WorldWideScience

Sample records for pole motor operation

  1. Magnetic field modeling and optimal operational control of a single-side axial-flux permanent magnet motor with center poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-T.; Lee, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed approach for analyzing magnetic field distributions of a single-sided axial-flux permanent magnet motor with center poles will be provided. Based on the devised flux model, the related position-dependent torque and axial force of the motor can be systematically developed. By incorporating adequate control designs, the optimal operational performance of the motor system can be conveniently achieved. Results showed that not only the motor structure is suitable for related military and transportation applications, but also the magnetic field model can provide appropriate mathematical basis for relative operational realizations

  2. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.; Casada, D.A.

    1996-11-26

    A new instrument is described for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician. 4 figs.

  3. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S; Kimura, Y; Miki, M; Felder, B; Tsuzuki, K; Izumi, M; Ida, T; Umemoto, K; Aizawa, K; Yokoyama, M

    2010-01-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  4. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.

    2010-06-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  5. An electrical gearbox by means of pole variation for induction and superconducting disc motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inacio, S; Inacio, D; Pina, J M; Valtchev, S; Neves, M V; Rodrigues, A L

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a poly-phase disc motor innovative feeding and control strategy, based on a variable poles approach, and its application to a HTS disc motor, are presented. The stator windings may be electronically commutated to implement a 2, 4, 6 or 8 poles winding, thus changing the motor's torque/speed characteristics. The motor may be a conventional induction motor with a conductive disc rotor, or a new HTS disc motor, with conventional copper windings at its two iron semi-stators, and a HTS disc as a rotor. The conventional induction motor's operation principle is related with the induced electromotive forces in the conductive rotor. Its behaviour, characteristics (namely their torque/speed characteristics for different number of pole pairs) and modelling through Steinmetz and others theories are well known. The operation principle of the motor with HTS rotor, however, is rather different and is related with vortices' dynamics and pinning characteristics; this is a much more complex process than induction, and its modelling is quite complicated. In this paper, the operation was simulated through finite-elements commercial software, whereas superconductivity was simulated by the E-J power law. The Electromechanical performances of both motors where computed and are presented and compared. Considerations about the systems overall efficiency, including cryogenics, are also discussed

  6. Induction Motor with Switchable Number of Poles and Toroidal Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU, A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of an induction motor provided with toroidal stator winding. The ring-type coils offer a higher versatility in obtaining a different number of pole pairs by means of delta/star and series/parallel connections respectively. As consequence, the developed torque can vary within large limits and the motor can be utilized for applications that require, for example, high load torque values for a short time. The study involves experimental tests and FEM simulation for an induction machine with three configurations of pole pairs. The conclusions attest the superiority of the toroidal winding for certain applications such as electric vehicles or lifting machines.

  7. Levitation Performance of Two Opposed Permanent Magnet Pole-Pair Separated Conical Bearingless Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Peter; Jansen, Ralph; Dever, Timothy; Nagorny, Aleksandr; Loparo, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    In standard motor applications, rotor suspension with traditional mechanical bearings represents the most economical solution. However, in certain high performance applications, rotor suspension without contacting bearings is either required or highly beneficial. Examples include applications requiring very high speed or extreme environment operation, or with limited access for maintenance. This paper expands upon a novel bearingless motor concept, in which two motors with opposing conical air-gaps are used to achieve full five-axis levitation and rotation of the rotor. Force in this motor is created by deliberately leaving the motor s pole-pairs unconnected, which allows the creation of different d-axis flux in each pole pair. This flux imbalance is used to create lateral force. This approach is different than previous bearingless motor designs, which require separate windings for levitation and rotation. This paper examines the predicted and achieved suspension performance of a fully levitated prototype bearingless system.

  8. Development of a superconducting claw-pole motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, E.; Kikukawa, K.; Satoh, Y.; Torii, S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed and produced a superconducting claw-pole motor for a trial purpose as a method to make the best use of the characteristic of superconductivity without collector rings or rotating superconducting coils that need to be cryocooled, and made some examinations. The unique feature in this motor is to have the mechanism that supports the reaction magnetic force generated in the axial direction

  9. Pole Shape Optimization of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using the Reduced Basis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jabbari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an integrated method of pole shape design optimization for reduction of torque pulsation components in permanent magnet synchronous motors is developed. A progressive design process is presented to find feasible optimal shapes. This method is applied on the pole shape optimization of two prototype permanent magnet synchronous motors, i.e., 4-poles/6-slots and 4-poles-12slots.

  10. Performance of claw-poled PM-stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.P.; Jeng, G.R.; Chen, W.C.; Tsai, M.C.; Wu, K.T.; Yao, Y.D.

    2007-01-01

    Present work is to analyze the performance of a permanent-magnetic (PM) stepping motor with claw poles by using the magnetic-circuit simulation technique. In this paper, we calculate the torque characteristics of the motor, such as the detent and the holding torques, and the step-position error by changing the gap between the upper and the lower stators and the staggered angle between the two stators. Through comparison of numerical data with experiment measurements, we found that the detent torque could be effectively reduced by increasing the stator-to-stator gap and further by decreasing the step-position error. Furthermore, the holding torque could be unchanged as the stator assemblage changed; however, it would be degenerated under the condition of low magnetization

  11. High-performance permanent magnet brushless motors with balanced concentrated windings and similar slot and pole numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumberger, Bojan; Stumberger, Gorazd; Hadziselimovic, Miralem; Hamler, Anton; Trlep, Mladen; Gorican, Viktor; Jesenik, Marko

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison between the performances of exterior-rotor permanent magnet brushless motors with distributed windings and the performances of exterior-rotor permanent magnet brushless motors with concentrated windings. Finite element method analysis is employed to determine the performance of each motor. It is shown that motors with concentrated windings and similar slot and pole numbers exhibit similar or better performances than motors with distributed windings for brushless AC (BLAC) operation mode and brushless DC (BLDC) operation mode as well

  12. Iron Pole Shape Optimization of IPM Motors Using an Integrated Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JABBARI, A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An iron pole shape optimization method to reduce cogging torque in Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM motors is developed by using the reduced basis technique coupled by finite element and design of experiments methods. Objective function is defined as the minimum cogging torque. The experimental design of Taguchi method is used to build the approximation model and to perform optimization. This method is demonstrated on the rotor pole shape optimization of a 4-poles/24-slots IPM motor.

  13. A Principle and Winding Design of Consequent-Pole Bearingless Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaga, Tomohiro; Kubota, Yutaka; Chiba, Akira; Fukao, Tadashi

    Recently, bearingless motors have been developed to enhance motor drive systems with magnetic suspension. Several types of motors have been proposed as bearingless motors, such as induction, surface mounted permanent magnet, inset permanent magnet, interior permanent magnet, buried permanent magnet, homopolar, hybrid, and switched reluctance bearingless motors. Permanent magnet bearingless motors have been attracting more interests in these years because of the high efficiency. In this paper, a consequent-pole bearingless motor is proposed. A rotor has buried permanent magnets, of which polarities are like. The radial force of a consequent-pole bearingless motor is generated by dc current. Thus, rotational angular position is not needed in a magnetic suspension controller. Radial force variations caused by a rotor rotation are minimized by improving arrangement of stator suspension conductors. A prototype bearingless motor and its controller are built. In experiment, principles of magnetic suspension in the proposed consequent-pole bearingless drive are confirmed.

  14. Electromagnetic Radial Forces in a Hybrid Eight-Stator-Pole, Six-Rotor-Pole Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Siebert, Mark W.; Ho, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis and experimental measurement of the electromagnet force loads on the hybrid rotor in a novel bearingless switched-reluctance motor (BSRM) have been performed. A BSRM has the combined characteristics of a switched-reluctance motor and a magnetic bearing. The BSRM has an eight-pole stator and a six-pole hybrid rotor, which is composed of circular and scalloped lamination segments. The hybrid rotor is levitated using only one set of stator poles. A second set of stator poles imparts torque to the scalloped portion of the rotor, which is driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by a processor. Analysis was done for nonrotating rotor poles that were oriented to achieve maximum and minimum radial force loads on the rotor. The objective is to assess whether simple one-dimensional magnetic circuit analysis is sufficient for preliminary evaluation of this machine, which may exhibit strong three-dimensional electromagnetic field behavior. Two magnetic circuit geometries, approximating the complex topology of the magnetic fields in and around the hybrid rotor, were employed in formulating the electromagnetic radial force equations. Reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions was obtained with typical magnetic bearing derating factors applied to the predictions.

  15. 3-D finite element analysis of claw-poled stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Mizuno; Koike, Yoshikazu

    2002-01-01

    Stepping motors are widely used for various electric instruments. It is necessary for the optimum design to analyze the magnetic field accurately. The 3-D finite element method with edge elements taking into account the rotation of the rotor has been applied to analyze the magnetic field of a claw-poled stepping motor. (Author)

  16. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-12-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.

  17. Motor-operator gearbox efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, we compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators we tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer

  18. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer

  19. Force Profiles of a Linear Switched Reluctance Motor Having Special Pole Face Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHADRESEKAR, V.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of a finite element analysis are carried out on an new stator geometry of a three phase longitudinal flux Linear Switched Reluctance Motor (LSRM. In the new geometry, pole shoes are affixed to the stator poles. Static and dynamic characteristics for the proposed structure have been highlighted. Motor performance for variable load conditions is discussed. Frequency spectrum analyses of force profile using the fast Fourier transform (FFT are described to predict the vibration frequencies. The 2-Dimensional (2-D finite element analysis (FEA and the experimental results of this paper prove that LSRMs are one of the strong candidates for linear propulsion drives.

  20. Performance analysis of variable speed multiphase induction motor with pole phase modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huijuan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pole phase modulation (PPM technique is an effective method to extend speed range and torque capabilities for an integrated starter and hybrid electric vehicles applications. In this paper, the five pole-phase combination types of a multiphase induction motor (IM with 36 stator slots and 36 stator conductors are presented and compared quantitatively by using the time-stepping finite element method (TS-FEM. The 36 stator conductors of the proposed multiphase IM are fed by a 36 leg inverter and the current phase angle and amplitude of each stator conductor can be controlled independently. This paper focuses on the winding connection, the PPM technique and the performance comparative analysis of each pole-phase combination types of the proposed multiphase IM. The flux distribution, air-gap flux density, output torque, core losses and efficiency of five pole-phase combination types have been investigated.

  1. Flux Concentration and Pole Shaping in a Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2010-01-01

    The single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM) may be a good candidate for low-cost drives used for pump applications. This paper presents a new design of the HSRM with improved starting torque achieved by stator pole shaping, and a better arrangement of the embedded stator permanent...

  2. Modeling the starting performance of high power solid rotor salient pole synchronous motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.; Sadowski, N. [GRUCAD/Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Grander, L.O. [ELETROSUL Power Stations S.A., Florianopolis, SC 88040-901 (Brazil); Ruencos, F.; Ogawa, C.; Fo, F.J. Doubrawa [WEG Energy, Jaragua do Sul, SC 89256-900 (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    A computer model, including analytical and FEM formulations, was developed to calculate the starting performance of synchronous motors with solid rotor salient poles. Using quasi-steady state equations, the average and the envelope of the oscillating electromagnetic torque as well as the stator rms current are calculated. With the stator current, the rotor pole losses are evaluated by FEM. The complete simulation process is performed by self-contained software composed by several computational modules properly tiled to simplify the work of a design engineer. The calculated starting performance was compared to experimental results showing satisfactory consistency. (author)

  3. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Ruiz, H. S.; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-03-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied under the same experimental conditions, what results in about three times larger magnetic pole areas but with an average drop on the peaks of trapped magnetic field of about 50%.

  4. Radial Force and Acoustic Noise Reduction for Switched Reluctance Motor with Hole inside Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Masayuki; Nakata, Kazuaki; Morimoto, Shigeo; Takeda, Yoji; Yamai, Hiroyuki

    A switched reluctance motor (SRM) has a simple construction, for example double saliency, and the rotor contains no windings or magnets. However, the disadvantage of the acoustic noise associated with this motor cannot be ignored. The acoustic noise is generated primarily by the radial force acting in the radial direction. As the excitation current is cut off, the radial force is suddenly reduced to 0. The stator yoke repeats attraction and release motion as the commutation at the excitation winding is repeated. This attraction and release motion excites the resonance frequency of the stator. In this paper, a new rotor pole structure is proposed to improve the acoustic noise of the SRM. The FEM analysis of the torque and radial force indicates that the presence of a hole in the rotor pole reduces the radial force. In addition, the effect of the radial force reduction was found to depend only slightly on the height of the hole, whereas the dependence on the width of the hole was significant. Experimental findings confirmed that a rotor pole having a hole is an effective method by which to improve the noise.

  5. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhen; Ruiz, H.S.; Coombs, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  6. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhen, E-mail: zhen.huang@sjtu.edu.cn [Academy of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ruiz, H.S., E-mail: dr.harold.ruiz@le.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Coombs, T.A., E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  7. 75 FR 65650 - Notice of Closure to Motorized Vehicle Travel on Public Lands in the Big Pole Fire Area in Tooele...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Land Management (BLM), within the Big Pole Fire area in Tooele County, Utah. DATES: This temporary... of Closure to Motorized Vehicle Travel on Public Lands in the Big Pole Fire Area in Tooele County, UT... 65651

  8. Two-Degree-of-Freedom Self-Tuning Control for Motor Drives Using Pole-Zero Cancellation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Akio

    In this paper, we present an excellent method named pole-zero cancellation (PZC) for designing motor control systems. PZC is performed in the z plane. A control system consists of three controllers, i.e., a speed controller, a position controller, and an adaptive identifier. The speed controller has two degrees of freedom: disturbance suppression and tracking speed, both of which can be regulated. The pulse transfer function used for regulating the tracking speed has two poles and one zero. When one pole and one zero coincide and cancel each other, the pulse transfer function is of the first-order lag type, and overshoots do not appear. The adaptive controller determines the coefficients of the pulse transfer function and adjusts the speed controller automatically so that the poles and zeros coincide. The transfer function of the position controller also has one pole and one zero, which cancel another pole and zero; pole 1 in the closed loop is not cancelled, and hence, position overshoots do not appear. A 2.2-kW induction motor is tested. The motor torque is controlled using a rapid torque control method. In this paper, first, the tracking-speed characteristics and the tracking-position characteristics are presented. Next, the identified transient coefficients are given, and finally, the disturbance-suppression characteristics are discussed. The experimental results prove the usefulness of the proposed method.

  9. Optimization Design and Performance Analysis of a PM Brushless Rotor Claw Pole Motor with FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of permanent magnet (PM brushless claw pole motor (CPM with soft magnetic composite (SMC core is designed and analyzed in this paper. The PMs are mounted on the claw pole surface, and the three-phase stator windings are fed by variable-frequency three-phase AC currents. The advantages of the proposed CPM are that the slip rings on the rotor are cast off and it can achieve the efficiency improvement and higher power density. The effects of the claw-pole structure parameters, the air-gap length, and the PM thinner parameter of the proposed CPM on the output torque are investigated by using three-dimensional time-stepping finite element method (3D TS-FEM. The optimal rotor structure of the proposed CPM is obtained by using the response surface methodology (RSM and the particle swarm optimization (PSO method and the comparison of full-load performances of the proposed CPM with different material cores (SMC and silicon steel is analyzed.

  10. Gd-123 bulk field pole magnets cooled with condensed neon for axial-gap type synchronous motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, T.; Kimura, Y.; Sugyo, D.; Yamaguchi, K.; Izumi, M.; Ida, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Miki, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have conducted to develop an axial-gap type synchronous propulsion motor with Gd-bulk HTS field pole magnets. It has been established on the fundamental technology upon the liquid nitrogen cooling. In the present study, we aimed an output improvement of the motor by the magnetic flux density enhancement of the bulk HTS, in a word, the trapped magnetic flux density on the HTS bulk. The output of the motor depends on the physics of the motor, the magnetic flux density, and the electric current density flowing through the armature. We have employed a condensed neon with a helium GM refrigerator. The bulk HTS placed on the rotor disk inside the motor frame was successfully cooled down with circulating condensed neon. The temperature at the bulk HTS surface reached 38 K. Upon magnetization, we developed controlled magnetic field density distribution coil (CMDC) composed of a couple of pulsed copper armature coil. In the magnetization procedure, with decreasing magnetization temperature, minute by minute, after Sander and Kamijyo that the step cooling magnetization method was used. In addition, the CMDC coil has enabled to control the applied flux distribution. Three parameters as the temperature, the applied magnetic field, and the effective applied flux density distribution were changed within eight times pulsed magnetizations in total. Up to 4th pulsed magnetization, we kept (1st step) high temperature, and subsequent pulsed magnetizations were done at low temperature. As a result, the highest maximum trapped magnetic flux density was reached 1.31 T, about 2.5 times compared to the value obtained upon cooling with liquid nitrogen. Consequently, the output of the motor has been enhanced to 25 kW from 10 kW taken in the previous operation

  11. Motor-operated valve (MOV) actuator motor and gearbox testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1997-07-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory tested the performance of electric motors and actuator gearboxes typical of the equipment installed on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plants. Using a test stand that simulates valve closure loads against flow and pressure, the authors tested five electric motors (four ac and one dc) and three gearboxes at conditions a motor might experience in a power plant, including such off-normal conditions as operation at high temperature and reduced voltage. They also monitored the efficiency of the actuator gearbox. All five motors operated at or above their rated starting torque during tests at normal voltages and temperatures. For all five motors, actual torque losses due to voltage degradation were greater than the losses calculated by methods typically used for predicting motor torque at degraded voltage conditions. For the dc motor the actual torque losses due to elevated operating temperatures were greater than the losses calculated by the typical predictive method. The actual efficiencies of the actuator gearboxes were generally lower than the running efficiencies published by the manufacturer and were generally nearer the published pull-out efficiencies. Operation of the gearbox at elevated temperature did not affect the operating efficiency

  12. STUDYING THE EFFECT OF AN ADDITIONAL ACTIVE RESISTANCE IN THE FIELD WINDING CIRCUIT ON STARTING CHARACTERISTICS OF SALIENT-POLE SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Malyar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the developed method for calculating steady-state asynchronous operation modes of salient-pole synchronous motors, a procedure of mathematical modelling of the starting characteristics is proposed. The problem of calculating the steady-state asynchronous mode is solved as a boundary value one for differential equations of motor circuit electrical equilibrium. Algebraization of the system of differential equations is carried out by approximating the equations of state using cubic spline functions on a grid of period nodes, taking into account the periodic law of variation of the coordinates. This results in the changeover from continual values to nodal ones. The starting static characteristics are calculated using the parameter continuation method. The study of the effect of the starting resistance value on the asynchronous characteristics of the motor relied on a mathematical model of the motor taking into consideration real field circuits, saturation and asymmetry of the magnetic path.

  13. Rotor Pole Shape Optimization of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motors Using the Reduced Basis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHOLAMIAN, A. S.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a magnet shape optimization method for reduction of cogging torque and torque ripple in Permanent Magnet (PM brushless DC motors is presented by using the reduced basis technique coupled by finite element and design of experiments methods. The primary objective of the method is to reduce the enormous number of design variables required to define the magnet shape. The reduced basis technique is a weighted combination of several basis shapes. The aim of the method is to find the best combination using the weights for each shape as the design variables. A multi-level design process is developed to find suitable basis shapes or trial shapes at each level that can be used in the reduced basis technique. Each level is treated as a separated optimization problem until the required objective is achieved. The experimental design of Taguchi method is used to build the approximation model and to perform optimization. This method is demonstrated on the magnet shape optimization of a 6-poles/18-slots PM BLDC motor.

  14. Simulink(Trademark) Controller for a Reluctance Motor With a Four-Pole Rotor and 36-Tooth Stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a Simulink(Trademark) controller logic for driving a room temperature, 36-teeth stator, four-pole rotor reluctance motor. The Simulink logic was extracted from an existing C++ motor controller that was previously employed to achieve a rotor speed of 3000 rpm. The Simulink controller has additional logic refinements that were not available in past C++ controller, such as the per rev logic component and its frequency filter. The filter provides a more accurate reading of the rotor input signals. The controller is versatile, and with slight modifications, can be used to drive other reluctance motor types incorporating dissimilar stator rotor pole combinations. The original C++ controller was designed with the goal (after appropriate modification) of controlling a future superconducting motor. This superconducting motor will be employed as a test bed for developing other superconducting aviation propulsion motors envisioned for future turbo-electric aircrafts. The Simulink results presented in this paper were generated from simulated rotor inputs. However, in an actual application, these simulated inputs are to be replaced by actual proximity probe signals emanating from D-Space hardware inputs.

  15. Application of diagnostics to determine motor operated valve operational readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    ORNL has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor current signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment

  16. Performance of a fractional dc electric motor equipped with plastic bonded Nd2Fe14B stator poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaides, G.K.; Atanassova, Y.K.; Ioannides, M.G.; Tsamakis, D.M.; Gamari-Seale, H.

    1997-01-01

    Injection molding Nd 2 Fe 14 B plastic bonded magnetic material is pressed into the form of cylindrical ring segments in order to investigate its performance when used in the manufacturing of stator poles of fractional power dc motors. Measurements of speed and armature current versus different load torques were performed. The experimental results obtained for stator poles made by three plastic bonded Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnetic materials of different densities, are compared to those results obtained by using a pair of typical barium ferrite stator poles. The torque versus speed curves, the obtained mechanical power versus speed and the efficiency of the motor as a function of the speed are presented. The torque speed data in high speeds follow a linear law, as is expected by theory, while at low speeds, below a crossover point, a deviation from this linearity appears. This is attributed to temperature effects. In this work it is shown that in the region of light loads and high speeds, at a certain speed, the injection molded Nd 2 Fe 14 B permanent magnet stators produce a higher electromagnetic torque, higher mechanical power, and higher efficiency than the barium ferrite ones. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Characteristics of Hybrid Type Switched Reluctance Motor with Salient Pole Stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Jun; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Takashi; Koga, Takahiro

    In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid type SRM with salient pole stator, which has a pair of permanent magnets attached symmetrically between the iron poles of the rotor. The paper describes experimental results of not only basic characteristics of the Hybrid SRM but also characteristics with current control loop under optimized advanced firing angle and cut-off angle. Considerable improvement of machine performance, especially efficiency and power factor, in the Hybrid SRM over conventional VR type SRM is confirmed.

  18. Operation modes of the molecular motor kinesin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepelt, S.; Lipowsky, R.

    2009-01-01

    The velocity and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis rate of the molecular motor kinesin are studied using a general network representation for the motor, which incorporates both the energetics of ATP hydrolysis and the experimentally observed separation of time scales between chemical and mechanical transitions. Both the motor velocity and its hydrolysis rate can be expressed as superpositions of excess fluxes for the directed cycles (or dicycles) of the network. The sign of these dicycle excess fluxes depends only on two thermodynamic control parameters as provided by the load force F and the chemical energy Δμ released during the hydrolysis of a single ATP molecule. In contrast, both the motor velocity and its hydrolysis rate depend, in general, on the load force F as well as on the three concentrations of ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and inorganic phosphate (P), separately. Thus, in order to represent the different operation modes of the motor in the (F,Δμ) plane, one has to specify two concentrations such as the product concentrations [ADP] and [P]. As a result, we find four different operation modes corresponding to the four possible combinations of ATP hydrolysis or synthesis with forward or backward mechanical steps. Our operation diagram implies in particular that backward steps are coupled to ATP hydrolysis for sufficiently large ATP concentrations, but to ATP synthesis for sufficiently large ADP and/or P concentrations.

  19. 32 CFR 935.139 - Motor vehicle operator qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle operator qualifications. 935.139... AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.139 Motor vehicle operator qualifications. (a) No person may operate a privately owned motor vehicle on Wake Island unless he has an island...

  20. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a motor...

  1. Training aids: the motor operator valve trainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, B.

    1987-01-01

    The spectrum of training aids used in the nuclear industry runs the gamut from the very basic (i.e., valve training aids - gate, globe, check) to the highly complex (i.e., nuclear full scope simulator). Designing and purchasing the best training aids take much time, detailed investigation, and good understanding of plant operations. The training aid that has given the New York Power Authority the best results has been the motor operator valve (MOV) trainer. Some of the items that make the MOV trainer a good choice are: (1) large number of MOVs in the plant, (2) importance of MOVs to safe plant operation, (3) detailed MOV procedures used by the plant, (4) history of MOV problems, and (5) ability to demonstrate important concepts and operation - hammer blow effect, torque and limit switch adjustment and functions, and actual sequence of operation of the limitorque valve operator

  2. Fundamental processes governing operation and degradation in state of the art P-OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew; Asada, Kohei; Cass, Michael; Coward, Chris; King, Simon; Lee, Andrew; Pintani, Martina; Ramon, Miguel; Foden, Clare

    2010-05-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of operation and degradation of model fluorescent blue bilayer polymer organic light emitting diodes (P-OLED). Optical and electrical simulations of bilayer P-OLEDs are used to highlight the key material and device parameters required for efficient recombination and outcoupling of excitons. Mobility data for a model interlayer material poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene-N-(4-(2-butyl)phenyl)-diphenylamine) (TFB) and a model fluorescent blue light emitting material poly-(9,9'- dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N, N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'- phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (95:5 mol%) (F8-PFB random copoloymer), is shown to satisfy the key charge transport characteristics required to ensure exciton formation at the optimum location for efficient extraction of the light where μh (LEP) 90%) of the quenching sites produced. This highlights the importance of understanding these reversible phenomena in improving P-OLED lifetime and commercial adoption of the technology.

  3. Motor current signature analysis for determining operational readiness of motor-operated valves (MOVs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryter, R.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a novel diagnostic process for condition monitoring of electric-motor-driven mechanical equipment (e.g., pumps, motor-operated valves, compressors, and processing machinery). The MCSA process identifies, characterizes, and trends over time the instantaneous load variations of mechanical equipment in order to diagnose changes in the condition of the equipment (e.g., due to degradation or service wear), which, if allowed to continue, may lead to failure. It monitors the instantaneous variations (noise content) in the electric current flowing through the power leads to the electric motor that drives the equipment. The motor itself thereby acts as a transducer, sensing both large and small, long-term and rapid, mechanical load variations and converting them to variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. This motor current noise signature is detected, amplified, and further processed as needed to examine its time domain and frequency domain (spectral) characteristics. The operational principles of MCSA and the nonintrusive data collection apparatus and procedure used with MOVs will be described. Data collected from MOVs in both laboratory and in-plant environments will also be shown to illustrate the ability of MCSA to ''see'' the detailed inner workings of the valve and operator and thus to detect degraded performance at an incipient stage. (Set of 18 vugraphs)

  4. 77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0097] Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance. SUMMARY... (RG) 1.106, ``Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves.'' This...

  5. Materials processing, pulsed field magnetization and field-pole application to propulsion motors on Gd123 bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, M; Xu, C; Xu, Y; Morita, E; Kimura, Y; Hu, A; Ichihara, M; Murakami, M; Sakai, N; Hirabayashi, I; Sugimoto, H; Miki, M

    2008-01-01

    Gd123 bulk superconductor is one of the promising magnet materials. We studied the materials processing to grow high performance magnet with a doping of nano-sized metal oxides such as ZrO 2 as a candidature of pinning centre. The enhancement of the critical current density was obtained. Growth of nano-sized particles of Gd211 in addition to BaZrO 3 were observed by TEM. The formation of nano-sized particles appears a key to improve the integrated flux trapped inside the bulks and the TEM reveals an intriguing effect of the addition to the microstructure of bulk materials. Magnetization process is crucial especially for an extended machinery. Pulsed field magnetization was applied to the field-pole bulk on the rotor disk of the tested synchronous motor. The trapped flux density of 1.3 T for Gd123 bulk sample and of 60 mm diameter was reached in the limited dimension of the tested motor by a step cooling method down to 38 K with a closed-cycle condensed neon. The pulsed magnetic field was applied with a new type of split-armature coil. A large bulk of 140 mm diameter has also shown a potential flux trapping superior to other smaller specimens. The bulk magnet provides a strong magnetic field around the bulk body itself with high current density relative to a coil winding. A comparative drawing of a 'torque density' of a variety of motors which is defined as the torque divided by the volume of the motor indicates a potential advantage of bulk motor as a super permanent magnet motor

  6. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars to...

  7. Motor operated valves problems tests and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinier, D.; Haas, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the two refusals of operation of the EAS recirculation shutoff valves enabled two distinct problems to be identified on the motorized valves: the calculation methods for the operating torques of valves in use in the power plants are not conservative enough, which results in the misadjustement of the torque limiters installed on their motorizations, the second problem concerns the pressure locking phenomenon: a number of valves may entrap a pressure exceeding the in-line pressure between the disks, which may cause a jamming of the valve. EDF has made the following approach to settle the first problem: determination of the friction coefficients and the efficiency of the valve and its actuator through general and specific tests and models, definition of a new calculation method. In order to solve the second problem, EDF has made the following operations: identification of the valves whose technology enables the pressure to be entrapped: the tests and numerical simulations carried out in the Research and Development Division confirm the possibility of a open-quotes boilerclose quotes effect: determination of the necessary modifications: development and testing of anti-boiler effect systems

  8. Motor operated valves problems tests and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinier, D.; Haas, J.L.

    1996-12-01

    An analysis of the two refusals of operation of the EAS recirculation shutoff valves enabled two distinct problems to be identified on the motorized valves: the calculation methods for the operating torques of valves in use in the power plants are not conservative enough, which results in the misadjustement of the torque limiters installed on their motorizations, the second problem concerns the pressure locking phenomenon: a number of valves may entrap a pressure exceeding the in-line pressure between the disks, which may cause a jamming of the valve. EDF has made the following approach to settle the first problem: determination of the friction coefficients and the efficiency of the valve and its actuator through general and specific tests and models, definition of a new calculation method. In order to solve the second problem, EDF has made the following operations: identification of the valves whose technology enables the pressure to be entrapped: the tests and numerical simulations carried out in the Research and Development Division confirm the possibility of a {open_quotes}boiler{close_quotes} effect: determination of the necessary modifications: development and testing of anti-boiler effect systems.

  9. Teaching about operation of brushless DC motors

    OpenAIRE

    Čufar, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Brush DC motor is being replaced by brushless DC motors on every area of application. My diploma thesis is a presentation of brushless DC motor, how it works and its application. Within first part we describe various electric motors and their application. There are several types of electric motors division. Last to be added is a brushless motor. Within second part of thesis we look into a brushless DC motor, how it works, its application and control. In the third part of thesis we construct a...

  10. Comparison of 2D and 3D magnetic field analysis of single-phase shaded pole induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Dalcali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There has always been doubt on the accuracy of 2D analysis of small electric machines. To investigate the validity of this doubt, in this present work a small uni-coil shaded-pole induction motor is analyzed in 2D and 3D and the results are compared. In order to maintain the paper size as compact, the analysis is limited to the air-gap flux density distribution, variation of the main winding inductance against current and the force acting on the rotor body; which are the important components of the motor performance. It is found that although 3D analysis consumes several times more computing time and storage space, improvement achieved in performance by use of 3D analysis is not very significant. % rms difference between the two cases is obtained as 0.76% for the main winding inductance and 0.59% for the force acting on the rotor body. Also the air-gap flux density distribution obtained from the two types of analysis is found to be very close to each other. Therefore it is concluded that despite more computing time, more storage requirements and more human effort in the case of 3D analysis, the degree of improvement is not proportionally rewarding, and hence, 2D analysis is sufficient for the analysis of small machines.

  11. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors, as compa......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors...

  12. Features of Synchronous Electronically Commutated Motors in Servomotor Operation Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirba J.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the features and operation specifics of the synchronous permanent magnet motors and the synchronous reluctance motors with electronic commutation in servomotor operation modes. Calculation results show that mechanical and control characteristics of studied motors are close to a linear shape. The studied motor control is proposed to implement similar to phase control of induction servomotor; it means that angle θ (angle between vectors of the supply voltage and non-load electromotive force or angle ε (angle between rotor direct axis and armature magnetomotive force axis is changed. The analysis results show that synchronous electronically commutated motors could be used as servomotors.

  13. Gamow-Jordan vectors and non-reducible density operators from higher-order S-matrix poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, A.; Loewe, M.; Maxson, S.; Patuleanu, P.; Puentmann, C.; Gadella, M.

    1997-01-01

    In analogy to Gamow vectors that are obtained from first-order resonance poles of the S-matrix, one can also define higher-order Gamow vectors which are derived from higher-order poles of the S-matrix. An S-matrix pole of r-th order at z R =E R -iΓ/2 leads to r generalized eigenvectors of order k=0,1,hor-ellipsis,r-1, which are also Jordan vectors of degree (k+1) with generalized eigenvalue (E R -iΓ/2). The Gamow-Jordan vectors are elements of a generalized complex eigenvector expansion, whose form suggests the definition of a state operator (density matrix) for the microphysical decaying state of this higher-order pole. This microphysical state is a mixture of non-reducible components. In spite of the fact that the k-th order Gamow-Jordan vectors has the polynomial time-dependence which one always associates with higher-order poles, the microphysical state obeys a purely exponential decay law. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. Development of the cryo-rotary joint for a HTS synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, M; Felder, B; Tsuzuki, K; Izumi, M [Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Hayakawa, H, E-mail: d082025@kaiyodai.ac.j [Kitano Seiki Co. Ltd., 7-17-3, Chuo, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0024 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    We have studied a prototype of an axial-gap type synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets since 2001. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, these bulks have trapped over 1 T inside the motor after being applied the pulsed field magnetization method. Increasing the flux of the field poles is the most straightforward way of improving the output power of the motor. Cooling down the bulk HTS magnets below the liquid nitrogen temperature provides an effective alternative to increase the magnetic flux trapping. In 2007, we exchanged the cryogen from liquid nitrogen to condensed neon. The key technology of this challenge is a rotary joint, introducing a fluid cryogen into the rotating body in the motor from the static reservoir. We have successfully developed a compact rotary joint which is smaller and lighter than the existent one (1/10 volume, 1/3 length and 1/12 weight). The present joint was manufactured and evaluated with liquid nitrogen and condensed neon. We presume a total heat loss of this rotary joint of less than 10 watts. Successful cooling and rotating tests of the bulk-HTS motor with this novel rotary joint are conducted.

  15. Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan Burdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known

  16. IE Information No. 87-08: Degraded motor leads in Limitorque dc motor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    On May 6, 1986 the NRC received from Portland General Electric Company a 10 CFR 21 report concerning a motor failure which occurred at its Trojan Nuclear Power Plant. The failure involved shorting of the motor leads inside a Limitorque motor operator connected to an auxiliary feedwater flow control valve. Upon inspection it was determined that the failure was the result of insulation degradation of the motor leads that had allowed two leads to short together. Recently, the NRC has also learned of a failure at the Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant in which the steam supply valve for the auxiliary feedwater turbine failed to operate after a Limitorque motor operator experienced a similar motor lead short circuit. The Trojan and the Turkey Point Limitorque operators were found to contain motors manufactured with Nomex-Kapton insulated leads. On January 12--14, 1987, the NRC conducted an inspection at Peerless-Winsmith, Inc., manufacturer of dc motors for Limitorque Co. During this inspection it was determined that the failed Nomex-Kapton leads were different than the leads which were fitted to the motors, tested, and documented in Limitorque Qualification Report B-0009 for dc motor operators. The leads attached to the tested motors were insulated with Nomex plus an epoxy impregnated braided fiberglass sleeve. The NRC knows of no analysis or testing that has been performed to show the Nomex-Kapton leads are acceptable for use in an application requiring environmental qualification. Further, it should be noted that the failures cited above occurred under normal operating conditions, not under the harsh conditions which could occur in areas where environmental qualification is required

  17. Driver detention times in commercial motor vehicle operations : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to better understand : the nature of detention times in the commercial motor : vehicle (CMV) industry. Detention time refers to the : time that CMV operators may experience at shipping : and receiving facilities associ...

  18. Performance exploration of an energy harvester near the varying magnetic field of an operating induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, Yunus; Kurt, Erol

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper explores the piezoelectric harvester performance. • The varying magnetic field generates electricity via exciting harvester. • Generated power should be optimized via load resistance. • 0.11 mW/cm 3 Power can be generated from 500 cm 3 surrounding volume. - Abstract: This paper reports a performance exploration of a piezoelectric harvester which is positioned near an operating induction motor. The harvester includes a magnet knob in a pendulum arrangement, which ascertains mechanical vibrations under the varying magnetic field. This energy harvester transforms the ambient unused magnetic energy into the electricity due to the piezoelectric layer attached to the pendulum. It has been proven that when the motor is under operation, the varying ambient field causes a varying magnetic force at the tip of harvester, then output voltage between the terminals of piezoelectric layer is produced due to the mechanical vibrations. This output signal has some characteristics of the operating induction motor in terms of its operation frequency, number of magnetic pole and natural frequency of the harvester. Since the surrounding field of the induction motor directly depends on the current flowing through the windings and electrical parameters, both the amplitude U and the frequency ω m of the harvested voltage can be characterized after some certain parametrical explorations. It has been proven that the harvested voltage strictly depends on the electrical load, which is attached to the terminals of the harvester, after the rectifying circuit. The harvested power per surrounding volume can be increased up to 0.11 mW/cm 3 , if the entire surrounding volume of the motor is considered

  19. Fluid logic control circuit operates nutator actuator motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Fluid logic control circuit operates a pneumatic nutator actuator motor. It has no moving parts and consists of connected fluid interaction devices. The operation of this circuit demonstrates the ability of fluid interaction devices to operate in a complex combination of series and parallel logic sequence.

  20. Motor proteins and molecular motors: how to operate machines at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2013-01-01

    Several classes of biological molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical work are known as motor proteins or molecular motors. These nanometer-sized machines operate in noisy stochastic isothermal environments, strongly supporting fundamental cellular processes such as the transfer of genetic information, transport, organization and functioning. In the past two decades motor proteins have become a subject of intense research efforts, aimed at uncovering the fundamental principles and mechanisms of molecular motor dynamics. In this review, we critically discuss recent progress in experimental and theoretical studies on motor proteins. Our focus is on analyzing fundamental concepts and ideas that have been utilized to explain the non-equilibrium nature and mechanisms of molecular motors. (topical review)

  1. Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) for Operation in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Colin M.; Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Some, Rafi; Sirota, Allen; Kopf, Ted; Stern, Ryan; Hunter, Don

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extreme environment capable Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) module suitable for operation with a distributed architecture of future spacecraft systems. This motor controller is designed to be a bus-based electronics module capable of operating a single Brushless DC motor in extreme space environments: temperature (-120 C to +85 C required, -180 C to +100 C stretch goal); radiation (>;20K required, >;100KRad stretch goal); >;360 cycles of operation. Achieving this objective will result in a scalable modular configuration for motor control with enhanced reliability that will greatly lower cost during the design, fabrication and ATLO phases of future missions. Within the heart of the DMC lies a pair of cold-capable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that enable its miniaturization and operation in extreme environments. The ASICs are fabricated in the IBM 0.5 micron Silicon Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS process and are comprised of Analog circuitry to provide telemetry information, sensor interface, and health and status of DMC. The FPGA contains logic to provide motor control, status monitoring and spacecraft interface. The testing and characterization of these ASICs have yielded excellent functionality in cold temperatures (-135 C). The DMC module has demonstrated successful operation of a motor at temperature.

  2. Electromagnetic characteristics and static torque of a solid salient poles synchronous motor computed by 3D-finite element method magnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popnikolova Radevska, Mirka; Cundev, Milan; Petkovska, Lidija

    2002-01-01

    In these paper is presented a methodology for numerical determination and complex analysis of the electromagnetic characteristics of the Solid Salient Poles Synchronous Motor, with rated data: 2.5 kW, 240 V and 1500 r.p.m.. A mathematical model and original algorithm for the nonlinear and iterative calculations by using Finite Element Method in 3D domain will be given. The program package FEM-3D will be used to perform automatically mesh generation of the finite elements in the 3D domain, calculation of the magnetic field distribution, as well as electromagnetic characteristics and Static torque in SSPSM. (Author)

  3. 42 CFR 84.145 - Motor-operated blower test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor-operated blower test; minimum requirements... Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.145 Motor-operated blower test; minimum requirements. (a) Motor-operated... connection between the motor and the blower shall be so constructed that the motor may be disengaged from the...

  4. Implementation challenges of a motor operated valve program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    Electric motor operated valves (MOVs) have become a global focus of attention for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators due to reported operability problems in the last decade. Many NPPs have or are in the process of setting up maintenance programs to address MOV operability issues. Bruce B is in the initial stages of implementing such a program. This paper outlines some of the challenges that have been encountered and how they are being approached to establish an effective program. (author)

  5. Induction Motors Most Efficient Operation Points in Pumped Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busca-Forcos, Andreea; Marinescu, Corneliu; Busca, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    efficiency is desired especially when operating with renewable energy systems, which present low energy conversion factor (up to 50% - performance coefficient for wind turbines, and efficiency up to 40% for photovoltaic systems). In this paper the most efficient operation points of the induction motors...

  6. Characteristics Analysis and Comparison of High-Speed 4/2 and Hybrid 4/4 Poles Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Firsta Lukman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a characteristics analysis and performance comparison of high-speed two-phase 4/2 and hybrid single-phase 4/4 switched reluctance motors (SRMs. Although the motors are advantageous as high-speed drives, both conventional structures have high torque ripple as a result of the presence of the torque dead zone. In this paper, solutions to the torque dead zone problem for each motor are discussed. For the 4/2 SRM, a wide-rotor stepper-type is adopted, while for the 4/4 SRM, the structure is changed to a hybrid by adding permanent magnets (PMs. Both motors have a non-uniform air gap to modify their inductance profile, which leads to the elimination of the torque dead zone. A finite-element method was used to analyze the characteristics of each motor. Then, the manufactured motors were tested through experiments, and lastly, their performance was compared.

  7. 41 CFR 109-38.301-1.53 - Responsibilities of motor vehicle operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle operators. 109-38.301-1.53 Section 109-38.301-1.53 Public Contracts and Property... MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.3-Official Use of Government Motor Vehicles § 109-38.301-1.53 Responsibilities of motor vehicle operators...

  8. Real time DSP-based adaptive controller implementation for 6/4 pole switched reluctance motor drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arumugam

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an adaptive PID control system for a high performance Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM drive. The concept behind the proposed control system is to use an adaptive PID controller in steady state as well as transient state, which implements the control excellently in most cases. The modality of the control for the adaptive PID controller is such that the coefficients of the controller are adaptable during the running conditions. Thus, the PID controller along with adaptable coefficients is implemented to take the advantage of its positive attributes. The adaptive PID controller for SRM drive is implemented through a TMS320F2812 DSP to evaluate the performance. The implementation is based on discrete time PID controller, whose coefficients are derived from practical experiments at different operating conditions with disturbances. Experimental results have shown excellent tracking performance of the proposed control system, and have convincingly demonstrated the usefulness of the adaptive PID controller in high performance SRM drives with uncertainties.

  9. Field experience with the application and operation of permanent magnet motors in the ESP Industry: success stories and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagalovskiy, A.; Gorshenin, K. [Borets Company, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Over the past 7 years Borets Company has commercialized a permanent magnet motor (PMM) with a specialized controller that is capable of replacing the traditional motor used in ESP systems. Since 2006 more than 1400 Borets Company PMM systems have been installed by oil companies. This paper will provide an overview of the application environment covered by these installations and contrast the performance for the PMM system versus the traditional 2- pole, 3-phase ESP systems that were replaced. Results will include the lessons learned, best practices developed, and benefits realized by the operator. The PMM practice will be of value to new operators as this technology is introduced to other regions of the globe as well as the expansion of this technology into the ESPCP-PMM market. (author)

  10. Application of diagnostics to determine motor-operated valve operational readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    ORNL has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor curent signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment

  11. Application of diagnostics to determine operational readiness of aged motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor current signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment

  12. The wireless diagnostic system for motor operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Haruo; Akiyama, Michiaki; Suzuki, Syunichi

    2010-01-01

    To aim at maintenance optimization, a motor operated valve (MOV) diagnostic system called 'MOVDAS' has been developed by using new sensor technologies incorporating torque sensor into the MOV. It has been introduced into nuclear power plants operated by Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) for the support of Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). This system, directly checking the torque behavior of the MOV, accurately diagnoses the condition of the MOV during plant operation. Further for the ease of data collection and manpower saving, the wireless diagnostic system based on MOVDAS utilizing Personal Handyphone System (PHS) has been recently introduced into nuclear power plants in JAPC. (author)

  13. Condition monitoring of a motor-operated valve using estimated motor torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jangbom; Kang, Shinchul; Park, Sungkeun; Hong, Sungyull; Lim, Chanwoo

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of data analysis methods to be used in on-line monitoring and diagnosis of Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs) effectively and accurately. The technique to be utilized includes the electrical measurements and signal processing to estimate electric torque of induction motors, which are attached to most of MOV systems. The estimated torque of an induction motor is compared with the directly measured torque using a torque cell in various loading conditions including the degraded voltage conditions to validate the estimating scheme. The accuracy of the estimating scheme is presented. The advantages of the estimated torque signatures are reviewed over the currently used ones such as the current signature and the power signature in several respects: accuracy, sensitivity, resolution and so on. Additionally, the estimated torque methods are suggested as a good way to monitor the conditions of MOVs with higher accuracy. (author)

  14. Report 1: Basic Operation of the Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Pragasen

    1998-01-01

    Typically salient poles have windings forming coils wrapped around the waists (or pole cores) of each pole. This is true for the stator of the SRM but not for the rotor. The rotor has no windings, no coils, no magnets, no commutator, or slip rings it is only comprised of laminated steel sheets stamped in the shape of the pole design and mounted on a shaft. This allows for ease in manufacturing the rotor as well as reducing the rotor's inertia. There is also no electrical loss associated with the rotor since there are no windings, commutator, or slip rings.

  15. Effects of dynamic loading of motor-operated valve actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerell, P.S.; Daubresse, S.; Wolfe, K.J.; Dogan, T.; Gleeson, J.

    1994-01-01

    Experience has shown that valves with rising, nonrotating stems that are operated using electro-motor driven actuators can be susceptible to changes in output thrust at a constant torque switch setting as a result of changes in stem load time history. This effect is a concern because tests on these types of valves to verify thrust achieved at torque switch trip are often performed in situ under load conditions different from the required performance conditions. As part of a motor-operated valve research program being carried out by the Electric Power Research Institute, tests of typical electric motor actuators used with nuclear services valves have been performed. The test results show that changes in output thrust with load time history occur o varying degrees on different stem and stem nut combinations. When the effect exists, there is generally an increase in thrust at torque switch trip when load is developed rapidly from low initial loads, compared to when load is developed slowly. The effect is mainly a result of changes in the coefficient of friction at the stem-stem nut interface. The coefficient of friction is temporarily reduced under rapid loading conditions from low initial load, leading to increased thrust. The root cause is hypothesized to be a open-quotes squeeze-filmclose quotes effect, whereby mixed-mode lubrication (hydrodynamic plus boundary) temporarily replaces boundary lubrication. This paper describes the results of tests performed to better understand the phenomenon

  16. Totem-Pole Power-Factor-Correction Converter under Critical-Conduction-Mode Interleaved Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, Eka; Tomioka, Satoshi; Abe, Seiya; Shoyama, Masahito; Ninomiya, Tamotsu

    This paper proposes a new power-factor-correction (PFC) topology, and explains its operation principle, its control mechanism, related application problems followed by experimental results. In this proposed topology, critical-conduction-mode (CRM) interleaved technique is applied to a bridgeless PFC in order to achieve high efficiency by combining benefits of each topology. This application is targeted toward low to middle power applications that normally employs continuous-conduction-mode boost converter.

  17. Long-term performance of motor-operated valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarbrough, T.G.

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires that motor-operated valves (MOVs) important to safety be designed, fabricated, erected, and tested to quality standards commensurate with the importance of the safety functions to be performed. Despite these requirements, operating experience and research revealed problems with the performance of MOVs in operating nuclear power plants. In response to the concerns about MOV performance, the NRC issued Generic Letter (GL) 89-10, {open_quotes}Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance,{close_quotes} and its supplements. Most licensees have completed the aspects of their GL 89-10 programs associated with the review of MOV design bases, verification of MOV switch settings initially, testing of MOVs under design-basis conditions where practicable, and improvement of evaluations of MOV failures and necessary corrective action. Licensees are establishing processes to ensure that the long-term aspects of their MOV programs, such as periodic verification of MOV capability and the trending of MOV problems, are maintained. The NRC staff is developing a generic letter to address periodic verification of MOV design-basis capability.

  18. Long-term performance of motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarbrough, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires that motor-operated valves (MOVs) important to safety be designed, fabricated, erected, and tested to quality standards commensurate with the importance of the safety functions to be performed. Despite these requirements, operating experience and research revealed problems with the performance of MOVs in operating nuclear power plants. In response to the concerns about MOV performance, the NRC issued Generic Letter (GL) 89-10, open-quotes Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance,close quotes and its supplements. Most licensees have completed the aspects of their GL 89-10 programs associated with the review of MOV design bases, verification of MOV switch settings initially, testing of MOVs under design-basis conditions where practicable, and improvement of evaluations of MOV failures and necessary corrective action. Licensees are establishing processes to ensure that the long-term aspects of their MOV programs, such as periodic verification of MOV capability and the trending of MOV problems, are maintained. The NRC staff is developing a generic letter to address periodic verification of MOV design-basis capability

  19. Electric Motors Maintenance Planning From Its Operating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisco; Fonseca, Inácio; Farinha, José Torres; Ferreira, Luís; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The maintenance planning corresponds to an approach that seeks to maximize the availability of equipment and, consequently, increase the levels of competitiveness of companies by increasing production times. This paper presents a maintenance planning based on operating variables (number of hours worked, duty cycles, number of revolutions) to maximizing the availability of operation of electrical motors. The reading of the operating variables and its sampling is done based on predetermined sampling cycles and subsequently is made the data analysis through time series algorithms aiming to launch work orders before reaching the variables limit values. This approach is supported by tools and technologies such as logical applications that enable a graphical user interface for access to relevant information about their Physical Asset HMI (Human Machine Interface), including the control and supervision by acquisition through SCADA (Supervisory Control And data acquisition) data, also including the communication protocols among different logical applications.

  20. Motor operated valve testing and the 'rate of loading' phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses valve design features which affect the ability to predict motor operated valve (MOV) performance and reviews factors which should be considered when selecting switch settings to limit stem loads. Considerable attention is given to the rate of loading phenomenon which affects the relationship between valve stem thrust and actuator spring pack deflection. Equations are developed, and testing is discussed which permit the construction of an MOV dynamic model. Factors which must be considered when maintaining switch settings correct throughout the life of the plant are discussed. And switch setting acceptance criteria for use with baseline Static and Design Basis testing are suggested

  1. Optimization of a condensed-neon cooling system for a HTS synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, B; Miki, M; Tsuzuki, K; Izumi, M [Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6, Etchujima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Hayakawa, H, E-mail: d082028@kaiyodai.ac.j [Kitano Seiki Co. Ltd., 7-17-3, Chuo, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-0024 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    The axial-gap synchronous machine developed in our laboratory is based on Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets, able to trap a part of the magnetic flux they are submitted to when cooled down below T{sub c}. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, by the Pulsed-Field Magnetization (PFM), 1.04 T was trapped in 60 mm-diameter and 20 mm-thickness magnets, leading to an output power of the motor of 10 kW at 720 rpm. To enhance this performance, we have to increase the total amount of trapped flux in the bulk, the shortest way being to decrease the temperature of the bulk HTS. Thus, we focused on the improvement of the condensed-neon cooling system, a closed-cycle thermosyphon, so that it provided enough cooling power to lead the rotor plate enclosing the magnets to a low temperature. The present study implied coming out with a new fin-oriented design of the condensation chamber; hence, the numeric calculations and FEM software (ANSYS) heat transfer simulations were conducted for various shapes and positions of the fins. The trapezoidal design offering the best efficiency was then manufactured for testing in a heat-load test configuration, leading to cooling times divided by three and a maximum heat load endured of 55 W.

  2. Optimization of a condensed-neon cooling system for a HTS synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, B.; Miki, M.; Tsuzuki, K.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.

    2010-06-01

    The axial-gap synchronous machine developed in our laboratory is based on Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets, able to trap a part of the magnetic flux they are submitted to when cooled down below Tc. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, by the Pulsed-Field Magnetization (PFM), 1.04 T was trapped in 60 mm-diameter and 20 mm-thickness magnets, leading to an output power of the motor of 10 kW at 720 rpm. To enhance this performance, we have to increase the total amount of trapped flux in the bulk, the shortest way being to decrease the temperature of the bulk HTS. Thus, we focused on the improvement of the condensed-neon cooling system, a closed-cycle thermosyphon, so that it provided enough cooling power to lead the rotor plate enclosing the magnets to a low temperature. The present study implied coming out with a new fin-oriented design of the condensation chamber; hence, the numeric calculations and FEM software (ANSYS) heat transfer simulations were conducted for various shapes and positions of the fins. The trapezoidal design offering the best efficiency was then manufactured for testing in a heat-load test configuration, leading to cooling times divided by three and a maximum heat load endured of 55 W.

  3. Method and system for operating an electric motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Hiti, Silva; Perisic, Milun

    2013-01-22

    Methods and systems for operating an electric motor having a plurality of windings with an inverter having a plurality of switches coupled to a voltage source are provided. A first plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The first plurality of switching vectors includes a first ratio of first magnitude switching vectors to second magnitude switching vectors. A direct current (DC) current associated with the voltage source is monitored during the applying of the first plurality of switching vectors to the plurality of switches. A second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors is selected based on the monitoring of the DC current associated with the voltage source. A second plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The second plurality of switching vectors includes the second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors.

  4. Notice of Intent to Prepare a Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation (CEE) for the Construction and Operation of a High-Energy Neutrino Telescope (Project Ice Cube) at the South Pole

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Request for comments from the NSF for a proposed project to construct and operate a high-energy neutrino telescope at the South Pole. The proposed telescope would be a second-generation instrument based on the successful evolution of a smaller neutrino telescope at the South Pole (1 page).

  5. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in the...

  6. Gate valve and motor-operator research findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves)

  7. The study of transient processes in the asynchronous starting of the synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bârlea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting synchronous motors can be achieved by several ethods: starting with an auxiliary motor launch, starting in asynchronous regim, by feeding from a variable frequency source, auto-synchronization with the network.. In our case we study the transient processes in a asynchronous regim . In this case the synchronous motor is started like a squirrel cage induction motor . To start, the synchronous motor is equipped with a starting winding cage placed in the pole pieces of polar inducers; later , during the operation, this acts as a damping winding. Large synchronous motors have pole pieces made from massive polar inducers fulfilling the role of a cage winding.

  8. DC motor operation controlled from a DC/DC power converter in pulse mode with low duty cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov, Goce; Kukuseva, Maja; Citkuseva Dimitrovska, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper pulse mode of operation of DC motor controlled by DC/DC power converter is analyzed. DC motor operation with time intervals in which the motor operates without output load is of interest. In this mode it is possible the motor to restore energy. Also, in the paper are represented calculations for the amount of the restored energy in the pulse mode operation of the motor for different duty cycles.

  9. Development of a combined manual and motorized operated palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combined motorized and manual powered palm-nut cracker was designed, fabricated and tested at different moisture contents. The machine was designed for an output capacity of 90.4Kg/hr. for motorized and 19.8Kg/hr. for manual power respectively. The features of the machine are hammers, cracking chamber, hopper, ...

  10. Improved Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2003-01-01

    The Morrison rotor, named after its inventor, is a hybrid rotor for use in a bearingless switched-reluctance electric motor. The motor is characterized as bearingless in the sense that it does not rely on conventional mechanical bearings: instead, it functions as both a magnetic bearing and a motor. Bearingless switched-reluctance motors are attractive for use in situations in which large variations in temperatures and/or other extreme conditions preclude the use of conventional electric motors and mechanical bearings. In the Morrison motor, as in a prior bearingless switched-reluctance motor, a multipole rotor is simultaneously levitated and rotated. In the prior motor, simultaneous levitation and rotation are achieved by means of two kinds of stator windings: (1) main motor windings and (2) windings that exert levitating forces on a multipole rotor. The multipole geometry is suboptimum for levitation in that it presents a discontinuous surface to the stator pole faces, thereby degrading the vibration-suppression capability of the magnetic bearing. The Morrison rotor simplifies the stator design in that the stator contains only one type of winding. The rotor is a hybrid that includes both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a multipole lamination stack for rotation. A prototype includes six rotor poles and eight stator poles (see figure). During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. The relative lengths of the circular and multipole lamination stacks on the rotor can be chosen to tailor the performance of the motor for a specific application. For a given overall length, increasing the length of the multipole stack relative to the circular stack results in an increase in torque relative to levitation load capacity and stiffness, and vice versa.

  11. Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2004-01-01

    The Morrison rotor, named after its inventor, is a hybrid rotor for use in a switched reluctance electric motor. The motor is characterized as bearingless in the sense that it does not rely on conventional mechanical bearings: instead, it functions as both a magnetic bearing and a motor. Bearingless switched-reluctance motors are attractive for use in situations in which large variations in temperatures and/or other extreme conditions preclude the use of conventional electric motors and mechanical bearings. In the Morrison motor, as in prior bearingless switched-reluctance motors, a multipole rotor is simultaneously levitated and rotated. In the prior motors, simultaneous levitation and rotation are achieved by means of two kinds of stator windings: (1) main motor windings and (2) windings that exert levitating forces on a multipole rotor. The multipole geometry is suboptimum for levitation because it presents a discontinuous surface to the stator pole faces, thereby degrading the vibration suppression capability of the magnetic bearing. The Morrison rotor simplifies the stator design in that it contains only one type of winding. The rotor is a hybrid that includes both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a multipole lamination stack for rotation. Simultaneous levitation and rotation at 6000 rpm were achieved with a prototype that included six rotor poles and eight stator poles. During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. The relative length of the circular and multipole lamination stacks on the rotor can be chosen to tailor the performance of the motor for a specific application. For a given overall length, increasing the length of the multipole stack relative to the circular stack results in an increase in torque relative to the levitation

  12. In-operation inspection technology development-4 ''development of degradation prediction technology for motor-operated valves''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuo, Takeshima; Yuichi, Higashikawa; Masahiro, Koike; Kenji, Matsumoto; Eiji, O'shima

    2001-01-01

    A method for degradation predicting technology has been proposed for motor operated valves in nuclear power plants which is based on the concept of condition monitoring for maintenance. This method (degradation prediction technology) eliminates the unnecessary overhaul of valves and realizes high reliability and economy. The degradation mechanism was clarified by long time heating experiments of gasket and gland packing and the wear test for them and stem nut to research valve parts degradation by stress (pressure, temperature, etc) during plant operation. Effective electric power measurements for motor operated valves were confirmed to be useful discovering valve part failures. The motor operated valve degradation prediction system was developed on the basis of the experiment results and mechanism. The system is able to predict the degradation of valve parts (gasket/gland packing, stem, stem nut, etc) utilizing plant data (pressure, temperature, etc) and effective power of the motor. The life of valve parts can be estimated from the experimental results. (authors)

  13. A Novel Modular-Stator Outer-Rotor Flux-Switching Permanent-Magnet Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel modular-stator outer-rotor flux-switching permanent-magnet (MSOR-FSPM motor is proposed and studied in this paper. Structure, operation and design principles of the MSOR-FSPM motor are introduced and analyzed. Considering that the combination of different pole number and slot number has a great influence on the motor performance, the optimum rotor pole number for the 12-stator-slot MSOR-FSPM motor is researched to obtain good performance and make full use of the space in the MSOR-FSPM motor. The influences of rotor pole number on cogging torque, torque ripple and electromagnetic torque are analyzed and a 12-slot/10-pole MSOR-FSPM motor was chosen for further study. Then, several main parameters of the 12-slot/10-pole MSOR-FSPM motor were optimized to reduce the torque ripple. Finally, the utilization of permanent magnet (PM in the MSOR-FSPM motor and a conventional outer-rotor flux-switching permanent-magnet (COR-FSPM motor are compared and analyzed from the point of view of magnetic flux path, and verified by the finite element method (FEM. The FEM results show that the PM volume of MSOR-FSPM motor is only 54.04% of that in a COR-FSPM motor, but its average electromagnetic torque can reach more than 75% of the torque of COR-FSPM motor.

  14. Multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbines' grid support capability in uninterrupted operation during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Michalke, G.

    2009-01-01

    Emphasis in this paper is on the fault ride-through and grid support capabilities of multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbines with a full-scale frequency converter. These wind turbines are announced to be very attractive, especially for large offshore wind farms....... A control strategy is presented, which enhances the fault ride-through and voltage support capability of such wind turbines during grid faults. Its design has special focus on power converters' protection and voltage control aspects. The performance of the presented control strategy is assessed...... to ride through a grid fault, without implementation of any additional ride-through control strategy in the active stall wind farm....

  15. Motor carrier industry profile study : financial and operating performance profiles by industry segment, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    This report profiles the motor carrier industry and its significant operating segments. It is one of a series of reports analyzing various aspects of the motor carrier industry. Other reports in the series focus on the safety performance of the indus...

  16. 76 FR 50433 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... hours of service of employees of, and safety of operation and equipment of, a motor carrier; and (2) qualifications and maximum hours of service of employees of, and standards of equipment of, a motor private... market; (2) farmers who rent their land for cash and haul their crops to market; and (3) farmers who rent...

  17. Chemically Optimizing Operational Efficiency of Molecular Rotary Motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conyard, Jamie; Cnossen, Arjen; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Meech, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Unidirectional molecular rotary motors that harness photoinduced cis-trans (E-Z) isomerization are promising tools for the conversion of light energy to mechanical motion in nanoscale molecular machines. Considerable progress has been made in optimizing the frequency of ground-state rotation, but

  18. California; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs from Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  19. A Preliminary Review of English Proficiency and Safe Commercial Motor Vehicle Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Office of Bus and Truck Standards and Operations, the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center performed a preliminary research stud...

  20. Submillimeter spectroscopy of the Carina Nebula: Observations, operations and upgrades of the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, Thomas Edward

    2009-06-01

    We present the results of a ~ 250 arcmin 2 mapping of the 205 μm [NII] fine- structure line emission over the northern Carina Nebula, including the Car I and Car II HII regions. Spectra were obtained using the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI) at the Antarctic Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO) at South Pole. New upgrades and modifications to the SPIFI instrument are discussed, and full details of SPIFI-AST/RO integration and calibration are provided. At the time of these observations, SPIFI had a spectral resolving power of ~ 4250, a FWHM beam size of ~ 54'', and a noise equivalent power (NEP) referred to the front end of the receiver of ~ 2.5 × 10 -15 W Hz -1/2 (~ 1.4 times the background limit). These data constitute the first ground-based detection of the 205 μm [NII] line, and only the third detection overall since those of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) and the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) in the early 1990s. We supplement the 205 μm data with new reductions of far-infrared fine- structure spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) in 63 μm [OI], 122 m [NII], 146 μm [OI], and 158 μm [CII]; the 146 μm [OI] data include 90 raster positions which have not been previously published. Morphological comparisons are made with optical, radio continuum and CO maps. The 122/205 [NII] line ratio is used to probe the density of the low-ionization gas, and the 158/205 [CII]/[NII] line ratio is used to probe the fraction of C + arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs). The [OI] and [CII] lines are used to construct a PDR model of Carina following Kaufman et al. (1999). When the PDR properties are compared with other sources, Carina is found to be more akin to 30 Doradus than galactic star-forming regions such as Orion, M17, or W49. This is consistent with the view of Carina as a more evolved region, where much of the parent molecular cloud has been ionized or swept

  1. Results of the motor-operated valve engineering and testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Texas Utilities Electric Company (TU Electric) motor-operated valve (MOV) program for implementing the recommendations of Generic Letter 89-10 has typically included the following: refurbishing each actuator, verifying each actuator's as-built configuration, testing each actuator's motor on a dynamometer, testing each actuator's torque spring pack (which is used to control the torque developed), testing each fully refurbished and reassembled actuator on a torque test stand, and testing as many MOVs as practicable both without fluid flow through the valve and with the maximum test conditions reasonably achievable (static and differential pressures (DP) conditions, respectively). Test data are acquired at 1,000 samples per second for stem thrust, stem torque, stem position, actuator compensator spring pack deflection, actuator torque spring pack deflection, motor current, motor voltage, motor three-phase power, valve upstream pressure, and valve downstream pressure, wherever practicable

  2. Operation analysis of AC traction motors in terms of electromagnetic torque capability on sustainable railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulucea Cornelia A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable operation of electric railway systems represents a significant purpose nowadays in the development of high power and high speed locomotives and trains. At present, high speed electric vehicles mostly work with three-phase induction motors or three-phase synchronous motors as traction motors. The two electric machine types have different efficiencies at different operation points, and experience differences with respect to safety, speed and power, energy use and exergy efficiency. An important issue that correlates these aspects is the electromagnetic torque developed by an electric traction motor. In order to provide an overview of the technical performance of the operation of sustainable railway systems, a detailed analysis is carried out of the electromagnetic torque capability of AC electric motors utilized as traction motors in modern locomotives of high power and/or high speed. The results of this work may help in enhancing the main criteria for optimising the safe and sustainable operation of electric railway traction systems.

  3. Operating principles of rotary molecular motors: differences between F1and V1motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Ichiro; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Murata, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Among the many types of bioenergy-transducing machineries, F- and V-ATPases are unique bio- and nano-molecular rotary motors. The rotational catalysis of F 1 -ATPase has been investigated in detail, and molecular mechanisms have been proposed based on the crystal structures of the complex and on extensive single-molecule rotational observations. Recently, we obtained crystal structures of bacterial V 1 -ATPase (A 3 B 3 and A 3 B 3 DF complexes) in the presence and absence of nucleotides. Based on these new structures, we present a novel model for the rotational catalysis mechanism of V 1 -ATPase, which is different from that of F 1 -ATPases.

  4. Designing a Two-Phase BLDC Motor and Finite-Element Analysis of Stator Slots Structure Effects on the Motor Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Jafarboland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing a two-phase brushless direct current motor (BLDC and analyzing effects of stator slots structure on the motor operation are main objectives of this paper. At first BLDC motor with three different structures for stator slots is designed by using RMxprt software and efficiency of BLDC motor for different structures in full-load condition has been presented, then the BLDC motor in different conditions by using Maxwell 3D software is designed and with finite element method is analyzed electromagnetically. The results of simulations show that by varying stator slots structure efficieny and operation of motor have changed significantly therefore with correct choosing of stator slots structure intersted operation can be found.

  5. Application of signature analysis for determining the operational readiness of motor-operated valves under blowdown test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the NRC-funded Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs). As part of this work, ORNL participated in the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown (GVFIB) tests carried out in Huntsville, Alabama. The GVFIB tests were intended primarily to determine the behavior of motor-operated gate valves under the temperature, pressure, and flow conditions expected to be experienced by isolation valves in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) during a high energy line break (blowdown) outside of containment. In addition, the tests provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate signature analysis methods for determining the operational readiness of the MOVs under those accident conditions. ORNL acquired motor current and torque switch shaft angular position data on two test MOVs during various times of the GVFIB tests. The reduction in operating ''margin'' of both MOVs due to the presence of additional valve running loads imposed by high flow was clearly observed in motor current and torque switch angular position signatures. In addition, the effects of differential pressure, fluid temperature, and line voltage on MOV operations were observed and more clearly understood as a result of utilizing signature analysis techniques. 1 ref.; 16 figs

  6. Level of Transformation of Motor Skills in Female Volleyball Players Influenced by Training Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifet Mahmutović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the level of improvement of motor skills of female volleyball players influenced by kinesiology operators in a period of 6 months. Research was conducted on sample subject of 130 female volleyball players aged from 13±0.6 (mean±SD. Sample variables are divided in two groups: 9 variables of assessment of basic motor skills and 5 variables of assessment of situational motor skills. Analysing difference of arithmetic means between of initial and final measures of treated variables it is determined that there is statistically significant difference on the level Sig=0.001, except for variables of Jelka test which determinates speed duration of female volleyball players. Analysis of quantity changes of basic motor skills, shows that the most important projections on selected discriminative function of basic motor skills have the following variables: body lifting in 30 sec; dynamometry of a hand, hand tapping; pull-up; throwing a 1 kg ball from lying position; side defence movement; push-up on bars and situational motor skill are the variables: precision of tactic serving; consecutive bumping; wall-spikes. Comprehensive development of female volleyball players and diversity in the level of volleyball specialization of the development will depend on systematic work on treated motor skills. This program appeared to be efficient. However, it is necessary to gradually increase the demands for the female volleyball players and to put the accent on performance of acquired situational motor skills in future work.

  7. Operation Characteristics Optimization of Low Power Three-Phase Asynchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLAD, I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most published papers on low power asynchronous motors were aimed to achieve better operational performances in different operating conditions. The optimal design of the general-purpose motors requires searching and selecting an electric machine to meet minimum operating costs criterion and certain customer imposed restrictive conditions. In this paper, there are many significant simulations providing qualitative and quantitative information on reducing active and reactive energy losses in motors, and on parameters and constructive solution. The optimization study applied the minimal operating costs criterion, and it took into account the starting restrictive conditions. Thirteen variables regarding electromagnetic stresses and main constructive dimensions were considered. The operating costs of the optimized motor decreased with 25.6%, as compared to the existing solution. This paper can be a practical and theoretical support for the development and implementation of modern design methods, based on theoretical and experimental study of stationary and transient processes in low power motors, to increase efficiency and power factor.

  8. The Model of Brushless Dc Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Pitrėnas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research considered the operation, control, mathematical and simulation models of BLDC motor. A simplified idealized simulation model was designed and tested using Matlab Simulink software package. The simulation model uses Hall effect sensor signals for determining the rotor position. Simulation was done for Maxon, EC-4 pole 22 BL A series motor. The obtained model testing results deviate from the data supplied by the motor manufacturer by as little as 0.2–10.6%; consequently, the implemented model is suitable for BLDC motor control study and research.Article in Lithuanian

  9. A Novel Modular-Stator Outer-Rotor Flux-Switching Permanent-Magnet Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhao; Yun Zheng; Congcong Zhu; Xiangdong Liu; Bin Li

    2017-01-01

    A novel modular-stator outer-rotor flux-switching permanent-magnet (MSOR-FSPM) motor is proposed and studied in this paper. Structure, operation and design principles of the MSOR-FSPM motor are introduced and analyzed. Considering that the combination of different pole number and slot number has a great influence on the motor performance, the optimum rotor pole number for the 12-stator-slot MSOR-FSPM motor is researched to obtain good performance and make full use of the space in the MSOR-FSP...

  10. 18-12 Salient-Pole structure Brushless dc Motor with an assisted dc Field coil: Design Optimization and Numerical Analysis on the Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moradi CheshmehBeigi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper presents the design optimization and accurate electromagnetic field analysis of an 18-12 there phase Brushless dc motor (BLDCM by using a three-dimensional Finite-Element analysis. Proposed motor will provide a wide range of air-gap flux control by a dc assisted field winding which is replaced with the permanent magnet in the rotor structure. In proposed BLDCM a simple dc current control is used and no brushes or slip rings are required to perform this control. To achieve the required performance within a specified space envelope, the physical dimensions of the proposed configuration were optimized; subject to maximize the average output power. Proposed 18-12 BLDCM configuration has been compared with a 9-6 BLDCM configuration. To evaluate the motor performance, the numerical techniques have been utilized. In the numerical part, 3-D Finite Element (FE analysis has been carried out using a MagNet CAD package (Infolytica Corporation Ltd. for two type of BLDCM to confirm the accuracy and the efficacy of the proposed design procedure. The analysis results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed machine design methodology. Keywords: FE Analysis; Field analysis; Brushless Dc Motor ­­­

  11. Dual-task motor performance with a tongue-operated assistive technology compared with hand operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To provide an alternative motor modality for control, navigation, and communication in individuals suffering from impairment or disability in hand functions, a Tongue Drive System (TDS) has been developed that allows for real time tracking of tongue motion in an unobtrusive, wireless, and wearable device that utilizes the magnetic field generated by a miniature disk shaped magnetic tracer attached to the tip of the tongue. The purpose of the study was to compare the influence of a concurrent motor or cognitive task on various aspects of simple movement control between hand and tongue using the TDS technology. Methods Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed rapid and slow goal-directed movements of hand and tongue (with TDS) with and without a concurrent motor (hand or tongue) or cognitive (arithmetic and memory) task. Changes in reaction time, completion time, speed, correctness, accuracy, variability of displacement, and variability of time due to the addition of a concurrent task were compared between hand and tongue. Results The influence of an additional concurrent task on motor performance was similar between the hand and tongue for slow movement in controlling their displacement. In rapid movement with a concurrent motor task, most aspects of motor performance were degraded in hand, while tongue speed during rapid continuous task was maintained. With a concurrent cognitive task, most aspects of motor performance were degraded in tongue, while hand accuracy during the rapid discrete task and hand speed during the rapid continuous task were maintained. Conclusion Rapid goal-directed hand and tongue movements were more consistently susceptible to interference from concurrent motor and cognitive tasks, respectively, compared with the other movement. PMID:22244362

  12. Magnet pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  13. COOPERATIVE MODE OF ELECTRIC MOTOR AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OPERATION IN THE CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the authors proposed a method to control the car, which is converted into a hybrid one. The electric motor and combustion engine operate alternately in the car. They proposed a device for implementing this method and a circuit design for the device in question. They also calculated the dynamics of the vehicle under the joint acceleration.

  14. On the functional organization and operational principles of the motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaday, Charles; Ethier, Christian; Van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on the functional organization and operational principles of the motor cortex (MCx), taken together, strongly support the notion that the MCx controls the muscle synergies subserving movements in an integrated manner. For example, during pointing the shoulder, elbow and wrist muscles...... to generate the muscle activation patterns (synergies) required to move the arm and hold it in its final position....

  15. Raising of Operating a Motor Vehicle Effects on Environment in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertman, S. A.; Ertman, J. A.; Zakharov, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    Severe low-temperature conditions, in which considerable part of Russian Motor Park is operated, affect vehicles negatively. Cold weather causes higher fuel consumption and C02 emissions always. It is because of temperature profile changing of automobile motors, other systems and materials. For enhancement of car operation efficiency in severe winter environment the dependency of engine warm-up and cooling time on ambient air temperature and wind speed described by multifactorial mathematical models is established. -On the basis of experimental research it was proved that the coolant temperature constitutes the engine representative temperature and may be used as representative temperature of engine at large. The model of generation of integrated index for vehicle adaptability to winter operating conditions by temperature profile of engines was developed. the method for evaluation of vehicle adaptability to winter operating conditions by temperature profile of engines allows to decrease higher fuel consumption in cold climate.

  16. Homopolar dc motor and trapped flux brushless dc motor using high temperature superconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapo, Alan D.; Lloyd, Jerry D.

    1991-03-01

    Two motors have been designed and built for use with high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) materials. They are a homopolar dc motor that uses HTSC field windings and a brushless dc motor that uses bulk HTSC materials to trap flux in steel rotor poles. The HTSC field windings of the homopolar dc motor are designed to operate at 1000 A/sq cm in a 0.010-T field. In order to maximize torque in the homopolar dc motor, an iron magnetic circuit with small air gaps gives maximum flux for minimum Ampere turns in the field. A copper field winding version of the homopolar dc motor has been tested while waiting for 575 A turn HTSC coils. The trapped flux brushless dc motor has been built and is ready to test melt textured bulk HTSC rings that are currently being prepared. The stator of the trapped flux motor will impress a magnetic field in the steel rotor poles with warm HTSC bulk rings. The rings are then cooled to 77 K to trap the flux in the rotor. The motor can then operate as a brushless dc motor.

  17. Assessment of diagnostic methods for determining degradation of motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.; Farmer, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) in support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. This paper provides a summary of the ORNL MOV aging assessment with emphasis on the identification, evaluation, and application of MOV monitoring methods and techniques. The diagnostic information available from any MOV measurable parameters was evaluated by ORNL using MOVs that were mounted on test stands. Those tests led to the conclusion that the single most informative MOV measurable parameter was also the one which was most easily acquired, namely the motor current. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) was found to provide detailed information related to the condition of the motor, motor operator, and valve across a wide range of levels. As part of the MOV aging assessment, several tests were carried out by ORNL on MOVs having implanted defects and degradations. Tests were also performed on many MOVs located within a nuclear power plant. In addition, ORNL participated in the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown Test program carried out at Wyle Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. Results from all of these tests are summarized in this paper and several selected examples are given. Other areas covered in this paper include descriptions of relevant regulatory issues and activities, other related diagnostics research at ORNL, and interactions ORNL has had with outside organizations for the purpose of disseminating research results

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: assessing and managing risk in the motor vehicle operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiestand, David; Phillips, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition that can significantly affect daytime functioning, leading to excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Motor vehicle crashes are common, resulting in financial burden, property loss, injury, and death. Motor vehicle operators are at increased risk for crash in the context of excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue, largely due to inattention. The physician caring for individuals with risk of or diagnosed OSA must be aware of the potentially increased risk for motor vehicle crashes, especially in professional drivers. Because of empiric data on increased risk for crashes in commercial vehicle operators, the importance of identifying OSA has become the subject of focused attention by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). A task force has published recommendations for clinical care and urged further research on the interplay between sleep apnea, sleepiness, and crash risk. Despite the logical relationship between OSA and motor vehicle crashes, data to support this theory remain of overall modest quality. Recent case-control and cohort studies continue to produce supportive evidence. Additionally, several meta-analyses of past studies have supported the crash risk associated with OSA and confirmed improvement with effective treatment using continuous positive airway pressure. Further study is needed to more fully characterize the interplay between sleepiness and OSA, the crash risk associated with untreated OSA, and the benefit of treatment on reducing crash risk. For now, empiric recommendations are offered to screen and manage all individuals who drive, particularly those who drive professionally. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  19. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  20. Variable speed induction motor operation from a 20-kHz power bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1989-01-01

    Induction motors are recognized for their simple rugged construction. To date, however, their application to variable speed or servo drives was hampered by limitations on their control. Induction motor drives tend to be complex and to display troublesome low speed characteristics due in part to nonsinusoidal driving voltages. A technique was developed which involves direct synthesis of sinusoidal driving voltages from a high frequency power bus and independent control of frequency and voltages. Separation of frequency and voltage allows independent control of rotor and stator flux, full four quadrant operation, and instantaneous torque control. Recent test results, current status of the technology, and proposed aerospace applications will be discussed.

  1. Effects of transsylvian-transinsular approach to hypertensive putaminal hematoma operation and electroacupuncture on motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhai; Ding, Wei; Yang, Yunxue; Xu, Houchi; Xiong, Feng; Liu, Cunzhi

    2011-09-01

    In this study, a comparison of motor recovery on hypertensive putaminal hematoma (HPH) with 30 mL or more has been made between conventional treatment and decompressive craniectomy (DC) combined with electroacupuncture (EA). This study aims to examine whether transsylvian-transinsular approach (TTA) to HPH evacuation, DC, and EA have additional value to post-cerebral hemorrhage motor rehabilitation. One hundred twenty patients with HPH of 30-mL volume or greater, who were admitted within 6 hours after ictus, were included in this study. Of the 120 patients, 80 were operated on for hematoma evacuation DC through TTA. The postoperative patients were divided into combined therapy group (CTG) and operation with exercises group (OEG). Combined therapy group (n = 40) was treated with EA, functional exercises from 1 to 3 days after hematoma evacuation DC through TTA, twice each day, and OEG (n = 40) accepted only the same operation and functional exercises. Another 40 patients were classified as functional exercises group to be treated conservatively and with functional exercises only after their relatives declined authorization for surgery and EA. The habilitation effects were assessed by blinded assessors at weeks 0 and 8. Outcome measures included Fugl-Meyer assessment, Barthel Index, and Functional Independence Measure. The statistical difference on the motor recovery was considerable (P physical therapy group (P < 0.01), and we also found statistical difference (P < 0.05) between OEG and functional exercises group. Surgically treated patients received significantly better motor recovery than did the conservatively treated patients. Microsurgical treatment via TTA of HPH and postoperative EA at an early stage result in improved outcome of motor recovery. Transsylvian-transinsular approach for HPH operation and postoperative EA at an early stage are advocated.

  2. MOVES: A knowledge-based system for maintenance planning for motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, M.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past several years, knowledge-based expert systems have emerged as an important part of the general research area known as artificial intelligence. This paper describes a cooperative effort between faculty members at Iowa State University and engineers at the Duane Arnold Energy Center [a 545-MW(electric) boiling water reactor operated by Iowa Electric Light and Power Company] to explore the development of an advisory system for valve maintenance planning. This knowledge-based program, known as Motor-Operated Valves Expert System (MOVES), has a data base that currently includes safety-related motor-operated valves (∼117 valves). Valve maintenance was selected as the subject for the expert system because of the importance of valves in nuclear plant and their impact of plant availability. MOVES is being developed using the microcomputer-(IBM compatible) based expert system tool INSIGHT2+. The authors have found that the project benefits both the university and the utility

  3. On the functional organization and operational principles of the motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaday, Charles; Ethier, Christian; Van Vreeswijk, Carl; Darling, Warren G.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on the functional organization and operational principles of the motor cortex (MCx), taken together, strongly support the notion that the MCx controls the muscle synergies subserving movements in an integrated manner. For example, during pointing the shoulder, elbow and wrist muscles appear to be controlled as a coupled functional system, rather than singly and separately. The recurrent pattern of intrinsic synaptic connections between motor cortical points is likely part of the explanation for this operational principle. So too is the reduplicated, non-contiguous and intermingled representation of muscles in the MCx. A key question addressed in this article is whether the selection of movement related muscle synergies is a dynamic process involving the moment to moment functional linking of a variety of motor cortical points, or rather the selection of fixed patterns embedded in the MCx circuitry. It will be suggested that both operational principles are probably involved. We also discuss the neural mechanisms by which cortical points may be dynamically linked to synthesize movement related muscle synergies. Separate corticospinal outputs sum linearly and lead to a blending of the movements evoked by activation of each point on its own. This operational principle may simplify the synthesis of motor commands. We will discuss two possible mechanisms that may explain linear summation of outputs. We have observed that the final posture of the arm when pointing to a given spatial location is relatively independent of its starting posture. From this observation and the recurrent nature of the MCx intrinsic connectivity we hypothesize that the basic mode of operation of the MCx is to associate spatial location to final arm posture. We explain how the recurrent network connectivity operates to generate the muscle activation patterns (synergies) required to move the arm and hold it in its final position. PMID:23616749

  4. 46 CFR 111.79-3 - Grounding pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding pole. 111.79-3 Section 111.79-3 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-3 Grounding pole. Each receptacle outlet that operates at 100 volts or more must have a grounding pole. ...

  5. Limitations of the Conventional Phase Advance Method for Constant Power Operation of the Brushless DC Motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The brushless dc motor (BDCM) has high-power density and efficiency relative to other motor types. These properties make the BDCM well suited for applications in electric vehicles provided a method can be developed for driving the motor over the 4 to 6:1 constant power speed range (CPSR) required by such applications. The present state of the art for constant power operation of the BDCM is conventional phase advance (CPA)[1]. In this paper, we identify key limitations of CPA. It is shown that the CPA has effective control over the developed power but that the current magnitude is relatively insensitive to power output and is inversely proportional to motor inductance. If the motor inductance is low, then the rms current at rated power and high speed may be several times larger than the current rating. The inductance required to maintain rms current within rating is derived analytically and is found to be large relative to that of BDCM designs using high-strength rare earth magnets. Th us, the CPA requires a BDCM with a large equivalent inductance

  6. NRC Information No. 88-72: Inadequacies in the design of dc motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    On July 1, 1988, a high pressure coolant injection (HPCI) steam admission valve failed to open during a post-maintenance test at the Brunswick nuclear power plant, Unit 1. The same valve had failed in December 1987 and on May 28, 1988. The licensee, Carolina Power and Light Company, established a team to investigate the cause of failure, and the team identified the most probable cause as a dc motor failure due to a shunt-winding to series-winding short circuit. The team believed that this condition was precipitated by thermal binding of the valve internals. The previous failure in May was also diagnosed as having been caused by thermal binding. As a result of these failures, the licensee reviewed the design of the dc motor-operated valves for both the HPCI and the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) systems. This review identified a number of significant design deficiencies going well beyond the problems with thermal binding. The deficiencies constitute a potential common cause failure mechanism for safety system valves. Unit 1 was shut down on July 14, 1988 to replace the failed HPCI valve motor and to implement design modifications to other motor-operated valves

  7. Improvement of the environmental and operational characteristics of vehicles through decreasing the motor fuel density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaril, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The environmental and operational characteristics of motor transport, one of the main consumers of motor fuel and source of toxic emissions, soot, and greenhouse gases, are determined to a large extent by the fuel quality which is characterized by many parameters. Fuel density is one of these parameters and it can serve as an indicator of fuel quality. It has been theoretically substantiated that an increased density of motor fuel has a negative impact both on the environmental and operational characteristics of motor transport. The use of fuels with a high density leads to an increase in carbonization within the engine, adversely affecting the vehicle performance and increasing environmental pollution. A program of technological measures targeted at reducing the density of the fuel used was offered. It includes a solution to the problem posed by changes in the refining capacities ratio and the temperature range of gasoline and diesel fuel boiling, by introducing fuel additives and adding butanes to the gasoline. An environmental tax has been developed which allows oil refineries to have a direct impact on the production of fuels with improved environmental performance, taking into account the need to minimize the density of the fuel within a given category of quality.

  8. Operation of general purpose stepping motor controllers at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype and four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a sixth subsystem is nearing completion. The subsystems effect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motors and their associated position encoders. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a standard 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Short descriptions of the positioning apparatus actuated at each of the test and experiment stations employing a motor control unit are given. Additions and enhancements to the sub-system made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  9. Operation of general purpose stepping motor controllers at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1986-10-01

    A prototype and four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a sixth subsystem is nearing completion. The subsystems effect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motors and their associated position encoders. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a standard 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem will be briefly reviewed. Short descriptions of the positioning apparatus actuated at each of the test and experiment stations employing a motor control unit are given. Additions and enhancements to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  10. Assessment of reliability and maintenance of motor operated valves at Finnish NPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Haenninen, S.; Simola, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes two studies on motor operated valve (MOV) failure and maintenance experiences in Finnish nuclear power plants. In the first study, described in section 2 of this paper, the failure reports of MOVs at Finnish BWR units from a nine years' time period were analyzed in a systematic way. The dominant failure mechanisms were identified and time-dependencies in failure occurrence were studied. This study initiated an experience based reliability centered maintenance (RCM) analysis of motor operated valve drives, which is summarized in chapter 3 of this paper. The RCM analysis resulted in the identification and proposal of the most suitable and effective maintenance tasks for consideration. 9 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. EPRI flow-loop/in situ test program for motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.F.; Dorfman, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute is undertaking a comprehensive research program to develop and validate methods for predicting the performance of common motor-operated gate, global, and butterfly valves. To assess motor-operated valve (MOV) performance characteristics and provide a basis for methods validation, full-scale testing was conducted on 62 MOVs. Tests were performed in four flow-loop facilities and in nine nuclear units. Forty-seven gate, five globe, and 10 butterfly valves were tested under a wide range of flow and differential pressure conditions. The paper describes the test program scope, test configurations, instrumentation and data acquisition, testing approach, and data analysis methods. Key results are summarized

  12. Problems with the operation and management of Japanese fishing boats in the fishing grounds around the Senkaku Islands, with a focus on the pole-and-line fishing of groundfish

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Takafumi; Miyazawa, Haruhiko

    2017-01-01

    Problems have arisen not only between Japan and China but also between Japan and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands. Under these circumstances, there are fishermen operating around the Senkaku Islands. In this paper, putting a focus on pole-and-line fishing boats for groundfish that belong to the Hinoshima Fishermen's Cooperative in Kumamoto Prefecture and the Ibusuki Fishermen's Cooperative in Kagoshima Prefecture, this paper discusses the utilization of fishing grounds and the forms of operati...

  13. NRC inspections of licensee activities to improve the performance of motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarbrough, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    The NRC regulations require that components important to the safe operation of a nuclear power plant be treated in a manner that provides assurance of their proper performance. Despite these regulatory requirements, operating experience and research programs have raised concerns regarding the performance of motor-operated valves (MOVs) in nuclear power plants. In June 1990, the staff issued NUREG-1352, Action Plans for Motor-Operated Valves and Check Valves, which contains planned actions to organize the activities aimed at resolving the concerns about MOV performance. A significant task of the MOV action plan is the staff's review of the implementation of Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 (June 28, 1989), 'Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance,' and its supplements, by nuclear power plant licensees. The NRC staff has issued several supplements to GL 89-10 to provide additional guidance for use by licensees in responding to the generic letter. The NRC staff has conducted initial inspections of the GL 89-10 programs at most licensee facilities. This paper outlines some of the more significant findings of those inspections. For example, licensees who have begun differential pressure and flow testing have found some MOVs to require more thrust to operate than predicted by the standard industry equation with typical valve factors assumed in the past. The NRC staff has found weaknesses in licensee procedures for conducting the differential pressure and flow tests, the acceptance criteria for the tests in evaluating the capability of the MOV to perform its safety function under design basis conditions, and feedback of the test results into the methodology used by the licensee in predicting the thrust requirements for other MOVs. Some licensees have not made adequate progress toward resolving the MOV issue for their facilities within the recommended schedule of GL 89-10

  14. Control Code for Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2007-01-01

    A computer program has been devised for controlling a machine that is an integral combination of magnetic bearings and a switched-reluctance motor. The motor contains an eight-pole stator and a hybrid rotor, which has both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a six-pole lamination stack for rotation. The program computes drive and levitation currents for the stator windings with real-time feedback control. During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. This version is executable in a control-loop time of 40 s on a Pentium (or equivalent) processor that operates at a clock speed of 400 MHz. The program can be expanded, by addition of logic blocks, to enable control of position along additional axes. The code enables adjustment of operational parameters (e.g., motor speed and stiffness, and damping parameters of magnetic bearings) through computer keyboard key presses.

  15. The model of double-cage induction motor for the analysis of thermal fields in transient operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mróz Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency motor switch-on happens occasionally while operating a doublesquirrel- cage motor at full supply voltage with the rotor blocked (e.g., in coal mills. After releasing the blockage, the by now heated motor is started up again. However, the mechanical stress caused by the increased temperature poses considerable hazards to the squirrel-cage winding. This paper presents a double-cage induction motor model for analysis of thermal fields in transient operation. The thermal field for the rotor of a doublesquirrel- cage motor of soldered or cast structure, operating in the conditions described, has been calculated in the present paper using a thermal network method. Measurement results have been presented for the double-squirrel-cage winding temperature for a soldered cage construction in the blocked rotor state.

  16. In situ applications of a new diver-operated motorized microsensor profiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Miriam; Faerber, Paul; Meyer, Volker; Lott, Christian; Eickert, Gabriele; Fabricius, Katharina E; De Beer, Dirk

    2007-09-01

    Microsensors are powerful tools for microenvironment studies, however their use has often been restricted to laboratory applications due to the lack of adequate equipment for in situ deployments. Here we report on new features, construction details, and examples of applications of an improved diver-operated motorized microsensor profiler for underwater field operation to a water depth of 25 m. The new motorized profiler has a final precision of 5 microm, and can accommodate amperometric Clark-type microsensors for oxygen and hydrogen sulfide, potentiometric microsensors (e.g., for pH, Ca2+), and fiber-optic irradiance microsensors. The profiler is interfaced by a logger with a signal display, and has pushbuttons for underwater operation. The system can be pre-programmed to autonomous operation or interactively operated by divers. Internal batteries supply power for up to 24 h of measurements and 36 h of data storage (max. 64 million data points). Two flexible stands were developed for deployment on uneven or fragile surfaces, such as coral reefs. Three experimental pilot studies are presented, where (1) the oxygen distribution in a sand ripple was 3-D-mapped, (2) the microenvironment of sediment accumulated on a stony coral was studied, and (3) oxygen dynamics during an experimental sedimentation were investigated. This system allows SCUBA divers to perform a wide array of in situ measurements, with deployment precision and duration similar to those possible in the laboratory.

  17. Real-time operating system timing jitter and its impact on motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Frederick M.; Shackleford, William P.

    2001-12-01

    General-purpose microprocessors are increasingly being used for control applications due to their widespread availability and software support for non-control functions like networking and operator interfaces. Two classes of real-time operating systems (RTOS) exist for these systems. The traditional RTOS serves as the sole operating system, and provides all OS services. Examples include ETS, LynxOS, QNX, Windows CE and VxWorks. RTOS extensions add real-time scheduling capabilities to non-real-time OSes, and provide minimal services needed for the time-critical portions of an application. Examples include RTAI and RTL for Linux, and HyperKernel, OnTime and RTX for Windows NT. Timing jitter is an issue in these systems, due to hardware effects such as bus locking, caches and pipelines, and software effects from mutual exclusion resource locks, non-preemtible critical sections, disabled interrupts, and multiple code paths in the scheduler. Jitter is typically on the order of a microsecond to a few tens of microseconds for hard real-time operating systems, and ranges from milliseconds to seconds in the worst case for soft real-time operating systems. The question of its significance on the performance of a controller arises. Naturally, the smaller the scheduling period required for a control task, the more significant is the impact of timing jitter. Aside from this intuitive relationship is the greater significance of timing on open-loop control, such as for stepper motors, than for closed-loop control, such as for servo motors. Techniques for measuring timing jitter are discussed, and comparisons between various platforms are presented. Techniques to reduce jitter or mitigate its effects are presented. The impact of jitter on stepper motor control is analyzed.

  18. Torque harmonics of an asynchronous motor supplied by a voltage- or current-sourced inverter quasi-square operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Voltage- and current-sourced dc-ac converters operating in quasi-square area are compared. Their characteristics are calculated with switching vector, which is space-vector of switching functions. When the load is an asynchronous motor various analytical equations, including torque, are calculated efficiently. Motor current and torque approximations are compared with the simulated ones. (orig.) 6 refs.

  19. Apparatus and method for non-invasive diagnosis and control of motor operated valve condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, R.H.; Chai, J.; Lang, J.H.; Hagman, W.H.; Umans, S.D.; Saarela, O.J.

    1997-01-14

    An apparatus compares the torque from an MOV motor with the valve displacement, and from the comparison assesses MOV operating condition. A transducer measures the vibration of the housing of an MOV. The vibrations are due to the motions of the rotating elements within the housing, which motions are directly related to the motion of the valve relative to its seat. Signal processing apparatus analyzes the vibrations to recover the rotations of the rotating elements and thus the motion of the valve plug. Lost motion can also be determined (if a lost motion connection exists) by demodulating the vibration signal and thus taking into account also the lost motion. Simultaneously, the forces applied to the valve are estimated by estimating the torque between the stator and the rotor of the motor. Such torque can be estimated from measuring the input current and voltage alone, using a forgetting factor and a correction for the forgetting factor. A signature derived from relating the torque to the valve position can be used to assess the condition of the MOV, by comparing the signature to signatures for MOVs of known conditions. The vibration analysis components generate signals that relate to the position of elements in the operator. Similarly, the torque estimator estimates the torque output by any type of electric motor, whether or not part of an MOV analysis unit. 28 figs.

  20. Enhancements to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory motor-operated valve assessment software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbrook, M.R.; Watkins, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    In January 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) commenced Part 1 inspections to review licensee's motor-operated valve (MOV) programs that were developed to address Generic Letter 89-10, open-quotes Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillanceclose quotes. In support, of this effort, the Isolation Valve Assessment (IVA) software, Version 3.10, was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to enable rapid in-depth review of MOV sizing and torque switch setting calculations. In 1994, the USNRC commenced Part 2 inspections, which involve a more in-depth review of MOV in situ testing relative to design-basis assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest INEL and industry research that has been incorporated into Version 4.00 of the IVA software to support the latest round of inspections. Major improvements include (a) using dynamic and static test results to determine MOV performance parameters and validate design-basis engineering assumptions, (b) determining the stem/stem-nut coefficient of friction using new research-based techniques, (c) adding the ability to evaluate globe valves, and (d) incorporating new methods to account for the effects of high ambient temperature on the output torque of alternating current (ac) motors

  1. Language and motor function thresholds during pediatric extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Vera, Alonso; Aungaroon, Gewalin; Horn, Paul S; Byars, Anna W; Greiner, Hansel M; Tenney, Jeffrey R; Arthur, Todd M; Crone, Nathan E; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T; Arya, Ravindra

    2017-10-01

    To examine current thresholds and their determinants for language and motor mapping with extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation (ECS). ECS electrocorticograph recordings were reviewed to determine functional thresholds. Predictors of functional thresholds were found with multivariable analyses. In 122 patients (age 11.9±5.4years), average minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were 7.4 (± 3.0), 7.8 (± 3.0), and 7.4 (± 3.1) mA respectively. Average minimum, face, upper and lower extremity motor thresholds were 5.4 (± 2.8), 6.1 (± 2.8), 4.9 (± 2.3), and 5.3 (± 3.3) mA respectively. Functional and after-discharge (AD)/seizure thresholds were significantly related. Minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were higher than AD thresholds at all ages. Minimum motor threshold was higher than minimum AD threshold up to 8.0years of age, face motor threshold was higher than frontal AD threshold up to 11.8years age, and lower subsequently. UE motor thresholds remained below frontal AD thresholds throughout the age range. Functional thresholds are frequently above AD thresholds in younger children. These findings raise concerns about safety and neurophysiologic validity of ECS mapping. Functional and AD/seizure thresholds relationships suggest individual differences in cortical excitability which cannot be explained by clinical variables. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In-operation inspection technology development-4 ''development of degradation prediction technology for motor-operated valves''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuo, Takeshima; Yuichi, Higashikawa [Hitachi Engineering and Production Div., Nuclear Systems Div., Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Masahiro, Koike [Power and Industrial Systems R and D Lab., Hitachi, Ltd., (Japan); Kenji, Matsumoto [Tokyo Research and Development Center, Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp. (Japan); Eiji, O' shima [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A method for degradation predicting technology has been proposed for motor operated valves in nuclear power plants which is based on the concept of condition monitoring for maintenance. This method (degradation prediction technology) eliminates the unnecessary overhaul of valves and realizes high reliability and economy. The degradation mechanism was clarified by long time heating experiments of gasket and gland packing and the wear test for them and stem nut to research valve parts degradation by stress (pressure, temperature, etc) during plant operation. Effective electric power measurements for motor operated valves were confirmed to be useful discovering valve part failures. The motor operated valve degradation prediction system was developed on the basis of the experiment results and mechanism. The system is able to predict the degradation of valve parts (gasket/gland packing, stem, stem nut, etc) utilizing plant data (pressure, temperature, etc) and effective power of the motor. The life of valve parts can be estimated from the experimental results. (authors)

  3. The effects of load-sensitive behavior on the operability margins of motor-operated gate valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R. Jr.; Russell, M.J.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Testing of motor-operated gate valves at various loads has produced a phenomenon we call load-sensitive behavior. This phenomenon has a significant effect on the accuracy of the methods used (and proposed) in the nuclear industry for determining that these valves can perform their design basis function. A valve subjected to tests with low flow and pressure loadings may achieve a stem thrust (at seating) analytically determined to be adequate for design basis flows and pressures, but this is no guarantee that the valve will achieve the same stem thrust when actually subjected to those design basis loads. This is because the friction at the interface between the stem and the stem nut is higher in tests with higher flow and pressure loadings, and this loss to friction is outside the control of the motor-operator's torque switch. This paper identifies a tentative method for determining, a stable, useful value for the stem/stem-nut coefficient of friction, one that can possibly be extrapolated and used in calculations to accurately estimate the design basis thrust requirements of these valves

  4. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  5. Lower pole stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Millan, Felix

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess efficacy and safety of prone- and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of lower pole kidney stones. METHODS: Data from patients affected by lower pole kidney stones and treated with PCNL between December 2005 and August 2010 were collected retrospectively...... by seven referral centres. Variables analysed included patient demographics, clinical and surgical characteristics, stone-free rates (SFR) and complications. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the differences for SFRs and complication rates between prone- and supine PCNL. RESULTS: One hundred...... seventeen patients underwent PCNL (mean stone size: 19.5 mm) for stones harboured only in the lower renal pole (single stone: 53.6 %; multiple stones: 46.4 %). A higher proportion of patients with ASA score ≥ 3 and harbouring multiple lower pole stones were treated with supine PCNL (5.8 vs. 23.1 %; p = 0...

  6. Aging and defect characterization of motor-operated valves: progress based on NPAR strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program strategy is directed at carrying out comprehensive aging assessments in order to define and resolve issues related to aging (including service wear) of electrical and mechanical components and structures at operating reactor facilities and their possible impact on plant safety. This paper describes work recently completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory which applied the NPAR strategy to motor-operated valves (MOVs). The objective of the work was primarily to develop an understanding of the operating history and conditions and the failure modes of MOVs in nuclear plant service as a preliminary to identifying and recommending methods for trending aging degradation. A second objective was to demonstrate, using MOVs as an example, that the NPAR strategy can be applied to many electrical and mechanical components of nuclear power plants

  7. Issues of Exploitation of Induction Motors in the Course of Underground Mining Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumula, Stanisław; Hudy, Wiktor; Piaskowska-Silarska, Malgorzata; Pytel, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Mining industry is one of the most important customers of electric motors. The most commonly used in the contemporary mining industry is alternating current machines used for processing electrical energy into mechanical energy. The operating problems and the influence of qualitative interference acting on the inputs of individual regulators to field-oriented system in the course of underground mining operations has been presented in the publication. The object of controlling the speed is a slip-ring induction motor. Settings of regulators were calculated using an evolutionary algorithm. Examination of system dynamics was performed by a computer with the use of the MATLAB / Simulink software. According to analyzes, large distortion of input signals of regulators adversely affects the rotational speed that pursued by the control system, which may cause a large vibration of the whole system and, consequently, its much faster destruction. Designed system is characterized by a significantly better resistance to interference. The system is stable with the properly selected settings of regulators, which is particularly important during the operation of machinery used in underground mining.

  8. A study on the development of the computerized safety evaluation system of the motor operated valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. C.; Park, S. G.; Lee, D. H.; Ahn, N. S.; Bae, H. J.; Hong, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The MOVIDIK (Motor-Operated Valves Integrated Database and Information of KEPCO) system was developed to assist the design basis safety evaluation and to manage the overall data made by evaluation on the safety-related Motor-operated Valves(MOV) in the nuclear power plant. The huge amount of safety evaluation data of the MOV is being piled up as the safety evaluation work goes on. Much time and manpower was needed to do safety evaluation works without computerized system and it was not easy to obtain the statistic information from the evaluation data. The MOVIDIK will improve the efficiency of safety evaluation works and standardize the analysis process. But the some process which needs specific evaluation codes and engineering calculation by the specialists was not computerized. The MOVIDIK was developed by JAVA/JSP language known by the flexibility of language and the easiness of transplantation between operating systems. The Oracle 8i which is the world's most popular database was used for MOVIDIK database

  9. Teaching techniques in the operating room: the importance of perceptual motor teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczylas, Laura C; Littleton, Eliza B; Kanter, Steven L; Sutkin, Gary

    2012-03-01

    To identify sucessful teaching techniques in the operating room environment through examining the teaching of the midurethral sling (MUS) surgery. The authors distributed questionnaires with open-ended questions about teaching and learning MUS to 5 urogynecology attendings and 16 obstetrics-gynecology residents in spring 2010. In an effort to identify qualities of an effective sling teacher, the authors used grounded theory to determine common themes and to code participant responses for examples. Of 21 potential respondents, 14 (67%) returned questionnaires. The authors analyzed these and identified seven commonalities among effective sling teachers: they (1) emphasize anatomical landmarks (as determined by 64 total comments); (2) use perceptual-motor teaching (PMT; 38 comments); (3) encourage repetition (28); (4) promote early independence (34); (5) demonstrate confident competence (23); (6) maintain a calm demeanor in the operating room (20); and (7) exhibit a willingness to accept responsibility for mistakes and consequences (9). The second-most common attribute, using PMT, requires the teaching attending to emphasize the motor and tactile aspects of operating and involves incorporating not only what learners see but also what they feel. The authors report seven qualities or techniques fundamental to good teaching practice in a high-stress, high-technology surgical environment, and they have identified the use of PMT, which to their knowledge has not been previously described. Teachers and learners in this study characterized PMT, which is likely generalizable to surgical procedures other than the MUS, as important. Future research should focus on exploring this technique in other surgeries.

  10. Development and Performance Evaluation of Manually and Motorized Operated Melon Shelling Machine using Impact Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Olusegun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melon shelling in most part of the world is usually done manually by hand, and like all other manual operations it is time consuming and strenuous. The design and construction of manually and motorized operated melon shelling machine using impact method was done in order to meet the domestic, commercial and industrial requirement of melon for food processing. Two of the main cultivars of melon found in Western part of Nigeria; which are Bara and Serewe can be shelled properly by this machine; the machine is made up of three sections namely the hopper, the shelling chamber which consists of the shelling disc and the shaft, and the gear system. The machine was made from locally sourced materials and it can be used in both urban and rural areas even where there is no power supply. The percentage of melon been shelled in either manual or motorized operation in two successive runs of the two types of melon (Bara and Serewe was found to be above eighty percent (80% and the shelling efficiency of the machine is above 68%.

  11. A Delta Operator Approach for the Discrete-Time Active Disturbance Rejection Control on Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cortés-Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of active disturbance rejection control of induction motors is tackled by means of a generalized PI observer based discrete-time control, using the delta operator approach as the methodology of analyzing the sampled time process. In this scheme, model uncertainties and external disturbances are included in a general additive disturbance input which is to be online estimated and subsequently rejected via the controller actions. The observer carries out the disturbance estimation, thus reducing the complexity of the controller design. The controller efficiency is tested via some experimental results, performing a trajectory tracking task under load variations.

  12. Torsional fatigue model for limitorque type SMB/SB/SBD actuators for motor-operated valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, D.; Alvarez, P.D.; Kalsi, M.S. [Kalsi Engineering, Inc., Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Kalsi Engineering, Inc. has recently developed a computer program to predict the torsional fatigue life of Limitorque Type SMB/SB/SBD actuators for motor-operated valves under given loading levels, including those that exceed the ratings. The development effort was an outgrowth of the {open_quote}Thrust Rating Increase{close_quote} test program. The fatigue model computes all pertinent stress components and their variations as a function of the loading ramp. The cumulative damage and fatigue life due to stress cycling is computed by use of a modification of Miner`s rule. Model predictions were validated against actual cyclic loading test results.

  13. Torsional fatigue model for limitorque type SMB/SB/SBD actuators for motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, D.; Alvarez, P.D.; Kalsi, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Kalsi Engineering, Inc. has recently developed a computer program to predict the torsional fatigue life of Limitorque Type SMB/SB/SBD actuators for motor-operated valves under given loading levels, including those that exceed the ratings. The development effort was an outgrowth of the open-quote Thrust Rating Increase close-quote test program. The fatigue model computes all pertinent stress components and their variations as a function of the loading ramp. The cumulative damage and fatigue life due to stress cycling is computed by use of a modification of Miner's rule. Model predictions were validated against actual cyclic loading test results

  14. Characteristics of switched reluctance motor operating in continuous and discontinuous conduction mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalasan Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents mechanical characteristics of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM when it operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM or in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM, i.e. when the current through the phase coils (windings flows discontinuously or continuously. Firstly, in order to maximize the output power of SRM optimization of its control parameters was performed, such that the peak and RMS values of the current do not exceed the predefined values. The optimal control parameters vs. rotation speed, as well as the corresponding characteristics of torque, power and efficiency. It is shown that with CCM the machine torque (power, at high speed, can be increased.

  15. DNA Bipedal Motor Achieves a Large Number of Steps Due to Operation Using Microfluidics-Based Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Toma E; Tsukanov, Roman; Glick, Yair; Berger, Yaron; Liber, Miran; Avrahami, Dorit; Gerber, Doron; Nir, Eyal

    2017-04-25

    Realization of bioinspired molecular machines that can perform many and diverse operations in response to external chemical commands is a major goal in nanotechnology, but current molecular machines respond to only a few sequential commands. Lack of effective methods for introduction and removal of command compounds and low efficiencies of the reactions involved are major reasons for the limited performance. We introduce here a user interface based on a microfluidics device and single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy that allows efficient introduction and removal of chemical commands and enables detailed study of the reaction mechanisms involved in the operation of synthetic molecular machines. The microfluidics provided 64 consecutive DNA strand commands to a DNA-based motor system immobilized inside the microfluidics, driving a bipedal walker to perform 32 steps on a DNA origami track. The microfluidics enabled removal of redundant strands, resulting in a 6-fold increase in processivity relative to an identical motor operated without strand removal and significantly more operations than previously reported for user-controlled DNA nanomachines. In the motor operated without strand removal, redundant strands interfere with motor operation and reduce its performance. The microfluidics also enabled computer control of motor direction and speed. Furthermore, analysis of the reaction kinetics and motor performance in the absence of redundant strands, made possible by the microfluidics, enabled accurate modeling of the walker processivity. This enabled identification of dynamic boundaries and provided an explanation, based on the "trap state" mechanism, for why the motor did not perform an even larger number of steps. This understanding is very important for the development of future motors with significantly improved performance. Our universal interface enables two-way communication between user and molecular machine and, relying on concepts similar to that of solid

  16. Analysis of failure and maintenance experiences of motor operated valves in a Finnish nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.; Laakso, K.

    1992-01-01

    Operating experiences from 1981 up to 1989 of totally 104 motor operated closing valves (MOV) in different safety systems at TVO I and II nuclear power units were analysed in a systematic way. The qualitative methods used were failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and maintenance effects and criticality analysis (MECA). The failure descriptions were obtained from power plant's computerized failure reporting system. The reported 181 failure events were reanalysed and sorted according to specific classifications developed for the MOV function. Filled FMEA and MECA sheets on individual valves were stored in a microcomputer data base for further analyses. Analyses were performed for the failed mechanical and electrical valve parts, ways of detection of failure modes, failure effects, and repair and unavailability times

  17. A Cryogenic High-Power-Density Bearingless Motor for Future Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin; Siebert, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing a high-power-density switched-reluctance cryogenic motor for all-electric and pollution-free flight. However, cryogenic operation at higher rotational speeds markedly shortens the life of mechanical rolling element bearings. Thus, to demonstrate the practical feasibility of using this motor for future flights, a non-contact rotor-bearing system is a crucial technology to circumvent poor bearing life that ordinarily accompanies cryogenic operation. In this paper, a bearingless motor control technology for a 12-8 (12 poles in the stator and 8 poles in the rotor) switched-reluctance motor operating in liquid nitrogen (boiling point, 77 K (-196 C or -321 F)) was presented. We pushed previous disciplinary limits of electromagnetic controller technique by extending the state-of-the-art bearingless motor operating at liquid nitrogen for high-specific-power applications. The motor was levitated even in its nonlinear region of magnetic saturation, which is believed to be a world first for the motor type. Also we used only motoring coils to generate motoring torque and levitation force, which is an important feature for developing a high specific power motor.

  18. Bearingless switched reluctance motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

  19. Directions of increase in safety of special motor transport operation in the city of Saint–Petersburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyaev, I. O.; Vorobyov, S. A.; Kondratyuk, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the questions regarded to the expected approach to safety analysis of operation of special motor vehicles in conditions of urban environment of large modern city. As the key factor of the analysis, the authors consider the methodical basis of assessing possible consequences (economic, environmental and social risks) of occurrence of the emergency factors and the ways to increase the efficiency of functioning of special motor transport.

  20. QUANTITATIVE CHANGES OF MOTORIC ABILITIES CONDITIONED BY KINEZIOLOGY OPERATORS AT THE CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Mikić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic mission of the physical training and health education of children with special needs is to satisfy bio-pshico-social need for motion as an expression of satisfying certain needs that can effect on adaptive and creative abilities in modern life circum stances, as well as, on development of health culture of pupils in order to preserve health, correction of inborn and acquired deviation during their growth in early childhood. The most important goal of this research was to define transformation process of basic-motoric abilities, under the influence of experimental program with special needs pupils categorized in light and moderate category of retardation. The research was performed with the children in the „Centre for special needs children youth“.Sample was made with girls and boys, with total of 71 children devided in to three sub-sample according to gender, age and level of retardation. Euro-fit battery was taken as an instrument of research.During this research it was concluded that systematic influence of kineziology operators can positively influence on improved motoric functions of special needs children which is directly refered to intelectual abilities(balance and orientation.

  1. Rapid Integration of Artificial Sensory Feedback during Operant Conditioning of Motor Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Mario; Galiñanes, Gregorio L; Huber, Daniel

    2017-02-22

    Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex. This artificial signal was necessary to rapidly learn to increase the conditioned activity, detect correct performance, and maintain the learned behavior. Population imaging in M1 revealed that learning-related activity changes are observed in the conditioned cell only, which highlights the functional potential of individual neurons in the neocortex. Our findings demonstrate the capacity of animals to use an artificially induced cortical channel in a behaviorally relevant way and reveal the remarkable speed and specificity at which this can occur. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Universal adaptive torque control for PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royak, Semyon [Beachwood, OH; Harbaugh, Mark M [Richfield, OH; Breitzmann, Robert J [South Russel, OH; Nondahl, Thomas A [Wauwatosa, WI; Schmidt, Peter B [Franklin, WI; Liu, Jingbo [Milwaukee, WI

    2011-03-29

    The invention includes a motor controller and method for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by, among other things, receiving a torque command, determining a normalized torque command by normalizing the torque command to a characteristic current of the motor, determining a normalized maximum available voltage, determining an inductance ratio of the motor, and determining a direct-axis current based upon the normalized torque command, the normalized maximum available voltage, and the inductance ratio of the motor.

  3. A study on a characteristic of stem friction coefficient for motor operated flexible wedge gate valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Woong; Park, Sung-Geun; Lee, Sang-Guk; Kang, Shin-Cheul

    2009-01-01

    Stem friction coefficient is a coefficient that represents friction between thread leads of the stem and stem nut. It is an important factor to determine output thrust delivered from the actuator to the valve stem in assessing performance of motor operated valves. This study analyzes the effects of changes in differential pressure on stem friction coefficient, and determines the bounding value of stem friction coefficient. A dynamic test was conducted on multiple flexible wedge gate valves in various differential pressure conditions, and the test data was statistically analyzed to determine the bounding value. The results show that stem friction coefficient in middle and high differential pressure is influenced by fluid pressure, while stem friction coefficient in low differential pressure is almost not affected by fluid pressure. In addition, it is found that the bounding value of stem friction coefficient is higher in a closing stroke than in an opening stroke.

  4. Determination of Component Motions in a Motor-Operated Valve Using Housing Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jangbom; Lyon, Richard H.

    1996-03-01

    This paper is concerned with diagnosing the construction of motor operated valves (MOVs) based on their performance in previous runs. One part of the signature that reveals condition is valve travel, which is to be determined non-invasively. The technique described here is based on the determination of valve stem rotation through the analysis of gear meshing forces. These forces are, in turn, determined from the vibrations they produce in the MOV housing. These vibrations are interpreted as forces through inverse filtering of the received signals. The gear mesh force signals are, in turn, related to gear rotation through frequency demodulation. Experimental results from a laboratory set-up indicate that this procedure leads to acceptable estimates of shaft rotation and valve travel.

  5. Automated ambulatory assessment of cognitive performance, environmental conditions, and motor activity during military operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Kramer, F. Matthew; Montain, Scott J.; Niro, Philip; Young, Andrew J.

    2005-05-01

    Until recently scientists had limited opportunities to study human cognitive performance in non-laboratory, fully ambulatory situations. Recently, advances in technology have made it possible to extend behavioral assessment to the field environment. One of the first devices to measure human behavior in the field was the wrist-worn actigraph. This device, now widely employed, can acquire minute-by-minute information on an individual"s level of motor activity. Actigraphs can, with reasonable accuracy, distinguish sleep from waking, the most critical and basic aspect of human behavior. However, rapid technologic advances have provided the opportunity to collect much more information from fully ambulatory humans. Our laboratory has developed a series of wrist-worn devices, which are not much larger then a watch, which can assess simple and choice reaction time, vigilance and memory. In addition, the devices can concurrently assess motor activity with much greater temporal resolution then the standard actigraph. Furthermore, they continuously monitor multiple environmental variables including temperature, humidity, sound and light. We have employed these monitors during training and simulated military operations to collect information that would typically be unavailable under such circumstances. In this paper we will describe various versions of the vigilance monitor and how each successive version extended the capabilities of the device. Samples of data from several studies are presented, included studies conducted in harsh field environments during simulated infantry assaults, a Marine Corps Officer training course and mechanized infantry (Stryker) operations. The monitors have been useful for documenting environmental conditions experienced by wearers, studying patterns of sleep and activity and examining the effects of nutritional manipulations on warfighter performance.

  6. Advanced development and operating experience with a canned motor pump under pressurized water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, H.; Reymann, A.; Seibig, B.; Reinecker, H.

    1988-01-01

    At the research reactor FRG-2, Geesthacht, an irradiation device is in operation for testing defective light-water-reactor (LWR) test fuel rods under pressurized water reactor conditions (320 0 C, 160 bar). The requirements to the canned motor pump for cooling water circulation: medium: Demineralized water, operating temperature 320 0 C, operating pressure 155 bar, radiation field of the reactor, integration in the irradiation capsule, helium leak rate -6 mbar.dm 3 .s -1 , minimum working life 3000 hours, were high and caused difficulties in the acquisition of this component. First test runs with supplied pumps showed that the desired working life could not be achieved. The results of the development steps, the test runs, and the performance in service show that for our range of applications, the best combination of materials for the radial bearings is silicon-infiltrated SiC (8% free Si) against the same material. These bearings allowed a good working life for the pump to be achieved. (orig./GL) [de

  7. Analysis of doubly-fed induction machine operating at motoring mode subjected to voltage sag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Variable Speed (VS Pumped Storage Plants (PSP equipped with large asynchronous (Doubly-Fed Induction machines are emerging now in hydropower applications. Motoring mode of operation of Doubly-Fed Induction Machine (DFIM is essential and techno-economical in this application due to: (1 its uniqueness in active power controllability, (2 bulk power handing capability with less rated power converters in rotor circuit, and (3 integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper investigates the performance of two DFIMs at different power ratings (2.2 kW and 2 MW under voltage sag with different attribute. The test results are analyzed in terms of the peaks in torque, speed, power taken and transient currents in rotor and stator circuits. During sag, stable region for DFIM operation along with speed and stator side reactive power input control is also illustrated. The negative effects of voltage sag are briefly discussed. MATLAB simulation is validated with experimentation. The various observations during simulation and experimental analysis are also supported by the theoretical explanations.

  8. A Methodology for Evaluation of Inservice Test Intervals for Pumps and Motor-Operated Valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.F.; Haynes, H.D.; McElhaney, K.L.; Otaduy, P.J.; Staunton, R.H.; Vesely, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Recent nuclear industry reevaluation of component inservice testing (IST) requirements is resulting in requests for IST interval extensions and changes to traditional IST programs. To evaluate these requests, long-term component performance and the methods for mitigating degradation need to be understood. Determining the appropriate IST intervals, along with component testing, monitoring, trending, and maintenance effects, has become necessary. This study provides guidelines to support the evaluation of IST intervals for pumps and motor-operated valves (MOVs). It presents specific engineering information pertinent to the performance and monitoring/testing of pumps and MOVs, provides an analytical methodology for assessing the bounding effects of aging on component margin behavior, and identifies basic elements of an overall program to help ensure component operability. Guidance for assessing probabilistic methods and the risk importance and safety consequences of the performance of pumps and MOVs has not been specifically included within the scope of this report, but these elements may be included in licensee change requests

  9. On Stability of Open-Loop Operation without Rotor Information for Brushless DC Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Open-loop operation mode is often used to control the Brushless DC Motors (BLDCMs without rotor position sensors when the back electromotive force (EMF is too weak due to the very low rotor velocity. The rotor position information is not necessary in this mode and the stator windings are supplied with voltages under a certain ratio of the amplitude to the frequency. However, the rotor synchronization will be destroyed once if the commutation instant is inappropriate. In order to improve the reliability of the open-loop operation mode, a dynamic equation is established to represent the synchronization error between the rotor and the stator. Thereafter, the stability of the open-loop control mode is analyzed by using Lyapunov indirect method. Theoretical analysis indicates that the open-loop control mode is asymptotically stable only when the commutation instant of the stator current lags behind the ideal one suitably. Finally, theoretical analysis is verified through the experimental results of a certain BLDCM.

  10. Guidelines for optimizing safety benefits in ensuring the performance of motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    For the past several years, both the U.S. nuclear power industry and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission have devoted significant attention and resources toward improving the performance of motor-operated valves (MOVs). Clearly, the level of attention and resources given to MOVs has resulted in an improved understanding of the design, operation, and maintenance of these components. The enhanced knowledge of these types of valves provides the engineering basis for maintaining reliable performance over their service lives. The accumulation of this knowledge, however, has come at a tremendous expense that continues to absorb industry and regulatory attention and resources. Given that the contribution to safety of individual MOVs varies widely, a number of questions have been raised concerning whether this expenditure results in commensurate benefits and to what extent this expenditure should continue. This paper proposes to apply resources in a manner that is commensurate with the safety-significance of individual MOVs. This approach should not only lead to increased levels of confidence in plant safety, but should also result in a more efficient use of industry and regulatory resources. This paper recommends using a graded approach that can optimize the safety benefits in ensuring MOV performance. The graded approach is founded on a blend of probabilistic and deterministic methods

  11. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J; St Aubin, J; Rathee, S; Fallone, B G

    2010-05-01

    Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450 +/- 10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000 +/- 10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600 +/- 10 G. The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of

  12. Operation of a general purpose stepping motor-encoder positioning subsystem at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    Four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a fifth subsystem unit is nearing completion. The subsystems affect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motor-encoder pairs. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Additions to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  13. New magnet pole shape for isochronous cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, C.E.; Chasman, C.; Baltz, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new design has been developed for shaping pole tips to produce the radially increasing fields required for isochronous cyclotrons. The conventional solid hill poles are replaced by poles mounted over a small secondary gap which tapers radially from maximum at the magnet edge to zero near the center. Field measurements with a model magnet and calculations with the code TRIM show an increase in field at the edge of the magnet without the usual corresponding large increase in fringing, and a radial field shape more nearly field independent than for conventional hills. The flying hills have several advantages for variable energy multiparticle cyclotrons: (1) a large reduction in the power dissipated by isochronizing trim coils; (2) a more constant shape and magnitude flutter factor, eliminating flutter coils and increasing the operating range; and (3) a sharper fall-off of the fringe field, simplifying beam extraction

  14. Development of an integrated condition monitoring and diagnostic system for motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Alvaro Luiz Guimaraes

    2003-01-01

    The reliability question of the components, specifically of motor operated valves, became one of the most important issues to be investigated in nuclear power plants, considering security and life plant extension. Therefore, the necessity of improvements in monitoring and diagnosis methods started to be of extreme relevance in the maintenance predictive field, establishing as main goal the reliability and readiness of the system components. Specially in nuclear power plants, the predictive maintenance contributes in the security factor in order to diagnosis in advance the occurrence of a possible failure, preventing severe situations. It also presents a contribution on the economic side by establishing a better maintenance programming, and reducing unexpected shutdown. The development of non intrusive monitoring and diagnostic method makes it possible to identify malfunctions in plant components during normal plant operation. This dissertation presents the development of an integrated condition monitoring system for motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plants. The methodology used in this project is based on the electric motor power signatures analysis, during the closing and opening stroke time of the valve. Once the measurements baseline diagnostic of the motor-operated valve is taken, it is possible to detect long-term deviations during valve lifetime, detecting in advance valve failures. The system implements two parallel techniques for detection and categorization of anomalies: expert system using fuzzy logic based on rules and knowledge base, providing a systematic approach for decision making, and the Wavelet Transform Technique, where the main goal is to obtain more detailed information contained in the measured data, identifying and characterizing the transients phenomena in the time and frequency domains, correlating them to failures situations in the incipient stage. The conditioning monitoring and diagnostic system was designed and implemented at

  15. Numerical investigation of refrigeration machine compressor operation considering single-phase electric motor dynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidak, Y.; Smyk, V.

    2017-08-01

    Using as the base the differential equations system which was presented in relative units for generalized electric motor of hermetic refrigeration compressor, mathematical model of the software for dynamic performance calculation of refrigeration machine compressors drive low-power asynchronous motors was developed. Performed on its ground calculations of the basic model of two-phase electric motor drive of hermetic compressor and the proposed newly developed model of the motor with single-phase stator winding, which is an alternative to the industrial motor winding, have confirmed the benefits of the motor with innovative stator winding over the base engine. Given calculations of the dynamic characteristics of compressor drive motor have permitted to determine the value of electromagnetic torque swinging for coordinating compressor and motor mechanical characteristics, and for taking them into consideration in choosing compressor elements construction materials. Developed and used in the process of investigation of refrigeration compressor drive asynchronous single-phase motor mathematical and software can be considered as an element of computer-aided design system for design of the aggregate of refrigeration compression unit refrigerating machine.

  16. ICDE project report: collection and analysis of common-cause failures of motor operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This report documents a study performed on the set of common cause failures (CCF) of motor operated valves (MOV). The data studied here were derived from the International CCF Data Exchange (ICDE) database, to which several countries have submitted CCF event data. The purpose of the ICDE is to allow multiple countries to collaborate and exchange CCF data to enhance the quality of risk analyses that include CCF modeling. Because CCF events are typically rare events, most countries do not experience enough CCF events to perform meaningful analyses. Data combined from several countries, however, yields sufficient data for more rigorous analyses. This report is the result of an in-depth review of the MOV events and presents several insights about them. The objective of this document is to look beyond the CCF parameter estimates that can be obtained from the CCF data, to gain further understanding of why CCF events occur and what measures may be taken to prevent, or at least mitigate the effect of MOV CCF events. The report presents details of the ICDE project, a quantitative presentation of the MOV events, and a discussion of some engineering aspects of the events. (authors)

  17. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  18. DIAGNOSTICS OF THE HIGH-TORQUE ELECTRICAL MOTOR UNDER OPERATING CONDITIONS AT LOW TEMPERATURES IN VACUUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Byeli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameters of high-moment electrical motor working at low-temperatures and high vacuum were investigated. It has been demonstrated that pressure in conspiracy with temperature does not influence starting current of the motor. Temperature reduction from 293 up to 143 K increases starting current at a factor of 3.5. 

  19. IR radiation characteristics of rocket exhaust plumes under varying motor operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin NIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared (IR irradiance signature from rocket motor exhaust plumes is closely related to motor type, propellant composition, burn time, rocket geometry, chamber parameters and flight conditions. In this paper, an infrared signature analysis tool (IRSAT was developed to understand the spectral characteristics of exhaust plumes in detail. Through a finite volume technique, flow field properties were obtained through the solution of axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations with the Reynolds-averaged approach. A refined 13-species, 30-reaction chemistry scheme was used for combustion effects and a k-ε-Rt turbulence model for entrainment effects. Using flowfield properties as input data, the spectrum was integrated with a line of sight (LOS method based on a single line group (SLG model with Curtis-Godson approximation. The model correctly predicted spectral distribution in the wavelengths of 1.50–5.50 μm and had good agreement for its location with imaging spectrometer data. The IRSAT was then applied to discuss the effects of three operating conditions on IR signatures: (a afterburning; (b chamber pressure from ignition to cutoff; and (c minor changes in the ratio of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB binder to ammonium perchlorate (AP oxidizer in propellant. Results show that afterburning effects can increase the size and shape of radiance images with enhancement of radiation intensity up to 40%. Also, the total IR irradiance in different bands can be characterized by a non-dimensional chamber pressure trace in which the maximum discrepancy is less than 13% during ignition and engine cutoff. An increase of chamber pressure can lead to more distinct diamonds, whose distance intervals are extended, and the position of the first diamond moving backwards. In addition, an increase in HTPB/AP causes a significant jump in spectral intensity. The incremental rates of radiance intensity integrated in each band are linear with the increase of HTPB

  20. Exergetic analysis of the operation of a petrochemical pole cogeneration system; Analise exergetica da operacao de uma planta de cogeracao de um polo petroquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo A. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: ednildo@ufba.br; Gallo, Waldyr L. R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: gallo@unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents an exergy analysis for a petrochemical cogeneration system (the greater operating in Brazil). The system is described, the method employed to simulate the system is presented, and the exergy efficiencies are defined. The analysis presents the exergy efficiencies and irreversibility for each sub-system. The results obtained from real data were used to compare operation strategies which are not clear from energy balances. (author)

  1. Pulsing a 4.1 MW Motor Generator System to 34 MW Peak Power Under Constant Input Power Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marneris, I.; Badea, V.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Soukas, A.

    1999-01-01

    Brookhaven operates a 9 MW motor generator, made by Siemens, as part of the main magnet power supply of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) accelerator. A cycloconverter power supply system is utilized to ensure that during pulsing the main magnets of the AGS up to 50 MW peak power, the input power of the motor generator remains constant. There is also another motor generator (MG set) at Brookhaven, a 40 year old system manufactured by Westinghouse. This MG set could be pulsed up to 34 MW peak power while the input average power should not exceed 4.1 MW. A project is underway to upgrade this MG system and it's controls, so it could be used as a spare while doing maintenance on the Siemens MG and thus not interrupting the RHIC physics program. The purpose of this paper is to show that it is possible to pulse the AGS magnets using the Westinghouse MG system without utilizing a cycloconverter power supply, and still be able to maintain the input power to the motor generator constant. Calculations will be provided to show that they can pulse the position of the liquid rheostat in the motor rotor circuit to support the above, while taking out the power necessary to pulse the AGS magnets. This solution is being implemented due to budget constraints and overall simplicity. The hydraulic system to accomplish this task will also be described

  2. Modeling of the free space and focused magnetic field profiles of the ORNL superconducting motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.M.; Rader, M.; Sohns, C.W.; McKeever, J.; Schwenterly, S.W.

    1992-01-01

    The ORNL superconducting motor, is a device consisting of 4 DC superconducting magnets in a square cross section. These coils are arranged in a N-S-N-S configuration and at present have no iron flux return paths. Experimentally the device has been operated and has been shown to produce 102.3 kg-m of locked rotor torque at 100 Ampers winding current. The superconductors were operating at 40 Kelvin. The peak magnetic field at 2,100 amperes operating current was 2 Tesla on the cryostat face. Recently there has been an effort under way to improve the operating parameters of the device by improving the flux utilization of the device. This was to be accomplished by the use of flux focusing pole pieces. The effects of the pole pieces and the vacuum magnetic field have been modeled with the MSC EMAS code to see the possible benefit of adding pole pieces to the in situ experiment

  3. Thermal overload protection for electric motors on safety-related motor-operated valves: Generic Issue II.E.6.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothberg, O.

    1988-06-01

    NRC regulatory positions, as stated in Regulatory Guide 1.106, Revision 1, have been identified by the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) as potential contributors to valve motor burnout. AEOD is particularly concerned about the allowed policy of bypassing thermal overload devices during normal or accident conditions. Regulatory Guide 1.106 favors compromising the function of thermal overload devices in favor of completing the safety-related action of valves. The purpose of this study was to determine if the guidance contained in Regulatory Guide 1.106 is appropriate and, if not, to recommend the necessary changes. This report describes thermal overload devices commonly used to protect safety-related valve operator motors. The regulatory guidelines stated in Regulatory Guide 1.106 along with the limitations of thermal overload protection are discussed. Supplements and alternatives to thermal overload protection are also described. Findings and conclusions of several AEOD reports are discussed. Information obtained from the standard review plan, standard technical specifications, technical specifications from representative plants, and several papers are cited

  4. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Arentoft, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SHSOM) is performed on electric-field poled silica-based waveguides. Two operation modes of SHSOM are considered. Oblique transmission reflection and normal reflection modes are used to image the spatial distribution of nonlinear susceptibilities...... and limitations of the two operation modes when used for SHSOM studies of poled silica-based waveguides are discussed. The influence of surface defects on the resulting second-harmonic images is also considered. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  5. Reducing Operating Room Turnover Time for Robotic Surgery Using a Motor Racing Pit Stop Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souders, Colby P; Catchpole, Ken R; Wood, Lauren N; Solnik, Jonathon M; Avenido, Raymund M; Strauss, Paul L; Eilber, Karyn S; Anger, Jennifer T

    2017-08-01

    Operating room (OR) turnover time, time taken between one patient leaving the OR and the next entering, is an important determinant of OR utilization, a key value metric for hospital administrators. Surgical robots have increased the complexity and number of tasks required during an OR turnover, resulting in highly variable OR turnover times. We sought to streamline the turnover process and decrease robotic OR turnover times and increase efficiency. Direct observation of 45 pre-intervention robotic OR turnovers was performed. Following a previously successful model for handoffs, we employed concepts from motor racing pit stops, including briefings, leadership, role definition, task allocation and task sequencing. Turnover task cards for staff were developed, and card assignments were distributed for each turnover. Forty-one cases were observed post-intervention. Average total OR turnover time was 99.2 min (95% CI 88.0-110.3) pre-intervention and 53.2 min (95% CI 48.0-58.5) at 3 months post-intervention. Average room ready time from when the patient exited the OR until the surgical technician was ready to receive the next patient was 42.2 min (95% CI 36.7-47.7) before the intervention, which reduced to 27.2 min at 3 months (95% CI 24.7-29.7) post-intervention (p system changes are needed to capitalize on that result. Pit stop and other high-risk industry models may inform approaches to the management of tasks and teams.

  6. 76 FR 31279 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; request for public comment. SUMMARY: FMCSA... factors the States are using in deciding whether farm vehicle drivers transporting agricultural... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 383 and 390...

  7. Torque limit of PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royak, Semyon [Beachwood, OH; Harbaugh, Mark M [Richfield, OH

    2012-02-14

    The invention includes a motor controller and technique for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by receiving a torque command, determining a physical torque limit based on a stator frequency, determining a theoretical torque limit based on a maximum available voltage and motor inductance ratio, and limiting the torque command to the smaller of the physical torque limit and the theoretical torque limit. Receiving the torque command may include normalizing the torque command to obtain a normalized torque command, determining the physical torque limit may include determining a normalized physical torque limit, determining a theoretical torque limit may include determining a normalized theoretical torque limit, and limiting the torque command may include limiting the normalized torque command to the smaller of the normalized physical torque limit and the normalized theoretical torque limit.

  8. TRANSPORT AND OPERATIONAL STATE OF REPUBLIC MOTOR ROAD NETWORK AND MAIN DIRECTIONS OF THEIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Leonovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to evaluation of pavement smoothness and pavement strength on motor roads of the Republic of Belarus. An analysis of dynamics concerning development of smoothness regression processes is given in the paper. The paper describes the existing methods for evaluation of strength within the framework of modern investigations. Principles of designing non-rigid motor roads are comprehensively studied in the paper. The paper proposes a dependence between pavement strength and pavement smoothness. 

  9. Efficient operation of asynchronous motors - Final report; Effizienter Betrieb von Asynchronmotoren - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeli, N.; Jenni, F.

    2010-10-15

    Research has shown that the reduction of energy losses in electrical machines offers an enormous saving potential. The largest share of these losses is represented by induction motors in the medium power range. A significant fraction of these losses could be minimized by using modern frequency converters instead of traditional drive systems. However, even when operated with converters, the efficiency of these machines is still not optimal: By implementing an intelligent control scheme which involves a reduction in the magnetizing current, a significant improvement in efficiency can be achieved. Theoretical studies of the economical potential were conducted with and without the iron saturation taken into account. The behavior of the machines in the two cases of operation was described by numerical simulation. Two control algorithms that could be used in a converter have been developed: One utilizing a typical control methodology (constant flux in the machine as a reference) and another designed for optimal performance. The results show that an economical potential of up to 643 GWh per year is possible in Switzerland for all asynchronous machines, which corresponds to 4% of the total power consumption of these machines in Switzerland. With a price of 0.15 CHF/kWh, this represents a saving of approximately 95 million CHF. At this stage, it should be emphasized that this potential can be exploited provided that each machine is already equipped with a frequency converter. Converters with optimized performance are available from some manufacturers. Further investigation was required to determine if the measured savings correspond to the theoretical results. Thus, three converters have been measured in the laboratory using a controlled experiment. It was found that these saving options are effective only for non-dynamic regimes and that the algorithms are not yet ideal for torques below 10% of nominal. The reason for these results are unclear, as the algorithms used are

  10. The Morrison Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Switched reluctance motors typically consist of pairs of poles protruding outward from a central rotor, surrounded by pairs of coils protruding inward from a stator. The pairs of coils, positioned a short distance from opposing sides of the rotor, are connected in series. A current runs through the coils, generating a magnetic flux between the coils. This attracts the protruding poles on the rotor, and just as the poles on the rotor approach the coils, the current to the coils is inverted, repelling the rotor s poles as they pass the coils. This current switching, back and forth, provides a continuous rotational torque to the rotor. reliability, durability, low cost, and operation in adverse environments such as high temperatures, extreme temperature variations, and high rotational speeds. However, because rotors are often manufactured with minute flaws due to imperfections in the machining process, traditional switched reluctance motors often suffer from substantial amounts of vibration. In addition, the current in the coils imparts a strong radial magnetic force on the rotor; the continuous alternating of the direction of this force also causes vibration. As a result, switched reluctance motors require bearings that, run at high speeds, can require lubrication apparatus and are subject to problems with heat and wear. My mentor s recent invention, the "Bearingless" Switched Reluctance Motor, actually uses magnetic bearings instead of traditional physical bearings. Sensors are used to continuously determine the position of the rotor. A computer reads the position sensor input, performs calculations, and outputs a current to a set of extra coils (in addition to the coils rotating the rotor). This current provides a magnetic force that counters and damps the vibration. The sense-calculate-update loop iterates more than thirty thousand times per second. For now, our goal is to have the rotor rotate at about 6000 rprn, and at that speed, the magnetic bearing is

  11. A Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor for High Specific Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Siebert, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A 12-8 switched-reluctance motor (SRM) is studied in bearingless (or self-levitated) operation with coil currents limited to the linear region to avoid magnetic saturation. The required motoring and levitating currents are summed and go into a single motor coil per pole to obtain the highest power output of the motor by having more space for motor coil winding. Two controllers are investigated for the bearingless SRM operation. First, a model-based controller using the radial force, which is adjusted by a factor derived from finite element analysis, is presented. Then a simple and practical observation-based controller using a PD (proportional-derivative) control algorithm is presented. Both controllers were experimentally demonstrated to 6500 rpm. This paper reports the initial efforts toward eventual self levitation of a SRM operating into strong magnetic core saturation at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  12. Simplified Analytic Approach of Pole-to-Pole Faults in MMC-HVDC for AC System Backup Protection Setting Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongkun Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AC (alternating current system backup protection setting calculation is an important basis for ensuring the safe operation of power grids. With the increasing integration of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC into power grids, it has been a big challenge for the AC system backup protection setting calculation, as the MMC-HVDC lacks the fault self-clearance capability under pole-to-pole faults. This paper focused on the pole-to-pole faults analysis for the AC system backup protection setting calculation. The principles of pole-to-pole faults analysis were discussed first according to the standard of the AC system protection setting calculation. Then, the influence of fault resistance on the fault process was investigated. A simplified analytic approach of pole-to-pole faults in MMC-HVDC for the AC system backup protection setting calculation was proposed. In the proposed approach, the derived expressions of fundamental frequency current are applicable under arbitrary fault resistance. The accuracy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC simulations.

  13. An analysis of the optimum operating point for a switched reluctance motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, S.-H.; Tsai, M.-C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple method to determine the optimum exciting current, for high output torque in switched reluctance motors (SRMs). By modelling the flux-linkage with one curve at the unaligned position, and with two curves at the aligned position, the maximum increment of the co-energy and torque can be predicted accurately, and the optimum exciting current can also be determined. This easily implemented method is aimed at providing an index for determining the SRM exciting current. This will be useful for SRM designers in deciding the rated current and in obtaining the maximum motor efficiency

  14. Increasing Mud Pump Motor Reliability against Malfunctions of DC Motor Excitation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, O. V.; Shabanov, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    The most widely used drilling machinery, such as mud pumps, draw-works, and rotors, use direct-current (DC) motors with independent excitation as the electric drive. Drilling machinery drives operate in harsh ambient conditions, including those with the presence of moisture, dust and vibration, which increases the malfunction rate of both drilling equipment and their electric drives. One of the frequently encountered malfunctions are DC motor excitation coil faults, which disrupt the normal functioning of electric drives, often leading to shutdown of the drilling process. In a four-pole DC motor, the malfunction of one coil leads to lack of excitation current in just one coil pair, while the other pair remains functional. In this case, DC motors and drilling equipment can remain operational, which would allow for continuing the drilling process. This paper considers the possibility of operation of a DC motor on a drilling rig in those cases when one pair of excitation coils is non-functional, and describes the device for switching between the excitation coils and the auxiliary winding in a DC motor with independent excitation.

  15. 78 FR 57585 - Minimum Training Requirements for Entry-Level Commercial Motor Vehicle Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ..., the Agency tasked its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) to provide ideas the Agency... mention of the Model Motorcoach Driver Training Curriculum in the proposed rule. One motorcoach company... that segment of the industry. Additionally, concerns were expressed that existing company training...

  16. Method and apparatus for sensorless operation of brushless permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, T.V.

    1998-04-14

    A sensorless method and apparatus for providing commutation timing signals for a brushless permanent magnet motor extracts the third harmonic back-emf of a three-phase stator winding and independently cyclically integrates the positive and negative half-cycles thereof and compares the results to a reference level associated with a desired commutation angle. 23 figs.

  17. Method and apparatus for sensorless operation of brushless permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Tillasthanam V.

    1998-01-01

    A sensorless method and apparatus for providing commutation timing signals for a brushless permanent magnet motor extracts the third harmonic back-emf of a three-phase stator winding and independently cyclically integrates the positive and negative half-cycles thereof and compares the results to a reference level associated with a desired commutation angle.

  18. Risk evaluation for motor operated valves in an Inservice Testing Program at a PWR nuclear power plant in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.C.; Chen, K.T.; Su, Y.L.; Ting, K.; Chien, F.T.; Li, G.D.; Huang, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Safety related valves such as Motor Operated Valves (MOV), Air Operated Valves (AOV) or Check Valves (CV) play an important role in nuclear power plant. Functioning of these valves mainly aim at emergency reactivity control, post-accident residue heat removal, post-accident radioactivity removal and containment isolation when a design basis accident occurred. In order to maintain these valves under operable conditions, an Inservice Testing Program (IST) is defined for routine testing tasks based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code section XI code requirements. Risk based Inservice Testing Programs have been studied and developed extensively in the nuclear energy industry since the 1990s. Risk Based evaluations of IST can bring positive advantages to the licensee such as identifying the vulnerability of the system, reducing unnecessary testing burden, concentrating testing resources on the critical pass oriented valves and saving plant’s personnel dose exposure. This risk evaluation is incorporated with quantitative and qualitative analyses to the Motor Operated Valves under current Inservice Testing Program for PWR nuclear power plant in Taiwan. With the outcome of the risk classifications for the safety related MOVs through numerical or deterministic analyses, a risk based testing frequency relief is suggested to demonstrate the benefits received from the risk based Inservice Testing Program. The goal made of this study, it could be as a reference and cornerstone for the licensee to perform overall scope Risk-Informed Inservice Testing Program (RI-IST) evaluation by referring relevant methodologies established in this study.

  19. The Gattini South Pole UV experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Anna M.; Ahmed, Sara; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Croner, Ernest; Delacroix, Alex; Ebihara, Yusuke; Fucik, Jason; Martin, D. Christopher; Velur, Viswa; Weatherwax, Allan

    2012-09-01

    The Gattini South Pole UV experiment (Gattini SPUV) was deployed to the South Pole dark sector in February 2010 and has recently completed a highly successful first season of winter time observations. The experiment has, for the first time ever, measured and categorized the optical night sky brightness at the very blue wavelengths. The experiment consists of a remotely operated 6” aperture custom designed telescope. The telescope feeds a blue sensitive imager with 4 degree field of view that contains a bank of 3 filters: SDSS g’, Bessel U and a custom “super U” filter specifically designed to probe the sky emission at wavelengths approaching the atmospheric cut-off. The filters are continually cycled with exposure times ranging from 30 to 300 seconds throughout the winter period. The telescope, in addition, feeds a 2 degree long slit VPH grating spectrograph with R~1000. The bandwidth is 350-450nm. The spectra are recorded simultaneously with the imager exposures. The experiment is designed for low temperature Antarctic operation and resides on the roof of the MAPO building in the South Pole Antarctic sector. The primary science goals are to categorize the Antarctic winter-time sky background at the very bluest of wavelengths as a pathfinder for the Antarctic Cosmic Web Imager. We present a technical overview of the experiment and results from the first winter season.

  20. NRC Information No. 90-21: Potential failure of motor-operated butterfly valves to operate because valve seat friction was underestimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In October 1988, at Catawba Nuclear Station Unit 1, a motor-operated butterfly valve in the service water system failed to open under high differential pressure conditions. The licensee concluded that the valve manufacturer, BIF/General Signal Corporation, had underestimated the degree to which the material used in the valve seat would harden with age (the responsibility for these valves has been transferred to Paul-Munroe Enertech). This underestimation of the age hardening had led the manufacturer to assume valve seat friction forces that were less than the actual friction forces in the installed valve. To overcome the larger-than-anticipated friction forces, the licensee's engineering staff recommended the open torque switch for 56 butterfly valves be reset to the maximum allowable value. The systems in which these valves are located include the component cooling water system, service water system, and various ventilation systems. By July 26, 1989, the torque switch adjustments were completed at Catawba Units 1 and 2. After reviewing the final settings, the licensee's engineering staff determined that the actuators for three butterfly valves in the component cooling water system might not be able to overcome the friction forces resulting from maximum seat hardening. On December 13, 1989, the licensee determined that the failure of these BIF/General Signal motor-operated valves (MOVs) could cause a loss of cooling water to residual heat removal system heat exchangers. To resolve the concern regarding the operability of these BIF/General Signal valves, a torque switch bypass was installed on two of the actuators to allow full motor capability during opening

  1. Study on Pole Arrangement of the CEDM Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Myoung Goo; Kim, Hyun Min; Cho, Yeon Ho; Choi, Taek Sang

    2013-01-01

    The coil stack assembly is important for reliable operation of the CEDM, there have been efforts to improve the design by optimizing the design parameters such as dimensions and winding turns. However, magnetic forces of the CEDM can also change by different pole arrangement even if their design parameters are the same. Since the latch coil and lift coil are installed connected to each other, they produce magnetically coupled field when they are energized at the same time. This coupling field can affect the magnetic force of the CEDM significantly. In this paper, coil pole arrangement effects are studied. Electro-magnetic analysis is performed for the different pole arrangements of the CEDM coils to calculate the magnetic forces. Pole arrangement effects on magnetic forces were studied by static analysis of the CEDM magnetic field. Magnetic forces were calculated and compared for the two different pole arrangements of the coils. The results show that the magnetic poles of the lift coil and latch coil shall be arranged to have the same magnetic pole direction to achieve higher magnetic force

  2. Multiple neck operations in a patient with severe motor tics because of Tourette’s syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyashita Tomohiro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In patients with Tourette’s syndrome who have severe motor tics, involuntary neck movements can enhance degenerative changes in the cervical spine, occasionally causing myelopathy. There have been a limited number of reports on surgical treatment for cervical myelopathy caused by Tourette’s syndrome, and a consensus for surgical treatment has not been fully established. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that describes a case of cervical myelopathy in a patient with Tourette’s syndrome with severe motor tics who has undergone multiple surgeries of the cervical spine. Case presentation A 44-year-old Asian man with severe motor tics due to Tourette’s syndrome presented with cervical myelopathy. Previously, he had undergone an anterior discectomy and spinal fusion with ceramics at the C3-C4 and C5-C6 levels, but required further surgery because of displacement of the ceramics. After the second operation, he developed compression myelopathy at the sandwiched (C4-C5 disc level, and had to undergo a C4-C5 anterior discectomy and spinal fusion, which was unsuccessful. As a salvage operation, we performed a C3-C7 decompression and spinal fusion from both the anterior and posterior approaches. By thorough postoperative external immobilization of his neck, our patient’s spinal fusion was successful and his neurological improvements were maintained for more than 10 years. Conclusions Patients with Tourette’s syndrome with cervical myelopathy are at risk of having multiple neck operations to correct their symptoms. Postoperative immobilization and the correct selection of surgical procedure are quite important for successful spinal fusion and for avoiding complications at adjacent levels in these patients.

  3. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained.......Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  4. Bidirectional control of a one-dimensional robotic actuator by operant conditioning of a single unit in rat motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Jean eArduin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of efficient neuroprosthetic devices has become a major challenge for the long-term goal of restoring autonomy to motor-impaired patients. One approach for brain control of actuators consists in decoding the activity pattern obtained by simultaneously recording large neuronal ensembles in order to predict in real-time the subject’s intention, and move the prosthesis accordingly. An alternative way is to assign the output of one or a few neurons by operant conditioning to control the prosthesis with rules defined by the experimenter, and rely on the functional adaptation of these neurons during learning to reach the desired behavioral outcome. Here, several motor cortex neurons were recorded simultaneously in head-fixed awake rats and were conditioned, one at a time, to modulate their firing rate up and down in order to control the speed and direction of a one-dimensional actuator carrying a water bottle. The goal was to maintain the bottle in front of the rat’s mouth, allowing it to drink. After learning, all conditioned neurons modulated their firing rate, effectively controlling the bottle position so that the drinking time was increased relative to chance. The mean firing rate averaged over all bottle trajectories depended non-linearly on position, so that the mouth position operated as an attractor. Some modifications of mean firing rate were observed in the surrounding neurons, but to a lesser extent. Notably, the conditioned neuron reacted faster and led to a better control than surrounding neurons, as calculated by using the activity of those neurons to generate simulated bottle trajectories. Our study demonstrates the feasibility, even in the rodent, of using a motor cortex neuron to control a prosthesis in real-time bidirectionally. The learning process includes modifications of the activity of neighboring cortical neurons, while the conditioned neuron selectively leads the activity patterns associated with the prosthesis

  5. Sleep-deprived motor vehicle operators are unfit to drive: a multidisciplinary expert consensus statement on drowsy driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A; Wickwire, Emerson M; Barger, Laura K; Dement, William C; Gamble, Karen; Hartenbaum, Natalie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Pelayo, Rafael; Phillips, Barbara; Strohl, Kingman; Tefft, Brian; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Malhotra, Raman; Whiton, Kaitlyn; Hirshkowitz, Max

    2016-06-01

    This article presents the consensus findings of the National Sleep Foundation Drowsy Driving Consensus Working Group, which was an expert panel assembled to establish a consensus statement regarding sleep-related driving impairment. The National Sleep Foundation assembled a expert panel comprised of experts from the sleep community and experts appointed by stakeholder organizations. A systematic literature review identified 346 studies that were abstracted and provided to the panelists for review. A modified Delphi RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method with 2 rounds of voting was used to reach consensus. A final consensus was reached that sleep deprivation renders motorists unfit to drive a motor vehicle. After reviewing growing evidence of impairment and increased crash risk among drivers who obtained less than optimal sleep duration in the preceding 24 hours, the panelists recognized the need for public policy guidance as to when it is certainly unsafe to drive. Toward this end, the panelists agreed upon the following expert consensus statement: "Drivers who have slept for two hours or less in the preceding 24 hours are not fit to operate a motor vehicle." Panelists further agreed that most healthy drivers would likely be impaired with only 3 to 5 hours of sleep during the prior 24 hours. There is consensus among experts that healthy individuals who have slept for 2 hours or less in the preceding 24 hours are too impaired to safely operate a motor vehicle. Prevention of drowsy driving will require sustained and collaborative effort from multiple stakeholders. Implications and limitations of the consensus recommendations are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Force Analysis and Energy Operation of Chaotic System of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guoyuan; Hu, Jianbing

    2017-12-01

    The disadvantage of a nondimensionalized model of a permanent-magnet synchronous Motor (PMSM) is identified. The original PMSM model is transformed into a Kolmogorov system to aid dynamic force analysis. The vector field of the PMSM is analogous to the force field including four types of torque — inertial, internal, dissipative, and generalized external. Using the feedback thought, the error torque between external torque and dissipative torque is identified. The pitchfork bifurcation of the PMSM is performed. Four forms of energy are identified for the system — kinetic, potential, dissipative, and supplied. The physical interpretations of the decomposition of force and energy exchange are given. Casimir energy is stored energy, and its rate of change is the error power between the dissipative energy and the energy supplied to the motor. Error torque and error power influence the different types of dynamic modes. The Hamiltonian energy and Casimir energy are compared to find the function of each in producing the dynamic modes. A supremum bound for the chaotic attractor is proposed using the error power and Lagrange multiplier.

  7. A novel L-shaped linear ultrasonic motor operating in a single resonance mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bailiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiaoniu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a large thrust linear ultrasonic motor using an L-shaped stator is described. The stator is constructed by two mutually perpendicular rectangular plate vibrators, one of which is mounted in parallel with the slider to make the motor structure to be more compact. The symmetric and antisymmetric modes of the stator based on the first order bending vibration of two vibrators are adopted, in which each resonance mode is assigned to drive the slider in one direction. The placement of piezoelectric ceramics in a stator could be determined by finite element analysis, and the influence of slots in the head block on the vibration amplitudes of driving foot was studied as well. Three types of prototypes (non-slotted, dual-slot, and single-slot) were fabricated and experimentally investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that the prototype with one slot exhibited the best mechanical output performance. The maximum loads under the excitation of symmetric mode and antisymmetric mode were 65 and 90 N, respectively.

  8. Analysis of Vibration and Acoustic Noise in Permanent Magnet Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sangmoon

    The drive motor is a frequent source of vibration and acoustic noise in many precision spindle motors. One of the electromagnetic sources of vibration in permanent magnet motors is the torque ripple, consisting of the reluctance torque and electromagnetic torque fluctuation. This type of vibration is becoming more serious with the advent of new high-grade magnets with increased flux density. Acoustic noise of electromagnetic origin is difficult to predict and its exact mechanism is unclear. The mechanism of noise generation should be revealed to design a quieter motor which is the modern customer's demand. For motor operation at low speeds and loads, torque ripple due to the reluctance torque is often a source of vibration and control difficulty. The reluctance torque in a motor was calculated from the flux density by a finite element method and the Maxwell stress method. Effects of design parameters, such as stator slot width, permanent slot width, airgap length and magnetization direction, were investigated. Magnet pole shaping, by gradually decreasing the magnet thickness toward edges, yields a sinusoidal shape of the reluctance torque with reduced harmonics, thus reducing the vibration. This dissertation also presents two motor design techniques: stator tooth notching and rotor pole skewing with magnet pole shaping, and the effect of each method on the output torque. The analysis shows that the reluctance torque can be nearly eliminated by the suggested designs, with minimal sacrifice of the output torque. In permanent magnet DC motors, the most popular design type is the trapezoidal back electro-motive force (BEMF), for switched DC controllers. It is demonstrated that the output torque profile of one phase energized is qualitatively equivalent to the BEMF profile for motors with reduced reluctance torque. It implies that design of BEMF profile is possible by magnetic modeling of a motor, without expensive and time-consuming experiments for different designs

  9. Ultra-Efficient and Power Dense Electric Motors for U. S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melfi, Michael J.; Schiferl, Richard F.; Umans, Stephen D.

    2013-03-12

    The primary purpose of this project was to combine the ease-of-installation and ease-of-use attributes of industrial induction motors with the low-loss and small size and weight advantages of PM motors to create an ultra-efficient, high power density industrial motor that can be started across-the-line or operated from a standard, Volts/Hertz drive without the need for a rotor position feedback device. PM motor products that are currently available are largely variable speed motors that require a special adjustable speed drive with rotor position feedback. The reduced size and weight helps to offset the magnet cost in order make these motors commercially viable. The scope of this project covers horsepower ratings from 20 ? 500. Prototypes were built and tested at ratings ranging from 30 to 250 HP. Since fans, pumps and compressors make up a large portion of industrial motor applications, the motor characteristics are tailored to those applications. Also, since there is extensive use of adjustable frequency inverters in these applications, there is the opportunity to design for an optimal pole number and operate at other than 60 Hz frequency when inverters are utilized. Designs with four and eight pole configurations were prototyped as part of this work. Four pole motors are the most commonly used configuration in induction motors today. The results of the prototype design, fabrication, and testing were quite successful. The 50 HP rating met all of the design goals including efficiency and power density. Tested values of motor losses at 50 HP were 30% lower than energy efficient induction motors and the motor weight is 35% lower than the energy efficient induction motor of the same rating. Further, when tested at the 30 HP rating that is normally built in this 286T frame size, the efficiency far exceeds the project design goals with 30 HP efficiency levels indicating a 55% reduction in loss compared to energy efficient motors with a motor weight that is a few

  10. Regulatory standpoints on the design-basis capability of safety-related motor-operated valves(MOVs) and power-operated gate valves(POGVs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. T.; Kum, O. H.

    1999-01-01

    The weakness in the design-basis capability of Motor-Operated Valves(MOVs) and the susceptibility to Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding phenomena of Power-Operated Gate Valves(POGVs) have been major concerns to be resolved in the nuclear society in and abroad since Three Mile Island accident occurred in the USA in 1979. Through detailed analysis of operating experience and regulatory activities, some MOVs and POGVs have been found to be unreliable in performing their safety functions when they are required to do so under certain conditions, especially under design-basis accident conditions. Further, it is well understood that these safety problems may not be identified by the typical valve in-service testing(IST). USNRC has published three Generic Letters, GL 89-10, GL 95-07, and GL 96-05, requiring nuclear plant licensees to take appropriate actions to resolve the problems mentioned above. Korean nuclear regulatory body has made public an administration measure called 'Regulatory recommendation to verify safety functions of the safety-related MOVs and POGVs' on June 13, 1997, and in this administration measure Korean utility is asked to submit written documents to show how it assure design-basis capability of these valves. The following are among the major concerns being considered from a regulation standpoint. Program scope and implementation priority, dynamic tests under differential pressure conditions, accuracy of diagnostic equipment, torque switch setting and torque bypass percentage, weak link analysis, motor actuator sizing, corrective actions taken to resolve pressure locking and thermal binding susceptibility, and a periodic verification program for the valves once design-basis capability has been verified

  11. Flux modeling and analysis of a linear induction motor for steel mill non-contacting conveyance system application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-T.; Lin, S.-Y.; Yang, Y.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mathematical approach for analyzing static/dynamic characteristics of a linear induction motor for steel mill non-contacting conveyance system application will be provided. The dependent reluctances among the motor secondary steel plate and primary poles have been systematically formulated; hence, the operational performance of the system can be derived conveniently. Results showed that not only the motor structure is suitable for the design objective, but also the proposed magnetic equivalent circuit can provide appropriate and convenient modeling for relative analytical investigations

  12. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Ali M.; Kassem, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. → Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. → The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. → The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. → The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  13. Disparity in Frontal Lobe Connectivity on a Complex Bimanual Motor Task Aids in Classification of Operator Skill Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Leff, Daniel Richard; Shetty, Kunal; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Objective metrics of technical performance (e.g., dexterity, time, and path length) are insufficient to fully characterize operator skill level, which may be encoded deep within neural function. Unlike reports that capture plasticity across days or weeks, this articles studies long-term plasticity in functional connectivity that occurs over years of professional task practice. Optical neuroimaging data are acquired from professional surgeons of varying experience on a complex bimanual coordination task with the aim of investigating learning-related disparity in frontal lobe functional connectivity that arises as a consequence of motor skill level. The results suggest that prefrontal and premotor seed connectivity is more critical during naïve versus expert performance. Given learning-related differences in connectivity, a least-squares support vector machine with a radial basis function kernel is employed to evaluate skill level using connectivity data. The results demonstrate discrimination of operator skill level with accuracy ≥0.82 and Multiclass Matthew's Correlation Coefficient ≥0.70. Furthermore, these indices are improved when local (i.e., within-region) rather than inter-regional (i.e., between-region) frontal connectivity is considered (p = 0.002). The results suggest that it is possible to classify operator skill level with good accuracy from functional connectivity data, upon which objective assessment and neurofeedback may be used to improve operator performance during technical skill training.

  14. Novel rotating characteristics of a squirrel-cage-type HTS induction/synchronous motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Ogama, Y; Miyake, H; Nagao, K; Nishimura, T

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the rotating characteristics of a high-T c superconducting induction/synchronous motor, which possesses both asynchronous and synchronous torques even though its structure is exactly the same as the squirrel-cage-type induction motor. Two kinds of Bi-2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes were utilized for the secondary windings. A commercialized motor (1.5 kW) was subjected to this study. A conventional (normal conducting) stator (three-phase, four-pole) was directly utilized, and only the squirrel-cage windings were replaced with the superconducting tapes. The tests were performed after the fabricated motor was immersed in liquid nitrogen. The operating temperature was also varied by pumping out the liquid nitrogen. It is shown that the motor is successfully synchronized for the temperature range from 65 to 77 K. Detailed discussions for such novel rotating characteristics are reported based on the electrical equivalent circuit

  15. Relating safety, productivity and company type for motor-manual logging operations in the Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montorselli, Niccolò Brachetti; Lombardini, Carolina; Magagnotti, Natascia; Marchi, Enrico; Neri, Francesco; Picchi, Gianni; Spinelli, Raffaele

    2010-11-01

    The study compared the performance of four different logging crews with respect to productivity, organization and safety. To this purpose, the authors developed a data collection method capable of providing a quantitative analysis of risk-taking behavior. Four crews were tested under the same working conditions, representative of close-to-nature alpine forestry. Motor-manual working methods were applied, since these methods are still prevalent in the specific study area, despite the growing popularity of mechanical processors. Crews from public companies showed a significantly lower frequency of risk-taking behavior. The best safety performance was offered by the only (public) crew that had been administered formal safety training. The study seems to deny the common prejudice that safety practice is inversely proportional to productivity. Instead, productivity is increased by introducing more efficient working methods and equipment. The quantitative analysis of risk-taking behavior developed in this study can be applied to a number of industrial fields besides forestry. Characterizing risk-taking behavior for a given case may eventually lead to the development of custom-made training programmes, which may address problem areas while avoiding that the message is weakened by the inclusion of redundant information. In the specific case of logging crews in the central Alps, the study suggests that current training courses may be weak on ergonomics, and advocates a staged training programme, focusing first on accident reduction and then expanding to the prevention of chronic illness. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Painless motor radiculopathy of the cervical spine: clinical and radiological characteristics and long-term outcomes after operative decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller, Sebastian; Kasem, Rami; Witt, Thomas-Nikolaus; Tonn, Joerg-Christian; Zausinger, Stefan

    2018-03-23

    OBJECTIVE Various neurological diseases are known to cause progressive painless paresis of the upper limbs. In this study the authors describe the previously unspecified syndrome of compression-induced painless cervical radiculopathy with predominant motor deficit and muscular atrophy, and highlight the clinical and radiological characteristics and outcomes after surgery for this rare syndrome, along with its neurological differential diagnoses. METHODS Medical records of 788 patients undergoing surgical decompression due to degenerative cervical spine diseases between 2005 and 2014 were assessed. Among those patients, 31 (3.9%, male to female ratio 4.8 to 1, mean age 60 years) presented with painless compressive cervical motor radiculopathy due to neuroforaminal stenosis without signs of myelopathy; long-term evaluation was available in 23 patients with 49 symptomatic foraminal stenoses. Clinical, imaging, and operative findings as well as the long-term course of paresis and quality of life were analyzed. RESULTS Presenting symptoms (mean duration 13.3 months) included a defining progressive flaccid radicular paresis (median grade 3/5) without any history of radiating pain (100%) and a concomitant muscular atrophy (78%); 83% of the patients were smokers and 17% patients had diabetes. Imaging revealed a predominantly anterior nerve root compression at the neuroforaminal entrance in 98% of stenoses. Thirty stenoses (11 patients) were initially decompressed via an anterior surgical approach and 19 stenoses (12 patients) via a posterior surgical approach. Overall reoperation rate due to new or recurrent stenoses was 22%, with time to reoperation shorter in smokers (p = 0.033). Independently of the surgical procedure chosen, long-term follow-up (mean 3.9 years) revealed a stable or improved paresis in 87% of the patients (median grade 4/5) and an excellent general performance and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS Painless cervical motor radiculopathy predominantly occurs

  17. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  18. 76 FR 38597 - Regulatory Guidance: Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations to Operators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... commercial driver's license regulations; and, (3) proposed guidance to determine whether off-road farm equipment or implements of husbandry operated on public roads for limited distances are considered... industry acknowledged the importance of the issues covered by the notice and requested additional time to...

  19. Statistical analysis on failure-to-open/close probability of motor-operated valve in sodium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurisaka, Kenichi

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this work is to develop basic data for examination on efficiency of preventive maintenance and actuation test from the standpoint of failure probability. This work consists of a statistical trend analysis of valve failure probability in a failure-to-open/close mode on time since installation and time since last open/close action, based on the field data of operating- and failure-experience. In this work, the terms both dependent and independent on time were considered in the failure probability. The linear aging model was modified and applied to the first term. In this model there are two terms with both failure rates in proportion to time since installation and to time since last open/close-demand. Because of sufficient statistical population, motor-operated valves (MOV's) in sodium system were selected to be analyzed from the CORDS database which contains operating data and failure data of components in the fast reactors and sodium test facilities. According to these data, the functional parameters were statistically estimated to quantify the valve failure probability in a failure-to-open/close mode, with consideration of uncertainty. (J.P.N.)

  20. High-Temperature Switched-Reluctance Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Gerald; Brown, Gerald; Morrison, Carlos; Provenza, Andy; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan

    2003-01-01

    An eight-pole radial magnetic bearing has been modified into a switched-reluctance electric motor capable of operating at a speed as high as 8,000 rpm at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor (see figure) is an experimental prototype of starter-motor/generator units that have been proposed to be incorporated into advanced gas turbine engines and that could operate without need for lubrication or active cooling. The unique features of this motor are its electromagnet coils and, to some extent, its control software. Heretofore, there has been no commercial-off-the-shelf wire capable of satisfying all of the requirements for fabrication of electromagnet coils capable of operation at temperatures up to 1,000 F (=540 C). The issues addressed in the development of these electromagnet coils included thermal expansion, oxidation, pliability to small bend radii, micro-fretting, dielectric breakdown, tensile strength, potting compound, thermal conduction, and packing factor. For a test, the motor was supported, along with a rotor of 18 lb (.8-kg) mass, 3-in. (.7.6-cm) diameter, 21-in. (.53-cm) length, on bearings packed with high-temperature grease. The motor was located at the mid span of the rotor and wrapped with heaters. The motor stator was instrumented with thermocouples. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the motor had undergone 14 thermal cycles between room temperature and 1,000 F (.540 C) and had accumulated operating time >27.5 hours at 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor-controller hardware includes a personal computer equipped with analog-to-digital input and digital-to-analog output cards. The controller software is a C-language code that implements a switched-reluctance motor-control principle: that is, it causes the coils to be energized in a sequence timed to generate a rotating magnetic flux that creates a torque on a scalloped rotor. The controller can operate in an open- or closed-loop mode. In addition, the software has

  1. Clouds Over the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 29 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. Like yesterday's image, the linear 'ripples' are water-ice clouds. As spring is deepening at the North Pole these clouds are becoming more prevalent. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.9, Longitude 135.5 East (224.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  2. Preliminary study on a rotating armature type superconducting motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Tsutomu; Muta, Itsuya; Itoh, Takeshi; Hayashi, K.; Mukai, E.

    1994-01-01

    A rotating armature type motor with a laboratory made four pole saddle shape superconducting field winding has been constructed. Cool-down tests were carried out successfully several times.By the motor operating as a generator under no load and resistive load conditions, machine constants are obtained. The air gap field with outer magnetic shield yoke is 29% higher than without yoke. The field coil could stand current up to 120 A. The rated terminal voltage should be 200 V for 1,800 rpm (at 90 A field current). The armature coil could stand current up to 50 A, with a rate armature current value of 40 A corresponding to 15 kW at 0.98 power factor. Moreover the experimental and theoretical characteristics of the motor will be presented

  3. Development of High-Speed Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Power Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kumasaka, Yuya; Ichinokura, Osamu

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of a switched reluctance (SR) motor used for electric power tools. First, characteristics of a previous designed 6/4-pole SR motor is shown and compared to a permanent magnet (PM) motor used in present electric power tools. Next, to further improve characteristics, a 12/8-pole SR motor is designed and evaluated in experiment. It is proved that the performance of the prototype 12/8-pole SR motor is almost comparable or superior to the present PM motor.

  4. IPM Motor Drive Method Using a New Inverter Having the Operation of High Power Factor Single-phase Diode Rectifier without Electrolytic Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Isao; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    This paper proposes a new inverter drive system for an interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motor and an inverter control strategy to obtain the unity power factor operation of the single-phase diode rectifier. The motor drive system for home appliances requires improving the input power factor without a reactor, an electrolytic capacitor and a switching device. This paper can achieve to improve the input power factor without a reactor, a current control-switching converter and an electrolytic capacitor. The proposed system consists of only single-phase diode rectifier, small film capacitor (10uF/kW) across the dc-bus, three-phase inverter and IPM motor. Source side energy provides directly to the motor without smoothing the dc-bus voltage. There are many ripple voltages across the dc-bus. A principle of unity-power-factor operation is that the inverter makes the waveform of input current sinusoidal. The unity power factor operation is achieved by dither effect. For IPM motor, the inverter control scheme in this paper is based on direct torque control (DTC). The proposed system is constructed by the input current controller based on DTC. The additional current controller improves its input current waveform. This paper describes that the proposed method achieves the power factor 98.8% by experimental tests.

  5. 47 CFR 32.6411 - Poles expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Poles expense. 32.6411 Section 32.6411... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6411 Poles expense. This account shall include expenses associated with poles. ...

  6. Regulatory instrument review: Aging management of LWR cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werry, E.V.; Somasundaram, S.

    1995-09-01

    The results of Stage 2 of the Regulatory Instrument Review are presented in this volume. Selected regulatory instruments, such as the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Regulatory Guides, and ASME Codes, were investigated to determine the extent to which these regulations apply aging management to selected safety-related components in nuclear power plants. The Regulatory Instrument Review was funded by the NRC under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. Stage 2 of the review focused on four safety-related structures and components; namely, cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves. The review suggests that the primary-emphasis of the regulatory instruments was on the design, construction, start-up, and operation of a nuclear power plant, and that aging issues were primarily addressed after an aging-related problem was recognized. This Stage 2 review confirms the results of the prior review; (see Regulatory Instrument Review: Management of Aging of LWR Major Safety-Related Components NUREG/CR-5490. The observations indicate that the regulations generally address management of age-related degradation indirectly. Specific age-related degradation phenomena frequently are dealt with in bulletins and notices or through generic issues, letters, etc. The major recommendation of this report, therefore, is that the regulatory instruments should more directly and explicitly address the aging phenomenon and the management of the age-related degradation process

  7. Regulatory instrument review: Aging management of LWR cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werry, E.V.; Somasundaram, S.

    1995-09-01

    The results of Stage 2 of the Regulatory Instrument Review are presented in this volume. Selected regulatory instruments, such as the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Regulatory Guides, and ASME Codes, were investigated to determine the extent to which these regulations apply aging management to selected safety-related components in nuclear power plants. The Regulatory Instrument Review was funded by the NRC under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. Stage 2 of the review focused on four safety-related structures and components; namely, cables, containment and basemat, reactor coolant pumps, and motor-operated valves. The review suggests that the primary-emphasis of the regulatory instruments was on the design, construction, start-up, and operation of a nuclear power plant, and that aging issues were primarily addressed after an aging-related problem was recognized. This Stage 2 review confirms the results of the prior review; (see Regulatory Instrument Review: Management of Aging of LWR Major Safety-Related Components NUREG/CR-5490. The observations indicate that the regulations generally address management of age-related degradation indirectly. Specific age-related degradation phenomena frequently are dealt with in bulletins and notices or through generic issues, letters, etc. The major recommendation of this report, therefore, is that the regulatory instruments should more directly and explicitly address the aging phenomenon and the management of the age-related degradation process.

  8. High-resolution second-harmonic microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2003-01-01

    A second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SHSOM) apparatus operating in reflection is used for high-resolution imaging of second-order optical non-linearities (SONs) in electric-field poled silica-based waveguides. SHSOM of domain walls in a periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal is performed...

  9. High-resolution second-harmonic microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2003-01-01

    A second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SHSOM) apparatus operating in reflection is used for high-resolution imaging of second-order optical non-linearities (SONs) in electric-field poled silica-based waveguides. SHSOM of domain walls in a periodically poled KTiOPO_4 crystal is performed...

  10. A Methodology for Evaluation of Inservice Test Intervals for Pumps and Motor Operated Valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElhaney, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear industry has begun efforts to reevaluate inservice tests (ISTs) for key components such as pumps and valves. At issue are two important questions--What kinds of tests provide the most meaningful information about component health, and what periodic test intervals are appropriate? In the past, requirements for component testing were prescribed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The tests and test intervals specified in the Code were generic in nature and test intervals were relatively short. Operating experience has shown, however, that performance and safety improvements and cost savings could be realized by tailoring IST programs to similar components with comparable safety importance and service conditions. In many cases, test intervals may be lengthened, resulting in cost savings for utilities and their customers

  11. Multiobjective H2/H? Control Design with Regional Pole Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Junaidi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents multiobjective H2/H? control design with regional pole constraints. The state feedback gain can be obtained by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI feasibility problem that robustly assigns the closed-loop poles in a prescribed LMI region. The proposed technique is illustrated with applications to the design of stabilizer for a typical single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB power system. The LMI-based control ensures adequate damping for widely varying system operating conditions. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed stabilizer.

  12. Pole counting and resonance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.

    1992-01-01

    S-wave resonances occurring close to an inelastic threshold can be classified according to the number of nearby poles they possess. One then has a useful possibility of distinguishing dynamical alternatives by objective appeal to data. Making this quantitative entails developing suitable effective range expansions for various realizations of potential scattering. A key application is deciding the make-up of f 0 (976) (S*). (author)

  13. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  14. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Dawson, Richard Nils [Voorheesville, NY; Qu, Ronghai [Clifton Park, NY; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich [Moscow, RU

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  15. NRC Information Notice No. 93-01: Accuracy of motor-operated valve diagnostic equipment manufactured by Liberty Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    Most licensees rely on MOV diagnostic equipment to provide information on the thrust delivered by the motor actuator in opening or closing its valve. The various types of MOV diagnostic equipment estimate valve stem thrust using different parameters, such as displacement of the spring pack or strain in the stem, mounting bolts, or yoke. Liberty Technologies has developed MOV diagnostic equipment, referred to as the Valve Operation Test and Evaluation System (VOTES), that estimates the thrust needed to open or close a valve based on strain of the valve yoke. The VOTES equipment derives thrust from yoke strain that has been calibrated to stem thrust using measured diametral strain of the valve stem and nominal engineering material properties. On October 2, 1992, Liberty Technologies notified the NRC that it had determined that two new factors can affect the thrust values obtained with its equipment. Those factors involve (1) the possible use of improper stem material constants and (2) the failure to account for a torque effect when the VOTES equipment is calibrated by measuring strain in the threaded portion of the valve stem. Liberty Technologies provided information on performing manual calculations to address these factors and stated that its new software, Version 2.3, assists in performing corrections to the thrust data

  16. A study on the rate-of-loading applied in design basis performance evaluation for motor operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S. C.; Jung, R. H.; Lee, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Hong, S. E.

    2002-01-01

    Rate-of-loading(ROL) is defined as the characteristics of change in stem thrust of Motor Operated Valves (MOVs). ROL can cause leakage through disk because the valve is not closed fully under differential pressure conditions (design basis conditions) if the Torque Switch Trip (TST) setpoint is conducted under static conditions. Dynamic and static test should be implemented to quantify ROL, value. Design basis performance evaluation for MOVs is implemented in other to address the regulatory recommendation issued by the ministry of science and technology. In the evaluation the uncertainty value of ROL, 10% is applied for the valves that their design basis differential pressure is less than 50 psid or can not be tested dynamically. The value had been used in the design basis performance evaluation of U.S. In order to confirm the applicability of 10% value statistic analysis was conducted based on the ROL values evaluated from the valves that both static and dynamic tests were conducted. The applicability of the values for current design basis performance evaluation was confirmed because confidence distribution of values was ranged from 90% to 95%

  17. Wire inhomogeneity detector having a core with opposing pole pieces and guide pieces adjacent the opposing pole pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a wire inhomogeneity detector assembly for detecting changes in the conductive properties of a wire as the wire is passed therethrough. It comprises: a coil assembly through which a wire containing conductive material is adapted to be pressed in a direction substantially perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the coil assembly. The coil assembly comprising a single ferrite core having a pair of opposing pole pieces between which are an associated conductive wire to be tested is adapted to be passed, each of the pole pieces having a coil wound therearound. The coil assembly including a guide-block consisting of a pair of guide pieces mounted adjacent to ends of the opposing pole pieces for guiding an associated conductive wire between the pole pieces and for reducing stray magnetic field lines. The guide pieces being positioned closely adjacent an associated conductive wire passing therebetween; an impedance bridge adjusted to an null balance point operatively connected to the coil assembly which measures the impedance of the coil assembly and is unbalanced by changes in eddy currents generated in the coil assembly; and a filter detector alarm assembly operatively connected to an output of the impedance bridge. The filter detector alarm assembly including an input bandpass filter detector alarm assembly including an input bandpass filter operatively connected to a differential comparator, the output of which triggers an alarm

  18. Ironless-armature brushless motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Device uses 12-pole samarium cobalt permanent-magnet rotor and three Hall-effect sensors for commutation. In prototype motor, torque constant (3-phase delta) is 65 oz-in/amp; electrical time constant (L/R) is 0.2 x 0.001 sec, and armature resistance is 20 ohms.

  19. Design and analysis of a transversal-flux switched-reluctance-linear-machine pole-pair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Switched Reluctance technology is probably best suited for industrial low-speed or zerospeed applications where the power can be small but the torque or the force in linear movement cases might be relatively high. Because of its simple structure the Sit-motor is an interesting alternative for low power applications where pneumatic or hydraulic linear drives are to be avoided. This study analyses the basic parts of an LSR-motor which are the two mover poles and one stator pole and which form the 'basic pole pair' in linear-movement transversal-flux switched-reluctance motors. The static properties of the basic pole pair are modelled and the basic design rules are derived. The models developed are validated with experiments. A one-sided one-polepair transversal-flux switched-reluctance-linear-motor prototype is demonstrated and its static properties are measured. The modelling of the static properties is performed with FEM-calculations. Two-dimensional models are accurate enough to model the static key features for the basic dimensioning of LSRmotors. Three-dimensional models must be used in order to get the most accurate calculation results of the static traction force production. The developed dimensioning and modelling methods, which could be systematically validated by laboratory measurements, are the most significant contributions of this thesis. (orig.)

  20. Design and Implementation of a Novel Control System for Four Quadrant Operation of a Two-Phase Switched Reluctance Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, Justin C.

    2003-01-01

    In the emergence of switched reluctance motors to the commercial market, two-phase motors have received relatively little attention. Higher power and industrial applications have focused on the use of three and occasionally four phase machines, while low cost applications demanding only modest performance have largely been the domain of single phase machines. By contrast, while two phase systems have been the subject of occasional studies, they have not been widely applied. Two phase...

  1. FEM Analysis of Brushless DC Servomotor with Fractional Number of Slots per Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALUTA, G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present in this paper the analysis with Finite Element Method (FEM of the magnetic circuit for a Brushless DC servomotor with fractional number of slots/pole (9 slots and 10 poles. For this purpose, FEMM 4.2 software package was used for the analysis. To obtain the waveforms of Back-ElectroMotive Forces (BEMFs, electromagnetic and cogging torque for servomotor a program in LUA scripting language (integrated into interactive shell of FEMM4.2 has been created. A comparation with a structure with integer number of slots/pole (18 slots and 6 poles was also realized. The analysis results prove that the structure chosen is an optimal solution: sinusoidal waveforms of BEMFs, improved electromagnetic torque and reduced cogging torque. Therefore, the operating characteristics of the servomotor with 9/10 slots/poles manufactured by Sistem Euroteh Company and included in an integrated electrical drives system are presented in this paper.

  2. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  3. Dovetail Rotor Construction For Permanent-Magnet Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Lawrence J., Jr.; Puskas, William J.

    1988-01-01

    New way of mounting magnets in permanent-magnet, electronically commutated, brushless dc motors. Magnets wedge shaped, tapering toward center of rotor. Oppositely tapered pole pieces, electron-beam welded to rotor hub, retain magnets against centrifugal force generated by spinning rotor. To avoid excessively long electron-beam welds, pole pieces assembled in segments rather than single long bars.

  4. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  5. Development of a 10-m wedged-pole undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.E.; Gottschalk, S.C.; James, F.E.; Quimby, D.C.; Slater, J.M.; Valla, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    A 10-m rare earth permanent magnet hybrid undulator called a near infrared scalable undulator system (NISUS) is under construction at Spectra Technology for use in the Boeing FEL program series. The design was optimized for operation at a 1-μm wavelength with the Boeing accelerator parameters. A remotely adjustable compound taper is utilized to achieve optimum startup gain and high saturated extraction. A summary of the relevant design parameters is listed. A major goal was to build NISUS from modules which would allow easy scaling to longer lengths without redesign. Prototype tests for verification of field strength and quality are complete as well as the delivery and installation of the initial 5 m. Improvements relative to the technology used in the earlier tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) are highlighted. The wedged-pole configuration is employed for a major increase in field strength while operating the poles farther from saturation

  6. Mathematical modeling of electromechanical processes in a brushless DC motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Tkachuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of initial assumptions, a mathematical model that describes electromechanical processes in a brushless DC electric motor with a salient-pole stator and permanent-magnet excitation is created.

  7. Macro Fiber Piezocomposite Actuator Poling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy J.; Bryant, Robert G.; Manos, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    The performance and advantages of Piezocomposite Actuators are to provide a low cost, in-situ actuator/sensor that is flexible, low profile and high strain per volt performance in the same plane of poled voltage. This paper extends reported data for the performance of these Macrofiber Composite (MFC) Actuators to include 4 progressively narrower Intedigitized electrode configurations with several line widths and spacing ratios. Data is reported for max free strain, average strain per applied volt, poling (alignment of the electric dipoles of the PZT ceramic) voltage vs. strain and capacitance, time to poling voltage 95% saturation. The output strain per volt progressively increases as electrode spacing decreases, with saturation occurring at lower poling voltages. The narrowest spacing ratio becomes prone to voltage breakdown or short circuits limiting the spacing width with current fabrication methods. The capacitance generally increases with increasing poling voltage level but has high sensitivity to factors such as temperature, moisture and time from poling which limit its usefulness as a simple indicator. The total time of applied poling voltage to saturate or fully line up the dipoles in the piezoceramic was generally on the order of 5-20 seconds. Less sensitivity to poling due to the applied rate of voltage increase over a 25 to 500 volt/second rate range was observed.

  8. Strength of single-pole utility structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    This section presents three basic methods for deriving and documenting Rn as an LTL value along with the coefficient of variation (COVR) for single-pole structures. These include the following: 1. An empirical analysis based primarily on tests of full-sized poles. 2. A theoretical analysis of mechanics-based models used in...

  9. PENGARUH KARAKTERISTIK PEKERJAAN DAN IKLIM KOMUNIKASI TERHADAP KEPUASAN KERJA KARYAWAN OPERATOR BAGIAN TRIMMING I PT KRAMA YUDHA RATU MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung AWS Waspodo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research are: 1 To know the description of job characteristics, communication climate, and job satisfaction employees at trimming 1 PT Krama Yudha Ratu Motor. 2 To know about the influence of job characteristics toward job satisfaction trimming 1 employee’s at PT Krama Yudha Ratu Motor. 3 To know about the influence of communication climate toward job satisfaction trimming 1 employee’s at PT Krama Yudha Ratu Motor. 4 To know about the influence of job characteristics and communication climate toward job satisfaction trimming 1 employee’s at PT Krama Yudha Ratu Motor. The analysis implemented in this research are descriptive and explanatory analysis. This research is taken 71 trimming 1 employee’s at PT Krama Yudha Ratu Motor. While data collection by using questionnaire and cultivated processed using SPSS 16. The result showed that: 1 Job characteristics has a significant influence on job satisfaction. 2 communication climate has a significant influence on job satisfaction. 3 job characteristics and communication climate has a significant influence on job satisfaction.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Emissions as an Indicator of Reduction of Negative Externalities Related to Road Motor Vehicle Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Andrlík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with issues of carbon dioxide emissions generated by road motor vehicles in the Czech Republic and the European Union. We discuss the current need for the introduction of environmental features to the system of taxation of motor vehicles, aiming at the mitigation of harmful substances emitted into the atmosphere. The most harmful substance produced during the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels by motor vehicles is CO2, whose emissions are subsequently used as an instrument for green tax reforms in the European Union member states. In this article we define the main EU legal standards regulating harmful substances emitted into the atmosphere as a result of road motor transport. We may cite for instance the Regulation (EC No. 443/2009 setting CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars. The aim of the European Union is to reduce average emission values of new passenger cars sold in the EU to 130 g CO2/km by 2015 and to 95 g CO2/km by 2020. Assessment of tax on motor vehicles according to CO2 emissions shall help fulfil commitments from the Kyoto Protocol, aiming at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  12. Planar glass devices for efficient periodic poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that frequency-converting devices of high quality can be realised with glass poling. The devices, made with silica-on-silicon technology, are poled with periodic, embedded electrodes, and used for second-harmonic generation. We obtain precise control of the quasi phase-matching wav......We demonstrate that frequency-converting devices of high quality can be realised with glass poling. The devices, made with silica-on-silicon technology, are poled with periodic, embedded electrodes, and used for second-harmonic generation. We obtain precise control of the quasi phase......-matching wavelength and bandwidth, and a normalised conversion efficiency of 1.4×10-3 %/W/cm2 which, to our knowledge, is the highest obtained so far with periodic glass poling....

  13. Parallel Multi-cycle LES of an Optical Pent-roof DISI Engine Under Motored Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, Noah; Sjöberg, Magnus; Zeng, Wei; Som, Sibendu

    2017-10-15

    The use of Large-eddy Simulations (LES) has increased due to their ability to resolve the turbulent fluctuations of engine flows and capture the resulting cycle-to-cycle variability. One drawback of LES, however, is the requirement to run multiple engine cycles to obtain the necessary cycle statistics for full validation. The standard method to obtain the cycles by running a single simulation through many engine cycles sequentially can take a long time to complete. Recently, a new strategy has been proposed by our research group to reduce the amount of time necessary to simulate the many engine cycles by running individual engine cycle simulations in parallel. With modern large computing systems this has the potential to reduce the amount of time necessary for a full set of simulated engine cycles to finish by up to an order of magnitude. In this paper, the Parallel Perturbation Methodology (PPM) is used to simulate up to 35 engine cycles of an optically accessible, pent-roof Directinjection Spark-ignition (DISI) engine at two different motored engine operating conditions, one throttled and one un-throttled. Comparisons are made against corresponding sequential-cycle simulations to verify the similarity of results using either methodology. Mean results from the PPM approach are very similar to sequential-cycle results with less than 0.5% difference in pressure and a magnitude structure index (MSI) of 0.95. Differences in cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) predictions are larger, but close to the statistical uncertainty in the measurement for the number of cycles simulated. PPM LES results were also compared against experimental data. Mean quantities such as pressure or mean velocities were typically matched to within 5- 10%. Pressure CCVs were under-predicted, mostly due to the lack of any perturbations in the pressure boundary conditions between cycles. Velocity CCVs for the simulations had the same average magnitude as experiments, but the experimental data showed

  14. Metrópoles desgovernadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Maricato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de sua importância econômica, política, social, demográfica, cultural, territorial e ambiental, há, nas metrópoles brasileiras, uma significativa falta de governo, evidenciada pelas incipientes iniciativas de cooperação administrativa intermunicipal e federativa. Este artigo aborda as mudanças estruturais - no processo de urbanização/ metropolização - devidas à reestruturação produtiva do capitalismo global, e, na escala nacional, trata da mudança no marco institucional - jurídico/político - que passou de concentrador e centralizador, durante o regime militar, para descentralizador e esvaziado, após a Constituição de 1988. O recuo verificado nas políticas sociais durante os anos 1980 e 1990, notadamente em transporte, habitação e saneamento, além do desmonte dos organismos metropolitanos, conduziu nossas metrópoles a um destino de banalização das tragédias urbanas. Em que pese sua urgência, a questão metropolitana não sensibiliza nenhuma força política ou instituição que lhe atribua lugar de destaque na agenda nacional.Despite its economic, political, social, demographic, cultural, territorial and environmental importance, there is a significant lack of government in the brazilian metropolises, evidenced by the incipient initiatives of intermunicipal and federative administrative cooperation. This article analyses the structural changes - in the process of urbanization/metropolization - due to the productive restructuring of global capitalism, and, in a national scale, analyses the change in the institutional mark - legal/political - which passed from concentrator and centralizer, during the Military Regimen, to decentralized and emptied, after 1988 Constitution. The downturn verified in social policies during the years 1980 and 1990, notably in transport, housing and sanitation, besides the dismantling of the metropolitan agencies, has led our cities to the trivialization of urban tragedies. Despite

  15. High-resolution second-harmonic microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, Jonas; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2003-01-01

    A second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SHSOM) apparatus operating in reflection is used for high-resolution imaging of second-order optical non-linearities (SONs) in electric-field poled silica-based waveguides. SHSOM of domain walls in a periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal is performed......, and the spatial resolution at the pump wavelength of 790 nm is determined to be better than 0.7 m. SHSOM images of positively poled silica waveguides were obtained for different polarization combinations of the incident pump beam and the detected second-harmonic radiation. Calibration of the SHSOM with a GaAs-sample...

  16. Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillaney, Prasheel; Shin, Mihye; Hinshaw, Waldo; Bennett, N Robert; Pelc, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2013-02-01

    Using hybrid x-ray∕MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail within MR fringe field environments because the magnetic fields alter the electron trajectories in the x-ray tube and act as a brake on the induction motor, reducing the rotation speed of the anode. In this study the authors propose a novel motor design that avoids the anode rotation speed reduction. The proposed design replaces the permanent magnet stator found in brushed dc motors with the radial component of the MR fringe field. The x-ray tube is oriented such that the radial component of the MR fringe field is orthogonal to the cathode-anode axis. Using a feedback position sensor and the support bearings as electrical slip rings, the authors use electrical commutation to eliminate the need for mechanical brushes and commutators. A vacuum compatible prototype of the proposed motor design was assembled, and its performance was evaluated at various operating conditions. The prototype consisted of a 3.1 in. diameter anode rated at 300 kHU with a ceramic rotor that was 5.6 in. in length and had a 2.9 in. diameter. The material chosen for all ceramic components was MACOR, a machineable glass ceramic developed by Corning Inc. The approximate weight of the entire assembly was 1750 g. The maximum rotation speed, angular acceleration, and acceleration time of the motor design were investigated, as well as the dependence of these parameters on rotor angular offset, magnetic field strength, and field orientation. The resonance properties of the authors' assembly were also evaluated to determine

  17. Treatment of liquid wastes generated by maintenance operations applied to motor vehicles; Tratamiento de residuos liquidos generados en las operaciones de mantenimiento de vehiculos a motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloret i Bosca, G.; Boch Mossi, F.; Oyonarte Andres, S.; Colomer Signes, S.; Soro Casanova, J. R.

    2007-07-01

    The Life European project Urban-Bat presents an innovating approach to liquid wastes generated by maintenance operations applied to bus fleets by defining, through implementation of Best Available Technologies (Bat), a waste management model based on reduction of environmental impact and on life span increase of raw materials. This will take place at the very point of generation thus minimizing the need for an external waste management. (Author) 5 refs.

  18. Holography with a Landau pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d = 4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N f quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale ΛLP. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E ≪ ΛLP no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E ≲ ΛLP the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T ≲ ΛLP the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ > d - 1.

  19. Holography with a Landau pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faedo, Antón F. [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Mateos, David [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys 23, ES-08010, Barcelona (Spain); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tarrío, Javier [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine CP 231, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N{sub f} quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale Λ{sub LP}. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E≪Λ{sub LP} no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E≲Λ{sub LP} the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T≲Λ{sub LP} the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ>d−1.

  20. Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.

  1. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.

  2. Tree-loop duality relation beyond single poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierenbaum, Isabella; Buchta, Sebastian; Draggiotis, Petros; Malamos, Ioannis; Rodrigo, German

    2012-11-01

    We develop the Tree-Loop Duality Relation for two- and three-loop integrals with multiple identical propagators (multiple poles). This is the extension of the Duality Relation for single poles and multi-loop integrals derived in previous publications. We prove a generalization of the formula for single poles to multiple poles and we develop a strategy for dealing with higher-order pole integrals by reducing them to single pole integrals using Integration By Parts.

  3. CABLE MECHANISMS USED FOR ACTUATING CAR ELEVATORS WITH 2 AND 4 POLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MESARICI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the kinematic scheme and the operating mode of the cable mechanism used for car elevators with 2 and 4 poles. In order to increase the efficiency of the 4- pole elevator, we suggest using a new hoists type cable mechanism, which can multiply the piston travel inside the actuating cylinder twice at the platform level, when lifting and lowering.

  4. Rapid Optimization of Double-Stators Switched Reluctance Motor with Equivalent Magnetic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Sung Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective for this paper is to create a methodology to rapidly optimize double-stators switched reluctance motor (DSSRM. An analytical model of equivalent magnetic circuits for the air gap reluctances of aligned and unaligned positions is proposed and the optimal operation point of the magneto-motive force (MMF can be determined. Genetic algorithm (GA integrated of the proposed equivalent magnetic circuit is developed for rapid optimization of DSSRM to reach the maximum of the ratio of torque to volume of DSSRM. Compared to conventional switched reluctance motor (SRM, an illustrated example of a 3-KW three-phase 12-Slot-8-Pole DSSRM is used to verify the efficiency of the proposed method. Simplified 2-D electromagnetic models are analyzed and simulated. Finally, results of the analytical calculations and the finite-element analysis (FEA are validated by the proposed motor to show the accuracy of the designed strategy.

  5. Hardware Implementation of Producing Variable Conduction Angles of a Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Memon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the hardware implementation of producing the voltage pulses of variable duty cycle which are applied at the gate driver terminal of the switching devices used in the converter of a switched reluctance motor have been presented. These voltage gated pulses which corresponds to phase excitation sequence of the motor are necessary to run the motor. The proposed counter was tested in the laboratory with the 8/6 poles drive, and operation of the machine at variable conduction angles was found to be excellent. The implemented method of producing the variable conduction angles is simple, cheaper and easy to implement and does not require prior knowledge of programming.

  6. A flux-mnemonic permanent magnet brushless motor for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuang; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Xinhua; Jiang, J. Z.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, a new permanent magnet (PM) brushless motor is proposed for electric vehicles. The key is to incorporate the concept of memory motors, namely, the online tunable flux-mnemonic PMs, into the stator doubly fed doubly salient PM motor, hence achieving effective air-gap flux control. By further employing the outer-rotor and double-layer-stator topology, the proposed motor takes the definite advantages of compact structure, low armature reaction, and direct-drive capability. Increasingly, this motor can offer the unique features of pole dropping and pole reversing. Finite element analysis and, hence, computer simulation are given to verify the validity of the proposed motor.

  7. Pole-factorization theorem in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    In quantum electrodynamics a classical part of the S-matrix is normally factored out in order to obtain a quantum remainder that can be treated perturbatively without the occurrence of infrared divergences. However, this separation, as usually performed, introduces spurious large-distance effects that produce an apparent breakdown of the important correspondence between stable particles and poles of the S-matrix, and, consequently, lead to apparent violations of the correspondence principle and to incorrect results for computations in the mesoscopic domain lying between the atomic and classical regimes. An improved computational technique is described that allows valid results to be obtained in this domain, and that leads, for the quantum remainder, in the cases studied, to a physical-region singularity structure that, as regards the most singular parts, is the same as the normal physical-region analytic structure in theories in which all particles have non-zero mass. The key innovations are to define the classical part in coordinate space, rather than in momentum space, and to define there a separation of the photon-electron coupling into its classical and quantum parts that has the following properties: (1) The contributions from the terms containing only classical couplings can be summed to all orders to give a unitary operator that generates the coherent state that corresponds to the appropriate classical process, and (2) The quantum remainder can be rigorously shown to exhibit, as regards its most singular parts, the normal analytic structure. (orig.)

  8. The North Celestial Pole Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R. M.; Castelaz, M.; Phillips, J.

    2005-05-01

    In the past ten years a renaissance has occurred in the study of transient phenomena using small, dedicated optical telescopes. This has largely been driven by the successful detection of planetary transits with small telescopes (Henry et al. 2000) and the successful recovery of optical afterglows of gamma ray bursts (e.g. Halpern et al. 1997). The telescopes involved are designed to slew at rapid rates accurately across the sky when a burst alert occurs, or to study a single patch of sky to detect transits. We have constructed a dedicated robotic instrument to monitor the region within 4 degrees of the north celestial pole continuously every clear night. Using a sequence of short and long exposures the telescope collects data to conduct searches for transient and variable objects and monitor the Cepheid variable Polaris. Previous authors (Kamper et al. 1984; Evans et al. 1998) have observed Polaris to nearly cease its pulsation, a unique behavior for a Cepheid variable. Monitoring Polaris with high secular coverage should help explain this behavior. We describe here the design of the observatory, its operation and control systems and give preliminary examples of the data products from this unique project.

  9. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GROWTH AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT POLES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefana VARVARI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the Ministry of Development, Public Works and Housing (now the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration prepared the growth poles policy for Romania, establishing seven growth poles to be financed through the Regional Operational Programme 2007-1013, under the Priority Axis no. 1. For 2007-2013 there were also established 11 urban development poles. At present the Ministry is discussing with the European Commission the new Regional Operational Programme 2014-2020 in which the main policy lines regarding integrated territorial development also take into consideration the improvement of the quality of life and the “appearance” of towns and strengthening their role in the region. The main urban agglomerations (county seats are seen as development engines of the regions. The authors analyze the results obtained and the problems that appeared at regional level in what concerns the projects financed under Axis 1 of the ROP 2007-2013 by answering two main questions: did they really had the estimated impact on the growth and urban development poles and on the regions? and was there really an integrated approach used? Based on the results obtained from the analysis of the previous programming period the authors try to recommend some improvements that could be taken into consideration for the development of the Integrated urban development plans and priority projects that are going to be financed by ESI funds under Axis 4 of the new ROP 2014-2020, recommendations that could be taken into consideration when preparing the Guidelines for applicants for this axis.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of the New Five-Pole and Three-Pole Active Magnet Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Vakili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more attention has been given to the active AMBs thanks to their low maintenance cost, suitability for clean environments, and high speed. One of the popular types of AMBs is the three-pole type with integrated and separate cores. Some deficiencies of this type of bearing are its high oscillation, low stability and low efficiency. This paper seeks to analyse the three-pole AMBs and describe their deficiencies and introduce and analyse a new five-pole AMB. The model thus proposed has lower oscillation as well as more stability and efficiency. The five-pole AMB has been simulated by a controller in the presence of disturbance. The results of simulation demonstrate lower vibration and oscillation in the five-pole AMB in comparison with the three-pole model.

  11. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  12. Turn Motors Off When Not in Use - Motor Tip Sheet #10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-07-01

    Motors use no energy when turned off. Reducing motor operating time by just 10% usually saves more energy than replacing a standard efficiency motor with a NEMA Premium® efficiency motor. In fact, given that 97% of the life cycle cost of purchasing and operating a motor is energy-related, turning a motor off 10% of the time could reduce energy costs enough to purchase three new motors.

  13. Motor for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A high temperature motor has a stator with poles formed by wire windings, and a rotor with magnetic poles on a rotor shaft positioned coaxially within the stator. The stator and rotor are built up from stacks of magnetic-alloy laminations. The stator windings are made of high temperature magnet wire insulated with a vitreous enamel film, and the wire windings are bonded together with ceramic binder. A thin-walled cylinder is positioned coaxially between the rotor and the stator to prevent debris from the stator windings from reaching the rotor. The stator windings are wound on wire spools made of ceramic, thereby avoiding need for mica insulation and epoxy/adhesive. The stator and rotor are encased in a stator housing with rear and front end caps, and rear and front bearings for the rotor shaft are mounted on external sides of the end caps to keep debris from the motor migrating into the bearings' races.

  14. Investigation of a less rare-earth permanent-magnet machine with the consequent pole rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jingang; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Mingqiao; Zheng, Ping; Liu, Yong; Gao, Haibo; Xiao, Lijun

    2018-05-01

    Due to the rising price of rare-earth materials, permanent-magnet (PM) machines in different applications have a trend of reducing the use of rare-earth materials. Since iron-core poles replace half of PM poles in the consequent pole (CP) rotor, the PM machine with CP rotor can be a promising candidate for less rare-earth PM machine. Additionally, the investigation of CP rotor in special electrical machines, like hybrid excitation permanent-magnet PM machine, bearingless motor, etc., has verified the application feasibility of CP rotor. Therefore, this paper focuses on design and performance of PM machines when traditional PM machine uses the CP rotor. In the CP rotor, all the PMs are of the same polarity and they are inserted into the rotor core. Since the fundamental PM flux density depends on the ratio of PM pole to iron-core pole, the combination rule between them is investigated by analytical and finite-element methods. On this basis, to comprehensively analyze and evaluate PM machine with CP rotor, four typical schemes, i.e., integer-slot machines with CP rotor and surface-mounted PM (SPM) rotor, fractional-slot machines with CP rotor and SPM rotor, are designed to investigate the performance of PM machine with CP rotor, including electromagnetic performance, anti-demagnetization capacity and cost.

  15. Cell and molecular biology of spindle poles and NuMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fant, Xavier; Merdes, Andreas; Haren, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    Mitotic and meiotic cells contain a bipolar spindle apparatus of microtubules and associated proteins. To arrange microtubules into focused spindle poles, different mechanisms are used by various organisms. Principally, two major pathways have been characterized: nucleation and anchorage of microtubules at preexisting centers such as centrosomes or spindle pole bodies, or microtubule growth off the surface of chromosomes, followed by sorting and focusing into spindle poles. These two mechanisms can even be found in cells of the same organism: whereas most somatic animal cells utilize the centrosome as an organizing center for spindle microtubules, female meiotic cells build an acentriolar spindle apparatus. Most interestingly, the molecular components that drive acentriolar spindle pole formation are also present in cells containing centrosomes. They include microtubule-dependent motor proteins and a variety of structural proteins that regulate microtubule orientation, anchoring, and stability. The first of these spindle pole proteins, NuMA, had already been identified more than 20 years ago. In addition, several new proteins have been characterized more recently. This review discusses their role during spindle formation and their regulation in the cell cycle.

  16. Development and test of an axial flux type PM synchronous motor with liquid nitrogen cooled HTS armature windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, H; Morishita, T; Tsuda, T; Takeda, T; Togawa, H; Oota, T; Ohmatsu, K; Yoshida, S

    2008-01-01

    We developed an axial gap permanent magnet type superconducting synchronous motor cooled by liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ). The motor includes 8 poles and 6 armature windings. The armature windings are made from BSCCO wire operated at the temperature level between 66K∼70K. The design of the rated output is 400kW at 250rpm. Because HTS wires produce AC loss, there are few motors developed with a superconducting armature winding. In a large capacity motor, HTS windings need to be connected in parallel way. However, the parallel connection causes different current flowing to each HTS winding. To solve this problem, we connected a current distributor to the motor. As a result, not only the current difference can be suppressed, but also the current of each winding can be adjusted freely. The low frequency and less flux penetrating HTS wire because of current distributor contribute to low AC loss. This motor is an axial gap rotating-field one, the cooling parts are fixed. This directly leads to simple cooling system. The motor is also brushless. This paper presents the structure, the analysis of the motor and the tests

  17. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  18. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRASOV GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida CATANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demographic dynamics analysed in the context of the relationship between economic development and social inclusion presents an image of the sustainable development of a community as well as the manner how the financial resources have been used. With an allocation of 74.3 million euro in the programming period 2007-2013, the Brasov Growth Pole has pursued the contribution to the achievement of sustainable development since 2005 by the participation in the Agenda 21. The implementation of projects with European financing in areas such as transport, social and educational infrastructure or tourism have generated changes/demographic movements, which this paper proposes to present. The evolution of the stable population, its dynamics at the level of each locality that is part of the Brasov growth pole as well as the dynamics of the number of employees or the development of the unemployment rate are presented by the cluster analysis. The effects of the European financing obtained from Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 are thus reflected in the sustainable development of the Brasov growth pole from the point of view of the dynamics of the population

  19. Development of a Switched Reluctance Motor made of Permendur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Ichinokura, O.

    2011-01-01

    A switched reluctance (SR) motor consists of stator and rotor cores, and windings. Both the stator and rotor have salient poles. The stator has concentrated windings on each salient pole. On the other hand, the rotor has no windings and no permanent magnets. Therefore, the SR motor is a low cost, extremely robust, and wide-range variable-speed motor. The performance of the SR motor greatly depends on magnetic properties of core material since it consists of only iron cores and windings. This paper presents the development of a novel SR motor made of permendur which has extremely high saturation flux density and very low core loss. Two types of SR motors, one is made of conventional non-oriented Si steel, the other is made of permendur, are compared by simulation and experiment. It is demonstrated that the torque of the SR motor made of permendur is greater than that of the conventional Si steel by 20%.

  20. The potential of wood-based composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Cheng Piao; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Wood-based composite utility poles are receiving increasing attention in the North American pole market. This interest is being driven by many increasing factors such as increasing: (1) disposal costs of solid wood poles, (2) liability and environmental concerns with traditional means of disposal of solid wood poles, (3) cost and concerns of long-term...

  1. Mechanical properties of small-scale wood laminated composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2004-01-01

    Power companies in the United States consume millions of solid wood poles every year. These poles are from high-valued trees that are becoming more expensive and less available. wood laminated composite poles (LCP) are a novel alternative to solid wood poles. LCP consists of trapezoid wood strips that are bonded by a synthetic resin. The wood strips can be made from...

  2. Advanced Motor Control Test Facility for NASA GRC Flywheel Energy Storage System Technology Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.; Hofmann, Heath; Mackin, Michael; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the flywheel test facility developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center with particular emphasis on the motor drive components and control. A four-pole permanent magnet synchronous machine, suspended on magnetic bearings, is controlled with a field orientation algorithm. A discussion of the estimation of the rotor position and speed from a "once around signal" is given. The elimination of small dc currents by using a concurrent stationary frame current regulator is discussed and demonstrated. Initial experimental results are presented showing the successful operation and control of the unit at speeds up to 20,000 rpm.

  3. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Using analytic signal method, interpretation of pole-pole secondary electric potentials due to 2D conductive/resistive prisms is presented. ... residual separation to separate out residual anom- alies, which are interpreted for geological .... terms, which are used for the semi-quantitative interpretation. 6.1 Computation of ...

  4. An unusual complication of ischemic injury to upper pole ureter during lower pole heminephroureterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Victoria Hurst

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower pole heminephroureterectomy is a common paediatric urology procedure with few reported complications. We report a case of possible vascular ischemic injury to the normal remaining ureter following a lower pole heminephroureterectomy, probably due to both ureters sharing a common blood supply. Extra caution in such procedures is therefore warranted.

  5. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, Alberto; Adumitroaie, V.

    2017-01-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars,...

  6. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Using analytic signal method, interpretation of pole-pole secondary electric potentials due to 2D conductive/resistive prisms is presented. The estimated parameters are the location, lateral extent or width and depth to top surface of the prism. Forward modelling is attempted by 2D-Finite. Difference method. The proposed ...

  7. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 4: operations of the front-end division of the nuclear fuel cycle; AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 4: les activites du pole Amont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This fourth session deals with the strategic and financial significance of the Areva mining operations, the Areva chemistry business, the Areva enrichment business and the Areva fuel business. (A.L.B.)

  8. Switched reluctance motor optimal geometry design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Neamt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM analysis using Finite Element Method (FEM for geometrical optimization in terms of volume ratio of torque on the rotor, the so-called specific torque. The optimization parameter is the pair: stator and rotor pole angles, which forms a crucial part of the design process.

  9. Recent developments and benefits of high-speed PWM inverter-fed induction-motor drive for gas filtration in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhango, L.M.C.; Rennie, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss new developments relating to the use of a high-speed inverter-fed induction-motor drive for gas filtration of the main gas circulator compartment in nuclear power stations. Conventional drives use low speed induction motors which operate from fixed supply frequencies of either 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Operating speeds are essentially constant and for a 2-pole, 50 Hz machine the speed is 2750 r/min approximately. Due to the low operating speed, the sizes of both the motor and the impeller are rather large. For this type of drive, fixed speed operation results in high capital and operational costs. The system environmental conditions of very dry helium are severe and the operating temperature and pressure are both high for this type of motor. The expected system life is 40 years approximately and does not allow maintenance. In operation the motor is fully submerged in the process gas. This contribution will present some of the results of a development program carried out by two Howden Group companies on a high-speed drive. (Author)

  10. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  11. Fundamental pole parameters of the N(1470)

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, P S

    1973-01-01

    The position and residue of the S-matrix pole of the Delta (1236) have been shown to be unique and independent of the particular resonance formula used, thus resolving a discrepancy among phenomenological fits. Unlike the P/sub 33/ partial wave, the P/sub 11/ resonance is highly inelastic, very broad, and has a large background. This produces huge uncertainties in its mass and width, depending on the parametrization used. It is reported that the position of the N(1470) pole is uniquely determined, 1380-110i MeV, from fits to the CERN phase shifts. (10 refs).

  12. The study of transient processes in the asynchronous starting of the synchronous motor

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Bârlea; Olivian Chiver

    2012-01-01

    Starting synchronous motors can be achieved by several ethods: starting with an auxiliary motor launch, starting in asynchronous regim, by feeding from a variable frequency source, auto-synchronization with the network.. In our case we study the transient processes in a asynchronous regim . In this case the synchronous motor is started like a squirrel cage induction motor . To start, the synchronous motor is equipped with a starting winding cage placed in the pole pieces of polar inducers; la...

  13. Contol of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Motors with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, N.; Lawler, J.S.; McKeever, J.

    2007-07-31

    A 30-pole, 6-kW prototype of a fractional-slot permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) design has been developed to operate at a maximum speed of 6000 rpm [1,2]. This machine has significantly more inductance than regular PMSMs with distributed windings. The prototype was delivered in April 2006 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. To prepare for this test/control development effort, ORNL used PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to preview the control issues that arise when a dynamic controller drives a high inductance PMSM machine during steady state performance evaluations. The detailed steady state model developed includes all motor and inverter loss mechanisms and was useful for assessing the performance of the dynamic controller before it was put into operation. This report documents the results of tests demonstrating the effectiveness of ORNL's simple low-cost control scheme during characterization of the fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) PMSM motor. The control scheme is simple because only the supply voltage magnitude and the phase angle between the back-electromotive force (emf) and the supply voltage is controlled. It is low-cost because it requires no current or phase voltage sensors.

  14. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  15. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an ''emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Control and Performance Evaluation of Multiphase FSPM Motor in Low-Speed Region for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The flux-switching permanent-magnet (FSPM motor has been viewed as a highly reliable machine with both armature windings and magnets on the stator. Owing to the high torque-production capability with low torque ripple, FSPM motors with a higher number of phases are potential candidates for traction applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. However, existing research has mostly focused on the principles and static performance of multiphase FSPM motors, and little attention has been paid to advanced control strategies. In this paper, the fully decoupled current control of a 36/34-pole nine-phase FSPM (NP-FSPM motor is developed and the performance under different operating conditions is investigated. The aim of the design is to alleviate cross coupling effects and unwanted low-order stator harmonic currents, to guarantee fast transient response and small steady-state error. In addition, its fault-tolerance is further elaborated. These features are very important in automotive applications where low torque pulsation, high fault-tolerant capability and high dynamic performance are of major importance. Firstly, the research status of multiphase FSPM motors is briefly reviewed. Secondly, the mathematical model in the dq reference frames and control strategies are presented. Then, the control and performance of the NP-FSPM motor are evaluated by using MATLAB/Simulink. Finally, experiments on an NP-FSPM motor prototype are carried out to validate the study.

  17. Rotor pole refurbishment for hydrogenerators: insulation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.R.; Rux, L.

    2005-01-01

    Rotor poles for Unit 1 at Lower Granite Powerhouse were removed from the rotor and shipped to a repair facility for refurbishment. Upon inspection, it was found that all of the pole bodies exhibited a distinct bow, center to end, on the pole mounting surface. In some cases, the deflection was as much as 0.106 inch. Concerns were raised about how this condition might affect the ability to properly insulate and/or re-seat the poles. This paper presents details of the rotor pole and field winding evaluation, the problems encountered, and the solutions implemented to successfully refurbish the rotor poles and field winding. (author)

  18. Impact of operational factors on fossil energy inputs in motor-manual tree felling and processing: results of two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ignea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many cases tree felling and processing operations are carried out motor-manually and knowledge about fossil fuel consumption and direct energy inputs when using such equipment is required for different purposes starting with operational costing and ending with environmental assessment of forest operations. In this study, fuel mixture, chain oil and direct fossil energy inputs were evaluated for two chainsaws which were used to fell and process trees in two silvicultural systems. The results of this study suggest that there is a strong dependence relation between selected tree size variables such as the diameter at breast height and tree volume on one hand and the fuel mixture, chain oil and direct fossil energy inputs when felling and processing broadleaved hardwood and resinous softwood trees on the other hand. For the broadleaved trees (mean tree volume of 1.50 m3 × tree-1, DBH of 45.5 cm and tree height of 21.84 m the mean direct fossil energy input was of 3.86 MJ m-3 while for resinous trees (mean tree volume of 1.77 m3 tree-1, DBH of 39.28 cm and tree height of 32.49 m it was of 3.93 MJ m-3. Other variables, including but not limited to the technology used, work experience and procedural pattern, may influence the mentioned figures and extensive studies are required to clarify their effects.

  19. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  20. Quasiparticle pole strength in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that single-particle-like behavior in nuclear matter is much less probable than Brueckner theory suggests. In particular, the quasiparticle pole strength is evaluated for nuclear matter and it is shown that, contrary to the spirit of Brueckner theory, low momentum states play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of z/sub k/sub F/. (auth)

  1. Kosovo : kannatlikkusele lootmine pole plaan / Chris Patten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Patten, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et arvestades Kosovo elanike ülekaalukat soovi olla vaba Serbiast, riigist, mis üritas nad kõrvaldada, ning alternatiivi täielikku puudumist Belgradi poolt, pole rahvusvahelisel kogukonnal muud võimalust kui anda Kosovole iseseisvus

  2. Pole masses of quarks in dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, L.V.; Kalmykov, M.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Pole masses of quarks in quantum chromodynamics are calculated to the two-loop order in the framework of the regularization by dimensional reduction. For the diagram with a light quark loop, the non-Euclidean asymptotic expansion is constructed with the external momentum on the mass shell of a heavy quark

  3. CURRENT STATUS OF THE POLE-AND-LINE FISHERY IN EASTERN PART OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Anung Widodo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of pole-and-line fishery for a selective gear operating in the Indonesian tuna management area is considered as the proper policy in response to the increasing market demand with tuna eco-labeled. Appropriate information in addressing the current status of the pole-and-line fishery in Indonesia is an important step in order to support the promotion. Data used to describe the fishery were obtained through scientific port sampling program in collaboration between RCFMC and WCPFC in 2010 to 2014 and also scientific observer onboard program collaboration RCFMC and CRAC Co. Ltd. in 2013. The results show that presently the number of pole and line fleets was decreased significantly and remain about 232 fleetsin Sorong, Bitung and Kendari and Larantuka. The national annual total catch of pole-and line during 1980 – 2013 was recorded between 24,000 and 160,000 tons per year (average 98,117 tons per year. This value is estimated to contribute about 20% of Indonesia annual total catch of tuna in FMAs713-717. The pole-andline catch rates based at Bitung, Kendari and Sorong were fluctuated in each year with the range respective between 8.79 and 17.93 tons/trip/vessel, 4.78 and 5.36 ton/trip/vessel and about 7,99 ton ton/trip/vessel. Pole-and-line fishery operated in Indonesian FMAs 713-717 is considered as selective fishery, with > 80 % catches of skipjack in matured stage. The tuna-live bait fish ratio in Indonesian pole-and-line was 4.41 :1, then an improvement of live bait ratio as well as its management is required.

  4. Pre-operative fMRI localization of the supplementary motor area and its relationship with postoperative speech deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyo, John K; Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Petrovich Brennan, Nicole; Peck, Kyung K; Holodny, Andrei I

    2015-06-01

    Neurosurgery of the supplementary motor area (SMA) is associated with transient speech defects. We investigated whether SMA laterality correlates with postoperative speech defects. The authors reviewed 17 patients with SMA-area lesion resection and preoperative language fMRI. SMA laterality was calculated by comparison of voxel activation in paired SMAs by hand-drawn regions of interest (ROIs) (drawn by a neuroradiologist), and compared with qualitative assessment by two neuroradiologists. Postoperative speech defects before and after surgery were assessed by chart review. Six patients developed new speech defects that resolved within several months. Two of the patients had a pre-existing speech defect that had developed after prior SMA-area surgery. All these patients had left-sided lesions, while none of the four patients with a right-sided lesion developed a speech defect. Neuroradiologists' assessment of SMA laterality agreed with ROI calculation for the SMAs that were lateralized. However, for the SMAs in the "codominant" range by ROI, the neuroradiologists felt that all but one of the cases clearly lateralized, with the exception deemed indeterminate or codominant. No correlation between laterality of SMA and speech defect was identified. Twelve patients showed lateralization contralateral to the lesion. fMRI lateralization does not correlate with transient speech defects that developed from SMA-area surgery. Qualitative/visual assessment of SMA laterality was superior to ROI calculation because of the close proximity and possible overlap of signal from midline SMA. A majority of patients showed SMA lateralization contralateral to the SMA lesion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  6. Third Pole Environment (TPE) -Latest Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yao, T.; Zhang, F.; Yang, X.; Wang, W.; Ping, F.

    2014-12-01

    Centered on the Tibetan Plateau, the Third Pole region is a unique geographical unit, which represents one of the largest ice masses on the Earth. The region has great impacts on environmental changes in China, the Northern Hemisphere and the globe.It also demonstrates sensitive feedbacks to global changes and the impacts of anthropogenic activities in surrounding regions. Like the Arctic and Antarctica, the Third Pole region is an especially sensitive area that draws great attention from the scientific community. In 2009, with support from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and international organizations, the Third Pole Environment (TPE) program, led by Chinese scientists, was officially launched. The program focuses on the theme of "water-ice-air-ecosystem-human" interactions, with the aim to address the following scientific questions, such as the spatial and temporal characteristics of past environmental changes in the Third pole, the interactions between hydrosphere and cryosphere and hazard processes, the ecological systems' impacts on and response to environmental changes, and the impacts of anthropogenic activities on environmental changes in the region and adaptation strategies. The goal of the program is to reveal environmental change processes and mechanisms on the Third Pole and their influences on and responses to global changes, and thus to serve for enhancement of human adaptation to the changing environment and realization of human-nature harmony. Under the leadership of the co-chairs, and relying on Scientific Committee and the TPE office, the program has accomplished a number of scientific tasks since its inauguration. TPE has made tremendous progress in the research of glacier changes, interactions between the westerlies and monsoon, establishment of field stations, data sharing and education.

  7. Research of the multipolar induction traction frequency regulated motor

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ia. Bespalov; A. B. Krasovskii; M. V. Panihin; V. G. Fisenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers the application features of traction induction electric motors in transmissions of vehicles. It shows that one of important stages in their designing is to choose the number of poles. In traction electric drives engines with the raised number of poles without comprehensive assessment of such solution are often applied. The paper investigates dynamic and power characteristics of the multi-polar traction asynchronous engine (TAE) designed and made for using in the individual...

  8. Direct vector controlled six-phase asymmetrical induction motor with power balanced space vector PWM multilevel operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Grandi, Gabriele; Ojo, Joseph Olorunfemi

    2016-01-01

    -winding terminals. An original synchronous field oriented control (FOC) algorithm with three variables as degree of freedom is proposed, allowing power sharing among the four VSIs in symmetric/asymmetric conditions. A standard three-level space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) by nearest three vector (NTV......) approach was adopted for each couple of VSIs to operate as multilevel output voltage generators. The proposed power sharing algorithm is verified for the ac drive system by observing the dynamic behaviours in different set conditions by complete simulation modelling in software (Matlab...

  9. Fatigue failure and cracking in high mast poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive research project to investigate the fatigue : cracking and failure of galvanized high mast illumination poles (HMIP). Ultrasonic inspection of : poles throughout the state has revealed the presence...

  10. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The operator... storage tank or loading flange. (b) During transfer operations, no person may— (1) Stop or park a motor...

  11. Design and simulation of an axial flux motor with Nd Fe B magnets and Pcb windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguero, A.; Cacace, R.; Moyano, R.; Actis, F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial, Cordoba (Argentina). Centro de Investigacion de Materiales y Metrologia

    1996-12-31

    Permanent magnets are increasingly used in generators and motors to supply the magnetic field required for their operation. Rare earth magnets are known to have a high power density and allow volume and weight reduction of the machine under design. Electronically commutated motor applications have been a result of the recent advances in electronics. This paper deals with a simple and typical axial flux permanent magnet (PM) machine topology which is basically formed by sintered neodymium-iron-boron magnets and etched air gap windings. An eight poles machine prototype was designed and constructed. The stator rotor has holes containing axially magnetized PM which are mounted on the disk surface faced to the machine stator. PM are cylindrical shaped. Magnetic circuit design and optimization was conducted applying a 2-dimensional finite element analysis computer code. The performance of the small size prototype was evaluated through experimental testing. (author) 9 refs., 6 figs.

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XIX, LEARNING ABOUT CRANKING MOTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF CRANKING MOTORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT, TOPICS ARE (1) CRANKING MOTORS. (2) MOTOR PINCIPLES, (3) CRANKING MOTOR CIRCUITS, (4) TYPES OF CRANKING MOTOR DRIVES, AND (5) CRANKING MOTOR SOLENOID CIRCUITS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  13. Laparoscopic upper pole heminephroureterectomy in children: Seven-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive surgery is the current approach to perform heminephroureterectomy (HN in children. This can be obtained through a transperitoneal (TP or a retroperitoneal approach. Here, we report our experience using a TP approach. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014, 22 TP laparoscopic upper poles HN were performed at our institution. There were nine girls and 13 boys aged between 20 months and 6 years (mean age 3.9. Eight patients were diagnosed prenatally, 17 patients presented with urinary tract infection (UTI and three with vomiting and failure to thrive. The indication for HN was reflux nephropathy and UTI in non-functioning upper pole in 19 patients and cystic dysplasia in 1 patient. The surgical technique involved the following steps: Cystoscopic recognition; positioning of 3-4 trocar (right HN; identification of the kidney (detachment of the colon; isolation and low ligation of the dilated ureter; decrossing from renal vessels; section of the parenchyma by LigaSure; haemostasis with clips and LigaSure; drain. Results: The mean operative time was 154 min (range: 81-220 min. All patients were discharged from the 2 nd to 4 th day. Neither major complication nor conversion was recorded. 1 patient presented leakage of urine for 7 days from the drainage which resolved spontaneously. At ultrasound follow-up, 5 patients showed a secondary perirenal cyst, 2-5 cm diameter that resolved spontaneously. Conclusion: The results indicate that laparoscopic upper pole heminephrectomy is the treatment of choice in cases of non-functioning dilated lower segments of duplicated kidneys. The use of laparoscopic approach offers a good working space, a good visual control of the vessels and allows a very low isolation of the ureteral stump which counterbalance the peritoneal violation.

  14. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI; Jacob TSADO; Mark NWOHU; Usman Abraham USMAN; Odu Ayo IMORU

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The ma...

  15. Design of Incremental Conductance Sliding Mode MPPT Control Applied by Integrated Photovoltaic and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell System under Various Operating Conditions for BLDC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehun Hahm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an integrated photovoltaic (PV and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC system for continuous energy harvesting under various operating conditions for use with a brushless DC motor. The proposed scheme is based on the incremental conductance (IncCond algorithm combined with the sliding mode technique. Under changing atmospheric conditions, the energy conversion efficiency of a PV array is very low, leading to significant power losses. Consequently, increasing efficiency by means of maximum power point tracking (MPPT is particularly important. To manage such a hybrid system, control strategies need to be established to achieve the aim of the distributed system. Firstly, a Matlab/Simulink based model of the PV and PEMFC is developed and validated, as well as the incremental conductance sliding (ICS MPPT technique; then, different MPPT algorithms are employed to control the PV array under nonuniform temperature and insolation conditions, to study these algorithms effectiveness under various operating conditions. Conventional techniques are easy to implement but produce oscillations at MPP. Compared to these techniques, the proposed technique is more efficient; it produces less oscillation at MPP in the steady state and provides more precise tracking.

  16. Economics of Red Pine Management for Utility Pole Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald H. Grossman; Karen Potter-Witter

    1991-01-01

    Including utility poles in red pine management regimes leads to distinctly different management recommendations. Where utility pole markets exist, managing for poles will maximize net returns. To do so, plantations should be maintained above 110 ft2/ac, higher than usually recommended. In Michigan's northern lower peninsula, approximately...

  17. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  18. Second-harmonic imaging of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2000-01-01

    Electric-field poled silica-based waveguides are characterized by measurements of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and of the linear electro-optic effect (LEO). A SHG scanning technique allowing for high-resolution imaging of poled devices is demonstrated. Scans along the direction of the poling...

  19. Clusters of cyclones encircling Jupiter's poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, A; Mura, A; Orton, G; Hansen, C; Altieri, F; Moriconi, M L; Rogers, J; Eichstädt, G; Momary, T; Ingersoll, A P; Filacchione, G; Sindoni, G; Tabataba-Vakili, F; Dinelli, B M; Fabiano, F; Bolton, S J; Connerney, J E P; Atreya, S K; Lunine, J I; Tosi, F; Migliorini, A; Grassi, D; Piccioni, G; Noschese, R; Cicchetti, A; Plainaki, C; Olivieri, A; O'Neill, M E; Turrini, D; Stefani, S; Sordini, R; Amoroso, M

    2018-03-07

    The familiar axisymmetric zones and belts that characterize Jupiter's weather system at lower latitudes give way to pervasive cyclonic activity at higher latitudes. Two-dimensional turbulence in combination with the Coriolis β-effect (that is, the large meridionally varying Coriolis force on the giant planets of the Solar System) produces alternating zonal flows. The zonal flows weaken with rising latitude so that a transition between equatorial jets and polar turbulence on Jupiter can occur. Simulations with shallow-water models of giant planets support this transition by producing both alternating flows near the equator and circumpolar cyclones near the poles. Jovian polar regions are not visible from Earth owing to Jupiter's low axial tilt, and were poorly characterized by previous missions because the trajectories of these missions did not venture far from Jupiter's equatorial plane. Here we report that visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole by the Juno spacecraft during its first five orbits reveal persistent polygonal patterns of large cyclones. In the north, eight circumpolar cyclones are observed about a single polar cyclone; in the south, one polar cyclone is encircled by five circumpolar cyclones. Cyclonic circulation is established via time-lapse imagery obtained over intervals ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours. Although migration of cyclones towards the pole might be expected as a consequence of the Coriolis β-effect, by which cyclonic vortices naturally drift towards the rotational pole, the configuration of the cyclones is without precedent on other planets (including Saturn's polar hexagonal features). The manner in which the cyclones persist without merging and the process by which they evolve to their current configuration are unknown.

  20. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  1. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  2. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Acoustic wave filter based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courjon, Emilie; Bassignot, Florent; Ulliac, Gwenn; Benchabane, Sarah; Ballandras, Sylvain

    2012-09-01

    Solutions for the development of compact RF passive transducers as an alternative to standard surface or bulk acoustic wave devices are receiving increasing interest. This article presents results on the development of an acoustic band-pass filter based on periodically poled ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate. The fabrication of periodically poled transducers (PPTs) operating in the range of 20 to 650 MHz has been achieved on 3-in (76.2-mm) 500-μm-thick wafers. This kind of transducer is able to excite elliptical as well as longitudinal modes, yielding phase velocities of about 3800 and 6500 ms(-1), respectively. A new type of acoustic band-pass filter is proposed, based on the use of PPTs instead of the SAWs excited by classical interdigital transducers. The design and the fabrication of such a filter are presented, as well as experimental measurements of its electrical response and transfer function. The feasibility of such a PPT-based filter is thereby demonstrated and the limitations of this method are discussed.

  4. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-10-10

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  5. Development of motors and drives for main coolant pump and CEDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Hyun; Ha, Hoi Doo; Park, Jung Woo; Koo, Dae Hyun; Chang, Ki Chan; Kim, Jong Moo; Kim, Won Ho; Rim, Geun Hie; Baek, Ju Won; Park, Doh Young; Hwang, Don Ha; Jeon, Jeong Woo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    A canned type 170kW induction motor for the main coolant pump (MCP) of the integral reactor SMART was designed to minimize the eddy current loss in the can and the volume of motor. In order to verify the design and analysis methodology, a canned type 30kW induction motor and an inverter were developed and tested. The motor was designed to have two poles with squirrel cage solid rotor and open slot stator. The motor driver was designed as VVVF inverter to operate both at 900(r.p.m) and at 3600(r.p.m). The calculated design values showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The measured efficiencies of the canned motor and the inverter were 70(%) and 96(%), respectively. A variable reluctance type linear pulse motor (LPM) with double air-gaps for the Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) to lift 100kg was designed, analyzed, manufactured and tested. A converter and a test facility were manufactured to verity the dynamic performance of the LPM. The mover of the LPM was welded with magnetic material(SUS430) and non-magnetic material(SUS304) to get flux path between inner stator and outer stator. The measured thrust force was about 20(%) less than the designed thrust force. As for the rotary stepping motors for CEDM-II, which have transverse flux pattern, three design options were proposed with thrust force density of 8kN/m{sup 2}, 14kN/m{sup 2} and 52kN/m{sup 2} respectively. (author). 31 refs., 219 figs., 60 tabs.

  6. Development and numerical characterization of a new standing wave ultrasonic motor operating in the 30-40kHz frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoyan; Lee, Heow Pueh; Ong, Chong Jin; Lim, Siak Piang

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to present a new design of standing-wave ultrasonic motor. This motor uses three piezoelectric actuating blocks which deform appropriately when powered up. The deformations of the blocks in ultrasonic range are internally amplified via the design of the motor by about 80 times and collectively yield an elliptical trajectory for the driving head of the motor. Finite Element Analysis using ANSYS was performed for both dynamic analysis and optimization of a prototype motor. The numerical results verified that at steady state, the motor can achieve vibrations in micro-meter level and the velocity can reach decimeter scale, satisfying the fast speed requirement as a positioning actuator. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic bearing and motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing assembly (10) has an intermediate rotatable section (33) having an outer cylindrical member (30) coaxially suspended by a torsion wire (72) around an axially polarized cylindrical magnet (32). Axial alignment between the pole faces (40-43) of the intermediate section (33) and end surfaces (50-53) of opposed end bells (20, 22) provides a path of least reluctance across intervening air gaps (60-63) for the magnetic flux emanating from magnet (32). Radial dislocation increases the reluctance and creates a radial restoring force. Substitution of radially polarized magnets 107 fixed to a magnetically permeable cylinder (32') and insertion of pairs of armature coil windings (109-112) between the cylinder pair (33') provides an integral magnetic bearing and torsion motor (100) able to provide arcuately limited rotational drive.

  8. A novel linear switched reluctance motor : Investigation and experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengasamy Arumugam

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel stator geometry for a linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM that improves the force profile is presented inthis paper. In the new geometry, pole shoes are affixed on the stator poles. Static characteristics for the proposed structurehave been highlighted using two dimensional (2-D finite element analyses (FEA. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the effectof several geometrical parameters on the performance of the proposed LSRM is presented. Further, motor performance forvariable load conditions is discussed. The 2-D FEA results and the experimental results of this paper prove that LSRMs areone of the strong candidates for linear propulsion drives.

  9. Synchronous motor with soft start element formed between the motor rotor and motor output shaft to successfully synchronize loads that have high inertia and/or high torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.

  10. Different motor models based on parameter variation using method of genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Sarac, Vasilija; Cvetkovski, Goga

    2010-01-01

    Three new motor models of Single Phase Shade Pole Motor were developed using the method of genetic agoithms for optimisation purposes of motor design. In each of newly developed motor models number of varied parameters was gradually increased which results in gradual increase of electroamgnetic torque as target function for optimisation. Increase of electromagnetic torque was followed by the increase of efficiency factor. Finite Element Method Analysis was performed in order to be obtained ma...

  11. Multi-Objective Optimization of Moving-magnet Linear Oscillatory Motor Using Response Surface Methodology with Quantum-Behaved PSO Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Meizhen; Wang, Liqiang

    2018-01-01

    To reduce the difficulty of manufacturing and increase the magnetic thrust density, a moving-magnet linear oscillatory motor (MMLOM) without inner-stators was Proposed. To get the optimal design of maximum electromagnetic thrust with minimal permanent magnetic material, firstly, the 3D finite element analysis (FEA) model of the MMLOM was built and verified by comparison with prototype experiment result. Then the influence of design parameters of permanent magnet (PM) on the electromagnetic thrust was systematically analyzed by the 3D FEA to get the design parameters. Secondly, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to build the response surface model of the new MMLOM, which can obtain an analytical model of the PM volume and thrust. Then a multi-objective optimization methods for design parameters of PM, using response surface methodology (RSM) with a quantum-behaved PSO (QPSO) operator, was proposed. Then the way to choose the best design parameters of PM among the multi-objective optimization solution sets was proposed. Then the 3D FEA of the optimal design candidates was compared. The comparison results showed that the proposed method can obtain the best combination of the geometric parameters of reducing the PM volume and increasing the thrust.

  12. Physical assistance devices in complex motor skill learning: benefits of a self-controlled practice schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, G; Toole, T

    1999-09-01

    This study examines the effects of a self-controlled use of physical assistance devices on learning a complex motor skill (i.e., producing slalom-type movements on a ski simulator). Physical assistance was provided by ski poles. One group of learners (self-control) was provided with the poles whenever they requested them, whereas another (yoked) group had no influence on the pole/no-pole schedule. While there were no group differences during the practice phase (Days 1 and 2), clear group differences emerged in the retention test without poles (Day 3). The self-control group produced significantly larger amplitudes than the yoked group. These results extend previous findings by showing learning advantages of the self-controlled use of physical assistance devices in complex motor skill learning.

  13. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbrien, E. F.; Tryon, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the performance of dc motors are evaluated when operating with chopper type controllers, and when operating on direct current. The interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences are investigated. Motor-controlled tests provided some of the data the quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple free and chopper modes of operation.

  14. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... properties of this facility in the path from synaptic sites to the motor axon is reviewed with emphasis on voltage sensitive ion channels and regulatory metabotropic transmitter pathways. The catalog of the intrinsic response properties, their underlying mechanisms, and regulation obtained from motoneurons...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  15. MODELING OF OPERATION OF COAXIAL-LINEAR MOTORS WITH AXIAL AND RADIAL DIRECTIONS OF MAGNETIZATION OF PERMANENT MAGNETS IN DYNAMIC MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Golenkov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental investigations of the amplitude, phase and inertia-power frequency characteristics of two types of coaxial-linear electric motors of back-and-forth motion with permanent magnets, which magnetization vector is directed axially and radially relative to the axis of the runner are carried out. The comparative analysis of characteristics of these motors is presented.

  16. Lunar South Pole space water extraction and trucking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppero, A.; Zupp, G.; Schnitzler, B.; Larson, T.K.; Rice, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This concept proposes to use thermal processes alone to extract water from the lunar South Pole and launch payloads to low lunar orbit. Thermal steam rockets would use water propellant for space transportation. The estimated mass of a space water tanker powered by a nuclear heated steam rocket suggests it can be designed for launch in the Space Shuttle bay. The performance depends on the feasibility of a nuclear reactor rocket engine producing steam at 1,100 degrees Kelvin, with a power density of 150 Megawatts per ton of rocket, and operating for thousands of 20 minute cycles. An example uses reject heat from a small nuclear electric power supply to melt 17,800 tons per year of lunar ice. A nuclear heated steam rocket would use the propellant water to launch and deliver 3,800 tons of water per year to a 100 km low lunar orbit

  17. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a designated...

  18. Magnet losses in inverter-fed two-pole PM machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Adolfo Garcia; Millinger, J.; Soulard, J.

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the estimation of magnet losses in a permanent-magnet motor inserted in a nut-runner. This type of machine has interesting features such as being two-pole, slot-less and running at a high speed (30000 rpm). Two analytical models were chosen from the literature. A numerical...... estimation of the losses with 2D Finite Element Method was carried out. A detailed investigation of the effect of simulation settings (e.g., mesh size, time-step, remanence flux density in the magnet, superposition of the losses, etc.) was performed. Finally, calculation of losses with 3D-FEM were also run...

  19. On line protection systems for induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, I.; Celik, H.; Sefa, I.; Demirbas, S.

    2005-01-01

    Protection of induction motors is very important since they are widely used in industry for many applications due to their high robustness, reliability, low cost and maintenance, high efficiency and long service life. So, protecting these motors is crucial for operations. This paper presents a combined protection approach for induction motors. To achieve this, the electrical values of the induction motor were measured with sensitivity ±1% through a data acquisition card and processed with software developed in Visual C++. An on line protection system for induction motors was achieved easily and effectively. The experimental results have shown that the induction motor was protected against the possible problems faced during the operation. The software developed for this protection provides flexible and reliable media for operators and their motors. It is expected that the motor protection achieved in this study might be faster than the classical techniques and also may be applied to larger motors easily after small modifications of the software

  20. Microprocessor controller for stepping motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, B.G.; Thuot, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept for digital computer control of multiple stepping motors which operate in a severe electromagnetic pulse environment is presented. The motors position mirrors in the beam-alignment system of a 100-kJ CO 2 laser. An asynchronous communications channel of a computer is used to send coded messages, containing the motor address and stepping-command information, to the stepping-motor controller in a bit serial format over a fiber-optics communications link. The addressed controller responds by transmitting to the computer its address and other motor information, thus confirming the received message. Each controller is capable of controlling three stepping motors. The controller contains the fiber-optics interface, a microprocessor, and the stepping-motor driven circuits. The microprocessor program, which resides in an EPROM, decodes the received messages, transmits responses, performs the stepping-motor sequence logic, maintains motor-position information, and monitors the motor's reference switch. For multiple stepping-motor application, the controllers are connected in a daisy chain providing control of many motors from one asynchronous communications channel of the computer

  1. PolyPole-1: An accurate numerical algorithm for intra-granular fission gas release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzocri, D.; Rabiti, C.; Luzzi, L.; Barani, T.; Van Uffelen, P.; Pastore, G.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a new numerical algorithm (called PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the equation for intra-granular fission gas release in nuclear fuel. The work was carried out in collaboration with Politecnico di Milano and Institute for Transuranium Elements. The PolyPole-1 algorithms is being implemented in INL's fuels code BISON code as part of BISON's fission gas release model. The transport of fission gas from within the fuel grains to the grain boundaries (intra-granular fission gas release) is a fundamental controlling mechanism of fission gas release and gaseous swelling in nuclear fuel. Hence, accurate numerical solution of the corresponding mathematical problem needs to be included in fission gas behaviour models used in fuel performance codes. Under the assumption of equilibrium between trapping and resolution, the process can be described mathematically by a single diffusion equation for the gas atom concentration in a grain. In this work, we propose a new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the fission gas diffusion equation in time-varying conditions. The PolyPole-1 algorithm is based on the analytic modal solution of the diffusion equation for constant conditions, with the addition of polynomial corrective terms that embody the information on the deviation from constant conditions. The new algorithm is verified by comparing the results to a finite difference solution over a large number of randomly generated operation histories. Furthermore, comparison to state-of-the-art algorithms used in fuel performance codes demonstrates that the accuracy of the PolyPole-1 solution is superior to other algorithms, with similar computational effort. Finally, the concept of PolyPole-1 may be extended to the solution of the general problem of intra-granular fission gas diffusion during non-equilibrium trapping and resolution, which will be the subject of future work.

  2. Thermal analysis of induction and synchronous reluctance motors

    OpenAIRE

    Vagati, Alfredo; Pastorelli, Michele Angelo; Cavagnino, Andrea; Boglietti, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal behavior of two induction motors (2.2 and 4 kW, four poles) and two synchronous reluctance motors [(SynRMs) transverse-laminated] are investigated and compared. Both motor types use the same stator but have different rotors. Using a lumped-parameter simulation program, a thermal analysis has been also carried out, and the obtained results have been compared with the experimental ones. A direct comparison of the thermal behavior of the two motor types has thus been m...

  3. Pole-to-Pole Connections: Similarities between Arctic and Antarctic Microbiomes and Their Vulnerability to Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kleinteich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The global biogeography of microorganisms remains poorly resolved, which limits the current understanding of microbial resilience toward environmental changes. Using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we characterized the microbial diversity of terrestrial and lacustrine biofilms from the Arctic, Antarctic and temperate regions. Our analyses suggest that bacterial community compositions at the poles are more similar to each other than they are to geographically closer temperate habitats, with 32% of all operational taxonomic units (OTUs co-occurring in both polar regions. While specific microbial taxa were confined to distinct regions, representing potentially endemic populations, the percentage of cosmopolitan taxa was higher in Arctic (43% than in Antarctic samples (36%. The overlap in polar microbial OTUs may be explained by natural or anthropogenically-mediated dispersal in combination with environmental filtering. Current and future changing environmental conditions may enhance microbial invasion, establishment of cosmopolitan genotypes and loss of endemic taxa.

  4. Coupling with concentric contact around motor shaft for line start synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, Michael J.; Burdeshaw, Galen E.

    2017-10-03

    A method comprises providing a line-start synchronous motor. The motor has a stator, a rotor core disposed within the stator, and a motor shaft. In accordance with a step of the method, a coupling for coupling a load to the motor is provided. The coupling has a motor shaft attachment portion configured to provide substantially concentric contact around the shaft at the end of the motor shaft. The coupling has a load attachment portion configured to operatively connect to a load. In accordance with a step of the method, a load is coupled to the motor with the coupling, and driven from start to at least near synchronous speed during steady state operation of the motor with a load coupled thereto. The motor shaft attachment portion may comprise a bushing assembly with matching and opposed tapered surfaces that cooperate to secure the motor shaft attachment portion around the motor shaft.

  5. Magnetic Signature of Brushless Electric Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, David

    2006-01-01

    Brushless electric motors are used in a number of underwater vehicles. When these underwater vehicles are used for mine clearance operations the magnetic signature of the brushless motors is important...

  6. Secondary electron emission yield on poled silica based thick films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, D.; Poumellec, B.; Cannas, V.

    2004-01-01

    injection, we pointed out an electric field 0.5 µm below the surface for our poling conditions and directed in the same direction as the external field applied during the poling process. Then, the dependence of on the injected dose of electrons allows us to deduce that the poling process disturbs the glass......Studies on the distribution of the electric field produced by a thermal poling process in a layer of Ge-doped silica on silicon substrate, by using secondary electron emission yield (SEEY) measurements () are presented. Comparing 0 between poled and unpoled areas, the SEEY at the origin of electron...... structure strongly enough for leading to a weak conductivity. It is then easy to display the poled areas. We have also pointed out an effect of the electric properties of the glass on the measurements obtained with the Electron Probe for MicroAnalysis....

  7. Motor teams :

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stochastic transitions between two species of motor yields Bidirectional motion. • Tuning of single-motor parameters. • No need to invoke a third “coordination complex”. Page 8. PNAS, 2009. 5.5 pN. 1.1 x 5 = 5.5 pN. Page 9. Kinesin motors have a problem working together. D istance (x) or. Force = Distance * K. TRAP ...

  8. Motor Starters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) was invented by a NASA engineer. It matches voltage with a motor's actual need by sensing shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow. With the device, power can be trimmed as much as 65%. Intellinet adopted this technology and designed "soft start" and "load-responsive" control modes to start engines gradually and recycle voltage without reducing motor speed. Other features are lower motor heat and faster fault identification.

  9. Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed

  10. Fast Calculation Model and Theoretical Analysis of Rotor Unbalanced Magnetic Pull for Inter-Turn Short Circuit of Field Windings of Non-Salient Pole Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangtao Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Inter-turn short circuit of field windings (ISCFW may cause the field current of a generator to increase, output reactive power to decrease, and unit vibration to intensify, seriously affecting its safe and stable operation. Full integration of mechanical and electrical characteristics can improve the sensitivity of online monitoring, and detect the early embryonic period fault of small turns. This paper studies the calculations and variations of unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP, of which the excitation source of rotor vibration is the basis and key to online fault monitoring. In grid load operation, ISCFW are first calculated with the multi-loop method, so as to obtain the numerical solutions of the stator and the rotor currents during the fault. Next, the air-gap magnetic field of the ISCFW is analyzed according to the actual composition modes of the motor loops in the fault, so as to obtain the analytic expressions of the air-gap magnetic motive force (MMF and magnetic density. The UMP of the rotor is obtained by solving the integral of the Maxwell stress. The correctness of the electric quantity calculation is verified by the ISCFW experiment, conducted in a one pair-pole non-salient pole model machine. On this basis, comparing the simulation analysis with the calculation results of the model in this paper not only verifies the accuracy of the electromagnetic force calculation, but also proves that the latter has the advantages of a short time consumption and high efficiency. Finally, the influencing factors and variation law of UMP are analyzed by means of an analytic model. This develops a base for the online monitoring of ISCFW with the integration of mechanical and electrical information.

  11. Synchronization matters for motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce Ibarra, Luigi S

    2018-03-01

    Using electroencephalography and electromyography recordings from healthy participants during a visual-depended bimanual coordination task, de Vries and colleagues showed that functional synchronization is important in motor coordination. The authors reported that higher coordination correlated positively with intermuscular synchrony, but correlated negatively with corticomuscular synchrony. They proposed that these two diverse motor systems operate differently depending on task demands. Similar experimental paradigms could identify motor mechanisms in patients with neurological disorders to design novel rehabilitation strategies.

  12. Torque-Summing Brushless Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.

  13. Determination of the crystallite orientation distribution from direct pole figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Gomes, P.A.M. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate the crystallite orientation distribution in polycrystalline material, from direct pole figures data of its crystallographic planes (Roe's Method). The programme was applied to (1010), (0002), (1011) and (1120) complete pole figures data for a commercial, thin sheet Zircaloy-4 tubing specimen. A semi-automatic Rigaku-Denki texture goniometer, which scans the reciprocal lattice sphere pointwise outputting the data in a punched tape, was used to obtain the pole figures. This is consistent with the results obtained through direct conclusion from the pole figures. (author)

  14. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  15. Thermal poling of multi-wire array optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lin; An, Honglin; Hayashi, Juliano G.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate in this paper thermal poling of multi-wire array fibers, which extends poling of fibers with two anodes to similar to 50 and similar to 500 wire array anodes. The second harmonic microscopy observations show that second order nonlinearity (SON) layers are developed surrounding all...... the rings of wires in the similar to 50 anode array fiber with poling of 1.8kV, 250 degrees C and 30min duration, and the outer rings of the similar to 500 anode array fiber at lower poling temperature. Our simulations based on a two-dimensional charge dynamics model confirm this can be explained...

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Characteristics of SR Motor Made of Permendur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yu; Nakamura, Kenji; Ichinokura, Osamu

    A switched reluctance (SR) motor has a doubly salient pole structure. The performance of the SR motor strongly depends on the magnetic properties of the core material since it consists only of an iron core and copper windings. This study experimentally evaluates the performance of an SR motor made of permendur (Fe-49%Co alloy), which has very high saturation flux density and low core loss. Two types of SR motors that have the same dimensions but different core materials are used: one motor is made of the conventional non-oriented Si steel, and the other is made of permendur. Comparison of the characteristics of the two motors shows that the performance of the permendur SR motor surpasses that of the conventional one in terms of output power and efficiency.

  17. Physical-guidance benefits in learning a complex motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, G; Shea, C H; Whitacre, C A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of physical guidance on learning to perform slalom-type movements on a ski-simulator were examined in 22 participants (18 in Experiment 1, 4 in Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 1 group of participants practiced the task with ski-poles whereas another group practiced without poles. Retention tests without poles were performed at the end of each of the 2 practice days and 1 day later. Although the use of poles produced more effective performance in terms of movement amplitude during practice, both conditions led to similar amplitudes in immediate and delayed retention. With regard to the efficiency of the movement pattern, the pole group demonstrated a more efficient coordination pattern than the no-pole group did, not only during practice but also in immediate (Day 2) and delayed retention. In Experiment 2, how the poles functioned to enhance the learning of a more efficient movement pattern was examined more closely. The results suggest that physical guidance can have beneficial effects not only on performance during practice but also-under certain conditions-on the learning of motor skills.

  18. High power density superconducting motor for control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J; Granados, X; Lloberas, J; Torres, R; Grau, J; Maynou, R; Bosch, R

    2008-01-01

    A high dynamics superconducting low power motor for control applications has been considered for design. The rotor is cylindrical with machined bulks that generate the field by trapping flux in a four poles configuration. The toothless iron armature is wound by copper, acting iron only as magnetic screen. Details of the magnetic assembling, cryogenics and electrical supply conditioning will be reported. Improvements due to the use of a superconducting set are compared with performances of equivalent conventional motors

  19. Bridging the Poles: Education Linked with Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S.; Bell, R. E.; Turrin, M.; Maru, P.

    2004-12-01

    An international group of 65 scientists, educators and media specialists gathered at the "Bridging the Poles" workshop in Washington, DC on June 23-25, to define strategies that will inspire the general public and engage the next generation of polar scientists, engineers and leaders. This NSF-sponsored workshop was the first effort to develop an integrated education and outreach program for the International Polar Year of 2007-2009. Through a series of plenary talks and roundtable discussions, workshop participants focused on: engaging diverse communities, opportunities and needs for different levels, possibilities for thematic areas, and programs to feature nationally and internationally over the next 5 years. To maximize the potential of the International Polar Year, we need to coordinate research, education and outreach efforts, at the international as well as national level, with the goal of building an integrated and exciting public presence during 2007-2009. Successful education and outreach programming requires leveraging existing resources, creating new programs, connecting communities, and developing partnerships between agencies, scientists, educators, and the public. We need to consider the rich heritage of indigenous Arctic peoples, build capacity within communities through targeted efforts, and focus on making the poles relevant to diverse communities by using interdisciplinary approaches, e.g. cultural as well as scientific. A series of education and outreach packages for large-scale science endeavors should be rolled out to the public as major media events. The media -- television, radio and print -- as well as educators, zoos and museums are eager to use timely, accessible, and meaningful content. An Interagency Working Group on IPY Education and Outreach, with a staff and a central office, must be created to coordinate and leverage programs. A sophisticated web portal should be developed to serve content and contacts for researchers, educators, the

  20. ANALYSIS OF PROCESSES IN AN INDEPENDENT GENERATOR WITH A NONCONTACT CASCADE THREE-PHASE MODULATED EXCITER VIA A STAR-CONNECTED CIRCUIT WITH A COMMON MODULATOR PHASE CONNECTION UNDER OPERATION TO AN INDUCTION MOTORS SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Vasyliv

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By means of a mathematical experiment, electromagnetic and electromechanical processes in an independent electric power supply system based on an asynchronized generator with a three-phase modulated exciter are investigated. The processes are analyzed to specify the working capacity of the power supply system during its operation to an induction motors site. Regularities of the electromagnetic and electromechanical processes behavior versus load intensity and the switch control system parameters are identified.

  1. An electrostatic lower stator axial-gap polysilicon wobble motor part II: Fabrication and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, R.; Legtenberg, Rob; Berenschot, Johan W.; van Baar, J.J.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    This paper presents the fabrication and first performance characteristics of electrostatically driven axial-gap polysilicon wobble motors. The fabrication is based on a four mask process using polysilicon surface-micromachining techniques. Three twelve-stator-pole wobble motor designs have been

  2. Optimal design of an IPM motor using Taguchi and Rosenbrock's methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, C C; Li, P L; Chang, C M; Liu, C T

    2011-01-01

    Techniques for the design optimization for cogging torque minimization and average torque maximization of a high-speed 2-pole interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motor are presented. It is shown by the finite element method (FEM) and measurement, that combined the Taguchi and Rosenbrock's methods is a very efficient and effective approach in robust design a high performance motor.

  3. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the

  4. Motor teams :

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Switch. Welte et al, 1998, Gross et al, 2002. Motion of Lipid droplets in Drosophila embryos. Page 7. • Stochastic transitions between two species of motor yields Bidirectional motion. • Tuning of single-motor parameters. • No need to invoke a ...

  5. Retratos da metrópole parisiense

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Julien, Thérèse; Goix, Renaud Le

    2009-01-01

    « La métropole parisienne, centralité, inégalité, proximité » propõe uma leitura e uma interpretação das tendências do território da Île de France (a região que inclui Paris e sete outros départements), ou seja, uma grande metrópole mundial de cerca de 11,3 milhões de habitantes em 2004, ligada às redes da globalização e da metropolização. O livro esboça os traços principais de suas estruturas territoriais emergentes, sublinha os desafios, o alcance dos mesmos e as contradições. Sem pretensão...

  6. Retratos da metrópole parisiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Saint-Julien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available « La métropole parisienne, centralité, inégalité, proximité » propõe uma leitura e uma interpretação das tendências do território da Île de France (a região que inclui Paris e sete outros départements, ou seja, uma grande metrópole mundial de cerca de 11,3 milhões de habitantes em 2004, ligada às redes da globalização e da metropolização. O livro esboça os traços principais de suas estruturas territoriais emergentes, sublinha os desafios, o alcance dos mesmos e as contradições. Sem pretensão...

  7. Subtotal splenectomy preserving the lower pole in rats: technical, morphological and functional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Danilo Nagib Salomão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the possibility of preserving the lower pole of the spleen, supplied by the inferior lobar vessels and segmental vessels, or by vessels of the gastrosplenic ligament, in subtotal splenectomy; to study the viability and function of the lower pole of the spleen. METHODS: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were used in this study. Said animals weighed 273-390 g ( 355.2 ? 30.5 g , and were randomly distributed into three groups. Group 1 comprised ten animals which were submitted to exploratory laparotomy with spleen manipulation (sham operation. Group 2 comprised 16 animals which were submitted to total splenectomy. Group 3 comprised ten animals which were submitted to subtotal splenectomy, preserving the lower pole of the spleen. Blood was collected from all animals before and 90 days after surgery to measure the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. The animals were sacrificed 90 days after surgery. Spleens and remaining spleens were removed for macroscopic and microscopic examination. RESULTS: Surgery was performed with no complications in all groups. Six animals died in group 2. Spleens of groups 1 and 2, and lower poles of group 3 were macroscopically viable. Apparent white pulp hyperplasia was observed in group 1. In group 3, slight inflammation and capsular fibrosis were observed at the incision site, as well as diffuse hemosiderosis in the red pulp. Average mass of remaining spleen was 35.84% ? 4.31%. No significant difference was observed between preoperative and late postoperative lipid levels in groups 1 and 3 (p > 0.05. Late postoperative lipid levels significantly increased in group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Preservation of the lower pole of the spleen (supplied by gastrosplenic vessels or inferior lobar vessels and segmental vessels was possible with subtotal splenectomy. The lower pole was macroscopically and microscopically viable in all cases. Subtotal splenectomy preserving the lower pole prevented changes in lipid levels

  8. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, A.; Adumitroaie, V.; Allison, M.; Anderson, J.; Atreya, S.; Bloxham, J.; Brown, S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; DeJong, E.; Folkner, W.; Gautier, D.; Grassi, D.; Gulkis, S.; Guillot, T.; Hansen, C.; Hubbard, W. B.; Iess, L.; Ingersoll, A.; Janssen, M.; Jorgensen, J.; Kaspi, Y.; Levin, S. M.; Li, C.; Lunine, J.; Miguel, Y.; Mura, A.; Orton, G.; Owen, T.; Ravine, M.; Smith, E.; Steffes, P.; Stone, E.; Stevenson, D.; Thorne, R.; Waite, J.; Durante, D.; Ebert, R. W.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hue, V.; Parisi, M.; Szalay, J. R.; Wilson, R.

    2017-05-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars, dominated by an ammonia-rich, narrow low-latitude plume resembling a deeper, wider version of Earth's Hadley cell. Near-infrared mapping reveals the relative humidity within prominent downwelling regions. Juno's measured gravity field differs substantially from the last available estimate and is one order of magnitude more precise. This has implications for the distribution of heavy elements in the interior, including the existence and mass of Jupiter's core. The observed magnetic field exhibits smaller spatial variations than expected, indicative of a rich harmonic content.

  9. Spectral analysis of gluonic pole matrix elements for fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamberg, L. P.; Mukherjee, A.B.; Mulders, P.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    The nonvanishing of gluonic pole matrix elements can explain the appearance of single spin asymmetries in high-energy scattering processes. We use a spectator framework approach to investigate the spectral properties of quark-quark-gluon correlators and use this to study gluonic pole matrix

  10. pbx is required for pole and eye regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh G; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Planarian regeneration involves regionalized gene expression that specifies the body plan. After amputation, planarians are capable of regenerating new anterior and posterior poles, as well as tissues polarized along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes. Wnt and several Hox genes are expressed at the posterior pole, whereas Wnt inhibitory genes, Fgf inhibitory genes, and prep, which encodes a TALE-family homeodomain protein, are expressed at the anterior pole. We found that Smed-pbx (pbx for short), which encodes a second planarian TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, is required for restored expression of these genes at anterior and posterior poles during regeneration. Moreover, pbx(RNAi) animals gradually lose pole gene expression during homeostasis. By contrast, pbx was not required for initial anterior-posterior polarized responses to wounds, indicating that pbx is required after wound responses for development and maintenance of poles during regeneration and homeostatic tissue turnover. Independently of the requirement for pbx in pole regeneration, pbx is required for eye precursor formation and, consequently, eye regeneration and eye replacement in homeostasis. Together, these data indicate that pbx promotes pole formation of body axes and formation of regenerative progenitors for eyes.

  11. Second harmonic generation from corona-poled polymer thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... We characterize thermal stability of second harmonic generation (SHG) properties of four different Y-type polymers poled using corona poling method. These polymers are based on donor–acceptor–donor-type repeating unit with different aromatic moieties acting as donors and dicyanomethylene acting as ...

  12. Derivation of nominal strength for wood utility poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Jozsef Bodig; Patricia Lebow

    2001-01-01

    The designated fiber stress values published in the American National Standards Institute Standard for Poles, ANSI 05.1, no longer reflect the state of the knowledge. These values are based on a combination of test data from small clear wood samples and small poles (

  13. Second harmonic generation from corona-poled polymer thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... Abstract. We characterize thermal stability of second harmonic generation (SHG) properties of four different Y-type polymers poled using corona poling method. These polymers are based on donor–acceptor–donor-type repeating unit with different aromatic moieties acting as donors and dicyanomethylene ...

  14. Three Phase Soft Commutation Auxilary Resonant Pole Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Vaclav Sladecek

    2006-01-01

    This paper covers the circuit modification of the power part of the inverter with auxiliary resonant poles utilising configuration of switches realised with routinely produced IGBT modules. Covered is also the control optimisation which goal is the minimisation of switching of the auxiliary resonant pole. Presented results were gained on a prototype of an inverter laboratory sample.

  15. Finite element analyses of wood laminated composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Finite element analyses using ANSYS were conducted on orthotropic, polygonal, wood laminated composite poles subjected to a body force and a concentrated load at the free end. Deflections and stress distributions of small-scale and full-size composite poles were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in an experimental study. The predicted deflection for both...

  16. Gluability of out-of-service utility poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Roliadi; Chung Y. Hse; Elvin T. Choong; Todd F. Shupe

    2000-01-01

    This investigation determined the gluability of weathered, out-of-service southern yellow pine (SYP) (Pinus spp.) utility poles. Three types of adhesives were used: resorcinol-phenol formaldehyde (RPF), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and casein. The poles consisted of two service duration groups: 5 and 25 years. Longer weathering caused greater reduction in creosote content...

  17. Solar Open Flux Migration from Pole to Pole: Magnetic Field Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G-H; Lin, C-H; Lee, L C

    2017-08-25

    Coronal holes are solar regions with low soft X-ray or low extreme ultraviolet intensities. The magnetic fields from coronal holes extend far away from the Sun, and thus they are identified as regions with open magnetic field lines. Coronal holes are concentrated in the polar regions during the sunspot minimum phase, and spread to lower latitude during the rising phase of solar activity. In this work, we identify coronal holes with outward and inward open magnetic fluxes being in the opposite poles during solar quiet period. We find that during the sunspot rising phase, the outward and inward open fluxes perform pole-to-pole trans-equatorial migrations in opposite directions. The migration of the open fluxes consists of three parts: open flux areas migrating across the equator, new open flux areas generated in the low latitude and migrating poleward, and new open flux areas locally generated in the polar region. All three components contribute to the reversal of magnetic polarity. The percentage of contribution from each component is different for different solar cycle. Our results also show that the sunspot number is positively correlated with the lower-latitude open magnetic flux area, but negatively correlated with the total open flux area.

  18. Cryogenic Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Piezoelectric motors operate on the principal of converting the high-frequency oscillation of high-force, precision ceramic elements into useful continuous motion....

  19. Pole Dancing Auto-ethnography – Practice, Pedagogy, Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Patricia Cadwallader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the author addresses the following four questions: 1 What are the implications of bringing pole dancing into concert dance, not as a caricature or theatrical version of what is performed in strip clubs, but as its own, free-standing art form? 2 In what ways will years of ballet and modern dance training influence the type of dancing that emerges from dancers when poles and other apparatuses are introduced? 3 How can the author create an original pole dancing style and pedagogical methods for teaching it? 4 Who participates in pole fitness classes and how does the demographic change based on location? What about when pole fitness classes are offered in an academic setting? The author shares first-hand experiences of investigating pole dancing in fitness classes, attending performances, engaging in a rehearsal process with highly trained dancers, and teaching pole dancing to movers with a wide range of abilities. The author addresses how research plans changed as she encountered limitations of budget and time constraints. The author also elaborates on the creative process that she engaged in with her thesis cast, collaborators, and supporting designers in the making of Super-beneath, a theatrical dance work that uses five, free-standing poles. She outline the vignettes, overall structure, and narrative of the work. The author then discusses where this research fits into the larger field of pole dancing, and the even larger field of dance. In the final sections of this paper, the author describes her pedagogical practices relating to pole classes, what “practice as research” means to her, and how she would like to continue on this research trajectory in the future.

  20. [Surgical treatment of inferior pole comminuted fractures of patella with new type tension band].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B; Zhang, Z S; Zhou, F; Tian, Y; Ji, H Q; Guo, Y; Lv, Y; Yang, Z W

    2015-04-18

    To study the effectiveness of inferior pole fracture of patella treating by the new tension band. From Dec. 2011 to Dec. 2013, 21 patients with inferior pole fracture of patella were treated with the new tension band which consisted of cannulated screw, titanium cable and shims. There were 21 patients[10 males, 11 females, the average age was 54 years(21 to 79)],of whom,all were "fell on knees". The average operation time was 89 min (57-197 min),the follow-up visits were done from 7-31 months (average 18 months), the bone healing time was from 8-12 weeks (average 10.5 weeks). The post operation assessment was done by Bostman score, from 20-30 (average 27),10 excellent,and 11 good. No complication occurred. The new tension band is the effective treatment for inferior pole fracture of patella. The internal fixation is reliable, it is simple to operate, and patients can take exercises as early as possible. Therefore, the new tension band has a better clinical value.

  1. DESEMPENHO DE MOTOR-GERADOR DE CICLO OTTO OPERADO COM GASOLINA E BIOGÁS PROVENIENTE DE SUINOCULTURA / PERFORMANCE MOTOR-GENERATOR OPERATED WITH OTTO CYCLE GASOLINE AND BIOGAS FROM THE PIG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rossetto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A busca por novas fontes energéticas que não poluam o meio ambiente, bem como a mitigação dos impactos ambientais gerados pelo aumento da população, abre uma nova perspectiva no campo da pesquisa do biogás provenientes do resultado de tratamento de efluentes. O processo de transformação de energia gerada pela combustão do biogás para energia em motores no ciclo Otto e posterior transformação em energia elétrica é de fácil realização sendo necessárias algumas adaptações no motor, neste trabalho foi realizada apenas a substituição do carburador por um misturador de ar/combustível tipo Venturi. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de motor-gerador ciclo Otto alimentado com biogás proveniente de suinocultura. Como testemunha foram utilizados ensaios com gasolina, simulando diferentes condições de trabalho, com cargas de 0; 0,250 kW (10 % da carga; 0,500 kW (20 % da carga; 0,750 kW (30 % da carga; 1 kW (40 % da carga; 1,250 kW (50 % da carga; 1,500 kW (60 % da carga; 1,750 kW (70 % da carga; 2 kW (80 % da carga; 2,250 kW (90 % da carga e 2,500 kW (100 % da carga. Onde foram avaliadas as emissões de dióxido de carbono (CO2, monóxido de carbono (CO e oxido de nitrogênio (NOx, e analisado o rendimento do motor-gerador que foi baixo em torno de 76 % menor quando comparado com gasolina, sendo necessários ajustes para o melhor desempenho. 

  2. Save power in AC induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Relatively simple and inexpensive circuitry improves power factor and reduces power dissipation in induction motors operating below full load. Electronic control loop conserves energy by reducing voltage applied to lightly loaded motor. Circuit forces motor to run at constant predetermined optimum power factor, regardless of load or line voltage variations. Solid-state switch varies voltage.

  3. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  4. Heavy Cratering near Callisto's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft provide new insights into this region near Callisto's south pole. This two frame mosaic shows a heavily cratered surface with smooth plains in the areas between craters. North is to the top of the image. The smoothness of the plains appears to increase toward the south pole, approximately 480 kilometers (293 miles) south of the bottom of the image. This smoothness of Callisto's surface was not evident in images taken during the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft because the resolution was insufficient to show the effect. This smooth surface, and the process(es) that cause it, are among the most intriguing aspects of Callisto. Although not fully understood, the process(es) responsible for this smoothing could include erosion by tiny meteorites and energetic ions. Some craters, such as Keelut, the 47 kilometer (29 mile) crater in the lower right corner, have sharp, well defined rims. Keelut contains an inner ring surrounding a central depression about 17 kilometers (11 miles) in diameter. Keelut, and the more irregularly shaped, degraded Reginleif, the 32 kilometer (19.5 mile) crater in the top center of the image, are very shallow and have flat floors. Crater forms can be seen down to less than 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter in the image. Each picture element (pixel) in this image is approximately 0.68 kilometers (0.41 miles) across.This image which was taken by the Galileo spacecraft's solid state imaging (CCD) system during its eighth orbit around Jupiter, on May 6th, 1997. The center of the image is located at 71.3 degrees south latitude, 97.6 degrees west longitude, and was taken when the spacecraft was approximately 35,470 kilometers (21,637 miles) from Callisto.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  5. Noise generation mechanisms in claw pole alternators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, W.; Burns, S.; Pekarek, S.; Bai, Hua; Tichenor, J.

    2005-05-01

    Noise of claw pole alternators, generated electromagnetically and structurally radiated, has been the subject of an extensive research program. The goal has been to identify and reduce noise radiation mechanisms in claw pole (Lundell) alternators used in automotive applications. Two approaches have been followed. In the first, electromagnetic sources of noise have been investigated by lumped parameter and magnetically equivalent circuit modeling and simulation, and by related experimentation. This is the subject of separate papers. The second, concurrent study reported here has investigated machine and mount responses to an electromagnetically generated torque ripple. Modeling and experimentation has led to the conclusion that there exists a high correlation between electromagnetic sources, torque ripple, and radiated noise. Experimentation also has led to the conclusion that noise characteristics of a given machine are substantially altered by modification of the mounting configuration. The work reported here involves modeling, simulation, and experiment to isolate machine dynamic characteristics and mounting geometries which contribute to strong coupling between torque ripple and machine/mount dynamic response. A low-order model of the alternator which includes shaft flexibility, gyroscopic effects, shaft bearing asymmetry, mounting lug geometry, and mounting structure dynamics has been created. The model provides a rapid simulation of dynamic response in the form of a transfer function between torque ripple and mounting forces. Generic studies of a simplified mounting structure coupled to the machine model are presented here. Acoustic testing of several machine configurations on a production mount has been carried out to investigate 36th order noise in three phase machines and 72nd order noise in six-phase machines. Electromagnetic modeling and dynamic response simulations suggest that the six-phase machine is inherently quieter. This is supported by

  6. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  7. Is the efficacy of sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence dependent on the number of active electrode poles achieved during permanent lead insertion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duelund-Jakobsen, J; Lundby, L; Lehur, P-A; Wyart, V; Laurberg, S; Buntzen, S

    2016-11-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is effective for faecal incontinence (FI). Little is known about the relationship between the implantation technique and the functional outcome. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the numbers of active electrode poles (AEP) achieved during permanent lead placement and subsequent function, therapeutic amplitude and the need for extra appointments between scheduled follow-up visits. One hundred and eighty-six patients with FI who underwent permanent implantation between May 2009 and March 2015 with a tined (barbed) lead (3093/3080, Medtronic) using the straight stylet were registered on the European two-centre SNS prospective database (SNSPD). Correlation between the number of AEP, function, stimulation amplitude and the need for extra visits was analysed. The numbers of patients having an intra-operative motor response on stimulation of one, two, three and four poles were 18 (9.7%), 75 (40.3%), 61 (32.8%) and 32 (17.2%). The Wexner incontinence score was significantly reduced from 15 (±2.8) at baseline to 9.2 (±4.8) at the latest follow-up after a mean 878 ± 561 days (SD; P  0.05). Patients with four-AEP had a reduced therapeutic amplitude up to 289 (±146) days of follow-up (P < 0.03). The number of AEP did not influence the need for extra follow-up visits (P < 0.223). The functional outcome and number of extra visits after SNS for FI did not depend on the number of AEP achieved. The therapeutic amplitude was reduced during the first postoperative year if four AEP were achieved during lead placement. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  9. Pole preservatives in soils adjacent to in-service utility poles in the United States. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.B.; Ripp, J.A.; Ladwig, K.

    1997-12-01

    As a result of increasing concerns regarding the environmental fate of wood preservatives, EPRI carried out a study of soils in the vicinity of in-service wood pole sites. More than 8,000 soil samples adjacent to 180 PCP-treated and 22 creosote-treated wood poles were collected and analyzed for chemicals of interest. The results showed that concentrations of wood preservative chemicals tended to be highest in soils located in very close proximity to the poles with rapid decreases in concentrations observed with distance from the poles. Soil partitioning, biodegradation, and modeling studies on PCP were also completed to augment the soil data and to provide additional information on the release, migration, and fate of wood preservatives at in-service pole sites

  10. Induction Motor Bearing Failure Detection and Diagnosis: Park and Concordia Transform Approaches Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Önel, Izzet; Benbouzid, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper dealswith the problem of bearing failure detection and diagnosis in induction motors. Indeed, bearing deterioration is now the main cause of induction motor rotor failures. In this context, two fault detection and diagnosis techniques, namely the Park transform approach and the Concordia transform, are briefly presented and compared. Experimental tests, on a 0.75 kW two-pole induction motor with artificial bearing damage, outline the main features of the afo...

  11. Induction Motors Bearing Failures Detection and Diagnosis: Park and Concordia Transform Approaches Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Önel, Izzet; Benbouzid, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the problem of bearing failure detection and diagnosis in induction motors. Indeed, bearings deterioration is now the main cause of induction motor rotor failures. In this context, two fault detection and diagnosis techniques, namely the Park transform approach and the Concordia transform, are briefly presented and compared. Experimental tests, on a 0.75-kW two-pole induction motor with artificial bearing damages, outline the above approaches main...

  12. Synchronous motor with hybrid permanent magnets on the rotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusarek, Barbara; Kapelski, Dariusz; Antal, Ludwik; Zalas, Pawel; Gwoździewicz, Maciej

    2014-07-10

    Powder metallurgy allows designers of electric motors to implement new magnetic circuit structures. A relatively new concept is the use of a magnet system consisting of various types of magnets on one rotor, for example sintered and bonded magnets. This concept has been applied to the design and manufacture of the four-pole rotor of a synchronous motor with 400 W power and a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. In this motor, the stator of an asynchronous motor type Sh 71-4B is applied. The application of the new construction of the rotor resulted in an increase in motor efficiency and power factor compared to an asynchronous motor with the same volume.

  13. Synchronous Motor with Hybrid Permanent Magnets on the Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Slusarek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy allows designers of electric motors to implement new magnetic circuit structures. A relatively new concept is the use of a magnet system consisting of various types of magnets on one rotor, for example sintered and bonded magnets. This concept has been applied to the design and manufacture of the four-pole rotor of a synchronous motor with 400 W power and a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. In this motor, the stator of an asynchronous motor type Sh 71-4B is applied. The application of the new construction of the rotor resulted in an increase in motor efficiency and power factor compared to an asynchronous motor with the same volume.

  14. Intrarenal Surgery vs Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in the Management of Lower Pole Stones Greater than 2 cm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Hakan; Yencilek, Faruk; Kalkan, Mehmet; Bastug, Yavuz; Yencilek, Esin; Ozdemir, Ahmet Tunc

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of RIRS and PNL in lower pole stones ≥ 2 cm. Materials and and Methods: A total of 109 patients who underwent PNL or RIRS for solitary lower pole stone between April 2009 and December 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. Lower pole stone was diagnosed with CT scan. Stone size was assessed as the longest axis of the stone. All patients were informed about the advantages, disadvantages and probable complications of both PNL and RIRS before the selection of the procedure. Patients decided the surgery type by themselves without being under any influences and written informed consent was obtained from all patients prior to the surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the patients' preference of surgery type. Group 1 consisted of 77 patients who underwent PNL and Group 2 consisted of 32 patients treated with RIRS. Stone free statuses, postoperative complications, operative time and hospitalization time were compared in both groups. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in mean age, stone size, stone laterality, mean follow-up periods and mean operative times. In PNL group, stone-free rate was 96.1% at first session and 100% after the additional procedure. In Group 2, stone-free rate was 90.6% at the first procedure and 100% after the additional procedure. The final stone-free rates and operative times were similar in both groups. RIRS should be an effective treatment alternative to PNL in lower pole stones larger than 2 cm, especially in selected patients.

  15. Intrarenal Surgery vs Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in the Management of Lower Pole Stones Greater than 2 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Koyuncu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To compare the efficacy of RIRS and PNL in lower pole stones ≥2 cm. Materials and and Methods: A total of 109 patients who underwent PNL or RIRS for solitary lower pole stone between April 2009 and December 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. Lower pole stone was diagnosed with CT scan. Stone size was assessed as the longest axis of the stone. All patients were informed about the advantages, disadvantages and probable complications of both PNL and RIRS before the selection of the procedure. Patients decided the surgery type by themselves without being under any influences and written informed consent was obtained from all patients prior to the surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the patients’ preference of surgery type. Group 1 consisted of 77 patients who underwent PNL and Group 2 consisted of 32 patients treated with RIRS. Stone free statuses, postoperative complications, operative time and hospitalization time were compared in both groups. Results There was no statistical significance between the two groups in mean age, stone size, stone laterality, mean follow-up periods and mean operative times. In PNL group, stone-free rate was 96.1% at first session and 100% after the additional procedure. In Group 2, stone-free rate was 90.6% at the first procedure and 100% after the additional procedure. The final stone-free rates and operative times were similar in both groups. Conclusions RIRS should be an effective treatment alternative to PNL in lower pole stones larger than 2 cm, especially in selected patients.

  16. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1977-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p → π + pπ 0 and π + p → π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T = 1 and T = 2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965 which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) were dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  17. Some simple demonstration experiments involving homopolar motors

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart,Seán M.

    2007-01-01

    The ready availability of very strong permanent magnets in the form of rare-earth magnetic alloys such as neodymium-iron-boron has lead to renewed interest in one of the oldest types of electric motors - the homopolar motor. The ease with which a demonstration homopolar motor can now be built and operated when neodymium magnets are used is quite remarkable. In this paper some simple homopolar motors employing neodymium magnets suitable for demonstrational purposes are described and discussed.

  18. The micro-step motor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Myung Kook; Choi, Bung Hun; Choi, Young Hyun; Cheon, Jong Gu

    2004-11-01

    The developed micro-step motor controller can handle 4 axes stepping motor drivers simultaneously and provide high power bipolar driving mechanism with constant current mode. It can be easily controlled by manual key functions and the motor driving status is displayed by the front panel VFD. Due to the development of several kinds of communication and driving protocol, PC can operate even several micro-step motor controllers at once by multi-drop connection

  19. Using a micromachined magnetostatic relay in commutating a DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Wright, John A. (Inventor); Lilienthal, Gerald (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A DC motor is commutated by rotating a magnetic rotor to induce a magnetic field in at least one magnetostatic relay in the motor. Each relay is activated in response to the magnetic field to deliver power to at least one corresponding winding connected to the relay. In some cases, each relay delivers power first through a corresponding primary winding and then through a corresponding secondary winding to a common node. Specific examples include a four-pole, three-phase motor in which each relay is activated four times during one rotation of the magnetic rotor.

  20. Model independent analysis of gluonic pole matrix elements and universality of transverse-momentum-dependent fragmentation functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamberg, L. P.; Mukherjee, A.B.; Mulders, P.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Gluonic pole matrix elements explain the appearance of single spin asymmetries (SSA) in high-energy scattering processes. They involve a combination of operators which are odd under time reversal (T-odd). Such matrix elements appear in principle both for parton distribution functions and parton

  1. Evidence of Space-Charge Effects in Thermal Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, X.; Arentoft, Jesper; Wong, D.

    1999-01-01

    The in situ thermal poling processes in germanosilicate fibers for positive and negative poling voltages are significantly different. Thermal poling of silica fibers consists of two processes: the faster linear process of charge migration and the subsequent single exponential process of charge...... ionization. Both the shielding electrical field due to charge migration and the ionization electrical field due to charge ionization are able to be frozen-in at room temperature acid lead to the residual linear electrooptic effects, The observations support that the mechanism of the induced electrooptic...... effects is based on space charge electrical fields instead of dipole/bond orientation....

  2. A novel claw pole memory machine for wide-speed-range applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Linni; Gong, Yu; Wei, Jin; Shi, Yujun; Shao, Ziyun; Ching, T. W.

    2015-05-01

    Memory machines with both high-power-density and wide-speed-range are becoming very attractive most recently. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel type of memory machine, namely, claw pole memory machine. It engages an axially magnetized AlNiCo PM ring on the claw pole rotor to build the main magnetic flux in air-gap which is responsible for the electromechanical energy conversion. A magnetizing coil is equipped to online regulate the magnetization level of the permanent magnet ring, so as to achieve wide-speed-range operation. The operating principle is analyzed. The Preisach hysteresis model is combined with 3D finite element method to conduct performance assessment of the proposed claw pole memory machine. Calculation results demonstrate that the air-gap flux density can be readily adjusted by injecting DC pulse into the magnetizing coil, and the speed-range of the proposed machine can be extended as wide as six times of its base speed.

  3. LMI-Based Mixed H2/H∞ Controller Design with Regional Pole Constraints for Damping Power System Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiansyah; Furuya, Seizo; Irisawa, Juichi

    This paper presents the mixed H2/H∞ controller design with regional pole constraints for damping power system oscillations. The state feedback gain can be obtained by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility problem that robustly assigns the closed-loop poles in a prescribed LMI region. The proposed technique is illustrated with applications to the design of stabilizer for a typical single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB) and a multimachine power system. The LMI-based control ensures adequate damping for widely varying system operating conditions. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed stabilizer.

  4. Sensorless control for switched reluctance motor based on special position detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jie; Deng, Zhiquan; Gu, Yu

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a new sensorless control approach for switched reluctance motor (SRM) in the single pulse control mode in high speed operation. The sensorless method uses the cross point position of transformer electromotive force (EMF) and motional back electromotive force (BEMF) to estimate the rotor position. The cross point position can be derived from the inductance model of SRM, and it is regarded as reference position. The rotor position can be calculated by detecting the special position for each electrical cycle. The proposed position estimation method is not affected by the magnetic saturation of SRM. Importantly, no additional hardware and no complicated computation or memory storage are required with the proposed method. Finally, the simulation and experimental results on a three-phase 12/8-pole SRM demonstrate the validity of the proposed sensorless scheme. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Pole Pair Segment of a 2 MW High Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    generator and the set-up in terms of the flux density, the operating condition of the HTS winding, and the force-generation capability. Finite element (FE) software MagNet is used to carry out numerical simulations. The findings show that the HTS winding in the set-up is a good surrogate...... for these that would be used in the full generator. The FE simulations also tell that the maximum tangential force generated in the set-up is 3.77% lower than that in the full generator. Good agreement between the values of interest in the set-up and those projected in the full generator has revealed a costeffective......A 2 MW high temperature superconducting (HTS) generator with 24 pole pairs has been designed for the wind turbine application. In order to identify potential challenges and obtain practical knowledge prior to production, a fullsize stationary experimental set-up, which is one pole pair segment...

  6. CERN Proton Synchrotronworking point Matrix for extended pole face winding powering scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Freyermuth, P; Delrieux, M; Genoud, H; Gilardoni, S; Hanke, K; Hans, O; Mataguez, S; Metral, G; Peters, F; Steerenberg, R; Vandorpe, B

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Proton Synchrotron has been continuously improving its beam performances since 1959. The working point parameters of the accelerator are mainly controlled by dedicated windings installed on the poles of the main combined function magnets. In 2007, the power supplies of these windings were renovated and extended from three to five independent groups, allowing exploration of new working point settings. This configuration offers the flexibility of several adjustment strategies such as leaving one current free or to control an additional physical parameter, like Q′′ h. A non-linear chromaticity measurement campaign, at different beam momenta, resulted in matrices defining the relationship between the five pole face winding currents and the four beam parameters Qh, Qv, h, and v. Each cell of these matrices was fitted against momentum. The final result is a single matrix as a function of beam momentum, which is now used by the operational software to trim the working point. This paper summarises this m...

  7. Research of Tan{delta} Measurement of Pole Transformers using DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Chul; Lee, Bo Ho [Soong Sil University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Oun Seok [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Do Hyuk [Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Kil [Korea Railroad Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-30

    This paper describes the dissipation factor measuring techniques of insulating oil on operating pole transformers by using digital signal processor. After applying voltage to the condenser which is installed in a transformer, acquiring source voltage and current of condenser and using cross-correlation techniques, we can check the dissipation factor of insulation oil. To improve measuring accuracy and the speed of process, we use hardware such as TMS320C31 DSP board and software such as cross-correlation techniques. We simulated the measuring accuracy and the degree of the noise effect of this new measuring techniques by using computer simulation, and compared the simplified measuring devices with Schering bridge on degraded insulating oil. The result showed that this measuring technique can be used as diagnostic method on the pole transformers. (author). 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  9. PopZ identifies the new pole, and PodJ identifies the old pole during polar growth in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeon, Romain; Zupan, John R; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2015-09-15

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens elongates by addition of peptidoglycan (PG) only at the pole created by cell division, the growth pole, whereas the opposite pole, the old pole, is inactive for PG synthesis. How Agrobacterium assigns and maintains pole asymmetry is not understood. Here, we investigated whether polar growth is correlated with novel pole-specific localization of proteins implicated in a variety of growth and cell division pathways. The cell cycle of A. tumefaciens was monitored by time-lapse and superresolution microscopy to image the localization of A. tumefaciens homologs of proteins involved in cell division, PG synthesis and pole identity. FtsZ and FtsA accumulate at the growth pole during elongation, and improved imaging reveals FtsZ disappears from the growth pole and accumulates at the midcell before FtsA. The L,D-transpeptidase Atu0845 was detected mainly at the growth pole. A. tumefaciens specific pole-organizing protein (Pop) PopZAt and polar organelle development (Pod) protein PodJAt exhibited dynamic yet distinct behavior. PopZAt was found exclusively at the growing pole and quickly switches to the new growth poles of both siblings immediately after septation. PodJAt is initially at the old pole but then also accumulates at the growth pole as the cell cycle progresses suggesting that PodJAt may mediate the transition of the growth pole to an old pole. Thus, PopZAt is a marker for growth pole identity, whereas PodJAt identifies the old pole.

  10. Atmospheric Fluctuations in the Millimeter Wavelength at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Holzapfel, W.; Kuo, C. L.

    2003-12-01

    We characterize atmospheric fluctuations by a Kolmogorov power law around the South pole at Millimeter wavelengths by calculating the correlation between signals coming from two separate channels in a detector array. We use data taken with the ACBAR instrument mounted on the Viper telescope over the winter period beginning in April 2002 and ending in August 2002 to generate a model of the atmospheric fluctuations. We use this model to obtain values for the amplitude of the atmospheric fluctuations as well as the angular windspeed causing the movement of the disturbances which are responsible for the emission we observe. The primary benefit of the correlation analysis is to significantly reduce contribution from instrument noise, which is uncorrelated between two channels. Thus we are able to perform a very reliable characterization of the atmosphere. ACBAR was supported by funds from the Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica, a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center. Operational support was provided by the United States Antarctic Program.

  11. Fractional-Slot Surface Mounted PM Motors with Concentrated Windings for HEV Traction Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.M.

    2005-10-24

    sufficiently to reduce the characteristic current to value of the rated current, which will enable them to operate at high CPSR. This feature also limits short-circuit fault currents. Second, their segmented structure simplifies assembly problems and is expected to reduce assembly costs. Third, the back-emf waveform is nearly sinusoidal with low cogging. To examine in depth this design ORNL entered into a collaborative agreement with the University of Wisconsin to build and test a 6 kW laboratory demonstration unit. Design, fabrication, and testing of the unit to 4000 rpm were completed during FY 2005. The motor will be sent to ORNL to explore ways to control its inverter to achieve higher efficiency during FY 2006. This paper first reviews the concept of characteristic current and what is meant by optimal flux weakening. It then discusses application of the fractional-slot concentrated winding technique to increase the d-axis inductance of a PMSM showing how this approach differs from an integral-slot motor with sinusoidal-distributed windings. This discussion is followed by a presentation of collaborative analyses and comparison with the University of Wisconsin's measured data on a 6 kW, 36-slot, 30-pole motor with concentrated windings. Finally ORNL presents a PMSM design with integral-slot windings that appears to meet the FreedomCAR Specifications, but has some disadvantages. Further collaboration with the University of Wisconsin is planned for FY 2006 to design a motor that meets FreedomCAR specifications.

  12. Study of High-Efficiency Motors Using Soft Magnetic Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoi, Hirooki; Kawamata, Shoichi; Enomoto, Yuji

    We have been developed a small and highly efficient axial gap motor whose stator core is made of a soft magnetic core. First, the loss sensitivities to various motor design parameters were evaluated using magnetic field analysis. It was found that the pole number and core dimensions had low sensitivity (≤ 2.2dB) in terms of the total loss, which is the sum of the copper loss and the iron losses in the stator core and the rotor yoke respectively. From this, we concluded that to improve the motor efficiency, it is essential to reduce the iron loss in the rotor yoke and minimize other losses. With this in mind, a prototype axial gap motor is manufactured and tested. The motor has four poles and six slots. The motor is 123mm in diameter and the axial length is 47mm. The rotor has parallel magnetized magnets and a rotor yoke with magnetic steel sheets. The maximum measured motor efficiency is 93%. This value roughly agrees with the maximum calculated efficiency of 95%.

  13. Characterization of Periodically Poled Nonlinear Materials Using Digital Image Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alverson, James R

    2008-01-01

    .... A new approach based on image processing across an entire z+ or z- surface of a poled crystal allows for better quantification of the underlying domain structure and directly relates to device performance...

  14. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family....... Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare...

  15. New tilted-poles Wien filter with enhanced performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Quiros, E.; Prelas, M. A.

    1989-03-01

    The Wien filter is an E×B deflecting analyzer with the electrostatic field perpendicular to the magnetostatic field. The twofold functions of the Wien filter are as an energy analyzer as well as a mass analyzer. It has very high resolution for paraxial charged-particle beams with V=E/B, the Wien velocity. Two Wien filters, a tilted-poles Wien filter, and a classical parallel-rectangular-poles Wien filter were built and tested for electrons up to 3.5 keV and protons beams of 200 eV. (The tilted-poles Wien filter is a new diagnostic developed by the authors.) The performance of the two is compared, and the tilted-poles Wien filter has superior resolution to the classical Wien filter. Both Wien filters appear to have features useful for high-temperature plasma diagnostics, including simultaneous measurement of energy and mass spectra, and high resolution.

  16. New tilted-poles Wien filter with enhanced performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Quiros, E.; Prelas, M.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Wien filter is an E x B deflecting analyzer with the electrostatic field perpendicular to the magnetostatic field. The twofold functions of the Wien filter are as an energy analyzer as well as a mass analyzer. It has very high resolution for paraxial charged-particle beams with V = E/B, the Wien velocity. Two Wien filters, a tilted-poles Wien filter, and a classical parallel-rectangular-poles Wien filter were built and tested for electrons up to 3.5 keV and protons beams of 200 eV. (The tilted-poles Wien filter is a new diagnostic developed by the authors.) The performance of the two is compared, and the tilted-poles Wien filter has superior resolution to the classical Wien filter. Both Wien filters appear to have features useful for high-temperature plasma diagnostics, including simultaneous measurement of energy and mass spectra, and high resolution.

  17. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  18. Micrometeorites from the South Pole Water Well, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micrometeorites dated between 1100 A.D. to 1500 A.D. were collected from the bottom of the South Pole Water Well in December 1995. Element analyses of 181 cosmic...

  19. Detection of Cavities Using Pole-Dipole Resistivity Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Elawadi, Eslam; El-Qady, Gad; Salem, Ahmed; Ushijima, Keisuke

    2001-01-01

    Using pole-dipole array, electrical resistivity survey was conducted to investigate the subsurface under a subsiding building located in Kita Kyushu area, Japan. The resistivity measurements were acquired along two traverse lines and interpreted using a g

  20. Methane Isotopes in South Pole Firn Air, 2008, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains depth profiles for delta carbon-13 (δ13C) and delta deuterium (δD) of methane (CH4) in South Pole firn air. The investigators obtained air...

  1. South Pole Snow Pit, 1988 and 1989, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Information from 6-meter snow pits dug close to the South Pole in austral summer 1988-1989 by the Glacier Research Group of the University of New Hampshire (location...

  2. Dynamic Electromechanical Characterization of Axially Poled PZT 95/5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Furnish, Michael D.; Montgomery, Stephen T.; Setchell, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    We are conducting a comprehensive experimental study of the electromechanical behavior of poled PZT 95/5 (lead zirconate titanate). As part of this study, eight plane-wave tests have been conducted on axially poled PZT 95/5 at stress levels ranging from 0.9 to 4.6 GPa, using VISAR and electrical diagnostics. Observed wave velocities were slightly decreased from ultrasonic velocity, by contrast' with unpoled samples. Compression waveforms show a step at 0.6 GPa more marked than for normally poled or unpoled samples; this may correspond to a poling effect on the ferroelectric/antiferroelectric transition. A similar step is observed on release. The released charge upon loading to 0.9 GPa is consistent with nearly complete depoling. Loading to higher stresses gave lower currents (factor of 10), suggesting shock-induced conductivity or electrical breakdown

  3. Multijet final states: exact results and the leading pole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.; Owens, J.F.

    1984-09-01

    Exact results for the process gg → ggg are compared with those obtained using the leading pole approximation. Regions of phase space where the approximation breaks down are discussed. A specific example relevant for background estimates to W boson production is presented. It is concluded that in this instance the leading pole approximation may underestimate the standard QCD background by more than a factor of two in certain kinematic regions of physical interest

  4. Design of permanent magnet brushless motors with asymmetric air gap for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, K. T.; Cui, Wei; Jiang, J. Z.; Wang, Zheng

    2006-04-01

    This paper proposes a cost-effective approach to design permanent magnet brushless dc motors for electric vehicles. The key is to shape the pole arc in such a way that the air gap length is at a maximum at the leading edge of each rotor pole arc and at a minimum at the trailing edge of the same pole arc, hence resulting in an asymmetric air gap. Thus, for a specified rotational direction, the distortion of air gap flux density and hence the torque ripple can be significantly suppressed. Also, with the use of advanced conduction angle control, the motor can achieve a wide speed range. The proposed motor drive is designed and implemented for a low-voltage battery-powered electric motorcycle.

  5. Decoupling analysis of a novel bearingless flux-switching permanent magnet motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenyin; Zhu, Huangqiu; Qin, Yuemei

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a novel 12/10 stator/rotor pole bearingless flux-switching permanent magnet (BFSPM) motor is proposed to overcome the drawbacks of rotor permanent magnet type bearingless motors. The basic motor configuration, including motor configuration and winding configuration, is introduced firstly. Then, based on the principle of reverse direction magnetization for symmetrical rotor teeth, the radial suspension forces generation principle is analyzed in detail. Finally, decoupling performances between suspension force windings and torque windings are investigated. The results show that the proposed BFSPM not only ensures the merits of high torque output capability compared with conventional 12/10 stator/rotor pole FSPM motor, but also achieves stable radial suspension forces which have little mutual effect with torque. The validity of the proposed structure has been verified by finite element analysis (FEA).

  6. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop ...

  7. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  8. Motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2010-06-08

    Although learning a motor skill, such as a tennis stroke, feels like a unitary experience, researchers who study motor control and learning break the processes involved into a number of interacting components. These components can be organized into four main groups. First, skilled performance requires the effective and efficient gathering of sensory information, such as deciding where and when to direct one's gaze around the court, and thus an important component of skill acquisition involves learning how best to extract task-relevant information. Second, the performer must learn key features of the task such as the geometry and mechanics of the tennis racket and ball, the properties of the court surface, and how the wind affects the ball's flight. Third, the player needs to set up different classes of control that include predictive and reactive control mechanisms that generate appropriate motor commands to achieve the task goals, as well as compliance control that specifies, for example, the stiffness with which the arm holds the racket. Finally, the successful performer can learn higher-level skills such as anticipating and countering the opponent's strategy and making effective decisions about shot selection. In this Primer we shall consider these components of motor learning using as an example how we learn to play tennis. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 36 CFR 261.13 - Motor vehicle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle use. 261.13... General Prohibitions § 261.13 Motor vehicle use. After National Forest System roads, National Forest... have been identified on a motor vehicle use map, it is prohibited to possess or operate a motor vehicle...

  10. 48 CFR 945.570-8 - Reporting motor vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting motor vehicle... Reporting motor vehicle data. (a) Contractors conducting motor vehicle operations shall forward annually (on or before December 1) to the contracting officer their plan for acquisition of motor vehicles for the...

  11. 16 CFR 1505.50 - Stalled motor testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stalled motor testing. 1505.50 Section 1505... USE BY CHILDREN Policies and Interpretations § 1505.50 Stalled motor testing. (a) § 1505.6(e)(4)(ii) requires that a motor-operated toy be tested with the motor stalled if the construction of the toy is such...

  12. Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.

  13. International Youth Conference on the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. K.; Kuhn, T. S.; Baeseman, J.; Garmulewicz, A.; Raymond, M.; Salmon, R.

    2006-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) is an international effort, involving more than 50 countries, to focus research in both the sciences and social sciences on the world's Polar Regions. In order to secure youth involvement in the IPY, the Youth Steering Committee (YSC) has been formed, aiming specifically to network young polar researchers from all backgrounds enabling collaboration and to involve this group in outreach focused towards other young people. A conference targeted directly at an audience of early career researchers and international youth will be central to fulfilling these aims. The YSC has therefore developed the concept of the International Youth Conference on the Poles (IYCP). Proposed for 2008, this conference will bring together youth from a diverse set of backgrounds and nationalities to discuss the issues affecting the Polar Regions, their effects on a global scale and ways of addressing these issues. The conference will also serve to highlight ongoing IPY research, especially research being undertaken by young researchers, and provide a perennial framework for youth involvement in polar research and policies. The IYCP will run for three days in May 2008, attracting an international youth audience, as well as representatives from polar organizations, teachers, politicians, policy makers, the general public and media. The IYCP will be divided into three sections. Youth Roundtable Discussions will bring youth together to discuss issues affecting the Polar Regions and potential solutions to these. A Young Researchers Conference will provide the opportunity for young researchers working in the Polar Regions to present their work to an interdisciplinary audience. The Polar Fair will provide an interactive environment for youth to learn about the Polar Regions. The IYCP will be of great importance to the IPY because it will serve as the principle venue during the Polar Year where youth from many different disciplines, backgrounds and countries will

  14. Successful treatment of groin pain syndrome in a pole-vault athlete with core stability exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Maffulli, Nicola; Laver, Lior; Padulo, Johnny

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this case report was to present a case of groin pain in a pole vault athlete describing the biomechanical features of the injury`s mechanism, acute medical management, and its successful rehabilitation. A 22-year-old professional pole-vaulter sustained an injury during a regular training session. The athlete reported significant left lower abdominal and left proximal adductor discomfort in all activities, including basic trunk motion when moving in bed, sit to stand, and walking, and was unable to return to the regular training. Clinical evaluation and imaging studies addressed the injury to a case of adductor-related groin pain associated with pubic symphysis degeneration. Treatment consisted of an exercise-based therapeutic protocol based on trunk and core muscle strengthening and stability program, with progressive motor and functional demands. Significant improvements in the overall clinical findings and functional outcomes were reported after 52 days of intervention when the athletes returned to his full athletic activity. These results suggest that an appropriate rehabilitation program, focused on trunk and core musculature stability exercise addressing to sport-related specific demands, should be considered as an optimal conservative method in the multidisciplinary approach for treatment of groin pain and prior to any surgical intervention.

  15. Jamming of fingers: an experimental study to determine force and deflection in participants and human cadaver specimens for development of a new bionic test device for validation of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendorff, Bernd; Weidermann, Christian; Pollinger, Philipp; Burkhart, Klaus J; Müller, Lars Peter

    2013-02-01

    The deformability of human fingers is central to addressing the real-life hazard of finger jamming between the window and seal entry of a power-operated motor vehicle side door window. The index and little fingers of the left hand of 109 participants and of 20 cadaver specimens were placed in a measurement setup. Participants progressively jammed their fingers at five different dorsal-palmar jam positions up to the maximum tolerable pain threshold, whereas the cadaver specimens were jammed up to the maximum possible deflection. Force-deflection curves were calculated corresponding to increasing deflection of the compressed tissue layers of the fingers. The average maximum force applied by the participants was 42 N to the index finger and 35 N to the little finger. In the cadaver fingers, the average of the maximum force applied was 1886 N for the index finger and 1833 N for the little finger. In 200 jam positions, 25 fractures were observed on radiographs; fractures occurred at an average force of 1485 N. These data assisted the development of a prototype of a bionic test device for more realistic validation of power-operated motor vehicle windows.

  16. Design and analysis of a flux intensifying permanent magnet embedded salient pole wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yujing; Jin, Ping; Lin, Heyun; Yang, Hui; Lyu, Shukang

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents an improved flux intensifying permanent magnet embedded salient pole wind generator (FI-PMESPWG) with mirror symmetrical magnetizing directions permanent magnet (PM) for improving generator's performances. The air-gap flux densities, the output voltage, the cogging torque and the d- and q-axis inductances of FI-PMESPWG are all calculated and analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM). To highlight the advantages of the proposed FI-PMESPWG, an original permanent magnet embedded salient pole wind generator (PMESPWG) model is adopted for comparison under the same operating conditions. The calculating results show that the air-gap flux densities of FI-PMESPWG are intensified with the same magnet amounts because the PMs are set in a form of V shape in each pole. The difference between d-axis inductance and q-axis inductance of the proposed FI-PMESPWG is reduced. Thus, the output power of the proposed FI-PMESPWG reaches a higher value than that of the original PMESPWG at the same current phase angle. The cogging torque is diminished because the flux path is changed. All the analysis results indicate that the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed FI-PMESPWG are significantly better than that of the original PMESPWG.

  17. Induction motors airgap-eccentricity detection through the discrete wavelet transform of the apparent power signal under non-stationary operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, K; Cardoso, A J M; Ghoggal, A; Zouzou, S E

    2014-03-01

    Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis has been successfully used for fault diagnosis in induction machines. However, this method does not always provide good results for the cases of load torque, speed and voltages variation, leading to a variation of the motor-slip and the consequent FFT problems that appear due to the non-stationary nature of the involved signals. In this paper, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of the apparent-power signal for the airgap-eccentricity fault detection in three-phase induction motors is presented in order to overcome the above FFT problems. The proposed method is based on the decomposition of the apparent-power signal from which wavelet approximation and detail coefficients are extracted. The energy evaluation of a known bandwidth permits to define a fault severity factor (FSF). Simulation as well as experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method presented even for the case of load torque variations. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2013-06-01

    Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ≤15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ≤3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (≤15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy.

  19. The controlled ecological life support system Antarctic analog project: Analysis of wastewater from the South Pole Station, Antarctica, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Bubenheim, David L.; Straight, Christian L.; Belisle, Warren

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support system (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and NASA project for the development, deployment and operation of CELSS technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. NASA goals are operational testing of CELSS technologies and the conduct of scientific studies to facilitate technology selection and system design. The NSF goals are that the food production, water purification, and waste treatment capabilities which will be provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. This report presents an analysis of wastewater samples taken from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. The purpose of the work is to develop a quantitative understanding of the characteristics of domestic sewage streams at the South Pole Station. This information will contribute to the design of a proposed plant growth/waste treatment system which is part of the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP).

  20. Research on Electromagnetic Force Distribution and Vibration Performance of A Novel 10/4 Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ziyu; Wang, Xinyu; Cao, Cheng; Liu, Meng; Wang, Kangxi

    2017-06-01

    Radial electromagnetic force is one of the main reasons causing the vibration and noise of the switched reluctance motor. Based on this, the novel structure of 10/4 pole switched reluctance motor is proposed, which increases the air gap flux and electromagnetic torque by increasing the number of stator poles. In addition, the excitation current of the stator winding is reduced by early turn-off angle. Through the finite element modelling analysis, the results show the superiority of the new type of switched reluctance motor. In the end, the vibration characteristics of the conventional motor and the new motor are compared and analysed, and the effect of the structure of this new type of switched reluctance motor is verified.

  1. Lower pole stones: prone PCNL versus supine PCNL in the International Cooperation in Endourology (ICE) group experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Millan, Felix; Brehmer, Marianne; Knoll, Thomas; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Osther, Palle; Traxer, Olivier; Scoffone, Cesare

    2013-12-01

    To assess efficacy and safety of prone- and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of lower pole kidney stones. Data from patients affected by lower pole kidney stones and treated with PCNL between December 2005 and August 2010 were collected retrospectively by seven referral centres. Variables analysed included patient demographics, clinical and surgical characteristics, stone-free rates (SFR) and complications. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the differences for SFRs and complication rates between prone- and supine PCNL. One hundred seventeen patients underwent PCNL (mean stone size: 19.5 mm) for stones harboured only in the lower renal pole (single stone: 53.6%; multiple stones: 46.4%). A higher proportion of patients with ASA score ≥ 3 and harbouring multiple lower pole stones were treated with supine PCNL (5.8 vs. 23.1%; p = 0.0001, and 25 vs. 81.5%; p = 0.0001, respectively, for prone- and supine PCNL). One-month SFR was 88.9%; an auxiliary procedure was needed in 6 patients; the 3-month SFR was 90.2%. There were 9 post-operative major complications (7.7%). No differences were observed in terms of 1- and 3-month SFRs (90.4 vs. 87.7%; p = 0.64; 92.3 vs. 89.2%; p = 0.4) and complication rates (7.6 vs. 7.7%; p = 0.83) when comparing prone- versus supine PCNL, respectively. The results confirm the high success rate and relatively low morbidity of modern PCNL for lower pole stones, regardless the position used. Supine PCNL was more frequently offered in case of patients at higher ASA score and in case of multiple lower pole stones.

  2. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  3. Analysis of car’s frontal collision against pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Nastasoiu, M.

    2017-10-01

    Reducing the effects of traffic accidents over the occupants is a major objective of collision attempts. Impacts between the car and the pole are very dangerous for the physical integrity of the car’s occupants. To minimalize the effects of such events on the passengers of a vehicle, a whole series of efforts by both designers and experienced engineers led to increasingly the vehicles safety. The main aim of these paper is to quantify the influences over the car passengers of loads involved by car against pole collisions using the same car model at different speeds. Also, this kind on occupant influences were study using a small car model. Other goal of the paper was the study of the cars stiffness in frontal collision against the pole. The paper’s experimental results were obtained by support of DSD, Dr. Steffan Datentechnik GmbH - Linz, Austria. The described tests were performed in full test facility of DSD Linz, in “Easter 2016 PC-Crash Seminar”. Cars accelerations, velocities, rotations angles after pole impact were registered and discussed. The novelty of the paper consists in studies referred for the same car model involved in car against pole collisions at different impact speeds. Paper’s conclusions can be future used for car safety improvement.

  4. Poles in the Dutch Cape Colony 1652-1814

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Mariusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Poles to the colonisation and development of the Dutch Cape Colony is not commonly known. Yet, Poles have been appearing in this colony since its very inception (1652. During the entire period considered here the presence of Poles was the result of the strong economic ties between Poland and the Netherlands. At the end of this period there was an increase in their share, in connection with the presence of numerous alien military units on the territory of the Colony, because of Poles having served in these units. Numerous newcomers from Poland settled in South Africa for good, established families, and their progeny made up part of the local society. The evidence of this phenomenon is provided by the present-day Afrikaner families of, for instance, Drotsky, Kitshoff, Kolesky, Latsky, Masuriek, Troskie, Zowitsky, and others. A quite superficial estimation implies that the settlers coming from Poland could make up a bit over 1% of the ancestors of the present-day Afrikaners. Poles would also participate in the pioneering undertakings within the far-off fringes of the Colony, including the robbery-and-trade expedition of 1702.

  5. Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  6. Optimización de Estatores para Motores Superconductores de Flujo Axial Optimización de Estatores para Motores Superconductores de Flujo Axial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Gerardo Ibarra-Manzano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of superconducting electrical machines has been designed primarily to design and build engines with the superconducting magnetic field in radial configuration, as traditional engines, so the design and construction of rotating electrical machines in axial flow configuration has become an alternative for the design and construction of such engines. In this paper we present preliminary calculations for the optimization of the stator of a superconducting motor in axial flow confi guration, based on the equations of general power of the rotary axial flow configuration. It performs the construction, optimization and evaluation of models of stators in geometries of 4, 6 and 8 poles with high-temperature superconducting tapes of Bismuth. The results show the feasibility of the design implemented, which is verified by a significant decrease in the current of superconducting motor operation.El desarrollo de máquinas eléctricas superconductoras ha estado encaminado principalmentea diseñar y construir motores superconductores con el campo magnético en configuración radial, como los motores tradicionales, por lo que el diseño y construcción demáquinas eléctricas rotativas en configuración de flujo axial ha venido a ser una alternativa para el diseño y construcción de este tipo de motores. En el presente trabajo se presentan los cálculos preliminares para la optimización del estator de un motor superconductor en configuración de flujo axial, basados en las ecuaciones generales de potencia de las máquinas eléctricas rotativas en configuración flujo axial ha venido a ser una alternativa para el diseño y construcción, optimización y evaluación de modelos de estatores en geometrías de 4, 6 y 8 polos, con cintas superconductoras de alta temperatura de Bismuto. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la viabilidaddel diseño implementado, lo cual se comprueba por medio de una disminución significativa de la corriente de operaci

  7. Steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor: FEA approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the steady and dynamic states analysis of induction motor using finite element analysis (FEA) approach. The motor has aluminum rotor bars and is designed for direct-on-line operation at 50 Hz. A study of the losses occurring in the motor performed at operating frequency of 50Hz showed that stator ...

  8. Simulation And Application of Fuzzy Logic Controlled Adjustable Speed Switched Reluctance Motor to Elevator System

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Mahir; ÖZDEN, Semih

    2008-01-01

    Switched reluctance motors (SRM) can be use at adjustable speed driver and these motors have high start up torque, high efficiency and simple construction. In this study, an SRM which have 8/6 poles, four phase and 3,44 kW power was used to drive an elevator load. Carrying capacity of elevator is 320 kg. Two PIC 18F452 microcontrollers was used to manage an elevator system and motor control. Motor speed was controlled by PI (proportional+integral) and Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) method. Elevato...

  9. Control Method for Deceleration without Over-Voltage of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notohara, Yasuo; Endo, Tsunehiro

    In case of decelerating a permanent magnet motor, an over-voltage occurs on the inverter DC voltage due to the regenerative energy of the motor. In order to reduce the over-voltage, a brake circuit is usually applied to the DC circuit. In this paper a reduction technique of the over-voltage without the brake circuit is described. We proposed the method for controlling the motor d-axis current optimally according to the motor q-axis current to reduce the over-voltage. This method is applied to the salient-pole machine. As a result over-voltage reduction is achieved on a certain condition.

  10. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLED SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR DRIVER DESIGNING FOR A LIFT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir DURSUN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a 8/6 poles, four phases, 3.44 kW switched reluctance motor driver was used for a elavator load. For this aim, it has been designed a swithed reluctance motor driver for a lift system. At the driver system was used a buck konverter. The speed was controlled by motor phase voltage control. The voltage value has been controlled with fuzzy logic controller by using TMS320LF2407 controller. Fuzzy controlled switched reluctance motor was used for a elavator load by using designed driver system.

  11. 1. Introduction A three-pole DC motor is commonly used in many sim ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harish Ravi1 Rajesh B Khaparde2. Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai 600036, India. Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, TIFR VN Purav Marg, Mankhurd, Mumbai 400088, India. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 1. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 1

  12. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs

  13. Traumatic amputation of the left lower renal pole in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waxman, J.; Belman, A.B.; Kass, E.J.

    1985-07-01

    Four children between 5 and 10 years old suffered traumatic amputation of the left lower renal pole following flank trauma. All patients were evaluated with excretory urography and isotope renography. The renal scan clearly demonstrated failure of perfusion of the lower renal pole and urinary extravasation, and was believed to be more valuable than the standard excretory urogram as a diagnostic tool. All children were managed similarly: delayed (72 to 96 hours) exploration, simple removal of the amputated segment and insertion of a Penrose drain. They all have done well. The patients were normotensive at followup and had excellent function of the remaining portion of the kidney.

  14. Challenges of Rover Navigation at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara; Deans, Matt; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Edwards, Larry; Dille, Michael; Fong, Terry; Colaprete, Tony; Miller, Scott; Vaughan, Ryan; Andrews, Dan; hide

    2015-01-01

    Observations from Lunar Prospector, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and other missions have contributed evidence that water and other volatiles exist at the lunar poles in permanently shadowed regions. Combining a surface rover and a volatile prospecting and analysis payload would enable the detection and characterization of volatiles in terms of nature, abundance, and distribution. This knowledge could have impact on planetary science, in-situ resource utilization, and human exploration of space. While Lunar equatorial regions of the Moon have been explored by manned (Apollo) and robotic missions (Lunokhod, Cheng'e), no surface mission has reached the lunar poles.

  15. Pedagogický odkaz Ivana Poledňáka

    OpenAIRE

    Čižinská, Klára

    2017-01-01

    The bachelor thesis covers the personality of Ivan Poledňák and his music-teaching heritage. In the first part his life, his activities in musical educational organizations and teaching at universities in the Czech Republic are described. In the second part his musical pedagogical publications are analysed. The aim of this thesis is to punctuate to his big contribution in music education. KEYWORDS Ivan Poledňák, Musically pedagogical inventiveness, Music-school-tomorrow, 40 radio lectures of ...

  16. Poles Living in Ireland and their Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NOLKA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth of Ireland resulted in a significant number of Poles migrating to Ireland following the EU enlargement in 2004. The article explores the quality of life of Poles living in Ireland. Using data from a preliminary survey conducted in 2006, several dimensions of living conditions are analysed, including interpersonal relations, material security, health and healthcare. The study shows that evaluations of almost all aspects of quality of life improved, apart from components such as healthcare and the ability to acquire help from social organisations. Also interpersonal relations, contrary to the initial assumption, were enhanced by migration to Ireland.

  17. Hemiparesis after Operation of Astrocytoma Grade II in Adults: Effects of Acupuncture on Sensory-Motor Behavior and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on hemiparesis and quality of life for adults with brain astrocytoma grade II, we conducted a randomized, observer-blinded clinical trial. Fifty-eight patients were randomized to standard rehabilitation (SR therapy without acupuncture (n=20, SR plus standard acupuncture (SA (n=19, and SR plus individualized acupuncture (IA (n=19. SA points were PC6, SP6, HT1, LU5, BL40, and ST36, while a special concept called “connecting and regulation Ren and Du” and “Jin-3-needling” served as IA. This treatment was individualized according to the clinical syndrome. The outcome was measured by the Barthel Index (BI, the Fugl-Meyer scale (FM, and the EORTC Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30 with the Brain Cancer Module (BCM20. IA + SR reached significantly higher BI scores than SA + SR, which reached significantly higher BI scores than SR. IA + SR was significantly superior to SA + SR and to SR at the 8th week for the scores of FM motor and sensory assessments and most QLQ-C30-BCM20 items. In conclusion, the individualized acupuncture concept of “connecting and regulating Ren and Du” combined with “Jin-3-needling” offers a promising possibility for the treatment of hemiparesis due to astrocytoma, but further evaluation is mandatory.

  18. Hemiparesis after Operation of Astrocytoma Grade II in Adults: Effects of Acupuncture on Sensory-Motor Behavior and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Schröder, Sven; Li, Zhifeng; Yang, Ying; Chen, Yu; Huang, Xingxian

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on hemiparesis and quality of life for adults with brain astrocytoma grade II, we conducted a randomized, observer-blinded clinical trial. Fifty-eight patients were randomized to standard rehabilitation (SR) therapy without acupuncture (n = 20), SR plus standard acupuncture (SA) (n = 19), and SR plus individualized acupuncture (IA) (n = 19). SA points were PC6, SP6, HT1, LU5, BL40, and ST36, while a special concept called “connecting and regulation Ren and Du” and “Jin-3-needling” served as IA. This treatment was individualized according to the clinical syndrome. The outcome was measured by the Barthel Index (BI), the Fugl-Meyer scale (FM), and the EORTC Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) with the Brain Cancer Module (BCM20). IA + SR reached significantly higher BI scores than SA + SR, which reached significantly higher BI scores than SR. IA + SR was significantly superior to SA + SR and to SR at the 8th week for the scores of FM motor and sensory assessments and most QLQ-C30-BCM20 items. In conclusion, the individualized acupuncture concept of “connecting and regulating Ren and Du” combined with “Jin-3-needling” offers a promising possibility for the treatment of hemiparesis due to astrocytoma, but further evaluation is mandatory. PMID:23864900

  19. Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor using Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Mostafapour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A brushless DC (BLDC Motors have advantages over brushed, direct current (DC motors and Induction motor (IM. They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive appliance, aerospace medical, and instrumentation and automation industries This paper can be seen as fuzzy controllers compared to PI control BLDC motor rotor speed has improved significantly and better result can be achieve.

  20. Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor Using Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Mostafapour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A brushless DC (BLDC Motors have advantages over brushed, Direct current (DC Motors and , Induction motor (IM. They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive appliance, aerospace medical, and instrumentation and automation industries This paper can be seen as fuzzy controllers compared to PI control BLDC motor rotor speed has improved significantly and beter result can be achieve.

  1. Is it possible to reduce the knee joint compression force during level walking with hiking poles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S B; Henriksen, M; Aaboe, J

    2010-01-01

    Walking with hiking poles has become a popular way of exercising. Walking with poles is advocated as a physical activity that significantly reduces the loading of the hip, knee and ankle joints. We have previously observed that pole walking does not lead to a reduction of the load on the knee joint....... However, it is unclear whether an increased force transmitted through the poles can reduce the load on the knee joint. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if an increased load transmitted through the arms to the poles could reduce the knee joint compression force during level walking...... with poles. We hypothesized that an increased pole force would result in a reduction of the knee joint compression force. Gait analyses from 10 healthy subjects walking with poles were obtained. The pole force was measured simultaneously during the gait analyses. The knee joint compression forces were...

  2. From 'third pole' to north pole: a Himalayan origin for the arctic fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Li, Qiang; Takeuchi, Gary T; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-07-22

    The 'third pole' of the world is a fitting metaphor for the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau, in allusion to its vast frozen terrain, rivalling the Arctic and Antarctic, at high altitude but low latitude. Living Tibetan and arctic mammals share adaptations to freezing temperatures such as long and thick winter fur in arctic muskox and Tibetan yak, and for carnivorans, a more predatory niche. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first evolutionary link between an Early Pliocene (3.60-5.08 Myr ago) fox, Vulpes qiuzhudingi new species, from the Himalaya (Zanda Basin) and Kunlun Mountain (Kunlun Pass Basin) and the modern arctic fox Vulpes lagopus in the polar region. A highly hypercarnivorous dentition of the new fox bears a striking resemblance to that of V. lagopus and substantially predates the previous oldest records of the arctic fox by 3-4 Myr. The low latitude, high-altitude Tibetan Plateau is separated from the nearest modern arctic fox geographical range by at least 2000 km. The apparent connection between an ancestral high-elevation species and its modern polar descendant is consistent with our 'Out-of-Tibet' hypothesis postulating that high-altitude Tibet was a training ground for cold-environment adaptations well before the start of the Ice Age. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimación de los parámetros de operación de un motor de inducción con mínimos recursos de medición; Estimation of Motor Operation Parameters with Minimal Measurement Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Pérez Ab

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se muestra un procedimiento simple para estimar, con mínimos recursos de medición, los parámetros deoperación de un motor de inducción con carga arbitraria. El método propuesto mezcla la estimación del circuitoequivalente del motor mediante datos del fabricante con mediciones de voltaje y corriente que son perfectamenterealizables en la industria con instrumentos tan asequibles como un amperímetro de gancho. Con la ayuda delMatlab 6.5, se ha desarrollado un programa que implementa prácticamente el método desarrollado y ha permitidocomprobarlo en casos prácticos. El método presentado consigue estimaciones más precisas que las que se ofrecenen sistemas computacionales que se emplean internacionalmente.  The presented paper shows a simple procedure for the estimation of the operation parameters of inductionmotors with arbitrary load. The proposed method combine the equivalent circuit estimation by manufacturerdata, as well as voltage and current measurements obtained with hook-on instruments. Using Matlab 6.5 apractical implementation of this method was obtained and it has served to proof several practical cases. Thepresented procedure is more accurate than other methods offered by commercial software

  4. Separate vertical wiring for the fixation of comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung Keun; Yoo, Je Hyun; Byun, Young Soo; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2014-05-01

    Among patients over 50 years of age, separate vertical wiring alone may be insufficient for fixation of fractures of the inferior pole of the patella. Therefore, mechanical and clinical studies were performed in patients over the age of 50 to test the strength of augmentation of separate vertical wiring with cerclage wire (i.e., combined technique). Multiple osteotomies were performed to create four-part fractures in the inferior poles of eight pairs of cadaveric patellae. One patella from each pair was fixed with the separate wiring technique, while the other patella was fixed with a combined technique. The ultimate load to failure and stiffness of the fixation were subsequently measured. In a clinical study of 21 patients (average age of 64 years), comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patellae were treated using the combined technique. Operative parameters were recorded from which post-operative outcomes were evaluated. For cadaveric patellae, whose mean age was 69 years, the mean ultimate loads to failure for the separate vertical wiring technique and the combined technique were 216.4±72.4 N and 324.9±50.6 N, respectively (p=0.012). The mean stiffness for the separate vertical wiring technique and the combined technique was 241.1±68.5 N/mm and 340.8±45.3 N/mm, respectively (p=0.012). In the clinical study, the mean clinical score at final follow-up was 28.1 points. Augmentation of separate vertical wiring with cerclage wire provides enough strength for protected early exercise of the knee joint and uneventful healing.

  5. Speed Control of Multiphase Cage Induction Motors Incorporating Supply Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the control possibility of the multiphase cage induction motors having number of phases greater than 3. These motors have additional properties for speed control that distinguish them from the standard 3 phase motors: operation at various sequences of supplying voltages due to the inverter control and possible operation with few open-circuited phases. For each supply sequence different no load speeds at the same frequency can be obtained. This feature extends the motor application for miscellaneous drive demands including vector or scalar control. This depends mainly on the type of the stator winding for a given number of phases, since the principle of motor operation is based on co-operation of higher harmonics of magnetic field. Examples of operation are presented for a 9-phase motor, though general approach has been discussed. This motor was fed by a voltage source inverter at field oriented control with forced currents. The mathematical model of the motor was reduced to the form incorporating all most important physical features and appropriate for the control law formulation. The operation was illustrated for various supply sequences for “healthy” motor and for the motor operating at one phase broken. The obtained results have shown that parasitic influence of harmonic fields interaction has negligible influence on motor operation with respect to the useful coupling for properly designed stator winding.

  6. Stator Core Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motor Using Adaptive Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang HOU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This document presents a method of on-line fault diagnosis for iron core of induction motor stator based on adaptive observer. Due to the equivalent resistance is directly affected by the stator core fault, while the iron loss is considered in the series iron loss model of the induction motor, so we can determine the core fault state by identifying equivalent iron consumption resistance. In this paper, Matlab LMI toolbox is employed to calculate the feedback gain matrix of adaptive observer, which can makes up the deficiency of other method such as pole assignment. Finally, the experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed approach.

  7. Efficiency Improvement of a High Dynamic BLDC Linear Motor by Multiphase Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmens, Joris; Vanvlasselaer, Kris; Mulier, Kristof; Goossens, Stijn; Symens, Wim; Driesen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiphase control strategy for a high dynamic brushless DC linear motor as an alternative for conventional three-phase field-oriented control. Analysis of the magnetic field waveforms shows that three-phase control is not optimal for the 6-slot 7-pole motor topology. Therefore, a multiphase control strategy is elaborated which injects currents proportional to the electromotive force into each of the nine stator coil groups. This results in a maximal alignment force ...

  8. Linear switched reluctance motor control with PIC18F452 microcontroller

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Mahir; KOÇ, Fatmagül

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation, control, and experimental results of the velocity of a double-sided, 6/4-poled, 3-phased, 8 A, 24 V, 250 W, and 250 N pull force linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM). In the simulation and experimental study, the reference velocity is constant depending on the position and time. The velocity versus the position of the translator was controlled with fuzzy logic control (FLC) and proportional-integral (PI) control techniques. The motor was control...

  9. Plotter of pole figure using data from x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    Any polycrystalline aggregate normally has a preferred crystallographic orientation, or texture which depends on its thermal and or mechanical history. Preferred orientation is best described by means of a pole figure. A pole figure is a stereographic projection which shows the variation in pole density with pole orientation, for a selected set of crystal planes. In this work, computer programs was developed to plot pole figures. The corrected intensities are calculated and directly transmitted to the plotter. The different intensities levels are represented by different colors in the pole figure. (author)

  10. Liz Taylor : minu van Gogh pole natsidele kuulunud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Elizabeth Taylor palus kohtult otsust, et talle kuuluvat 15 miljonit dollarit maksvat Vincent van Goghi maali "Vaade Saint-Remy varjupaigale" pole natsid Margarete Mauthneri juudiperekonna käest vägivaldselt ära võtnud. E. Taylori isa ostis maali 1963. a. Londonis oksjonilt

  11. Analytical signal and reduction to pole in the interpretation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytical signal and reduction to pole in the interpretation of aeromagnetic data at low magnetic latitudes: a case study of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria. OK Likkason. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Geological Sciences Vol. 4(1) 2006: 29-38. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  12. Finite element analysis of boron diffusion in wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved...

  13. Probability models of the x, y pole coordinates data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A.; Niedzielski, T.; Kosek, W.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most appropriate probabilistic model for the x, y pole coordinates time series. We have analyzed the IERS eopc04_05 data set covering the period 1962 - 2008. We have also considered the residual x, y pole coordinate time series, which is computed as the difference between the original data and the corresponding least-squares model of the Chandler circle and annual ellipse. Using the measures of skewness and kurtosis of the empirical distribution of the data, we find that the x, y pole coordinates and the corresponding residuals time series cannot be modeled by a normal (Gaussian) distribution. A normal distribution has zero skewness and a kurtosis value of 3. We have fitted several non- Gaussian distributions to the datasets. They include the Generalized Extreme Value distribution, 4-parameter Beta distribution, Johnson SB and SU distributions, Generalized Pareto distribution and Wakeby distribution. Suitability of these distributions as probabilistic models for the x, y pole coordinates and the corresponding residuals time series are discussed.

  14. Bacterial diversity in snow on North Pole ice floes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Stibal, Marek; Bælum, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The microbial abundance and diversity in snow on ice floes at three sites near the North Pole was assessed using quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing. Abundance of 16S rRNA genes in the samples ranged between 43 and 248 gene copies per millilitre of melted snow. A total of 291,331 sequences we...

  15. Particles as S-matrix poles: hadron democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The connection between two theoretical ideas of the 1950s is traced in this article, namely that hadrons are nonfundamental, ''composite'' particles and that all physically observable particles correspond to singularities of an analytic scattering matrix. The S matrix theory developed by Werner Heisenberg in the early forties now incorporated the concepts of unitarity, invariance, analyticity and causality. The meson-exchange force meant that poles must be present in nucleon-nuclear and pion-nucleon scattering as predicted by dispersion relations. Experimental work in accessible regions determined pole residues. Pole residue became associated with force strength and pole position with particle mass. In 1959, the author discovered the so-called ''bootstrap'' theory the rho meson as a force generates a rho particle. By the end of the 1950s it was clear that all hadrons had equal status, each being bound states of other hadrons, sustained by hadron exchange forces and that hadrons are self-generated by an S-matrix bootstrap mechanism that determines all their properties. (UK)

  16. Finite Element Analysis of Boron Diffusion in Wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, P.; Bechgaard, C.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the f...... by the finite element method and, finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are presented....

  17. Finite element analysis of boron diffusion in wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the f...... by the finite element method and, finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are presented....

  18. Finite Element Analysis of Boron Diffusion in Wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the f...... by the finite element method and, finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are presented....

  19. Separable pole expansions in four-nucleon bound state calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofianos, S.A.; Fiedeldey, H.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-04-01

    We compare the utility of the Generalized Unitary Pole Expansion (GUPE) and the Energy-Dependent Pole Expansion (EDPE) for the three-body subsystem amplitudes in four-body state calculations for a variety of separable and local nucleon-nucleon interactions. It is found that, with the EDPE, the four-body binding energy is well reproduced with only two terms each for the (2+2)- and the (3+1)-subsystem, respectively, while the GUPE requires three terms for the (3+1)-channel and four terms for the (2+2)-channel. We thus conclude that pole dominance is of greater importance for the GUPE than for EDPE, which works equally well for both types of subsystems. It is found that both methods, in particular the EDPE, converge more rapidly with increasing repulsion in the two-body interaction, i.e. the more realistic the interaction becomes. Both expansions require similar computing times for a converged calculation and are about 15-20 times faster than the widely used Hilbert-Schmidt Expansion (HSE). The respective merits of the two pole expansions are discussed and compared with the HSE. (orig.)

  20. USA valitsus: Tallinna linnahalli miljardigarantiid pole olemas / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    USA Eesti-saatkonna teatel pole USA valitsus andnud garantiid mitte ühelegi projektile Tallinnas. Tallinna abilinnapea Taavi Aasa sõnul ei saa USA garantiist teha juttu enne, kui Eesti valitsus selle omakorda garanteerib. Taavi Aasa kirjast rahandusminister Jürgen Ligile

  1. An estimate on the purely imaginary poles of scattering matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhkov, Y.D.

    1988-12-01

    In this work we obtain two estimates (upper and lower) on the number of purely imaginary poles of the scattering matrix for the wave equation in the exterior of a compact smooth obstacle in R n , n ≥ 3 odd. The method of Lax and Phillips is used. (author). 5 refs

  2. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  3. Catapult effect in pole vaulting: is muscle coordination determinant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Hug, François; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the phase between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height (HP) of vaulter and aimed at determining the catapult effect in pole vaulting on HP. Seven experienced vaulters performed 5-10 vaults recorded by two video cameras, while the surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of 10 upper limbs muscles was recorded. HP was compared with an estimated maximum height (HP(est)) allowing the computation of a push-off index. Muscle synergies were extracted from the sEMG activity profiles using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. No significant difference (p>0.47) was found between HP(est) (4.64±0.21m) and HP (4.69±0.23m). Despite a high inter-individual variability in sEMG profiles, two muscle synergies were extracted for all the subjects which accounted for 96.1±2.9% of the total variance. While, the synergy activation coefficients were very similar across subjects, a higher variability was found in the muscle synergy vectors. Consequently, whatever the push-off index among the pole vaulters, the athletes used different muscle groupings (i.e., muscle synergy vectors) which were activated in a similar fashion (i.e., synergy activation coefficients). Overall, these results suggested that muscle coordination adopted between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height does not have a major influence on HP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pole solution in six dimensions as a dimensional reduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Shoichi

    2002-01-01

    A solution with the pole configuration in six dimensions is analyzed. It is a dimensional reduction model of Randall-Sundrum type. The soliton configuration is induced by the bulk Higgs mechanism. The boundary condition is systematically solved up to the 6th order. The Riemann curvature is finite everywhere.

  5. Diplodia natalensis , Pole Evans: a causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolations were made from the barks of gummosis-infected citrus trees from orchards of the University of Ghana Agricultural Research Station at Kade. The isolation media used were 1.5% water agar, 1.5% water agar + nystatin and 1.5% water agar + benomyl. Four isolates including Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, ...

  6. Poled-glass devices: Influence of surfaces and interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Devices in periodically poled glass must have a large periodic variation of the built-in field. We show that the periodic variation can be severely degraded by charge dynamics taking place at the external (glass–air) interface or at internal (glass–glass) interfaces if the interfaces have imperfe...

  7. BMP regulates vegetal pole induction centres in early xenopus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachaliel, N; Re'Em-Kalma, Y; Eshed, O; Elias, S; Frank, D

    1998-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) plays an important role in mesoderm patterning in Xenopus. The ectopic expression of BMP-4 protein hyperventralizes embryos, whereas embryos expressing a BMP-2/4 dominant-negative receptor (DNR) are hyperdorsalized. Mesoderm is initially induced in the marginal zone by cells in the underlying vegetal pole. While much is known about BMP's expression and role in patterning the marginal zone, little is known about its early role in regulating vegetal mesoderm induction centre formation. The role of BMP in regulating formation of vegetal mesoderm inducing centres during early Xenopus development was examined. Ectopic BMP-4 expression in vegetal pole cells inhibited dorsal mesoderm induction but increased ventral mesoderm induction when recombined with animal cap ectoderm in Nieuwkoop explants. 32-cell embryos injected with BMP-4 RNA in the most vegetal blastomere tier were not hyperdorsalized by LiCl treatment. The ectopic expression of Smad or Mix.1 proteins in the vegetal pole also inhibited dorsal mesoderm induction in explants and embryos. Expression of the BMP 2/4 DNR in the vegetal pole increased dorsal mesoderm induction and inhibited ventral mesoderm induction in explants and embryos. These results support a role for BMP signalling in regulating ventral vegetal and dorsal vegetal mesoderm induction centre formation during early Xenopus development.

  8. Carrier Phase GPS Navigation to the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T.; Roberts, G. W.

    Over the last few years, on-the-fly integer ambiguity resolution for GPS has proven to be successful over short baselines (500 km. New techniques have been developed at the University of Nottingham to allow very long baseline integer ambiguity resolution, on-the-fly. A major problem with the use of carrier phase data is that posed by cycle slips. A technique for detecting and correcting cycle slips has been developed, and its use is discussed in this paper. The new technique has been proven through a series of trials, one of which included two flights to the North Pole, performing centimetric level positioning all the way to the pole. For many years, the GD Aero-Systems Course of the Air Warfare Centre based at RAF Cranwell executed a series of equipment flight trials to the North Pole, called the ARIES Flights. In May 1996, the authors were fortunate to take part in both flights, via Iceland and Greenland, to the North Pole. Based on reference stations at Thule Air Base, integer ambiguity resolution was accomplished, on-the-fly, and centimetric level navigation maintained throughout the flights. Earlier trials detailed in the paper demonstrate that the technique can resolve integer ambiguities on-the-fly within a few seconds over a baseline length of approximately 134 km, resulting in an accuracy of 12 cm. The majority of the residual error source for this being the ionosphere.

  9. Sensorless speed control of a switched reluctance motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wei Min

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation presents a sensorless rotor position detection technique for a switched reluctance motor (SRM). The effectiveness of other SRM sensorless rotor position detection techniques found in a literature review are evaluated and compared to this technique. Finite element analysis is used to determine the magnetic flux profile in the motor for a few shapes of the stator and rotor poles. An algorithm that uses this position sensing technique to control the motor speed is described. Magnetic flux linkage profile of a SRM is measured. A model of the SRM is developed by curve fitting this data. Some relations between model equations are found. Computer simulation results are obtained using this model. The results are compared to measurements taken with an oscilloscope. Comparison shows the results predicted by the model correlates to those measured from the motor.

  10. Decay resistance of out-of-service utility poles as related to the distribution of residual creosote content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Roliadi; Chung Y. Hse; Elvin T. Choong; Todd F. Shupe

    2000-01-01

    Decay resistance of out-of-service poles was investigated to evaluate their effectiveness against biodegradation for possible recycling of these poles for composite products. Decay resistance was related to creosote content and creosote distribution in poles with service durations of 5 and 25 years and also freshly treated poles. Weathering of the poles had caused...

  11. Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children: just a normal variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Vogelius, Esben S.; Orth, Robert C.; Guillerman, R.P.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, E.B. Singleton Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification. (orig.)

  12. Bycatch in the Maldivian pole-and-line tuna fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelsey I; Nadheeh, Ibrahim; Jauharee, A Riyaz; Anderson, R Charles; Adam, M Shiham

    2017-01-01

    Tropical tuna fisheries are among the largest worldwide, with some having significant bycatch issues. However, pole-and-line tuna fisheries are widely believed to have low bycatch rates, although these have rarely been quantified. The Maldives has an important pole-and-line fishery, targeting skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). In the Maldives, 106 pole-and-line tuna fishing days were observed between August 2014 and November 2015. During 161 fishing events, tuna catches amounted to 147 t: 72% by weight was skipjack, 25% yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and 3% other tunas. Bycatch (all non-tuna species caught plus all tuna discards) amounted to 951 kg (0.65% of total tuna catch). Most of the bycatch (95%) was utilized, and some bycatch was released alive, so dead discards were particularly low (0.02% of total tuna catch, or 22 kg per 100 t). Rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata) and dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) together constituted 93% of the bycatch. Live releases included small numbers of silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformis) and seabirds (noddies, Anous tenuirostris and A. stolidus). Pole-and-line tuna fishing was conducted on free schools and schools associated with various objects (Maldivian anchored fish aggregating devices [aFADs], drifting FADs from western Indian Ocean purse seine fisheries, other drifting objects and seamounts). Free school catches typically included a high proportion of large skipjack and significantly less bycatch. Associated schools produced more variable tuna catches and higher bycatch rates. Fishing trips in the south had significantly lower bycatch rates than those in the north. This study is the first to quantify bycatch rates in the Maldives pole-and-line tuna fishery and the influence of school association on catch composition. Ratio estimator methods suggest roughly 552.6 t of bycatch and 27.9 t of discards are caught annually in the fishery (based on 2015 national catch), much less than other Indian Ocean tuna

  13. Acute effects of flexible pole exercise on heart rate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Letícia Santana; Moreira, Patrícia S; Antonio, Ana M; Cardoso, Marco A; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Navega, Marcelo T; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Valenti, Vitor E

    2015-01-01

    Exercise with flexible poles provides fast eccentric and concentric muscle contractions. Although the literature reports significant muscle chain activity during this exercise, it is not clear if a single bout of exercise induces cardiac changes. In this study we assessed the acute effects of flexible pole exercise on cardiac autonomic regulation. The study was performed on 22 women between 18 and 26 years old. We assessed heart rate variability (HRV) in the time (SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50) and frequency (HF, LF and LF/HF ratio) domains and geometric indices of HRV (RRTri, TINN, SD1, SD2 and SD1/SD2 ratio). The subjects remained at rest for 10 min and then performed the exercises with the flexible poles. Immediately after the exercise protocol, the volunteers remained seated at rest for 60 min and HRV was analyzed. We observed no significant changes in time domain (SDNN: p=0.72; RMSSD: p=0.94 and pNN50: p=0.92) or frequency domain indices (LF [nu]: p=0.98; LF [ms(2)]: p=0.72; HF [nu]: p=0.98; HF [ms(2)]: p=0.82 and LF/HF ratio: p=0.7) or in geometric indices (RRTri: p=0.54; TINN: p=0.77; SD1: p=0.94; SD2: p=0.67 and SD/SD2: p=0.42) before and after a single bout of flexible pole exercise. A single bout of flexible pole exercise did not induce significant changes in cardiac autonomic regulation in healthy women. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  15. 76 FR 47639 - Tesla Motors, Inc.; Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption From the Electronic Stability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... with electronic stability control (ESC) systems. ESC systems use automatic computer-controlled braking... directional control at the front wheels (plow out). An anti-lock brake system (ABS) is a prerequisite for an... actuated automatic transmission and three phase, four pole AC induction motor. The Roadster has a combined...

  16. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  17. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  18. Study of motor-pump operating as generator groups in hydroelectric micro hydropower plants; Estudo de grupos moto-bomba operando como grupos geradores em microcentrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo, Mateus

    2007-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the in site use of pumps working as turbines (PATs) and induction engines operating as generators (MIGs), for the replacement of conventional generating groups in micro hydropower plants (MHPs), focusing on PATs. To achieve this goal, a case study was accomplished on a micro hydropower plant installed in Mantiqueira Mountain that, after been rebuilt, received a PAT/MIG generating group. It's a pioneer research, being the first documented case of implementation of PATs and MIGs in a real MHP in Brazil. After tests for defining the efficiency, and the comparison with theoretical and laboratory results, it was concluded that PAT/MIG generating groups can be used effectively in electricity generation, by the application of appropriate selection methodologies and adjustments to optimize its operation in reverse. Besides the technical aspects, it was also addressed the technology's economic aspects. Through prices research and costs composition, it was possible to quantify the economic benefit of PAT/MIG groups over conventional generating groups, noting that the studied technology reduces the micro hydropower plants deployment costs in a significant way . (author)

  19. Repair of impact damaged utility poles with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), phase II : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The aluminum and steel utility poles which support traffic signals, lighting, or mast-arm signs : are vulnerable to collisions from vehicles because of proximity to roadways. Removing these : poles for repair is costly and time-consuming, and removal...

  20. Stabilization diagrams using operational modal analysis and sliding filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Juul, Martin Ørum Ørhem; Tarpø, Marius Glindtvad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a filtering technique for doing effective operational modal analysis. The result of the filtering method is construction of stabilization diagram that clearly separates physical poles from spurious noise poles needed for unbiased fitting. A band pass filter is moved slowly over...