT low- and standard-dose acquisitions (all P 0.05). Both MDCT and FPCT standard-dose protocols showed equal ratings for screw bone interface, fracture line, and trabecular bone evaluation (P = 0.06, 0.2, and 0.2, respectively) and performed significantly better than FPCT low- and CBCT low- and standard-dose acquisitions (all P < 0.05). Good interreader agreement was found for image quality comparisons (Cohen κ = 0.76-0.78). Both MDCT and FPCT standard-dose acquisition showed comparatively less metal-induced artifacts and better overall image quality compared with FPCT low-dose and both CBCT acquisitions. Flat-panel CT may provide sufficient image quality to serve as a versatile CT alternative for postoperative imaging of internally fixated wrist fractures.

  3. Triple management of cubitus valgus deformity complicating neglected nonunion of fractures of lateral humeral condyle in children: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Yasser; Nour, Khaled; Kandil, Yasser Roshdy; El-Negery, Abed

    2018-02-01

    Long standing nonunion of the lateral humeral condyle (LHC) usually results in elbow pain and instability with progressive cubitus valgus and tardy ulnar neuritis. Surgical treatment of long standing nonunion is still a controversial issue due to the reported complications, such as stiffness, loss of elbow motion, and avascular necrosis of the LHC fragment. In this study, we reported the outcomes of treatment of cubitus valgus deformity in long standing nonunion of the LHC in children treated with combined triple management (fixation of the nonunion site, dome corrective osteotomy, and anterior transposition of ulnar nerve) through a modified para-triceptal approach. We evaluated ten patients with cubitus valgus deformity more than 20 degrees after neglected nonunion of the lateral humeral condyle more than 24 months. Only childern with post-operative follow up more than 24 months were included in this study. All patients were evaluated clinically, radio logically, and by pre- and post-operative functional evaluation using Mayo elbow performance score. For evaluation of ulnar nerve affection, the Akahori's system was used. There were six females and four males with the average age of 7.7 years at operation. The left elbow was affected in six patients and the right elbow was affected in four patients. The average time between fracture of the LHC and operation was 40.3 months with average post-operative follow up of 44.3 months. The average carrying angle of the healthy side was 5.5 degrees and pre-operative carrying angle of the affected side was 33.5 degrees. The average post-operative carrying angle of the affected side was 6.1 degrees. The improvement of the carrying angle at the last follow up was found statistically significant (p  0.05). The mean pre-operative Mayo elbow performance score was poor 55 ± 9.7, four patients had fair score, and six had poor score. The mean post-operative Mayo elbow performance score was excellent 92.5 ± 10, six

  4. The Pole Orientation, Pole Precession, and Moment of Inertia Factor of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. A.; French, R. G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Marouf, E.; Rappaport, N.; McGhee, C.; Sepersky, T.; Lonergan, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses our determination of the Saturn's pole orientation and precession using a combination of Earthbased and spacecraft based observational data. From our model of the polar motion and the observed precession rate we obtain a value for Saturn's polar moment of inertia

  5. Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed

  6. Determination of the crystallite orientation distribution from direct pole figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Gomes, P.A.M. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate the crystallite orientation distribution in polycrystalline material, from direct pole figures data of its crystallographic planes (Roe's Method). The programme was applied to (1010), (0002), (1011) and (1120) complete pole figures data for a commercial, thin sheet Zircaloy-4 tubing specimen. A semi-automatic Rigaku-Denki texture goniometer, which scans the reciprocal lattice sphere pointwise outputting the data in a punched tape, was used to obtain the pole figures. This is consistent with the results obtained through direct conclusion from the pole figures. (author)

  7. Thermal poling of multi-wire array optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lin; An, Honglin; Hayashi, Juliano G.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate in this paper thermal poling of multi-wire array fibers, which extends poling of fibers with two anodes to similar to 50 and similar to 500 wire array anodes. The second harmonic microscopy observations show that second order nonlinearity (SON) layers are developed surrounding all...... the rings of wires in the similar to 50 anode array fiber with poling of 1.8kV, 250 degrees C and 30min duration, and the outer rings of the similar to 500 anode array fiber at lower poling temperature. Our simulations based on a two-dimensional charge dynamics model confirm this can be explained...

  8. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including...

  9. Generalized pole inflation: Hilltop, natural, and chaotic inflationary attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Takahiro, E-mail: takahiro.terada@apctp.org [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-10

    A reformulation of inflationary model analyses appeared recently, in which inflationary observables are determined by the structure of a pole in the inflaton kinetic term rather than the shape of the inflaton potential. We comprehensively study this framework with an arbitrary order of the pole taking into account possible additional poles in the kinetic term or in the potential. Depending on the setup, the canonical potential becomes the form of hilltop or plateau models, variants of natural inflation, power-law inflation, or monomial/polynomial chaotic inflation. We demonstrate attractor behaviors of these models and compute corrections from the additional poles to the inflationary observables.

  10. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  11. Genetic predisposition to fracture non-union: a case control study of a preliminary single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis of the BMP pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoudis Peter V

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the known multi-factorial nature of atrophic fracture non-unions, a possible genetic predisposition for the development of this complication after long bone fractures remains unknown. This pilot study aimed to address this issue by performing a preliminary SNP analysis of specific genes known to regulate fracture healing. Methods A total of fifteen SNPs within four genes of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP pathway (BMP-2, BMP-7, NOGGIN and SMAD6 were examined, in 109 randomly selected patients with long bone fractures as a result of motor vehicle accident, fall or direct blow. There were sixty-two patients with atrophic non-union and forty-seven patients (54 fractures with uneventful fracture union. Overall SNPs frequencies were computed with respect to patient's age, gender, smoking habits, fracture-associated parameters and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, and tested for their association to the impaired bone healing process, using binary logistic regression (STATA 11.1; StataCorp, Texas USA. Results Statistical analysis revealed age to be an important covariate in the development of atrophic non-union (p = 0.01, OR 1.05 [per year], and two specific genotypes (G/G genotype of the rs1372857 SNP, located on NOGGIN and T/T genotype of the rs2053423 SNP, located on SMAD6 to be associated with a greater risk of fracture non-union (p = 0.02, OR 4.56 and p = 0.04, OR 10.27, respectively, after adjustment for age. Conclusions This is the first clinical study to investigate the potential existence of genetic susceptibility to fracture non-union. Even though no concrete conclusions can be obtained from this pilot study, our results indicate the existence of a potential genetically predetermined impairment within the BMP signalling cascade, initiated after a fracture and when combined with other risk factors could synergistically increase the susceptibility of a patient to develop non-union. Further

  12. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikawa, Ken' ichi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yamashita, Yasuho [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Yoshida, Daisuke [Montreal Univ., QC (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    2017-09-15

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  13. Performance of new generation pole light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K C; Karunanithi, S; Thio, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a standalone photovoltaic power supply which caters for garden lighting scheme. New Generation Pole Light (NGPL) consists of three parts which are light dependent resistor (LDR) and pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors, microcontroller and light emitting diode (LED) and finally, solar charging system. During the night, LED is switched on with two operating modes which are ultra-bright lighting for a predetermine period (when human presence is detected) and dim lighting. Meanwhile, LED is switched off at day time and solar charging system will recover the capacity of discharged battery. NGPL provides portable, sustainable, environmental friendly and requires minimal maintenance for outdoor lighting scheme for both urban and rural areas.

  14. Two-pole microring weight banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alexander N; Wu, Allie X; Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Nahmias, Mitchell A; Shastri, Bhavin J; Prucnal, Paul R

    2018-05-15

    Weighted addition is an elemental multi-input to single-output operation that can be implemented with high-performance photonic devices. Microring (MRR) weight banks bring programmable weighted addition to silicon photonics. Prior work showed that their channel limits are affected by coherent inter-channel effects that occur uniquely in weight banks. We fabricate two-pole designs that exploit this inter-channel interference in a way that is robust to dynamic tuning and fabrication variation. Scaling analysis predicts a channel count improvement of 3.4-fold, which is substantially greater than predicted by incoherent analysis used in conventional MRR devices. Advances in weight bank design expand the potential of reconfigurable analog photonic networks and multivariate microwave photonics.

  15. Retratos da metrópole parisiense

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Julien, Thérèse; Goix, Renaud Le

    2009-01-01

    « La métropole parisienne, centralité, inégalité, proximité » propõe uma leitura e uma interpretação das tendências do território da Île de France (a região que inclui Paris e sete outros départements), ou seja, uma grande metrópole mundial de cerca de 11,3 milhões de habitantes em 2004, ligada às redes da globalização e da metropolização. O livro esboça os traços principais de suas estruturas territoriais emergentes, sublinha os desafios, o alcance dos mesmos e as contradições. Sem pretensão...

  16. Retratos da metrópole parisiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Saint-Julien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available « La métropole parisienne, centralité, inégalité, proximité » propõe uma leitura e uma interpretação das tendências do território da Île de France (a região que inclui Paris e sete outros départements, ou seja, uma grande metrópole mundial de cerca de 11,3 milhões de habitantes em 2004, ligada às redes da globalização e da metropolização. O livro esboça os traços principais de suas estruturas territoriais emergentes, sublinha os desafios, o alcance dos mesmos e as contradições. Sem pretensão...

  17. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikawa, Ken'ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamashita, Yasuho; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-09-01

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  18. What is the Effect of 90-Degree Double-Plate Fixation with Grafting on Healing of Humeral Shaft Non-unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Çobanoğlu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to investigate the clinical and radiological outcomes of double-plate fixation with grafting in the treatment of non-union of humeral shaft fractures. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients operated between 2006 and 2012 due to humeral shaft non-union. Patients undergoing surgery with double-plate fixation were included and those treated with external fixator, single plate, intramedullary nails and patients with pathological fractures and infected non-unions were excluded. Surgical intervention via anterolateral or posterior approach included radial nerve identification, decortication and reestablishment of medullary canal followed by compression plating with double-plate fixation and frequent application of autogenous grafts or allografts. Main outcome measures were success rate of non-union repair, rate of re-intervention and complications, range of motion, assessment of pain Visual analogue scale (VAS and function Disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH and overall outcome Stewart-Hundley classification. Results: Ten patients were treated with double-plate fixation. The study group included six females and four males aged 36 to 70 years. Union was achieved within 4.5 and 8 months in all cases. The mean preoperative VAS score of 6.1 decreased to 2, postoperatively, with an associated decrease in the mean DASH score from 74.1 to 23.4. Excellent or good results were obtained in nine cases. There was no incidence of radial nerve palsy or infection. Conclusion: Our study provides level 4 evidence of the effectiveness of treating non-union fractures of the humeral shaft with double-plate fixation and grafting in providing good-to-excellent functional results and high union rate without any significant complication.

  19. Measurement and calculation of cosmic radiation exposure during a pole-to-pole flight sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Graeme C.; Ojjeh, Captain Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic ray dosimetry measurements were carried out on board a Global Express business jet operated by TAG Aviation (UK) during a pole-to-pole flight sequence that took place in November 2008. One Hawk TEPC and two EPDN2s were flown, and the TEPC measurements compared to calculated values from the route dose codes AVIDOS, CARI 6M, EPCARD versions 3.2 and 3.34, QARM and SIEVERT (online version). The largest difference between measured and calculated doses for the total flight sequence was found to be 13%. Agreement between the readings of the TEPC and the EPDN2s (once a calibration factor from the CERN High Energy Reference Field had been applied) was reasonably good given the relatively large uncertainties associated with the EPDN2 measurements.

  20. Defect nonunion of a metatarsal bone fracture in a cow: successful management with bone plating and autogenous cancellous bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, M; Singh, N; Singh, T; Gopinathan, A; Mohindroo, J; Atri, K

    2013-01-01

    A two-and-half-year-old cow was presented with a defect nonunion of the right metatarsal III/IV bone following a severely comminuted open fracture two months previously. The animal underwent open fixation using a 4.5 mm, broad, 10-hole, dynamic compression plate and autogenous cancellous bone graft collected from the contralateral iliac shaft. The animal started partial weight bearing after the third postoperative day and resumed complete weight bearing after the 10th day. Fracture healing was complete and the implants were removed after the 120th postoperative day. Stable fixation by means of a bone plate in conjunction with a cancellous bone graft facilitated complete healing and restoration of the bone column of the defect and the metatarsal fracture. The animal made a complete recovery.

  1. Fracture of Fully-coated Femoral Stem after Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty for Nonunion of Intertrochanteric Fracture: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Young Soo; Juh, Hyung Suk; Cho, Yoon Je; Rhyu, Kee Hyung

    2015-09-01

    Femoral stem fracture is an uncommon reason for the failure of total hip arthroplasty, with only 16 cases of fully coated stem fractures reported to date. Here we report a case in which a fully coated primary femoral stem fracture occurred after conversion to total hip arthroplasty for the non-union of an intertrochanteric fracture of the femur. Metallurgic evaluation of the etiology and mechanism revealed that the fracture was initiated by fatigue-related failure and completed by ductile failure on the posterior side of the fracture. Considering the recent trend of treating an intertrochanteric fracture with hip arthroplasty, possible stem failure should be considered, since most patients will have at least one of the known risk factors for stem fracture.

  2. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound and Halo Immobilization Is an Effective Treatment for Nonunion Following Traumatic Spondylolisthesis of the Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Kohtaroh; Ohba, Tetsuro; Ebata, Shigeto; Haro, Hirotaka

    2017-10-01

    This case report describes a unique case involving traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis that resulted in nonunion, angulation, and displacement after conservative treatment with a cervical collar, but which was successfully achieved union with halo immobilization and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). Halo immobilization of a traumatic spondylolisthesis in a 20-year-old patient, that previously failed to improve after wearing a cervical collar for 3 months, was immediately followed by treatment with a LIPUS device (SAFHS 4000J; Teijin Pharma, Tokyo, Japan) 20 minutes once daily to the right and left fracture sites which were located using fluoroscopic guidance. Radiographs and computed tomography showed conclusive evidence of bone union after 10 weeks of treatment with halo immobilization. No adverse events were observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing that the combination of halo immobilization and LIPUS therapy might be a safe, effective, and feasible method by which to treat cervical spine fractures.

  3. Management of displaced inferior patellar pole fractures with modified tension band technique combined with cable cerclage using Cable Grip System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Wu, Qinfen; Lai, Chin-Hui; Wang, Xin

    2017-10-01

    We present a modified tension band technique combined with cable cerclage using Cable Grip System for the treatment of displaced inferior patellar pole fractures and report the knee functional outcome. The patients who had had operative treatment of a displaced inferior patellar pole fracture (AO/OTA 34-A1) between December 2013 and December 2015 were studied retrospectively. Eleven consecutive patients had had open reduction and internal fixation with the modified technique using Cable Grip System, of whom, five males and six females with an average age of 60.9 years (range, 29-81 years). All fractures occurred from direct fall onto the knee. The average time from injury to surgery was 6.1days (range, 2-12days). The range of motion (ROM) was measured in degrees by goniometry at postoperative intervals of 1, 2, 4, 12, and 48 weeks; Knee function was evaluated using the Rasmussen scores at final follow-up. No patients had nonunion, loss of reduction, migration of wire, irritation from the implant and fixation breakage during the follow-up period. Recovery of ROM was achieved at 12 weeks, with the average ROM at 1 week was 72° (range, 65°-78°), 86.4° (range, 78°-92°) at 2 weeks, 115.5° (range, 103°-122°) at 4 weeks, 129.6° (range, 122°-133°) at 12 weeks, 134.5° (range, 129°-139°) at 48 weeks after the operation. Concerning the knee function outcome assessment, all patients showed excellent results at final follow-up. The average Rasmussen scores was 27.9 out of 30 (range, 27-29). The modified tension band technique combined with cable cerclage using Cable Grip System for displaced inferior patellar pole fractures can provide stable fixation with excellent results in knee function, allows for immediate mobilization and early weight-bearing, which is a simple and valuable technique in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solar Open Flux Migration from Pole to Pole: Magnetic Field Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G-H; Lin, C-H; Lee, L C

    2017-08-25

    Coronal holes are solar regions with low soft X-ray or low extreme ultraviolet intensities. The magnetic fields from coronal holes extend far away from the Sun, and thus they are identified as regions with open magnetic field lines. Coronal holes are concentrated in the polar regions during the sunspot minimum phase, and spread to lower latitude during the rising phase of solar activity. In this work, we identify coronal holes with outward and inward open magnetic fluxes being in the opposite poles during solar quiet period. We find that during the sunspot rising phase, the outward and inward open fluxes perform pole-to-pole trans-equatorial migrations in opposite directions. The migration of the open fluxes consists of three parts: open flux areas migrating across the equator, new open flux areas generated in the low latitude and migrating poleward, and new open flux areas locally generated in the polar region. All three components contribute to the reversal of magnetic polarity. The percentage of contribution from each component is different for different solar cycle. Our results also show that the sunspot number is positively correlated with the lower-latitude open magnetic flux area, but negatively correlated with the total open flux area.

  5. Second harmonic generation from corona-poled polymer thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... We characterize thermal stability of second harmonic generation (SHG) properties of four different Y-type polymers poled using corona poling method. These polymers are based on donor–acceptor–donor-type repeating unit with different aromatic moieties acting as donors and dicyanomethylene acting as ...

  6. Poles of the S matrix for a complex potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Trajectories of S matrix poles in complex k plane are presented for a complex square well potential. A simple rule is given for predicting the effect of an absorptive potential on the location of these poles. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Secondary electron emission yield on poled silica based thick films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, D.; Poumellec, B.; Cannas, V.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the distribution of the electric field produced by a thermal poling process in a layer of Ge-doped silica on silicon substrate, by using secondary electron emission yield (SEEY) measurements () are presented. Comparing 0 between poled and unpoled areas, the SEEY at the origin of electr...

  8. Derivation of nominal strength for wood utility poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Jozsef Bodig; Patricia Lebow

    2001-01-01

    The designated fiber stress values published in the American National Standards Institute Standard for Poles, ANSI 05.1, no longer reflect the state of the knowledge. These values are based on a combination of test data from small clear wood samples and small poles (

  9. Pole orientation of 16 Psyche by two independent methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, E. F.; Taylor, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nineteen new lightcurves of 16 Psyche are presented along with a pole orientation derived using two independent methods, namely, photometric astrometry and magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect. The pole orientations found using these two methods agree to within 4 deg. The results from applying photometric astrometry were prograde rotation, a sidereal period of 0.1748143 days + or - 0.0000003 days, and a pole at longitude 223 deg and latitude +37 deg, with an uncertainty of 10 deg, and, from applying magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect a pole at 220 + or - 1 deg, +40 + or - 4 deg, and a modeled triaxial ellipsoid shape (a greater than b greater than c) and a/b = 1.33 + or - 0.07. The discrepancy between the high-pole latitude found here and the low latitudes reported by Lupishko et al. (1982) and Zhou and Yang (1982) is discussed.

  10. Pole Dancing Auto-ethnography – Practice, Pedagogy, Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Patricia Cadwallader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the author addresses the following four questions: 1 What are the implications of bringing pole dancing into concert dance, not as a caricature or theatrical version of what is performed in strip clubs, but as its own, free-standing art form? 2 In what ways will years of ballet and modern dance training influence the type of dancing that emerges from dancers when poles and other apparatuses are introduced? 3 How can the author create an original pole dancing style and pedagogical methods for teaching it? 4 Who participates in pole fitness classes and how does the demographic change based on location? What about when pole fitness classes are offered in an academic setting? The author shares first-hand experiences of investigating pole dancing in fitness classes, attending performances, engaging in a rehearsal process with highly trained dancers, and teaching pole dancing to movers with a wide range of abilities. The author addresses how research plans changed as she encountered limitations of budget and time constraints. The author also elaborates on the creative process that she engaged in with her thesis cast, collaborators, and supporting designers in the making of Super-beneath, a theatrical dance work that uses five, free-standing poles. She outline the vignettes, overall structure, and narrative of the work. The author then discusses where this research fits into the larger field of pole dancing, and the even larger field of dance. In the final sections of this paper, the author describes her pedagogical practices relating to pole classes, what “practice as research” means to her, and how she would like to continue on this research trajectory in the future.

  11. Simplified Analytic Approach of Pole-to-Pole Faults in MMC-HVDC for AC System Backup Protection Setting Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongkun Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AC (alternating current system backup protection setting calculation is an important basis for ensuring the safe operation of power grids. With the increasing integration of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC into power grids, it has been a big challenge for the AC system backup protection setting calculation, as the MMC-HVDC lacks the fault self-clearance capability under pole-to-pole faults. This paper focused on the pole-to-pole faults analysis for the AC system backup protection setting calculation. The principles of pole-to-pole faults analysis were discussed first according to the standard of the AC system protection setting calculation. Then, the influence of fault resistance on the fault process was investigated. A simplified analytic approach of pole-to-pole faults in MMC-HVDC for the AC system backup protection setting calculation was proposed. In the proposed approach, the derived expressions of fundamental frequency current are applicable under arbitrary fault resistance. The accuracy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC simulations.

  12. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  13. Heavy Cratering near Callisto's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft provide new insights into this region near Callisto's south pole. This two frame mosaic shows a heavily cratered surface with smooth plains in the areas between craters. North is to the top of the image. The smoothness of the plains appears to increase toward the south pole, approximately 480 kilometers (293 miles) south of the bottom of the image. This smoothness of Callisto's surface was not evident in images taken during the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft because the resolution was insufficient to show the effect. This smooth surface, and the process(es) that cause it, are among the most intriguing aspects of Callisto. Although not fully understood, the process(es) responsible for this smoothing could include erosion by tiny meteorites and energetic ions. Some craters, such as Keelut, the 47 kilometer (29 mile) crater in the lower right corner, have sharp, well defined rims. Keelut contains an inner ring surrounding a central depression about 17 kilometers (11 miles) in diameter. Keelut, and the more irregularly shaped, degraded Reginleif, the 32 kilometer (19.5 mile) crater in the top center of the image, are very shallow and have flat floors. Crater forms can be seen down to less than 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter in the image. Each picture element (pixel) in this image is approximately 0.68 kilometers (0.41 miles) across.This image which was taken by the Galileo spacecraft's solid state imaging (CCD) system during its eighth orbit around Jupiter, on May 6th, 1997. The center of the image is located at 71.3 degrees south latitude, 97.6 degrees west longitude, and was taken when the spacecraft was approximately 35,470 kilometers (21,637 miles) from Callisto.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  14. Pole-factorization theorem in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    In quantum electrodynamics a classical part of the S-matrix is normally factored out in order to obtain a quantum remainder that can be treated perturbatively without the occurrence of infrared divergences. However, this separation, as usually performed, introduces spurious large-distance effects that produce an apparent breakdown of the important correspondence between stable particles and poles of the S-matrix, and, consequently, lead to apparent violations of the correspondence principle and to incorrect results for computations in the mesoscopic domain lying between the atomic and classical regimes. An improved computational technique is described that allows valid results to be obtained in this domain, and that leads, for the quantum remainder, in the cases studied, to a physical-region singularity structure that, as regards the most singular parts, is the same as the normal physical-region analytic structure in theories in which all particles have non-zero mass. The key innovations here are to define the classical part in coordinate space, rather than in momentum space, and to define there a separation of the photon-electron coupling into its classical and quantum parts that has the following properties: (1) The contributions from the terms containing only classical couplings can be summed to all orders to give a unitary operator that generates the coherent state that corresponds to the appropriate classical process, and (2) The quantum remainder can be rigorously shown to exhibit, as regards its most singular parts, the normal analytic structure. 22 refs

  15. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1978-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p→π + pπ 0 and π + p→π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T=1 and T=2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965, which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that, if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) was dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  16. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1977-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p → π + pπ 0 and π + p → π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T = 1 and T = 2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965 which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) were dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  17. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating

  18. In Situ Poling and Imidization of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Wise, Kristopher E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An amorphous piezoelectric polyimide containing polar functional groups has been developed using a combination of experimental and molecular modeling for potential use in high temperature applications. This amorphous polyimide, (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, has exhibited good thermal stability and piezoelectric response at temperatures up to 150C. Density functional calculations predicted that a partially cured amic acid (open imide ring) possesses a dipole moment four times larger than the fully imidized closed ring. In situ poling and imidization of the partially cured (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, was studied in an attempt to maximize the degree of dipolar orientation and the resultant piezoelectric response. A positive corona poling was used to minimize localized arcing during poling and to allow use of higher poling fields without dielectric breakdown. The dielectric relaxation strength, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric response were evaluated as a function of the poling profile. The partially cured, corona poled polymers exhibited higher dielectric relaxation strength (delta varepsilon), remanent polarization (Pr) and piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33) than the fully cured, conventionally poled ones.

  19. Study on Pole Arrangement of the CEDM Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Myoung Goo; Kim, Hyun Min; Cho, Yeon Ho; Choi, Taek Sang

    2013-01-01

    The coil stack assembly is important for reliable operation of the CEDM, there have been efforts to improve the design by optimizing the design parameters such as dimensions and winding turns. However, magnetic forces of the CEDM can also change by different pole arrangement even if their design parameters are the same. Since the latch coil and lift coil are installed connected to each other, they produce magnetically coupled field when they are energized at the same time. This coupling field can affect the magnetic force of the CEDM significantly. In this paper, coil pole arrangement effects are studied. Electro-magnetic analysis is performed for the different pole arrangements of the CEDM coils to calculate the magnetic forces. Pole arrangement effects on magnetic forces were studied by static analysis of the CEDM magnetic field. Magnetic forces were calculated and compared for the two different pole arrangements of the coils. The results show that the magnetic poles of the lift coil and latch coil shall be arranged to have the same magnetic pole direction to achieve higher magnetic force

  20. Risk Factors for Non-:union: Fractures of the Clavicle Mid-shift Following the Use of Non-surgical Treatment on Patients Admitted to Poursina Hospital, 2010 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kamran Asadi

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: Recognition and predicting the risk factors of non-:::union::: in patients with fractures of the middle third of the clavicle could be a clinical guideline for the selection of surgical or non-surgical treatment.

  1. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is characterized in a self-consistent manner by means of introducing a single nondifferential matrix equation compatible with the Liouville equation, modelling the ocean as global and of uniform depth. The deviations of the theory from the realistic ocean, associated with the nonglobality of the latter, are also given consideration, with an inference that in realistic oceans long-period modes of resonances would be increasingly likely to exist. The analysis of the nature of the pole tide and its effects on the Chandler wobble indicate that departures of the pole tide from the equilibrium may indeed be minimal.

  2. Domain wall width of lithium niobate poled during growth

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, R; Hole, D E; Callejo, D; Bermudez, V; Diéguez, E

    2003-01-01

    Good quality crystals of periodically poled lithium niobate can be generated directly during growth. However, the temperature gradients at the zone boundaries define the width of the regions where the polarity is reversed. Hence, the region influenced the domain transition may be a significant fraction of the overall poling period for material poled during growth. Evidence for the scale of this feature is reported both by chemical etching and by the less common method of ion beam luminescence and the 'domain wall' width approximately 1 mu m for these analyses. The influence of the reversal region may differ for alternative techniques but the relevance to device design for second harmonic generation is noted.

  3. A discussion on leading renormalon in the pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komijani, J.

    2017-08-01

    Perturbative series of some quantities in quantum field theories, such as the pole mass of a quark, suffer from a kind of divergence called renormalon divergence. In this paper, the leading renormalon in the pole mass is investigated, and a map is introduced to suppress this renormalon. The inverse of the map is then used to generate the leading renormalon and obtain an expression to calculate its overall normalization. Finally, the overall normalization of the leading renormalon of the pole mass is calculated for several values of quark flavors.

  4. State-PID Feedback for Pole Placement of LTI Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Sujitjorn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pole placement problems are especially important for disturbance rejection and stabilization of dynamical systems and regarded as algebraic inverse eigenvalue problems. In this paper, we propose gain formulae of state feedback through PID-elements to achieve desired pole placement for a delay-free LTI system with single input. Real and complex stable poles can be assigned with the proposed compact gain formulae. Numerical examples show that our proposed gain formulae can be used effectively resulting in very satisfactory responses.

  5. Quality of life and complications at the different stages of bone transport for treatment infected nonunion of the tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Wei, Xing; Liu, Ping; Fu, Ya-Hui; Wang, Peng-Fei; Cong, Yu-Xuan; Zhang, Bin-Fei; Li, Zhong; Lei, Jin-Lai; Zhang, Kun; Zhuang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess Physical Component Summary (PCS), Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the Mos 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) score, and the virtual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain during the treatment period and the complication rate associated with infected nonunion of the tibia managed surgically by bone transport.This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in a consecutive patient cohort. Patients suffering from infected nonunion of the tibia were treated by bone transport from 2012 to 2014. Follow-up was for at least 2 years after complete osseous consolidation. Standardized treatment included bacterial eradication by segmental resection, bone transport using Ilizarov apparatus, and docking maneuver. The main outcome measurements consisted of the quality of life (PCS and MCS scores) and the VAS of pain during the different stages of therapy. In addition, all complications were documented.Our series comprised 12 men and 3 women with an average age of 36.9 years (range: 20-55 years). All patients previously undergone an average of 2.9 operations (range: 1-6 operations). In all patients, bone defects were present with a mean size of 7.5 cm (range: 3-12 cm), and all patients were suffering from soft tissue defects (range: 5-17 cm). The mean external fixator time (EFT) was 48 weeks (range: 30-62 weeks) and the mean external fixation index was 43.1 days/cm (range: 33-62 days/cm). All patients achieved bone union, and no recurrence of infection was observed. According to the Paley classification, patients suffered 15 minor and 13 major complications. The average complication rate per patient comprised of 1.0 minor and 0.9 major complications. Bone grafting was required in 6 cases at the docking site. One patient suffered from equinus deformity, and refused any further surgical procedures. We performed 28 operations in 15 patients (average 1.9 operations per patient). After the period of bone transport, PCS and MCS

  6. Management of knee rheumatoid arthritis and tibia nonunion with one-stage total knee arthroplasty and intramedullary nailing: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Erdogan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a surgical procedure which is widely used in the treatment of gonarthrosis secondary to rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The incidence of stress fractures in tibia in the patients with RA is higher compared to normal patients. In this study, we report two cases of TKA and intramedullary nailing in RA patients with severe knee arthritis and tibial nonunion. Both patients had a satisfactory clinical outcome with radiological healing of the tibial fracture.

  7. Effect on Clinical Outcome and Growth Factor Synthesis With Adjunctive Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields for Fifth Metatarsal Nonunion Fracture: A Double-Blind Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Adam; Watson, B Collier; Granata, Jaymes D; Philbin, Terrence M; Lin, Hsuan-Ni; O'Connor, J Patrick; Lin, Sheldon

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic bone growth stimulators have been found to biologically enhance the bone healing environment, with upregulation of numerous growth factors. The purpose of the study was to quantify the effect, in vivo, of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on growth factor expression and healing time in fifth metatarsal nonunions. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of patients, cared for by 2 fellowship-trained orthopedic foot and ankle surgeons. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients between 18 and 75 years old who had been diagnosed with a fifth metatarsal delayed or nonunion, with no progressive signs of healing for a minimum of 3 months. Eight patients met inclusion criteria and were randomized to receive either an active stimulation or placebo PEMF device. Each patient then underwent an open biopsy of the fracture site and was fitted with the appropriate PEMF device. The biopsy was analyzed for messenger-ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels using quantitative competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QT-RT-PCR). Three weeks later, the patient underwent repeat biopsy and open reduction and internal fixation of the nonunion site. The patients were followed at 2- to 4-week intervals with serial radiographs and were graded by the number of cortices of healing. All fractures healed, with an average time to complete radiographic union of 14.7 weeks and 8.9 weeks for the inactive and active PEMF groups, respectively. A significant increase in placental growth factor (PIGF) level was found after active PEMF treatment (P = .043). Other factors trended higher following active PEMF including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -7, and BMP-5. The adjunctive use of PEMF for fifth metatarsal fracture nonunions produced a significant increase in local placental growth factor. PEMF also produced trends toward higher levels of multiple other factors and faster average time to radiographic union

  8. TO EVALUATE THE SURGICAL OUTCOME OF NON-UNION CLAVICLE USING PLATE AND SLIVERS OF AUTOLOGOUS ILIAC CREST CORTICOCANCELLOUS BONE GRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Clavicle fracture is one of the most common fracture presenting to the fracture clinic, accounting for about 5-10% of all the adult trauma reported but still the controversy exists with regards to the definitive management. AIM To evaluate the surgical outcome of nonunion clavicle in patients treated previously with surgical management or conservative management, using plate and slivers of autologous iliac crest corticocancellous bone. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of patients operated between May 2005 and February 2013 for nonunion of the clavicle. METHODS AND MATERIALS Twenty patients who were operated between May 2005 and February 2013 for nonunion of the clavicle at our hospital were recruited for our study and followup data was collected from our hospital records till their last outpatient visit. Inclusion criteria included patients with no evidence of radiological union, persistence of pain, cosmetic deformity, dysfunction or gross movement at the fracture site even after 16 weeks of conservative treatment or in cases of primary fixation failure. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS All Statistical analyses were made using Statistical Package Software for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0 software (Chicago, IL, USA for descriptive data. Chi2 test was used to compare the categorical data. RESULTS At the end of an average followup of 19 months, the average Visual Analogue Score for pain was 1.9±2.2 (range 0-6, the mean ASES score was 81±18.5 (51-100, and the mean Constant–Murley score was 80±17 (51-100. All the patients had a stable radiological union at the end of the followup period. There were no complications pertaining to the hardware or infection. CONCLUSION Treatment of nonunion of clavicle by using corticocancellous bone is well documented; however, use of iliac corticocancellous bone graft shaped in long slivers will give mechanical stability to the plate reconstruct in addition to providing a scaffold for new bone formation than

  9. Pole-zero adjustment of spectroscopy amplifiers using multichannel analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, K; Grigorov, T [Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The technique to eliminate the undesirable undershoot in the output signal of a spectroscopy amplifier is considered. The functional scheme of the pole-zero monitoring circuit is presented as well as its operation principles are considered. 3 refs.

  10. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  11. The Achievements of the GLAMOROUS Project on Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margulis, Walter; Myrén, N.; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    The GLAMOROUS project had as objective to demonstrate the feasibility of fibre and waveguide components with a second order nonlinearity induced by poling. The accomplishments of this nine-partners European Research Project are described.......The GLAMOROUS project had as objective to demonstrate the feasibility of fibre and waveguide components with a second order nonlinearity induced by poling. The accomplishments of this nine-partners European Research Project are described....

  12. Polymer poling characterization using second harmonic generation (SHG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Gildas; Averty, Dominique; Blart, Errol; Boisrobert, Christian; Gundel, Hartmut; Le Tacon, Sylvain; Monnereau, Cyrille; Odobel, Fabrice; Seveno, Raynald

    2006-04-01

    Several polymer molecules have structures which are suitable for the non-linear optic applications. We report on the design and fabrication of a high performance electro-optic modulator made of polymer thin films. The polymer we study contains a chromophore based on Disperse Red One covalently grafted to a host-matrix. The polymer materials are deposited in thin layers on a glass substrate by chemical solution deposition, either by spin-coating or by dip-coating. The thickness of the films is ranging from a hundred nanometers to several micrometers. Initially, the polymer molecules are randomly oriented and the films are isotropic, hence no electro-optic effect can be observed. In order to break the symmetry and align the chromophores, the films are submitted to the so-called corona poling process. As a result, their structure become non-centrosymmetric and the second-order susceptibility is no longer zero. The corona poling method consists of applying a high electric field to the polymer by means of a needle electrode, placed above the polymer film which is posed on a grounded sample support electrode. Thermal regulation of the support electrode allows to control the temperature during the poling of the films. Once the poling process has been established, a chemical cross-linking function is thermally activated in order to fix the orientation of the chromophores in the polymer matrix. The orientation and its stability in time is evaluated with a Second Harmonic Generation measurement set-up using the Makers Fringes configuration. We studied the influence of the poling temperature, the distance between the corona needle electrode and the sample, the high voltage applied, and the duration of the poling process on the efficiency of chromophore orientation in order to optimize the poling procedure. Finally, aging of poled polymer samples has been investigated at elevated temperatures, confirming the stability of the cross-linking process.

  13. Multijet final states: exact results and the leading pole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.; Owens, J.F.

    1984-09-01

    Exact results for the process gg → ggg are compared with those obtained using the leading pole approximation. Regions of phase space where the approximation breaks down are discussed. A specific example relevant for background estimates to W boson production is presented. It is concluded that in this instance the leading pole approximation may underestimate the standard QCD background by more than a factor of two in certain kinematic regions of physical interest

  14. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Arentoft, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SHSOM) is performed on electric-field poled silica-based waveguides. Two operation modes of SHSOM are considered. Oblique transmission reflection and normal reflection modes are used to image the spatial distribution of nonlinear susceptibilities...... and limitations of the two operation modes when used for SHSOM studies of poled silica-based waveguides are discussed. The influence of surface defects on the resulting second-harmonic images is also considered. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  15. Ipsilateral Femoral Fracture Non-Union and Delayed Union Treated By Hybrid Plate Nail Fixation and Vascularized Fibula Bone Grafting: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-union is a well recognized complication of femoral neck fractures. The decision whether to attempt fracture fixation or to resort to hip replacement is particularly difficult in patients in the borderline age group in whom complex attempts at gaining union may fail and later present a difficult revision. On the other hand the patient may be young enough that arthroplasty best be avoided . Besides, presence of ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture with delayed union in addition to the femoral neck non-union will pose major problems at operation. We share our experience in treating a femoral neck fracture non-union with ipsilateral femoral shaft delayed union in the shaft and in the distal femur in a fifty years old patient. The fracture was treated with an angle blade plate and supracondylar nail supplemented with a free vascularised fibular bone grafting and autologous cancellous graft. There was radiological union at fourth month. At sixth months, the patient was free of pain and able to walk without support. Thus, we would like to suggest that vascularised fibula bone grafting with supracondylar nailing is a viable option for this pattern of fracture.

  16. The use of bone morphogenic protein-7 (OP-1) in the management of resistant non-unions in the upper and lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanna, M C; Al-Hadithy, N; Somanchi, B V; Sewell, M D; Robinson, P M; Khan, S A; Wilkes, R A

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of local implantation of BMP-7 for the treatment of resistant non-unions in the upper and lower limb. Fifty-two patients (30 males, mean age 52.8 years; range 20-81) were treated with local BMP-7 implantation in a bovine bone-derived collagen paste with or without revision of fixation. Thirty-six patients had closed injuries, ten had open injuries and six had infected non-unions. Patients had undergone a mean of 2 (1-5) operations prior to implantation of BMP-7. Clinical and radiological union was achieved in 94% at a mean time of 5.6 months (3-19). Two patients with subtrochanteric femoral fractures failed to achieve union secondary to inadequate fracture stabilisation, persistent unfavourable biological environment and systemic co-morbidities. One patient developed synostosis attributed to the BMP-7 application. This study demonstrates BMP-7 implanted in a bovine-derived collagen paste is an effective adjunctive treatment for resistant non-unions in the upper and lower limb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined Use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Sheet Transplantation and Local Injection of SDF-1 for Bone Repair in a Rat Nonunion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangnan; Fang, Tingting; Qi, Yiying; Yin, Xiaofan; Di, Tuoyu; Feng, Gang; Lei, Zhong; Zhang, Yuxiang; Huang, Zhongming

    2016-10-01

    Bone nonunion treatments pose a challenge in orthopedics. This study investigated the joint effects of using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets with local injection of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) on bone formation. In vitro, we found that migration of MSCs was mediated by SDF-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, stimulation with SDF-1 had no direct effect on the proliferation or osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, the results indicated elevated expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and vascular endothelial growth factor in MSC sheets compared with MSCs cultured in medium. New bone formation in fractures was evaluated by X-ray, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Safranin-O staining, and immunohistochemistry in vivo. In the rat bone fracture model, the MSC sheets transplanted into the injured site along with injection of SDF-1 showed significantly more new bone formation within the gap. Moreover, at 8 weeks, complete bone union was obtained in this group. In contrast, the control group showed nonunion of the bone. Our study suggests a new strategy involving the use of MSC sheets with a local injection of SDF-1 for hard tissue reconstruction, such as the healing of nonunions and bone defects.

  18. Pressure transmitter surveillance: the dominant real pole case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, J.; Ballestrin, J.

    1995-01-01

    There are about 500 pressure transmitters in a nuclear power plant. Due to Safety requirements, some of them must be specially surveilled. Sensor response time to a pressure ramp is the usual quantity to be measured. Response time, τ r , reflects the dynamics of the sensor and the sensing line. A real pole is due to the inner sensor structure, but the complex pole stands for the sensing line too. The real pole usually is the dominant in most sensors. On line monitoring noise analysis regards simultaneously both, the sensor and the sensing line, but the noise signal contains not only the sensor poles, but many others coming from the plant, so must be conditioned previously and the determination of τ r is not free of systematic errors. That is the price to be paid for non disturbing the plant. When the real pole is dominant, the sensing line contribution is negligible, so the on line noise monitoring methods are supported by the laboratory experiments and the real pole border in the PSD is properly identified. The mean square frequency results proportional to τ r -1 , so manual techniques are designed for response time surveillance made by non noise plant's maintenance technicians. (author)

  19. A poling study on lead zirconate titanate composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics produced by the conventional mixed oxide route are dual phased. Because the titania and zirconia are not perfectly homogenized, some parts of the ceramic are more tetragonal (titanium rich) and other parts more rhombohedral (zirconium rich). This inhomogeneity means that some domains can be more easily poled than others. Lastly, the density and porosity can affect the poling process if the flaw density becomes such that the breakdown voltage is exceeded by the required poling voltage. The phase boundary determined by most dielectric and piezoelectric measurements is significantly removed from the 44% titanium content determined by neutron diffraction. The indicators that are most consistent with this value are the minimum in the poling efficiency curve and the shape of the dissipative factor curve. The reason for the discrepancy appears to be related to the broad coexistence region of the two phases and the differing poling efficiencies of each phase. It has been established that different poling temperature profiles can substantially modify the observed properties. Such behaviour is again related to the inhomogeneity of the ceramic and the presence of the two phases. 4 refs., 5 figs

  20. International Youth Conference on the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. K.; Kuhn, T. S.; Baeseman, J.; Garmulewicz, A.; Raymond, M.; Salmon, R.

    2006-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) is an international effort, involving more than 50 countries, to focus research in both the sciences and social sciences on the world's Polar Regions. In order to secure youth involvement in the IPY, the Youth Steering Committee (YSC) has been formed, aiming specifically to network young polar researchers from all backgrounds enabling collaboration and to involve this group in outreach focused towards other young people. A conference targeted directly at an audience of early career researchers and international youth will be central to fulfilling these aims. The YSC has therefore developed the concept of the International Youth Conference on the Poles (IYCP). Proposed for 2008, this conference will bring together youth from a diverse set of backgrounds and nationalities to discuss the issues affecting the Polar Regions, their effects on a global scale and ways of addressing these issues. The conference will also serve to highlight ongoing IPY research, especially research being undertaken by young researchers, and provide a perennial framework for youth involvement in polar research and policies. The IYCP will run for three days in May 2008, attracting an international youth audience, as well as representatives from polar organizations, teachers, politicians, policy makers, the general public and media. The IYCP will be divided into three sections. Youth Roundtable Discussions will bring youth together to discuss issues affecting the Polar Regions and potential solutions to these. A Young Researchers Conference will provide the opportunity for young researchers working in the Polar Regions to present their work to an interdisciplinary audience. The Polar Fair will provide an interactive environment for youth to learn about the Polar Regions. The IYCP will be of great importance to the IPY because it will serve as the principle venue during the Polar Year where youth from many different disciplines, backgrounds and countries will

  1. Bone grafting via reamer-irrigator-aspirator for nonunion of open Gustilo-Anderson type III tibial fractures treated with multiplanar external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnezov Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the outcomes following reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA autogenous bone grafting (ABG of high-grade open tibia fracture nonunions stabilized via multiplanar external fixation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with Gustilo-Anderson type III open tibia fractures treated with multiplanar external fixation and who underwent RIA ABG for nonunion at our institutional Level 1 Trauma Center between 2008 and 2015. All patients between 15 and 65 years of age with a minimum of six-month follow-up were included. The primary outcomes of interest were achievement of union, time to union, and incidence of revision surgery. Complications and all-cause reoperation were recorded as secondary endpoints. Results: Fifteen patients met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 41.1 ± 14.0 years. RIA ABG was harvested from the femur in all cases, with a mean volume of 34 ± 15 mL. At an average follow-up of 13.3 ± 6.8 months, all patients achieved union, including two who required repeat RIA ABG. One patient experienced a femoral shaft fracture four months following RIA that required intramedullary fixation. The average time to union was 6.0 ± 6.3 months. Twelve patients (80% went on to union within six months and 13 (86.7% within one year. Five patients experienced a total of six post-operative complications including three deep infections, one refracture through the nonunion site, and one gradual varus deformity. Two patients in this series required a subsequent RIA autografting procedure secondary to persistent nonunion despite initial RIA. Conclusion: We found that RIA ABG offered a reliable solution to nonunion of Gustilo-Anderson type III open tibial fractures treated with multiplanar external fixation, circumventing the need to change the method of fixation.

  2. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

  3. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Ali M.; Kassem, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. → Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. → The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. → The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. → The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  4. Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2013-06-01

    Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ≤15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ≤3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (≤15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy.

  5. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Ali M., E-mail: drali_yousef@yahoo.co [Electrical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University (Egypt); Kassem, Ahmed M., E-mail: kassem_ahmed53@hotmail.co [Control Technology Dep., Industrial Education College, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. {yields} Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. {yields} The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. {yields} The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. {yields} The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  6. MRT of scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis using Gd-DTPA. Staging and clinical correlation; MRT der Skaphoidpseudarthrose mit Gd-DTPA. Stadieneinteilung und klinische Korrelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Beutel, F. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Wilhelm, K. [LMU Muenchen (Germany). Abt. fuer Handchirurgie; Tempka, A. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Unfall- und Wiederherstellungschirurgie; Schedel, H. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Haas, R. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik; Felix, R. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik

    1994-11-01

    During a period of two years, 134 patients with pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid were examined by conventional radiography and by MRI in the course of a prospective study. The aim of the study was to define radiological staging using contrast enhanced MRI in order to improve the prognostic criteria. All MRI examinations were carried out with a 1.5 Tesla scanner (SP63) using a surface coil and T{sub 1} weighted spin echo sequences in sagittal and frontal projection and frontal FLASH T{sub 2}-sequences and axial spin echo T{sub 2} sequences. The T{sub 1} weighted SE sequences in frontal projection were carried out before and after iv contrast (0.1 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg KG). All sequences were compared with conventional radiographs and the operative findings. Eight patients in stage 0 showed high signal intensity of both fragments in T{sub 1} weighted SE sequences and at surgery there was good vascularisation. In 22 cases there was reduced signal intensity in at least one fragment (stage I). 45 patients with scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis showed complete signal loss but marked contrast uptake with still vital nuclei at surgery (stage II). In 22 patients, there was no increase in signal intensity after contrast and complete loss of vitality of the fragments at surgery. Staging was not possible in 37 patients because of previous operative intervention. The use of contrast enhanced MRI provides additional information compared with conventional radiography or plain MRI. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen einer prospektiven Studie wurden in einem Zeitraum von 2 Jahren 134 Patienten mit einer Skaphoidpseudarthrose (SPA) vergleichend konventionell roentgenologisch und magnetresonanztomographisch untersucht. Ziel der Studie war die Erstellung einer klinisch radiologischen Stadieneinteilung mit Hilfe der kontrastverstaerkten MRT zur Verbesserung von Prognosekriterien. Alle MRT-Untersuchungen wurden an einem 1,5 Tesla-Geraet (SP63) mittels einer Oberflaechenspule unter Verwendung von T{sub 1

  7. Development of a multi-pole magnetorheological brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, Yaojung; Nguyen, Quang-Anh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the design and optimization of a novel multi-pole magnetorheological (MR) brake that employs magnetic flux more effectively on the surface of the rotor. MR brakes with conventional single ring-type electromagnetic poles have reached the limits of torque enhancement. One major reason is the limitation of the magnetic field strength within the active area of the MR fluid due to the geometric constraints of the coil. The multi-pole MR brake design features multiple electromagnetic poles surrounded by several coils. As a result, the active chaining areas for the MR fluid are greatly increased, and significant brake torque improvement is achieved. The coil structure, as a part of the stator, becomes flexible and customizable in terms of space usage for the winding and bobbin design. In addition, this brake offers extra options in its dimensions for torque enhancement because either the radial or the axial dimensions of the rotor can be increased. Magnetic circuit analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the design parameters on the field torque. After that, simulations were done to find the optimal design under all major geometric constraints with a given power supply. The results show that the multi-pole MR brake provides a considerable braking torque increase while maintaining a compact and solid design. This is confirmation of its feasibility in actual braking applications. (paper)

  8. Avoidance of a Landau pole by flat contributions in QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaczynski, Lutz, E-mail: lutz.klaczynski@gmx.de [Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: kreimer@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Alexander von Humboldt Chair in Mathematical Physics, Humboldt University, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    We consider massless Quantum Electrodynamics in the momentum scheme and carry forward an approach based on Dyson–Schwinger equations to approximate both the β-function and the renormalized photon self-energy (Yeats, 2011). Starting from the Callan–Symanzik equation, we derive a renormalization group (RG) recursion identity which implies a non-linear ODE for the anomalous dimension and extract a sufficient but not necessary criterion for the existence of a Landau pole. This criterion implies a necessary condition for QED to have no such pole. Solving the differential equation exactly for a toy model case, we integrate the corresponding RG equation for the running coupling and find that even though the β-function entails a Landau pole it exhibits a flat contribution capable of decreasing its growth, in other cases possibly to the extent that such a pole is avoided altogether. Finally, by applying the recursion identity, we compute the photon propagator and investigate the effect of flat contributions on both spacelike and timelike photons. -- Highlights: •We present an approach to approximate both the β-function and the photon self-energy. •We find a sufficient criterion for the self-energy to entail the existence of a Landau pole. •We study non-perturbative ‘flat’ contributions that emerge within the context of our approach. •We discuss a toy model and how it is affected by flat contributions.

  9. Choice of wood poles can reduce greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedjo, R. A.

    2002-07-01

    The first, second and third assessment reports on climate change of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are reviewed in an effort to highlight results of past studies on the total life cycle energy utilization of wood products compared with the use of substitute materials such as steel, concrete, bricks and aluminum. Without exception, all studies found that the total energy requirements associated with wood materials are substantially lower than those of other commonly substituted materials. For example, it has been clearly demonstrated that wooden poles are more environmentally benign than concrete or steel poles with regard to their energy utilization and their potential to contribute to atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. An estimate to convert wood poles to steel poles showed that while the greenhouse gas emissions associated with pole conversion were modest compared to the national total, they were nevertheless a significant percentage of US annual emission (approximately 2.8 per cent of annual US total of 5.28 billion tons of carbon dioxide). These studies provide empirical confirmation of the concept that substitution of high energy-intensive materials for low-energy-using wood materials contributes substantially to the overall increase of carbon dioxide emissions through their overall higher energy requirements.

  10. Analysis of car’s frontal collision against pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Nastasoiu, M.

    2017-10-01

    Reducing the effects of traffic accidents over the occupants is a major objective of collision attempts. Impacts between the car and the pole are very dangerous for the physical integrity of the car’s occupants. To minimalize the effects of such events on the passengers of a vehicle, a whole series of efforts by both designers and experienced engineers led to increasingly the vehicles safety. The main aim of these paper is to quantify the influences over the car passengers of loads involved by car against pole collisions using the same car model at different speeds. Also, this kind on occupant influences were study using a small car model. Other goal of the paper was the study of the cars stiffness in frontal collision against the pole. The paper’s experimental results were obtained by support of DSD, Dr. Steffan Datentechnik GmbH - Linz, Austria. The described tests were performed in full test facility of DSD Linz, in “Easter 2016 PC-Crash Seminar”. Cars accelerations, velocities, rotations angles after pole impact were registered and discussed. The novelty of the paper consists in studies referred for the same car model involved in car against pole collisions at different impact speeds. Paper’s conclusions can be future used for car safety improvement.

  11. Compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet with holmium poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Lobb, C.T.; Menzel, M.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walstrom, P.L. (Grumman Space Systems, Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1992-03-15

    A compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet was designed and built with poles made of the rare-earth metal holmium. The magnet is intended for use in superconducting coupled-cavity linear accelerators where compact high-field quadrupoles are needed, but where the use of permanent magnets is ruled out because of trapped-flux losses. The magnet has a clear bore diameter of 1.8 cm, outside diameter of 11 cm, length of 11 cm, and pole tip length of 6 cm. The effect of using holmium, a material with a higher saturation field than iron, was investigated by replacing poles made of iron with identical poles made of holmium. The magnet was operated at a temperature of 4.2 K and reached a peak quadrupole field gradient of 355 T/m, a 10% increase over the same magnet with iron poles. This increase in performance is consistent with calculations based on B-H curves that were measured for holmium at 4.2 K. (orig.).

  12. Longitudinal analysis of osteogenic and angiogenic signaling factors in healing models mimicking atrophic and hypertrophic non-unions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Minkwitz

    Full Text Available Impaired bone healing can have devastating consequences for the patient. Clinically relevant animal models are necessary to understand the pathology of impaired bone healing. In this study, two impaired healing models, a hypertrophic and an atrophic non-union, were compared to physiological bone healing in rats. The aim was to provide detailed information about differences in gene expression, vascularization and histology during the healing process. The change from a closed fracture (healing control group to an open osteotomy (hypertrophy group led to prolonged healing with reduced mineralized bridging after 42 days. RT-PCR data revealed higher gene expression of most tested osteogenic and angiogenic factors in the hypertrophy group at day 14. After 42 days a significant reduction of gene expression was seen for Bmp4 and Bambi in this group. The inhibition of angiogenesis by Fumagillin (atrophy group decreased the formation of new blood vessels and led to a non-healing situation with diminished chondrogenesis. RT-PCR results showed an attempt towards overcoming the early perturbance by significant up regulation of the angiogenic regulators Vegfa, Angiopoietin 2 and Fgf1 at day 7 and a further continuous increase of Fgf1, -2 and Angiopoietin 2 over time. However µCT angiograms showed incomplete recovery after 42 days. Furthermore, lower expression values were detected for the Bmps at day 14 and 21. The Bmp antagonists Dan and Twsg1 tended to be higher expressed in the atrophy group at day 42. In conclusion, the investigated animal models are suitable models to mimic human fracture healing complications and can be used for longitudinal studies. Analyzing osteogenic and angiogenic signaling patterns, clear changes in expression were identified between these three healing models, revealing the importance of a coordinated interplay of different factors to allow successful bone healing.

  13. Russians, Jews, and Poles: Russification and Antisemitism 1881-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor R. Weeks

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Poles and Jews deteriorated significantly in the three decades leading up to World War I. Many reasons for this phenomenon can be given, for example: economic competition, a general atmosphere of acute nationalism, increased migration, perceived threats to traditional forms of life and religion. Exacerbating all of these factors, however, was the fact of Polish statelessness and the extreme sensitivity of Poles to perceived threats to their culture and nation. In particular within the Russian Empire, Poles perceived the very future of their nation at risk. In such circumstances the continued existence of Jewish cultural difference combined with the development of specifically Jewish forms of national awakening (e.g., the Bund and Zionism were understood by many in Polish society as ingratitude and collaboration with the Russian occupier

  14. PLANNING THE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR TIMISOARA GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Livia POPA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that planning the quality of life at local level through economic development can be a new approach for policy makers and community in improving quality of life. In this purpose, the Quality Function Deployment (QFD model will be use to planning the quality of life and to identify the main directions of economic development to support improving the quality of life at the level of Timisoara Growth Pole from Romania. The dimensions of quality of life are analyzed starting from the point of view of inhabitants. The results include a new approach in which the dimensions of quality of life are the key element that orients economic development in order to improve the quality of life of human being. The case study results refer to the main elements of quality of life at Timisoara Growth Pole and the relevant directions of economic development to improve the quality of life for Timisoara Growth Pole.

  15. Third Pole Environment (TPE): a new frontier for interdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yao, T.; Thompson, L. G.; Mosbrugger, V.; Zhang, F.; Ma, Y.; Yang, X.; Wang, W.; Joswiak, D.; Liu, X.; Devkota, L. P.; Tayal, S.; Luo, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges, referred to by scientists as the Third Pole (TP), represent one of the largest ice masses of the Earth. The region is one of the most sensitive areas responding to global climate change due to its high altitude and the presence of permafrost and glaciers. The near 100,000 km2 of glaciers ensure the permanent flow of major rivers in this region and provide water to 1.4 billion people in Asia. Thus, environmental changes taking place on the TP significantly influences social and economic development of countries in this region such as China, India, Nepal, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bhutan. With an average elevation higher than 4,000 metres above sea level, the Third Pole is characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes that bear special significance for the Earth's biodiversity, climate and water cycles. For a comprehensive understanding of the environment of the TP and its implications on the development of the region, we need to integrate different disciplines under a them of 'water-ice-air-ecosystem -human' interactions and reveal environmental change processes and mechanisms on the TP and their influences on and regional responses to global changes, and thus to serve for enhancement of human adaptation to the changing environment. Like Antarctica and the Arctic, the Third Pole region is drawing increased attention of the international academic community. A series of observations and monitoring programs in the Third Pole region has been widely implemented. However, data necessary to precisely assess the environmental, societal and economic changes caused by alterations in the Third Pole dynamics are either lacking or insufficient. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) program is thus established as a comprehensive and coordinated international research, monitoring and capacity building initiative, with goals to address the influence

  16. Magnetic transmission gear finite element simulation with iron pole hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Mattia; Alotto, Piergiorgio; Glehn, Gregor; Hameyer, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Ferromagnetic poles in a magnetic transmission gear require particular attention during their design process. Usually, during the numerical simulation of these devices the effects of hysteresis for loss estimation are neglected and considered only during post-processing calculations. Since the literature lacks hysteresis models, this paper adopts a homogenized hysteretic model able to include eddy current and hysteresis losses in 2D laminated materials for iron poles. In this article the results related to the hysteresis in a magnetic gear are presented and compared to the non-hysteretic approach.

  17. Revised paleomagnetic pole for the Sonoma Volcanics, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Paleomagnetic sampling of the Miocene and Pliocene Sonoma Volcanics, northern California, was undertaken to supplement an earlier collection. Data from 25 cooling units yield positive fold and reversal tests, and a paleomagnetic pole located at 80.2??N., 069.2??E., with ??95 = 6.8??. This paleopole is significantly displaced (9.6?? ?? 5.3?? of latitude) to the farside of the geographic pole. A highly elliptical distribution of the data in both direction and VGP space indicates that incomplete averaging of geomagnetic secular variation is a more likely explanation for this anomaly than is northward translation of the volcanic field. -Author

  18. Induction Motor with Switchable Number of Poles and Toroidal Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU, A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of an induction motor provided with toroidal stator winding. The ring-type coils offer a higher versatility in obtaining a different number of pole pairs by means of delta/star and series/parallel connections respectively. As consequence, the developed torque can vary within large limits and the motor can be utilized for applications that require, for example, high load torque values for a short time. The study involves experimental tests and FEM simulation for an induction machine with three configurations of pole pairs. The conclusions attest the superiority of the toroidal winding for certain applications such as electric vehicles or lifting machines.

  19. Poles Living in Ireland and their Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NOLKA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth of Ireland resulted in a significant number of Poles migrating to Ireland following the EU enlargement in 2004. The article explores the quality of life of Poles living in Ireland. Using data from a preliminary survey conducted in 2006, several dimensions of living conditions are analysed, including interpersonal relations, material security, health and healthcare. The study shows that evaluations of almost all aspects of quality of life improved, apart from components such as healthcare and the ability to acquire help from social organisations. Also interpersonal relations, contrary to the initial assumption, were enhanced by migration to Ireland.

  20. Safety study: is there a pathologic IGF-1, PDGF and TGF-ß cytokine expression caused by adjunct BMP-7 in tibial and femoral non-union therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Christian Fischer,1 Christian Reiner,2 Gerhard Schmidmaier,1 Julian Doll,1 Christopher Child,3 Paul Alfred Grützner,4 Bahram Biglari,4 Sonja Boxriker,5 Arash Moghaddam5 1Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, HTRG – Heidelberg Trauma Research Group, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg Hospital South, Nuremberg, Germany; 3Department of Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 4Trauma and Orthopedics, BG Trauma Center Ludwigshafen, Ludwigshafen, Germany; 5Center of Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Sport Medicine, ATORG Aschaffenburg-Alzenau, Aschaffenburg, Germany Background: In this prospective safety study, we investigated if the characteristic cytokine expression during bone regeneration is manipulated by the local application of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7 in non-union surgery. Therefore, the levels of insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β were compared between patients with the gold standard use of autologous bone graft (ABG and those with additional application of BMP-7 as part of the diamond concept.Patients and methods: Between 2009 and 2014, of the 153 patients with tibial and femoral non-unions, a matched pair analysis was performed to compare the serological cytokine expressions. Blood samples were collected preoperatively, 1, 2 and 6 weeks as well as 3 and 6 months after non-union surgery. Matching criteria were smoking status, fracture location, gender, age and body mass index (BMI. Patients in G1 (n=10 were treated with ABG and local BMP-7 while their matching partners in G2 (n=10 received ABG only. The routine clinical and radiologic follow-up was 1 year.Results: Although the IGF-1 quantification in G2 showed higher pre- and postoperative values compared to G1 (p<0.05, the courses of both

  1. Cell-based Assay System for Predicting Bone Regeneration in Patient Affected by Aseptic Nonunion and Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perut, Francesca; Dallari, Dante; Rani, Nicola; Baldini, Nicola; Granchi, Donatella

    Regenerative strategies based on the use of platelet concentrates as an autologous source of growth factors (GF) has been proposed to promote the healing of long bone nonunions. However, the relatively high failure rate stimulates interest in growing knowledge and developing solutions to obtain the best results from the regenerative approach. In this study we evaluated whether a cell-based assay system could be able to recognize patients who will benefit or not from the use of autologous platelet preparations. The autologous serum was used in culture medium to promote the osteogenic differentiation of normal bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSC). Blood samples were collected from 16 patients affected by aseptic long bone nonunion who were candidates to the treatment with autologous platelet-rich fibrin. The osteoinductive effect was detected by measuring the BMSC proliferation, the mineralization activity, and the expression of bone-related genes. Serum level of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was considered as a representative marker of the delivery of osteogenic GFs from platelets. Laboratory results were related to the characteristics of the disease before the treatment and to the outcome at 12 months. Serum samples from "good responders" showed significantly higher levels of bFGF and were able to induce a significantly higher proliferation of BMSC, while no significant differences were observed in terms of osteoblast differentiation. BMSC-based assay could be a useful tool to recognize patients who have a low probability to benefit from the use of autologous platelet concentrate to promote the healing of long bone nonunion.

  2. Particles as S-matrix poles: hadron democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The connection between two theoretical ideas of the 1950s is traced in this article, namely that hadrons are nonfundamental, ''composite'' particles and that all physically observable particles correspond to singularities of an analytic scattering matrix. The S matrix theory developed by Werner Heisenberg in the early forties now incorporated the concepts of unitarity, invariance, analyticity and causality. The meson-exchange force meant that poles must be present in nucleon-nuclear and pion-nucleon scattering as predicted by dispersion relations. Experimental work in accessible regions determined pole residues. Pole residue became associated with force strength and pole position with particle mass. In 1959, the author discovered the so-called ''bootstrap'' theory the rho meson as a force generates a rho particle. By the end of the 1950s it was clear that all hadrons had equal status, each being bound states of other hadrons, sustained by hadron exchange forces and that hadrons are self-generated by an S-matrix bootstrap mechanism that determines all their properties. (UK)

  3. Determination of pole orientations and shapes of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, P.; Barucci, M.A.; Drummond, J.D.; Lumme, K.; Surdej, J.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of asteroid lightcurve inversion and the information available from photometry are reviewed. General tools as well as specific techniques for shape and pole determinations are summarized and their advantages and shortcomings are discussed. The authors present the results obtained so far in this very active field and discuss their significance in the general context of asteroid research and planetary formation

  4. Separable pole expansions in four-nucleon bound state calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofianos, S.A.; Fiedeldey, H.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-04-01

    We compare the utility of the Generalized Unitary Pole Expansion (GUPE) and the Energy-Dependent Pole Expansion (EDPE) for the three-body subsystem amplitudes in four-body state calculations for a variety of separable and local nucleon-nucleon interactions. It is found that, with the EDPE, the four-body binding energy is well reproduced with only two terms each for the (2+2)- and the (3+1)-subsystem, respectively, while the GUPE requires three terms for the (3+1)-channel and four terms for the (2+2)-channel. We thus conclude that pole dominance is of greater importance for the GUPE than for EDPE, which works equally well for both types of subsystems. It is found that both methods, in particular the EDPE, converge more rapidly with increasing repulsion in the two-body interaction, i.e. the more realistic the interaction becomes. Both expansions require similar computing times for a converged calculation and are about 15-20 times faster than the widely used Hilbert-Schmidt Expansion (HSE). The respective merits of the two pole expansions are discussed and compared with the HSE. (orig.)

  5. Biomechanical pole and leg characteristics during uphill diagonal roller skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Stefan Josef; Göpfert, Caroline; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2009-11-01

    Diagonal skiing as a major classical technique has hardly been investigated over the last two decades, although technique and racing velocities have developed substantially. The aims of the present study were to 1) analyse pole and leg kinetics and kinematics during submaximal uphill diagonal roller skiing and 2) identify biomechanical factors related to performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a time to exhaustion (performance) test on a treadmill. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded separately during diagonal roller skiing (9 degrees; 11 km/h). Performance was correlated to cycle length (r = 0.77; P Push-off demonstrated performance correlations for impulse of leg force (r = 0.84), relative duration (r= -0.76) and knee flexion (r = 0.73) and extension ROM (r = 0.74). Relative time to peak pole force was associated with performance (r = 0.73). In summary, diagonal roller skiing performance was linked to 1) longer cycle length, 2) greater impulse of force during a shorter push-off with larger flexion/extension ROMs in leg joints, 3) longer leg swing, and 4) later peak pole force, demonstrating the major key characteristics to be emphasised in training.

  6. Spectroscopic Binaries near the North Galactic Pole Paper 15: HD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Galactic Pole field he treated HD 106947 as if nothing were already known ... By good fortune a Palomar radial-velocity observing run in late 1986 fell near to a .... obvious to the naked eye as a grouping of fifth- and sixth-magnitude stars in an.

  7. In-situ poling and structurization of piezoelectric particulate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbareh, H; van der Zwaag, S; Groen, W A

    2017-11-01

    Composites of lead zirconate titanate particles in an epoxy matrix are prepared in the form of 0-3 and quasi 1-3 with different ceramic volume contents from 10% to 50%. Two different processing routes are tested. Firstly a conventional dielectrophoretic structuring is used to induce a chain-like particle configuration, followed by curing the matrix and poling at a high temperature and under a high voltage. Secondly a simultaneous combination of dielectrophoresis and poling is applied at room temperature while the polymer is in the liquid state followed by subsequent curing. This new processing route is practiced in an uncured thermoset system while the polymer matrix still possess a relatively high electrical conductivity. Composites with different degrees of alignment are produced by altering the magnitude of the applied electric field. A significant improvement in piezoelectric properties of quasi 1-3 composites can be achieved by a combination of dielectrophoretic alignment of the ceramic particles and poling process. It has been observed that the degree of structuring as well as the functional properties of the in-situ structured and poled composites enhance significantly compared to those of the conventionally manufactured structured composites. Improving the alignment quality enhances the piezoelectric properties of the particulate composites.

  8. Finite element analysis of boron diffusion in wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved...

  9. Simple Regge pole model for Compton scattering of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that by a phenomenological choice of the residue functions, the differential cross section for ν p → ν p, including the very recent measurements up to - t=4.3 (GeV/c) 2 , can be explained at all measured energies greater than 2 GeV with simple Regge pole model

  10. Evidence for differentiation of cell wall poles in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenfeld, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous data have suggested that the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis was found to the cell surface at polar regions. A significant corollary of DNA attachment to cell poles is the role of the cell wall in chromosome segregation. This project was mainly concerned with visualizing the DNA-cell wall association through autoradiography. The origin and terminus of replication were labelled with ( 3 H)-thymidine using a temperature-sensitive DNA initiation mutant. It was found that most of the radioactivity was associated with cell poles. Ultrastructural analyses of cell walls stained with dilute cationized ferritin showed that the polar area contained a site of dense electronegativity. It is not immediately apparent why cell wall poles would contain an area with a high concentration of negative charge. This finding may be related to the cell pole functioning as the site of chromosome attachment. An additional observation encountered in this study was that cell wall exhibited asymmetry with regard to negative charge, the outside surface being more electronegative than the inside. A significant consequence of this finding is that both teichoic acid and muramyl peptides are situated perpendicularly to the cell surface. This favored arrangement may facilitate cell separation during the division process due to opposition of like charges at septa. The results of this work provide further convincing evidence that the cell wall of B. subtilis is differentiated

  11. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  12. ENPA endine juht seisukohti muutnud pole / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    Eelmisel aastal Eestit vähemuste diskrimineerimises süüdistanud Euroopa Nõukogu Parlamentaarse Assamblee endine esimees Rene van der Linden pole oma seisukohta muutnud ning usub endiselt, et tema jutt inimõiguste rikkumiste kohta Eestis peab paika. Vt. samas: Van der Linden

  13. An estimate on the purely imaginary poles of scattering matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhkov, Y.D.

    1988-12-01

    In this work we obtain two estimates (upper and lower) on the number of purely imaginary poles of the scattering matrix for the wave equation in the exterior of a compact smooth obstacle in R n , n ≥ 3 odd. The method of Lax and Phillips is used. (author). 5 refs

  14. Diplodia natalensis , Pole Evans: a causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolations were made from the barks of gummosis-infected citrus trees from orchards of the University of Ghana Agricultural Research Station at Kade. The isolation media used were 1.5% water agar, 1.5% water agar + nystatin and 1.5% water agar + benomyl. Four isolates including Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, ...

  15. A variable-mode stator consequent pole memory machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Lyu, Shukang; Lin, Heyun; Zhu, Z. Q.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a variable-mode concept is proposed for the speed range extension of a stator-consequent-pole memory machine (SCPMM). An integrated permanent magnet (PM) and electrically excited control scheme is utilized to simplify the flux-weakening control instead of relatively complicated continuous PM magnetization control. Due to the nature of memory machine, the magnetization state of low coercive force (LCF) magnets can be easily changed by applying either a positive or negative current pulse. Therefore, the number of PM poles may be changed to satisfy the specific performance requirement under different speed ranges, i.e. the machine with all PM poles can offer high torque output while that with half PM poles provides wide constant power range. In addition, the SCPMM with non-magnetized PMs can be considered as a dual-three phase electrically excited reluctance machine, which can be fed by an open-winding based dual inverters that provide direct current (DC) bias excitation to further extend the speed range. The effectiveness of the proposed variable-mode operation for extending its operating region and improving the system reliability is verified by both finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments.

  16. Liz Taylor : minu van Gogh pole natsidele kuulunud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Elizabeth Taylor palus kohtult otsust, et talle kuuluvat 15 miljonit dollarit maksvat Vincent van Goghi maali "Vaade Saint-Remy varjupaigale" pole natsid Margarete Mauthneri juudiperekonna käest vägivaldselt ära võtnud. E. Taylori isa ostis maali 1963. a. Londonis oksjonilt

  17. Carrier Phase GPS Navigation to the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T.; Roberts, G. W.

    Over the last few years, on-the-fly integer ambiguity resolution for GPS has proven to be successful over short baselines (500 km. New techniques have been developed at the University of Nottingham to allow very long baseline integer ambiguity resolution, on-the-fly. A major problem with the use of carrier phase data is that posed by cycle slips. A technique for detecting and correcting cycle slips has been developed, and its use is discussed in this paper. The new technique has been proven through a series of trials, one of which included two flights to the North Pole, performing centimetric level positioning all the way to the pole. For many years, the GD Aero-Systems Course of the Air Warfare Centre based at RAF Cranwell executed a series of equipment flight trials to the North Pole, called the ARIES Flights. In May 1996, the authors were fortunate to take part in both flights, via Iceland and Greenland, to the North Pole. Based on reference stations at Thule Air Base, integer ambiguity resolution was accomplished, on-the-fly, and centimetric level navigation maintained throughout the flights. Earlier trials detailed in the paper demonstrate that the technique can resolve integer ambiguities on-the-fly within a few seconds over a baseline length of approximately 134 km, resulting in an accuracy of 12 cm. The majority of the residual error source for this being the ionosphere.

  18. Cross-poling textures in a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Shan; Bowman, Keith J.

    2000-01-01

    Tetragonal ferroelectric materials are polarized to induce the anisotropy necessary for the piezoelectric effect. This poling of the material is inherently an orientation process. Pole figure texture measurements of poling and cross-poling in a lead zirconate titanate Navy VI material show domain motion. The resulting axisymmetric and three-dimensional textures demonstrate the contribution of 90 degree sign domain motion to piezoelectricity. Cross-poling results in strong orientations with lower applied fields than in the initial poling steps. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society

  19. Plotter of pole figure using data from x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    Any polycrystalline aggregate normally has a preferred crystallographic orientation, or texture which depends on its thermal and or mechanical history. Preferred orientation is best described by means of a pole figure. A pole figure is a stereographic projection which shows the variation in pole density with pole orientation, for a selected set of crystal planes. In this work, computer programs was developed to plot pole figures. The corrected intensities are calculated and directly transmitted to the plotter. The different intensities levels are represented by different colors in the pole figure. (author)

  20. The practice of pole dance as a leisure activity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andorra Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the how pole dance is practiced as a form of leisure activity in Denmark. The methodical approach is qualitative and inspired by ethnography. I have conducted a field study where I have observed and participated in the pole dance culture in Copenhagen from May ...... addresses the difference between a focus on dance and a focus on tricks in pole dancing as well as it examines the different opinions pole studio owners have concerning ‘sexiness’ in pole dance and how this affects the way pole dance is practiced....

  1. Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children: just a normal variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Vogelius, Esben S.; Orth, Robert C.; Guillerman, R.P.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, E.B. Singleton Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification. (orig.)

  2. Personaliotsinguteenust tasub kasutada siis, kui rahaline kokkuhoid pole esmane / Merike Lees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lees, Merike, 1976-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. veebr. lk. 13. Personaliotsinguteenuse kasutamine on õigustatud siis, kui ettevõttes pole personalispetsialisti ning rahaline kokkuhoid pole esmatähtis. Kommenteerivad: Eero Erastus, Madis Sander ja Marti Rehemaa

  3. Pole Shape Optimization of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using the Reduced Basis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jabbari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an integrated method of pole shape design optimization for reduction of torque pulsation components in permanent magnet synchronous motors is developed. A progressive design process is presented to find feasible optimal shapes. This method is applied on the pole shape optimization of two prototype permanent magnet synchronous motors, i.e., 4-poles/6-slots and 4-poles-12slots.

  4. Finite element modeling of small-scale tapered wood-laminated composite poles with biomimicry features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2008-01-01

    Tapered composite poles with biomimicry features as in bamboo are a new generation of wood laminated composite poles that may some day be considered as an alternative to solid wood poles that are widely used in the transmission and telecommunication fields. Five finite element models were developed with ANSYS to predict and assess the performance of five types of...

  5. Least 1-Norm Pole-Zero Modeling with Sparse Deconvolution for Speech Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Liming; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a speech analysis method based on sparse pole-zero modeling of speech. Instead of using the all-pole model to approximate the speech production filter, a pole-zero model is used for the combined effect of the vocal tract; radiation at the lips and the glottal pulse shape...

  6. effect of number of rotor poles on ac losses of permanent magnet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    A study on permanent magnet (PM) eddy current and core losses of dual-stator PM machines is investigated in this paper. ... material in the retaining sleeves of surface-mounted ... rotor-pole numbers (13-poleand 14-pole in particular) ... Table 2: Optimized Machine Parameters. Number of rotor poles. 4. 5. 7. 8. 10. 11. 13. 14.

  7. The Written-Pole{sup TM} motor: high efficiency - low start current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, B. [C.Eng. Precise Power Corp., Bradenton, FL (United States); Friesen, D. [P.E. Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Written-Pole{sup TM} technology is a patented machine technology, which changes the magnetic polarity of the rotor field in a rotating machine, while the machine is operating. The number of poles is thereby changed, resulting in a constant frequency - variable speed machine. When operating as a motor, a Written-Pole machine has inherently low starting current and high operating efficiency. (orig.)

  8. Double Trouble: A Rare Case of Bilateral Upper Pole Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Peters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old girl presented with bilateral back pain caused by bilateral upper pole ureteropelvic junction obstructions; an extremely rare phenomenon. Bilateral robotically assisted upper pole pyeloplasties were preformed at the same setting with an excellent clinical response. Although rare, upper pole ureteropelvic junction obstruction is a defined entity that urologists should be aware of.

  9. Poles near the thresholds in the coupled ΛN - ΣN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, H.; Miyagawa, K.

    1999-01-01

    We find t-matrix poles near the ΣN threshold for the meson theoretical Nijmegen YN interactions including hard-core models. These poles are connected with the strength of the ΛN - ΣN coupling. We also observe antibound-state poles below the ΛN threshold which correlate with scattering lengths. Refs. 4, tabs. 2 (author)

  10. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Marquard, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2016-05-15

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  11. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  12. Poles of the Zagreb analysis partial-wave T matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinić, M.; Ceci, S.; Švarc, A.; Zauner, B.

    2010-09-01

    The Zagreb analysis partial-wave T matrices included in the Review of Particle Physics [by the Particle Data Group (PDG)] contain Breit-Wigner parameters only. As the advantages of pole over Breit-Wigner parameters in quantifying scattering matrix resonant states are becoming indisputable, we supplement the original solution with the pole parameters. Because of an already reported numeric error in the S11 analytic continuation [Batinić , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.57.1004 57, 1004(E) (1997); arXiv:nucl-th/9703023], we declare the old BATINIC 95 solution, presently included by the PDG, invalid. Instead, we offer two new solutions: (A) corrected BATINIC 95 and (B) a new solution with an improved S11 πN elastic input. We endorse solution (B).

  13. Study of recursive model for pole-zero cancellation circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Zhou Wei; Hong Xu; Hu Yunchuan; Wan Xinfeng; Du Xin; Wang Renbo

    2014-01-01

    The output of charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) is a negative exponential signal with long decay time which will result in undershoot after C-R differentiator. Pole-zero cancellation (PZC) circuit is often applied to eliminate undershoot in many radiation detectors. However, it is difficult to use a zero created by PZC circuit to cancel a pole in CSA output signal accurately because of the influences of electronic components inherent error and environmental factors. A novel recursive model for PZC circuit is presented based on Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) in this paper. The model is established by numerical differentiation algorithm between the input and the output signal. Some simulation experiments for a negative exponential signal are carried out using Visual Basic for Application (VBA) program and a real x-ray signal is also tested. Simulated results show that the recursive model can reduce the time constant of input signal and eliminate undershoot. (authors)

  14. Claw-pole Synchronous Generator for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL Valentina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a claw-poles generator for compressed air energy storage systems. It is presented the structure of such a system used for compensating of the intermittency of a small wind energy system. For equipping of this system it is chosen the permanent magnet claw pole synchronous generator obtained by using ring NdFeB permanentmagnets instead of excitation coil. In such a way the complexity of the scheme is reduced and the generator become maintenance free. The new magnetic flux density in the air-gap is calculated by magneticreluctance method and by FEM method and the results are compared with measured values in the old and new generator.

  15. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, M.; Marquard, P.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2017-12-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS ‾ mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS ‾ mass. Including an estimate of the internal bottom and charm quark mass effect, we conclude that this uncertainty is around 110 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be around 300 MeV.

  16. Separate Poles Mode for Large-Capacity HVDC System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Gao, Qin

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel connection mode, separate poles mode (SPM), for large-capacity HVDC systems. The proposed mode focuses on the core issues of HVDC connection in interconnected power grids and principally aims at increasing effective electric distance between poles, which helps to mitigate the interaction problems between AC system and DC system. Receiving end of bipolar HVDC has been divided into different inverter stations under the mode, and thus significantly alleviates difficulties in power transmission and consumption of receiving-end AC grids. By investigating the changes of multi-feed short-circuit ratio (MISCR), finding that HVDC with SPM shows critical impacts upon itself and other HVDC systems with conventional connection mode, which demonstrates that SPM can make balance between MISCR increase and short-circuit current limit.

  17. Shock wave lithotripsy outcomes for lower pole and non-lower pole stones from a university teaching hospital: Parallel group comparison during the same time period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Robert; Burr, Jacob; Simmonds, Nick; Somani, Bhaskar K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a treatment option for all locations of renal and ureteric stones. We compared the results of SWL for lower pole renal stones with all other non-lower pole renal and ureteric stones during the same time period. Material and Methods: All SWL procedures were carried out as day case procedures by a mobile lithotripter from January 2012 to August 2013. The follow-up imaging was a combination of KUB X-ray or USS. Following SWL treatment, the stone free rate (SFR) was defined as ≤3 mm fragments. Results: A total of 148 patients with a mean age of 62 years underwent 201 procedures. Of the 201 procedures, 93 (46%) were for lower pole stones. The non-lower pole stones included upper pole (n = 36), mid pole (n = 40), renal pelvis (n = 10), PUJ (n = 8), mid ureter (n = 3), upper ureter (n = 5) and a combination of upper, middle and/or lower pole (n = 6). The mean stone size for lower pole stones (7.4 mm; range: 4-16 mm) was slightly smaller than non-lower pole stones (8 mm; range: 4-17 mm). The stone fragmentation was successful in 124 (62%) of patients. However, the SFR was statistically significantly better (P = 0.023) for non-lower pole stones 43 (40%) compared to lower pole stones 23 (25%). There were 9 (4%) minor complications and this was not significantly different in the two groups. Conclusions: Although SWL achieves a moderately high stone fragmentation rate with a low complication rate, the SFR is variable depending on the location of stone and the definition of SFR, with lower pole stones fairing significantly worse than stones in all other locations. PMID:25657543

  18. Proton polarimetry using an Enge split-pole spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, J M; Brown, D R; Cornelius, W D [Texas Agricultural and Mechanical Univ., College Station (USA). Cyclotron Inst.

    1976-05-15

    A high-efficiency (4 x 10/sup -5/ at A=0.4) high resolution (150 keV) polarimeter used in conjunction with an Enge split-pole spectrograph is described. This device permits for the first time polarization transfer studies in elastic scattering. Spectra are shown for /sup 11/B(p(pol),p(pol)')/sup 11/B (2.14 MeV)at Esub(p)=31 MeV.

  19. Prevalent lightning sferics at 600 megahertz near Jupiter's poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon; Janssen, Michael; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Atreya, Sushil; Bolton, Scott; Gulkis, Samuel; Ingersoll, Andrew; Levin, Steven; Li, Cheng; Li, Liming; Lunine, Jonathan; Misra, Sidharth; Orton, Glenn; Steffes, Paul; Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin; Kolmašová, Ivana; Imai, Masafumi; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Gurnett, Donald; Connerney, John

    2018-06-01

    Lightning has been detected on Jupiter by all visiting spacecraft through night-side optical imaging and whistler (lightning-generated radio waves) signatures1-6. Jovian lightning is thought to be generated in the mixed-phase (liquid-ice) region of convective water clouds through a charge-separation process between condensed liquid water and water-ice particles, similar to that of terrestrial (cloud-to-cloud) lightning7-9. Unlike terrestrial lightning, which emits broadly over the radio spectrum up to gigahertz frequencies10,11, lightning on Jupiter has been detected only at kilohertz frequencies, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range12. Strong ionospheric attenuation or a lightning discharge much slower than that on Earth have been suggested as possible explanations for this discrepancy13,14. Here we report observations of Jovian lightning sferics (broadband electromagnetic impulses) at 600 megahertz from the Microwave Radiometer15 onboard the Juno spacecraft. These detections imply that Jovian lightning discharges are not distinct from terrestrial lightning, as previously thought. In the first eight orbits of Juno, we detected 377 lightning sferics from pole to pole. We found lightning to be prevalent in the polar regions, absent near the equator, and most frequent in the northern hemisphere, at latitudes higher than 40 degrees north. Because the distribution of lightning is a proxy for moist convective activity, which is thought to be an important source of outward energy transport from the interior of the planet16,17, increased convection towards the poles could indicate an outward internal heat flux that is preferentially weighted towards the poles9,16,18. The distribution of moist convection is important for understanding the composition, general circulation and energy transport on Jupiter.

  20. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's Stratosphere Near the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bampasidis, G.; Nixon, C. A.; Lavvas, P.; Cottini, V.; Flasar, F. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this Letter, we report the monitoring of seasonal evolution near Titan’s poles. We find Titan’s south pole to exhibit since 2010 a strong temperature decrease and a dramatic enhancement of several trace species such as complex hydrocarbons and nitriles (HC3N and C6H6 in particular) previously only observed at high northern latitudes. This results from the seasonal change on Titan going from winter (2002) to summer (2017) in the north and, at the same time, the onset of winter in the south pole. During this transition period atmospheric components with longer chemical lifetimes linger in the north, undergoing slow photochemical destruction, while those with shorter lifetimes decrease and reappear in the south. An opposite effect was expected in the north, but not observed with certainty until now. We present here an analysis of high-resolution nadir spectra acquired by Cassini/Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer in the past years and describe the temperature and composition variations near Titan’s poles. From 2013 until 2016, the northern polar region has shown a temperature increase of 10 K, while the south has shown a more significant decrease (up to 25 K) in a similar period of time. While the south polar region has been continuously enhanced since about 2012, the chemical content in the north is finally showing a clear depletion for most molecules only since 2015. This is indicative of a non-symmetrical response to the seasons in Titan’s stratosphere that can set constraints on photochemical and GCM models.

  1. Coherence between geophysical excitations and celestial pole offsets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ron, Cyril; Vondrák, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 243-247 ISSN 1214-9705. [Czech-Polish Workshop on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudeten and Adjacent Areas. Třešť, 04.11.2010-06.11. 2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : geophysical excitations * celestial pole offsets * coherence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011

  2. Pole mass, width, and propagators of unstable fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Sirlin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of pole mass and width are extended to unstable fermions in the general framework of parity-nonconserving gauge theories, such as the Standard Model. In contrast with the conventional on-shell definitions, these concepts are gauge independent and avoid severe unphysical singularities, properties of great importance since most fundamental fermions in nature are unstable particles. General expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of unstable fermions and their field-renormalization constants are presented. (orig.)

  3. Generalised pole-placement control of steam turbine speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del-Busto, R. [ITESM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias; Munoz, J. [ITESM, Xochimilco (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias

    1996-12-31

    An application of a pole-placement self-tuning predictive control algorithm is developed to regulate speed of a power plant steam turbine model. Two types of system representation (CARMA and CARIMA) are used to test the control algorithm. Simulation results show that when using a CARMA model better results are produced. Two further comparisons are made when using a PI controller and a generalised predictive controller. (author)

  4. Tööpuudus 29%, palavikku pole / Rachel Donadio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donadio, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Lõuna-Hispaanias asuvas Cádizis on töötus 29%, ometi pole eurotsooni kõrgeim tööpuuduse määr tekitanud linnas sügavat sotsiaalset rahutust ega massilisi proteste, sest üsna kõrge elukvaliteedi tagavad töötutele kompleksne turvavõrk, mis koosneb varimajandusest, perekonna toetusest ja valitsuse toetusest

  5. Dipole Models for UXO Discrimination at Live Sites - Pole Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    48 ESTCP MR-201159 Pole Mountain Demonstration Report viii April 2012 Acronyms API Application Programming...working on transitioning our inversion algorithms to an API that will be generally accessible. 8 3. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES The performance...2098 35 0 0 Frag (light) 6 MD PM-2098 35 0 0 Frag (light) 4 MD PM-2098 35 0 0 Frag (light) 3.5 MD PM-1354 8.5 0 0 Frag (medium) 5 MD PM- 1104 3 15

  6. Clusters of cyclones encircling Jupiter’s poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Orton, G.; Hansen, C.; Altieri, F.; Moriconi, M. L.; Rogers, J.; Eichstädt, G.; Momary, T.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Filacchione, G.; Sindoni, G.; Tabataba-Vakili, F.; Dinelli, B. M.; Fabiano, F.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Lunine, J. I.; Tosi, F.; Migliorini, A.; Grassi, D.; Piccioni, G.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plainaki, C.; Olivieri, A.; O’Neill, M. E.; Turrini, D.; Stefani, S.; Sordini, R.; Amoroso, M.

    2018-03-01

    The familiar axisymmetric zones and belts that characterize Jupiter’s weather system at lower latitudes give way to pervasive cyclonic activity at higher latitudes. Two-dimensional turbulence in combination with the Coriolis β-effect (that is, the large meridionally varying Coriolis force on the giant planets of the Solar System) produces alternating zonal flows. The zonal flows weaken with rising latitude so that a transition between equatorial jets and polar turbulence on Jupiter can occur. Simulations with shallow-water models of giant planets support this transition by producing both alternating flows near the equator and circumpolar cyclones near the poles. Jovian polar regions are not visible from Earth owing to Jupiter’s low axial tilt, and were poorly characterized by previous missions because the trajectories of these missions did not venture far from Jupiter’s equatorial plane. Here we report that visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole by the Juno spacecraft during its first five orbits reveal persistent polygonal patterns of large cyclones. In the north, eight circumpolar cyclones are observed about a single polar cyclone; in the south, one polar cyclone is encircled by five circumpolar cyclones. Cyclonic circulation is established via time-lapse imagery obtained over intervals ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours. Although migration of cyclones towards the pole might be expected as a consequence of the Coriolis β-effect, by which cyclonic vortices naturally drift towards the rotational pole, the configuration of the cyclones is without precedent on other planets (including Saturn’s polar hexagonal features). The manner in which the cyclones persist without merging and the process by which they evolve to their current configuration are unknown.

  7. Poled-glass devices: Influence of surfaces and interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Devices in periodically poled glass must have a large periodic variation of the built-in field. We show that the periodic variation can be severely degraded by charge dynamics taking place at the external (glass–air) interface or at internal (glass–glass) interfaces if the interfaces have...... the device, one can reveal the existence of imperfect interfaces by use of electric field induced second-harmonic generation....

  8. Development of a superconducting claw-pole motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, E.; Kikukawa, K.; Satoh, Y.; Torii, S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed and produced a superconducting claw-pole motor for a trial purpose as a method to make the best use of the characteristic of superconductivity without collector rings or rotating superconducting coils that need to be cryocooled, and made some examinations. The unique feature in this motor is to have the mechanism that supports the reaction magnetic force generated in the axial direction

  9. Evidence of highly oxidizing environment over the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have discovered high levels of an air purifying chemical or oxidizing agent in the near-surface atmosphere over the South Pole. This research, funded by the National Science Foundation, has implications for interpreting historical global climate records stored in Antarctic ice cores. The hydroxyl (OH) radical is higher at the South Pole than that estimated from OH measurements recorded at the equator. The OH radical is vital to scrubbing pollution and naturally occurring chemicals from the air and prevents a buildup of toxic levels of chemicals. The near surface atmospheric zone is a highly oxidizing environment at the South Pole. There is evidence that oxidizing chemistry continues to occur in the buried snow. This active chemistry could modify chemical species before they are trapped in the ice in their final chemical forms. Therefore, glaciochemists who study climate change based on analysis of trace chemicals trapped in polar ice will have to be more careful in their interpretations of Antarctic ice cores. Any significant increase of nitric oxide levels in any snow-covered area should result in high OH levels. Scientists used the selected-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer technique to measure OH. To measure nitric oxide (NO), they used chemiluminescence with modifications to improve its sensitivity. Nitric oxide is also a radical and is a by-product of internal combustion engines. At the South Pole, it is formed when ultraviolet radiation interacts with nitrate ions. The source of NO is not clear, but it may originate from stratospheric denitrification and the long-range transport of nitric acid formed at low latitude during electrical storms. Scientists are also working to better understand the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under the cold conditions and high latitudes of Antarctica. This information will help glaciochemists to better interpret sulfate and methane sulfonate concentrations

  10. Stationarity of resonant pole trajectories in complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, S.; Goscinski, O.

    1978-01-01

    A reciprocity theorem relating the real parameters eta and α that define the complex scaling transformation r → eta r e/sup iα/ in the theory of complex scaling for resonant states is demonstrated. The virial theorem is used in connection with the stationarity of the pole trajectory. The Stark broadening in the hydrogen atom using a basis set generated by Rayleigh--Schroedinger perturbation theory is treated as an example. 18 references

  11. Poling of PVDF matrix composites for integrated structural load sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh; Greminger, Michael A.; Zhao, Ping

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to create and evaluate a smart composite structure that can be used for integrated load sensing and structural health monitoring. In this structure, PVDF films are used as the matrix material instead of epoxy resin or other thermoplastics. The reinforcements are two layers of carbon fiber with one layer of Kevlar separating them. Due to the electrical conductivity properties of carbon fiber and the dielectric effect of Kevlar, the structure acts as a capacitor. Furthermore, the piezoelectric properties of the PVDF matrix can be used to monitor the response of the structure under applied loads. In order to exploit the piezoelectric properties of PVDF, the PVDF material must be polarized to align the dipole moments of its crystalline structure. The optimal condition for poling the structure was found by performing a 23 factorial design of experiment (DoE). The factors that were studied in DoE were temperature, voltage, and duration of poling. Finally, the response of the poled structure was monitored by exposing the samples to an applied load.

  12. Improved technology for spun-cast concrete poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, W H; Ghali, A

    1984-07-01

    Different types of concrete were investigated with the goal of developing concrete suitable for the production of spun-cast concrete poles. A total of 65 different concrete mixes were investigated, with the suitability criteria defined as: compactability, no segregation of the mix components during the spinning operation, no shrinkage cracking, high strength, and durability. High strength normal weight concretes and semi-lightweight concretes, both with and without fly ash and/or silica fume and with different types of admixtures were used to produce spun-cast concrete pole segments. Of the 35 lightweight concretes only 3 were considered successful, as in all other specimens the inner layer of coarse aggregate was not well embedded in the mortar, and many mixes could not be compacted properly because they were too stiff, too wet, or started to set before spinning commenced. The three successful specimens contained fly ash and one contained silica fume, and had low water/cement ratios (0.26 to 0.29). Of the 23 normal weight concretes tested, only 5 were considered suitable, and all these had a sand/coarse aggregate ratio of 0.25 or smaller and a cement content between 350 and 400 kg/m{sup 3}. A theoretical study of the stresses in the end zones of pretensioned poles is presented. 10 refs., 53 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRASOV GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida CATANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demographic dynamics analysed in the context of the relationship between economic development and social inclusion presents an image of the sustainable development of a community as well as the manner how the financial resources have been used. With an allocation of 74.3 million euro in the programming period 2007-2013, the Brasov Growth Pole has pursued the contribution to the achievement of sustainable development since 2005 by the participation in the Agenda 21. The implementation of projects with European financing in areas such as transport, social and educational infrastructure or tourism have generated changes/demographic movements, which this paper proposes to present. The evolution of the stable population, its dynamics at the level of each locality that is part of the Brasov growth pole as well as the dynamics of the number of employees or the development of the unemployment rate are presented by the cluster analysis. The effects of the European financing obtained from Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 are thus reflected in the sustainable development of the Brasov growth pole from the point of view of the dynamics of the population

  14. Lunar South Pole Illumination: Review, Reassessment, and Power System Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews past analyses and research related to lunar south pole illumination and presents results of independent illumination analyses using an analytical tool and a radar digital elevation model. The analysis tool enables assessment at most locations near the lunar poles for any time and any year. Average illumination fraction, energy storage duration, solar/horizon terrain elevation profiles and illumination fraction profiles are presented for various highly illuminated sites which have been identified for manned or unmanned operations. The format of the data can be used by power system designers to develop mass optimized solar and energy storage systems. Data are presented for the worse case lunar day (a critical power planning bottleneck) as well as three lunar days during lunar south pole winter. The main site under consideration by present lunar mission planners (on the Crater Shackleton rim) is shown to have, for the worse case lunar day, a 0.71 average illumination fraction and 73 to 117 hours required for energy storage (depending on power system type). Linking other sites and including towers at either site are shown to not completely eliminate the need for energy storage.

  15. Comparative Investigation on the Performance of Modified System Poles and Traditional System Poles Obtained from PDC Data for Diagnosing the Ageing Condition of Transformer Polymer Insulation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The life expectancy of a transformer is largely depended on the service life of transformer polymer insulation materials. Nowadays, several papers have reported that the traditional system poles obtained from polarization and depolarization current (PDC data can be used to assess the condition of transformer insulation systems. However, the traditional system poles technique only provides limited ageing information for transformer polymer insulation. In this paper, the modified system poles obtained from PDC data are proposed to assess the ageing condition of transformer polymer insulation. The aim of the work is to focus on reporting a comparative investigation on the performance of modified system poles and traditional system poles for assessing the ageing condition of a transformer polymer insulation system. In the present work, a series of experiments have been performed under controlled laboratory conditions. The PDC measurement data, degree of polymerization (DP and moisture content of the oil-immersed polymer pressboard specimens were carefully monitored. It is observed that, compared to the relationships between traditional system poles and DP values, there are better correlations between the modified system poles and DP values, because the modified system poles can obtain much more ageing information on transformer polymer insulation. Therefore, the modified system poles proposed in the paper are more suitable for the diagnosis of the ageing condition of transformer polymer insulation.

  16. Repair and rehabilitation of wood utility poles with fibre-reinforced polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzois, D.; Kell, J.A. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-01-15

    In order to ensure safe and reliable service, all wood utility poles need an effective maintenance program. The service life of a wood utility pole depends on several factors, such as decay, mechanical damage, weathering, and changing design requirements. An effective preservative treatment and maintenance program can effectively extend the service life of the wood pole. However, all poles will attain a point when they are no longer suitable for their intended use. New innovative methods are therefore required to restore and maintain the structural integrity of existing wood poles, especially in light of the increasing cost of quality wood for use in poles as well as a result of environmental concerns regarding pole disposal and chemical treatment of existing poles. This article presented results from a research program carried out at the University of Manitoba to develop a repair and rehabilitation technique for wood poles using fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP). It also provided a brief overview of current standards for wood utility poles and reinforcing stubs and discussed the experimental program where long, air-dried jack pine poles were tested in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a proposed rehabilitation system consisting of FRP splines and FRP jackets. The ultimate capacity of the poles was determined using the CSA standard for wood poles. The capacity of the rehabilitated poles was nearly 93 per cent of the average ultimate capacity of the average ultimate capacity of poles tested during the first phase of the study, and 23 per cent higher than the capacity required by CSA standards. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Live imaging of spindle pole disorganization in docetaxel-treated multicolor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaushi, Shinji; Nishida, Kumi; Minamikawa, Harumi; Fukada, Takashi; Oka, Shigenori; Sugimoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of cells with docetaxel at low concentrations induces aberrant bipolar spindles of which two centrosomes stay at only one pole, and also induces multipolar spindles. To gain insight into the relations between centrosome impairment and structural defects of the spindle, live-cell imaging was performed on a human MDA Auro/imp/H3 cell line in which centrosomes/mitotic spindles, nuclear membrane and chromatin were simultaneously visualized by fluorescent proteins. In the presence of docetaxel at IC 50 concentration, the centrosomes did not segregate, and multiple aster-like structures ectopically arose around the disappearing nuclear membrane. Those ectopic structures formed an acentrosomal pole opposing to the two-centrosomes-containing pole. In late metaphase, one pole often fragmented into multiple spindle poles, leading multipolar division. These results suggest that spindle pole fragility may be induced by centrosome impairment, and collapse of the pole may contribute to induction of aneuploid daughter cells

  18. Transoral vertebral augmentation with polymethylmethacrylate in the treatment of a patient with a dens fracture nonunion and subarticular vertebral body fracture of C2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, Douglas P.; Martin, Hal D.; Stapp, Annette M.; Stanfield, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a minimally invasive, image-guided procedure used to treat vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis, metastatic lesions, multiple myeloma, and benign but destabilizing bone tumors. The injection of PMMA into the C2 vertebral body using the transoral technique has been reported in three separate patients for treatment of benign tumors (a vertebral hemangioma and an aneurysmal bone cyst) and for multiple myeloma in the third patient. Although the injection of PMMA into the vertebral body is most commonly performed to treat benign vertebral compression fractures, a transoral C2 approach has not been reported in the English literature as a treatment for a benign fracture of C2. We report the treatment of a fracture and nonunion of the base of the dens and a subarticular fracture of the vertebral body of C2 using a bilateral transoral approach. (orig.)

  19. Fibreglass as an alternative to wood poles : Transmission and distribution poles and crossarms : use of fiber reinforced composite materials for overhead electric utility lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, J.R. [Shakespeare Composites and Electronics, Newberry, SC (United States)

    2002-07-01

    For over thirty years, Shakespeare Composites and Electronics has manufactured fiberglass composite lighting and utility poles, as well as being the number one maker of composite crossarms. Composite poles have a few advantages, such as being lightweight, they do no rust, are woodpecker and termite resistant, use no harmful chemicals, and have long life. A chart displaying the comparative pole weights is presented. The key design factors of fiberglass composite utility poles are: pole diameter, fiberglass type and wind angle, layers (thickness) of fiberglass, resin type and formulation, resin mix consistency, cure cycle and maximum curing temperature, and others. Two charts were also displayed presenting 40 feet class 4 pole bending strengths and 40 feet class 2 pole bending strengths. The author indicated that composite poles have a better strength consistency than wood, while being as consistent as steel and prestressed concrete. The design is based on an overload factor of safety of 2.5 for numerous installations. Some of the analytical methods used include mechanical testing, finite element modeling, and thermal analysis. The author describes in detail the concerns associated with attachments. Coating consists of a system of ultra violet blockers in the resin followed by an added resin rich polyester veil outer surface. In addition, there is a proprietary coating process with additional ultra violet blockers. Quality control is effected at the plant. The weathering system lasts 80 years. figs.

  20. Laparoscopic upper pole heminephroureterectomy in children: Seven-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive surgery is the current approach to perform heminephroureterectomy (HN in children. This can be obtained through a transperitoneal (TP or a retroperitoneal approach. Here, we report our experience using a TP approach. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014, 22 TP laparoscopic upper poles HN were performed at our institution. There were nine girls and 13 boys aged between 20 months and 6 years (mean age 3.9. Eight patients were diagnosed prenatally, 17 patients presented with urinary tract infection (UTI and three with vomiting and failure to thrive. The indication for HN was reflux nephropathy and UTI in non-functioning upper pole in 19 patients and cystic dysplasia in 1 patient. The surgical technique involved the following steps: Cystoscopic recognition; positioning of 3-4 trocar (right HN; identification of the kidney (detachment of the colon; isolation and low ligation of the dilated ureter; decrossing from renal vessels; section of the parenchyma by LigaSure; haemostasis with clips and LigaSure; drain. Results: The mean operative time was 154 min (range: 81-220 min. All patients were discharged from the 2 nd to 4 th day. Neither major complication nor conversion was recorded. 1 patient presented leakage of urine for 7 days from the drainage which resolved spontaneously. At ultrasound follow-up, 5 patients showed a secondary perirenal cyst, 2-5 cm diameter that resolved spontaneously. Conclusion: The results indicate that laparoscopic upper pole heminephrectomy is the treatment of choice in cases of non-functioning dilated lower segments of duplicated kidneys. The use of laparoscopic approach offers a good working space, a good visual control of the vessels and allows a very low isolation of the ureteral stump which counterbalance the peritoneal violation.

  1. SNAP sky background at the north ecliptic pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldering, Greg

    2002-01-01

    I summarize the extant direct and indirect data on the sky background SNAP will see at the North Ecliptic Pole over the wavelength range 0.4 < λ < 1.7 (micro)m. At the spatial resolution of SNAP the sky background due to stars and galaxies is resolved, so the only source considered is zodiacal light. Several models are explored to provide interpolation in wavelength between the broadband data from HST and COBE observations. I believe the input data are now established well enough that the accuracy of the sky background presented here is sufficient for SNAP simulations, and that it will stand up to scrutiny by reviewers

  2. Pole Soccer - Implementering af netværksmodul

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Frank B; Kierkegaard, Jakob R; Hirszhorn, Andreas J

    2005-01-01

    Abstrakt Målet med dette projekt er at designe og implementere et netværksmodul til spillet PoleSoccer, som er et spil udviklet i det foregående semester. Fokus i implementeringen er at opn°a bedst mulig synkronisering klienterne imellem. Programmet er udviklet i programmeringssproget Java. I rapporten diskuteres valg af netværksarkitektur, transportlagsprotokol samt hvilke metoder Java tilbyder til netværkskommunikation, med vægt på Sockets. Ydermere beskrives metoder vi har anvendt til at o...

  3. Superconducting 63-Pole 2 Tesla Wiggler for Canadian Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khruschev, S.V.; Kuper, E.A.; Lev, V.H.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Miginsky, E.G.; Repkov, V.V.; Shkaruba, B.A.; Syrovatin, V.M.; Tsukanov, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    A superconducting 63-pole wiggler with the average period 34 mm designed and fabricated at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk for Synchrotron Radiation Center (CLS) in Canada is described. The maximum field 2.2 Tesla in the median plane has been achieved. The liquid helium consumption less than 0.03 liters per hour in operating mode has been reached. In January 2005, the wiggler was installed in the storage ring in CLS and now experiments are already underway. The main parameters of the magnet and the cryogenic systems as well as test results are presented

  4. Superconducting 63-pole 2 T wiggler for Canadian Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khruschev, S.V.; Kuper, E.A.; Lev, V.H.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Miginsky, E.G.; Repkov, V.V.; Shkaruba, V.A.; Syrovatin, V.M.; Tsukanov, V.M.

    2007-01-01

    A superconducting 63-pole wiggler with the average period 34 mm designed and fabricated in the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk for Synchrotron Radiation Center Canadian Light Source (CLS) in Canada is described. The maximum field 2.2 T in the median plane has been achieved. The liquid helium consumption less than 0.03 L h in operating mode has been reached. It allows refilling liquid helium once a year. In January 2005, the wiggler was installed in the storage ring in CLS and now experiments are carried out. The main parameters of the magnet and the cryogenic systems as well as test results are presented

  5. IMF sector behavior estimated from geomagnetic data at South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, S.; Xu, W.h.

    1981-01-01

    IMF sector behavior which has previously been estimated from the geomagnetic data at Godhavn is confirmed by study of the data at South Pole for 1959--1970 with the same estimation technique, taking the difference between northern and southern hemispheres into consideration. A method to improve (about 18%) the agreement between assigned and actual sector structures by study of the data at the two stations is suggested. Geomagnetic disturbance effects on sector estimation are discussed, and reversed sector effects in winter are given special emphasis

  6. Are Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Viewed Pole-on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    0.2’’ respectively. Figure 1 displays the position of each slit over a Barbosa et al. (2009) GMOS IFU image of the [S III] flux (which originates...C. Winge, H. Schmitt: Gemini/ GMOS IFU gas velocity ’tomography’ of the narrow line region of nearby active galaxies, MNRAS, 396 (2009) 2. [2] D...1995) 81. 4 P o S ( N L S 1 ) 0 5 0 Are NLS1s Pole-on? Travis C. Fischer 5 Figure 1: NGC 4051 GMOS IFU image showing integrated [SIII] flux

  7. Ülikoolid pole mängukannid / Sirje Tohver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tohver, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    TPÜ korraldas 16. märtsil̀ 2001 ümarlaua "Ülikoolid pole mängukannid", kus oli arutusel riikliku koolitustellimuse vähenemine avalik-õiguslikele ülikoolidele. Osalesid TPÜ filoloogiateaduskonna dekaan dots. H. Mattisen, kultuuriteaduskonna dekaan prof. A. Avarand, akadeemiline prorektor dots. L. Jõgi, teadus- ja arendusprorektor prof. P. Normak, haridusminister T. Lukas, TPÜ rektor prof. M. Arvisto ja EKA rektor prof. A. Keskküla, TTÜ rektor prof. A. Keevallik, EMA õppeprorektor A. Pung

  8. DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF POLE-LIKE OBJECTS FROM MOBILE MAPPING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fukano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser scanners on a vehicle-based mobile mapping system can capture 3D point-clouds of roads and roadside objects. Since roadside objects have to be maintained periodically, their 3D models are useful for planning maintenance tasks. In our previous work, we proposed a method for detecting cylindrical poles and planar plates in a point-cloud. However, it is often required to further classify pole-like objects into utility poles, streetlights, traffic signals and signs, which are managed by different organizations. In addition, our previous method may fail to extract low pole-like objects, which are often observed in urban residential areas. In this paper, we propose new methods for extracting and classifying pole-like objects. In our method, we robustly extract a wide variety of poles by converting point-clouds into wireframe models and calculating cross-sections between wireframe models and horizontal cutting planes. For classifying pole-like objects, we subdivide a pole-like object into five subsets by extracting poles and planes, and calculate feature values of each subset. Then we apply a supervised machine learning method using feature variables of subsets. In our experiments, our method could achieve excellent results for detection and classification of pole-like objects.

  9. Investigation Effects of Narrowing Rotor Pole Embrace to Efficiency and Cogging Torque at PM BLDC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Ocak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Engineers think that pole embrace size of a PM BLDC motor affects directly the efficiency and the torque. Dealing with theexperimental research, in the studywe have investigated the effects of narrowing rotor pole embrace step by step by changing sizes parametrically. By doing so, high efficiency and low cogging torque would have been obtained for a 20 W PM BLDC motor. In order to do this,pole arc to pole pitch ratio of magnets at the rotor poles has been changed parametrically (0.5 to 1 by genetic algorithm methodfirst. Then the electromagnetic field dispersions, output parameters of the motor, new rotor constructions have been obtained; and new pole embrace has been derived from the variation of pole arc to pole pitch ratio. We have also calculatedthe magnetic flux distribution, output power, torque, cogging torque and efficiency values analytically and the effects of new pole embrace to motor efficiency and torque have been simulated. The developed 18 slots, 6 poles, surface mounted inner runner configuration rotor machine is proposed as to be used insmall dentistry apparatus.

  10. Effects of slotting and unipolar flux on magnetic pull in a two-pole induction motor with an extra four-pole stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinervo, A.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is about the radial magnetic forces between the rotor and stator in twopole induction machines. The magnetic forces arise from rotor eccentricity. The asymmetric air-gap makes the flux density on one side of the rotor stronger than on the opposite side. This produces magnetic pull. The magnetic flux density distribution in the air-gap can be expressed with spatial harmonics, i.e. flux densities with different pole-pair numbers. In two-pole machines, the main part of the magnetic force is produced by the interaction of two- and fourpole flux unless the four-pole flux is damped by parallel paths in the stator winding or an extra four-pole stator winding. The rest of the force comes from the interaction of two-pole and unipolar flux and from the higher harmonics of the air-gap flux of which the slot harmonics are a major part. The force caused by the higher harmonics and the unipolar flux is studied in the case where a four-pole stator winding is used to reduce the four-pole flux. The higher harmonics are found to produce, in addition to the traditional unbalanced magnetic pull, a force similar to the effect of the unipolar flux and the two can be distinguished only by measuring the unipolar flux. In measurements at various operation points, the higher harmonics are found to produce much more force than the unipolar flux and two-pole flux but the unipolar flux is still significant. The four-pole winding also is used to actively control the four-pole flux and the magnetic forces. Designing the controller requires a low order model of the system. Such a model is derived and the effect of the slot harmonics and the unipolar flux are included in the model. Different measurements techniques and methods are presented to identify and validate the control model. The operation point dependence of the system dynamics is studied via measurements. All results are obtained from a 30 kW test motor. The rotor of the test machine has a long flexible shaft on external

  11. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Anjum, Raeesa S.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L.; Spiers, Hugo J.; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the “semantic hub” of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  12. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-06

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  13. Towards a research pole in photonics in Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Rominu, Mihai; Miutescu, Eftimie; Burlea, Amelia; Vlascici, Miomir; Gheorghiu, Nicolae; Cira, Octavian; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Mnerie, Corina; Demian, Dorin; Marcauteanu, Corina; Topala, Florin; Rolland, Jannick P.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-07-01

    We present our efforts in establishing a Research Pole in Photonics in the future Arad-Timisoara metropolitan area projected to unite two major cities of Western Romania. Research objectives and related training activities of various institutions and groups that are involved are presented in their evolution during the last decade. The multi-disciplinary consortium consists principally of two universities, UAVA (Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad) and UMF (Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University of Timisoara), but also of the Arad County Emergency University Hospital and several innovative SMEs, such as Bioclinica S.A. (the largest array of medical analysis labs in the region) and Inteliform S.R.L. (a competitive SME focused on mechatronics and mechanical engineering). A brief survey of the individual and joint projects of these institutions is presented, together with their teaching activities at graduate and undergraduate level. The research Pole collaborates in R&D, training and education in biomedical imaging with universities in USA and Europe. Collaborative activities, mainly on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) projects are presented in a multidisciplinary approach that includes optomechatronics, precision mechanics and optics, dentistry, medicine, and biology.

  14. Acoustic wave filter based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courjon, Emilie; Bassignot, Florent; Ulliac, Gwenn; Benchabane, Sarah; Ballandras, Sylvain

    2012-09-01

    Solutions for the development of compact RF passive transducers as an alternative to standard surface or bulk acoustic wave devices are receiving increasing interest. This article presents results on the development of an acoustic band-pass filter based on periodically poled ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate. The fabrication of periodically poled transducers (PPTs) operating in the range of 20 to 650 MHz has been achieved on 3-in (76.2-mm) 500-μm-thick wafers. This kind of transducer is able to excite elliptical as well as longitudinal modes, yielding phase velocities of about 3800 and 6500 ms(-1), respectively. A new type of acoustic band-pass filter is proposed, based on the use of PPTs instead of the SAWs excited by classical interdigital transducers. The design and the fabrication of such a filter are presented, as well as experimental measurements of its electrical response and transfer function. The feasibility of such a PPT-based filter is thereby demonstrated and the limitations of this method are discussed.

  15. A precise determination of the top-quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Si, Zong-Guo; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2018-01-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to eliminate the renormalization scheme and renormalization scale uncertainties for high-energy processes. We have observed that by applying PMC scale setting, one obtains comprehensive and self-consistent pQCD predictions for the top-quark pair total cross section and the top-quark pair forward-backward asymmetry in agreement with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. As a step forward, in the present paper, we determine the top-quark pole mass via a detailed comparison of the top-quark pair cross section with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. The results for the top-quark pole mass are m t = 174.6 +3.1 -3.2 GeV for the Tevatron with √(S) = 1.96 TeV, m t = 173.7 ± 1.5 and 174.2 ± 1.7 GeV for the LHC with √(S) = 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. Those predictions agree with the average, 173.34 ± 0.76 GeV, obtained from various collaborations via direct measurements. The consistency of the pQCD predictions using the PMC with all of the collider measurements at different energies provides an important verification of QCD. (orig.)

  16. A precise determination of the top-quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Si, Zong-Guo; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2018-03-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to eliminate the renormalization scheme and renormalization scale uncertainties for high-energy processes. We have observed that by applying PMC scale setting, one obtains comprehensive and self-consistent pQCD predictions for the top-quark pair total cross section and the top-quark pair forward-backward asymmetry in agreement with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. As a step forward, in the present paper, we determine the top-quark pole mass via a detailed comparison of the top-quark pair cross section with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. The results for the top-quark pole mass are m_t=174.6^{+3.1}_{-3.2} GeV for the Tevatron with √{S}=1.96 TeV, m_t=173.7± 1.5 and 174.2± 1.7 GeV for the LHC with √{S} = 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. Those predictions agree with the average, 173.34± 0.76 GeV, obtained from various collaborations via direct measurements. The consistency of the pQCD predictions using the PMC with all of the collider measurements at different energies provides an important verification of QCD.

  17. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  18. Groebner Basis Solutions to Satellite Trajectory Control by Pole Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukelova, Z.; Krsek, P.; Smutny, V.; Pajdla, T.

    2013-09-01

    Satellites play an important role, e.g., in telecommunication, navigation and weather monitoring. Controlling their trajectories is an important problem. In [1], an approach to the pole placement for the synthesis of a linear controller has been presented. It leads to solving five polynomial equations in nine unknown elements of the state space matrices of a compensator. This is an underconstrained system and therefore four of the unknown elements need to be considered as free parameters and set to some prior values to obtain a system of five equations in five unknowns. In [1], this system was solved for one chosen set of free parameters with the help of Dixon resultants. In this work, we study and present Groebner basis solutions to this problem of computation of a dynamic compensator for the satellite for different combinations of input free parameters. We show that the Groebner basis method for solving systems of polynomial equations leads to very simple solutions for all combinations of free parameters. These solutions require to perform only the Gauss-Jordan elimination of a small matrix and computation of roots of a single variable polynomial. The maximum degree of this polynomial is not greater than six in general but for most combinations of the input free parameters its degree is even lower. [1] B. Palancz. Application of Dixon resultant to satellite trajectory control by pole placement. Journal of Symbolic Computation, Volume 50, March 2013, Pages 79-99, Elsevier.

  19. Particle acceleration at the magnetic poles of a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic conversion of a photon in a neutron star magnetosphere near one of the magnetic poles is followed by acceleration of the electron and positron to ultra-relativistic energies. The positron moves along open magnetic flux lines to the light cylinder. The electron incident on the stellar surface produces an electromagnetic shower. Following a comment by Cheng and Ruderman (Astrophys.J.;214:598 (1977)), an order of magnitude estimate has been made of the spectrum of backward moving photons created in the electron shower. The most important source of photons is shown to be the formation of the giant dipole state in Fe 56 . Under the assumption that the surface magnetic flux density exceeds 10 12 G, the photons have, with high probability, mean free paths for magnetic conversion in the magnetosphere of 1 4 cm. An equation for the maximum acceleratin potential has been obtained in a one-dimensional model of pair creation and electron multiplication based on this photon source. The model has been applied to the phenomenon of subpulse drift in pulsars. The plasma accelerated at the magnetic pole has three components; positrons, protons and light nuclei (Z < approximately 6) formed by spallation, and iron group nuclei. Equations determining their relative fluxes have been found. The light nuclei include those with Z = 3 to 5, usually considered to be present in galactic cosmic rays only as a result of the interaction of heavier nuclei with the interstellar medium. (author)

  20. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii pole extraction, (iii components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  1. Pole-Like Street Furniture Decompostion in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i) acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii) pole extraction, (iii) components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  2. The effect of poling conditions on the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters fabricated by wet chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, Erika Maria-Anai

    2015-03-25

    The effect of poling conditions on the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters using sol-gel based Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O3-Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3 piezoelectric thin-films has been investigated. A strong correlation was established between the poling efficiency and harvester output. A method based on simple capacitance-voltage measurements is shown to be an effective approach to estimate the power output of harvesters poled under different conditions. The poling process was found to be thermally activated with an activation energy of 0.12 eV, and the optimum poling conditions were identified (200 kV cm-1, 250 °C for 50 min). The voltage output and power density obtained under optimum poling conditions were measured to be 558 V cm-2 and 325 μW cm-2, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.2015.

  3. Design of an adaptive pole assignment controller for steam generators and its experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; No, Hee Cheon

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive observer is designed that both parameters and state variables of the steam generator are estimated simultaneously. A pole assignment controller is derived on the basis of the adaptive observer. The characteristics of the overall closed-loop control system can be expressed in terms of its poles, assigned poles. The troublesome tuning procedure of the P-I controller is reduced to the determination of the desired poles only. The proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional P-I controller through numerical simulation. Also, the adaptive pole assignment controller is studied experimentally by implementing it to the mock-up of the nuclear steam generator. The adaptive pole assignment controller shows better responses than the P-l controller does. (Author)

  4. Field analysis and enhancement of multi-pole magnetic components fabricated on printed circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.-C.; Chen, C.-S.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-pole magnetic component magnetized with a fine magnetic pole pitch of less than 1 mm is very difficult to achieve by using traditional methods. Moreover, it requires a precise mechanical process and a complicated magnetization system. Different fine magnetic pole pitches of 300, 350 and 400 μm have been accomplished on 9-pole magnetic components through the printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing technology. Additionally, another fine magnetic pole pitch of 500 μm was also fabricated on a dual-layered (DL) wire circuit structure to investigate the field enhancement. After measurements, a gain factor of 1.37 was obtained in the field strength. The field variations among different magnetic pole pitches were analyzed in this paper

  5. Lower Pole Calyceal Stone and Lithotripsy are Issues with Clearance Fact or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammad Ather

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lower pole calyceal (LPC stone continues to be an enigma. The complex anatomy of the lower pole collecting system, along with other factors like acute pelvi calyceal angle and narrow and long infundibulum, are some of the complicating factors affecting stone clearance. There have been many studies assessing the impact of collecting system anatomy and most conclude that the complex anatomy of the lower pole collecting system does impact the overall stone-free rate.

  6. Iron Pole Shape Optimization of IPM Motors Using an Integrated Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JABBARI, A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An iron pole shape optimization method to reduce cogging torque in Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM motors is developed by using the reduced basis technique coupled by finite element and design of experiments methods. Objective function is defined as the minimum cogging torque. The experimental design of Taguchi method is used to build the approximation model and to perform optimization. This method is demonstrated on the rotor pole shape optimization of a 4-poles/24-slots IPM motor.

  7. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-07-28

    Traditionally, the necessary and sufficient condition for any system to be oscillating is that its poles are located on the imaginary (jω) axis. In this paper, for the first time, we have shown that systems can oscillate with time-domain oscillating poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating resistance and triangular shape of FFT are also demonstrated with mathematical reasoning and simulation results to support the unusual and surprising characteristics. © 2009 IEEE.

  8. Texture of poled tetragonal PZT detected by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and micromechanics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Steuwer, A.; Cherdhirunkorn, B.; Withers, P.J.; Mori, T.

    2005-01-01

    The texture and lattice elastic strain due to electrical poling of tetragonal PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramics have been measured using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It is shown that XRD peak intensity ratios associated with crystal planes of the form {002}, {112} and {202} exhibit a linear dependence on cos-bar 2 Ψ, where Ψ represents the orientation angle between the plane normal and the macroscopic poling axis. The observed dependence of texture and lattice strain on the grain orientation can be understood on the basis that the macroscopic strain due to poling is the average of the poling strains of all the individual grains

  9. Reuse of poles treated with CCA; CCA-kyllaestettyjen puupylvaeiden uudelleenkaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmus, E. [Vtt Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of re-using utility poles or parts of poles for structural use in construction. There are more than 10 million poles in Finland and about 200 000 poles will be removed from service yearly during the next few years. The directive 2003/2/EY will restrict the use of poles treated with CCA. This will change the practice that the energy and telecommunication companies have given the removed poles to the land owners. The present study launched by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) was carried out to determine the technical condition of CCA impregnated poles removed from service and the concentration levels and leaching of remaining preservatives. To summarize the results of the tests, it is safe to say that re-use of recovered poles of 30 to 50 years of age is possible. Both the preservative concentrations and strength/load-bearing capacity are high enough to allow the use of the poles as load-bearing structures. (orig.)

  10. A 15-pole high temperature superconductor filter for radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Xi, Weibin; Wu, Songtao

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a compact and high first harmonic frequency resonator. The characteristics of this resonator are theoretically analyzed. A highly selective 15-pole Chebyshev high temperature superconducting ultra-high frequency narrowband filter for radar applications was fabricated by using this resonator. The filter has a center frequency of 495 MHz and a fractional bandwidth of 1%. The first harmonic frequency is more than 3.3 times the fundamental frequency. The measured filter shows excellent selectivity, better than 85 dB/1 MHz skirt slopes, and more than 85 dB of rejection at 497.5 MHz from the band edge. The filter was fabricated on a 2 inch YBCO thin film with a 0.5 mm thick MgO substrate. The experimental results are consistent with the simulations.

  11. One-dimensional thermodynamical model for poling of ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiouny, E.

    1990-11-01

    In this work, we use a model developed to deduce a one-dimensional model for the description of the poling of ferroelectric ceramics. This is built within the scheme of the thermodynamical theory of internal variables. The model produces both plastic and electric hysteresis effects in the form of ''plasticity'', i.e., rate-independent evolution equations for the plastic strain, and the residual electric polarization and both mechanical and electric hardenings. The influence of stresses on ferroelectric hysteresis loops through piezoelectricity and electrostriction is a natural outcome of this model. Some simple experimental methods for the determination of the material coefficients of the considered ceramics are suggested. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  12. THE SPITZER-WISE SURVEY OF THE ECLIPTIC POLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Cutri, R. M.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Cohen, M.; Wright, E.; Petty, S.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P.; Mainzer, A.; Ressler, M.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Carey, S.; Surace, J.; Lonsdale, C.; Skrutskie, M.; Stanford, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out a survey of the north and south ecliptic poles, EP-N and EP-S, respectively, with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The primary objective was to cross-calibrate WISE with the Spitzer and Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) photometric systems by developing a set of calibration stars that are common to these infrared missions. The ecliptic poles were continuous viewing zones for WISE due to its polar-crossing orbit, making these areas ideal for both absolute and internal calibrations. The Spitzer IRAC and MIPS imaging survey covers a complete area of 0.40 deg 2 for the EP-N and 1.28 deg 2 for the EP-S. WISE observed the whole sky in four mid-infrared bands, 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm, during its eight-month cryogenic mission, including several hundred ecliptic polar passages; here we report on the highest coverage depths achieved by WISE, an area of ∼1.5 deg 2 for both poles. Located close to the center of the EP-N, the Sy-2 galaxy NGC 6552 conveniently functions as a standard calibrator to measure the red response of the 22 μm channel of WISE. Observations from Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS/IRS-LL and WISE show that the galaxy has a strong red color in the mid-infrared due to star-formation and the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), while over a baseline >1 year the mid-IR photometry of NGC 6552 is shown to vary at a level less than 2%. Combining NGC 6552 with the standard calibrator stars, the achieved photometric accuracy of the WISE calibration, relative to the Spitzer and MSX systems, is 2.4%, 2.8%, 4.5%, and 5.7% for W1 (3.4 μm), W2 (4.6 μm), W3 (12 μm), and W4 (22 μm), respectively. The WISE photometry is internally stable to better than 0.1% over the cryogenic lifetime of the mission. The secondary objective of the Spitzer-WISE Survey was to explore the poles at greater flux-level depths, exploiting the higher angular resolution Spitzer observations and the exceptionally deep (in total

  13. Performance of claw-poled PM-stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.P.; Jeng, G.R.; Chen, W.C.; Tsai, M.C.; Wu, K.T.; Yao, Y.D.

    2007-01-01

    Present work is to analyze the performance of a permanent-magnetic (PM) stepping motor with claw poles by using the magnetic-circuit simulation technique. In this paper, we calculate the torque characteristics of the motor, such as the detent and the holding torques, and the step-position error by changing the gap between the upper and the lower stators and the staggered angle between the two stators. Through comparison of numerical data with experiment measurements, we found that the detent torque could be effectively reduced by increasing the stator-to-stator gap and further by decreasing the step-position error. Furthermore, the holding torque could be unchanged as the stator assemblage changed; however, it would be degenerated under the condition of low magnetization

  14. Unitary pole approximations and expansions in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casel, A.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-01-01

    The unitary pole approximations or expansions of the two-body subsystem operators are well known, and particularly efficient and practical, methods to reduce the three-body problem to an effective two-body theory. In the present investigation we develop generalizations of these approximation techniques to the subsystem amplitudes of problems with higher particle numbers. They are based on the expansion of effective potentials which, in contrast to the genuine two-body interactions, are now energy dependent. Despite this feature our generalizations require only energy independent form factors, thus preserving one of the essential advantages of the genuine two-body approach. The application of these techniques to the four-body case is discussed in detail

  15. Lunar South Pole space water extraction and trucking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppero, A.; Zupp, G.; Schnitzler, B.; Larson, T.K.; Rice, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This concept proposes to use thermal processes alone to extract water from the lunar South Pole and launch payloads to low lunar orbit. Thermal steam rockets would use water propellant for space transportation. The estimated mass of a space water tanker powered by a nuclear heated steam rocket suggests it can be designed for launch in the Space Shuttle bay. The performance depends on the feasibility of a nuclear reactor rocket engine producing steam at 1,100 degrees Kelvin, with a power density of 150 Megawatts per ton of rocket, and operating for thousands of 20 minute cycles. An example uses reject heat from a small nuclear electric power supply to melt 17,800 tons per year of lunar ice. A nuclear heated steam rocket would use the propellant water to launch and deliver 3,800 tons of water per year to a 100 km low lunar orbit

  16. Ruthenium therapy of choroidal melanomas of the posterior pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmann, G.; Faschinger, C.; Langmann, A.; Poier, E.

    1992-01-01

    The indications for conservative treatment of intraocular melanomas of the posterior pole with radioactive plaques are controversial. Melanomas located at the macula or adjacent to the fovea are regarded as relative contraindications for conservative treatment. Three melanomas of the macula have been treated at our department meanwhile. The tumor elevation ranged between 3.5 and 6 mm, the distance to the fovea between 0.5 and 2 dd. An average radiation dosage between 130 and 160 Gy was delivered to the apex of the tumors. The duration of observation was between 12 months to 4 years. The tumor regression was satisfactory in all 3 cases, additional photocoagulation was necessary in one case of incomplete tumor regression. Pretreatment visual acuity ranged between 0.8 and 0.1, posttreatment visual acuity between 0.8 and 0.25. In one case we observed a local radiation vasculopathy. General examination did not reveal any signs of metastases. (authors)

  17. Method of regulating magnetic field of magnetic pole center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masao; Yamada, Teruo; Kato, Norihiko; Toda, Yojiro; Kaneda, Yasumasa.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject method comprising using a plurality of magnetic metal pieces having different thicknesses, regulating very easily symmetry of the field of the magnetic pole center depending upon the combination of said metal pieces, thereby obtaining a magnetic field of high precision. Method: The regulation of magnetic field at the central part of the magnetic field is not depending only upon processing of the center plug, axial movement of trim coil and ion source but by providing a magnetic metal piece such as an iron ring, primary higher harmonics of the field at the center of the magnetic field can be regulated simply while the position of the ion source slit is on the equipotential surface in the field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymer electrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Xunlin

    2010-01-01

    Polymers with strong piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity are attractive for a wide range of applications. In particular, semicrystalline ferroelectric polymers are suitable for a large variety of piezo- and pyroelectric transducers or sensors, while amorphous polymers containing chromophore molecules are particularly interesting for photonic devices. Recently, a new class of polymer materials has been added to this family: internally charged cellular space-charge polymer electrets (so-called “ferroelectrets”), whose piezoelectricity can be orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional ferroelectric polymers. Suitable patterning of these materials leads to improved or unusual macroscopic piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectric or nonlinear optical properties that may be particularly useful for advanced transducer or waveguide applications. In the present paper, the piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymers is briefly introduced, an overview on the preparation of polymer electrets with patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity is provided and a survey of selected applications is presented.

  19. The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' for developing the nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' (PNB) is a high-technology and heavy industries cluster in Burgundy with an international calling. It aims at innovating, educating and federating in order to place the French nuclear industry in a leading position. PNB gathers 76 small-, and medium-sized enterprises, most of them operating in the metal sector, in design and in the control/measuring sector. The aim of PNB is to make enterprises work and cooperate on specific topics according to their sectors of activities and their skills. PNB has identified 3 domains of strategical innovations: -) ecological manufacturing and durability of heavy components, -) controls for high performance components, and -) maintenance and dismantling techniques in hostile environments. The various industry sectors represented in PNB allows a cross-fertilization between high-tech industries (aeronautics, energy, transportation)

  20. Determination of regional Euler pole parameters for Eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Schartner, Matthias; Brueckl, Ewald

    2017-04-01

    The horizontal motion of lithospheric plates can be described as rotations around a rotation axes through the Earth's center. The two possible points where this axes intersects the surface of the Earth are called Euler poles. The rotation is expressed by the Euler parameters in terms of angular velocities together with the latitude and longitude of the Euler pole. Euler parameters were calculated from GPS data for a study area in Eastern Austria. The observation network is located along the Mur-Mürz Valley and the Vienna Basin. This zone is part of the Vienna Transfer Fault, which is the major fault system between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. The project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) investigated intra plate tectonic movements within the Austrian part in order to estimate the seismic hazard. Precise site coordinate time series established from processing 5 years of GPS observations are available for the regional network spanning the years from 2010.0 to 2015.0. Station velocities with respect to the global reference frame ITRF2008 have been computed for 23 sites. The common Euler vector was estimated on base of a subset of reliable site velocities, for stations directly located within the area of interest. In a further step a geokinematic interpretation shall be carried out. Therefore site motions with respect to the Eurasian Plate are requested. To obtain this motion field different variants are conceivable. In a simple approach the mean ITRF2008 velocity of IGS site GRAZ can be adopted as Eurasian rotational velocity. An improved alternative is to calculate site-specific velocity differences between the Euler rotation and the individual site velocities. In this poster presentation the Euler parameters, the residual motion field as well as first geokinematic interpretation results are presented.

  1. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  2. Stellar population samples at the galactic poles. IV. Luminosity function for the M-type dwarfs at the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, O.J.

    1976-01-01

    The (UBVRI) photometry of all M dwarfs which are within 10degree of the South Galactic Pole and brighter than visual magnitude 15, and which have annual proper motions greater than 0/sup prime/./sub /096, are discussed. The observations themselves are listed and discussed in a recent Astrophysical Journal Supplement. The luminosity function is found to be very similar, in the overlapping sections, to that previously derived spectrophotometrically from the M stars near the Sun, and the extension to M/subV/ near +13 mag indicates that this luminosity is near the peak of that function. No support is found in these data for the recently suggested superabundance of low velocity M stars near the Sun

  3. Regge poles and Mandelstam representation in potential scattering; Poles de regge et representation de Mandelstam en theorie du potentiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessis, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    We deal with the scattering of two spinless particles interacting by a superposition of Yukawa potentials. We first obtain an upper bound for the scattering amplitude for simultaneous complex values of energy and angular momentum. We then show that the Regge poles remain confined in small domains of the complex angular momentum plane, we study the variation of these domains when the energy (complex) varies. These first results allow us to deduce an upper bound for the double spectral function, this upper bound is used to rigorously show that the Schroedinger equation implies the Mandelstam representation for the type of potentials we deal with. Finally, the problem of subtractions is entirely solved, showing that the Mellin transform of the double spectral function can be analytically continued into the different simple spectral functions. (author) [French] On traite de la diffusion de deux particules sans spin interagissant par l'intermediaire d'une superposition de potentiels de Yukawa. Nous obtenons tout d'abord une majorante pour l'amplitude de diffusion pour des valeurs simultanement complexes de l'energie et du moment cinetique. On montre alors que les Poles de Regge restent confines dans des domaines restreints du plan complexe du moment cinetique, domaines dont nous etudions la variation pour des valeurs complexes de l'energie. Ces premiers resultats nous permettent alors de deduire une majorante pour la fonction spectrale double, majorante qui est utilisee pour demontrer rigoureusement que l'equation de Schroedinger implique la representation de Mandelstam pour la classe des potentiels envisages. Enfin le probleme des soustractions est entierement resolu, en montrant que la transformee de Mellin de la fonction spectrale double se prolonge analytiquement dans les diverses fonctions spectrales simples. (auteur)

  4. Experience on impregnation of wood.en poles with water borne salts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. Leechability. Since the process depends on osmosis, the preservative must be highly soluble in water and rains may wash it away. 2. Diminished Mechanical Strength. Pricking of the pole at and around the ground line will diminish the mechanical strength of the pole. 3. Cost. Most important of all, the cost of the preserva-.

  5. The effect of poling conditions on the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters fabricated by wet chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, Erika Maria-Anai; Gnade, Bruce E; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel; Shah, Pradeep; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of poling conditions on the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters using sol-gel based Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O3-Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3 piezoelectric thin-films has been investigated. A strong correlation was established between the poling

  6. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S; Kimura, Y; Miki, M; Felder, B; Tsuzuki, K; Izumi, M; Ida, T; Umemoto, K; Aizawa, K; Yokoyama, M

    2010-01-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  7. Risk Management in the Original Extreme Sporting Event: The Pole Vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…

  8. Renormalization Group Invariance of the Pole Mass in the Multi-Higgs System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungku

    2018-06-01

    We have investigated the renormalization group running of the pole mass in the multi-Higgs theory in two different types of gauge fixing conditions. The pole mass, when expressed in terms of the Lagrangian parameters, turns out to be invariant under the renormalization group with the beta and gamma functions of the symmetric phase.

  9. Converting point-wise nuclear cross sections to pole representation using regularized vector fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingjie; Ducru, Pablo; Liu, Shichang; Forget, Benoit; Liang, Jingang; Smith, Kord

    2018-03-01

    Direct Doppler broadening of nuclear cross sections in Monte Carlo codes has been widely sought for coupled reactor simulations. One recent approach proposed analytical broadening using a pole representation of the commonly used resonance models and the introduction of a local windowing scheme to improve performance (Hwang, 1987; Forget et al., 2014; Josey et al., 2015, 2016). This pole representation has been achieved in the past by converting resonance parameters in the evaluation nuclear data library into poles and residues. However, cross sections of some isotopes are only provided as point-wise data in ENDF/B-VII.1 library. To convert these isotopes to pole representation, a recent approach has been proposed using the relaxed vector fitting (RVF) algorithm (Gustavsen and Semlyen, 1999; Gustavsen, 2006; Liu et al., 2018). This approach however needs to specify ahead of time the number of poles. This article addresses this issue by adding a poles and residues filtering step to the RVF procedure. This regularized VF (ReV-Fit) algorithm is shown to efficiently converge the poles close to the physical ones, eliminating most of the superfluous poles, and thus enabling the conversion of point-wise nuclear cross sections.

  10. Crown Release Increases Diameter Growth and Bole Sprouting of Pole-Size Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M. Jr. Peterson

    1971-01-01

    During the second and third years after release, dominant, codominant, and intermediate pole-size yellow birch grew nearly twice as fast in diameter as unreleased poles. Growth rates were also related to foliage density. Epicormic sprouting was increased by crown release but most sprouting occured in the second log.

  11. Threshold for strong thermal dephasing in periodically poled KTP in external cavity frequency doubling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundeman, Jesper Holm; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a measurement series of the efficiency of periodically poled KTP used for second-harmonic generation in an external phase-locked cavity. Due to the high absorption (0.01 cm^−1) in the PPKTP crystal at the pump wavelength a strong thermal dephasing of the periodically poled grating...

  12. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.

    2010-06-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  13. Institutional Evaluation in Poles of the Open University System of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexciano de Sousa Martins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study wanted to know the institutional evaluation in poles of distance education, of the Open University of Brazil (UAB system, analyzing the poles of the State of Ceará. The UAB system of the Brazilian Ministry of Education makes it possible to offer courses of higher level agreements with public universities. Ceará counts on UAB poles, since 2006, that form teachers and other professionals, even in regions lacking public higher education. The objective of this study was to discuss the importance of the institutional evaluation in the poles of the Open University of Brazil program through an exploratory and descriptive field research, showing that the institutional evaluation at the poles is minimal and out of line with the legislation in force. Suggestions on how to develop the evaluative practice.

  14. Glass fiber -reinforced plastic tapered poles for transmission and distribution lines: development and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Burachysnsky, V.; Polyzois, D.

    1999-01-01

    A research project to develop lightweight poles for use in power transmission and distribution lines and involving the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic using the filament winding process is described. Twelve full scale specimen poles were designed, fabricated and subjected to cantilever bending to test failure modes. The test parameters included fiber orientation, ratio of longitudinal-to-circumferential fiber, and the number of layers. Results showed that local buckling was the most dominant failure mode, attributable to the high radius-to-thickness ratio of the specimen poles. Overall, however, these fiber-reinforced plastic poles compared favourably to wooden poles in carrying capacity with significant weight reduction. Lateral displacement at ultimate loads did not exceed the acceptable limit of 10 per cent of the specimen free length. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Optimizing detection of road furniture (pole-like object in Mobile Laser Scanner data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the road safety problem is becoming more and more serious recent years, existing road safety assessment by using automatic method is necessary. Meanwhile, since the pole-like objects have large effect on road safety and are in high demand as facilities to be managed, the automatic pole-like objects extraction is becoming a hot issue. As a result, a robust, quick and automatic pole-like object detection algorithm in MLS data is proposed in this paper. Two datasets are tested to show performance of the proposed algorithm, it demonstrates that it is feasible to detect tree with an overall accuracy of over 92% and other pole-like object of 72% in dataset A and 82% of tree points and 75% of other pole points in dataset B.

  16. Non-uniformly sampled grids in double pole coordinate system for freeform reflector construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Pacheco, Shaun; Feng, Zexin; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new method to design freeform reflectors by nonuniformly sampling the source intensity distribution in double pole coordinate system. In double pole coordinate system, there is no pole for the whole hemisphere because both poles of the spherical coordinate system are moved to southernmost point of the sphere and overlapped together. With symmetric definition of both angular coordinates in the modified double pole coordinate system, a better match between the source intensity distribution and target irradiance distribution can be achieved for reflectors with large acceptance solid angle, leading to higher light efficiency and better uniformity on the target surface. With non-uniform sampling of the source intensity, we can design circular freeform reflector to obtain uniform rectangular illumination pattern. Aided by the feedback optimization, the freeform reflector can achieve the collection efficiency for ideal point source over 0.7 and relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 0.1.

  17. FEM Analysis of Brushless DC Servomotor with Fractional Number of Slots per Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALUTA, G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present in this paper the analysis with Finite Element Method (FEM of the magnetic circuit for a Brushless DC servomotor with fractional number of slots/pole (9 slots and 10 poles. For this purpose, FEMM 4.2 software package was used for the analysis. To obtain the waveforms of Back-ElectroMotive Forces (BEMFs, electromagnetic and cogging torque for servomotor a program in LUA scripting language (integrated into interactive shell of FEMM4.2 has been created. A comparation with a structure with integer number of slots/pole (18 slots and 6 poles was also realized. The analysis results prove that the structure chosen is an optimal solution: sinusoidal waveforms of BEMFs, improved electromagnetic torque and reduced cogging torque. Therefore, the operating characteristics of the servomotor with 9/10 slots/poles manufactured by Sistem Euroteh Company and included in an integrated electrical drives system are presented in this paper.

  18. Reliability assessment of power pole infrastructure incorporating deterioration and network maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Paraic C.; Stewart, Mark G.; Spencer, Nathan; Li, Yue

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable investment in timber utility poles worldwide, and there is a need to examine the structural reliability and probability based management optimisation of these power distribution infrastructure elements. The work presented in this paper builds on the existing studies in this area through assessment of both treated and untreated timber power poles, with the effects of deterioration and network maintenance incorporated in the analysis. This more realistic assessment approach, with deterioration and maintenance considered, was achieved using event-based Monte Carlo simulation. The output from the probabilistic model is used to illustrate the importance of considering network maintenance in the time-dependent structural reliability assessment of timber power poles. Under wind load, treated and untreated poles designed and maintained in accordance with existing Australian standards were found to have similar failure rates. However, untreated pole networks required approximately twice as many maintenance based pole replacements to sustain the same level of reliability. The effect of four different network maintenance strategies on infrastructure performance was also investigated herein. This assessment highlighted the fact that slight alterations to network maintenance practices can lead to significant changes in performance of timber power pole networks. - Highlights: • A time-dependent structural reliability model was developed for timber power poles. • Deterioration and network maintenance were incorporated into this event based model. • Network maintenance had a significant impact on power pole wind vulnerability. • Treated and untreated poles designed to Australian standards had similar reliability. • Minor alterations to maintenance strategies had large effects on network performance

  19. Ulysses(*) reaches the South Pole of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    One of the many investigations being carried out is a search for the Sun's south magnetic pole. As in the case of the Earth, the magnetic pole is offset from the rotation axis, and at some time in September it should sweep directly into line with Ulysses. Just as the polar regions of the Earth were the last to be explored, so it is with the Sun. For more than thirty years spacecraft have investigated the stream of electric particles know as the solar wind. Ulysses, developed by ESA, built by European Industry and flown in collaboration with NASA, is the first to fly through the solar wind coming from the poles. As Ulysses reaches its highest solar latitude of 80.2 degrees on 13 September, European and American researchers will gather at the ESA/ESTEC, the European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, for a scientific workshop at which they will assess the results from the nine experiments carried by the spacecraft. For the week of the workshop, the ESA/ESTEC conference centre will be transformed into a busy scientific laboratory. The large meeting rooms will be divided into 24 working areas, where the Ulysses experiment teams will take up temporary residence. Bringing a variety of computing equipment with them, the scientists will be able to retrieve the latest data from the spacecraft and perform detailed analyses. The emphasis will be on informality, with exchange of scientific ideas - and data - the key ingredient, leading ultimately to a better understanding of the fascinating information being gathered by Ulysses on its unique exploratory journey. Presentations to the media at ESA/ESTEC will start at 10h00 on 16 September. Media representatives wishing to attend are kindly requested to fill out the attached form and return it - preferably by fax (+33.1.42.73.76.90) - to : ESA Public Relations Division, 8/10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS. Note to Television Editors : A video index, containing extensive background material on the

  20. Strategi Pengembangan Daerah Growth Pole melalui Pemanfaatan Potensi Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdarti Rusdarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the leading sectors that could be developed in each district in Cilacap Regency as a growth pole area. We use location quotient, shift share, and klassen typology as analysis methods. The research results show that not all of the district at Cilacap regency have a leading sector. Further, districts that have leading sectors are as follows. Wanareja only has a leading sector, i.e. agriculture. Secondly, Kawunganten has two leading sectors, agriculture and finance, rent, and company services. Thirdly, Agriculture becomes the only leading sector of Kampung Laut District. Fourthly, Mining and extraction are the leading sectors of Kesugihan District. Fifthly, Sampang District has buildings and finance sectors as the leading sectors. Sixthly, Kroya District leads in trade, hotel, and restaurant sectors. Seventhly, South Cilacap District leads in mining and extraction sectors. Eighthly, Central Cilacap District has manufacturing, electricity, gas and clean water, building and services as leading sectors. Lastly, North Cilacap District has electricity, gas and clean water, manufacturing, building and services as leading sectors. Abstrak   Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan sektor unggulan yang dapat dikembangkan di tiap kecamatan di Kabupaten Cilacap sebagai salah satu daerah growth pole. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu location quotient, shift share dan klassen typologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak semua kecamatan di kabupaten Cilacap memiliki sektor unggulan. Beberapa daerah yang memiliki sektor unggulan diantaranya adalah  Kecamatan Wanareja hanya memiliki satu sektor unggulan yaitu pertanian. Kedua adalah Kecamatan Kawunganten memiliki dua sektor unggulan yaitu sektor pertanian dan sektor keuangan, persewaan dan jasa perusahaan. Kecamatan Kampung Laut, dimana sektor pertanian pada kecamatan ini sangatlah unggul. Kecamatan kesugihan juga memiliki satu sektor unggulan yaitu

  1. Linking Atmospheric Pollution to Cryospheric Changes over the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Zhang, Q.; Ji, Z.; Li, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Cong, Z.; Chen, P.; Guo, J.; Huang, J.; Tripathee, L.; Rupakheti, D.; Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Panday, A. K.; Rupakheti, M.

    2016-12-01

    Known as "the Third Pole" (TP), the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountains hold the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the pole regions. Recent monitoring and projection indicated an accelerated glacier decline and increasing glacier runoff. The long-range transport of South Asian atmospheric pollutants, including light absorbing impurities (LAIs) such as black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD), can absorb the solar radiation in the atmosphere and reduce albedo after being deposited onto the cryosphere, thereby promoting glacier and snow melt. A coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network has been launched covering the TP with emphasis on trans-Himalayan transects since 2013. TSP were collected for 24h at an interval of 3-6 days. BC/OC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured. Results reveal a consistent decrease in almost all analyzed parameters from south to north across the Himalayas. Geochemical signatures of carbonaceous aerosols indicate dominant sources of biomass burning and vehicle exhaust, in line with results of PAHs. Integrated analysis of satellite images and air mass trajectories suggest that the trans-boundary air pollution occurred episodically and concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons via upper air circulation, through-valley wind, and local convection. Simulation results showed that carbonaceous aerosols produced positive/negative shortwave radiative forcing in the atmosphere/ground surface. Aerosols increased surface air temperatures by 0.1-0.5° over the TP and decreased temperatures in South Asia during the monsoon season. Surface snow/ice samples were collected from benchmark glaciers to estimate the impacts of LAIs on glacier melt with model assistance. BC (37%) and MD (32%) contribute to the summer melting of Laohugou Glacier in the northern TP. MD (38%) contributed more glacier melt than BC (11%) on Zhadang Glacier in the southern TP. In the southeastern TP, BC and MD contribute to 30% of the

  2. Searching for Terrain Softening near Mercury's North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobian, P. S.; Vilas, F.; Lederer, S. M.; Barlow, N. G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, following the initial discovery of radar bright craters near both poles of Mercury measured the depth-todiameter (d/D) ratios of 170 impact craters in Mariner 10 images covering four different regions on Mercury s surface. Rapid softening of crater structure, indicated by lower d/D ratios, could indicate the possibility of subsurface water ice in Mercury's terrain originating from an internal source in the planet. Their study included 3 specific radar bright craters suggested to contain ice. They concluded that no terrain softening was apparent, and a rapidly emplaced exogenic water source was the most likely source for the proposed ice in these craters. Recent radar observations of the Mercurian North pole have pinpointed many additional radar bright areas with a resolution 10x better than previous radar measurements, and which correlate with craters imaged by Mariner 10. These craters are correlated with regions that are permanently shaded from direct sunlight, and are consistent with observations of clean water ice. We have expanded the initial study by Barlow et al. to include d/D measurements of 12 craters newly identified as radar bright at latitudes poleward of +80o. The radar reflectivity resemblances to Mars south polar cap and echoes from three icy Galilean satellites suggest that these craters too may have polar ice on Mercury. The effect of subsurface H20 on impact craters is a decrease in its d/D ratio, and softening of crater rims over a period of time. The study of Barlow et al., focused on determining the d/D ratios of 170 impact craters in the Borealis (north polar), Tolstoj (equatorial), Kuiper (equatorial), and Bach (south polar) quadrangles. This work focuses on the newly discovered radar bright craters, investigating their d/D ratios as an expansion of the earlier work..We compare our results to the statistical results from Barlow et al. here. With the upcoming Messenger spacecraft mission to Mercury, this is an especially timely study

  3. India plans to land near moon's south pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2018-02-01

    Sometime this summer, an Indian spacecraft orbiting over the moon's far side will release a lander. The craft will ease to a soft landing just after lunar sunrise on an ancient, table-flat plain about 600 kilometers from the south pole. There, it will unleash a rover into territory never before explored at the surface. That's the ambitious vision for India's second voyage to the moon in a decade, due to launch in the coming weeks. If Chandrayaan-2 is successful, it will pave the way for even more ambitious Indian missions, such as landings on Mars and an asteroid, as well as a Venus probe. Lunar scientists have much at stake, too. Chandrayaan-2 will collect data on the moon's thin envelope of plasma, as well as isotopes such as helium-3, a potential fuel for future fusion energy reactors. And it will follow up on a stunning discovery by India's first lunar foray, which found water molecules on the moon in 2009.

  4. Self-Poling of BiFeO3 Thick Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakova, Evgeniya; Sadl, Matej; Ursic, Hana; Daniels, John; Malic, Barbara; Bencan, Andreja; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rojac, Tadej

    2016-08-03

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is difficult to pole because of the combination of its high coercive field and high electrical conductivity. This problem is particularly pronounced in thick films. The poling, however, must be performed to achieve a large macroscopic piezoelectric response. This study presents evidence of a prominent and reproducible self-poling effect in few-tens-of-micrometer-thick BiFeO3 films. Direct and converse piezoelectric measurements confirmed that the as-sintered BiFeO3 thick films yield d33 values of up to ∼20 pC/N. It was observed that a significant self-poling effect only appears in cases when the films are heated and cooled through the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition (Curie temperature TC ∼ 820 °C). These self-poled films exhibit a microstructure with randomly oriented columnar grains. The presence of a compressive strain gradient across the film thickness cooled from above the TC was experimentally confirmed and is suggested to be responsible for the self-poling effect. Finally, the macroscopic d33 response of the self-poled BiFeO3 film was characterized as a function of the driving-field frequency and amplitude.

  5. Large optical second-order nonlinearity of poled WO3-TeO2 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Narazaki, A; Hirao, K

    2000-02-15

    Second-harmonic generation, one of the second-order nonlinear optical properties of thermally and electrically poled WO>(3)-TeO>(2) glasses, has been examined. We poled glass samples with two thicknesses (0.60 and 0.86 mm) at various temperatures to explore the effects of external electric field strength and poling temperature on second-order nonlinearity. The dependence of second-harmonic intensity on the poling temperature is maximum at a specific poling temperature. A second-order nonlinear susceptibility of 2.1 pm/V was attained for the 0.60-mm-thick glass poled at 250 degrees C. This value is fairly large compared with those for poled silica and tellurite glasses reported thus far. We speculate that the large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of WO>(3)- TeO>(2) glasses gives rise to the large second-order nonlinearity by means of a X((2)) = 3X((3)) E(dc) process.

  6. Structural behaviour of concrete poles used in electric's power distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Zeynalian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a preliminary study on regional electric companies, it is shown that there is no precise structural design on the concrete poles. This leads to uneconomical and overestimated networks’ components. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the lateral performance of the concrete poles which are employed in electric’s power distribution network. This paper presents a numerical study on structural performance of 12 m concrete poles used in electric’s power distribution network using Abaqus software. A sensitivity study for mesh size is carried out and concrete damaged plasticity has been employed. The results show that relatively coarse mesh (average in damaged concrete method gives more reliable result. Some experimental tests based on the Iranian standards were performed in order to make a bench mark for numerical output. Comparison between numerical and experimental results indicates a good agreement between the results. The outcomes also suggest that while the applied lateral load is less than around 400 kg which is assumed as the nominal resistance of the pole, no transverse crack occurs. Based on both experimental and numerical results, one or two transverse cracks are reported when the applied force reaches up to 600 kg. The rate of cracks is amplified by increasing the applied force; and finally, the pole would lose its capacity when the load rises much more than 1200 kg. The study also shows that the poles are very weak when the load direction changes. Also, it can be concluded that the final strength of the pole is higher than what the standards recommend. Finally, seismic behavior factor of the poles around both main axes are evaluated. The estimated seismic resistance factor for the concrete poles indicates that the prescribed R factor for such structure is relatively low; and can be improved at least 20%.

  7. Integrated 3D printing and corona poling process of PVDF piezoelectric films for pressure sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoejin; Torres, Fernando; Wu, Yanyu; Villagran, Dino; Lin, Yirong; Tseng, Tzu-Liang(Bill

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel process to fabricate piezoelectric films from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer using integrated fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing and corona poling technique. Corona poling is one of many effective poling processes that has received attention to activate PVDF as a piezoelectric responsive material. The corona poling process occurs when a PVDF polymer is exposed to a high electric field created and controlled through an electrically charged needle and a grid electrode under heating environment. FDM 3D printing has seen extensive progress in fabricating thermoplastic materials and structures, including PVDF. However, post processing techniques such as poling is needed to align the dipoles in order to gain piezoelectric properties. To further simplify the piezoelectric sensors and structures fabrication process, this paper proposes an integrated 3D printing process with corona poling to fabricate piezoelectric PVDF sensors without post poling process. This proposed process, named ‘Integrated 3D Printing and Corona poling process’ (IPC), uses the 3D printer’s nozzle and heating bed as anode and cathode, respectively, to create poling electric fields in a controlled heating environment. The nozzle travels along the programmed path with fixed distance between nozzle tip and sample’s top surface. Simultaneously, the electric field between the nozzle and bottom heating pad promotes the alignment of dipole moment of PVDF molecular chains. The crystalline phase transformation and output current generated by printed samples under different electric fields in this process were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and through fatigue load frame. It is demonstrated that piezoelectric PVDF films with enhanced β-phase percentage can be fabricated using the IPC process. In addition, mechanical properties of printed PVDF was investigated by tensile testing. It is expected to expand the use of additive

  8. Don't trust equivalency presumptions when choosing distribution poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollins, M.

    2003-08-01

    The variety of electric power distribution poles are described (wood, steel, prestressed concrete) in an effort to alert utilities that simple substitution of one type of pole for another based on presumed equivalency entails the risk that the replacement poles are unfit for the load conditions and do not comply with National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) requirements. A thorough evaluation of all design loads and the proper application of the appropriate overload and strength factors must take place prior to selecting the type of replacement to avoid misapplication of a product in situations for which it was not designed. Relevant provisions of NESC are described.

  9. Frequent POLE1 p.S297F mutation in Chinese patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Wang, Feng [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Li, Wei [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Mei-Zhen [Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); Huang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Qun [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Xu, Xiao-Yun [Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); Huang, Ou-Ping, E-mail: huangouping@gmail.com [Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); He, Ming, E-mail: jxhm56@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Nanchang University School of Pharmaceutical Science, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2014-03-15

    The catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE1) functions primarily in nuclear DNA replication and repair. Recently, POLE1 mutations were detected frequently in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas while with lower frequency in several other types of cancer, and the p.P286R and p.V411L mutations were the potential mutation hotspots in human cancers. Nevertheless, the mutation frequency of POLE1 in ovarian cancer still remains largely unknown. Here, we screened a total of 251 Chinese samples with distinct subtypes of ovarian carcinoma for the presence of POLE1 hotspot mutations by direct sequencing. A heterozygous somatic POLE1 mutation, p.S297F (c.890C>T), but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was identified in 3 out of 37 (8.1%) patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma; this mutation was evolutionarily highly conserved from Homo sapiens to Schizosaccharomyces. Of note, the POLE1 mutation coexisted with mutation in the ovarian cancer-associated PPP2R1A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, α) gene in a 46-year-old patient, who was also diagnosed with ectopic endometriosis in the benign ovary. In addition, a 45-year-old POLE1-mutated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma patient was also diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma while the remaining 52-year-old POLE1-mutated patient showed no additional distinctive clinical manifestation. In contrast to high frequency of POLE1 mutations in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, no POLE1 mutations were identified in patients with other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed for the first time that the POLE1 p.S297F mutation, but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was frequent in Chinese ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but absent in other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. These results implicated that POLE1 p.S297F mutation might be actively involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but might not be actively

  10. Investigation of experimental pole-figure errors by simulation of individual spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lychagina, T. A.; Nikolaev, D. I.

    2007-01-01

    The errors in measuring the crystallographic texture described by pole figures are studied. A set of diffraction spectra for a sample of the MA2-1 alloy (Mg + 4.5% Al + 1% Zn) are measured, simulation of individual spectra on the basis of which the pole figures were obtained is performed, and their errors are determined. The conclusion about the possibility of determining the effect of errors of the diffraction peak half-width on the pole figure errors that was drawn in our previous studies is confirmed

  11. Frequent POLE1 p.S297F mutation in Chinese patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Wang, Feng; Li, Wei; Huang, Mei-Zhen; Huang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Huang, Ou-Ping; He, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE1) functions primarily in nuclear DNA replication and repair. Recently, POLE1 mutations were detected frequently in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas while with lower frequency in several other types of cancer, and the p.P286R and p.V411L mutations were the potential mutation hotspots in human cancers. Nevertheless, the mutation frequency of POLE1 in ovarian cancer still remains largely unknown. Here, we screened a total of 251 Chinese samples with distinct subtypes of ovarian carcinoma for the presence of POLE1 hotspot mutations by direct sequencing. A heterozygous somatic POLE1 mutation, p.S297F (c.890C>T), but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was identified in 3 out of 37 (8.1%) patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma; this mutation was evolutionarily highly conserved from Homo sapiens to Schizosaccharomyces. Of note, the POLE1 mutation coexisted with mutation in the ovarian cancer-associated PPP2R1A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, α) gene in a 46-year-old patient, who was also diagnosed with ectopic endometriosis in the benign ovary. In addition, a 45-year-old POLE1-mutated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma patient was also diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma while the remaining 52-year-old POLE1-mutated patient showed no additional distinctive clinical manifestation. In contrast to high frequency of POLE1 mutations in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, no POLE1 mutations were identified in patients with other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed for the first time that the POLE1 p.S297F mutation, but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was frequent in Chinese ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but absent in other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. These results implicated that POLE1 p.S297F mutation might be actively involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but might not be actively

  12. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in non-global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is determined by solving Laplace tide equations which take into account the presence of continents in oceans, oceanic self-gravitation and loading, and mantle elasticity. Dynamical effects are found to be only mild. It is shown that the dynamical pole tide contributes about one day more to the Chandler period than a static pole tide would, and dissipates wobble energy at a very weak rate. It is noted that, depending on the wobble period predicted for an oceanless elastic earth, mantle anelasticity at low frequencies may nevertheless contribute negligibly to the Chandler period.

  13. Tuning characteristics of narrowband THz radiation generated via optical rectification in periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C; Torosyan, G; Meyn, J P; Wallenstein, R; Beigang, R; Avetisyan, Y

    2001-04-23

    The tuning properties of pulsed narrowband THz radiation generated via optical rectification in periodically poled lithium niobate have been investigated. Using a disk-shaped periodically poled crystal tuning was easily accomplished by rotating the crystal around its axis and observing the generated THz radiation in forward direction. In this way no beam deflection during tuning was observed. The total tuning range extended from 180 GHz up to 830 GHz and was limited by the poling period of 127 microm which determines the maximum THz frequency in forward direction.

  14. Raman probes based on optically-poled double-clad fiber and coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Margulis, Walter; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    of a sample of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), when illuminating the waveguide with 1064nm laser light. The Raman signal is collected in the inner cladding, from which it is retrieved with either a bulk dichroic mirror or a double-clad fiber coupler. The coupler allows for a substantial reduction of the fiber......Two fiber Raman probes are presented, one based on an optically-poled double-clad fiber and the second based on an optically-poled double-clad fiber coupler respectively. Optical poling of the core of the fiber allows for the generation of enough 532nm light to perform Raman spectroscopy...

  15. Diagnosis of excessive vibration signals of two-pole generator rotors in balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Po

    2000-01-01

    Cause of excessive vibration with twice the rotational speed of a two-pole generator rotor for the fossil power plants was investigated. The two-pole generator rotor, treated as a typically asymmetric rotor in vibration analysis, produces asynchronous vibration with twice the rotational speed, sub-harmonic critical speeds, and potentially unstable operating zones due to its own inertia and/or stiffness asymmetry. This paper introduces a practical balancing procedure, and presents the results of the investigation on sources of the excessive vibration based on the experimental vibration data of the asymmetric two-pole rotor in balancing

  16. Investigation of the spatial distribution of second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Honglin; Fleming, Simon

    2005-05-02

    The spatial distribution of second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled optical fibers was characterized by second-harmonic microscopy. The second-order nonlinearity was found to be confined to a thin layer close to the anode surface and progressed further into the silica as the poling time increased. Position uncertainty of the anode metal wire was observed to have an effect, as the nonlinear layers were found not always symmetrically located around the nearest points between the anode and cathode. Optical microscopy results were obtained on etched poled fiber cross-sections and compared with those from second-harmonic microscopy.

  17. Integrated fiber Michelson interferometer based on poled hollow twin-core fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihai; Bo, Fusen; Wang, Lei; Tian, Fengjun; Yuan, Libo

    2011-07-01

    We propose an integrated fiber Michelson interferometer based on a poled hollow twin-core fiber. The Michelson interferometer can be used as an electro-optic modulator by thermal poling one core of the twin-core fiber and introducing second-order nonlinearity in the fiber. The proposed fiber Michelson interferometer is experimentally demonstrated under driving voltages at the frequency range of 149 to 1000 Hz. The half-wave voltage of the poled fiber is 135 V, and the effective second-order nonlinear coefficient χ² is 1.23 pm/V.

  18. Semiclassical approach to Regge poles trajectories calculations for nonsingular potentials: Thomas-Fermi type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, S M; Avdonina, N B; Felfli, Z; Marletta, M; Msezane, A Z; Naboko, S N

    2004-01-01

    A simple semiclassical approach, based on the investigation of anti-Stokes line topology, is presented for calculating Regge poles for nonsingular (Thomas-Fermi type) potentials, namely potentials with singularities at the origin weaker than order -2. The anti-Stokes lines for Thomas-Fermi potentials have a more complicated structure than those of singular potentials and require careful application of complex analysis. The explicit solution of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition is used to obtain approximate Regge poles. We introduce and employ three hypotheses to obtain several terms of the Regge pole approximation

  19. Manufacturing aspects of the new Pole Face correcting coils for the PS main magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bodart, D

    2011-01-01

    This document reports about the Pole Face Winding (PFW) installed in the Main Magnets of the PS accelerator. Composed by sets of 4 and installed on every magnet, they are made of copper conductors and installed directly on the poles of the magnets. Their role is to compensate the saturation effect of the pole shape of the magnet yoke and compensate the eddy current in the vacuum chambers. Their manufacturing has evolved over the years, the dedicated fabrication process and requirements are explained in this document.

  20. Periods, poles, and shapes of Saturn's irregular moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    We report rotational-lightcurve observations of irregular moons of Saturn based on disk-integrated observations with the Narrow-Angle Camera of the Cassini spacecraft. From 24 measured rotation periods, 20 are now known with an accuracy of ~2% or better. The numbers are as follows (in hours; an '*' marks the less reliable periods): Hati 5.42; Mundilfari 6.74; Loge 6.94*; Skoll 7.26; Kari 7.70; Suttungr 7.82*, Bergelmir 8.13; Phoebe 9.274; Siarnaq 10.188; Narvi 10.21; Tarvos 10.69; Skathi 11.30; Ymir 11.922; Hyrrokkin 12.76; Greip 12.79*; Ijiraq 13.03; Albiorix 13.32; Bestla 14.624; Bebhionn 16.40; Paaliaq 18.75; Kiviuq 21.96; Erriapus 28.15; Thrymr 35 or >45* Tarqeq 76.8.More recent data strengthen the notion that objects in orbits with an inclination supplemental angle i' > 27° have significantly slower spin rates than those at i' 27°, Siarnaq, stands opposed to at least eight objects with faster spins and i' 27° bin contains all nine known prograde moons and four retrograde objects.A total of 25 out of 38 known outer moons has been observed with Cassini, and there is no chance to observe the 13 missing objects until end-of-mission. However, all unobserved objects are part of the i' 27° are known, and none of them is a fast rotator, with no exception.Several objects were observed repeatedly to determine pole directions, sidereal periods, and convex shapes. A few lightcurves have been observed to show three maxima and three minima even at low phase angles, suggesting objects with a triangular equatorial cross-section. Some objects with 2 maxima/ 2 minima are probably quite elongated. One moon even shows lightcurves with 4 maxima/ 4 minima.

  1. Cytoarchitecture, probability maps and functions of the human frontal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, S; Eickhoff, S B; Mohlberg, H; Caspers, S; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K; Amunts, K

    2014-06-01

    The frontal pole has more expanded than any other part in the human brain as compared to our ancestors. It plays an important role for specifically human behavior and cognitive abilities, e.g. action selection (Kovach et al., 2012). Evidence about divergent functions of its medial and lateral part has been provided, both in the healthy brain and in psychiatric disorders. The anatomical correlates of such functional segregation, however, are still unknown due to a lack of stereotaxic, microstructural maps obtained in a representative sample of brains. Here we show that the human frontopolar cortex consists of two cytoarchitectonically and functionally distinct areas: lateral frontopolar area 1 (Fp1) and medial frontopolar area 2 (Fp2). Based on observer-independent mapping in serial, cell-body stained sections of 10 brains, three-dimensional, probabilistic maps of areas Fp1 and Fp2 were created. They show, for each position of the reference space, the probability with which each area was found in a particular voxel. Applying these maps as seed regions for a meta-analysis revealed that Fp1 and Fp2 differentially contribute to functional networks: Fp1 was involved in cognition, working memory and perception, whereas Fp2 was part of brain networks underlying affective processing and social cognition. The present study thus disclosed cortical correlates of a functional segregation of the human frontopolar cortex. The probabilistic maps provide a sound anatomical basis for interpreting neuroimaging data in the living human brain, and open new perspectives for analyzing structure-function relationships in the prefrontal cortex. The new data will also serve as a starting point for further comparative studies between human and non-human primate brains. This allows finding similarities and differences in the organizational principles of the frontal lobe during evolution as neurobiological basis for our behavior and cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  2. Hydrological network and classification of lakes on the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Weicai; Yao, Tandong; Lu, Ning; Lu, Anxin

    2018-05-01

    The intensity and form of changes in closed lakes, upstream lakes and outflow lakes on the Third Pole (TP) differ based on their drainage mode. Researchers' insufficient understanding of the hydrological networks associated with lakes hampers studies of the relationship between lakes and climate. In this study, we establish a comprehensive hydrological network for each lake (>1 km2) on the TP using 106 Landsat images, 236 Chinese topographic maps, and SRTM DEM. Three-hundred-ninety-seven closed lakes, 488 upstream lakes and 317 outflow lakes totaling 3,5498.49 km2, 7,378.82 km2, and 3,382.29 km2, respectively, were identified on the TP using 2010 data. Two-hundred-thirty-four closed lakes were found to not be linked to upstream lakes. The remaining 163 closed lakes were connected to and fed by the 488 upstream lakes. The object-oriented analyses within this study indicated that more rapid changes occurred in the surface extent of closed lakes than in upstream lakes or outflow lakes on the TP from 1970 s to 2010. Furthermore, the water volume of the examined closed lakes was almost nine times greater than that of the upstream lakes from 2003 to 2009. All the examined closed lakes exhibited an obvious water volume change compared to the corresponding upstream lakes in the same basin. Furthermore, two case studies illustrate that the annual and seasonal dynamics associated with the changes in closed lakes may reflect climate change patterns, while the upstream lake dynamics may be more controlled by the lakeshore terrain and drainage characteristics. The lake inventory and hydrological network catalogued in this study provide a basis for developing a better understanding of lake response to climate change on the TP.

  3. ULYSSES comes full circle, before revisiting the Sun's poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    From its unique perspective, Ulysses has provided scientists with the very first all-round map of the heliosphere, the huge bubble in space filled by the Sun's wind. The Earth swims deep inside the heliosphere, and gusts and shocks in the solar wind can harm satellites, power supplies and ommunications. They may also affect our planet's weather. A better grasp of the solar weather in the heliosphere is therefore one of the major aims of ESA's science programme. In a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA, Ulysses was launched towards Jupiter in October 1990 by the US space shuttle Discovery. Arriving in February 1992, Ulysses stole energy from the giant planet in a slingshot manoeuvre and was propelled back towards the Sun in an elongated orbit almost at right angles to the ecliptic plane, where the Earth and other planets circle the Sun. "This month Ulysses returns to the point in space where its out-of-ecliptic journey began, but Jupiter isn't there," explains Richard Marsden, ESA's project scientist for Ulysses. "Following its own inexorable path around the Sun, Jupiter is far away on the opposite side of the Solar System. So Ulysses' course will not be changed a second time. The spacecraft is now in effect a man-made comet, forever bound into a 6-year polar orbit around the Sun." Ulysses now starts its second orbit. It will travel over the poles of the Sun in 2000-2001 just as the count of dark sunspots is expected to reach a maximum. With its operational life extended for the Ulysses Solar Maximum Mission, the spacecraft will find the heliosphere much stormier than during its first orbit. Discoveries so far Like its mythical namesake, Ulysses has already had an eventful voyage of discovery. Its unique trajectory has provided the scientific teams with a new perspective, from far out in space and especially in the previously unknown regions of the heliosphere over the Sun's poles. Passing within 9.8 degrees of the polar axis, the highly

  4. Influence of the absorptive part of the complex potential on the S-Matrix poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, C.; Grama, N.; Zamfirescu, I

    2001-01-01

    Although the polology of the S-matrix has been extensively studied, it occurred that some aspects remained disputable in the case of complex central potential V(r)=gV(r), g in C . These aspects are related to the origin of the observed narrow Σ-hypernuclear states that have been interpreted by Gal, Toker and Alexander as states which correspond to S-matrix poles situated in the second k-plane quadrant. From the analytical properties of the S-matrix for a real potential it results that there is no pole in the first and second k-plane quadrants, except for the imaginary k-axis. By switching on the absorption the S-matrix poles for real potential can evolve into the second quadrant of the k-plane. A critical study of the Σ-hypernuclear states needs the analysis of the motion of the S-matrix poles in the k-plane for variable complex coupling strength g. Recently contradictory opinions relative to the S-matrix poles trajectories in the complex k-plane for a complex square potential occurred. According to some authors the poles in the second quadrant can occur either from bound state poles moving anticlockwise, or from virtual state poles and capture resonant state poles moving clockwise as the absorption is switched on. Dabrowski argues that the statement made by Gal et al, Bonetti et al and Oset et al concerning the movement of the virtual poles with increasing absorptive potential is in general not correct. Dabrowski relates the direction in which the pole moves when the potential absorption increases to the direction in which the pole moves with increasing the real part of the potential, without clarifying this last question. For example, two poles moving in opposite directions along the imaginary k-axis are associated by Dabrowski to the same state. This is a wrong result, because one should associate a single pole to each quantum state. The aim of our work is to study the influence of the absorptive part of the potential on the S-matrix poles for the non

  5. Repair of impact damaged utility poles with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Vehicle collisions with steel or aluminum utility poles are common occurrences that yield substantial but often repairable : damage. This project investigates the use of a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite system for in situ repair that : mini...

  6. Fault Current Distribution and Pole Earth Potential Rise (EPR) Under Substation Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnassereddine, M.; Rizk, J.; Hellany, A.; Nagrial, M.

    2013-09-01

    New high-voltage (HV) substations are fed by transmission lines. The position of these lines necessitates earthing design to ensure safety compliance of the system. Conductive structures such as steel or concrete poles are widely used in HV transmission mains. The earth potential rise (EPR) generated by a fault at the substation could result in an unsafe condition. This article discusses EPR based on substation fault. The pole EPR assessment under substation fault is assessed with and without mutual impedance consideration. Split factor determination with and without the mutual impedance of the line is also discussed. Furthermore, a simplified formula to compute the pole grid current under substation fault is included. Also, it includes the introduction of the n factor which determines the number of poles that required earthing assessments under substation fault. A case study is shown.

  7. Performance analysis of variable speed multiphase induction motor with pole phase modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huijuan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pole phase modulation (PPM technique is an effective method to extend speed range and torque capabilities for an integrated starter and hybrid electric vehicles applications. In this paper, the five pole-phase combination types of a multiphase induction motor (IM with 36 stator slots and 36 stator conductors are presented and compared quantitatively by using the time-stepping finite element method (TS-FEM. The 36 stator conductors of the proposed multiphase IM are fed by a 36 leg inverter and the current phase angle and amplitude of each stator conductor can be controlled independently. This paper focuses on the winding connection, the PPM technique and the performance comparative analysis of each pole-phase combination types of the proposed multiphase IM. The flux distribution, air-gap flux density, output torque, core losses and efficiency of five pole-phase combination types have been investigated.

  8. The effects of poling on physiological, kinematic and kinetic responses in roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasaas, Erik; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of poling on physiological, kinematic and kinetic responses in the G4 skating technique where the poling movement is synchronized with the leg push-off on one side (strong side) followed by a forward arm swing during the leg push-off on the other side (weak side). G4 skating with (G4-P) and without (G4-NP) poling was compared in 17 elite male cross-country skiers during 4-min submaximal tests on a 2% inclined roller ski treadmill at 10, 15 and 20 km h(-1). G4-P demonstrated less ventilatory stress and higher gross efficiency compared to G4-NP at all velocities, and the blood lactate concentration was lower at the high velocity (all P skating technique. Thus, poling provides possibilities to increase total propulsion, to reduce ski forces and to enhance skiing efficiency.

  9. REGION NORTH OF TEACHER EDUCATION POLICY AND EVALUATION OF POLES OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso José da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to present, in general, the north region and policies for teacher training implemented in the last 5 years, locating in this context the importance of the Brazil Open University system and its supporting poles face as methodology research linked to the project "Institutionalization of Distance Education in Brazil." Greater emphasis will be given to data from the states of Pará and Acre, given that two authors of this text act as coordinators of the poles supporting attendance System Open University of Brazil in these states. We design the text, based on testimony of poles coordinators who participated in participatory research, conducted by the Research Group "Teacher education and information and communication technologies", LANTE / UFF. We aim also to identify the structure and functioning of the Poles face Supporting UAB in the North as well as the assessment tool applied in this region.

  10. Low equation, pion-nucleon scattering, and Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, K.; Nogami, Y.

    1986-01-01

    We examine the p-wave πN scattering at medium energies by means of the Low equation with a view to determining the form factor of the πN interaction. Solutions of the equation with and without a Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson (CDD) pole are used. The solution with no CDD pole corresponds to the old Chew-Low model, whereas the one with a CDD pole corresponds to the quark version of the Chew-Low model. The πN interaction form factor is determined so that the Δ resonance is well reproduced. We find that the solution with a CDD pole leads to a softer form factor but is not as soft as those expected from the nucleon size in the quark model. Using the solutions and form factors thus determined, we also examine the pionic contributions to the nucleon magnetic moment and the nucleon mass

  11. The cos2φ azimuthal asymmetry of unpolarized dilepton production at the Z pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the Boer-Mulders effect contribution to the cos2φ azimuthal asymmetry of unpolarized dilepton production near the Z-pole. Based on the tree-level expression in the transverse momentum dependent factorization framework, we show that the corresponding asymmetry near the Z-pole is negative, which is opposite to the asymmetry in the low Q 2 region, dominated by the production via a virtual photon. We calculate the asymmetry generated by the Boer-Mulders effect near the Z-pole at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with √(s)=500 GeV. We find that the magnitude of the asymmetry is several percent, and therefore it is measurable. The experimental confirmation of this sign change of the asymmetry from the low Q 2 region to the Z-pole provides direct evidence of the chiral-odd structure of quarks inside an unpolarized nucleon.

  12. RHEED transmission mode and pole figures thin film and nanostructure texture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    2014-01-01

    This unique book covers the fundamental principle of electron diffraction, basic instrumentation of RHEED, definitions of textures in thin films and nanostructures, mechanisms and control of texture formation, and examples of RHEED transmission mode measurements of texture and texture evolution of thin films and nanostructures. Also presented is a new application of RHEED in the transmission mode called RHEED pole figure technique that can be used to monitor the texture evolution in thin film growth and nanostructures and is not limited to single crystal epitaxial film growth. Details of the construction of RHEED pole figures and the interpretation of observed pole figures are presented.  Materials covered include metals, semiconductors, and thin insulators. This book also: Presents a new application of RHEED in the transmission mode Introduces a variety of textures from metals, semiconductors, compound semiconductors, and their characteristics in RHEED pole figures Provides examples of RHEED measurements o...

  13. Pahane Berlusconi : pole ma teile mingi kääbus / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis toimuvate parlamendivalimiste võidus täiesti kindel olev Itaalia ekspeaminister Silvio Berlusconi pole rahul karikatuuridega, mis rõhutavad ta lühikest kasvu. Vt. samas: Soovitus: teenige rohkem!

  14. Subtotal splenectomy preserving the inferior splenic pole for the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Subtotal splenectomy is efficacious to preserve the splenic functions and to prevent adverse effects of a large spleen on the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma confined to superior pole and producing significant abdominal symptoms and hematological effects.

  15. The Impact of Obajana Cement Company as a Growth Pole in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remember me, or Register ... Results of analysis are discussed and presented in tables, graphs and pictures. The study found ... Key words: Economic Development, Growth pole, Multiplier effect, Regional development, Spatial development ...

  16. Sensing technology for damage assessment of sign supports and cantilever poles : final report, August 31, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    This report presents the results of research activities conducted under Contract No. 519691-PIT 008 on Sensing Technology for : Damage Assessment of Sign Supports and Cantilever Poles between the University of Pittsburgh and the Pennsylvania De...

  17. Separate Vertical Wirings for the Extra-articular Fractures of the Distal Pole of the Patella

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Mo; Yang, Jun Young; Kim, Kyung Cheon; Kang, Chan; Joo, Yong Bum; Lee, Woo Yong; Hwang, Jung Mo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of separate vertical wirings for extra-articular fracture of distal pole of patella. Materials and Methods We have analyzed the clinical results of 18 cases that underwent separate vertical wirings for extra-articular fracture of distal pole of the patella from March 2005 to March 2010, by using the range of motion and Bostman score. Occurrence of complication was also evaluated. Additionally, by taking simple radiographs, the correlation between the postope...

  18. CABLE MECHANISMS USED FOR ACTUATING CAR ELEVATORS WITH 2 AND 4 POLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MESARICI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the kinematic scheme and the operating mode of the cable mechanism used for car elevators with 2 and 4 poles. In order to increase the efficiency of the 4- pole elevator, we suggest using a new hoists type cable mechanism, which can multiply the piston travel inside the actuating cylinder twice at the platform level, when lifting and lowering.

  19. Direct kinetochore?spindle pole connections are not required for chromosome segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Magidson, Valentin; Steinman, Jonathan B.; He, Jie; Le Berre, Ma?l; Tikhonenko, Irina; Ault, Jeffrey G.; McEwen, Bruce F.; Chen, James K.; Sui, Haixin; Piel, Matthieu; Kapoor, Tarun M.; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Segregation of genetic material occurs when chromosomes move to opposite spindle poles during mitosis. This movement depends on K-fibers, specialized microtubule (MT) bundles attached to the chromosomes? kinetochores. A long-standing assumption is that continuous K-fibers connect every kinetochore to a spindle pole and the force for chromosome movement is produced at the kinetochore and coupled with MT depolymerization. However, we found that chromosomes still maintained their position at the...

  20. PolyPole-1: An accurate numerical algorithm for intra-granular fission gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzocri, D.; Rabiti, C.; Luzzi, L.; Barani, T.; Van Uffelen, P.; Pastore, G.

    2016-01-01

    The transport of fission gas from within the fuel grains to the grain boundaries (intra-granular fission gas release) is a fundamental controlling mechanism of fission gas release and gaseous swelling in nuclear fuel. Hence, accurate numerical solution of the corresponding mathematical problem needs to be included in fission gas behaviour models used in fuel performance codes. Under the assumption of equilibrium between trapping and resolution, the process can be described mathematically by a single diffusion equation for the gas atom concentration in a grain. In this paper, we propose a new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the fission gas diffusion equation in time-varying conditions. The PolyPole-1 algorithm is based on the analytic modal solution of the diffusion equation for constant conditions, combined with polynomial corrective terms that embody the information on the deviation from constant conditions. The new algorithm is verified by comparing the results to a finite difference solution over a large number of randomly generated operation histories. Furthermore, comparison to state-of-the-art algorithms used in fuel performance codes demonstrates that the accuracy of PolyPole-1 is superior to other algorithms, with similar computational effort. Finally, the concept of PolyPole-1 may be extended to the solution of the general problem of intra-granular fission gas diffusion during non-equilibrium trapping and resolution, which will be the subject of future work. - Highlights: • A new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) for intra-granular fission gas release in time-varying conditions is developed. • The concept combines the modal analytic solution for constant conditions and a polynomial correction. • PolyPole-1 is extensively verified and compared to other state-of-the-art algorithms. • PolyPole-1 exhibits a superior accuracy and a similar computational time relative to other algorithms. • The PolyPole-1 algorithm can be