WorldWideScience

Sample records for pole environmental observatory

  1. IceCube Gen2. The next-generation neutrino observatory for the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santen, Jakob van [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic-kilometer Cherenkov telescope buried in the ice sheet at the South Pole that detects neutrinos of all flavors with energies from tens of GeV to several PeV. The instrument provided the first measurement of the flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, opening a new window to the TeV universe. At the other end of its sensitivity range, IceCube has provided precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters that are competitive with dedicated accelerator-based experiments. Here we present design studies for IceCube Gen2, the next-generation neutrino observatory for the South Pole. Instrumenting a volume of more that 5 km{sup 3} with over 100 new strings, IceCube Gen2 will have substantially greater sensitivity to high-energy neutrinos than current-generation instruments. PINGU, a dense infill array, will lower the energy threshold of the inner detector region to 4 GeV, allowing a determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy. On the surface, a large air shower detector will veto high-energy atmospheric muons and neutrinos from the southern hemisphere, enhancing the reach of astrophysical neutrino searches. With its versatile instrumentation, the IceCube Gen2 facility will allow us to explore the neutrino sky with unprecedented sensitivity, providing new constraints on the sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays, and yield precision data on the mixing and mass ordering of neutrinos.

  2. Location selection and layout for LB10, a lunar base at the Lunar North Pole with a liquid mirror observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsis, Emmanouil; Doule, Ondrej; Ebrahimi, Aliakbar

    2013-04-01

    We present the site selection process and urban planning of a Lunar Base for a crew of 10 (LB10), with an infrared astronomical telescope, based on the concept of the Lunar LIquid Mirror Telescope. LB10 is a base designated for permanent human presence on the Moon. The base architecture is based on utilization of inflatable, rigid and regolith structures for different purposes. The location for the settlement is identified through a detailed analysis of surface conditions and terrain parameters around the Lunar North and South Poles. A number of selection criteria were defined regarding construction, astronomical observations, landing and illumination conditions. The location suggested for the settlement is in the vicinity of the North Pole, utilizing the geographical morphology of the area. The base habitat is on a highly illuminated and relatively flat plateau. The observatory in the vicinity of the base, approximately 3.5 kilometers from the Lunar North Pole, inside a crater to shield it from Sunlight. An illustration of the final form of the habitat is also depicted, inspired by the baroque architectural form.

  3. Quantifying Urban Groundwater in Environmental Field Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Belt, K.; Smith, J. A.; Band, L. E.; Groffman, P.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Ryan, R. J.; Yeskis, D.; McGuire, M. P.

    2006-12-01

    Despite the growing footprint of urban landscapes and their impacts on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, comprehensive field studies of urban water budgets are few. The cumulative effects of urban infrastructure (buildings, roads, culverts, storm drains, detention ponds, leaking water supply and wastewater pipe networks) on temporal and spatial patterns of groundwater stores, fluxes, and flowpaths are poorly understood. The goal of this project is to develop expertise and analytical tools for urban groundwater systems that will inform future environmental observatory planning and that can be shared with research teams working in urban environments elsewhere. The work plan for this project draws on a robust set of information resources in Maryland provided by ongoing monitoring efforts of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), USGS, and the U.S. Forest Service working together with university scientists and engineers from multiple institutions. A key concern is to bridge the gap between small-scale intensive field studies and larger-scale and longer-term hydrologic patterns using synoptic field surveys, remote sensing, numerical modeling, data mining and visualization tools. Using the urban water budget as a unifying theme, we are working toward estimating the various elements of the budget in order to quantify the influence of urban infrastructure on groundwater. Efforts include: (1) comparison of base flow behavior from stream gauges in a nested set of watersheds at four different spatial scales from 0.8 to 171 km2, with diverse patterns of impervious cover and urban infrastructure; (2) synoptic survey of well water levels to characterize the regional water table; (3) use of airborne thermal infrared imagery to identify locations of groundwater seepage into streams across a range of urban development patterns; (4) use of seepage transects and tracer tests to quantify the spatial pattern of groundwater fluxes to the drainage network in selected subwatersheds; (5

  4. Mobile Networked Sensors for Environmental Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, W. J.

    2005-12-01

    The development of the first embedded networked sensing (ENS) systems has been rapidly followed by their successful deployment for investigations in environments ranging from forest ecosystems, to rivers and lakes, and to subsurface soil observations. As ENS systems have been deployed, many technology challenges have been successfully addressed. For example, the requirements for local and remote data access and long operating life have been encountered and solved with a novel hierarchical network architecture and unique, low power platforms. This presentation will describe this progress and also the development and applications of a new ENS system addressing the most current challenges: A robotic ENS platform providing precise, reliable, and sustained observation capability with diverse sensing capabilities that may adapt to environmental dynamics. In the development of methods for autonomous observation by networked sensors, many applications have emerged requiring spatially and temporally intensive data sampling. Examples include the mapping of forest understory solar radiation, autonomous acquisition of imaging for plant phenology, and mapping of contaminant concentration in aquatic systems. Common to these applications is the need to actively and continuously configure the location and orientation of sensors for high fidelity mapping of the spatial distribution of phenomena. To address this primary environmental observation need, a new sensing platform, Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS) has been developed. NIMS relies on deployed aerial infrastructure (for example, cable suspension systems) in the natural environment to permit robotic devices to precisely and reliably move or remain stationary as required at elevations that may lie directly in or above the forest canopy or within a river or stream. NIMS systems are suspended to allow devices to translate a sensor node horizontally, and also to raise and lower devices. Examples of sensors that are now

  5. Urban observatories opportunities for environmental monitoring: solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Caldelas, R I; Corona Zambrano, E A

    2008-01-01

    Towns concentrate around 50% of world-wide population and the trend is oriented to underscore an urban profile of population. In addition, towns have become important for their economic contribution to the Gross Internal Product. The negative side of towns is the environmental and social impacts as a result of productive and domestic activities, besides the lack of available data. In order to overcome these shortcomings, the United Nations has established a project of urban monitoring throughout the Global Network of Urban Observatories; Mexico joined the project in 2005. The Local Urban Observatory of Mexicali has the task to produce information about cities that is useful to design public policies. Some of this information deals with a set of environmental indicators in the United Nations Habitat Agenda, which includes solid wastes. Therefore, this paper deals with two main topics; firstly, from the Habitat Agenda, a comparative urban analysis of waste production and coverage of domestic waste collection services; secondly, from the Local Agenda, the identification and ranking of environmental problems according to public perception coming from people involved in the municipal planning and decision making process. Results will be used to develop local indicators and public environmental policies.

  6. Clear Creek Environmental Hydrologic Observatory: From Vision Toward Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, C.; Muste, M.; Kruger, A.

    2006-12-01

    The CyberEnviroNet research group at The University of Iowa includes around 25 scientists and engineers from Geography, Geoscience, Computer Science, and various Engineering Departments. The group leads diverse research and education projects involving "cyberinfrastructure" applied to water-resource and environmental concerns. Members of this group actively participate in the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) and the Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research (CLEANER), ongoing NSF-supported activities and initiatives. Most activities are led by IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering (IIHR) and the Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research (CGRER). An outcome of the CyberEnviroNet group activities is the emerging Clear Creek Environmental Hydrologic Observatory at the headwaters of Iowa's Clear Creek. It is envisioned that this process-based observatory will support the scientific investigation of relevant components of water cycle processes. Cyberinfrastructure is a complex concept that is difficult to narrowly define. However, this project will create a working example of cyberinfrastructure in the hydrologic and environmental sciences. It is a system that integrates a broad range of technologies and ideas: wired and wireless sensors, low power wireless communication, embedded microcontrollers, commodity cellular networks, the internet, unattended quality assurance, metadata, relational databases, machine-to-machine communication, interfaces to hydrologic and environmental models, feedback, and external inputs. The creation of this multi-faceted system raises important questions: 1. Will such a system benefit the testing of scientific hypotheses in the areas of "envirohydrology" and hydrology? 2. If the answer is "yes", do we know how to assemble, operate, manage, and make it cost effective? 3. If the answers are "yes", then does it make sense for the hydrologic and

  7. Building a Cloud Infrastructure for a Virtual Environmental Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-khatib, Y.; Blair, G. S.; Gemmell, A. L.; Gurney, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental science is often fragmented: data is collected by different organizations using mismatched formats and conventions, and models are misaligned and run in isolation. Cloud computing offers a lot of potential in the way of resolving such issues by supporting data from different sources and at various scales, and integrating models to create more sophisticated and collaborative software services. The Environmental Virtual Observatory pilot (EVOp) project, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, aims to demonstrate how cloud computing principles and technologies can be harnessed to develop more effective solutions to pressing environmental issues. The EVOp infrastructure is a tailored one constructed from resources in both private clouds (owned and managed by us) and public clouds (leased from third party providers). All system assets are accessible via a uniform web service interface in order to enable versatile and transparent resource management, and to support fundamental infrastructure properties such as reliability and elasticity. The abstraction that this 'everything as a service' principle brings also supports mashups, i.e. combining different web services (such as models) and data resources of different origins (in situ gauging stations, warehoused data stores, external sources, etc.). We adopt the RESTful style of web services in order to draw a clear line between client and server (i.e. cloud host) and also to keep the server completely stateless. This significantly improves the scalability of the infrastructure and enables easy infrastructure management. For instance, tasks such as load balancing and failure recovery are greatly simplified without the need for techniques such as advance resource reservation or shared block devices. Upon this infrastructure, we developed a web portal composed of a bespoke collection of web-based visualization tools to help bring out relationships or patterns within the data. The portal was

  8. Quality assurance programme for environmental radioactivity measurements at the Hong Kong observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Mok, H.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) runs an Environmental Radiation Monitoring Programme (ERMP) to monitor the environmental radiation levels in Hong Kong. In the ERMP, about 400 environmental samples are delivered to the HKO Radiation Laboratory each year for alpha, beta and gamma measurements. The quality of the radiation measurements is assured through an internal quality assurance programme and inter-laboratory comparison exercises

  9. Scientific Workflows and the Sensor Web for Virtual Environmental Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, I.; Vahed, A.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual observatories mature from their original domain and become common practice for earth observation research and policy building. The term Virtual Observatory originally came from the astronomical research community. Here, virtual observatories provide universal access to the available astronomical data archives of space and ground-based observatories. Further on, as those virtual observatories aim at integrating heterogeneous ressources provided by a number of participating organizations, the virtual observatory acts as a coordinating entity that strives for common data analysis techniques and tools based on common standards. The Sensor Web is on its way to become one of the major virtual observatories outside of the astronomical research community. Like the original observatory that consists of a number of telescopes, each observing a specific part of the wave spectrum and with a collection of astronomical instruments, the Sensor Web provides a multi-eyes perspective on the current, past, as well as future situation of our planet and its surrounding spheres. The current view of the Sensor Web is that of a single worldwide collaborative, coherent, consistent and consolidated sensor data collection, fusion and distribution system. The Sensor Web can perform as an extensive monitoring and sensing system that provides timely, comprehensive, continuous and multi-mode observations. This technology is key to monitoring and understanding our natural environment, including key areas such as climate change, biodiversity, or natural disasters on local, regional, and global scales. The Sensor Web concept has been well established with ongoing global research and deployment of Sensor Web middleware and standards and represents the foundation layer of systems like the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Sensor Web consists of a huge variety of physical and virtual sensors as well as observational data, made available on the Internet at standardized

  10. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  11. A conceptual approach to a citizens' observatory--supporting community-based environmental governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Kobernus, Mike; Broday, David; Bartonova, Alena

    2014-12-12

    In recent years there has been a trend to view the Citizens' Observatory as an increasingly essential tool that provides an approach for better observing, understanding, protecting and enhancing our environment. However, there is no consensus on how to develop such a system, nor is there any agreement on what a Citizens' Observatory is and what results it could produce. The increase in the prevalence of Citizens' Observatories globally has been mirrored by an increase in the number of variables that are monitored, the number of monitoring locations and the types of participating citizens. This calls for a more integrated approach to handle the emerging complexities involved in this field, but before this can be achieved, it is essential to establish a common foundation for Citizens' Observatories and their usage. There are many aspects to a Citizens' Observatory. One view is that its essence is a process that involves environmental monitoring, information gathering, data management and analysis, assessment and reporting systems. Hence, it requires the development of novel monitoring technologies and of advanced data management strategies to capture, analyse and survey the data, thus facilitating their exploitation for policy and society. Practically, there are many challenges in implementing the Citizens' Observatory approach, such as ensuring effective citizens' participation, dealing with data privacy, accounting for ethical and security requirements, and taking into account data standards, quality and reliability. These concerns all need to be addressed in a concerted way to provide a stable, reliable and scalable Citizens' Observatory programme. On the other hand, the Citizens' Observatory approach carries the promise of increasing the public's awareness to risks in their environment, which has a corollary economic value, and enhancing data acquisition at low or no cost. In this paper, we first propose a conceptual framework for a Citizens' Observatory

  12. Using the Critical Zone Observatory Network to Put Geology into Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The use of observatories to study the environment in the U.S.A. arguably began in 1910. Since then, many environmental observatories were set up to study impacts of land use change. At that time, observatories did not emphasize geological structure. Around 2004, scientists in the U.S.A. began to emphasize the need to study the Earth's surface as one integrated system that includes the geological underpinnings. In 2007, the Geosciences Directorate within the U.S. National Science Foundation established the Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) program. Today the CZO network has grown to 9 observatories, and 45 countries now host such observatories. A CZO is an observatory that promotes the study of the entire layer of Earth's surface from vegetation canopy to groundwater as one entity. The observatories are somewhat similar to other NSF-funded observatories such as Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites but they differ in that they emphasize the history of the landscape and how it mediates today's fluxes. LTERs largely focus on ecological science. The concepts of CZ science and CZOs - developed by the Geosciences Directorate - have been extraordinarily impactful: we now have deeper understanding of how surficial processes respond to tectonic, climatic, and anthropogenic drivers. One reason CZOs succeed is that they host scientists who make measurements in one place that cross timescales from that of the meteorologist to the geologist. The NSF Geosciences Directorate has thus promoted insights showing that many of the unexplained mysteries of "catchment science" or "ecosystem science" can be explained by the underlying geological story of a site. The scientific challenges of this endeavor are dwarfed, however, by cultural challenges. Specifically, while both CZOs and observatories such as LTERs struggle to publish many types of data from different disciplines in a continually changing cyber-world, only CZO scientists find they must repeatedly explain why such

  13. Exchanging environmental information and decision making: developing the local Pilot Environmental Virtual Observatory with stakeholder communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, E.; Beven, K.; Brewer, P.; M, Haygarth, P.; Macklin, M.; Marshall, K.; Quinn, P.; Stutter, M.; Thomas, N.; Wilkinson, M.

    2012-04-01

    Public participation in the development of flood risk management and river basin management plans are explicit components of both the Water Framework and Floods Directives. At the local level, involving communities in land and water management has been found to (i) aid better environmental decision making, (ii) enhance social, economic and environmental benefits, and (iii) increase a sense of ownership. Facilitating the access and exchange of information on the local environment is an important part of this new approach to the land and water management process, which also includes local community stakeholders in decisions about the design and content of the information provided. As part of the Natural Environment Research Council's pilot Environment Virtual Observatory (EVO), the Local Level group are engaging with local community stakeholders in three different catchments in the UK (the rivers Eden, Tarland and Dyfi) to start the process of developing prototype visualisation tools to address the specific land and water management issues identified in each area. Through this local collaboration, we will provide novel visualisation tools through which to communicate complex catchment science outcomes and bring together different sources of environmental data in ways that better meet end-user needs as well as facilitate a far broader participatory approach in environmental decision making. The Local Landscape Visualisation Tools are being evolved iteratively during the project to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. The tools will use the latest concepts and technologies to communicate with and provide opportunities for the provision and exchange of information between the public, government agencies and scientists. This local toolkit will reside within a wider EVO platform that will include national datasets, models and state of the art cloud computer systems. As such, local stakeholder groups are assisting the EVO

  14. Challenges and Opportunities to Developing Synergies Among Diverse Environmental Observatories: FSML, NEON, and GLEON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, C. E.; Weathers, K. C.; Knoll, L. B.; Brentrup, J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent rapid advances in sensor technology and cyberinfrastructure have enabled the development of numerous environmental observatories ranging from local networks at field stations and marine laboratories (FSML) to continental scale observatories such as the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) to global scale observatories such as the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON). While divergent goals underlie the initial development of these observatories, and they are often designed to serve different communities, many opportunities for synergies exist. In addition, the use of existing infrastructure may enhance the cost-effectiveness of building and maintaining large scale observatories. For example, FSMLs are established facilities with the staff and infrastructure to host sensor nodes of larger networks. Many field stations have existing staff and long-term databases as well as smaller sensor networks that are the product of a single or small group of investigators with a unique data management system embedded in a local or regional community. These field station based facilities and data are a potentially untapped gold mine for larger continental and global scale observatories; common ecological and environmental challenges centered on understanding the impacts of changing climate, land use, and invasive species often underlie these efforts. The purpose of this talk is to stimulate a dialog on the challenges of merging efforts across these different spatial and temporal scales, as well as addressing how to develop synergies among observatory networks with divergent roots and philosophical approaches. For example, FSMLs have existing long-term databases and facilities, while NEON has sparse past data but a well-developed template and closely coordinated team working in a coherent format across a continental scale. GLEON on the other hand is a grass-roots network of experts in science, information technology, and engineering with a common goal

  15. Observatories and Telescopes of Modern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David

    2016-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Optical Observatories: 1. Palomar Mountain Observatory; 2. The United States Optical Observatory; 3. From the Next Generation Telescope to Gemini and SOAR; 4. Competing primary mirror designs; 5. Active optics, adaptive optics and other technical innovations; 6. European Northern Observatory and Calar Alto; 7. European Southern Observatory; 8. Mauna Kea Observatory; 9. Australian optical observatories; 10. Mount Hopkins' Whipple Observatory and the MMT; 11. Apache Point Observatory; 12. Carnegie Southern Observatory (Las Campanas); 13. Mount Graham International Optical Observatory; 14. Modern optical interferometers; 15. Solar observatories; Part II. Radio Observatories: 16. Australian radio observatories; 17. Cambridge Mullard Radio Observatory; 18. Jodrell Bank; 19. Early radio observatories away from the Australian-British axis; 20. The American National Radio Astronomy Observatory; 21. Owens Valley and Mauna Kea; 22. Further North and Central American observatories; 23. Further European and Asian radio observatories; 24. ALMA and the South Pole; Name index; Optical observatory and telescope index; Radio observatory and telescope index; General index.

  16. Dynamics of Sr-90 content in environmental objects of Ukrainian-Byelorussian Poles'e after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.A.; Kajro, I.A.; Shandala, N.K.; Los', I.N.; Repin, V.S.; Gul'ko, G.M.; Chepurnoj, N.I.; Berkovskij, V.B.; Tsygankov, N.Ya.; Pozhivalova, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Ecological, dosemetric and radiation-sanitary aspects of the problem of Sr-90 contamination of environmental objects and food in Ukrainian-Byelorussian Poles'e in three-year period after the Chernobyl' NPP accident are discussed. Analysis of the materials collected shows that efficient equivalent radiation doses from Sr-90 being intaken into the region of Urkainian-Byelorussian Poles'e after the Chernobyl' NPP accident expected to be gained during 70 years of critical population group life are not exceed 1 mSv; this value is by the factor of 10-100 smaller than the dose values connected with radioactive cesium. The problem of environment contamination with Sr-90 transforms from hot radiation-sanitary situation into more quiet radioecological one

  17. Cyberinfrastructure for remote environmental observatories: a model homogeneous sensor network in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Scotty; Slater, David; Fritzinger, Eric; Lyles, Bradley; Kent, Graham; Smith, Kenneth; Dascalu, Sergiu; Harris, Frederick

    2017-04-01

    Sensor-based data collection has changed the potential scale and resolution of in-situ environmental studies by orders of magnitude, increasing expertise and management requirements accordingly. Cost-effective management of these observing systems is possible by leveraging cyberinfrastructure resources. Presented is a case study environmental observation network in the Great Basin region, USA, the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network (NevCAN). NevCAN stretches hundreds of kilometers across several mountain ranges and monitors climate and ecohydrological conditions from low desert (900 m ASL) to high subalpine treeline (3360 m ASL) down to 1-minute timescales. The network has been operating continuously since 2010, collecting billions of sensor data points and millions of camera images that record hourly conditions at each site, despite requiring relatively low annual maintenance expenditure. These data have provided unique insight into fine-scale processes across mountain gradients, which is crucial scientific information for a water-scarce region. The key to maintaining data continuity for these remotely-located study sites has been use of uniform data transport and management systems, coupled with high-reliability power system designs. Enabling non-proprietary digital communication paths to all study sites and sensors allows the research team to acquire data in near-real-time, troubleshoot problems, and diversify sensor hardware. A wide-area network design based on common Internet Protocols (IP) has been extended into each study site, providing production bandwidth of between 2 Mbps and 60 Mbps, depending on local conditions. The network architecture and site-level support systems (such as power generation) have been implemented with the core objectives of capacity, redundancy, and modularity. NevCAN demonstrates that by following simple but uniform "best practices", the next generation of regionally-specific environmental observatories can evolve to

  18. CBEO:N, Chesapeake Bay Environmental Observatory as a Cyberinfrastructure Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Piasecki, M.; Whitenack, T.; Ball, W. P.; Murphy, R.

    2008-12-01

    Chesapeake Bay Environmental Observatory (CBEO) is an NSF-supported project focused on studying hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay using advanced cyberinfrastructure (CI) technologies. The project is organized around four concurrent and interacting activities: 1) CBEO:S provides science and management context for the use of CI technologies, focusing on hypoxia and its non-linear dynamics as affected by management and climate; 2) CBEO:T constructs a locally-accessible CBEO test bed prototype centered on spatio-temporal interpolation and advanced querying of model runs; 3) CBEO:N incorporates the test bed CI into national environmental observation networks, and 4) CBEO:E develops education and outreach components of the project that translate observational science for public consumption. CBEO:N activities, which are the focus of this paper, are four-fold: - constructing an online project portal to enable researchers to publish, discover, query, visualize and integrate project-related datasets of different types. The portal is based on the technologies developed within the GEON (the Geosciences Network) project, and has established the CBEO project data server as part of the GEON network of servers; * developing a CBEO node within the WATERS network, taking advantage of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) Server technology that supports online publication of observation data as web services, and ontology-assisted data discovery; *developing new data structures and metadata in order to describe water quality observational data, and model run output, obtained for the Chesapeake Bay area, using data structures adopted and modified from the Observations Data Model of CUAHSI HIS; * prototyping CBEO tools that can be re-used through the portal, in particular implementing a portal version of R-based spatial interpolation tools. The paper describes recent accomplishments in these four development areas, and demonstrates how CI approaches transform research and data sharing

  19. Charcoal and siderurgy in Brazilian Amazonia: what environmental improvement paths? Example of the Carajas pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle; Fonseca Morello, Thiago; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Behling, Maurel; Caldeira Pires, Armando; Oliveira Rodrigues, Thiago; Rousset, Patrick; Dufour, Thomas; Durieux, Laurent; Sist, Plinio; Vieira, Paulo; Lemenager, Tiphaine; Ernst, Guillaume

    2011-05-01

    The pig iron sector of Carajas, in the Brazilian Amazon, uses charcoal which is strongly criticized because of the charcoal production direct and indirect impacts on deforestation and forests degradation. This publication identifies and analyzes some alternatives to decrease the charcoal production environmental negative externalities and the main technical, economic and institutional factors that may limit their adoption. Several alternatives are possible, based on more efficient carbonization technologies, reforestation or afforestation of degraded lands, and, to a lesser extent, the use of reduced impact logging residues. Some of the alternatives are cost-efficient in the long term and financing support is available to promote their adoption. Land tenure and environmental regularization is a necessary pre-requisite for their expansion. (authors)

  20. Observatories, think tanks, and community models in the hydrologic and environmental sciences: How does it affect me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    Multiple issues in hydrologic and environmental sciences are now squarely in the public focus and require both government and scientific study. Two facts also emerge: (1) The new approach being touted publicly for advancing the hydrologic and environmental sciences is the establishment of community-operated "big science" (observatories, think tanks, community models, and data repositories). (2) There have been important changes in the business of science over the last 20 years that make it important for the hydrologic and environmental sciences to demonstrate the "value" of public investment in hydrological and environmental science. Given that community-operated big science (observatories, think tanks, community models, and data repositories) could become operational, I argue that such big science should not mean a reduction in the importance of single-investigator science. Rather, specific linkages between the large-scale, team-built, community-operated big science and the single investigator should provide context data, observatory data, and systems models for a continuing stream of hypotheses by discipline-based, specialized research and a strong rationale for continued, single-PI ("discovery-based") research. I also argue that big science can be managed to provide a better means of demonstrating the value of public investment in the hydrologic and environmental sciences. Decisions regarding policy will still be political, but big science could provide an integration of the best scientific understanding as a guide for the best policy.

  1. Evolving the NCSA CyberCollaboratory for Distributed Environmental Observatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J.; Liu, Y.; Minsker, B.; Futrelle, J.; Downey, S.; Kim, I.; Rantanen, E.

    2007-12-01

    Since 2004, NCSA's Cybercollaboratory, which is built on top of the open source Liferay portal framework, has been evolving as part of NCSA's efforts to build national cyberinfrastructure to support collaborative research in environmental engineering and hydrological sciences and allow users to efficiently share contents (sensors, data, model, documents, etc.) in a context-sensitive way (e.g., providing different tools/data based on group affiliation and geospatial contexts). During this period, we provided the CyberCollaboratory to users in CLEANER (Collaborative Large-scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research, now WATer and Environmental Research Systems (WATERS) network) Project Office and several CLEANER /WATERS testbed projects. Preliminary statistics shows that one in four users (among over 400 registered users) provided contents with many other reading/accessing those contents (such as messages, documents, wikis). During the course of this use, and in evaluation by others including representatives from the CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science) community, we have received significant feedback on issues of usability and suitability to various communities involved in environmental observatories. Much of this feedback applies to collaborative portals in general and some reflect a comparison of portals with newer Web 2.0 style social -networking sites. For example, users working in multiple groups found it difficult to get an overview of all of their activities and found differences in group layouts to be confusing. Users also found the standard account creation and group management processes cumbersome compared to inviting people to be friends on social sites and wanted a better sense of presence and social networks within the portal. The fragmentation of group documents between local stores, the portal document repository and email, and issues of "lost updates" was another significant concern. This

  2. An observatory to gather and disseminate information on the health-related effects of environmental and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christovam Barcellos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This report sought to critically examine proposals, potentials, and challenges of environmental health observatories with an emphasis on climate change processes. A critical review of existing environmental health observatories was performed, examining their purposes, potential audiences, and technological platforms. The implementation of the Brazilian Climate and Health Observatory (C&HO is described, and two stages are defined: (i the requirement analysis and negotiation stage that identified the national and regional institutional players and their roles as data producers/users; and (ii thematic health-related workshops that reviewed water-related diseases, vector-borne diseases, extreme climate events, and health problems derived from forest fires. The C&HO is an example of making information on climate and health available through an Internet site where data from different origins can be accessed on a common platform. Complex queries are made by users and can be executed over multiple sites, geographically distributed, with all technical details hidden from the end user. At this stage of the C&HO prototype, alongside the queries, users can also produce semi-qualitative graphs and maps. A multi-scale approach was developed using the platform by setting up sentinel sites. Building a successful observatory is a participatory process that involves choosing indicators, data sources, information technology, and languages to best reach different audiences, such as researchers, citizens, public health professionals, and decisionmakers.

  3. Improving National Capability in Biogeochemical Flux Modelling: the UK Environmental Virtual Observatory (EVOp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnes, P.; Greene, S.; Freer, J. E.; Bloomfield, J.; Macleod, K.; Reaney, S. M.; Odoni, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    The best outcomes from watershed management arise where policy and mitigation efforts are underpinned by strong science evidence, but there are major resourcing problems associated with the scale of monitoring needed to effectively characterise the sources rates and impacts of nutrient enrichment nationally. The challenge is to increase national capability in predictive modelling of nutrient flux to waters, securing an effective mechanism for transferring knowledge and management tools from data-rich to data-poor regions. The inadequacy of existing tools and approaches to address these challenges provided the motivation for the Environmental Virtual Observatory programme (EVOp), an innovation from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). EVOp is exploring the use of a cloud-based infrastructure in catchment science, developing an exemplar to explore N and P fluxes to inland and coastal waters in the UK from grid to catchment and national scale. EVOp is bringing together for the first time national data sets, models and uncertainty analysis into cloud computing environments to explore and benchmark current predictive capability for national scale biogeochemical modelling. The objective is to develop national biogeochemical modelling capability, capitalising on extensive national investment in the development of science understanding and modelling tools to support integrated catchment management, and supporting knowledge transfer from data rich to data poor regions, The AERC export coefficient model (Johnes et al., 2007) has been adapted to function within the EVOp cloud environment, and on a geoclimatic basis, using a range of high resolution, geo-referenced digital datasets as an initial demonstration of the enhanced national capacity for N and P flux modelling using cloud computing infrastructure. Geoclimatic regions are landscape units displaying homogenous or quasi-homogenous functional behaviour in terms of process controls on N and P cycling

  4. The potential of wood-based composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Cheng Piao; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Wood-based composite utility poles are receiving increasing attention in the North American pole market. This interest is being driven by many increasing factors such as increasing: (1) disposal costs of solid wood poles, (2) liability and environmental concerns with traditional means of disposal of solid wood poles, (3) cost and concerns of long-term...

  5. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  6. A mountain environmental virtual observatory (Mountain-EVO) to support participatory monitoring in a network of Andean catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Ochoa Tocachi, Boris; De Bievre, Bert; Zulkafli, Zed

    2015-04-01

    as those of the Open Geospatial Consortium, the data can be pooled efficiently for regional-scale analysis, as well as processed and visualized efficiently. Lastly, the datasets can be coupled to web-based hydrological models using rich and interactive interfaces. Such setups, which we refer to as "environmental virtual observatories", can support water and land users at different scales of decision making, from community level to national governance entities, and at different levels of technical and scientific skills. This paper reports on the effort of building our environmental virtual observatory. We highlight some of the technological breakthroughs, such as exposing hydrological models to the web, using web processing services standards and pooling hydrological data for regionalization. Lastly, we also discuss the major remaining challenges in the technological, hydrological, and social science domains.

  7. Integrated Hydrologic Science and Environmental Engineering Observatory: CLEANER's Vision for the WATERS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schnoor, J.; Haas, C.; Bonner, J.; Driscoll, C.; Eschenbach, E.; Finholt, T.; Glass, J.; Harmon, T.; Johnson, J.; Krupnik, A.; Reible, D.; Sanderson, A.; Small, M.; van Briesen, J.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing population and urban development, societies grow more and more concerned over balancing the need to maintain adequate water supplies with that of ensuring the quality of surface and groundwater resources. For example, multiple stressors such as overfishing, runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields and confined animal feeding lots, and pathogens in urban stormwater can often overwhelm a single water body. Mitigating just one of these problems often depends on understanding how it relates to others and how stressors can vary in temporal and spatial scales. Researchers are now in a position to answer questions about multiscale, spatiotemporally distributed hydrologic and environmental phenomena through the use of remote and embedded networked sensing technologies. It is now possible for data streaming from sensor networks to be integrated by a rich cyberinfrastructure encompassing the innovative computing, visualization, and information archiving strategies needed to cope with the anticipated onslaught of data, and to turn that data around in the form of real-time water quantity and quality forecasting. Recognizing this potential, NSF awarded $2 million to a coalition of 12 institutions in July 2005 to establish the CLEANER Project Office (Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research; http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). Over the next two years the project office, in coordination with CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.; http://www.cuahsi.org), will work together to develop a plan for a WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network (WATERS Network), which is envisioned to be a collaborative scientific exploration and engineering analysis network, using high performance tools and infrastructure, to transform our scientific understanding of how water quantity, quality, and related earth system processes are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment

  8. The environmental virtual observatory pilot (EVOp): a cloud solution demonstrating effective science for efficient decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, R. J.; Emmett, B.; McDonald, A.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental managers and policy makers face a challenging future trying to accommodate growing expectations of environmental well-being, while subject to maturing regulation, constrained budgets and a public scrutiny that expects easier and more meaningful access to data and decision logic. To support such a challenge requires new tools and new approaches. The EVOp is an initiative from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) designed to deliver proof of concept for these new tools and approaches. A series of exemplar 'big catchment science questions' are posed and the prospects for their solution are assessed. These are then used to develop cloud solutions for serving data, models, visualisation and analysis tools to scientists, regulators, private companies and the public, all of whom have different expectations of what environmental information is important. Approaches are tested regularly with users using SCRUM. The VO vision encompasses seven key ambitions: i. being driven by the need to contribute to the solution of major environmental issues that impinge on, or link to, catchment science ii. having the flexibility and adaptability to address future problems not yet defined or fully clarified iii. being able to communicate issues and solutions to a range of audiences iv. supporting easy access by a variety of users v. drawing meaningful information from data and models and identifying the constraints on application in terms of errors, uncertainties, etc vi. adding value and cost effectiveness to current investigations by supporting transfer and scale adjustment thus limiting the repetition of expensive field monitoring addressing essentially the same issues in varying locations vii. promoting effective interfacing of robust science with a variety of end users by using terminology or measures familiar to the user (or required by regulation), including financial and carbon accounting, whole life or fixed period costing, risk as probability or as

  9. Magnet pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  10. North Pole Environmental Observatory CTD surveys: Springtime temperature and salinity measurements in the Arctic Ocean by aircraft, 2000 - 2008 (NODC Accession 0057592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The investigators propose to take annual springtime, large-scale airborne surveys of the Arctic Ocean. These surveys will be in two regions: the central Arctic Ocean...

  11. SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL FOOD SECURITY OBSERVATORY: ANALYSIS OF FOOD PRODUCTION INDICATORS AT THE MUNICIPAL LEVEL IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cristina da Siqueira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990, the theme of Human Rights and Food Security (FS has been developed in Brazil, culminating in the construction of the National Policy and Plan of Food Security (PNSAN Observatório Socioambiental em Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional: análise dos indicadores... Redes (St. Cruz Sul, Online, v. 21, nº 2, p. 49 - 62, maio/ago. 2016 50 and PLANSAN 2012/2015. The PLANSAN proposes sixty indicators divided into seven dimensions, which are clearly related to the Millennium Development Goals. In order to operationalize these indicators in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, the Socio-Environmental Food Security Observatory of Rio Grande do Sul (OBSSAN-RS was created in partnership with the State Council for Nutrition and Food Security (CONSEA-RS and the Informatics Department of UFRGS. In this context, the aim of this paper is to present the analysis of indicators of Dimension I (Food Production of the OBSSAN-RS at municipal level, discussing the importance of this tool for monitoring the establishment of the Human Right to Adequate Food (DHAA. The data available to the municipal level were compared with the indicators suggested by PLANSAN. It was observed that although contemplate important information for understanding the context of food production in the municipalities of the state, the proposed indicators have not reached entirely the requirements to monitoring the SAN in this territorial level, so adapting it is necessary to rating the state of SAN in municipalities of the RS.

  12. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  13. Geomagnetic Observatory Database February 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) maintains an active database of worldwide geomagnetic observatory...

  14. Utility poles not affected by CCA decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Venzio, H. [Arch Wood Protection Canada, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    A voluntary decision by industry to move non-industrial use of treated lumber products away from pressure-treated wood containing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative was announced by the Environmental Protection Agency on February 12, 2002. Although new alternative wood preservatives would be used, this decision does not affect utility poles, which will continue to be sold and installed. The author provides a brief historical outline concerning the creation of CCA in 1933 and its subsequent uses. CCA has many advantages, including clean surface of the poles, ground line treatment that is not required thus eliminating the requirement to rotate the poles during extended storage periods. Conductivity is low, as is corrosivity without affecting the bending characteristics of the wood. The injection of a refined hydrocarbon oil emulsion in the outer layer of the pole after the treatment with CCA is offered by some pole producers to facilitate gaff penetration. Sawing, drilling and nailing are also made easier. Water repellents can be added to the treating solution to improve climbability, slowing down the absorption and release of moisture. Warranties, extending for 50-year periods, are offered by some companies against wood-destroying organisms. The North American Wood Pole Coalition (NAWPC) was formed in 1998 to promote the use of wood poles, and publishes brochures and technical bulletins to that effect.

  15. Force interaction and 3D pole movement in double poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, T; Holmberg, H-C

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze double poling using combined kinetic and 3D kinematic analysis at high skiing speeds as regards pole force components, pole angles and pole behavior during the poling and swing phase. The hypothesis was that a horizontal pole force is more predictive for maximal skiing speed (V(max)) than the resultant pole force. Sixteen elite skiers performed a double-poling V(max) test while treadmill roller skiing. Pole forces and 3D kinematics of pole movement at a speed of 30 km/h were analyzed and related to V(max). The duration of the "preparation phase" showed the strongest relationship with V(max) (r=0.87, Pmax) compared with the resultant pole force. Impact force was not related to V(max). At high skiing speeds, skiers should aim to combine high pole forces with appropriate timing of pole forces and appropriate pole and body positions during the swing and poling phase. The emphasis in training should be on the development of specific strength capacities for pole force production and the utilization of these capacities in double-poling training sessions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. A Proposal for Geologic Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental Zero-State and Subsequent Monitoring Definition - First Lessons Learned from the French Environment Observatory - 13188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landais, Patrick; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Mariotti, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining a reference state of the environment before the beginning of construction work for a geological repository is essential as it will be useful for further monitoring during operations and beyond, thus keeping a memory of the original environmental state. The area and the compartments of the biosphere to be observed and monitored as well as the choice of the markers (e.g. bio-markers, biodiversity, quality of the environment, etc.) to be followed must be carefully selected. In parallel, the choice and selection of the environmental monitoring systems (i.e. scientific and technical criteria, social requirements) will be of paramount importance for the evaluation of the perturbations that could be induced during the operational phase of the repository exploitation. This paper presents learning points of the French environment observatory located in the Meuse/Haute-Marne that has been selected for studying the feasibility of the underground disposal of high level wastes in France. (authors)

  17. A Proposal for Geologic Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental Zero-State and Subsequent Monitoring Definition - First Lessons Learned from the French Environment Observatory - 13188

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landais, Patrick; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Mariotti, Andre [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2013-07-01

    Obtaining a reference state of the environment before the beginning of construction work for a geological repository is essential as it will be useful for further monitoring during operations and beyond, thus keeping a memory of the original environmental state. The area and the compartments of the biosphere to be observed and monitored as well as the choice of the markers (e.g. bio-markers, biodiversity, quality of the environment, etc.) to be followed must be carefully selected. In parallel, the choice and selection of the environmental monitoring systems (i.e. scientific and technical criteria, social requirements) will be of paramount importance for the evaluation of the perturbations that could be induced during the operational phase of the repository exploitation. This paper presents learning points of the French environment observatory located in the Meuse/Haute-Marne that has been selected for studying the feasibility of the underground disposal of high level wastes in France. (authors)

  18. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory - Contributions to ICRC 2017 Part VI: IceCube-Gen2, the Next Generation Neutrino Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Collaboration, IceCube-Gen2; :; Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Samarai, I. Al; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Argüelles, C.

    2017-01-01

    Papers on research & development towards IceCube-Gen2, the next generation neutrino observatory at South Pole, submitted to the 35th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2017, Busan, South Korea) by the IceCube-Gen2 Collaboration.

  19. Identification of key processes ruling environmental behaviour of naturally occurring radionuclides on example of Polish Observatory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, Boguslaw [Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Glowny Instytut Gornictwa, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Developing a sufficient understanding of environmental processes and exposure pathways that permit observations to be explained and robust predictions to be made over spatial and temporal scales is a clear challenge that radioecology needs to address. This scientific challenge has been developed as a separate section of the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) a document produced by the STAR Network of Excellence in Radioecology that outlines a suggested prioritisation of research topics in radioecology. Reality is that in order to bring the SRA to fruition, besides considerable resources and time, an available proving ground is required. The sole sources of such data are areas affected by nuclear accidents but the conditions provided do not follow requirements for scientific experiment. On the other hand, it is hard to imagine anyone deliberately releasing substantial amount of radioactivity into environment in order to observe what would happen- Some of coal mines at Upper Silesia Coal Basin have discharged radium reach brines continuously for many years. The total amount of radium released to inland water is quite well known and varies with time or exploitation conditions. This phenomenon has been observed for more than 30 years and many contaminated sites being in different state were identified. Natural radionuclides (mainly radium isotopes) present in mine water after its release into the environment are subject to different chemical and/or physical processes influencing their final fate. The processes of concern are e.g. precipitation, sedimentation, adsorption, absorption, ion exchange, desorption, leaching, erosion, sequential decay etc. Based on physical and chemical rules, available data and real environmental conditions the key processes that govern radium and its progeny behaviour after discharge with mine water, associated transfers among environmental compartments and resulting exposures of both non-human and humans populations have been identified. The

  20. The Environmental Virtual Observatory (EVO) local exemplar: A cloud based local landscape learning visualisation tool for communicating flood risk to catchment stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Beven, Keith; Brewer, Paul; El-khatib, Yehia; Gemmell, Alastair; Haygarth, Phil; Mackay, Ellie; Macklin, Mark; Marshall, Keith; Quinn, Paul; Stutter, Marc; Thomas, Nicola; Vitolo, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Today's world is dominated by a wide range of informatics tools that are readily available to a wide range of stakeholders. There is growing recognition that the appropriate involvement of local communities in land and water management decisions can result in multiple environmental, economic and social benefits. Therefore, local stakeholder groups are increasingly being asked to participate in decision making alongside policy makers, government agencies and scientists. As such, addressing flooding issues requires new ways of engaging with the catchment and its inhabitants at a local level. To support this, new tools and approaches are required. The growth of cloud based technologies offers new novel ways to facilitate this process of exchange of information in earth sciences. The Environmental Virtual Observatory Pilot project (EVOp) is a new initiative from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) designed to deliver proof of concept for new tools and approaches to support the challenges as outlined above (http://www.evo-uk.org/). The long term vision of the Environmental Virtual Observatory is to: • Make environmental data more visible and accessible to a wide range of potential users including public good applications; • Provide tools to facilitate the integrated analysis of data, greater access to added knowledge and expert analysis and visualisation of the results; • Develop new, added-value knowledge from public and private sector data assets to help tackle environmental challenges. As part of the EVO pilot, an interactive cloud based tool has been developed with local stakeholders. The Local Landscape Visualisation Tool attempts to communicate flood risk in local impacted communities. The tool has been developed iteratively to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. This tool (assessable via a web portal) combines numerous cloud based tools and services, local catchment datasets, hydrological models and

  1. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  2. South Pole rockets, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Iwane

    1977-01-01

    Wave-particle interaction was observed, using three rockets, S-210 JA-20, -21 and S-310 JA-2, launched from the South Pole into aurora. Electron density and temperature were measured with these rockets. Simultaneous observations of waves were also made from a satellite (ISIS-II) and at two ground bases (Showa base and Mizuho base). Observed data are presented in this paper. These include electron density and temperature in relation to altitude; variation of electron (60 - 80 keV) count rate with altitude; VLF spectra measured by the PWL of S-210 JA-20 and -21 rockets and the corresponding VLF spectra at the ground bases; low-energy (<10 keV) electron flux measured by S-310 JA-2 rocket; and VLF spectrum measured with S-310 JA-2 rocket. Scheduled measurements for the next project are also briefly described. (Aoki, K.)

  3. Private Observatories in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  4. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  5. Carbon dioxide effluxes and their environmental controls in sagebrush steppe ecosystems along an elevation gradient in the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, K. A.; Fellows, A.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of carbon dioxide effluxes and their environmental controls are poorly constrained in cold shrub steppe ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to 1) analyze environmental parameters in determining soil CO2 efflux, 2) assess the level of agreement between manual chambers and force diffusion (FD) soil CO2 efflux chambers, when both measurements are extrapolated across the growing season, and lastly to compare respiration fluxes to modeled ecosystem respiration fluxes. We installed FD chambers at four sites co-located with eddy covariance (EC) towers and soil moisture and temperature sensors along an elevation gradient in the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory in SW Idaho. FD chamber fluxes were collected continuously at 15-minute intervals. We sampled soil CO2 efflux with manual chambers at plant and interplant spaces in five plots at each site biweekly to monthly during the growing season. The sites included a Wyoming big sagebrush site, a low sagebrush site, a post-fire mountain big sagebrush site, and a mountain big sagebrush site located at elevations of 1425, 1680, 1808 and 2111 m. Climate variation followed the montane elevation gradient; mean annual precipitation (MAP) at the sites is 290, 337, 425, and 795 mm, respectively, and mean annual temperature is 8.9, 8.4, 6.1, 5.4°C. Automated force diffusion chambers detected large differences in carbon dioxide pulse dynamics along the elevation gradient. Growing season carbon dioxide fluxes were 3 times higher at the 425 mm MAP site compared than the lowest elevation sites at 290 and 337 MAP sites and >1.5 higher than the 795 mm MAP site over the same period. Manual fluxes showed similar seasonal patterns as FD chamber fluxes but often higher and greater spatial variability in fluxes than FD chamber fluxes. Plant and interplant flux differences were surprisingly similar, especially at higher elevations. Soil respiration ranged from 0.2-0.48 of ecosystem respiration

  6. Perennial Environment Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, Frederic

    2014-07-01

    The Perennial Environment Observatory [Observatoire Perenne de l'Environnement - OPE] is a unique approach and infrastructure developed and implemented by ANDRA, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, as part of its overall project of deep geological disposal for radioactive waste. Its current mission is to assess the initial state of the rural (forest, pasture, open-field and aquatic) environment, prior to repository construction. This will be followed in 2017 (pending construction authorizations) and for a period exceeding a century, by monitoring of any impact the repository may have on the environment. In addition to serving its own industrial purpose of environmental monitoring, ANDRA also opens the OPE approach, infrastructure and acquired knowledge (database...) to the scientific community to support further research on long term evolution of the environment subjected to natural and anthropogenic stresses, and to contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between the various compartments of the environment

  7. Notice of Intent to Prepare a Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation (CEE) for the Construction and Operation of a High-Energy Neutrino Telescope (Project Ice Cube) at the South Pole

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Request for comments from the NSF for a proposed project to construct and operate a high-energy neutrino telescope at the South Pole. The proposed telescope would be a second-generation instrument based on the successful evolution of a smaller neutrino telescope at the South Pole (1 page).

  8. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  9. Metrópoles desgovernadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Maricato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de sua importância econômica, política, social, demográfica, cultural, territorial e ambiental, há, nas metrópoles brasileiras, uma significativa falta de governo, evidenciada pelas incipientes iniciativas de cooperação administrativa intermunicipal e federativa. Este artigo aborda as mudanças estruturais - no processo de urbanização/ metropolização - devidas à reestruturação produtiva do capitalismo global, e, na escala nacional, trata da mudança no marco institucional - jurídico/político - que passou de concentrador e centralizador, durante o regime militar, para descentralizador e esvaziado, após a Constituição de 1988. O recuo verificado nas políticas sociais durante os anos 1980 e 1990, notadamente em transporte, habitação e saneamento, além do desmonte dos organismos metropolitanos, conduziu nossas metrópoles a um destino de banalização das tragédias urbanas. Em que pese sua urgência, a questão metropolitana não sensibiliza nenhuma força política ou instituição que lhe atribua lugar de destaque na agenda nacional.Despite its economic, political, social, demographic, cultural, territorial and environmental importance, there is a significant lack of government in the brazilian metropolises, evidenced by the incipient initiatives of intermunicipal and federative administrative cooperation. This article analyses the structural changes - in the process of urbanization/metropolization - due to the productive restructuring of global capitalism, and, in a national scale, analyses the change in the institutional mark - legal/political - which passed from concentrator and centralizer, during the Military Regimen, to decentralized and emptied, after 1988 Constitution. The downturn verified in social policies during the years 1980 and 1990, notably in transport, housing and sanitation, besides the dismantling of the metropolitan agencies, has led our cities to the trivialization of urban tragedies. Despite

  10. Evaluation of the pole figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera B, E.; Macias B, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the present work it's shown the possibility of obtaining a pole-figure from the data generated in a conventional X-ray equipment, with a commercial goniometer and no electronic device to process the data. The way to plot the pole-figure on-line is by means of measuring the diffractogram and plot manually the stereographic projections. The atainable precision is very low in such a cumbersome process. In this paper we substitute such method by storing the data in a punched tape from a conventional teletype. The data is processed in a computer and the pole-figure is recorded by a plotter attached to the computer. (author)

  11. Regge poles and alpha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuleneer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The direct Regge pole model as a means of describing resonances in elastic particle scattering has been used for the analysis of the so-called ''anormalous large angle scattering'' of alpha particles by spinless nuclei. (Z.M.)

  12. Repair and rehabilitation of wood utility poles with fibre-reinforced polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzois, D.; Kell, J.A. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-01-15

    In order to ensure safe and reliable service, all wood utility poles need an effective maintenance program. The service life of a wood utility pole depends on several factors, such as decay, mechanical damage, weathering, and changing design requirements. An effective preservative treatment and maintenance program can effectively extend the service life of the wood pole. However, all poles will attain a point when they are no longer suitable for their intended use. New innovative methods are therefore required to restore and maintain the structural integrity of existing wood poles, especially in light of the increasing cost of quality wood for use in poles as well as a result of environmental concerns regarding pole disposal and chemical treatment of existing poles. This article presented results from a research program carried out at the University of Manitoba to develop a repair and rehabilitation technique for wood poles using fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP). It also provided a brief overview of current standards for wood utility poles and reinforcing stubs and discussed the experimental program where long, air-dried jack pine poles were tested in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a proposed rehabilitation system consisting of FRP splines and FRP jackets. The ultimate capacity of the poles was determined using the CSA standard for wood poles. The capacity of the rehabilitated poles was nearly 93 per cent of the average ultimate capacity of the average ultimate capacity of poles tested during the first phase of the study, and 23 per cent higher than the capacity required by CSA standards. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Third Pole Environment (TPE): a new frontier for interdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yao, T.; Thompson, L. G.; Mosbrugger, V.; Zhang, F.; Ma, Y.; Yang, X.; Wang, W.; Joswiak, D.; Liu, X.; Devkota, L. P.; Tayal, S.; Luo, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges, referred to by scientists as the Third Pole (TP), represent one of the largest ice masses of the Earth. The region is one of the most sensitive areas responding to global climate change due to its high altitude and the presence of permafrost and glaciers. The near 100,000 km2 of glaciers ensure the permanent flow of major rivers in this region and provide water to 1.4 billion people in Asia. Thus, environmental changes taking place on the TP significantly influences social and economic development of countries in this region such as China, India, Nepal, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bhutan. With an average elevation higher than 4,000 metres above sea level, the Third Pole is characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes that bear special significance for the Earth's biodiversity, climate and water cycles. For a comprehensive understanding of the environment of the TP and its implications on the development of the region, we need to integrate different disciplines under a them of 'water-ice-air-ecosystem -human' interactions and reveal environmental change processes and mechanisms on the TP and their influences on and regional responses to global changes, and thus to serve for enhancement of human adaptation to the changing environment. Like Antarctica and the Arctic, the Third Pole region is drawing increased attention of the international academic community. A series of observations and monitoring programs in the Third Pole region has been widely implemented. However, data necessary to precisely assess the environmental, societal and economic changes caused by alterations in the Third Pole dynamics are either lacking or insufficient. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) program is thus established as a comprehensive and coordinated international research, monitoring and capacity building initiative, with goals to address the influence

  14. A Green Robotic Observatory for Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Archer, K.

    2008-09-01

    With the development of robotic telescopes and stable remote observing software, it is currently possible for a small institution to have an affordable astronomical facility for astronomy education. However, a faculty member has to deal with the light pollution (observatory location on campus), its nightly operations and regular maintenance apart from his day time teaching and research responsibilities. While building an observatory at a remote location is a solution, the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, not to mention the environmental impact, are beyond the reach of most institutions. In an effort to resolve these issues we have developed a robotic remote observatory that can be operated via the internet from anywhere in the world, has a zero operating carbon footprint and minimum impact on the local environment. The prototype observatory is a clam-shell design that houses an 8-inch telescope with a SBIG ST-10 CCD detector. The brain of the observatory is a low draw 12-volt harsh duty computer that runs the dome, telescope, CCD camera, focuser, and weather monitoring. All equipment runs of a 12-volt AGM-style battery that has low lead content and hence more environmental-friendly to dispose. The total power of 12-14 amp/hrs is generated from a set of solar panels that are large enough to maintain a full battery charge for several cloudy days. This completely eliminates the need for a local power grid for operations. Internet access is accomplished via a high-speed cell phone broadband connection or satellite link eliminating the need for a phone network. An independent observatory monitoring system interfaces with the observatory computer during operation. The observatory converts to a trailer for transportation to the site and is converted to a semi-permanent building without wheels and towing equipment. This ensures minimal disturbance to local environment.

  15. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  16. Poling of UV-written Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Hübner, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months......We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months...

  17. TENCompetence Competence Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervenne, Luk

    2010-01-01

    Vervenne, L. (2007) TENCompetence Competence Observatory. Sources available http://tencompetence.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tencompetence/wp8/org.tencompetence.co/. Available under the three clause BSD license, copyright TENCompetence Foundation.

  18. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  19. The Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojvat, C.

    1997-03-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international collaboration for the detailed study of the highest energy cosmic rays. It will operate at two similar sites, one in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern hemisphere. The Observatory is designed to collect a statistically significant data set of events with energies greater than 10 19 eV and with equal exposures for the northern and southern skies

  20. Choice of wood poles can reduce greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedjo, R. A.

    2002-07-01

    The first, second and third assessment reports on climate change of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are reviewed in an effort to highlight results of past studies on the total life cycle energy utilization of wood products compared with the use of substitute materials such as steel, concrete, bricks and aluminum. Without exception, all studies found that the total energy requirements associated with wood materials are substantially lower than those of other commonly substituted materials. For example, it has been clearly demonstrated that wooden poles are more environmentally benign than concrete or steel poles with regard to their energy utilization and their potential to contribute to atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. An estimate to convert wood poles to steel poles showed that while the greenhouse gas emissions associated with pole conversion were modest compared to the national total, they were nevertheless a significant percentage of US annual emission (approximately 2.8 per cent of annual US total of 5.28 billion tons of carbon dioxide). These studies provide empirical confirmation of the concept that substitution of high energy-intensive materials for low-energy-using wood materials contributes substantially to the overall increase of carbon dioxide emissions through their overall higher energy requirements.

  1. INNOVATIVE CLUSTER OR COMPETITIVENESS POLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the situation of clusters in Romania and their areas of activity and innovation in entrepreneurship Romanian state. It is made also a territorial distribution of clusters on the eight regions. The findings lead to the conclusion that there are some clusters that have the vocation to become poles of competitiveness in areas such as renewable energy, automotive, electronics, health, biotechnology, mechatronics or ICT (Information and Communication Technology which represent the resources for future of the Romanian economy. Regarding the degree of innovation of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the level is relatively modest, 30.8% of all enterprises being innovative. If we were to answer the question the title suggests, we would say "yes" to both since the innovative cluster as well as the competitiveness pole promotes par excellence, innovation through study, research and stimulation of creativity. And this is more than enough to support economic growth of Romania and maintain the competitiveness worldwide.

  2. Pole counting and resonance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.

    1992-01-01

    S-wave resonances occurring close to an inelastic threshold can be classified according to the number of nearby poles they possess. One then has a useful possibility of distinguishing dynamical alternatives by objective appeal to data. Making this quantitative entails developing suitable effective range expansions for various realizations of potential scattering. A key application is deciding the make-up of f 0 (976) (S*). (author)

  3. Performance of new generation pole light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K C; Karunanithi, S; Thio, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a standalone photovoltaic power supply which caters for garden lighting scheme. New Generation Pole Light (NGPL) consists of three parts which are light dependent resistor (LDR) and pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors, microcontroller and light emitting diode (LED) and finally, solar charging system. During the night, LED is switched on with two operating modes which are ultra-bright lighting for a predetermine period (when human presence is detected) and dim lighting. Meanwhile, LED is switched off at day time and solar charging system will recover the capacity of discharged battery. NGPL provides portable, sustainable, environmental friendly and requires minimal maintenance for outdoor lighting scheme for both urban and rural areas.

  4. The Fram Strait integrated ocean observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrbach, E.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Rettig, S.; Rohardt, G.; Sagen, H.; Sandven, S.; Hansen, E.

    2012-04-01

    A long-term oceanographic moored array has been operated since 1997 to measure the ocean water column properties and oceanic advective fluxes through Fram Strait. While the mooring line along 78°50'N is devoted to monitoring variability of the physical environment, the AWI Hausgarten observatory, located north of it, focuses on ecosystem properties and benthic biology. Under the EU DAMOCLES and ACOBAR projects, the oceanographic observatory has been extended towards the innovative integrated observing system, combining the deep ocean moorings, multipurpose acoustic system and a network of gliders. The main aim of this system is long-term environmental monitoring in Fram Strait, combining satellite data, acoustic tomography, oceanographic measurements at moorings and glider sections with high-resolution ice-ocean circulation models through data assimilation. In future perspective, a cable connection between the Hausgarten observatory and a land base on Svalbard is planned as the implementation of the ESONET Arctic node. To take advantage of the planned cabled node, different technologies for the underwater data transmission were reviewed and partially tested under the ESONET DM AOEM. The main focus was to design and evaluate available technical solutions for collecting data from different components of the Fram Strait ocean observing system, and an integration of available data streams for the optimal delivery to the future cabled node. The main components of the Fram Strait integrated observing system will be presented and the current status of available technologies for underwater data transfer will be reviewed. On the long term, an initiative of Helmholtz observatories foresees the interdisciplinary Earth-Observing-System FRAM which combines observatories such as the long term deep-sea ecological observatory HAUSGARTEN, the oceanographic Fram Strait integrated observing system and the Svalbard coastal stations maintained by the Norwegian ARCTOS network. A vision

  5. Preliminary trajectory design for a solar polar observatory using SEP and multiple gravity assists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpaccioli, L.; Noomen, R.; De Smet, S.; Parker, J.S.; Herman, J.F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite solar observatories have always been of central importance to heliophysics; while there have been numerous such missions, the solar poles have been extremely under-observed. This paper proposes to use low-thrust as well as multiple gravity assists to reach the enormous energies required

  6. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Dawson, Richard Nils [Voorheesville, NY; Qu, Ronghai [Clifton Park, NY; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich [Moscow, RU

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  7. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  8. ESO's Two Observatories Merge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS

  9. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  10. South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years, by both staff and visitors, has made major contributions to the fields of astrophysics and astronomy. During 1986 the SAAO has been involved in studies of the following: galaxies; celestial x-ray sources; magellanic clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; nebulae and interstellar matter; stellar astrophysics; open clusters; globular clusters, and solar systems

  11. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    synthetic error prone secondary pole-pole potential data. 1. Introduction. Analytical signal .... The meaning of the rest of the parameters is self- evident. The three ..... interpretation using 3-D analytic signal; Geophysics 57. 116–125. Starostenko ...

  12. Astronomical publications of Melbourne Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andropoulos, Jenny Ioanna

    2014-05-01

    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, four well-equipped government observatories were maintained in Australia - in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. These institutions conducted astronomical observations, often in the course of providing a local time service, and they also collected and collated meteorological data. As well, some of these observatories were involved at times in geodetic surveying, geomagnetic recording, gravity measurements, seismology, tide recording and physical standards, so the term "observatory" was being used in a rather broad sense! Despite the international renown that once applied to Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories, relatively little has been written by modern-day scholars about astronomical activities at these observatories. This research is intended to rectify this situation to some extent by gathering, cataloguing and analysing the published astronomical output of the two Observatories to see what contributions they made to science and society. It also compares their contributions with those of Sydney, Adelaide and Perth Observatories. Overall, Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories produced a prodigious amount of material on astronomy in scientific and technical journals, in reports and in newspapers. The other observatories more or less did likewise, so no observatory of those studied markedly outperformed the others in the long term, especially when account is taken of their relative resourcing in staff and equipment.

  13. Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Mak, H.B.; Robertson, B.C.

    1985-07-01

    This report discusses the proposal to construct a unique neutrino observatory. The observatory would contain a Cerenkov detector which would be located 2070 m below the earth's surface in an INCO mine at Creighton near Sudbury and would contain 1000 tons of D20 which is an excellent target material. Neutrinos carry detailed information in their spectra on the reactions taking place deep in the interstellar interior and also provide information on supernova explosions. In addition to their role as astrophysical probes a knowledge of the properties of neutrinos is crucial to theories of grand unification. There are three main objectives of the laboratory. The prime objective will be to study B electron neutrinos from the sun by a direct counting method that will measure their energy and direction. The second major objective will be to establish if electron neutrinos change into other neutrino species in transit from the sun to the earth. Finally it is hoped to be able to observe a supernova with the proposed detector. The features of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory which make it unique are its high sensitivity to electron neutrinos and its ability to detect all other types of neutrinos of energy greater than 2.2 MeV. In section II of this proposal the major physics objectives are discussed in greater detail. A conceptual design for the detector, and measurements and calculations which establish the feasibility of the neutrino experiments are presented in section III. Section IV is comprised of a discussion on the possible location of the laboratory and Section V contains a brief indication of the main areas to be studied in Phase II of the design study

  14. Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Evans, H.C.; Lee, H.W.

    1986-10-01

    This report is a supplement to a report (SNO-85-3 (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory)) which contained the results of a feasibility study on the construction of a deep underground neutrino observatory based on a 1000 ton heavy water Cerenkov detector. Neutrinos carry detailed information in their spectra on the reactions taking place deep in the interstellar interior and also provide information on supernova explosions. In addition to their role as astrophysical probes, a knowledge of the properties of neutrinos is crucial to theories of grand unification. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is unique in its high sensitivity to electron neutrinos and its ability to detect all other types of neutrinos of energy greater than 2.2 MeV. The results of the July 1985 study indicated that the project is technically feasible in that the proposed detector can measure the direction and energy of electron neutrinos above 7 MeV and the scientific programs will make significant contributions to physics and astrophysics. This present report contains new information obtained since the 1985 feasibility study. The enhanced conversion of neutrinos in the sun and the new physics that could be learned using the heavy water detector are discussed in the physics section. The other sections will discuss progress in the areas of practical importance in achieving the physics objectives such as new techniques to measure, monitor and remove low levels of radioactivity in detector components, ideas on calibration of the detector and so forth. The section entitled Administration contains a membership list of the working groups within the SNO collaboration

  15. The Observatory Health Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Murianni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The number of indicators aiming to provide a clear picture of healthcare needs and the quality and efficiency of healthcare systems and services has proliferated in recent years. The activity of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is multidisciplinary, involving around 280 public health care experts, clinicians, demographers, epidemiologists, mathematicians, statisticians and economists who with their different competencies, and scientific interests aim to improve the collective health of individuals and their conditions through the use of “core indicators”. The main outcome of the National Observatory on Health Status in the Italian Regions is the “Osservasalute Report – a report on health status and the quality of healthcare assistance in the Italian Regions”.

    Methods: The Report adopts a comparative analysis, methodology and internationally validated indicators.

    Results: The results of Observatory Report show it is necessary:

    • to improve the monitoring of primary health care services (where the chronic disease could be cared through implementation of clinical path;

     • to improve in certain areas of hospital care such as caesarean deliveries, as well as the average length of stay in the pre-intervention phase, etc.;

    • to try to be more focused on the patients/citizens in our health care services; • to practice more geographical interventions to reduce the North-South divide as well as reduce gender inequity.

    Conclusions: The health status of Italian people is good with positive results and outcomes, but in the meantime some further efforts should be done especially in the South that still has to improve the quality and the organization of health care services. There are huge differences in accuracy and therefore usefulness of the reported data, both between diseases and between

  16. MMS Observatory TV Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn; Brieda, Lubos; Errigo, Therese

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. In this paper, we report on the extensive thermal vacuum testing campaign. The testing was performed at the Naval Research Laboratory utilizing the "Big Blue" vacuum chamber. A total of ten thermal vacuum tests were performed, including two chamber certifications, three dry runs, and five tests of the individual MMS observatories. During the test, the observatories were enclosed in a thermal enclosure known as the "hamster cage". The enclosure allowed for a detailed thermal control of various observatory zone, but at the same time, imposed additional contamination and system performance requirements. The environment inside the enclosure and the vacuum chamber was actively monitored by several QCMs, RGA, and up to 18 ion gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, which was followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV campaign included slow pump downs with a partial represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with ion gauges. Selected data from these TV tests is presented along with lessons learned.

  17. Study of recursive model for pole-zero cancellation circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Zhou Wei; Hong Xu; Hu Yunchuan; Wan Xinfeng; Du Xin; Wang Renbo

    2014-01-01

    The output of charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) is a negative exponential signal with long decay time which will result in undershoot after C-R differentiator. Pole-zero cancellation (PZC) circuit is often applied to eliminate undershoot in many radiation detectors. However, it is difficult to use a zero created by PZC circuit to cancel a pole in CSA output signal accurately because of the influences of electronic components inherent error and environmental factors. A novel recursive model for PZC circuit is presented based on Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) in this paper. The model is established by numerical differentiation algorithm between the input and the output signal. Some simulation experiments for a negative exponential signal are carried out using Visual Basic for Application (VBA) program and a real x-ray signal is also tested. Simulated results show that the recursive model can reduce the time constant of input signal and eliminate undershoot. (authors)

  18. Sudbury neutrino observatory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewan, G.T.; Evans, H.C.; Lee, H.W.

    1987-10-01

    This report is a proposal by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) collaboration to develop a world class laboratory for neutrino astrophysics. This observatory would contain a large volume heavy water detector which would have the potential to measure both the electron-neutrino flux from the sun and the total solar neutrino flux independent of neutrino type. It will therefore be possible to test models of solar energy generation and, independently, to search for neutrino oscillations with a sensitivity many orders of magnitude greater than that of terrestrial experiments. It will also be possible to search for spectral distortion produced by neutrino oscillations in the dense matter of the sun. Finally the proposed detector would be sensitive to neutrinos from a stellar collapse and would detect neutrinos of all types thus providing detailed information on the masses of muon- and tau-neutrinos. The neutrino detector would contain 1000 tons of D20 and would be located more than 2000 m below ground in the Creighton mine near Sudbury. The operation and performance of the proposed detector are described and the laboratory design is presented. Construction schedules and responsibilities and the planned program of technical studies by the SNO collaboration are outlined. Finally, the total capital cost is estimated to be $35M Canadian and the annual operating cost, after construction, would be $1.8 M Canadian, including the insurance costs of the heavy water

  19. Holography with a Landau pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faedo, Antón F. [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Mateos, David [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys 23, ES-08010, Barcelona (Spain); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tarrío, Javier [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine CP 231, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N{sub f} quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale Λ{sub LP}. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E≪Λ{sub LP} no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E≲Λ{sub LP} the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T≲Λ{sub LP} the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ>d−1.

  20. Holography with a Landau pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N f quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale Λ LP . The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E≪Λ LP no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E≲Λ LP the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T≲Λ LP the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ>d−1.

  1. Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.

  2. Tree-loop duality relation beyond single poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierenbaum, Isabella [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Buchta, Sebastian; Draggiotis, Petros; Malamos, Ioannis; Rodrigo, German [Valencia Univ. Paterna (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular

    2012-11-15

    We develop the Tree-Loop Duality Relation for two- and three-loop integrals with multiple identical propagators (multiple poles). This is the extension of the Duality Relation for single poles and multi-loop integrals derived in previous publications. We prove a generalization of the formula for single poles to multiple poles and we develop a strategy for dealing with higher-order pole integrals by reducing them to single pole integrals using Integration By Parts.

  3. Cold Hole Over Jupiter's Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Observations with two NASA telescopes show that Jupiter has an arctic polar vortex similar to a vortex over Earth's Antarctica that enables depletion of Earth's stratospheric ozone.These composite images of Jupiter's north polar region from the Hubble Space Telescope (right) and the Infrared Telescope Facility (left) show a quasi-hexagonal shape that extends vertically from the stratosphere down into the top of the troposphere. A sharp temperature drop, compared to surrounding air masses, creates an eastward wind that tends to keep the polar atmosphere, including the stratospheric haze, isolated from the rest of the atmosphere.The linear striations in the composite projections are artifacts of the image processing. The area closest to the pole has been omitted because it was too close to the edge of the planet in the original images to represent the planet reliably.The composite on the right combines images from the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope taken at a wavelength of 890 nanometers, which shows stratospheric haze particles.The sharp boundary and wave-like structure of the haze layer suggest a polar vortex and a similarity to Earth's stratospheric polar clouds. Images of Jupiter's thermal radiation clinch that identification. The composite on the left, for example, is made from images taken with Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mid-Infrared Large-Well Imager at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility at a wavelength of 17 microns. It shows polar air mass that is 5 to 6 degrees Celsius (9 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit) colder than its surroundings, with the same border as the stratospheric haze. Similar observations at other infrared wavelengths show the cold air mass extends at least as high as the middle stratosphere down to the top of the troposphere.These images were taken Aug. 11 through Aug. 13, 1999, near a time when Jupiter's north pole was most visible from Earth. Other Infrared Telescope Facility images at frequencies sensitive to the

  4. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beier, E.W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in January 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical 37 Cl and 71 Ga experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun

  5. The Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Harris, Walter M.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection theme roadmap calls for comparative study of how the planets, comets, and local interstellar medium (LISM) interact with the Sun and respond to solar variability. Through such a study we advance our understanding of basic physical plasma and gas dynamic processes, thus increasing our predictive capabilities for the terrestrial, planetary, and interplanetary environments where future remote and human exploration will occur. Because the other planets have lacked study initiatives comparable to the terrestrial ITM, LWS, and EOS programs, our understanding of the upper atmospheres and near space environments on these worlds is far less detailed than our knowledge of the Earth. To close this gap we propose a mission to study {\\it all) of the solar interacting bodies in our planetary system out to the heliopause with a single remote sensing space observatory, the Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments (SCOPE). SCOPE consists of a binocular EUV/FUV telescope operating from a remote, driftaway orbit that provides sub-arcsecond imaging and broadband medium resolution spectro-imaging over the 55-290 nm bandpass, and high (R>10$^{5}$ resolution H Ly-$\\alpha$ emission line profile measurements of small scale planetary and wide field diffuse solar system structures. A key to the SCOPE approach is to include Earth as a primary science target. From its remote vantage point SCOPE will be able to observe auroral emission to and beyond the rotational pole. The other planets and comets will be monitored in long duration campaigns centered when possible on solar opposition when interleaved terrestrial-planet observations can be used to directly compare the response of both worlds to the same solar wind stream and UV radiation field. Using a combination of observations and MHD models, SCOPE will isolate the different controlling parameters in each planet system and gain insight into the underlying physical processes that define the

  6. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  7. The pole tide in deep oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fluid-dynamical theory of the pole tide is examined by describing the oceanic response to the Chandler wobble and assessing its implications for mantle anelasticity and low-frequency ocean dynamics. The Laplace tide equations accounting for bottom friction are given, and a spherical harmonic approach is delineated in which the time-independent portion of the tide height is expanded. Pole-tide height and related inertia products are linearly proportional to wobble amplitude, and the final equations are modified to account for mantle elasticity and oceanic loading. Results for pole tide effects are given for various earth models with attention to the role of boundary constraints. A dynamic effect is identified which lengthens the Chandler period by about 1 day more than static lengthening, a contribution that suggests a vigorous low-frequency response. The values derived are shown to agree with previous models that do not incorporate the effects of the pole tide.

  8. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

  9. Interim report on the fate of wood preservatives in soils adjacent to in-service utility poles in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.B.; Ripp, J.; Sims, R.C.

    1995-06-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is studying the environmental impact of preservatives associated with in-service utility poles. As part of this endeavor, two EPRI contractors, META Environmental, Inc. (META) and Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc. (Atlantic), have collected soil samples from around wood utility poles nationwide, for various chemical and physical analyses. This report covers the results for 107 pole sites in the US. These pole sites included a range of preservative types, soil types, wood types, pole sizes, and in-service ages. The poles in this study were preserved with one of two types of preservative: pentachlorophenol (PCP) or creosote. Approximately 40 to 50 soil samples were collected from each wood pole site in this study. The soil samples collected from the pole sites were analyzed for chlorinated phenols and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) if the pole was preserved with PCP, or for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) if the pole was preserved with creosote. The soil samples were also analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC), and cationic exchange capacity (CEC). Additional samples were used in studies to determine biological degradation rates, and soil-water distribution and retardation coefficients of PCP in site soils. Methods of analysis followed standard EPA and ASTM methods, with some modifications in the chemical analyses to enable the efficient processing of many samples with sufficiently low detection limits for this study. All chemical, physical, and site-specific data were stored in a relational computer database

  10. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  11. Table mountain observatory support to other programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) facilities include well equipped 24 inch and 16 inch telescopes with a 40 inch telescope (owned by Pomona College) due for completion during FY 89. This proposal is to provide operational support (equipment maintenance, setup, and observing assistnce) at TMO to other programs. The program currently most heavily supported by this grant is the asteroid photometry program directed by A. W. Harris. During 1987, about 20 asteroids were observed, including a near-earth asteroid, 1951 Midas. The photometric observations are used to derive rotation periods, estimate shapes and pole orientations, and to define the phase relations of asteroids. The E class asteroid 64 Angelina was observed, and showed the same opposition spike observed of 44 Jysa, last year. Comet observations are made with the narrow band camera system of David Rees, University College London. Observational support and training was provided to students and faculty from Claremont Colleges for variable star observing programs. Researchers propose to continue the asteroid program, with emphasis on measuring phase relations of low and high albedo asteroids at very low phase angles, and supporting collaborative studies of asteroid shapes

  12. Health observatories in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, A; Damari, B; Larijani, B; Vosoogh Moghadda, A; Alikhani, S; Shadpour, K; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS) was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  13. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.; Chan, Y.D.; Garcia, A.; Lesko, K.T.; Smith, A.R.; Stokstad, R.G.; Zlimen, I.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Hallin, A.; Lee, H.W.; Leslie, J.R.; MacArthur, J.D.; Mak, H.B.; McDonald, A.B.; McLatchie, W.; Robertson, B.C.; Skensved, P.; Sur, B.; Jagam, P.; Law, J.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Simpson, J.J.; Wang, J.X.; Tanner, N.W.; Jelley, N.A.; Barton, J.C.; Doucas, G.; Hooper, E.W.; Knox, A.B.; Moorhead, M.E.; Omori, M.; Trent, P.T.; Wark, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Two experiments now in progress have reported measurements of the flux of high energy neutrinos from the Sun. Since about 1970, Davis and his co-workers have been using a 37 Cl-based detector to measure the 7 Be and 8 B solar neutrino flux and have found it to be at least a factor of three lower than that predicted by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). The Kamiokande collaborations has been taking data since 1986 using a large light-water Cerenkov detector and have confirmed that the flux is about two times lower than predicted. Recent results from the SAGE and GALLEX gallium-based detectors show that there is also a deficit of the low energy pp solar neutrinos. These discrepancies between experiment and theory could arise because of inadequacies in the theoretical models of solar energy generation or because of previously unobserved properties of neutrinos. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) will provide the information necessary to decide which of these solutions to the ''solar neutrino problem'' is correct

  14. Developing a Virtual Network of Research Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Kirschtl, D.

    2008-12-01

    The hydrologic community has been discussing the concept of a network of observatories for the advancement of hydrologic science in areas of scaling processes, in testing generality of hypotheses, and in examining non-linear couplings between hydrologic, biotic, and human systems. The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) is exploring the formation of a virtual network of observatories, formed from existing field studies without regard to funding source. Such a network would encourage sharing of data, metadata, field methods, and data analysis techniques to enable multidisciplinary synthesis, meta-analysis, and scientific collaboration in hydrologic and environmental science and engineering. The virtual network would strive to provide both the data and the environmental context of the data through advanced cyberinfrastructure support. The foundation for this virtual network is Water Data Services that enable the publication of time-series data collected at fixed points using a services-oriented architecture. These publication services, developed in the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information Systems project, permit the discovery of data from both academic and government sources through a single portal. Additional services under consideration are publication of geospatial data sets, immersive environments based upon site digital elevation models, and a common web portal to member sites populated with structured data about the site (such as land use history and geologic setting) to permit understanding the environmental context of the data being shared.

  15. Pole shifting with constrained output feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, D.; Mensah, S.; Boisvert, J.

    1984-03-01

    The concept of pole placement plays an important role in linear, multi-variable, control theory. It has received much attention since its introduction, and several pole shifting algorithms are now available. This work presents a new method which allows practical and engineering constraints such as gain limitation and controller structure to be introduced right into the pole shifting design strategy. This is achieved by formulating the pole placement problem as a constrained optimization problem. Explicit constraints (controller structure and gain limits) are defined to identify an admissible region for the feedback gain matrix. The desired pole configuration is translated into an appropriate cost function which must be closed-loop minimized. The resulting constrained optimization problem can thus be solved with optimization algorithms. The method has been implemented as an algorithmic interactive module in a computer-aided control system design package, MVPACK. The application of the method is illustrated to design controllers for an aircraft and an evaporator. The results illustrate the importance of controller structure on overall performance of a control system

  16. POLE somatic mutations in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joana; Pinto, Carla; Pinto, Diana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Silva, Romina; Peixoto, Ana; Rocha, Patrícia; Veiga, Isabel; Santos, Catarina; Santos, Rui; Cabreira, Verónica; Lopes, Paula; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2017-12-01

    Despite all the knowledge already gathered, the picture of somatic genetic changes in colorectal tumorigenesis is far from complete. Recently, germline and somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit (POLE) gene have been reported in a small subset of microsatellite-stable and hypermutated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), affecting the proofreading activity of the enzyme and leading to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. To evaluate the role of POLE mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis, namely in advanced CRC, we searched for somatic mutations by Sanger sequencing in tumor DNA samples from 307 cases. Microsatellite instability and mutation analyses of a panel of oncogenes were performed in the tumors harboring POLE mutations. Three heterozygous mutations were found in two tumors, the c.857C>G, p.Pro286Arg, the c.901G>A, p.Asp301Asn, and the c.1376C>T, p.Ser459Phe. Of the POLE-mutated CRCs, one tumor was microsatellite-stable and the other had low microsatellite instability, whereas KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were found in one tumor each. We conclude that POLE somatic mutations exist but are rare in advanced CRC, with further larger studies being necessary to evaluate its biological and clinical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Sudbury neutrino observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLatchie, W.; Earle, E.D.

    1987-08-01

    This report initially discusses the Homestake Mine Experiment, South Dakota, U.S.A. which has been detecting neutrinos in 38 x 10 litre vats of cleaning fluid containing chlorine since the 1960's. The interation between neutrinos and chlorine produces argon so the number of neutrinos over time can be calculated. However, the number of neutrinos which have been detected represent only one third to one quarter of the expected number i.e. 11 per month rather than 48. It is postulated that the electron-neutrinos originating in the solar core could change into muon- or tau-neutrinos during passage through the high electron densities of the sun. The 'low' results at Homestake could thus be explained by the fact that the experiment is only sensitive to electron-neutrinos. The construction of a heavy water detector is therefore proposed as it would be able to determine the energy of the neutrinos, their time of arrival at the detector and their direction. It is proposed to build the detector at Creighton mine near Sudbury at a depth of 6800 feet below ground level thus shielding the detector from cosmic rays which would completely obscure the neutrino signals from the detector. The report then discusses the facility itself, the budget estimate and the social and economic impact on the surrounding area. At the time of publication the proposal for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory was due to be submitted for peer review by Oct. 1, 1987 and then to various granting bodies charged with the funding of scientific research in Canada, the U.S.A. and Britain

  18. An astronomical observatory for Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.

  19. Astronomical databases of Nikolaev Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsyuk, Y.; Mazhaev, A.

    2008-07-01

    Several astronomical databases were created at Nikolaev Observatory during the last years. The databases are built by using MySQL search engine and PHP scripts. They are available on NAO web-site http://www.mao.nikolaev.ua.

  20. The South African astronomical observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.

    1985-01-01

    A few examples of the activities of the South African Astronomical Observatory are discussed. This includes the studying of stellar evolution, dust around stars, the determination of distances to galaxies and collaboration with space experiments

  1. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The geographical position, climate and equipment at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), together with the enthusiasm and efforts of SAAO scientific and technical staff and of visiting scientists, have enabled the Observatory to make a major contribution to the fields of astrophysics and cosmology. During 1987 the SAAO has been involved in studies of the following: supernovae; galaxies, including Seyfert galaxies; celestial x-ray sources; magellanic clouds; pulsating variables; galatic structure; binary star phenomena; nebulae; interstellar matter and stellar astrophysics

  2. Pole lengths influence O2-cost during double poling in highly trained cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Camilla Høivik; Rud, Bjarne; Myklebust, Håvard; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    In elite cross-country skiing, double poling is used in different terrain. This study compared O 2 -cost and kinematics during double poling with four different pole lengths [self-selected (SS), SS - 5 cm, SS + 5 cm, SS + 10 cm] at Low versus Moderate incline. Thirteen highly trained male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD 23 ± 3 years; 182 ± 4 cm; 77 ± 6 kg) completed eight submaximal trials with roller skis on a treadmill at two conditions: "Low incline" (1.7°; 4.5 m s -1 ) and "Moderate incline" (4.5°; 2.5 m s -1 ) with each of the four pole lengths. O 2 -cost and 3D body kinematics were assessed in each trial. In Low incline, SS + 10 cm induced a lower O 2 -cost than all the other pole lengths [P size (ES) 0.5-0.8], whereas no differences were found between the remaining pole lengths (P > 0.05; ES 0.2-0.4). In Moderate incline, significant differences between all pole lengths were found for O 2 -cost, with SS - 5 cm > SS > SS + 5 cm > SS + 10 cm (P differences in O 2 -cost between SS and the other pole lengths were greater in Moderate incline than Low incline (SS - 5 cm; 1.5%, ES 0.8, SS + 5 cm; 1.3%, ES 1.0, and SS + 10 cm; 1.9%, ES 1.0, all P difference was found in cycle, poling or reposition times between pole lengths. However, at both conditions a smaller total vertical displacement of center of mass was observed with SS + 10 cm compared to the other pole lengths. Increasing pole length from SS - 5 cm to SS + 10 cm during double poling induced lower O 2 -cost and this advantage was greater in Moderate compared to Low incline.

  3. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  4. PNRA. South-pole directory listing

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Carpen?, Andrea; Ramorino, Chiara; Rossi, Lucio

    1992-01-01

    In the following all DATA-SET descriptors (DSD) contained in the "South-Pole Directory" (vers. 1992) are listed. The "South-Pole Directory" was a joint project between ENEA and CNR. The IEI/CNR took care of the data digitalization and check and of the english translation (where necessary). The ARF/CNR and the Progetto Antartide/ENEA joined the IEI/CNR in defining the acronyms of the Sensor_Names and of the Source_Names, together with the short and long names for the Data_Centers. Finally, the...

  5. The Carl Sagan solar and stellar observatories as remote observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Morales, J.; Loera-Gonzalez, P.

    In this work we summarize recent efforts made by the University of Sonora, with the goal of expanding the capability for remote operation of the Carl Sagan Solar and Stellar Observatories, as well as the first steps that have been taken in order to achieve autonomous robotic operation in the near future. The solar observatory was established in 2007 on the university campus by our late colleague A. Sánchez-Ibarra. It consists of four solar telescopes mounted on a single equatorial mount. On the other hand, the stellar observatory, which saw the first light on 16 February 2010, is located 21 km away from Hermosillo, Sonora at the site of the School of Agriculture of the University of Sonora. Both observatories can now be remotely controlled, and to some extent are able to operate autonomously. In this paper we discuss how this has been accomplished in terms of the use of software as well as the instruments under control. We also briefly discuss the main scientific and educational objectives, the future plans to improve the control software and to construct an autonomous observatory on a mountain site, as well as the opportunities for collaborations.

  6. The Observatory as Laboratory: Spectral Analysis at Mount Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashear, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    This paper will discuss the seminal changes in astronomical research practices made at the Mount Wilson Observatory in the early twentieth century by George Ellery Hale and his staff. Hale’s desire to set the agenda for solar and stellar astronomical research is often described in terms of his new telescopes, primarily the solar tower observatories and the 60- and 100-inch telescopes on Mount Wilson. This paper will focus more on the ancillary but no less critical parts of Hale’s research mission: the establishment of associated “physical” laboratories as part of the observatory complex where observational spectral data could be quickly compared with spectra obtained using specialized laboratory equipment. Hale built a spectroscopic laboratory on the mountain and a more elaborate physical laboratory in Pasadena and staffed it with highly trained physicists, not classically trained astronomers. The success of Hale’s vision for an astronomical observatory quickly made the Carnegie Institution’s Mount Wilson Observatory one of the most important astrophysical research centers in the world.

  7. Taurus Hill Observatory Scientific Observations for Pulkova Observatory during the 2016-2017 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentunen, V.-P.; Haukka, H.; Heikkinen, E.; Salmi, T.; Juutilainen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused on exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring. We also do long term monitoring projects.

  8. GEOSCOPE Observatory Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, N.; Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.

    2010-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. Currently, 23 stations send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center and tsunami warning centers. In 2009, two stations (SSB and PPTF) have been equipped with warpless base plates. Analysis of one year of data shows that the new installation decreases long period noise (20s to 1000s) by 10 db on horizontal components. SSB is now rated in the top ten long period stations for horizontal components according to the LDEO criteria. In 2010, Stations COYC, PEL and RER have been upgraded with Q330HR, Metrozet electronics and warpless base plates. They have been calibrated with the calibration table CT-EW1 and the software jSeisCal and Calex-EW. Aluminum jars are now installed instead of glass bells. A vacuum of 100 mbars is applied in the jars which improves thermal insulation of the seismometers and reduces moisture and long-term corrosion in the sensor. A new station RODM has just been installed in Rodrigues Island in Mauritius with standard Geoscope STS2 setup: STS2 seismometer on a granite base plate and covered by cooking pot and thermal insulation, it is connected to Q330HR digitizer, active lightning protection, Seiscomp PC and real-time internet connection. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users by different interfaces according data types (see : http://geoscope.ipgp.fr) - Continuous data in real time coming

  9. A Visit to the South Pole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    For these reasons, I could not buy many of the essential things .... Geomagnetic South Pole at 78° 27' S, 106° 48' E at an altitude of 3,488 metres on approximately .... Smokers at the station were often found searching for used cigarette butts.

  10. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  11. Stabilization, pole placement, and regular implementability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belur, MN; Trentelman, HL

    In this paper, we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a-given linear, differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding a suitable,

  12. Quasiparticle pole strength in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that single-particle-like behavior in nuclear matter is much less probable than Brueckner theory suggests. In particular, the quasiparticle pole strength is evaluated for nuclear matter and it is shown that, contrary to the spirit of Brueckner theory, low momentum states play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of z/sub k/sub F/. (auth)

  13. Pole masses of quarks in dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, L.V.; Kalmykov, M.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Pole masses of quarks in quantum chromodynamics are calculated to the two-loop order in the framework of the regularization by dimensional reduction. For the diagram with a light quark loop, the non-Euclidean asymptotic expansion is constructed with the external momentum on the mass shell of a heavy quark

  14. Rotor pole refurbishment for hydrogenerators: insulation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.R.; Rux, L.

    2005-01-01

    Rotor poles for Unit 1 at Lower Granite Powerhouse were removed from the rotor and shipped to a repair facility for refurbishment. Upon inspection, it was found that all of the pole bodies exhibited a distinct bow, center to end, on the pole mounting surface. In some cases, the deflection was as much as 0.106 inch. Concerns were raised about how this condition might affect the ability to properly insulate and/or re-seat the poles. This paper presents details of the rotor pole and field winding evaluation, the problems encountered, and the solutions implemented to successfully refurbish the rotor poles and field winding. (author)

  15. Griffith Observatory: Hollywood's Celestial Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Emily A.; Dr. Stuart W. Leslie

    2018-01-01

    The Griffith Observatory, perched atop the Hollywood Hills, is perhaps the most recognizable observatory in the world. Since opening in 1935, this Los Angeles icon has brought millions of visitors closer to the heavens. Through an analysis of planning documentation, internal newsletters, media coverage, programming and exhibition design, I demonstrate how the Observatory’s Southern California location shaped its form and function. The astronomical community at nearby Mt. Wilson Observatory and Caltech informed the selection of instrumentation and programming, especially for presentations with the Observatory’s Zeiss Planetarium, the second installed in the United States. Meanwhile the Observatory staff called upon some of Hollywood’s best artists, model makers, and scriptwriters to translate the latest astronomical discoveries into spectacular audiovisual experiences, which were enhanced with Space Age technological displays on loan from Southern California’s aerospace companies. The influences of these three communities- professional astronomy, entertainment, and aerospace- persist today and continue to make Griffith Observatory one of the premiere sites of public astronomy in the country.

  16. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (http://www.citi-sense.eu), Citclops (http://citclops.eu), COBWEB (http://cobwebproject.eu), OMNISCIENTIS (http://www.omniscientis.eu), and WeSenseIt (http://www.wesenseit.eu). Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with

  17. Visits to La Plata Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, A.

    1985-03-01

    La Plata Observatory will welcome visitors to ESO-La Silla that are willing to make a stop at Buenos Aires on their trip to Chile or on their way back. There is a nice guesthouse at the Observatory that can be used, for a couple of days or so, by astronomers interested in visiting the Observatory and delivering talks on their research work to the Argentine colleagues. No payments can, however, be made at present. La Plata is at 60 km from Buenos Aires. In the same area lie the Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica dei Espacio (IAFE), in Buenos Aires proper, and the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR). about 40 km from Buenos Aires on the way to La Plata. Those interested should contacl: Sr Decano Prof. Cesar A. Mondinalli, or Dr Alejandro Feinstein, Observatorio Astron6mico, Paseo dei Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Telex: 31216 CESLA AR.

  18. Astronomical Research Using Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tanaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Observatory (VO for Astronomy is a framework that empowers astronomical research by providing standard methods to find, access, and utilize astronomical data archives distributed around the world. VO projects in the world have been strenuously developing VO software tools and/or portal systems. Interoperability among VO projects has been achieved with the VO standard protocols defined by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA. As a result, VO technologies are now used in obtaining astronomical research results from a huge amount of data. We describe typical examples of astronomical research enabled by the astronomical VO, and describe how the VO technologies are used in the research.

  19. The South African Astronomical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The research work discussed in this report covers a wide range, from work on the nearest stars to studies of the distant quasars, and the astronomers who have carried out this work come from universities and observatories spread around the world as well as from South African universities and from the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) staff itself. A characteristic of much of this work has been its collaborative character. SAAO studies in 1989 included: supernovae 1987A; galaxies; ground-based observations of celestial x-ray sources; the Magellanic Clouds; pulsating variables; galactic structure; binary star phenomena; the provision of photometric standards; nebulous matter; stellar astrophysics, and astrometry

  20. Fatigue failure and cracking in high mast poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive research project to investigate the fatigue : cracking and failure of galvanized high mast illumination poles (HMIP). Ultrasonic inspection of : poles throughout the state has revealed the presence...

  1. Improvements in geomagnetic observatory data quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reda, Jan; Fouassier, Danielle; Isac, Anca

    2011-01-01

    between observatories and the establishment of observatory networks has harmonized standards and practices across the world; improving the quality of the data product available to the user. Nonetheless, operating a highquality geomagnetic observatory is non-trivial. This article gives a record...... of the current state of observatory instrumentation and methods, citing some of the general problems in the complex operation of geomagnetic observatories. It further gives an overview of recent improvements of observatory data quality based on presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly at Sopron and INTERMAGNET...

  2. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  3. Second-harmonic imaging of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2000-01-01

    Electric-field poled silica-based waveguides are characterized by measurements of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and of the linear electro-optic effect (LEO). A SHG scanning technique allowing for high-resolution imaging of poled devices is demonstrated. Scans along the direction of the poling...

  4. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) satellite is a NOAA operated asset at the first Lagrange (L1) point. The primary space weather instrument is the PlasMag...

  5. Permanent magnet machine and method with reluctance poles and non-identical PM poles for high density operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    2010-05-18

    A method and apparatus in which a stator (11) and a rotor (12) define a primary air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one source (23, 40), and preferably two sources (23, 24, 40) of DC excitation are positioned for inducing DC flux at opposite ends of the rotor (12). Portions of PM material (17, 17a) are provided as boundaries separating PM rotor pole portions from each other and from reluctance poles. The PM poles (18) and the reluctance poles (19) can be formed with poles of one polarity having enlarged flux paths in relation to flux paths for pole portions of an opposite polarity, the enlarged flux paths communicating with a core of the rotor (12) so as to increase reluctance torque produced by the electric machine. Reluctance torque is increased by providing asymmetrical pole faces. The DC excitation can also use asymmetric poles and asymmetric excitation sources. Several embodiments are disclosed with additional variations.

  6. Physics on the Z-pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Tsunehiko; Kurihara, Yoshimasa; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Keisuke

    1994-01-01

    JLC will provide a high luminosity of 2.0 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 on the Z-pole. To realize the Z-pole running we need to add a transport line to bypass unnecessary part of the main linac. With this high luminosity, the third angle of the unitality triangle (sin 2φ 3 ) can be measured in B s (B s ) → pK s channel with 3σ sensitivity in 1 year when sin 2φ 3 = -0.5, Xs = 10, and the branching ratio of the channel is 2 x 10 -5 . Also sin 2 θw can be measured with accuracy of Δsin 2 θw/sin 2 θw = 0.1%. (J.P.N.)

  7. Sun's pole-equator flux differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvedere, G [Istituto di Astronomia dell' Universita di Catania, Italy; Paterno, L [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Italy

    1977-04-01

    The possibility that large flux differences between the poles and the equator at the bottom of the solar convective zone are compatible with the small differences observed at the surface is studied. The consequences of increasing the depth of the convective zone due to overshooting are explored. A Boussinesq model is used for the convective zone and it is assumed that the interaction of the global convection with rotation is modelled through a convective flux coefficient whose perturbed part is proportional to the local Taylor number. The numerical integration of the equations of motion and energy shows that coexistence between large pole-equator flux differences at the bottom and small ones at the surface is possible if the solar convective zone extends to a depth of 0.4 R(Sun). The angular velocity distribution inside the convective zone is in agreement with the ..cap alpha omega..-dynamo theories of the solar cycle.

  8. Seafloor Observatory Science: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Beranzoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean exerts a pervasive influence on Earth’s environment. It is therefore important that we learn how this system operates (NRC, 1998b; 1999. For example, the ocean is an important regulator of climate change (e.g., IPCC, 1995. Understanding the link between natural and anthropogenic climate change and ocean circulation is essential for predicting the magnitude and impact of future changes in Earth’s climate. Understanding the ocean, and the complex physical, biological, chemical, and geological systems operating within it, should be an important goal for the opening decades of the 21st century. Another fundamental reason for increasing our understanding of ocean systems is that the global economy is highly dependent on the ocean (e.g., for tourism, fisheries, hydrocarbons, and mineral resources (Summerhayes, 1996. The establishment of a global network of seafloor observatories will help to provide the means to accomplish this goal. These observatories will have power and communication capabilities and will provide support for spatially distributed sensing systems and mobile platforms. Sensors and instruments will potentially collect data from above the air-sea interface to below the seafloor. Seafloor observatories will also be a powerful complement to satellite measurement systems by providing the ability to collect vertically distributed measurements within the water column for use with the spatial measurements acquired by satellites while also providing the capability to calibrate remotely sensed satellite measurements (NRC, 2000. Ocean observatory science has already had major successes. For example the TAO array has enabled the detection, understanding and prediction of El Niño events (e.g., Fujimoto et al., 2003. This paper is a world-wide review of the new emerging “Seafloor Observatory Science”, and describes both the scientific motivations for seafloor observatories and the technical solutions applied to their architecture. A

  9. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  10. Space astrophysical observatory 'Orion-2'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.; Jarakyan, A.L.; Krmoyan, M.N.; Kashin, A.L.; Loretsyan, G.M.; Ohanesyan, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrograms of a large number of faint stars up to 13sup(m) were obtained in the wavelengths 2000-5000 A by means of the space observatory 'Orion-2' installed in the spaceship 'Soyuz-13' with two spacemen on board. The paper deals with a description of the operation modes of this observatory, the designs and basic schemes of the scientific and auxiliary device and the method of combining the work of the flight engineer and the automation system of the observatory itself. It also treats of the combination of the particular parts of 'Orion-2' observatory on board the spaceship and the measures taken to provide for its normal functioning in terms of the space flight. A detailed description is given of the optical, electrical and mechanical schemes of the devices - meniscus telescope with an objective prism, stellar diffraction spectrographs, single-coordinate and two-coordinate stellar and solar transducers, control panel, control systems, etc. The paper also provides the functional scheme of astronavigation, six-wheel stabilization, the design of mounting (assembling) the stabilized platform carrying the telescopes and the drives used in it. Problems relating to the observation program in orbit, the ballistic provision of initial data, and control of the operation of the observatory are also dealt with. In addition, the paper carries information of the photomaterials used, the methods of their energy calibration, standardization and the like. Matters of pre-start tests of apparatus, the preparation of the spacemen for conducting astronomical observations with the given devices, etc. are likewise dwelt on. The paper ends with a brief survey of the results obtained and the elaboration of the observed material. (Auth.)

  11. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor with 8 salient poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Kazuaki; Hirata, Katsuhiro; Niguchi, Noboru; Kohara, Akira

    2017-12-01

    We propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor for a traction motor of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, which consists of 10 salient poles in the rotor and 12 slots in the stator. However, iron losses of this motor in high rotation speed ranges is large because the number of salient poles is large. In this paper, we propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor that consists of 8 salient poles and 12 slots. The characteristics of the 10-pole-12-slot and 8-pole-12-slot current superimposition variable flux reluctance motors are compared using finite element analysis under vector control.

  13. Current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor with 8 salient poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahara Kazuaki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor for a traction motor of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, which consists of 10 salient poles in the rotor and 12 slots in the stator. However, iron losses of this motor in high rotation speed ranges is large because the number of salient poles is large. In this paper, we propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor that consists of 8 salient poles and 12 slots. The characteristics of the 10-pole-12-slot and 8-pole-12-slot current superimposition variable flux reluctance motors are compared using finite element analysis under vector control.

  14. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  15. MMS Observatory Thermal Vacuum Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn P.; Errigo, Therese; Brieda, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    The MMS mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earths magnetosphere. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Thermal vacuum testing was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in their Big Blue vacuum chamber. The individual spacecraft were tested and enclosed in a cryopanel enclosure called a Hamster cage. Specific contamination control validations were actively monitored by several QCMs, a facility RGA, and at times, with 16 Ion Gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV environment included slow pump downs with represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with Ion gauges. Various data from these TV tests will be shown along with lessons learned.

  16. The MicroObservatory Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.

    1994-12-01

    A group of scientists, engineers and educators based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has developed a prototype of a small, inexpensive and fully integrated automated astronomical telescope and image processing system. The project team is now building five second generation instruments. The MicroObservatory has been designed to be used for classroom instruction by teachers as well as for original scientific research projects by students. Probably in no other area of frontier science is it possible for a broad spectrum of students (not just the gifted) to have access to state-of-the-art technologies that would allow for original research. The MicroObservatory combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self contained and weatherized reflecting optical telescope and mount. A microcomputer points the telescope and processes the captured images. The MicroObservatory has also been designed to be used as a valuable new capture and display device for real time astronomical imaging in planetariums and science museums. When the new instruments are completed in the next few months, they will be tried with high school students and teachers, as well as with museum groups. We are now planning to make the MicroObservatories available to students, teachers and other individual users over the Internet. We plan to allow the telescope to be controlled in real time or in batch mode, from a Macintosh or PC compatible computer. In the real-time mode, we hope to give individual access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an "on-site" operator. Users would sign up for a specific period of time. In the batch mode, users would submit jobs for the telescope. After the MicroObservatory completed a specific job, the images would be e-mailed back to the user. At present, we are interested in gaining answers to the following questions: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time observations? (2) What criteria should be used

  17. International Lunar Observatory Association Advancing 21st Century Astronomy from the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Steve

    2015-08-01

    Long considered a prime location to conduct astronomical observations, the Moon is beginning to prove its value in 21st Century astronomy through the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope aboard China’s Chang’e-3 Moon lander and through the developing missions of the International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA). With 24 hours / Earth day of potential operability facilitating long-duration observations, the stable platform of the lunar surface and extremely thin exosphere guaranteeing superior observation conditions, zones of radio-quiet for radio astronomy, and the resources and thermal stability at the lunar South Pole, the Moon provides several pioneering advantages for astronomy. ILOA, through MOUs with NAOC and CNSA, has been collaborating with China to make historic Galaxy observations with the Chang’e-3 LUT, including imaging Galaxy M101 in December 2014. LUT has an aperture of 150mm, covers a wavelength range of 245 to 340 nanometers and is capable of detecting objects at a brightness down to 14 mag. The success of China’s mission has provided support and momentum for ILOA’s mission to place a 2-meter dish, multifunctional observatory at the South Pole of the Moon NET 2017. ILOA also has plans to send a precursor observatory instrument (ILO-X) on the inaugural mission of GLXP contestant Moon Express. Advancing astronomy and astrophysics from the Moon through public-private and International partnerships will provide many valuable research opportunities while also helping to secure humanity’s position as multi world species.

  18. Boscovich and the Brera Observatory .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, E.

    In the mid 18th century both theoretical and practical astronomy were cultivated in Milan by Barnabites and Jesuits. In 1763 Boscovich was appointed to the chair of mathematics of the University of Pavia in the Duchy of Milan, and the following year he designed an observatory for the Jesuit Collegium of Brera in Milan. The Specola was built in 1765 and it became quickly one of the main european observatories. We discuss the relation between Boscovich and Brera in the framework of a short biography. An account is given of the initial research activity in the Specola, of the departure of Boscovich from Milan in 1773 and his coming back just before his death.

  19. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  20. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, Alberto; Adumitroaie, V.

    2017-01-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars,...... of magnitude more precise. This has implications for the distribution of heavy elements in the interior, including the existence and mass of Jupiter's core. The observed magnetic field exhibits smaller spatial variations than expected, indicative of a rich harmonic content....

  1. Addressing the social dimensions of citizen observatories: The Ground Truth 2.0 socio-technical approach for sustainable implementation of citizen observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehn, Uta; Joshi, Somya; Pfeiffer, Ellen; Anema, Kim; Gharesifard, Mohammad; Momani, Abeer

    2017-04-01

    Owing to ICT-enabled citizen observatories, citizens can take on new roles in environmental monitoring, decision making and co-operative planning, and environmental stewardship. And yet implementing advanced citizen observatories for data collection, knowledge exchange and interactions to support policy objectives is neither always easy nor successful, given the required commitment, trust, and data reliability concerns. Many efforts are facing problems with the uptake and sustained engagement by citizens, limited scalability, unclear long-term sustainability and limited actual impact on governance processes. Similarly, to sustain the engagement of decision makers in citizen observatories, mechanisms are required from the start of the initiative in order to have them invest in and, hence, commit to and own the entire process. In order to implement sustainable citizen observatories, these social dimensions therefore need to be soundly managed. We provide empirical evidence of how the social dimensions of citizen observatories are being addressed in the Ground Truth 2.0 project, drawing on a range of relevant social science approaches. This project combines the social dimensions of citizen observatories with enabling technologies - via a socio-technical approach - so that their customisation and deployment is tailored to the envisaged societal and economic impacts of the observatories. The projects consists of the demonstration and validation of six scaled up citizen observatories in real operational conditions both in the EU and in Africa, with a specific focus on flora and fauna as well as water availability and water quality for land and natural resources management. The demonstration cases (4 EU and 2 African) cover the full 'spectrum' of citizen-sensed data usage and citizen engagement, and therefore allow testing and validation of the socio-technical concept for citizen observatories under a range of conditions.

  2. Tent-Poles of the Bestseller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Vistisen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for understanding and analysing how the passive audience of a media event turns into active stakeholders. The starting point is the cross-media content quadrant (Jensen and Vistisen, 2012), which shows how the producer’s control is distributed on social media...... platforms, while storytelling evolves around a tent-pole, for example, a bestseller or blockbuster. To further explain how the audience engages, a three-step rhetoric model largely based on Bitzer (1998) and Tolkien (1971) is developed and explained....

  3. Infrared solar physics from the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake

    1989-01-01

    Infrared (IR) observations of the sun could greatly benefit from the quality of the South Pole as an IR site, and the potential for multi-day sequences of uninterrupted observations. A nearly continuous picture of the evolution of the magnetic field in solar active regions could be obtained using vector magnetographs, especially vector magnetographs which incorporate IR array detectors. Observations of the sun over a range of wavelengths in the IR continuum could also be used to study the vertical propagation characteristics of the solar p-mode oscillations.

  4. Complex conjugate poles and parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiburzi, B.C.; Detmold, W.; Miller, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate parton and generalized parton distributions in Minkowski space using a scalar propagator with a pair of complex conjugate poles. Correct spectral and support properties are obtained only after careful analytic continuation from Euclidean space. Alternately the quark distribution function can be calculated from modified cutting rules, which put the intermediate state on its complex mass shells. Distribution functions agree with those resulting from the model's Euclidean space double distribution which we calculate via nondiagonal matrix elements of twist-two operators. Thus one can use a wide class of analytic parametrizations of the quark propagator to connect Euclidean space Green functions to light-cone dominated amplitudes

  5. Design of a portable CAT scanner for utility pole inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Work is under way at the University of Missouri, Columbia (UMC) to design, build, and test a portable computerized axial tomography (CAT) device for the nondestructive, field imaging of wooden utility poles. CAT is a well-established medical technology that has recently been applied to a number of industrial applications. Wooden utility poles are prone to rot and decay at ground level; current techniques to assess this loss of strength are relatively primitive, i.e., tapping the pole (hitting the pole with a hammer) or boring into the pole for samples and then testing inside the bore hole with an electrical pulse device. The accuracy in identifying poles needing replacement using these techniques is ∼ 70%. Since the cost of replacing a pole ranges from hundreds to thousands of dollars, an accurate, nondestructive method is needed. CAT can accurately image a wooden utility pole (since the size, density, and atomic elements of a pole are similar to the human head to torso), as was confirmed by imaging poles using the UMC nuclear engineering EMI-1010 medical scanner. Detailed images have been produced showing the ring structure of the wood and voids due to rot or decay. Images approaching this quality have also been produced on living trees using semiportable systems by other researchers

  6. The Pole Orientation, Pole Precession, and Moment of Inertia Factor of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. A.; French, R. G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Marouf, E.; Rappaport, N.; McGhee, C.; Sepersky, T.; Lonergan, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses our determination of the Saturn's pole orientation and precession using a combination of Earthbased and spacecraft based observational data. From our model of the polar motion and the observed precession rate we obtain a value for Saturn's polar moment of inertia

  7. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  8. Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed

  9. The high energy astronomy observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, A. K.; Doolittle, R. F.; Halpers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The forthcoming NASA project of orbiting High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO's) designed to probe the universe by tracing celestial radiations and particles is outlined. Solutions to engineering problems concerning HEAO's which are integrated, yet built to function independently are discussed, including the onboard digital processor, mirror assembly and the thermal shield. The principle of maximal efficiency with minimal cost and the potential capability of the project to provide explanations to black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts are also stressed. The first satellite is scheduled for launch in April 1977.

  10. The Hartebeeshoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolson, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the questions, problems and study fields of the modern astronomer. Radioastronomy has made important contributions to the study of the evolution of stars and has given much information on the birth of stars while at the other extreme, studies of neutron stars and the radio emission from the remnants of supernova explosions have given further insight into the death of individual stars. Radio astronomical studies have learned astronomers much about the structure of the Milky way and some twenty years ago, in a search for new radio galaxies, quasars were discovered. Radioastronomy research in South Africa is carried out at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

  11. The ultimate air shower observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of constructing an international air shower observatory in the Himalayas is explored. A site at about 6500 m elevation (450 g/cm 2 ) would provide more definitive measurements of composition and early interaction properties of primaries above 10 16 eV than can be achieved with existing arrays. By supplementing a surface array with a Fly's Eye and muon detectors, information on the highest energy cosmic rays may be gained which is not possible in any other way. Potential sites, technical aspects, and logistical problems are explored

  12. BART: The Czech Autonomous Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekola, Martin; Hudec, René; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, P.; Štrobl, Jan; Polášek, Cyril

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, Spec. Is. (2010), 103986/1-103986/5 ISSN 1687-7969. [Workshop on Robotic Autonomous Observatories. Málaga, 18.05.2009-21.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2003-1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : robotic telescope * BART * gamma ray bursts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aa/2010/103986.html

  13. Determination of the crystallite orientation distribution from direct pole figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Gomes, P.A.M. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate the crystallite orientation distribution in polycrystalline material, from direct pole figures data of its crystallographic planes (Roe's Method). The programme was applied to (1010), (0002), (1011) and (1120) complete pole figures data for a commercial, thin sheet Zircaloy-4 tubing specimen. A semi-automatic Rigaku-Denki texture goniometer, which scans the reciprocal lattice sphere pointwise outputting the data in a punched tape, was used to obtain the pole figures. This is consistent with the results obtained through direct conclusion from the pole figures. (author)

  14. Thermal poling of multi-wire array optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lin; An, Honglin; Hayashi, Juliano G.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate in this paper thermal poling of multi-wire array fibers, which extends poling of fibers with two anodes to similar to 50 and similar to 500 wire array anodes. The second harmonic microscopy observations show that second order nonlinearity (SON) layers are developed surrounding all...... the rings of wires in the similar to 50 anode array fiber with poling of 1.8kV, 250 degrees C and 30min duration, and the outer rings of the similar to 500 anode array fiber at lower poling temperature. Our simulations based on a two-dimensional charge dynamics model confirm this can be explained...

  15. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including...

  16. Generalized pole inflation: Hilltop, natural, and chaotic inflationary attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Takahiro, E-mail: takahiro.terada@apctp.org [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-10

    A reformulation of inflationary model analyses appeared recently, in which inflationary observables are determined by the structure of a pole in the inflaton kinetic term rather than the shape of the inflaton potential. We comprehensively study this framework with an arbitrary order of the pole taking into account possible additional poles in the kinetic term or in the potential. Depending on the setup, the canonical potential becomes the form of hilltop or plateau models, variants of natural inflation, power-law inflation, or monomial/polynomial chaotic inflation. We demonstrate attractor behaviors of these models and compute corrections from the additional poles to the inflationary observables.

  17. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  18. Daily variation characteristics at polar geomagnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepidi, S.; Cafarella, L.; Pietrolungo, M.; Di Mauro, D.

    2011-08-01

    This paper is based on the statistical analysis of the diurnal variation as observed at six polar geomagnetic observatories, three in the Northern and three in the Southern hemisphere. Data are for 2006, a year of low geomagnetic activity. We compared the Italian observatory Mario Zucchelli Station (TNB; corrected geomagnetic latitude: 80.0°S), the French-Italian observatory Dome C (DMC; 88.9°S), the French observatory Dumont D'Urville (DRV; 80.4°S) and the three Canadian observatories, Resolute Bay (RES; 83.0°N), Cambridge Bay (CBB; 77.0°N) and Alert (ALE, 87.2°N). The aim of this work was to highlight analogies and differences in daily variation as observed at the different observatories during low geomagnetic activity year, also considering Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions and geomagnetic indices.

  19. EMSO: European multidisciplinary seafloor observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura

    2009-04-01

    EMSO has been identified by the ESFRI Report 2006 as one of the Research Infrastructures that European members and associated states are asked to develop in the next decades. It will be based on a European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the aim of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes, providing long time series data for the different phenomenon scales which constitute the new frontier for study of Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry, and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on past EU projects and is supported by several EU initiatives, such as the on-going ESONET-NoE, aimed at strengthening the ocean observatories' scientific and technological community. The EMSO development relies on the synergy between the scientific community and industry to improve European competitiveness with respect to countries such as USA, Canada and Japan. Within the FP7 Programme launched in 2006, a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) was issued in order to support the foundation of the legal and organisational entity in charge of building up and managing the infrastructure, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. The EMSO-PP project, coordinated by the Italian INGV with participation by 11 institutions from as many European countries, started in April 2008 and will last four years.

  20. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikawa, Ken' ichi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yamashita, Yasuho [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Yoshida, Daisuke [Montreal Univ., QC (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    2017-09-15

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  1. Two-pole microring weight banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alexander N; Wu, Allie X; Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Nahmias, Mitchell A; Shastri, Bhavin J; Prucnal, Paul R

    2018-05-15

    Weighted addition is an elemental multi-input to single-output operation that can be implemented with high-performance photonic devices. Microring (MRR) weight banks bring programmable weighted addition to silicon photonics. Prior work showed that their channel limits are affected by coherent inter-channel effects that occur uniquely in weight banks. We fabricate two-pole designs that exploit this inter-channel interference in a way that is robust to dynamic tuning and fabrication variation. Scaling analysis predicts a channel count improvement of 3.4-fold, which is substantially greater than predicted by incoherent analysis used in conventional MRR devices. Advances in weight bank design expand the potential of reconfigurable analog photonic networks and multivariate microwave photonics.

  2. Retratos da metrópole parisiense

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Julien, Thérèse; Goix, Renaud Le

    2009-01-01

    « La métropole parisienne, centralité, inégalité, proximité » propõe uma leitura e uma interpretação das tendências do território da Île de France (a região que inclui Paris e sete outros départements), ou seja, uma grande metrópole mundial de cerca de 11,3 milhões de habitantes em 2004, ligada às redes da globalização e da metropolização. O livro esboça os traços principais de suas estruturas territoriais emergentes, sublinha os desafios, o alcance dos mesmos e as contradições. Sem pretensão...

  3. Retratos da metrópole parisiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Saint-Julien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available « La métropole parisienne, centralité, inégalité, proximité » propõe uma leitura e uma interpretação das tendências do território da Île de France (a região que inclui Paris e sete outros départements, ou seja, uma grande metrópole mundial de cerca de 11,3 milhões de habitantes em 2004, ligada às redes da globalização e da metropolização. O livro esboça os traços principais de suas estruturas territoriais emergentes, sublinha os desafios, o alcance dos mesmos e as contradições. Sem pretensão...

  4. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikawa, Ken'ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamashita, Yasuho; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-09-01

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  5. Worldwide R&D of Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, C. Z.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2008-07-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a data intensive online astronomical research and education environment, taking advantages of advanced information technologies to achieve seamless and uniform access to astronomical information. The concept of VO was introduced in the late 1990s to meet the challenges brought up with data avalanche in astronomy. In the paper, current status of International Virtual Observatory Alliance, technical highlights from world wide VO projects are reviewed, a brief introduction of Chinese Virtual Observatory is given.

  6. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory as Cultural Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory is presented as a cultural centre for Armenia and the Armenian nation in general. Besides being scientific and educational centre, the Observatory is famous for its unique architectural ensemble, rich botanical garden and world of birds, as well as it is one of the most frequently visited sightseeing of Armenia. In recent years, the Observatory has also taken the initiative of the coordination of the Cultural Astronomy in Armenia and in this field, unites the astronomers, historians, archaeologists, ethnographers, culturologists, literary critics, linguists, art historians and other experts. Keywords: Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, architecture, botanic garden, tourism, Cultural Astronomy.

  7. Measurement and calculation of cosmic radiation exposure during a pole-to-pole flight sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Graeme C.; Ojjeh, Captain Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic ray dosimetry measurements were carried out on board a Global Express business jet operated by TAG Aviation (UK) during a pole-to-pole flight sequence that took place in November 2008. One Hawk TEPC and two EPDN2s were flown, and the TEPC measurements compared to calculated values from the route dose codes AVIDOS, CARI 6M, EPCARD versions 3.2 and 3.34, QARM and SIEVERT (online version). The largest difference between measured and calculated doses for the total flight sequence was found to be 13%. Agreement between the readings of the TEPC and the EPDN2s (once a calibration factor from the CERN High Energy Reference Field had been applied) was reasonably good given the relatively large uncertainties associated with the EPDN2 measurements.

  8. Solar Open Flux Migration from Pole to Pole: Magnetic Field Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G-H; Lin, C-H; Lee, L C

    2017-08-25

    Coronal holes are solar regions with low soft X-ray or low extreme ultraviolet intensities. The magnetic fields from coronal holes extend far away from the Sun, and thus they are identified as regions with open magnetic field lines. Coronal holes are concentrated in the polar regions during the sunspot minimum phase, and spread to lower latitude during the rising phase of solar activity. In this work, we identify coronal holes with outward and inward open magnetic fluxes being in the opposite poles during solar quiet period. We find that during the sunspot rising phase, the outward and inward open fluxes perform pole-to-pole trans-equatorial migrations in opposite directions. The migration of the open fluxes consists of three parts: open flux areas migrating across the equator, new open flux areas generated in the low latitude and migrating poleward, and new open flux areas locally generated in the polar region. All three components contribute to the reversal of magnetic polarity. The percentage of contribution from each component is different for different solar cycle. Our results also show that the sunspot number is positively correlated with the lower-latitude open magnetic flux area, but negatively correlated with the total open flux area.

  9. Second harmonic generation from corona-poled polymer thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... We characterize thermal stability of second harmonic generation (SHG) properties of four different Y-type polymers poled using corona poling method. These polymers are based on donor–acceptor–donor-type repeating unit with different aromatic moieties acting as donors and dicyanomethylene acting as ...

  10. Poles of the S matrix for a complex potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Trajectories of S matrix poles in complex k plane are presented for a complex square well potential. A simple rule is given for predicting the effect of an absorptive potential on the location of these poles. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Secondary electron emission yield on poled silica based thick films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, D.; Poumellec, B.; Cannas, V.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the distribution of the electric field produced by a thermal poling process in a layer of Ge-doped silica on silicon substrate, by using secondary electron emission yield (SEEY) measurements () are presented. Comparing 0 between poled and unpoled areas, the SEEY at the origin of electr...

  12. Derivation of nominal strength for wood utility poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Jozsef Bodig; Patricia Lebow

    2001-01-01

    The designated fiber stress values published in the American National Standards Institute Standard for Poles, ANSI 05.1, no longer reflect the state of the knowledge. These values are based on a combination of test data from small clear wood samples and small poles (

  13. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    2010-01-01

    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  14. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  15. Pole orientation of 16 Psyche by two independent methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, E. F.; Taylor, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nineteen new lightcurves of 16 Psyche are presented along with a pole orientation derived using two independent methods, namely, photometric astrometry and magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect. The pole orientations found using these two methods agree to within 4 deg. The results from applying photometric astrometry were prograde rotation, a sidereal period of 0.1748143 days + or - 0.0000003 days, and a pole at longitude 223 deg and latitude +37 deg, with an uncertainty of 10 deg, and, from applying magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect a pole at 220 + or - 1 deg, +40 + or - 4 deg, and a modeled triaxial ellipsoid shape (a greater than b greater than c) and a/b = 1.33 + or - 0.07. The discrepancy between the high-pole latitude found here and the low latitudes reported by Lupishko et al. (1982) and Zhou and Yang (1982) is discussed.

  16. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  17. Pole Dancing Auto-ethnography – Practice, Pedagogy, Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Patricia Cadwallader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the author addresses the following four questions: 1 What are the implications of bringing pole dancing into concert dance, not as a caricature or theatrical version of what is performed in strip clubs, but as its own, free-standing art form? 2 In what ways will years of ballet and modern dance training influence the type of dancing that emerges from dancers when poles and other apparatuses are introduced? 3 How can the author create an original pole dancing style and pedagogical methods for teaching it? 4 Who participates in pole fitness classes and how does the demographic change based on location? What about when pole fitness classes are offered in an academic setting? The author shares first-hand experiences of investigating pole dancing in fitness classes, attending performances, engaging in a rehearsal process with highly trained dancers, and teaching pole dancing to movers with a wide range of abilities. The author addresses how research plans changed as she encountered limitations of budget and time constraints. The author also elaborates on the creative process that she engaged in with her thesis cast, collaborators, and supporting designers in the making of Super-beneath, a theatrical dance work that uses five, free-standing poles. She outline the vignettes, overall structure, and narrative of the work. The author then discusses where this research fits into the larger field of pole dancing, and the even larger field of dance. In the final sections of this paper, the author describes her pedagogical practices relating to pole classes, what “practice as research” means to her, and how she would like to continue on this research trajectory in the future.

  18. Simplified Analytic Approach of Pole-to-Pole Faults in MMC-HVDC for AC System Backup Protection Setting Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongkun Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AC (alternating current system backup protection setting calculation is an important basis for ensuring the safe operation of power grids. With the increasing integration of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC into power grids, it has been a big challenge for the AC system backup protection setting calculation, as the MMC-HVDC lacks the fault self-clearance capability under pole-to-pole faults. This paper focused on the pole-to-pole faults analysis for the AC system backup protection setting calculation. The principles of pole-to-pole faults analysis were discussed first according to the standard of the AC system protection setting calculation. Then, the influence of fault resistance on the fault process was investigated. A simplified analytic approach of pole-to-pole faults in MMC-HVDC for the AC system backup protection setting calculation was proposed. In the proposed approach, the derived expressions of fundamental frequency current are applicable under arbitrary fault resistance. The accuracy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC simulations.

  19. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  20. Heavy Cratering near Callisto's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft provide new insights into this region near Callisto's south pole. This two frame mosaic shows a heavily cratered surface with smooth plains in the areas between craters. North is to the top of the image. The smoothness of the plains appears to increase toward the south pole, approximately 480 kilometers (293 miles) south of the bottom of the image. This smoothness of Callisto's surface was not evident in images taken during the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft because the resolution was insufficient to show the effect. This smooth surface, and the process(es) that cause it, are among the most intriguing aspects of Callisto. Although not fully understood, the process(es) responsible for this smoothing could include erosion by tiny meteorites and energetic ions. Some craters, such as Keelut, the 47 kilometer (29 mile) crater in the lower right corner, have sharp, well defined rims. Keelut contains an inner ring surrounding a central depression about 17 kilometers (11 miles) in diameter. Keelut, and the more irregularly shaped, degraded Reginleif, the 32 kilometer (19.5 mile) crater in the top center of the image, are very shallow and have flat floors. Crater forms can be seen down to less than 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter in the image. Each picture element (pixel) in this image is approximately 0.68 kilometers (0.41 miles) across.This image which was taken by the Galileo spacecraft's solid state imaging (CCD) system during its eighth orbit around Jupiter, on May 6th, 1997. The center of the image is located at 71.3 degrees south latitude, 97.6 degrees west longitude, and was taken when the spacecraft was approximately 35,470 kilometers (21,637 miles) from Callisto.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  1. Observatory data and the Swarm mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macmillan, S.; Olsen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    products. We describe here the preparation of the data set of ground observatory hourly mean values, including procedures to check and select observatory data spanning the modern magnetic survey satellite era. We discuss other possible combined uses of satellite and observatory data, in particular those......The ESA Swarm mission to identify and measure very accurately the different magnetic signals that arise in the Earth’s core, mantle, crust, oceans, ionosphere and magnetosphere, which together form the magnetic field around the Earth, has increased interest in magnetic data collected on the surface...... of the Earth at observatories. The scientific use of Swarm data and Swarm-derived products is greatly enhanced by combination with observatory data and indices. As part of the Swarm Level-2 data activities plans are in place to distribute such ground-based data along with the Swarm data as auxiliary data...

  2. Pole-factorization theorem in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    In quantum electrodynamics a classical part of the S-matrix is normally factored out in order to obtain a quantum remainder that can be treated perturbatively without the occurrence of infrared divergences. However, this separation, as usually performed, introduces spurious large-distance effects that produce an apparent breakdown of the important correspondence between stable particles and poles of the S-matrix, and, consequently, lead to apparent violations of the correspondence principle and to incorrect results for computations in the mesoscopic domain lying between the atomic and classical regimes. An improved computational technique is described that allows valid results to be obtained in this domain, and that leads, for the quantum remainder, in the cases studied, to a physical-region singularity structure that, as regards the most singular parts, is the same as the normal physical-region analytic structure in theories in which all particles have non-zero mass. The key innovations here are to define the classical part in coordinate space, rather than in momentum space, and to define there a separation of the photon-electron coupling into its classical and quantum parts that has the following properties: (1) The contributions from the terms containing only classical couplings can be summed to all orders to give a unitary operator that generates the coherent state that corresponds to the appropriate classical process, and (2) The quantum remainder can be rigorously shown to exhibit, as regards its most singular parts, the normal analytic structure. 22 refs

  3. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1978-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p→π + pπ 0 and π + p→π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T=1 and T=2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965, which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that, if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) was dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  4. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1977-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p → π + pπ 0 and π + p → π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T = 1 and T = 2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965 which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) were dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  5. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating

  6. In Situ Poling and Imidization of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Wise, Kristopher E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An amorphous piezoelectric polyimide containing polar functional groups has been developed using a combination of experimental and molecular modeling for potential use in high temperature applications. This amorphous polyimide, (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, has exhibited good thermal stability and piezoelectric response at temperatures up to 150C. Density functional calculations predicted that a partially cured amic acid (open imide ring) possesses a dipole moment four times larger than the fully imidized closed ring. In situ poling and imidization of the partially cured (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, was studied in an attempt to maximize the degree of dipolar orientation and the resultant piezoelectric response. A positive corona poling was used to minimize localized arcing during poling and to allow use of higher poling fields without dielectric breakdown. The dielectric relaxation strength, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric response were evaluated as a function of the poling profile. The partially cured, corona poled polymers exhibited higher dielectric relaxation strength (delta varepsilon), remanent polarization (Pr) and piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33) than the fully cured, conventionally poled ones.

  7. Study on Pole Arrangement of the CEDM Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Myoung Goo; Kim, Hyun Min; Cho, Yeon Ho; Choi, Taek Sang

    2013-01-01

    The coil stack assembly is important for reliable operation of the CEDM, there have been efforts to improve the design by optimizing the design parameters such as dimensions and winding turns. However, magnetic forces of the CEDM can also change by different pole arrangement even if their design parameters are the same. Since the latch coil and lift coil are installed connected to each other, they produce magnetically coupled field when they are energized at the same time. This coupling field can affect the magnetic force of the CEDM significantly. In this paper, coil pole arrangement effects are studied. Electro-magnetic analysis is performed for the different pole arrangements of the CEDM coils to calculate the magnetic forces. Pole arrangement effects on magnetic forces were studied by static analysis of the CEDM magnetic field. Magnetic forces were calculated and compared for the two different pole arrangements of the coils. The results show that the magnetic poles of the lift coil and latch coil shall be arranged to have the same magnetic pole direction to achieve higher magnetic force

  8. GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and

  9. Solar Imagery - Photosphere - Sunspot Drawings - McMath-Hulbert Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The McMath-Hulbert Observatory is a decommissioned solar observatory in Lake Angelus, Michigan, USA. It was established in 1929 as a private observatory by father...

  10. Vulnerabilidade socioambiental na metrópole paulistana: uma análise sociodemográfica das situações de sobreposição espacial de problemas e riscos sociais e ambientais Socio-environmental vulnerability in the Metropolis of São Paulo, Brazil: a socio-demographic analysis of spatial coexistence of social and environmental risks and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Prates da Fonseca Alves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura identificar e caracterizar populações em situação de vulnerabilidade socioambiental em São Paulo, através da construção de indicadores ambientais, em escala desagregada (setores censitários do IBGE. A vulnerabilidade socioambiental está sendo definida como a coexistência ou sobreposição espacial entre grupos populacionais muito pobres e com alta privação (vulnerabilidade social e áreas de risco ou degradação ambiental (vulnerabilidade ambiental. A metodologia baseia-se na construção de um Sistema de Informação Geográfica (SIG, em que se sobrepõe a cartografia da rede hidrográfica à malha dos setores censitários do município de São Paulo (censo 2000. Inicialmente, identificam-se os setores classificados como de alta vulnerabilidade social pelo Mapa da vulnerabilidade social da população da cidade de São Paulo (CEM-CEBRAP/SAS-PMSP, 2004. Posteriormente, os setores localizados às margens de cursos d´água e com baixa cobertura de esgoto são considerados proxy de áreas com alta vulnerabilidade ambiental. Os resultados mostram que, no interior do grupo de setores censitários de alta vulnerabilidade social, existem grandes diferenças nas condições socioeconômicas e demográficas, relacionadas às diversas categorias de vulnerabilidade ambiental.The objective of this article is to identify and analyze population groups living in situations of socio-environmental vulnerability in São Paulo, by constructing environmental indicators on a disaggregated scale. We define socio-environmental vulnerability as the spatial coexistence of high social vulnerability together with areas of environmental risk and deterioration. The methodology is based on a Geographical Information System (GIS that provides information on the network of waterways and the layers of the census tracts in the municipality of São Paulo. We first identify the census tracts that show high social vulnerability, using a Social

  11. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  12. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  13. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is characterized in a self-consistent manner by means of introducing a single nondifferential matrix equation compatible with the Liouville equation, modelling the ocean as global and of uniform depth. The deviations of the theory from the realistic ocean, associated with the nonglobality of the latter, are also given consideration, with an inference that in realistic oceans long-period modes of resonances would be increasingly likely to exist. The analysis of the nature of the pole tide and its effects on the Chandler wobble indicate that departures of the pole tide from the equilibrium may indeed be minimal.

  14. Domain wall width of lithium niobate poled during growth

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, R; Hole, D E; Callejo, D; Bermudez, V; Diéguez, E

    2003-01-01

    Good quality crystals of periodically poled lithium niobate can be generated directly during growth. However, the temperature gradients at the zone boundaries define the width of the regions where the polarity is reversed. Hence, the region influenced the domain transition may be a significant fraction of the overall poling period for material poled during growth. Evidence for the scale of this feature is reported both by chemical etching and by the less common method of ion beam luminescence and the 'domain wall' width approximately 1 mu m for these analyses. The influence of the reversal region may differ for alternative techniques but the relevance to device design for second harmonic generation is noted.

  15. A discussion on leading renormalon in the pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komijani, J.

    2017-08-01

    Perturbative series of some quantities in quantum field theories, such as the pole mass of a quark, suffer from a kind of divergence called renormalon divergence. In this paper, the leading renormalon in the pole mass is investigated, and a map is introduced to suppress this renormalon. The inverse of the map is then used to generate the leading renormalon and obtain an expression to calculate its overall normalization. Finally, the overall normalization of the leading renormalon of the pole mass is calculated for several values of quark flavors.

  16. State-PID Feedback for Pole Placement of LTI Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Sujitjorn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pole placement problems are especially important for disturbance rejection and stabilization of dynamical systems and regarded as algebraic inverse eigenvalue problems. In this paper, we propose gain formulae of state feedback through PID-elements to achieve desired pole placement for a delay-free LTI system with single input. Real and complex stable poles can be assigned with the proposed compact gain formulae. Numerical examples show that our proposed gain formulae can be used effectively resulting in very satisfactory responses.

  17. The Malaysian Robotic Solar Observatory (P29)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M.; Asillam, M. F.; Ismail, M. K. H.

    2006-11-01

    Robotic observatory with small telescopes can make significant contributions to astronomy observation. They provide an encouraging environment for astronomers to focus on data analysis and research while at the same time reducing time and cost for observation. The observatory will house the primary 50cm robotic telescope in the main dome which will be used for photometry, spectroscopy and astrometry observation activities. The secondary telescope is a robotic multi-apochromatic refractor (maximum diameter: 15 cm) which will be housed in the smaller dome. This telescope set will be used for solar observation mainly in three different wavelengths simultaneously: the Continuum, H-Alpha and Calcium K-line. The observatory is also equipped with an automated weather station, cloud & rain sensor and all-sky camera to monitor the climatic condition, sense the clouds (before raining) as well as to view real time sky view above the observatory. In conjunction with the Langkawi All-Sky Camera, the observatory website will also display images from the Malaysia - Antarctica All-Sky Camera used to monitor the sky at Scott Base Antarctica. Both all-sky images can be displayed simultaneously to show the difference between the equatorial and Antarctica skies. This paper will describe the Malaysian Robotic Observatory including the systems available and method of access by other astronomers. We will also suggest possible collaboration with other observatories in this region.

  18. Lunar Limb Observatory: An Incremental Plan for the Utilization, Exploration, and Settlement of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Paul. D., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive incremental program, Lunar Limb Observatory (LLO), for a return to the Moon, beginning with robotic missions and ending with a permanent lunar settlement. Several recent technological developments make such a program both affordable and scientifically valuable: robotic telescopes, the Internet, light-weight telescopes, shared- autonomy/predictive graphics telerobotic devices, and optical interferometry systems. Reasons for focussing new NASA programs on the Moon include public interest, Moon-based astronomy, renewed lunar exploration, lunar resources (especially helium-3), technological stimulus, accessibility of the Moon (compared to any planet), and dispersal of the human species to counter predictable natural catastrophes, asteroidal or cometary impacts in particular. The proposed Lunar Limb Observatory would be located in the crater Riccioli, with auxiliary robotic telescopes in M. Smythii and at the North and South Poles. The first phase of the program, after site certification, would be a series of 5 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to Riccioli (or Grimaldi if Riccioli proves unsuitable), emplacing robotic telescopes and carrying out surface exploration. The next phase would be 7 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to M. Smythii (2 missions), the South Pole (3 missions), and the North Pole (2 missions), emplacing robotic telescopes to provide continuous all-sky coverage. Lunar base establishment would begin with two unmanned Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur missions to Riccioli, for shelter emplacement, followed by the first manned return, also using the Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur mode. The main LLO at Riccioli would then be permanently or periodically inhabited, for surface exploration, telerobotic rover and telescope operation and maintenance, and support of Earth-based student projects. The LLO would evolve into a permanent human settlement, serving, among other functions, as a test area and staging base for the exploration

  19. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory: instrumentation and online systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J.A.; Ansseau, I.; Ahlers, M.; Auer, R.; Baccus, J.; Barnet, S.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anton, G.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Axani, S.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.

    2017-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic-kilometer-scale high-energy neutrino detector built into the ice at the South Pole. Construction of IceCube, the largest neutrino detector built to date, was completed in 2011 and enabled the discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. We describe here the design, production, and calibration of the IceCube digital optical module (DOM), the cable systems, computing hardware, and our methodology for drilling and deployment. We also describe the online triggering and data filtering systems that select candidate neutrino and cosmic ray events for analysis. Due to a rigorous pre-deployment protocol, 98.4% of the DOMs in the deep ice are operating and collecting data. IceCube routinely achieves a detector uptime of 99% by emphasizing software stability and monitoring. Detector operations have been stable since construction was completed, and the detector is expected to operate at least until the end of the next decade.

  20. Geomagnetic Observatory Annual Means Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) / World Data Center, Boulder maintains an active database of...

  1. Robotic Software for the Thacher Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, George; Luebbers, Julien; Eastman, Jason D.; Johnson, John A.; Swift, Jonathan

    2018-06-01

    The Thacher Observatory—a research and educational facility located in Ojai, CA—uses a 0.7 meter telescope to conduct photometric research on a variety of targets including eclipsing binaries, exoplanet transits, and supernovae. Currently, observations are automated using commercial software. In order to expand the flexibility for specialized scientific observations and to increase the educational value of the facility on campus, we are adapting and implementing the custom observatory control software and queue scheduling developed for the Miniature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) to the Thacher Observatory. We present the design and implementation of this new software as well as its demonstrated functionality on the Thacher Observatory.

  2. Pole-zero adjustment of spectroscopy amplifiers using multichannel analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, K; Grigorov, T [Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The technique to eliminate the undesirable undershoot in the output signal of a spectroscopy amplifier is considered. The functional scheme of the pole-zero monitoring circuit is presented as well as its operation principles are considered. 3 refs.

  3. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  4. The Achievements of the GLAMOROUS Project on Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margulis, Walter; Myrén, N.; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    The GLAMOROUS project had as objective to demonstrate the feasibility of fibre and waveguide components with a second order nonlinearity induced by poling. The accomplishments of this nine-partners European Research Project are described.......The GLAMOROUS project had as objective to demonstrate the feasibility of fibre and waveguide components with a second order nonlinearity induced by poling. The accomplishments of this nine-partners European Research Project are described....

  5. Polymer poling characterization using second harmonic generation (SHG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Gildas; Averty, Dominique; Blart, Errol; Boisrobert, Christian; Gundel, Hartmut; Le Tacon, Sylvain; Monnereau, Cyrille; Odobel, Fabrice; Seveno, Raynald

    2006-04-01

    Several polymer molecules have structures which are suitable for the non-linear optic applications. We report on the design and fabrication of a high performance electro-optic modulator made of polymer thin films. The polymer we study contains a chromophore based on Disperse Red One covalently grafted to a host-matrix. The polymer materials are deposited in thin layers on a glass substrate by chemical solution deposition, either by spin-coating or by dip-coating. The thickness of the films is ranging from a hundred nanometers to several micrometers. Initially, the polymer molecules are randomly oriented and the films are isotropic, hence no electro-optic effect can be observed. In order to break the symmetry and align the chromophores, the films are submitted to the so-called corona poling process. As a result, their structure become non-centrosymmetric and the second-order susceptibility is no longer zero. The corona poling method consists of applying a high electric field to the polymer by means of a needle electrode, placed above the polymer film which is posed on a grounded sample support electrode. Thermal regulation of the support electrode allows to control the temperature during the poling of the films. Once the poling process has been established, a chemical cross-linking function is thermally activated in order to fix the orientation of the chromophores in the polymer matrix. The orientation and its stability in time is evaluated with a Second Harmonic Generation measurement set-up using the Makers Fringes configuration. We studied the influence of the poling temperature, the distance between the corona needle electrode and the sample, the high voltage applied, and the duration of the poling process on the efficiency of chromophore orientation in order to optimize the poling procedure. Finally, aging of poled polymer samples has been investigated at elevated temperatures, confirming the stability of the cross-linking process.

  6. Multijet final states: exact results and the leading pole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.; Owens, J.F.

    1984-09-01

    Exact results for the process gg → ggg are compared with those obtained using the leading pole approximation. Regions of phase space where the approximation breaks down are discussed. A specific example relevant for background estimates to W boson production is presented. It is concluded that in this instance the leading pole approximation may underestimate the standard QCD background by more than a factor of two in certain kinematic regions of physical interest

  7. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Arentoft, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SHSOM) is performed on electric-field poled silica-based waveguides. Two operation modes of SHSOM are considered. Oblique transmission reflection and normal reflection modes are used to image the spatial distribution of nonlinear susceptibilities...... and limitations of the two operation modes when used for SHSOM studies of poled silica-based waveguides are discussed. The influence of surface defects on the resulting second-harmonic images is also considered. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  8. Asteroid (16) Psyche: Triaxial Ellipsoid Dimensions and Rotational Pole from Keck II NIRC2 AO Images and Keck I OSIRIS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Conrad, Al; Reddy, Vishnu; de Kleer, Katherine R.; Adamkovics, Mate; de Pater, Imke; Merline, William J.; Tamblyn, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) images of asteroid (16) Psyche obtained at 4 epochs with the NIRC2 camera at the 10m W. M. Keck Observatory (Keck II) on UT 2015 December 25 lead to triaxial ellipsoid diameters of 279±4 x 230±2 x 195±14 km, and a rotational pole at RA=29° and Dec=-2°. Adding 6 more epochs obtained nearly simultaneously with the OSIRIS system at Keck I, as well as two more epochs from Keck II in 2009, yields diameters of 273±2 x 232±2 x 165±3 km, and a pole at RA=37° and Dec=+1°. (Errors are formal fit parameter uncertainties; an additional 4% uncertainty is possible from systematic biases.) The differing perspectives between 2015 (sub-Earth latitude Θ=-50°) and 2009 (Θ=-6°) improves primarily the c dimension and the location of the rotational pole, but illustrates how well images from even a single night can determine the size, shape, and pole of an asteroid. The 2015 observations were obtained as part of a campaign to study Psyche with many techniques over a few months, including radar from Arecibo and images from Magellan.These handful of images show the same rugged outline as the radius vector model available on the DAMIT website, constructed from many lightcurves and scaled by previous Keck AO images. In fact Psyche has rotated some 125,350 times between the first lightcurve in 1955 and our 2015 AO images, exactly 60 years apart to the day. Since the asteroid has such a high obliquity, these lightcurves have scanned well into both northern and southern hemispheres. The difference between the pole derived from our images and the radius vector model pole is only 7°, and the mean diameters of Psyche are 219 and 211 km, respectively.

  9. Temperament and living conditions: a comparison study of Poles and Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajenkowska, Anna; Zajenkowski, Marcin

    2013-02-01

    The present investigation tested the temperament traits of 319 Polish and 315 South Korean students according to the regulative theory of temperament. Poland and South Korea are two countries with a similar rate of economic growth but with distinct cultures; for instance, they differ in terms of individualism and masculinity dimensions as well as living conditions. This means that they have achieved the same goal with different resources but presumably also with different side effects. The results indicate that the Poles had higher levels of briskness, sensor sensibility and endurance, as well as lower levels of emotional reactivity and perseveration in comparison with South Koreans. The structure of one's temperament determines one's ability to meet environmental requirements and also how one deals with stressful conditions. According to previous empirical data, Poles' temperament profile can be characterized as being less prone to stress perception and therefore more advantageous. It is possible that Koreans, as they have a less adaptive temperament structure, experience higher levels of stress in a more stimulating environment than Poles. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Interoperability of Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Roberts, A.; King, T.; King, J.; Harvey, C.

    2008-01-01

    If you'd like to find interrelated heliophysics (also known as space and solar physics) data for a research project that spans, for example, magnetic field data and charged particle data from multiple satellites located near a given place and at approximately the same time, how easy is this to do? There are probably hundreds of data sets scattered in archives around the world that might be relevant. Is there an optimal way to search these archives and find what you want? There are a number of virtual observatories (VOs) now in existence that maintain knowledge of the data available in subdisciplines of heliophysics. The data may be widely scattered among various data centers, but the VOs have knowledge of what is available and how to get to it. The problem is that research projects might require data from a number of subdisciplines. Is there a way to search multiple VOs at once and obtain what is needed quickly? To do this requires a common way of describing the data such that a search using a common term will find all data that relate to the common term. This common language is contained within a data model developed for all of heliophysics and known as the SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) Data Model. NASA has funded the main part of the development of SPASE but other groups have put resources into it as well. How well is this working? We will review the use of SPASE and how well the goal of locating and retrieving data within the heliophysics community is being achieved. Can the VOs truly be made interoperable despite being developed by so many diverse groups?

  11. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Fernanda Zambrano Marin, Luisa; Aponte Hernandez, Betzaida; Soto, Sujeily; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2016-10-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is an intense fifteen-week pre-college research program for qualified high school students residing in Puerto Rico, which includes ten days for hands-on, on site research activities. Our mission is to prepare students for their professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to the multidisciplinary field of space science. Our objectives are to (1) supplement the student's STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) foster in every student an interest in the STEM fields by harnessing their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. Students interested in participating in the program go through an application, interview and trial period before being offered admission. They are welcomed as candidates the first weeks, and later become cadets while experiencing designing, proposing, and conducting research projects focusing in fields like Physics, Astronomy, Geology, Chemistry, and Engineering. Each individual is evaluated with program compatibility based on peer interaction, preparation, participation, and contribution to class, group dynamics, attitude, challenges, and inquiry. This helps to ensure that specialized attention can be given to students who demonstrate a dedication and desire to learn. Deciding how to proceed in the face of setbacks and unexpected problems is central to the learning experience. At the end of the semester, students present their research to the program mentors, peers, and scientific staff. This year, AOSA students also focused on science communication and were trained by NASA's FameLab. Students additionally presented their research at this year's International Space Development Conference (ISDC), which was held in

  12. Pro-Amateur Observatories as a Significant Resource for Professional Astronomers - Taurus Hill Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Nissinen, M.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.

    2013-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association of Warkauden Kassiopeia [8]. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focuse d on asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2]. We also do long term monitoring projects [3]. THO research team has presented its research work on previous EPSC meetings ([4], [5],[6], [7]) and got very supportive reactions from the European planetary science community. The results and publications that pro-amateur based observatories, like THO, have contributed, clearly demonstrates that pro-amateurs area significant resource for the professional astronomers now and even more in the future.

  13. Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer: Status Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creech-Eakman, M. J; Bakker, E. J; Buscher, D. F; Coleman, T. A; Haniff, C. A; Jurgenson, C. A; Klinglesmith, III, D. A; Parameswariah, C. B; Romero, V. D; Shtromberg, A. V; Young, J. S

    2006-01-01

    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) is a ten element optical and near-infrared imaging interferometer being built in the Magdalena mountains west of Socorro, NM at an altitude of 3230 m...

  14. Ten years of the Spanish Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, E.

    2015-05-01

    The main objective of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to guarantee an easy and efficient access and analysis of the information hosted in astronomical archives. The Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) is a project that was born in 2004 with the goal of promoting and coordinating the VO-related activities at national level. SVO is also the national contact point for the international VO initiatives, in particular the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) and the Euro-VO project. The project, led by Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), is structured around four major topics: a) VO compliance of astronomical archives, b) VO-science, c) VO- and data mining-tools, and d) Education and outreach. In this paper I will describe the most important results obtained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory in its first ten years of life as well as the future lines of work.

  15. The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith. M. W. E.; Fox, D. B.; Cowen, D. F.; Meszaros, P.; Tesic, G.; Fixelle, J.; Bartos, I.; Sommers, P.; Ashtekar, Abhay; Babu, G. Jogesh; hide

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the science opportunity, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, and anticipated science returns of the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON). AMON will link multiple current and future high-energy, multimessenger, and follow-up observatories together into a single network, enabling near real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger astrophysical transients and their electromagnetic counterparts. Candidate and high-confidence multimessenger transient events will be identified, characterized, and distributed as AMON alerts within the network and to interested external observers, leading to follow-up observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this way, AMON aims to evoke the discovery of multimessenger transients from within observatory subthreshold data streams and facilitate the exploitation of these transients for purposes of astronomy and fundamental physics. As a central hub of global multimessenger science, AMON will also enable cross-collaboration analyses of archival datasets in search of rare or exotic astrophysical phenomena.

  16. Astronomy projects in ruins as observatory obliterated

    CERN Multimedia

    Bradley, M

    2003-01-01

    Canberra bushfires have gutted the Mount Stromlo Observatory causing the flames destroyed five telescopes, the workshop, eight staff homes and the main dome, causing more than $20 million in damage (1 page).

  17. In Brief: Deep-sea observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The first deep-sea ocean observatory offshore of the continental United States has begun operating in the waters off central California. The remotely operated Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) will allow scientists to monitor the deep sea continuously. Among the first devices to be hooked up to the observatory are instruments to monitor earthquakes, videotape deep-sea animals, and study the effects of acidification on seafloor animals. ``Some day we may look back at the first packets of data streaming in from the MARS observatory as the equivalent of those first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell: `Watson, come here, I need you!','' commented Marcia McNutt, president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which coordinated construction of the observatory. For more information, see http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2008/mars-live/mars-live.html.

  18. The Farid and Moussa Raphael Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjar, R

    2017-01-01

    The Farid and Moussa Raphael Observatory (FMRO) at Notre Dame University Louaize (NDU) is a teaching, research, and outreach facility located at the main campus of the university. It located very close to the Lebanese coast, in an urbanized area. It features a 60-cm Planewave CDK telescope, and instruments that allow for photometric and spetroscopic studies. The observatory currently has one thinned, back-illuminated CCD camera, used as the main imager along with Johnson-Cousin and Sloan photometric filters. It also features two spectrographs, one of which is a fiber fed echelle spectrograph. These are used with a dedicated CCD. The observatory has served for student projects, and summer schools for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. It is also made available for use by the regional and international community. The control system is currently being configured for remote observations. A number of long-term research projects are also being launched at the observatory. (paper)

  19. Pressure transmitter surveillance: the dominant real pole case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, J.; Ballestrin, J.

    1995-01-01

    There are about 500 pressure transmitters in a nuclear power plant. Due to Safety requirements, some of them must be specially surveilled. Sensor response time to a pressure ramp is the usual quantity to be measured. Response time, τ r , reflects the dynamics of the sensor and the sensing line. A real pole is due to the inner sensor structure, but the complex pole stands for the sensing line too. The real pole usually is the dominant in most sensors. On line monitoring noise analysis regards simultaneously both, the sensor and the sensing line, but the noise signal contains not only the sensor poles, but many others coming from the plant, so must be conditioned previously and the determination of τ r is not free of systematic errors. That is the price to be paid for non disturbing the plant. When the real pole is dominant, the sensing line contribution is negligible, so the on line noise monitoring methods are supported by the laboratory experiments and the real pole border in the PSD is properly identified. The mean square frequency results proportional to τ r -1 , so manual techniques are designed for response time surveillance made by non noise plant's maintenance technicians. (author)

  20. A poling study on lead zirconate titanate composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics produced by the conventional mixed oxide route are dual phased. Because the titania and zirconia are not perfectly homogenized, some parts of the ceramic are more tetragonal (titanium rich) and other parts more rhombohedral (zirconium rich). This inhomogeneity means that some domains can be more easily poled than others. Lastly, the density and porosity can affect the poling process if the flaw density becomes such that the breakdown voltage is exceeded by the required poling voltage. The phase boundary determined by most dielectric and piezoelectric measurements is significantly removed from the 44% titanium content determined by neutron diffraction. The indicators that are most consistent with this value are the minimum in the poling efficiency curve and the shape of the dissipative factor curve. The reason for the discrepancy appears to be related to the broad coexistence region of the two phases and the differing poling efficiencies of each phase. It has been established that different poling temperature profiles can substantially modify the observed properties. Such behaviour is again related to the inhomogeneity of the ceramic and the presence of the two phases. 4 refs., 5 figs

  1. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  2. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Grygar, Jiří; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 798, Oct (2015), s. 172-213 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * high energy cosmic rays * hybrid observatory * water Cherenkov detectors * air fluorescence detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  3. International Youth Conference on the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. K.; Kuhn, T. S.; Baeseman, J.; Garmulewicz, A.; Raymond, M.; Salmon, R.

    2006-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) is an international effort, involving more than 50 countries, to focus research in both the sciences and social sciences on the world's Polar Regions. In order to secure youth involvement in the IPY, the Youth Steering Committee (YSC) has been formed, aiming specifically to network young polar researchers from all backgrounds enabling collaboration and to involve this group in outreach focused towards other young people. A conference targeted directly at an audience of early career researchers and international youth will be central to fulfilling these aims. The YSC has therefore developed the concept of the International Youth Conference on the Poles (IYCP). Proposed for 2008, this conference will bring together youth from a diverse set of backgrounds and nationalities to discuss the issues affecting the Polar Regions, their effects on a global scale and ways of addressing these issues. The conference will also serve to highlight ongoing IPY research, especially research being undertaken by young researchers, and provide a perennial framework for youth involvement in polar research and policies. The IYCP will run for three days in May 2008, attracting an international youth audience, as well as representatives from polar organizations, teachers, politicians, policy makers, the general public and media. The IYCP will be divided into three sections. Youth Roundtable Discussions will bring youth together to discuss issues affecting the Polar Regions and potential solutions to these. A Young Researchers Conference will provide the opportunity for young researchers working in the Polar Regions to present their work to an interdisciplinary audience. The Polar Fair will provide an interactive environment for youth to learn about the Polar Regions. The IYCP will be of great importance to the IPY because it will serve as the principle venue during the Polar Year where youth from many different disciplines, backgrounds and countries will

  4. Early German plans for southern observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  5. Observatories of Sawai Jai Singh II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Roehr, Susan N.

    Sawai Jai Singh II, Maharaja of Amber and Jaipur, constructed five observatories in the second quarter of the eighteenth century in the north Indian cities of Shahjahanabad (Delhi), Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura, and Varanasi. Believing the accuracy of his naked-eye observations would improve with larger, more stable instruments, Jai Singh reengineered common brass instruments using stone construction methods. His applied ingenuity led to the invention of several outsize masonry instruments, the majority of which were used to determine the coordinates of celestial objects with reference to the local horizon. During Jai Singh's lifetime, the observatories were used to make observations in order to update existing ephemerides such as the Zīj-i Ulugh Begī. Jai Singh established communications with European astronomers through a number of Jesuits living and working in India. In addition to dispatching ambassadorial parties to Portugal, he invited French and Bavarian Jesuits to visit and make use of the observatories in Shahjahanabad and Jaipur. The observatories were abandoned after Jai Singh's death in 1743 CE. The Mathura observatory was disassembled completely before 1857. The instruments at the remaining observatories were restored extensively during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  6. The Russian-Ukrainian Observatories Network for the European Astronomical Observatory Route Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrievsky, S. M.; Bondar, N. I.; Karetnikov, V. G.; Kazantseva, L. V.; Nefedyev, Y. A.; Pinigin, G. I.; Pozhalova, Zh. A.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskay, A. N.; Stepanov, A. V.; Tolbin, S. V.

    2011-09-01

    In 2004,the Center of UNESCO World Heritage has announced a new initiative "Astronomy & World Heritage" directed for search and preserving of objects,referred to astronomy,its history in a global value,historical and cultural properties. There were defined a strategy of thematic programme "Initiative" and general criteria for selecting of ancient astronomical objects and observatories. In particular, properties that are situated or have significance in relation to celestial objects or astronomical events; representations of sky and/or celestial bodies and astronomical events; observatories and instruments; properties closely connected with the history of astronomy. In 2005-2006,in accordance with the program "Initiative", information about outstanding properties connected with astronomy have been collected.In Ukraine such work was organized by astronomical expert group in Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory. In 2007, Nikolaev observatory was included to the Tentative List of UNESCO under # 5116. Later, in 2008, the network of four astronomical observatories of Ukraine in Kiev,Crimea, Nikolaev and Odessa,considering their high authenticities and integrities,was included to the Tentative List of UNESCO under # 5267 "Astronomical Observatories of Ukraine". In 2008-2009, a new project "Thematic Study" was opened as a successor of "Initiative". It includes all fields of astronomical heritage from earlier prehistory to the Space astronomy (14 themes in total). We present the Ukraine-Russian Observatories network for the "European astronomical observatory Route project". From Russia two observatories are presented: Kazan Observatory and Pulkovo Observatory in the theme "Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century".The description of astronomical observatories of Ukraine is given in accordance with the project "Thematic study"; the theme "Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century" - astronomical observatories in Kiev,Nikolaev and Odessa; the

  7. Towards a virtual observatory for ecosystem services and poverty alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Baez, S.; Cuesta, F.; Veliz Rosas, C.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decades, near real-time environmental observation, technical advances in computer power and cyber-infrastructure, and the development of environmental software algorithms have increased dramatically. The integration of these evolutions, which is commonly referred to as the establishment of a virtual observatory, is one of the major challenges of the next decade for environmental sciences. Worldwide, many coordinated activities are ongoing to make this integration a reality. However, far less attention is paid to the question of how these developments can benefit environmental services management in a poverty alleviation context. Such projects are typically faced with issues of large predictive uncertainties, limited resources, limited local scientific capacity. At the same time, the complexity of the socio-economic contexts requires a very strong bottom-up oriented and interdisciplinary approach to environmental data collection and processing. In this study, we present three natural resources management cases in the Andes and the Amazon basin, and investigate how "virtual observatory" technology can improve ecosystem management. Each of these case studies present scientific challenges in terms of model coupling, real-time data assimilation and visualisation for management purposes. The first project deals with water resources management in the Peruvian Andes. Using a rainfall-runoff model, novel visualisations are used to give farmers insight in the water production and regulation capacity of their catchments, which can then be linked to land management practices such as conservation agriculture, wetland protection and grazing density control. In a project in the Amazonian floodplains, optimal allocation of the nesting availability and quality of the giant freshwater turtle are determined using a combined hydraulic model and weather forecasts. Finally, in the rainforest of the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, biodiversity models are used to

  8. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Ali M.; Kassem, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. → Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. → The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. → The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. → The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  9. Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2013-06-01

    Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ≤15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ≤3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (≤15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy.

  10. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Ali M., E-mail: drali_yousef@yahoo.co [Electrical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University (Egypt); Kassem, Ahmed M., E-mail: kassem_ahmed53@hotmail.co [Control Technology Dep., Industrial Education College, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. {yields} Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. {yields} The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. {yields} The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. {yields} The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  11. NOAA carbon dioxide measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory, 1974-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.T.; Komhyr, W.D.; Harris, T.B.; Chin, J.F.S.

    1977-01-01

    The Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change program of NOAA's Environmental Research Laboratories has measured atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, continuously since June 1974. The measurements through 1976 have been analyzed for recent secular concentration changes and show a continuing increase of about 0.9 ppm/year

  12. 195-Year History of Mykolayiv Observatory: Events and People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulga, O.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  13. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    experience to have the opportunity to do an in-depth review of operational procedures established in 1978 and be given the chance to streamline these through the application of the tools available to engineers and scientists in 1995." The innovative arrangements were designed and developed at the ESA IUE Observatory, which is located in Spain at ESA's Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station in Villanueva de la Canada near Madrid. As a result, ESA is now performing all of WE's science observations (16 hours per day) from the Villafranca station. All the processing of the observations transmitted by the satellite and the subsequent rapid data distribution to the research scientists world-wide is now done from Villafranca. NASA does maintain its role in the programme in the area of operational spacecraft maintenance support, satellite communications and data re-processing for IUE's Final Archive. Thus the IUE Project could be extended and the final IUE observing program can now be implemented. In particular, this will involve critical studies on comets (e,g. on Comet Hale-Bopp), on stellar wind structures, on the enigmatic mini-quasars (which are thought to power the nuclei of Active Galaxies), as well as performing pre- studies which will optimize the utilization of the Hubble Space Telescope. Prof. R.M. Bonnet, Director of the ESA Science Programme comments "I am quite pleased that we have been able to secure the extension of our support for the scientists in Europe and the world to this highly effective mission. Also the scientists can be proud of the utilization of IUE, with more than 3000 learned publications and 200 Doctoral dissertations based on data from IUE. Through this they demonstrate in turn to be very appreciative of our efforts in the Science Programme".

  14. Development of a multi-pole magnetorheological brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, Yaojung; Nguyen, Quang-Anh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the design and optimization of a novel multi-pole magnetorheological (MR) brake that employs magnetic flux more effectively on the surface of the rotor. MR brakes with conventional single ring-type electromagnetic poles have reached the limits of torque enhancement. One major reason is the limitation of the magnetic field strength within the active area of the MR fluid due to the geometric constraints of the coil. The multi-pole MR brake design features multiple electromagnetic poles surrounded by several coils. As a result, the active chaining areas for the MR fluid are greatly increased, and significant brake torque improvement is achieved. The coil structure, as a part of the stator, becomes flexible and customizable in terms of space usage for the winding and bobbin design. In addition, this brake offers extra options in its dimensions for torque enhancement because either the radial or the axial dimensions of the rotor can be increased. Magnetic circuit analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the design parameters on the field torque. After that, simulations were done to find the optimal design under all major geometric constraints with a given power supply. The results show that the multi-pole MR brake provides a considerable braking torque increase while maintaining a compact and solid design. This is confirmation of its feasibility in actual braking applications. (paper)

  15. Avoidance of a Landau pole by flat contributions in QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaczynski, Lutz, E-mail: lutz.klaczynski@gmx.de [Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: kreimer@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Alexander von Humboldt Chair in Mathematical Physics, Humboldt University, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    We consider massless Quantum Electrodynamics in the momentum scheme and carry forward an approach based on Dyson–Schwinger equations to approximate both the β-function and the renormalized photon self-energy (Yeats, 2011). Starting from the Callan–Symanzik equation, we derive a renormalization group (RG) recursion identity which implies a non-linear ODE for the anomalous dimension and extract a sufficient but not necessary criterion for the existence of a Landau pole. This criterion implies a necessary condition for QED to have no such pole. Solving the differential equation exactly for a toy model case, we integrate the corresponding RG equation for the running coupling and find that even though the β-function entails a Landau pole it exhibits a flat contribution capable of decreasing its growth, in other cases possibly to the extent that such a pole is avoided altogether. Finally, by applying the recursion identity, we compute the photon propagator and investigate the effect of flat contributions on both spacelike and timelike photons. -- Highlights: •We present an approach to approximate both the β-function and the photon self-energy. •We find a sufficient criterion for the self-energy to entail the existence of a Landau pole. •We study non-perturbative ‘flat’ contributions that emerge within the context of our approach. •We discuss a toy model and how it is affected by flat contributions.

  16. Analysis of car’s frontal collision against pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Nastasoiu, M.

    2017-10-01

    Reducing the effects of traffic accidents over the occupants is a major objective of collision attempts. Impacts between the car and the pole are very dangerous for the physical integrity of the car’s occupants. To minimalize the effects of such events on the passengers of a vehicle, a whole series of efforts by both designers and experienced engineers led to increasingly the vehicles safety. The main aim of these paper is to quantify the influences over the car passengers of loads involved by car against pole collisions using the same car model at different speeds. Also, this kind on occupant influences were study using a small car model. Other goal of the paper was the study of the cars stiffness in frontal collision against the pole. The paper’s experimental results were obtained by support of DSD, Dr. Steffan Datentechnik GmbH - Linz, Austria. The described tests were performed in full test facility of DSD Linz, in “Easter 2016 PC-Crash Seminar”. Cars accelerations, velocities, rotations angles after pole impact were registered and discussed. The novelty of the paper consists in studies referred for the same car model involved in car against pole collisions at different impact speeds. Paper’s conclusions can be future used for car safety improvement.

  17. Compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet with holmium poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Lobb, C.T.; Menzel, M.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walstrom, P.L. (Grumman Space Systems, Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1992-03-15

    A compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet was designed and built with poles made of the rare-earth metal holmium. The magnet is intended for use in superconducting coupled-cavity linear accelerators where compact high-field quadrupoles are needed, but where the use of permanent magnets is ruled out because of trapped-flux losses. The magnet has a clear bore diameter of 1.8 cm, outside diameter of 11 cm, length of 11 cm, and pole tip length of 6 cm. The effect of using holmium, a material with a higher saturation field than iron, was investigated by replacing poles made of iron with identical poles made of holmium. The magnet was operated at a temperature of 4.2 K and reached a peak quadrupole field gradient of 355 T/m, a 10% increase over the same magnet with iron poles. This increase in performance is consistent with calculations based on B-H curves that were measured for holmium at 4.2 K. (orig.).

  18. An international network of magnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Chulliat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its formation in the late 1980s, the International Real-Time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET), a voluntary consortium of geophysical institutes from around the world, has promoted the operation of magnetic observatories according to modern standards [eg. Rasson, 2007]. INTERMAGNET institutes have cooperatively developed infrastructure for data exchange and management ads well as methods for data processing and checking. INTERMAGNET institute have also helped to expand global geomagnetic monitoring capacity, most notably by assisting magnetic observatory institutes in economically developing countries by working directly with local geophysicists. Today the INTERMAGNET consortium encompasses 57 institutes from 40 countries supporting 120 observatories (see Figures 1a and 1b). INTERMAGNET data record a wide variety of time series signals related to a host of different physical processes in the Earth's interiors and in the Earth's surrounding space environment [e.g., Love, 2008]. Observatory data have always had a diverse user community, and to meet evolving demand, INTERMAGNET has recently coordinated the introduction of several new data services.

  19. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  20. The controlled ecological life support system Antarctic analog project: Analysis of wastewater from the South Pole Station, Antarctica, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Bubenheim, David L.; Straight, Christian L.; Belisle, Warren

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support system (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and NASA project for the development, deployment and operation of CELSS technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. NASA goals are operational testing of CELSS technologies and the conduct of scientific studies to facilitate technology selection and system design. The NSF goals are that the food production, water purification, and waste treatment capabilities which will be provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. This report presents an analysis of wastewater samples taken from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. The purpose of the work is to develop a quantitative understanding of the characteristics of domestic sewage streams at the South Pole Station. This information will contribute to the design of a proposed plant growth/waste treatment system which is part of the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP).

  1. Russians, Jews, and Poles: Russification and Antisemitism 1881-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor R. Weeks

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Poles and Jews deteriorated significantly in the three decades leading up to World War I. Many reasons for this phenomenon can be given, for example: economic competition, a general atmosphere of acute nationalism, increased migration, perceived threats to traditional forms of life and religion. Exacerbating all of these factors, however, was the fact of Polish statelessness and the extreme sensitivity of Poles to perceived threats to their culture and nation. In particular within the Russian Empire, Poles perceived the very future of their nation at risk. In such circumstances the continued existence of Jewish cultural difference combined with the development of specifically Jewish forms of national awakening (e.g., the Bund and Zionism were understood by many in Polish society as ingratitude and collaboration with the Russian occupier

  2. PLANNING THE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR TIMISOARA GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Livia POPA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that planning the quality of life at local level through economic development can be a new approach for policy makers and community in improving quality of life. In this purpose, the Quality Function Deployment (QFD model will be use to planning the quality of life and to identify the main directions of economic development to support improving the quality of life at the level of Timisoara Growth Pole from Romania. The dimensions of quality of life are analyzed starting from the point of view of inhabitants. The results include a new approach in which the dimensions of quality of life are the key element that orients economic development in order to improve the quality of life of human being. The case study results refer to the main elements of quality of life at Timisoara Growth Pole and the relevant directions of economic development to improve the quality of life for Timisoara Growth Pole.

  3. Multinational History of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2005-01-01

    Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is quite an interesting place for historians: several changes of nationality between France and Germany, high-profile scientists having been based there, big projects born or installed in its walls, and so on. Most of the documents circulating on the history of the Observatory and on related matters have however been so far poorly referenced, if at all. This made necessary the compilation of a volume such as this one, offering fully-documented historical facts and references on the first decades of the Observatory history, authored by both French and German specialists. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in the details of European history. After an introductory chapter by the Editor, contributions by Wolfschmidt and by Duerbeck respectively deal extensively with the German periods and review people and instrumentation, while another paper by Duerbeck is more...

  4. Chicago's Dearborn Observatory: a study in survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartky, Ian R.

    2000-12-01

    The Dearborn Observatory, located on the Old University of Chicago campus from 1863 until 1888, was America's most promising astronomical facility when it was founded. Established by the Chicago Astronomical Society and directed by one of the country's most gifted astronomers, it boasted the largest telescope in the world and virtually unlimited operating funds. The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed its funding and demolished its research programme. Only via the sale of time signals and the heroic efforts of two amateur astronomers did the Dearborn Observatory survive.

  5. Geoelectric monitoring at the Boulder magnetic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Blum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance to a range of applied and fundamental studies, and obvious parallels to a robust network of magnetic-field observatories, long-term geoelectric field monitoring is rarely performed. The installation of a new geoelectric monitoring system at the Boulder magnetic observatory of the US Geological Survey is summarized. Data from the system are expected, among other things, to be used for testing and validating algorithms for mapping North American geoelectric fields. An example time series of recorded electric and magnetic fields during a modest magnetic storm is presented. Based on our experience, we additionally present operational aspects of a successful geoelectric field monitoring system.

  6. Operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martino, Julio

    2011-01-01

    While the work to make data acquisition fully automatic continues, both the Fluorescence Detectors and the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory need some kind of attention from the local staff. In the first case, the telescopes are operated and monitored during the moonless periods. The ground array only needs monitoring, but the larger number of stations implies more variables to consider. AugerAccess (a high speed internet connection) will give the possibility of operating and monitoring the observatory from any place in the world. This arises questions about secure access, better control software and alarms. Solutions are already being tested and improved.

  7. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, John

    2011-01-01

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  8. SPASE and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Thieman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE project has developed an information model for interoperable access and retrieval of data within the Heliophysics (also known as space and solar physics science community. The diversity of science data archives within this community has led to the establishment of many virtual observatories to coordinate the data pathways within Heliophysics subdisciplines, such as magnetospheres, waves, radiation belts, etc. The SPASE information model provides a semantic layer and common language for data descriptions so that searches might be made across the whole of the heliophysics data environment, especially through the virtual observatories.

  9. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii' s Institute for Astronomy (United States)

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  10. Public relations for a national observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David G.

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is a government-funded organization providing state-of-the art observational facilities to the astronomical community on a peer-reviewed basis. In this role, the NRAO must address three principal constituencies with its public-relations efforts. These are: the astronomical community; the funding and legislative bodies of the Federal Government; and the general public. To serve each of these constituencies, the Observatory has developed a set of public-relations initiatives supported by public-relations and outreach professionals as well as by management and scientific staff members. The techniques applied and the results achieved in each of these areas are described.

  11. Magnetic transmission gear finite element simulation with iron pole hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Mattia; Alotto, Piergiorgio; Glehn, Gregor; Hameyer, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Ferromagnetic poles in a magnetic transmission gear require particular attention during their design process. Usually, during the numerical simulation of these devices the effects of hysteresis for loss estimation are neglected and considered only during post-processing calculations. Since the literature lacks hysteresis models, this paper adopts a homogenized hysteretic model able to include eddy current and hysteresis losses in 2D laminated materials for iron poles. In this article the results related to the hysteresis in a magnetic gear are presented and compared to the non-hysteretic approach.

  12. Revised paleomagnetic pole for the Sonoma Volcanics, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Paleomagnetic sampling of the Miocene and Pliocene Sonoma Volcanics, northern California, was undertaken to supplement an earlier collection. Data from 25 cooling units yield positive fold and reversal tests, and a paleomagnetic pole located at 80.2??N., 069.2??E., with ??95 = 6.8??. This paleopole is significantly displaced (9.6?? ?? 5.3?? of latitude) to the farside of the geographic pole. A highly elliptical distribution of the data in both direction and VGP space indicates that incomplete averaging of geomagnetic secular variation is a more likely explanation for this anomaly than is northward translation of the volcanic field. -Author

  13. Induction Motor with Switchable Number of Poles and Toroidal Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU, A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of an induction motor provided with toroidal stator winding. The ring-type coils offer a higher versatility in obtaining a different number of pole pairs by means of delta/star and series/parallel connections respectively. As consequence, the developed torque can vary within large limits and the motor can be utilized for applications that require, for example, high load torque values for a short time. The study involves experimental tests and FEM simulation for an induction machine with three configurations of pole pairs. The conclusions attest the superiority of the toroidal winding for certain applications such as electric vehicles or lifting machines.

  14. Poles Living in Ireland and their Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NOLKA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth of Ireland resulted in a significant number of Poles migrating to Ireland following the EU enlargement in 2004. The article explores the quality of life of Poles living in Ireland. Using data from a preliminary survey conducted in 2006, several dimensions of living conditions are analysed, including interpersonal relations, material security, health and healthcare. The study shows that evaluations of almost all aspects of quality of life improved, apart from components such as healthcare and the ability to acquire help from social organisations. Also interpersonal relations, contrary to the initial assumption, were enhanced by migration to Ireland.

  15. Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the distal pole of the scaphoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavuk Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Post traumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of scaphoid is very rare. We present a case of 34 years old male, drill operator by occupation with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of the scaphoid. The patient was managed conservatively and was kept under regular follow-up every three months. The patient was also asked to change his profession. Two years later, the patient had no pain and had mild restriction of wrist movements (less than 15 degrees in either direction. The radiographs revealed normal density of the scaphoid suggesting revascularization.

  16. Contributions to the deployment of furniture in pole central region Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge D’ Ambros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed in the central region of Tocantins, for the identification and analysis of positive factors, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with the furniture supply chain in order to continue the formation of the regional furniture pole. To achieve this objective the methodology used was to listen to local actors and experts in the furniture segment. Seventy-five local actors among industry officials, academic institutions and university representatives were interviewed. They pointed out and analyzed the main points related to the economic, social, political and environmental contributions stemming from the creation of a pole in the region. The tool used was the SWOT Analysis associated with the Method of Judges, and then the variables were subjected to Principal Component Analysis - PCA. The SWOT Matrix proved to be adequate and effective to be used as diagnostic tool along with local actors. The examination of all the factors associated with local furniture production chain helped to understand the activity and indicate actions that affect this arrangement and that will bring economic, social and environmental benefits. According to the experts, the establishment of a furniture industry in the region will favor the employment and income creation, local and regional sustainable development, improvements in business management, raise the standard of quality and productivity of the local furniture industry and improve the quality of population standard of living.

  17. THE THIRD US NAVAL OBSERVATORY CCD ASTROGRAPH CATALOG (UCAC3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharias, N.; Finch, C.; Wycoff, G.; Zacharias, M. I.; Corbin, T.; Dutta, S.; Gaume, R.; Gauss, S.; Hall, D.; Hartkopf, W.; Hsu, D.; Holdenried, E.; Makarov, V.; Mason, B.; Girard, T.; Hambly, N.; Castillo, D.; DiVittorio, M.; Germain, M.; Martines, M.

    2010-01-01

    The third US Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog, UCAC3, was released at the IAU General Assembly on 2009 August 10. It is the first all-sky release in this series and contains just over 100 million objects, about 95 million of them with proper motions, covering about R = 8-16 mag. Current epoch positions are obtained from the observations with the 20 cm aperture USNO Astrograph's 'red lens', equipped with a 4k x 4k CCD. Proper motions are derived by combining these observations with over 140 ground- and space-based catalogs, including Hipparcos/Tycho and the AC2000.2, as well as unpublished measures of over 5000 plates from other astrographs. For most of the faint stars in the southern hemisphere, the Yale/San Juan first epoch plates from the Southern Proper Motion (SPM) program (YSJ1) form the basis for proper motions. These data are supplemented by all-sky Schmidt plate survey astrometry and photometry obtained from the SuperCOSMOS project, as well as 2MASS near-IR photometry. Major differences of UCAC3 data as compared with UCAC2 include a completely new raw data reduction with improved control over systematic errors in positions, significantly improved photometry, slightly deeper limiting magnitude, coverage of the north pole region, greater completeness by inclusion of double stars, and weak detections. This of course leads to a catalog which is not as 'clean' as UCAC2 and problem areas are outlined for the user in this paper. The positional accuracy of stars in UCAC3 is about 15-100 mas per coordinate, depending on magnitude, while the errors in proper motions range from 1 to 10 mas yr -1 depending on magnitude and observing history, with a significant improvement over UCAC2 achieved due to the re-reduced SPM data and inclusion of more astrograph plate data unavailable at the time of UCAC2.

  18. A Global Drought Observatory for Emergency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Jürgen; de Jager, Alfred; Carrão, Hugo; Magni, Diego; Mazzeschi, Marco; Barbosa, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Droughts are occurring on all continents and across all climates. While in developed countries they cause significant economic and environmental damages, in less developed countries they may cause major humanitarian catastrophes. The magnitude of the problem and the expected increase in drought frequency, extent and severity in many, often highly vulnerable regions of the world demand a change from the current reactive, crisis-management approach towards a more pro-active, risk management approach. Such approach needs adequate and timely information from global to local scales as well as adequate drought management plans. Drought information systems are important for continuous monitoring and forecasting of the situation in order to provide timely information on developing drought events and their potential impacts. Against this background, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing a Global Drought Observatory (GDO) for the European Commission's humanitarian services, providing up-to-date information on droughts world-wide and their potential impacts. Drought monitoring is achieved by a combination of meteorological and biophysical indicators, while the societal vulnerability to droughts is assessed through the targeted analysis of a series of social, economic and infrastructural indicators. The combination of the information on the occurrence and severity of a drought, on the assets at risk and on the societal vulnerability in the drought affected areas results in a likelihood of impact, which is expressed by a Likelihood of Drought Impact (LDI) indicator. The location, extent and magnitude of the LDI is then further analyzed against the number of people and land use/land cover types affected in order to provide the decision bodies with information on the potential humanitarian and economic bearings in the affected countries or regions. All information is presented through web-mapping interfaces based on OGC standards and customized reports can be drawn by the

  19. A study of faint radio sources near the North Galactic Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benn, C.R.

    1981-09-01

    A large amount of observational data has been obtained on faint radio sources in a small area of sky near the North Galactic Pole (the 5C 12 area). This provides a new perspective (3 decades in flux density from the 3CR catalogue) on the physical properties and cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources. Chapter 1 introduces the problem and concludes that faint-object cosmology is best served by intensive investigation of sources in a small area of sky. An optimum area is chosen, at right ascension 12sup(h) 58sup(m) 43sup(s) and declination 35 0 14' 00'' (1950.0). Chapter 2 describes the 5C12 radio survey (complete to 9mJy apparent flux density at 408MHz) conducted with the One Mile Telescope at Cambridge. Chapter 4 describes a 4.85GHz survey to 20mJy of the area, conducted at Effelsberg. In chapter 5, a program of optical identification for the sources is described, using deep (msub(g) = 22.5, msub(y) = 20.7) Schmidt plates taken at Hale Observatories. A statistical algorithm is developed to cope with the problems of optical confusion due to radio positional errors. Chapter 6 draws on data from the previous 4, and presents results concerning radio source counts, spectral index distributions, optical identifications and clustering. (author)

  20. First data from IceAct, an imaging air Cherenkov telescope with SiPMs at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffenberg, Jan; Bretz, Thomas; Hansmann, Bengt; Hansmann, Tim; Hebbeker, Thomas; Kemp, Julian; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Raedel, Leif; Schaufel, Merlin; Schumacher, Johannes; Stahlberg, Martin; Werhan, Ansgar; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    IceCube-Gen2 is planned to extend the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the geographic South Pole. For neutrino astronomy, a large background-free sample of well-reconstructed astrophysical neutrinos is essential. The main background for this signal are muons and neutrinos which are produced in cosmic-ray air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. The coincident detection of these air showers by the surface detector IceTop has been proven to be a powerful veto for atmospheric neutrinos and muons in the field of view of the Southern Hemisphere. This motivates a large extension of IceTop to more efficiently detect cosmic rays, IceVeto. Part of these extension plans is an array of imaging air Cherenkov telescopes, IceAct. A first IceAct prototype is consisting of an SiPM camera and lens optics optimized for harsh environments. Compared to IceTop stations, these telescopes potentially lower the detection threshold for air showers at the cost of a lower duty cycle. We present first data, taken during the commissioning of an IceAct prototype in December 2015 at the South Pole.

  1. Search for PeVatrons at the Galactic Center using a radio air-shower array at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagopal V, A.; Schroeder, F.G. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haungs, A.; Huege, T. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    The South Pole, which hosts the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has a complete and around-the-clock exposure to the Galactic Center. Hence, it is an ideal location to search for gamma rays of PeV energy coming from the Galactic Center. However, it is hard to detect air showers initiated by these gamma rays using cosmic-ray particle detectors due to the low elevation of the Galactic Center. The use of antennas to measure the radio footprint of these air showers will help in this case, and would allow for a 24/7 operation time. So far, only air showers with energies well above 10{sup 16} eV have been detected with the radio technique. Thus, the energy threshold has to be lowered for the detection of gamma-ray showers of PeV energy. This can be achieved by optimizing the frequency band in order to obtain a higher level of signal-to-noise ratio. With such an approach, PeV gamma-ray showers with high inclination can be measured at the South Pole. (orig.)

  2. Aerosol and gamma background measurements at Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelov Christo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trans boundary and local pollution, global climate changes and cosmic rays are the main areas of research performed at the regional Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW station Moussala BEO (2925 m a.s.l., 42°10’45’’ N, 23°35’07’’ E. Real time measurements and observations are performed in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics. Complex information about the aerosol is obtained by using a threewavelength integrating Nephelometer for measuring the scattering and backscattering coefficients, a continuous light absorption photometer and a scanning mobile particle sizer. The system for measuring radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols allows us to monitor a large scale radioactive aerosol transport. The measurements of the gamma background and the gamma-rays spectrum in the air near Moussala peak are carried out in real time. The HYSPLIT back trajectory model is used to determine the origin of the data registered. DREAM code calculations [2] are used to forecast the air mass trajectory. The information obtained combined with a full set of corresponding meteorological parameters is transmitted via a high frequency radio telecommunication system to the Internet.

  3. India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO) · Atmospheric neutrinos – India connection · INO Collaboration · INO Project components · ICAL: The physics goals · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · INO site : Bodi West Hills · Underground Laboratory Layout · Status of activities at INO Site · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · INO-ICAL Detector · ICAL factsheet.

  4. Asteroids Observed from GMARS and Santana Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Lightcurve period and amplitude results from Santana and GMARS Observatories are reported for 2008 June to September: 1472 Muonio, 8.706 ± 0.002 h and 0.50 mag; 2845 Franklinken, 114 ± 1 h and 0.8 mag; and 4533 Orth (> 24 hours).

  5. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.

    2014-07-01

    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  6. Education and public engagement in observatory operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Pavel; Mayo, Louis; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    Education and public engagement (EPE) is an essential part of astronomy's mission. New technologies, remote observing and robotic facilities are opening new possibilities for EPE. A number of projects (e.g., Telescopes In Education, MicroObservatory, Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope and UNC's Skynet) have developed new infrastructure, a number of observatories (e.g., University of Arizona's "full-engagement initiative" towards its astronomy majors, Vatican Observatory's collaboration with high-schools) have dedicated their resources to practical instruction and EPE. Some of the facilities are purpose built, others are legacy telescopes upgraded for remote or automated observing. Networking among institutions is most beneficial for EPE, and its implementation ranges from informal agreements between colleagues to advanced software packages with web interfaces. The deliverables range from reduced data to time and hands-on instruction while operating a telescope. EPE represents a set of tasks and challenges which is distinct from research applications of the new astronomical facilities and operation modes. In this paper we examine the experience with several EPE projects, and some lessons and challenges for observatory operation.

  7. Reverberation Mapping Results from MDM Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from a multi-month reverberation mapping campaign undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from around the world. We measure broad line region (BLR) radii and black hole masses for six objects. A velocity-resolved analysis of the H_beta response show...

  8. Robotic Autonomous Observatories: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Javier Castro-Tirado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical introduction to the field of Robotic Astronomy, from the point of view of a scientist working in this field for more than a decade. The author discusses the basic definitions, the differing telescope control operating systems, observatory managers, as well as a few current scientific applications.

  9. Geomagnetic secular variation at the African observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haile, T.

    2002-10-01

    Geomagnetic data from ten observatories in the African continent with time series data length of more than three decades have been analysed. All-day annual mean values of the D, H and Z components were used to study secular variations in the African region. The residuals in D, H and Z components obtained after removing polynomial fits have been examined in relation to the sunspot cycle. The occurrence of the 1969-1970 worldwide geomagnetic impulse in each observatory is studied. It is found that the secular variation in the field can be represented for most of the observatories with polynomials of second or third degree. Departures from these trends are observed over the Southern African region where strong local magnetic anomalies have been observed. The residuals in the geomagnetic field components have been shown to exhibit parallelism with the periods corresponding to double solar cycle for some of the stations. A clear latitudinal distribution in the geomagnetic component that exhibits the 1969-70 jerk is shown. The jerk appears in the plots of the first differences in H for the southern most observatories of Hermanus, Hartebeesthoek, and Tsuemb, while the Z plots show the jerk for near equatorial and equatorial stations of Antananarivo, Luanda Belas, Bangui and Addis Ababa. There is some indication for this jerk in the first difference plots of D for the northern stations of M'Bour and Tamanrasset. The plots of D rather strongly suggest the presence of a jerk around 1980 at most of the stations. (author)

  10. Astronomical Virtual Observatories Through International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Ohishi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical Virtual Observatories (VOs are emerging research environment for astronomy, and 16 countries and a region have funded to develop their VOs based on international standard protocols for interoperability. The 16 funded VO projects have established the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (http://www.ivoa.net/ to develop the standard interoperable interfaces such as registry (meta data, data access, query languages, output format (VOTable, data model, application interface, and so on. The IVOA members have constructed each VO environment through the IVOA interfaces. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ started its VO project (Japanese Virtual Observatory - JVO in 2002, and developed its VO system. We have succeeded to interoperate the latest JVO system with other VOs in the USA and Europe since December 2004. Observed data by the Subaru telescope, satellite data taken by the JAXA/ISAS, etc. are connected to the JVO system. Successful interoperation of the JVO system with other VOs means that astronomers in the world will be able to utilize top-level data obtained by these telescopes from anywhere in the world at anytime. System design of the JVO system, experiences during our development including problems of current standard protocols defined in the IVOA, and proposals to resolve these problems in the near future are described.

  11. Lights go out at city observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    Armstrong, R

    2003-01-01

    Edinburgh's Royal Observatory is to close its doors to the public due to dwindling visitor numbers. The visitor centre will remain open to the general public for planned lectures and night-time observing sessions, but will cease to be open on a daily basis from next month (1/2 page).

  12. Radioecological Observatories - Breeding Grounds for Innovative Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin; Urso, Laura; Wichterey, Karin; Willrodt, Christine [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany); Beresford, Nicholas A.; Howard, Brenda [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina [Stockholms Universitet - SU, Universitetsvaegen 10, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Dowdall, Mark; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA, P.O. Box 55, NO-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Eyrolle- Boyer, Frederique; Guillevic, Jerome; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology - Chornobyl Center, 77th Gvardiiska Dyviiya str.7/1, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Ikaeheimonen, Tarja; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Michalik, Boguslaw [Glowny Instytut Gornictwa - GIG, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Avenida complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oughton, Deborah; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Sweeck, Lieve [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK.CEN), Avenue Herrmann- Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Yoschenko, Vasyl [National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine (NUBiP of Ukraine), Herojiv Obrony st., 15, Kyiv-03041 (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Within the EC-funded (FP7) Network of Excellence STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology, www.star-radioecology.org) the concept of Radioecological Observatories is currently being implemented on a European level for the first time. Radioecological Observatories are radioactively (and chemically) contaminated field sites that will provide a focus for joint long-term radioecological research. The benefit of this innovative approach is to create synergistic research collaborations by sharing expertise, ideas, data and resources. Research at the Radioecological Observatories will primarily focus on radioecological challenges outlined in the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). Mechanisms to use these sites will be established under the EC-funded project COMET (Coordination and Implementation of a Pan-European Instrument for Radioecology, www.comet-radioecology.org). The European Radioecological Observatory sites were selected using a structured, progressive approach that was transparent, consistent and objective. A first screening of potential candidate sites was conducted based on the following exclusion criteria: long-term perspective for shared field work and suitability for addressing the radioecological challenges of the SRA. The proposed sites included former uranium mining and milling sites in France and Germany, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) in Ukraine/Belarus and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland. All candidate sites were prioritized based on evaluation criteria which comprised scientific issues, available infrastructure, administrative/legal constraints and financial considerations. Multi-criteria decision analysis, group discussions and recommendations provided by external experts were combined to obtain a preference order among the suggested sites. Using this approach, the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) were selected as Radioecological Observatories. The two sites have similar multi

  13. Particles as S-matrix poles: hadron democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The connection between two theoretical ideas of the 1950s is traced in this article, namely that hadrons are nonfundamental, ''composite'' particles and that all physically observable particles correspond to singularities of an analytic scattering matrix. The S matrix theory developed by Werner Heisenberg in the early forties now incorporated the concepts of unitarity, invariance, analyticity and causality. The meson-exchange force meant that poles must be present in nucleon-nuclear and pion-nucleon scattering as predicted by dispersion relations. Experimental work in accessible regions determined pole residues. Pole residue became associated with force strength and pole position with particle mass. In 1959, the author discovered the so-called ''bootstrap'' theory the rho meson as a force generates a rho particle. By the end of the 1950s it was clear that all hadrons had equal status, each being bound states of other hadrons, sustained by hadron exchange forces and that hadrons are self-generated by an S-matrix bootstrap mechanism that determines all their properties. (UK)

  14. Determination of pole orientations and shapes of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, P.; Barucci, M.A.; Drummond, J.D.; Lumme, K.; Surdej, J.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of asteroid lightcurve inversion and the information available from photometry are reviewed. General tools as well as specific techniques for shape and pole determinations are summarized and their advantages and shortcomings are discussed. The authors present the results obtained so far in this very active field and discuss their significance in the general context of asteroid research and planetary formation

  15. Separable pole expansions in four-nucleon bound state calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofianos, S.A.; Fiedeldey, H.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-04-01

    We compare the utility of the Generalized Unitary Pole Expansion (GUPE) and the Energy-Dependent Pole Expansion (EDPE) for the three-body subsystem amplitudes in four-body state calculations for a variety of separable and local nucleon-nucleon interactions. It is found that, with the EDPE, the four-body binding energy is well reproduced with only two terms each for the (2+2)- and the (3+1)-subsystem, respectively, while the GUPE requires three terms for the (3+1)-channel and four terms for the (2+2)-channel. We thus conclude that pole dominance is of greater importance for the GUPE than for EDPE, which works equally well for both types of subsystems. It is found that both methods, in particular the EDPE, converge more rapidly with increasing repulsion in the two-body interaction, i.e. the more realistic the interaction becomes. Both expansions require similar computing times for a converged calculation and are about 15-20 times faster than the widely used Hilbert-Schmidt Expansion (HSE). The respective merits of the two pole expansions are discussed and compared with the HSE. (orig.)

  16. Biomechanical pole and leg characteristics during uphill diagonal roller skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Stefan Josef; Göpfert, Caroline; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2009-11-01

    Diagonal skiing as a major classical technique has hardly been investigated over the last two decades, although technique and racing velocities have developed substantially. The aims of the present study were to 1) analyse pole and leg kinetics and kinematics during submaximal uphill diagonal roller skiing and 2) identify biomechanical factors related to performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a time to exhaustion (performance) test on a treadmill. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded separately during diagonal roller skiing (9 degrees; 11 km/h). Performance was correlated to cycle length (r = 0.77; P Push-off demonstrated performance correlations for impulse of leg force (r = 0.84), relative duration (r= -0.76) and knee flexion (r = 0.73) and extension ROM (r = 0.74). Relative time to peak pole force was associated with performance (r = 0.73). In summary, diagonal roller skiing performance was linked to 1) longer cycle length, 2) greater impulse of force during a shorter push-off with larger flexion/extension ROMs in leg joints, 3) longer leg swing, and 4) later peak pole force, demonstrating the major key characteristics to be emphasised in training.

  17. Spectroscopic Binaries near the North Galactic Pole Paper 15: HD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Galactic Pole field he treated HD 106947 as if nothing were already known ... By good fortune a Palomar radial-velocity observing run in late 1986 fell near to a .... obvious to the naked eye as a grouping of fifth- and sixth-magnitude stars in an.

  18. In-situ poling and structurization of piezoelectric particulate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbareh, H; van der Zwaag, S; Groen, W A

    2017-11-01

    Composites of lead zirconate titanate particles in an epoxy matrix are prepared in the form of 0-3 and quasi 1-3 with different ceramic volume contents from 10% to 50%. Two different processing routes are tested. Firstly a conventional dielectrophoretic structuring is used to induce a chain-like particle configuration, followed by curing the matrix and poling at a high temperature and under a high voltage. Secondly a simultaneous combination of dielectrophoresis and poling is applied at room temperature while the polymer is in the liquid state followed by subsequent curing. This new processing route is practiced in an uncured thermoset system while the polymer matrix still possess a relatively high electrical conductivity. Composites with different degrees of alignment are produced by altering the magnitude of the applied electric field. A significant improvement in piezoelectric properties of quasi 1-3 composites can be achieved by a combination of dielectrophoretic alignment of the ceramic particles and poling process. It has been observed that the degree of structuring as well as the functional properties of the in-situ structured and poled composites enhance significantly compared to those of the conventionally manufactured structured composites. Improving the alignment quality enhances the piezoelectric properties of the particulate composites.

  19. Finite element analysis of boron diffusion in wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved...

  20. Simple Regge pole model for Compton scattering of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that by a phenomenological choice of the residue functions, the differential cross section for ν p → ν p, including the very recent measurements up to - t=4.3 (GeV/c) 2 , can be explained at all measured energies greater than 2 GeV with simple Regge pole model

  1. Evidence for differentiation of cell wall poles in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenfeld, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous data have suggested that the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis was found to the cell surface at polar regions. A significant corollary of DNA attachment to cell poles is the role of the cell wall in chromosome segregation. This project was mainly concerned with visualizing the DNA-cell wall association through autoradiography. The origin and terminus of replication were labelled with ( 3 H)-thymidine using a temperature-sensitive DNA initiation mutant. It was found that most of the radioactivity was associated with cell poles. Ultrastructural analyses of cell walls stained with dilute cationized ferritin showed that the polar area contained a site of dense electronegativity. It is not immediately apparent why cell wall poles would contain an area with a high concentration of negative charge. This finding may be related to the cell pole functioning as the site of chromosome attachment. An additional observation encountered in this study was that cell wall exhibited asymmetry with regard to negative charge, the outside surface being more electronegative than the inside. A significant consequence of this finding is that both teichoic acid and muramyl peptides are situated perpendicularly to the cell surface. This favored arrangement may facilitate cell separation during the division process due to opposition of like charges at septa. The results of this work provide further convincing evidence that the cell wall of B. subtilis is differentiated

  2. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  3. ENPA endine juht seisukohti muutnud pole / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    Eelmisel aastal Eestit vähemuste diskrimineerimises süüdistanud Euroopa Nõukogu Parlamentaarse Assamblee endine esimees Rene van der Linden pole oma seisukohta muutnud ning usub endiselt, et tema jutt inimõiguste rikkumiste kohta Eestis peab paika. Vt. samas: Van der Linden

  4. An estimate on the purely imaginary poles of scattering matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhkov, Y.D.

    1988-12-01

    In this work we obtain two estimates (upper and lower) on the number of purely imaginary poles of the scattering matrix for the wave equation in the exterior of a compact smooth obstacle in R n , n ≥ 3 odd. The method of Lax and Phillips is used. (author). 5 refs

  5. Diplodia natalensis , Pole Evans: a causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolations were made from the barks of gummosis-infected citrus trees from orchards of the University of Ghana Agricultural Research Station at Kade. The isolation media used were 1.5% water agar, 1.5% water agar + nystatin and 1.5% water agar + benomyl. Four isolates including Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, ...

  6. A variable-mode stator consequent pole memory machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Lyu, Shukang; Lin, Heyun; Zhu, Z. Q.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a variable-mode concept is proposed for the speed range extension of a stator-consequent-pole memory machine (SCPMM). An integrated permanent magnet (PM) and electrically excited control scheme is utilized to simplify the flux-weakening control instead of relatively complicated continuous PM magnetization control. Due to the nature of memory machine, the magnetization state of low coercive force (LCF) magnets can be easily changed by applying either a positive or negative current pulse. Therefore, the number of PM poles may be changed to satisfy the specific performance requirement under different speed ranges, i.e. the machine with all PM poles can offer high torque output while that with half PM poles provides wide constant power range. In addition, the SCPMM with non-magnetized PMs can be considered as a dual-three phase electrically excited reluctance machine, which can be fed by an open-winding based dual inverters that provide direct current (DC) bias excitation to further extend the speed range. The effectiveness of the proposed variable-mode operation for extending its operating region and improving the system reliability is verified by both finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments.

  7. Liz Taylor : minu van Gogh pole natsidele kuulunud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Elizabeth Taylor palus kohtult otsust, et talle kuuluvat 15 miljonit dollarit maksvat Vincent van Goghi maali "Vaade Saint-Remy varjupaigale" pole natsid Margarete Mauthneri juudiperekonna käest vägivaldselt ära võtnud. E. Taylori isa ostis maali 1963. a. Londonis oksjonilt

  8. Carrier Phase GPS Navigation to the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T.; Roberts, G. W.

    Over the last few years, on-the-fly integer ambiguity resolution for GPS has proven to be successful over short baselines (500 km. New techniques have been developed at the University of Nottingham to allow very long baseline integer ambiguity resolution, on-the-fly. A major problem with the use of carrier phase data is that posed by cycle slips. A technique for detecting and correcting cycle slips has been developed, and its use is discussed in this paper. The new technique has been proven through a series of trials, one of which included two flights to the North Pole, performing centimetric level positioning all the way to the pole. For many years, the GD Aero-Systems Course of the Air Warfare Centre based at RAF Cranwell executed a series of equipment flight trials to the North Pole, called the ARIES Flights. In May 1996, the authors were fortunate to take part in both flights, via Iceland and Greenland, to the North Pole. Based on reference stations at Thule Air Base, integer ambiguity resolution was accomplished, on-the-fly, and centimetric level navigation maintained throughout the flights. Earlier trials detailed in the paper demonstrate that the technique can resolve integer ambiguities on-the-fly within a few seconds over a baseline length of approximately 134 km, resulting in an accuracy of 12 cm. The majority of the residual error source for this being the ionosphere.

  9. Cross-poling textures in a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Shan; Bowman, Keith J.

    2000-01-01

    Tetragonal ferroelectric materials are polarized to induce the anisotropy necessary for the piezoelectric effect. This poling of the material is inherently an orientation process. Pole figure texture measurements of poling and cross-poling in a lead zirconate titanate Navy VI material show domain motion. The resulting axisymmetric and three-dimensional textures demonstrate the contribution of 90 degree sign domain motion to piezoelectricity. Cross-poling results in strong orientations with lower applied fields than in the initial poling steps. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society

  10. Plotter of pole figure using data from x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    Any polycrystalline aggregate normally has a preferred crystallographic orientation, or texture which depends on its thermal and or mechanical history. Preferred orientation is best described by means of a pole figure. A pole figure is a stereographic projection which shows the variation in pole density with pole orientation, for a selected set of crystal planes. In this work, computer programs was developed to plot pole figures. The corrected intensities are calculated and directly transmitted to the plotter. The different intensities levels are represented by different colors in the pole figure. (author)

  11. The practice of pole dance as a leisure activity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andorra Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the how pole dance is practiced as a form of leisure activity in Denmark. The methodical approach is qualitative and inspired by ethnography. I have conducted a field study where I have observed and participated in the pole dance culture in Copenhagen from May ...... addresses the difference between a focus on dance and a focus on tricks in pole dancing as well as it examines the different opinions pole studio owners have concerning ‘sexiness’ in pole dance and how this affects the way pole dance is practiced....

  12. Development of Armenian-Georgian Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Kochiashvili, Nino; Astsatryan, Hrach; Harutyunian, Haik; Magakyan, Tigran; Chargeishvili, Ketevan; Natsvlishvili, Rezo; Kukhianidze, Vasil; Ramishvili, Giorgi; Sargsyan, Lusine; Sinamyan, Parandzem; Kochiashvili, Ia; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2009-10-01

    The Armenian-Georgian Virtual Observatory (ArGVO) project is the first initiative in the world to create a regional VO infrastructure based on national VO projects and regional Grid. The Byurakan and Abastumani Astrophysical Observatories are scientific partners since 1946, after establishment of the Byurakan observatory . The Armenian VO project (ArVO) is being developed since 2005 and is a part of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). It is based on the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS, the digitized version of famous Markarian survey) and other Armenian archival data. Similarly, the Georgian VO will be created to serve as a research environment to utilize the digitized Georgian plate archives. Therefore, one of the main goals for creation of the regional VO is the digitization of large amounts of plates preserved at the plate stacks of these two observatories. The total amount of plates is more than 100,000 units. Observational programs of high importance have been selected and some 3000 plates will be digitized during the next two years; the priority is being defined by the usefulness of the material for future science projects, like search for new objects, optical identifications of radio, IR, and X-ray sources, study of variability and proper motions, etc. Having the digitized material in VO standards, a VO database through the regional Grid infrastructure will be active. This partnership is being carried out in the framework of the ISTC project A-1606 "Development of Armenian-Georgian Grid Infrastructure and Applications in the Fields of High Energy Physics, Astrophysics and Quantum Physics".

  13. Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children: just a normal variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Vogelius, Esben S.; Orth, Robert C.; Guillerman, R.P.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, E.B. Singleton Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification. (orig.)

  14. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  15. The Paris Observatory has 350 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, James

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Observatory is the oldest astronomical observatory that has worked without interruption since its foundation to the present day. The building due to Claude Perrault is still in existence with few modifications, but of course other buildings have been added all along the centuries for housing new instruments and laboratories. In particular, a large dome has been built on the terrace in 1847, with a 38-cm diameter telescope completed in 1857: both are still visible. The main initial purpose of the Observatory was to determine longitudes. This was achieved by Jean-Dominique Cassini using the eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter: a much better map of France was the produced using this method, which unfortunately does not work at sea. Incidentally, the observation of these eclipses led to the discovery in 1676 of the finite velocity of light by Cassini and Rømer. Cassini also discovered the differential rotation of Jupiter and four satellites of Saturn. Then, geodesy was to be the main activity of the Observatory for more than a century, culminating in the famous Cassini map of France completed around 1790. During the first half of the 19th century, under François Arago, the Observatory was at the centre of French physics, which then developed very rapidly. Arago initiated astrophysics in 1810 by showing that the Sun and stars are made of incandescent gas. In 1854, the new director, Urbain Le Verrier, put emphasis on astrometry and celestial mechanics, discovering in particular the anomalous advance of the perihelion of Mercury, which was later to be a proof of General Relativity. In 1858, Leon Foucault built the first modern reflecting telescopes with their silvered glass mirror. Le Verrier created on his side modern meteorology, including some primitive forecasts. The following period was not so bright, due to the enormous project of the Carte du Ciel, which took much of the forces of the Observatory for half a century with little scientific return. In

  16. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  17. Personaliotsinguteenust tasub kasutada siis, kui rahaline kokkuhoid pole esmane / Merike Lees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lees, Merike, 1976-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. veebr. lk. 13. Personaliotsinguteenuse kasutamine on õigustatud siis, kui ettevõttes pole personalispetsialisti ning rahaline kokkuhoid pole esmatähtis. Kommenteerivad: Eero Erastus, Madis Sander ja Marti Rehemaa

  18. Pole Shape Optimization of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using the Reduced Basis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jabbari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an integrated method of pole shape design optimization for reduction of torque pulsation components in permanent magnet synchronous motors is developed. A progressive design process is presented to find feasible optimal shapes. This method is applied on the pole shape optimization of two prototype permanent magnet synchronous motors, i.e., 4-poles/6-slots and 4-poles-12slots.

  19. Data standards for the international virtual observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Hanisch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance, which brings together Virtual Observatory Projects from 16 national and international development projects, is to develop, evaluate, test, and agree upon standards for astronomical data formatting, data discovery, and data delivery. In the three years that the IVOA has been in existence, substantial progress has been made on standards for tabular data, imaging data, spectroscopic data, and large-scale databases and on managing the metadata that describe data collections and data access services. In this paper, I describe how the IVOA operates and give my views as to why such a broadly based international collaboration has been able to make such rapid progress.

  20. Beyond the Observatory: Reflections on the Centennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devorkin, D. H.

    1999-05-01

    One of the many unexpected side-benefits of acting as editor of the AAS centennial volume was the chance to take a fresh look at some of the personalities who helped to shape the American Astronomical Society. A common characteristic of these people was their energy, compassion and drive to go "Beyond the Observatory," to borrow a phrase from Harlow Shapley. But what did going `beyond the observatory' mean to Shapley, or to the others who shaped and maintained the Society in its first one hundred years of life? Just as the discipline of astronomy has changed in profound ways in the past century, so has the American Astronomical Society changed, along with the people who have been its leaders and its sustainers and the culture that has fostered it. The Centennial meeting of the Society offers a chance to reflect on the people who have given American astronomy its sense of community identity.

  1. The STELLA Robotic Observatory on Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus G. Strassmeier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC inaugurated the robotic telescopes STELLA-I and STELLA-II (STELLar Activity on Tenerife on May 18, 2006. The observatory is located on the Izaña ridge at an elevation of 2400 m near the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. STELLA consists of two 1.2 m alt-az telescopes. One telescope fiber feeds a bench-mounted high-resolution echelle spectrograph while the other telescope feeds a wide-field imaging photometer. Both scopes work autonomously by means of artificial intelligence. Not only that the telescopes are automated, but the entire observatory operates like a robot, and does not require any human presence on site.

  2. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in orbit. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  3. Observatory Magnetometer In-Situ Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marusenkov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental validation of the in-situ calibration procedure, which allows estimating parameters of observatory magnetometers (scale factors, sensor misalignment without its operation interruption, is presented. In order to control the validity of the procedure, the records provided by two magnetometers calibrated independently in a coil system have been processed. The in-situ estimations of the parameters are in very good agreement with the values provided by the coil system calibration.

  4. From AISR to the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    The talk will provide a retrospective on important results enabled by the NASA AISR program. The program had a unique approach to funding research at the intersection of astrophysics, applied computer science and statistics. It had an interdisciplinary angle, encouraged high risk, high return projects. Without this program the Virtual Observatory would have never been started. During its existence the program has funded some of the most innovative applied computer science projects in astrophysics.

  5. Utilizing Internet Technologies in Observatory Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cording, Dean

    2002-12-01

    The 'Internet boom' of the past few years has spurred the development of a number of technologies to provide services such as secure communications, reliable messaging, information publishing and application distribution for commercial applications. Over the same period, a new generation of computer languages have also developed to provide object oriented design and development, improved reliability, and cross platform compatibility. Whilst the business models of the 'dot.com' era proved to be largely unviable, the technologies that they were based upon have survived and have matured to the point were they can now be utilized to build secure, robust and complete observatory control control systems. This paper will describe how Electro Optic Systems has utilized these technologies in the development of its third generation Robotic Observatory Control System (ROCS). ROCS provides an extremely flexible configuration capability within a control system structure to provide truly autonomous robotic observatory operation including observation scheduling. ROCS was built using Internet technologies such as Java, Java Messaging Service (JMS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), eXtendible Markup Language (XML), Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) and Java WebStart. ROCS was designed to be capable of controlling all aspects of an observatory and be able to be reconfigured to handle changing equipment configurations or user requirements without the need for an expert computer programmer. ROCS consists of many small components, each designed to perform a specific task, with the configuration of the system specified using a simple meta language. The use of small components facilitates testing and makes it possible to prove that the system is correct.

  6. The architecture of LAMOST observatory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Jin Ge; Yu Xiaoqi; Wan Changsheng; Hao Likai; Li Xihua

    2005-01-01

    The design of architecture is the one of the most important part in development of Observatory Control System (OCS) for LAMOST. Based on the complexity of LAMOST, long time of development for LAMOST and long life-cycle of OCS system, referring many kinds of architecture pattern, the architecture of OCS is established which is a component-based layered system using many patterns such as the MVC and proxy. (authors)

  7. Technology Development for a Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.; He, Y.D.; Jackson, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Lai, K.W.; Learned, J.; Ling, J.; Liu, D.; Lowder, D.; Moorhead, M.; Morookian, J.M.; Nygren, D.R.; Price, P.B.; Richards, A.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.; Smoot, George F.; Stokstad, R.G.; VanDalen, G.; Wilkes, J.; Wright, F.; Young, K.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory

  8. Finite element modeling of small-scale tapered wood-laminated composite poles with biomimicry features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2008-01-01

    Tapered composite poles with biomimicry features as in bamboo are a new generation of wood laminated composite poles that may some day be considered as an alternative to solid wood poles that are widely used in the transmission and telecommunication fields. Five finite element models were developed with ANSYS to predict and assess the performance of five types of...

  9. Least 1-Norm Pole-Zero Modeling with Sparse Deconvolution for Speech Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Liming; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a speech analysis method based on sparse pole-zero modeling of speech. Instead of using the all-pole model to approximate the speech production filter, a pole-zero model is used for the combined effect of the vocal tract; radiation at the lips and the glottal pulse shape...

  10. effect of number of rotor poles on ac losses of permanent magnet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    A study on permanent magnet (PM) eddy current and core losses of dual-stator PM machines is investigated in this paper. ... material in the retaining sleeves of surface-mounted ... rotor-pole numbers (13-poleand 14-pole in particular) ... Table 2: Optimized Machine Parameters. Number of rotor poles. 4. 5. 7. 8. 10. 11. 13. 14.

  11. The Written-Pole{sup TM} motor: high efficiency - low start current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, B. [C.Eng. Precise Power Corp., Bradenton, FL (United States); Friesen, D. [P.E. Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Written-Pole{sup TM} technology is a patented machine technology, which changes the magnetic polarity of the rotor field in a rotating machine, while the machine is operating. The number of poles is thereby changed, resulting in a constant frequency - variable speed machine. When operating as a motor, a Written-Pole machine has inherently low starting current and high operating efficiency. (orig.)

  12. Double Trouble: A Rare Case of Bilateral Upper Pole Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Peters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old girl presented with bilateral back pain caused by bilateral upper pole ureteropelvic junction obstructions; an extremely rare phenomenon. Bilateral robotically assisted upper pole pyeloplasties were preformed at the same setting with an excellent clinical response. Although rare, upper pole ureteropelvic junction obstruction is a defined entity that urologists should be aware of.

  13. Poles near the thresholds in the coupled ΛN - ΣN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, H.; Miyagawa, K.

    1999-01-01

    We find t-matrix poles near the ΣN threshold for the meson theoretical Nijmegen YN interactions including hard-core models. These poles are connected with the strength of the ΛN - ΣN coupling. We also observe antibound-state poles below the ΛN threshold which correlate with scattering lengths. Refs. 4, tabs. 2 (author)

  14. A robotic observatory in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Gerald T.; Johnston, Martin E.

    2012-05-01

    The University of St. Thomas (UST) Observatory is an educational facility integrated into UST's undergraduate curriculum as well as the curriculum of several local schools. Three characteristics combine to make the observatory unique. First, the telescope is tied directly to the support structure of a four-story parking ramp instead of an isolated pier. Second, the facility can be operated remotely over an Internet connection and is capable of performing observations without a human operator. Third, the facility is located on campus in the heart of a metropolitan area where light pollution is severe. Our tests indicate that, despite the lack of an isolated pier, vibrations from the ramp do not degrade the image quality at the telescope. The remote capability facilitates long and frequent observing sessions and allows others to use the facility without traveling to UST. Even with the high background due to city lights, the sensitivity and photometric accuracy of the system are sufficient to fulfill our pedagogical goals and to perform a variety of scientific investigations. In this paper, we outline our educational mission, provide a detailed description of the observatory, and discuss its performance characteristics.

  15. LAGO: The Latin American giant observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidelnik, Iván; Asorey, Hernán; LAGO Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) is an extended cosmic ray observatory composed of a network of water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) spanning over different sites located at significantly different altitudes (from sea level up to more than 5000 m a.s.l.) and latitudes across Latin America, covering a wide range of geomagnetic rigidity cut-offs and atmospheric absorption/reaction levels. The LAGO WCD is simple and robust, and incorporates several integrated devices to allow time synchronization, autonomous operation, on board data analysis, as well as remote control and automated data transfer. This detection network is designed to make detailed measurements of the temporal evolution of the radiation flux coming from outer space at ground level. LAGO is mainly oriented to perform basic research in three areas: high energy phenomena, space weather and atmospheric radiation at ground level. It is an observatory designed, built and operated by the LAGO Collaboration, a non-centralized collaborative union of more than 30 institutions from ten countries. In this paper we describe the scientific and academic goals of the LAGO project - illustrating its present status with some recent results - and outline its future perspectives.

  16. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa A.; Shkolnik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Fellowship Program. Now beginning its seventh year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. The Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope has successfully begun science operations and we anticipate the commissioning of several new instruments in 2014, making this a particularly exciting time to do research at Lowell. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. The Observatory provides competitive compensation and full benefits to student scholars. For more information, see http://www2.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2014 are due by May 1, 2014.

  17. Recent results from the Compton Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelson, P.F.; Hansen, W.W. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Compton Observatory is an orbiting astronomical observatory for gamma-ray astronomy that covers the energy range from about 30 keV to 30 GeV. The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET), one of four instruments on-board, is capable of detecting and imaging gamma radiation from cosmic sources in the energy range from approximately 20 MeV to 30 GeV. After about one month of tests and calibration following the April 1991 launch, a 15-month all sky survey was begun. This survey is now complete and the Compton Observatory is well into Phase II of its observing program which includes guest investigator observations. Among the highlights from the all-sky survey discussed in this presentation are the following: detection of five pulsars with emission above 100 MeV; detection of more than 24 active galaxies, the most distant at redshift greater than two; detection of many high latitude, unidentified gamma-ray sources, some showing significant time variability; detection of at least two high energy gamma-ray bursts, with emission in one case extending to at least 1 GeV. EGRET has also detected gamma-ray emission from solar flares up to energies of at least 2 GeV and has observed gamma-rays from the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  18. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  19. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Marquard, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2016-05-15

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  20. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  1. Poles of the Zagreb analysis partial-wave T matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinić, M.; Ceci, S.; Švarc, A.; Zauner, B.

    2010-09-01

    The Zagreb analysis partial-wave T matrices included in the Review of Particle Physics [by the Particle Data Group (PDG)] contain Breit-Wigner parameters only. As the advantages of pole over Breit-Wigner parameters in quantifying scattering matrix resonant states are becoming indisputable, we supplement the original solution with the pole parameters. Because of an already reported numeric error in the S11 analytic continuation [Batinić , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.57.1004 57, 1004(E) (1997); arXiv:nucl-th/9703023], we declare the old BATINIC 95 solution, presently included by the PDG, invalid. Instead, we offer two new solutions: (A) corrected BATINIC 95 and (B) a new solution with an improved S11 πN elastic input. We endorse solution (B).

  2. Claw-pole Synchronous Generator for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL Valentina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a claw-poles generator for compressed air energy storage systems. It is presented the structure of such a system used for compensating of the intermittency of a small wind energy system. For equipping of this system it is chosen the permanent magnet claw pole synchronous generator obtained by using ring NdFeB permanentmagnets instead of excitation coil. In such a way the complexity of the scheme is reduced and the generator become maintenance free. The new magnetic flux density in the air-gap is calculated by magneticreluctance method and by FEM method and the results are compared with measured values in the old and new generator.

  3. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, M.; Marquard, P.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2017-12-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS ‾ mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS ‾ mass. Including an estimate of the internal bottom and charm quark mass effect, we conclude that this uncertainty is around 110 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be around 300 MeV.

  4. Separate Poles Mode for Large-Capacity HVDC System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Gao, Qin

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel connection mode, separate poles mode (SPM), for large-capacity HVDC systems. The proposed mode focuses on the core issues of HVDC connection in interconnected power grids and principally aims at increasing effective electric distance between poles, which helps to mitigate the interaction problems between AC system and DC system. Receiving end of bipolar HVDC has been divided into different inverter stations under the mode, and thus significantly alleviates difficulties in power transmission and consumption of receiving-end AC grids. By investigating the changes of multi-feed short-circuit ratio (MISCR), finding that HVDC with SPM shows critical impacts upon itself and other HVDC systems with conventional connection mode, which demonstrates that SPM can make balance between MISCR increase and short-circuit current limit.

  5. Shock wave lithotripsy outcomes for lower pole and non-lower pole stones from a university teaching hospital: Parallel group comparison during the same time period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Robert; Burr, Jacob; Simmonds, Nick; Somani, Bhaskar K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a treatment option for all locations of renal and ureteric stones. We compared the results of SWL for lower pole renal stones with all other non-lower pole renal and ureteric stones during the same time period. Material and Methods: All SWL procedures were carried out as day case procedures by a mobile lithotripter from January 2012 to August 2013. The follow-up imaging was a combination of KUB X-ray or USS. Following SWL treatment, the stone free rate (SFR) was defined as ≤3 mm fragments. Results: A total of 148 patients with a mean age of 62 years underwent 201 procedures. Of the 201 procedures, 93 (46%) were for lower pole stones. The non-lower pole stones included upper pole (n = 36), mid pole (n = 40), renal pelvis (n = 10), PUJ (n = 8), mid ureter (n = 3), upper ureter (n = 5) and a combination of upper, middle and/or lower pole (n = 6). The mean stone size for lower pole stones (7.4 mm; range: 4-16 mm) was slightly smaller than non-lower pole stones (8 mm; range: 4-17 mm). The stone fragmentation was successful in 124 (62%) of patients. However, the SFR was statistically significantly better (P = 0.023) for non-lower pole stones 43 (40%) compared to lower pole stones 23 (25%). There were 9 (4%) minor complications and this was not significantly different in the two groups. Conclusions: Although SWL achieves a moderately high stone fragmentation rate with a low complication rate, the SFR is variable depending on the location of stone and the definition of SFR, with lower pole stones fairing significantly worse than stones in all other locations. PMID:25657543

  6. Sample Return Mission to the South Pole Aitken Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Clark, B. C.; Gamber, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest and oldest observed feature on the Moon. Compositional and topographic data from Galileo, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector have demonstrated that SPA represents a distinctive major lunar terrane, which has not been sampled either by sample return missions (Apollo, Luna) or by lunar meteorites. The floor of SPA is characterized by mafic compositions enriched in Fe, Ti, and Th in comparison to its surroundings. This composition may represent melt rocks from the SPA event, which would be mixtures of the preexisting crust and mantle rocks. However, the Fe content is higher than expected, and the large Apollo basin, within SPA, exposes deeper material with lower iron content. Some of the Fe enrichment may represent mare and cryptomare deposits. No model adequately accounts for all of the characteristics of the SPA and disagreements are fundamental. Is mantle material exposed or contained as fragments in melt rock and breccias? If impact melt is present, did the vast sheet differentiate? Was the initial mantle and crust compositionally different from other regions of the Moon? Was the impact event somehow peculiar, (e.g., a low-velocity impact)? The precise time of formation of the SPA is unknown, being limited only by the initial differentiation of the Moon and the age of the Imbrium event, believed to be 3.9 b.y. The questions raised by the SPA can be addressed only with detailed sample analysis. Analysis of the melt rocks, fragments in breccias, and basalts of SPA can address several highly significant problems for the Moon and the history of the solar system. The time of formation of SPA, based on analysis of melt rocks formed in the event. would put limits on the period of intense bombardment of the Moon, which has been inferred by some to include a "terminal cataclysm." If close to 3.9 Ga, the presumed age of the Imbrium Basin, the SPA date would confirm the lunar cataclysm. This episode, if it occurred, would have

  7. Proton polarimetry using an Enge split-pole spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, J M; Brown, D R; Cornelius, W D [Texas Agricultural and Mechanical Univ., College Station (USA). Cyclotron Inst.

    1976-05-15

    A high-efficiency (4 x 10/sup -5/ at A=0.4) high resolution (150 keV) polarimeter used in conjunction with an Enge split-pole spectrograph is described. This device permits for the first time polarization transfer studies in elastic scattering. Spectra are shown for /sup 11/B(p(pol),p(pol)')/sup 11/B (2.14 MeV)at Esub(p)=31 MeV.

  8. Prevalent lightning sferics at 600 megahertz near Jupiter's poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon; Janssen, Michael; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Atreya, Sushil; Bolton, Scott; Gulkis, Samuel; Ingersoll, Andrew; Levin, Steven; Li, Cheng; Li, Liming; Lunine, Jonathan; Misra, Sidharth; Orton, Glenn; Steffes, Paul; Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin; Kolmašová, Ivana; Imai, Masafumi; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Gurnett, Donald; Connerney, John

    2018-06-01

    Lightning has been detected on Jupiter by all visiting spacecraft through night-side optical imaging and whistler (lightning-generated radio waves) signatures1-6. Jovian lightning is thought to be generated in the mixed-phase (liquid-ice) region of convective water clouds through a charge-separation process between condensed liquid water and water-ice particles, similar to that of terrestrial (cloud-to-cloud) lightning7-9. Unlike terrestrial lightning, which emits broadly over the radio spectrum up to gigahertz frequencies10,11, lightning on Jupiter has been detected only at kilohertz frequencies, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range12. Strong ionospheric attenuation or a lightning discharge much slower than that on Earth have been suggested as possible explanations for this discrepancy13,14. Here we report observations of Jovian lightning sferics (broadband electromagnetic impulses) at 600 megahertz from the Microwave Radiometer15 onboard the Juno spacecraft. These detections imply that Jovian lightning discharges are not distinct from terrestrial lightning, as previously thought. In the first eight orbits of Juno, we detected 377 lightning sferics from pole to pole. We found lightning to be prevalent in the polar regions, absent near the equator, and most frequent in the northern hemisphere, at latitudes higher than 40 degrees north. Because the distribution of lightning is a proxy for moist convective activity, which is thought to be an important source of outward energy transport from the interior of the planet16,17, increased convection towards the poles could indicate an outward internal heat flux that is preferentially weighted towards the poles9,16,18. The distribution of moist convection is important for understanding the composition, general circulation and energy transport on Jupiter.

  9. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's Stratosphere Near the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bampasidis, G.; Nixon, C. A.; Lavvas, P.; Cottini, V.; Flasar, F. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this Letter, we report the monitoring of seasonal evolution near Titan’s poles. We find Titan’s south pole to exhibit since 2010 a strong temperature decrease and a dramatic enhancement of several trace species such as complex hydrocarbons and nitriles (HC3N and C6H6 in particular) previously only observed at high northern latitudes. This results from the seasonal change on Titan going from winter (2002) to summer (2017) in the north and, at the same time, the onset of winter in the south pole. During this transition period atmospheric components with longer chemical lifetimes linger in the north, undergoing slow photochemical destruction, while those with shorter lifetimes decrease and reappear in the south. An opposite effect was expected in the north, but not observed with certainty until now. We present here an analysis of high-resolution nadir spectra acquired by Cassini/Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer in the past years and describe the temperature and composition variations near Titan’s poles. From 2013 until 2016, the northern polar region has shown a temperature increase of 10 K, while the south has shown a more significant decrease (up to 25 K) in a similar period of time. While the south polar region has been continuously enhanced since about 2012, the chemical content in the north is finally showing a clear depletion for most molecules only since 2015. This is indicative of a non-symmetrical response to the seasons in Titan’s stratosphere that can set constraints on photochemical and GCM models.

  10. Coherence between geophysical excitations and celestial pole offsets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ron, Cyril; Vondrák, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 243-247 ISSN 1214-9705. [Czech-Polish Workshop on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudeten and Adjacent Areas. Třešť, 04.11.2010-06.11. 2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : geophysical excitations * celestial pole offsets * coherence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011

  11. Pole mass, width, and propagators of unstable fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Sirlin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of pole mass and width are extended to unstable fermions in the general framework of parity-nonconserving gauge theories, such as the Standard Model. In contrast with the conventional on-shell definitions, these concepts are gauge independent and avoid severe unphysical singularities, properties of great importance since most fundamental fermions in nature are unstable particles. General expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of unstable fermions and their field-renormalization constants are presented. (orig.)

  12. Generalised pole-placement control of steam turbine speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del-Busto, R. [ITESM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias; Munoz, J. [ITESM, Xochimilco (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias

    1996-12-31

    An application of a pole-placement self-tuning predictive control algorithm is developed to regulate speed of a power plant steam turbine model. Two types of system representation (CARMA and CARIMA) are used to test the control algorithm. Simulation results show that when using a CARMA model better results are produced. Two further comparisons are made when using a PI controller and a generalised predictive controller. (author)

  13. Tööpuudus 29%, palavikku pole / Rachel Donadio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donadio, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Lõuna-Hispaanias asuvas Cádizis on töötus 29%, ometi pole eurotsooni kõrgeim tööpuuduse määr tekitanud linnas sügavat sotsiaalset rahutust ega massilisi proteste, sest üsna kõrge elukvaliteedi tagavad töötutele kompleksne turvavõrk, mis koosneb varimajandusest, perekonna toetusest ja valitsuse toetusest

  14. Dipole Models for UXO Discrimination at Live Sites - Pole Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    48 ESTCP MR-201159 Pole Mountain Demonstration Report viii April 2012 Acronyms API Application Programming...working on transitioning our inversion algorithms to an API that will be generally accessible. 8 3. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES The performance...2098 35 0 0 Frag (light) 6 MD PM-2098 35 0 0 Frag (light) 4 MD PM-2098 35 0 0 Frag (light) 3.5 MD PM-1354 8.5 0 0 Frag (medium) 5 MD PM- 1104 3 15

  15. Clusters of cyclones encircling Jupiter’s poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Orton, G.; Hansen, C.; Altieri, F.; Moriconi, M. L.; Rogers, J.; Eichstädt, G.; Momary, T.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Filacchione, G.; Sindoni, G.; Tabataba-Vakili, F.; Dinelli, B. M.; Fabiano, F.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Lunine, J. I.; Tosi, F.; Migliorini, A.; Grassi, D.; Piccioni, G.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plainaki, C.; Olivieri, A.; O’Neill, M. E.; Turrini, D.; Stefani, S.; Sordini, R.; Amoroso, M.

    2018-03-01

    The familiar axisymmetric zones and belts that characterize Jupiter’s weather system at lower latitudes give way to pervasive cyclonic activity at higher latitudes. Two-dimensional turbulence in combination with the Coriolis β-effect (that is, the large meridionally varying Coriolis force on the giant planets of the Solar System) produces alternating zonal flows. The zonal flows weaken with rising latitude so that a transition between equatorial jets and polar turbulence on Jupiter can occur. Simulations with shallow-water models of giant planets support this transition by producing both alternating flows near the equator and circumpolar cyclones near the poles. Jovian polar regions are not visible from Earth owing to Jupiter’s low axial tilt, and were poorly characterized by previous missions because the trajectories of these missions did not venture far from Jupiter’s equatorial plane. Here we report that visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole by the Juno spacecraft during its first five orbits reveal persistent polygonal patterns of large cyclones. In the north, eight circumpolar cyclones are observed about a single polar cyclone; in the south, one polar cyclone is encircled by five circumpolar cyclones. Cyclonic circulation is established via time-lapse imagery obtained over intervals ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours. Although migration of cyclones towards the pole might be expected as a consequence of the Coriolis β-effect, by which cyclonic vortices naturally drift towards the rotational pole, the configuration of the cyclones is without precedent on other planets (including Saturn’s polar hexagonal features). The manner in which the cyclones persist without merging and the process by which they evolve to their current configuration are unknown.

  16. Poled-glass devices: Influence of surfaces and interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Devices in periodically poled glass must have a large periodic variation of the built-in field. We show that the periodic variation can be severely degraded by charge dynamics taking place at the external (glass–air) interface or at internal (glass–glass) interfaces if the interfaces have...... the device, one can reveal the existence of imperfect interfaces by use of electric field induced second-harmonic generation....

  17. Development of a superconducting claw-pole motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, E.; Kikukawa, K.; Satoh, Y.; Torii, S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed and produced a superconducting claw-pole motor for a trial purpose as a method to make the best use of the characteristic of superconductivity without collector rings or rotating superconducting coils that need to be cryocooled, and made some examinations. The unique feature in this motor is to have the mechanism that supports the reaction magnetic force generated in the axial direction

  18. Evidence of highly oxidizing environment over the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have discovered high levels of an air purifying chemical or oxidizing agent in the near-surface atmosphere over the South Pole. This research, funded by the National Science Foundation, has implications for interpreting historical global climate records stored in Antarctic ice cores. The hydroxyl (OH) radical is higher at the South Pole than that estimated from OH measurements recorded at the equator. The OH radical is vital to scrubbing pollution and naturally occurring chemicals from the air and prevents a buildup of toxic levels of chemicals. The near surface atmospheric zone is a highly oxidizing environment at the South Pole. There is evidence that oxidizing chemistry continues to occur in the buried snow. This active chemistry could modify chemical species before they are trapped in the ice in their final chemical forms. Therefore, glaciochemists who study climate change based on analysis of trace chemicals trapped in polar ice will have to be more careful in their interpretations of Antarctic ice cores. Any significant increase of nitric oxide levels in any snow-covered area should result in high OH levels. Scientists used the selected-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer technique to measure OH. To measure nitric oxide (NO), they used chemiluminescence with modifications to improve its sensitivity. Nitric oxide is also a radical and is a by-product of internal combustion engines. At the South Pole, it is formed when ultraviolet radiation interacts with nitrate ions. The source of NO is not clear, but it may originate from stratospheric denitrification and the long-range transport of nitric acid formed at low latitude during electrical storms. Scientists are also working to better understand the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under the cold conditions and high latitudes of Antarctica. This information will help glaciochemists to better interpret sulfate and methane sulfonate concentrations

  19. Stationarity of resonant pole trajectories in complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, S.; Goscinski, O.

    1978-01-01

    A reciprocity theorem relating the real parameters eta and α that define the complex scaling transformation r → eta r e/sup iα/ in the theory of complex scaling for resonant states is demonstrated. The virial theorem is used in connection with the stationarity of the pole trajectory. The Stark broadening in the hydrogen atom using a basis set generated by Rayleigh--Schroedinger perturbation theory is treated as an example. 18 references

  20. TMT approach to observatory software development process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition systems. Therefore, the software development process and plan must consider dependencies to other subsystems, manage architecture, interfaces and design, manage software scope and complexity, and standardize and optimize use of resources and tools. Additionally, the TMT Observatory Software will largely be developed in India through TMT's workshare relationship with the India TMT Coordination Centre (ITCC) and use of Indian software industry vendors, which adds complexity and challenges to the software development process, communication and coordination of activities and priorities as well as measuring performance and managing quality and risk. The software project management challenge for the TMT OSW is thus a multi-faceted technical, managerial, communications and interpersonal relations challenge. The approach TMT is using to manage this multifaceted challenge is a combination of establishing an effective geographically distributed software team (Integrated Product Team) with strong project management and technical leadership provided by the TMT Project Office (PO) and the ITCC partner to manage plans, process, performance, risk and quality, and to facilitate effective communications; establishing an effective cross-functional software management team composed of stakeholders, OSW leadership and ITCC leadership to manage dependencies and software release plans, technical complexities and change to approved interfaces, architecture, design and tool set, and to facilitate

  1. Poling of PVDF matrix composites for integrated structural load sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh; Greminger, Michael A.; Zhao, Ping

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to create and evaluate a smart composite structure that can be used for integrated load sensing and structural health monitoring. In this structure, PVDF films are used as the matrix material instead of epoxy resin or other thermoplastics. The reinforcements are two layers of carbon fiber with one layer of Kevlar separating them. Due to the electrical conductivity properties of carbon fiber and the dielectric effect of Kevlar, the structure acts as a capacitor. Furthermore, the piezoelectric properties of the PVDF matrix can be used to monitor the response of the structure under applied loads. In order to exploit the piezoelectric properties of PVDF, the PVDF material must be polarized to align the dipole moments of its crystalline structure. The optimal condition for poling the structure was found by performing a 23 factorial design of experiment (DoE). The factors that were studied in DoE were temperature, voltage, and duration of poling. Finally, the response of the poled structure was monitored by exposing the samples to an applied load.

  2. Improved technology for spun-cast concrete poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, W H; Ghali, A

    1984-07-01

    Different types of concrete were investigated with the goal of developing concrete suitable for the production of spun-cast concrete poles. A total of 65 different concrete mixes were investigated, with the suitability criteria defined as: compactability, no segregation of the mix components during the spinning operation, no shrinkage cracking, high strength, and durability. High strength normal weight concretes and semi-lightweight concretes, both with and without fly ash and/or silica fume and with different types of admixtures were used to produce spun-cast concrete pole segments. Of the 35 lightweight concretes only 3 were considered successful, as in all other specimens the inner layer of coarse aggregate was not well embedded in the mortar, and many mixes could not be compacted properly because they were too stiff, too wet, or started to set before spinning commenced. The three successful specimens contained fly ash and one contained silica fume, and had low water/cement ratios (0.26 to 0.29). Of the 23 normal weight concretes tested, only 5 were considered suitable, and all these had a sand/coarse aggregate ratio of 0.25 or smaller and a cement content between 350 and 400 kg/m{sup 3}. A theoretical study of the stresses in the end zones of pretensioned poles is presented. 10 refs., 53 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRASOV GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida CATANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demographic dynamics analysed in the context of the relationship between economic development and social inclusion presents an image of the sustainable development of a community as well as the manner how the financial resources have been used. With an allocation of 74.3 million euro in the programming period 2007-2013, the Brasov Growth Pole has pursued the contribution to the achievement of sustainable development since 2005 by the participation in the Agenda 21. The implementation of projects with European financing in areas such as transport, social and educational infrastructure or tourism have generated changes/demographic movements, which this paper proposes to present. The evolution of the stable population, its dynamics at the level of each locality that is part of the Brasov growth pole as well as the dynamics of the number of employees or the development of the unemployment rate are presented by the cluster analysis. The effects of the European financing obtained from Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 are thus reflected in the sustainable development of the Brasov growth pole from the point of view of the dynamics of the population

  4. Lunar South Pole Illumination: Review, Reassessment, and Power System Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews past analyses and research related to lunar south pole illumination and presents results of independent illumination analyses using an analytical tool and a radar digital elevation model. The analysis tool enables assessment at most locations near the lunar poles for any time and any year. Average illumination fraction, energy storage duration, solar/horizon terrain elevation profiles and illumination fraction profiles are presented for various highly illuminated sites which have been identified for manned or unmanned operations. The format of the data can be used by power system designers to develop mass optimized solar and energy storage systems. Data are presented for the worse case lunar day (a critical power planning bottleneck) as well as three lunar days during lunar south pole winter. The main site under consideration by present lunar mission planners (on the Crater Shackleton rim) is shown to have, for the worse case lunar day, a 0.71 average illumination fraction and 73 to 117 hours required for energy storage (depending on power system type). Linking other sites and including towers at either site are shown to not completely eliminate the need for energy storage.

  5. Comparative Investigation on the Performance of Modified System Poles and Traditional System Poles Obtained from PDC Data for Diagnosing the Ageing Condition of Transformer Polymer Insulation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The life expectancy of a transformer is largely depended on the service life of transformer polymer insulation materials. Nowadays, several papers have reported that the traditional system poles obtained from polarization and depolarization current (PDC data can be used to assess the condition of transformer insulation systems. However, the traditional system poles technique only provides limited ageing information for transformer polymer insulation. In this paper, the modified system poles obtained from PDC data are proposed to assess the ageing condition of transformer polymer insulation. The aim of the work is to focus on reporting a comparative investigation on the performance of modified system poles and traditional system poles for assessing the ageing condition of a transformer polymer insulation system. In the present work, a series of experiments have been performed under controlled laboratory conditions. The PDC measurement data, degree of polymerization (DP and moisture content of the oil-immersed polymer pressboard specimens were carefully monitored. It is observed that, compared to the relationships between traditional system poles and DP values, there are better correlations between the modified system poles and DP values, because the modified system poles can obtain much more ageing information on transformer polymer insulation. Therefore, the modified system poles proposed in the paper are more suitable for the diagnosis of the ageing condition of transformer polymer insulation.

  6. The Virtual Solar Observatory and the Heliophysics Meta-Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is now able to search for solar data ranging from the radio to gamma rays, obtained from space and groundbased observatories, from 26 sources at 12 data providers, and from 1915 to the present. The solar physics community can use a Web interface or an Application Programming Interface (API) that allows integrating VSO searches into other software, including other Web services. Over the next few years, this integration will be especially obvious as the NASA Heliophysics division sponsors the development of a heliophysics-wide virtual observatory (VO), based on existing VO's in heliospheric, magnetospheric, and ionospheric physics as well as the VSO. We examine some of the challenges and potential of such a "meta-VO."

  7. Live imaging of spindle pole disorganization in docetaxel-treated multicolor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaushi, Shinji; Nishida, Kumi; Minamikawa, Harumi; Fukada, Takashi; Oka, Shigenori; Sugimoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of cells with docetaxel at low concentrations induces aberrant bipolar spindles of which two centrosomes stay at only one pole, and also induces multipolar spindles. To gain insight into the relations between centrosome impairment and structural defects of the spindle, live-cell imaging was performed on a human MDA Auro/imp/H3 cell line in which centrosomes/mitotic spindles, nuclear membrane and chromatin were simultaneously visualized by fluorescent proteins. In the presence of docetaxel at IC 50 concentration, the centrosomes did not segregate, and multiple aster-like structures ectopically arose around the disappearing nuclear membrane. Those ectopic structures formed an acentrosomal pole opposing to the two-centrosomes-containing pole. In late metaphase, one pole often fragmented into multiple spindle poles, leading multipolar division. These results suggest that spindle pole fragility may be induced by centrosome impairment, and collapse of the pole may contribute to induction of aneuploid daughter cells

  8. GAIA virtual observatory - development and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjäsuo, Mikko; Marple, Steve

    2010-05-01

    The Global Auroral Imaging Access, or GAIA, is a virtual observatory providing quick access to summary data from satellite and ground-based instruments that remote sense auroral precipitation (http://gaia-vxo.org). This web-based service facilitates locating data relevant to particular events by simultaneously displaying summary images from various data sets around the world. At the moment, there are GAIA server nodes in Canada, Finland, Norway and the UK. The development is an international effort and the software and metadata are freely available. The GAIA system is based on a relational database which is queried by a dedicated software suite that also creates the graphical end-user interface if such is needed. Most commonly, the virtual observatory is used interactively by using a web browser: the user provides the date and the type of data of interest. As the summary data from multiple instruments are displayed simultaneously, the user can conveniently explore the recorded data. The virtual observatory provides essentially instant access to the images originating from all major auroral instrument networks including THEMIS, NORSTAR, GLORIA and MIRACLE. The scientific, educational and outreach use is limited by creativity rather than access. The first version of the GAIA was developed at the University of Calgary (Alberta, Canada) in 2004-2005. This proof-of-concept included mainly THEMIS and MIRACLE data, which comprised of millions of summary plots and thumbnail images. However, it was soon realised that a complete re-design was necessary to increase flexibility. In the presentation, we will discuss the early history and motivation of GAIA as well as how the development continued towards the current version. The emphasis will be on practical problems and their solutions. Relevant design choices will also be highlighted.

  9. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  10. Protection of Hawaii's Observatories from Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    Maunakea Observatory, located on the island of Hawaii, is among the world darkest sites for astronomy. Strong efforts to preserve the dark night sky over the last forty years have proven successful. Artificial light presently adds only approximately 2% to the natural night sky brightness. The techniques being used to protect Maunakea from light pollution will be described, along with the challenges that are now being faced.Haleakala Observatory, located on the island of Maui, is also an excellent observing site, and is among the best sites in the United States. Lighting restrictions in Maui County are much weaker, and consequently, the night sky above Haleakala is less well protected. Haleakala is closer to Honolulu and the island of Oahu (population approximately 1 million), and the glow from Oahu makes the northwestern sky brighter.Much of the lighting across most of the United States, including Hawaii, is presently being converted to LED lighting. This provides an opportunity to replace existing poorly shielded lights with properly shielded LED fixtures, but careful spectral management is essential. It is critically important to only use LED lighting that is deficient in blue and green light. LED lighting also is easy to dim. Dimming of lights later at night, when there is no need for brighter lighting, is an important tool for reducing light pollution.Techniques used to protect astronomical observatories from light pollution are similar to the techniques that must be used to protect animals that are affected by light at night, such as endangered birds and turtles. These same techniques are compatible with recent human health related lighting recommendations from the American Medical Association.

  11. Pulsating stars and the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Juan Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Virtual Observatory is one of the most used internet-based protocols in astronomy. It has become somewhat natural to find, manage, compare, visualize and download observations from very different archives of astronomical observations with no effort. The VO technology beyond that is now being a reality for asteroseismology, not only for observations but also for theoretical models. Here I give a brief description of the most important VO tools related with asteroseismology, as well as a rough outline of the current development in this field.

  12. Recent Results from the Pierre Auger observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampert, Karl-Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The Pierre Auger observatory is a hybrid air shower experiment which uses multiple detection techniques to investigate the origin, spectrum, and composition of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We present recent results on these topics and discuss their implications to the understanding the origin of the most energetic particles in nature as well as for physics beyond the Standard Model, such as violation of Lorentz invariance and 'top-down' models of cosmic ray production. Future plans, including enhancements underway at the southern site in Argentina will be presented. (author)

  13. Pulsating stars and the Virtual Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Observatory is one of the most used internet-based protocols in astronomy. It has become somewhat natural to find, manage, compare, visualize and download observations from very different archives of astronomical observations with no effort. The VO technology beyond that is now being a reality for asteroseismology, not only for observations but also for theoretical models. Here I give a brief description of the most important VO tools related with asteroseismology, as well as a rough outline of the current development in this field.

  14. The Virtual Solar Observatory: Progress and Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Joseph B.; Bogart, R. S.; Amezcua, A.; Hill, Frank; Oien, Niles; Davey, Alisdair R.; Hourcle, Joseph; Mansky, E.; Spencer, Jennifer L.

    2017-08-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) is a known and useful method for identifying and accessing solar physics data online. We review current "behind the scenes" work on the VSO, including the addition of new data providers and the return of access to data sets to which service was temporarily interrupted. We also report on the effect on software development efforts when government IT “security” initiatives impinge on finite resoruces. As always, we invite SPD members to identify data sets, services, and interfaces they would like to see implemented in the VSO.

  15. Fibreglass as an alternative to wood poles : Transmission and distribution poles and crossarms : use of fiber reinforced composite materials for overhead electric utility lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, J.R. [Shakespeare Composites and Electronics, Newberry, SC (United States)

    2002-07-01

    For over thirty years, Shakespeare Composites and Electronics has manufactured fiberglass composite lighting and utility poles, as well as being the number one maker of composite crossarms. Composite poles have a few advantages, such as being lightweight, they do no rust, are woodpecker and termite resistant, use no harmful chemicals, and have long life. A chart displaying the comparative pole weights is presented. The key design factors of fiberglass composite utility poles are: pole diameter, fiberglass type and wind angle, layers (thickness) of fiberglass, resin type and formulation, resin mix consistency, cure cycle and maximum curing temperature, and others. Two charts were also displayed presenting 40 feet class 4 pole bending strengths and 40 feet class 2 pole bending strengths. The author indicated that composite poles have a better strength consistency than wood, while being as consistent as steel and prestressed concrete. The design is based on an overload factor of safety of 2.5 for numerous installations. Some of the analytical methods used include mechanical testing, finite element modeling, and thermal analysis. The author describes in detail the concerns associated with attachments. Coating consists of a system of ultra violet blockers in the resin followed by an added resin rich polyester veil outer surface. In addition, there is a proprietary coating process with additional ultra violet blockers. Quality control is effected at the plant. The weathering system lasts 80 years. figs.

  16. Laparoscopic upper pole heminephroureterectomy in children: Seven-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive surgery is the current approach to perform heminephroureterectomy (HN in children. This can be obtained through a transperitoneal (TP or a retroperitoneal approach. Here, we report our experience using a TP approach. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014, 22 TP laparoscopic upper poles HN were performed at our institution. There were nine girls and 13 boys aged between 20 months and 6 years (mean age 3.9. Eight patients were diagnosed prenatally, 17 patients presented with urinary tract infection (UTI and three with vomiting and failure to thrive. The indication for HN was reflux nephropathy and UTI in non-functioning upper pole in 19 patients and cystic dysplasia in 1 patient. The surgical technique involved the following steps: Cystoscopic recognition; positioning of 3-4 trocar (right HN; identification of the kidney (detachment of the colon; isolation and low ligation of the dilated ureter; decrossing from renal vessels; section of the parenchyma by LigaSure; haemostasis with clips and LigaSure; drain. Results: The mean operative time was 154 min (range: 81-220 min. All patients were discharged from the 2 nd to 4 th day. Neither major complication nor conversion was recorded. 1 patient presented leakage of urine for 7 days from the drainage which resolved spontaneously. At ultrasound follow-up, 5 patients showed a secondary perirenal cyst, 2-5 cm diameter that resolved spontaneously. Conclusion: The results indicate that laparoscopic upper pole heminephrectomy is the treatment of choice in cases of non-functioning dilated lower segments of duplicated kidneys. The use of laparoscopic approach offers a good working space, a good visual control of the vessels and allows a very low isolation of the ureteral stump which counterbalance the peritoneal violation.

  17. The UNH Earth Systems Observatory: A Regional Application in Support of GEOSS Global-Scale Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Braswell, B.; Fekete, B.; Glidden, S.; Hartmann, H.; Magill, A.; Prusevich, A.; Wollheim, W.; Blaha, D.; Justice, D.; Hurtt, G.; Jacobs, J.; Ollinger, S.; McDowell, W.; Rock, B.; Rubin, F.; Schloss, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Northeast corridor of the US is emblematic of the many changes taking place across the nation's and indeed the world's watersheds. Because ecosystem and watershed change occurs over many scales and is so multifaceted, transferring scientific knowledge to applications as diverse as remediation of local ground water pollution, setting State-wide best practices for non-point source pollution control, enforcing regional carbon sequestration treaties, or creating public/private partnerships for protecting ecosystem services requires a new generation of integrative environmental surveillance systems, information technology, and information transfer to the user community. Geographically complex ecosystem interactions justify moving toward more integrative, regionally-based management strategies to deal with issues affecting land, inland waterways, and coastal waterways. A unified perspective that considers the full continuum of processes which link atmospheric forcings, terrestrial responses, watershed exports along drainage networks, and the final delivery to the coastal zone, nearshore, and off shore waters is required to adequately support the management challenge. A recent inventory of NOAA-supported environmental surveillance systems, IT resources, new sensor technologies, and management-relevant decision support systems shows the community poised to formulate an integrated and operational picture of the environment of New England. This paper presents the conceptual framework and early products of the newly-created UNH Earth Systems Observatory. The goal of the UNH Observatory is to serve as a regionally-focused yet nationally-prominent platform for observation-based, integrative science and management of the New England/Gulf of Maine's land, air, and ocean environmental systems. Development of the UNH Observatory is being guided by the principles set forth under the Global Earth Observation System of Systems and is cast as an end-to-end prototype for GEOSS

  18. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Nofi, Larissa

    2018-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its tenth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. Strong collaborations, the new Ph.D. program at Northern Arizona University, and cooperative links across the greater Flagstaff astronomical community create a powerful multi-institutional locus in northern Arizona. Lowell Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope is operating at full science capacity and boasts some of the most cutting-edge and exciting capabilities available in optical/infrared astronomy. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. For more information, see http://www2.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2018 are due by May 1, 2018; alternate application dates will be considered on an individual basis.

  19. SPASE, Metadata, and the Heliophysics Virtual Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, James; King, Todd; Roberts, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    To provide data search and access capability in the field of Heliophysics (the study of the Sun and its effects on the Solar System, especially the Earth) a number of Virtual Observatories (VO) have been established both via direct funding from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and through other funding agencies in the U.S. and worldwide. At least 15 systems can be labeled as Virtual Observatories in the Heliophysics community, 9 of them funded by NASA. The problem is that different metadata and data search approaches are used by these VO's and a search for data relevant to a particular research question can involve consulting with multiple VO's - needing to learn a different approach for finding and acquiring data for each. The Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) project is intended to provide a common data model for Heliophysics data and therefore a common set of metadata for searches of the VO's. The SPASE Data Model has been developed through the common efforts of the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC) representatives over a number of years. We currently have released Version 2.1 of the Data Model. The advantages and disadvantages of the Data Model will be discussed along with the plans for the future. Recent changes requested by new members of the SPASE community indicate some of the directions for further development.

  20. Fine Guidance Sensing for Coronagraphic Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James W.; Trauger, John T.; Moody, Dwight C.

    2011-01-01

    Three options have been developed for Fine Guidance Sensing (FGS) for coronagraphic observatories using a Fine Guidance Camera within a coronagraphic instrument. Coronagraphic observatories require very fine precision pointing in order to image faint objects at very small distances from a target star. The Fine Guidance Camera measures the direction to the target star. The first option, referred to as Spot, was to collect all of the light reflected from a coronagraph occulter onto a focal plane, producing an Airy-type point spread function (PSF). This would allow almost all of the starlight from the central star to be used for centroiding. The second approach, referred to as Punctured Disk, collects the light that bypasses a central obscuration, producing a PSF with a punctured central disk. The final approach, referred to as Lyot, collects light after passing through the occulter at the Lyot stop. The study includes generation of representative images for each option by the science team, followed by an engineering evaluation of a centroiding or a photometric algorithm for each option. After the alignment of the coronagraph to the fine guidance system, a "nulling" point on the FGS focal point is determined by calibration. This alignment is implemented by a fine alignment mechanism that is part of the fine guidance camera selection mirror. If the star images meet the modeling assumptions, and the star "centroid" can be driven to that nulling point, the contrast for the coronagraph will be maximized.

  1. SNAP sky background at the north ecliptic pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldering, Greg

    2002-01-01

    I summarize the extant direct and indirect data on the sky background SNAP will see at the North Ecliptic Pole over the wavelength range 0.4 < λ < 1.7 (micro)m. At the spatial resolution of SNAP the sky background due to stars and galaxies is resolved, so the only source considered is zodiacal light. Several models are explored to provide interpolation in wavelength between the broadband data from HST and COBE observations. I believe the input data are now established well enough that the accuracy of the sky background presented here is sufficient for SNAP simulations, and that it will stand up to scrutiny by reviewers

  2. Pole Soccer - Implementering af netværksmodul

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Frank B; Kierkegaard, Jakob R; Hirszhorn, Andreas J

    2005-01-01

    Abstrakt Målet med dette projekt er at designe og implementere et netværksmodul til spillet PoleSoccer, som er et spil udviklet i det foregående semester. Fokus i implementeringen er at opn°a bedst mulig synkronisering klienterne imellem. Programmet er udviklet i programmeringssproget Java. I rapporten diskuteres valg af netværksarkitektur, transportlagsprotokol samt hvilke metoder Java tilbyder til netværkskommunikation, med vægt på Sockets. Ydermere beskrives metoder vi har anvendt til at o...

  3. Superconducting 63-Pole 2 Tesla Wiggler for Canadian Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khruschev, S.V.; Kuper, E.A.; Lev, V.H.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Miginsky, E.G.; Repkov, V.V.; Shkaruba, B.A.; Syrovatin, V.M.; Tsukanov, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    A superconducting 63-pole wiggler with the average period 34 mm designed and fabricated at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk for Synchrotron Radiation Center (CLS) in Canada is described. The maximum field 2.2 Tesla in the median plane has been achieved. The liquid helium consumption less than 0.03 liters per hour in operating mode has been reached. In January 2005, the wiggler was installed in the storage ring in CLS and now experiments are already underway. The main parameters of the magnet and the cryogenic systems as well as test results are presented

  4. Superconducting 63-pole 2 T wiggler for Canadian Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khruschev, S.V.; Kuper, E.A.; Lev, V.H.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Miginsky, E.G.; Repkov, V.V.; Shkaruba, V.A.; Syrovatin, V.M.; Tsukanov, V.M.

    2007-01-01

    A superconducting 63-pole wiggler with the average period 34 mm designed and fabricated in the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk for Synchrotron Radiation Center Canadian Light Source (CLS) in Canada is described. The maximum field 2.2 T in the median plane has been achieved. The liquid helium consumption less than 0.03 L h in operating mode has been reached. It allows refilling liquid helium once a year. In January 2005, the wiggler was installed in the storage ring in CLS and now experiments are carried out. The main parameters of the magnet and the cryogenic systems as well as test results are presented

  5. IMF sector behavior estimated from geomagnetic data at South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, S.; Xu, W.h.

    1981-01-01

    IMF sector behavior which has previously been estimated from the geomagnetic data at Godhavn is confirmed by study of the data at South Pole for 1959--1970 with the same estimation technique, taking the difference between northern and southern hemispheres into consideration. A method to improve (about 18%) the agreement between assigned and actual sector structures by study of the data at the two stations is suggested. Geomagnetic disturbance effects on sector estimation are discussed, and reversed sector effects in winter are given special emphasis

  6. Are Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Viewed Pole-on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    0.2’’ respectively. Figure 1 displays the position of each slit over a Barbosa et al. (2009) GMOS IFU image of the [S III] flux (which originates...C. Winge, H. Schmitt: Gemini/ GMOS IFU gas velocity ’tomography’ of the narrow line region of nearby active galaxies, MNRAS, 396 (2009) 2. [2] D...1995) 81. 4 P o S ( N L S 1 ) 0 5 0 Are NLS1s Pole-on? Travis C. Fischer 5 Figure 1: NGC 4051 GMOS IFU image showing integrated [SIII] flux

  7. Ülikoolid pole mängukannid / Sirje Tohver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tohver, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    TPÜ korraldas 16. märtsil̀ 2001 ümarlaua "Ülikoolid pole mängukannid", kus oli arutusel riikliku koolitustellimuse vähenemine avalik-õiguslikele ülikoolidele. Osalesid TPÜ filoloogiateaduskonna dekaan dots. H. Mattisen, kultuuriteaduskonna dekaan prof. A. Avarand, akadeemiline prorektor dots. L. Jõgi, teadus- ja arendusprorektor prof. P. Normak, haridusminister T. Lukas, TPÜ rektor prof. M. Arvisto ja EKA rektor prof. A. Keskküla, TTÜ rektor prof. A. Keevallik, EMA õppeprorektor A. Pung

  8. DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF POLE-LIKE OBJECTS FROM MOBILE MAPPING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fukano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser scanners on a vehicle-based mobile mapping system can capture 3D point-clouds of roads and roadside objects. Since roadside objects have to be maintained periodically, their 3D models are useful for planning maintenance tasks. In our previous work, we proposed a method for detecting cylindrical poles and planar plates in a point-cloud. However, it is often required to further classify pole-like objects into utility poles, streetlights, traffic signals and signs, which are managed by different organizations. In addition, our previous method may fail to extract low pole-like objects, which are often observed in urban residential areas. In this paper, we propose new methods for extracting and classifying pole-like objects. In our method, we robustly extract a wide variety of poles by converting point-clouds into wireframe models and calculating cross-sections between wireframe models and horizontal cutting planes. For classifying pole-like objects, we subdivide a pole-like object into five subsets by extracting poles and planes, and calculate feature values of each subset. Then we apply a supervised machine learning method using feature variables of subsets. In our experiments, our method could achieve excellent results for detection and classification of pole-like objects.

  9. Investigation Effects of Narrowing Rotor Pole Embrace to Efficiency and Cogging Torque at PM BLDC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Ocak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Engineers think that pole embrace size of a PM BLDC motor affects directly the efficiency and the torque. Dealing with theexperimental research, in the studywe have investigated the effects of narrowing rotor pole embrace step by step by changing sizes parametrically. By doing so, high efficiency and low cogging torque would have been obtained for a 20 W PM BLDC motor. In order to do this,pole arc to pole pitch ratio of magnets at the rotor poles has been changed parametrically (0.5 to 1 by genetic algorithm methodfirst. Then the electromagnetic field dispersions, output parameters of the motor, new rotor constructions have been obtained; and new pole embrace has been derived from the variation of pole arc to pole pitch ratio. We have also calculatedthe magnetic flux distribution, output power, torque, cogging torque and efficiency values analytically and the effects of new pole embrace to motor efficiency and torque have been simulated. The developed 18 slots, 6 poles, surface mounted inner runner configuration rotor machine is proposed as to be used insmall dentistry apparatus.

  10. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and θ 13 . At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle

  11. Availability and Access to Data from Kakioka Magnetic Observatory, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Minamoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA is operating four geomagnetic observatories in Japan. Kakioka Magnetic Observatory (KMO, commissioned in 1913, is the oldest. The hourly records at KMO cover over almost 100 years. KMO is JMA's headquarters for geomagnetic and geoelectric observations. Almost all data are available at the KMO website free of charge for researchers. KMO and two other observatories have been certified as INTERMAGNET observatories, and quasi-real-time geomagnetic data from them are available at the INTERMAGNET website.

  12. Effects of slotting and unipolar flux on magnetic pull in a two-pole induction motor with an extra four-pole stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinervo, A.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is about the radial magnetic forces between the rotor and stator in twopole induction machines. The magnetic forces arise from rotor eccentricity. The asymmetric air-gap makes the flux density on one side of the rotor stronger than on the opposite side. This produces magnetic pull. The magnetic flux density distribution in the air-gap can be expressed with spatial harmonics, i.e. flux densities with different pole-pair numbers. In two-pole machines, the main part of the magnetic force is produced by the interaction of two- and fourpole flux unless the four-pole flux is damped by parallel paths in the stator winding or an extra four-pole stator winding. The rest of the force comes from the interaction of two-pole and unipolar flux and from the higher harmonics of the air-gap flux of which the slot harmonics are a major part. The force caused by the higher harmonics and the unipolar flux is studied in the case where a four-pole stator winding is used to reduce the four-pole flux. The higher harmonics are found to produce, in addition to the traditional unbalanced magnetic pull, a force similar to the effect of the unipolar flux and the two can be distinguished only by measuring the unipolar flux. In measurements at various operation points, the higher harmonics are found to produce much more force than the unipolar flux and two-pole flux but the unipolar flux is still significant. The four-pole winding also is used to actively control the four-pole flux and the magnetic forces. Designing the controller requires a low order model of the system. Such a model is derived and the effect of the slot harmonics and the unipolar flux are included in the model. Different measurements techniques and methods are presented to identify and validate the control model. The operation point dependence of the system dynamics is studied via measurements. All results are obtained from a 30 kW test motor. The rotor of the test machine has a long flexible shaft on external

  13. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Anjum, Raeesa S.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L.; Spiers, Hugo J.; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the “semantic hub” of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  14. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-06

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  15. Towards a research pole in photonics in Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Rominu, Mihai; Miutescu, Eftimie; Burlea, Amelia; Vlascici, Miomir; Gheorghiu, Nicolae; Cira, Octavian; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Mnerie, Corina; Demian, Dorin; Marcauteanu, Corina; Topala, Florin; Rolland, Jannick P.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-07-01

    We present our efforts in establishing a Research Pole in Photonics in the future Arad-Timisoara metropolitan area projected to unite two major cities of Western Romania. Research objectives and related training activities of various institutions and groups that are involved are presented in their evolution during the last decade. The multi-disciplinary consortium consists principally of two universities, UAVA (Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad) and UMF (Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University of Timisoara), but also of the Arad County Emergency University Hospital and several innovative SMEs, such as Bioclinica S.A. (the largest array of medical analysis labs in the region) and Inteliform S.R.L. (a competitive SME focused on mechatronics and mechanical engineering). A brief survey of the individual and joint projects of these institutions is presented, together with their teaching activities at graduate and undergraduate level. The research Pole collaborates in R&D, training and education in biomedical imaging with universities in USA and Europe. Collaborative activities, mainly on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) projects are presented in a multidisciplinary approach that includes optomechatronics, precision mechanics and optics, dentistry, medicine, and biology.

  16. Acoustic wave filter based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courjon, Emilie; Bassignot, Florent; Ulliac, Gwenn; Benchabane, Sarah; Ballandras, Sylvain

    2012-09-01

    Solutions for the development of compact RF passive transducers as an alternative to standard surface or bulk acoustic wave devices are receiving increasing interest. This article presents results on the development of an acoustic band-pass filter based on periodically poled ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate. The fabrication of periodically poled transducers (PPTs) operating in the range of 20 to 650 MHz has been achieved on 3-in (76.2-mm) 500-μm-thick wafers. This kind of transducer is able to excite elliptical as well as longitudinal modes, yielding phase velocities of about 3800 and 6500 ms(-1), respectively. A new type of acoustic band-pass filter is proposed, based on the use of PPTs instead of the SAWs excited by classical interdigital transducers. The design and the fabrication of such a filter are presented, as well as experimental measurements of its electrical response and transfer function. The feasibility of such a PPT-based filter is thereby demonstrated and the limitations of this method are discussed.

  17. A precise determination of the top-quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Si, Zong-Guo; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2018-01-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to eliminate the renormalization scheme and renormalization scale uncertainties for high-energy processes. We have observed that by applying PMC scale setting, one obtains comprehensive and self-consistent pQCD predictions for the top-quark pair total cross section and the top-quark pair forward-backward asymmetry in agreement with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. As a step forward, in the present paper, we determine the top-quark pole mass via a detailed comparison of the top-quark pair cross section with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. The results for the top-quark pole mass are m t = 174.6 +3.1 -3.2 GeV for the Tevatron with √(S) = 1.96 TeV, m t = 173.7 ± 1.5 and 174.2 ± 1.7 GeV for the LHC with √(S) = 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. Those predictions agree with the average, 173.34 ± 0.76 GeV, obtained from various collaborations via direct measurements. The consistency of the pQCD predictions using the PMC with all of the collider measurements at different energies provides an important verification of QCD. (orig.)

  18. A precise determination of the top-quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Si, Zong-Guo; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2018-03-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to eliminate the renormalization scheme and renormalization scale uncertainties for high-energy processes. We have observed that by applying PMC scale setting, one obtains comprehensive and self-consistent pQCD predictions for the top-quark pair total cross section and the top-quark pair forward-backward asymmetry in agreement with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. As a step forward, in the present paper, we determine the top-quark pole mass via a detailed comparison of the top-quark pair cross section with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. The results for the top-quark pole mass are m_t=174.6^{+3.1}_{-3.2} GeV for the Tevatron with √{S}=1.96 TeV, m_t=173.7± 1.5 and 174.2± 1.7 GeV for the LHC with √{S} = 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. Those predictions agree with the average, 173.34± 0.76 GeV, obtained from various collaborations via direct measurements. The consistency of the pQCD predictions using the PMC with all of the collider measurements at different energies provides an important verification of QCD.

  19. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  20. Groebner Basis Solutions to Satellite Trajectory Control by Pole Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukelova, Z.; Krsek, P.; Smutny, V.; Pajdla, T.

    2013-09-01

    Satellites play an important role, e.g., in telecommunication, navigation and weather monitoring. Controlling their trajectories is an important problem. In [1], an approach to the pole placement for the synthesis of a linear controller has been presented. It leads to solving five polynomial equations in nine unknown elements of the state space matrices of a compensator. This is an underconstrained system and therefore four of the unknown elements need to be considered as free parameters and set to some prior values to obtain a system of five equations in five unknowns. In [1], this system was solved for one chosen set of free parameters with the help of Dixon resultants. In this work, we study and present Groebner basis solutions to this problem of computation of a dynamic compensator for the satellite for different combinations of input free parameters. We show that the Groebner basis method for solving systems of polynomial equations leads to very simple solutions for all combinations of free parameters. These solutions require to perform only the Gauss-Jordan elimination of a small matrix and computation of roots of a single variable polynomial. The maximum degree of this polynomial is not greater than six in general but for most combinations of the input free parameters its degree is even lower. [1] B. Palancz. Application of Dixon resultant to satellite trajectory control by pole placement. Journal of Symbolic Computation, Volume 50, March 2013, Pages 79-99, Elsevier.

  1. Particle acceleration at the magnetic poles of a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic conversion of a photon in a neutron star magnetosphere near one of the magnetic poles is followed by acceleration of the electron and positron to ultra-relativistic energies. The positron moves along open magnetic flux lines to the light cylinder. The electron incident on the stellar surface produces an electromagnetic shower. Following a comment by Cheng and Ruderman (Astrophys.J.;214:598 (1977)), an order of magnitude estimate has been made of the spectrum of backward moving photons created in the electron shower. The most important source of photons is shown to be the formation of the giant dipole state in Fe 56 . Under the assumption that the surface magnetic flux density exceeds 10 12 G, the photons have, with high probability, mean free paths for magnetic conversion in the magnetosphere of 1 4 cm. An equation for the maximum acceleratin potential has been obtained in a one-dimensional model of pair creation and electron multiplication based on this photon source. The model has been applied to the phenomenon of subpulse drift in pulsars. The plasma accelerated at the magnetic pole has three components; positrons, protons and light nuclei (Z < approximately 6) formed by spallation, and iron group nuclei. Equations determining their relative fluxes have been found. The light nuclei include those with Z = 3 to 5, usually considered to be present in galactic cosmic rays only as a result of the interaction of heavier nuclei with the interstellar medium. (author)

  2. Artificial intelligence for the CTA Observatory scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomé, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; de Oña, Emma; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F.; Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project will be the next generation ground-based very high energy gamma-ray instrument. The success of the precursor projects (i.e., HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) motivated the construction of this large infrastructure that is included in the roadmap of the ESFRI projects since 2008. CTA is planned to start the construction phase in 2015 and will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov telescopes operated as a proposal-driven open observatory. Two sites are foreseen at the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA observatory will handle several observation modes and will have to operate tens of telescopes with a highly efficient and reliable control. Thus, the CTA planning tool is a key element in the control layer for the optimization of the observatory time. The main purpose of the scheduler for CTA is the allocation of multiple tasks to one single array or to multiple sub-arrays of telescopes, while maximizing the scientific return of the facility and minimizing the operational costs. The scheduler considers long- and short-term varying conditions to optimize the prioritization of tasks. A short-term scheduler provides the system with the capability to adapt, in almost real-time, the selected task to the varying execution constraints (i.e., Targets of Opportunity, health or status of the system components, environment conditions). The scheduling procedure ensures that long-term planning decisions are correctly transferred to the short-term prioritization process for a suitable selection of the next task to execute on the array. In this contribution we present the constraints to CTA task scheduling that helped classifying it as a Flexible Job-Shop Problem case and finding its optimal solution based on Artificial Intelligence techniques. We describe the scheduler prototype that uses a Guarded Discrete Stochastic Neural Network (GDSN), for an easy representation of the possible long- and short-term planning solutions, and Constraint

  3. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii pole extraction, (iii components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  4. Pole-Like Street Furniture Decompostion in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i) acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii) pole extraction, (iii) components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  5. The effect of poling conditions on the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters fabricated by wet chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, Erika Maria-Anai

    2015-03-25

    The effect of poling conditions on the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters using sol-gel based Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O3-Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3 piezoelectric thin-films has been investigated. A strong correlation was established between the poling efficiency and harvester output. A method based on simple capacitance-voltage measurements is shown to be an effective approach to estimate the power output of harvesters poled under different conditions. The poling process was found to be thermally activated with an activation energy of 0.12 eV, and the optimum poling conditions were identified (200 kV cm-1, 250 °C for 50 min). The voltage output and power density obtained under optimum poling conditions were measured to be 558 V cm-2 and 325 μW cm-2, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.2015.

  6. Design of an adaptive pole assignment controller for steam generators and its experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; No, Hee Cheon

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive observer is designed that both parameters and state variables of the steam generator are estimated simultaneously. A pole assignment controller is derived on the basis of the adaptive observer. The characteristics of the overall closed-loop control system can be expressed in terms of its poles, assigned poles. The troublesome tuning procedure of the P-I controller is reduced to the determination of the desired poles only. The proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional P-I controller through numerical simulation. Also, the adaptive pole assignment controller is studied experimentally by implementing it to the mock-up of the nuclear steam generator. The adaptive pole assignment controller shows better responses than the P-l controller does. (Author)

  7. Field analysis and enhancement of multi-pole magnetic components fabricated on printed circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.-C.; Chen, C.-S.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-pole magnetic component magnetized with a fine magnetic pole pitch of less than 1 mm is very difficult to achieve by using traditional methods. Moreover, it requires a precise mechanical process and a complicated magnetization system. Different fine magnetic pole pitches of 300, 350 and 400 μm have been accomplished on 9-pole magnetic components through the printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing technology. Additionally, another fine magnetic pole pitch of 500 μm was also fabricated on a dual-layered (DL) wire circuit structure to investigate the field enhancement. After measurements, a gain factor of 1.37 was obtained in the field strength. The field variations among different magnetic pole pitches were analyzed in this paper

  8. The Steward Observatory asteroid relational database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Alvarezdelcastillo, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    The Steward Observatory Asteroid Relational Database (SOARD) was created as a flexible tool for undertaking studies of asteroid populations and sub-populations, to probe the biases intrinsic to asteroid databases, to ascertain the completeness of data pertaining to specific problems, to aid in the development of observational programs, and to develop pedagogical materials. To date, SOARD has compiled an extensive list of data available on asteroids and made it accessible through a single menu-driven database program. Users may obtain tailored lists of asteroid properties for any subset of asteroids or output files which are suitable for plotting spectral data on individual asteroids. The program has online help as well as user and programmer documentation manuals. The SOARD already has provided data to fulfill requests by members of the astronomical community. The SOARD continues to grow as data is added to the database and new features are added to the program.

  9. Punctuated Evolution of Volcanology: An Observatory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, W. C.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanology from the perspective of crisis prediction and response-the primary function of volcano observatories-is influenced both by steady technological advances and singular events that lead to rapid changes in methodology and procedure. The former can be extrapolated somewhat, while the latter are surprises or shocks. Predictable advances include the conversion from analog to digital systems and the exponential growth of computing capacity and data storage. Surprises include eruptions such as 1980 Mount St Helens, 1985 Nevado del Ruiz, 1989-1990 Redoubt, 1991 Pinatubo, and 2010 Eyjafjallajokull; the opening of GPS to civilian applications, and the advent of an open Russia. Mount St Helens switched the rationale for volcanology in the USGS from geothermal energy to volcano hazards, Ruiz and Pinatubo emphasized the need for international cooperation for effective early warning, Redoubt launched the effort to monitor even remote volcanoes for purposes of aviation safety, and Eyjafjallajokull hammered home the need for improved ash-dispersion and engine-tolerance models; better GPS led to a revolution in volcano geodesy, and the new Russian Federation sparked an Alaska-Kamchatka scientific exchange. The pattern has been that major funding increases for volcano hazards occur after these unpredictable events, which suddenly expose a gap in capabilities, rather than out of a calculated need to exploit technological advances or meet a future goal of risk mitigation. It is up to the observatory and national volcano hazard program to leverage these sudden funding increases into a long-term, sustainable business model that incorporates both the steadily increasing costs of staff and new technology and prepares for the next volcano crisis. Elements of the future will also include the immediate availability on the internet of all publically-funded volcano data, and subscribable, sophisticated hazard alert systems that run computational, fluid dynamic eruption models. These

  10. In situ vector calibration of magnetic observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gonsette

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of magnetic observatories is to measure and provide a vector magnetic field in a geodetic coordinate system. For that purpose, instrument set-up and calibration are crucial. In particular, the scale factor and orientation of a vector magnetometer may affect the magnetic field measurement. Here, we highlight the baseline concept and demonstrate that it is essential for data quality control. We show how the baselines can highlight a possible calibration error. We also provide a calibration method based on high-frequency absolute measurements. This method determines a transformation matrix for correcting variometer data suffering from scale factor and orientation errors. We finally present a practical case where recovered data have been successfully compared to those coming from a reference magnetometer.

  11. The sunspot databases of the Debrecen Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyi, Tünde; Gyori, Lajos; Ludmány, András

    2015-08-01

    We present the sunspot data bases and online tools available in the Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory: the DPD (Debrecen Photoheliographic Data, 1974 -), the SDD (SOHO/MDI-Debrecen Data, 1996-2010), the HMIDD (SDO/HMI-Debrecen Data, HMIDD, 2010-), the revised version of Greenwich Photoheliographic Data (GPR, 1874-1976) presented together with the Hungarian Historical Solar Drawings (HHSD, 1872-1919). These are the most detailed and reliable documentations of the sunspot activity in the relevant time intervals. They are very useful for studying sunspot group evolution on various time scales from hours to weeks. Time-dependent differences between the available long-term sunspot databases are investigated and cross-calibration factors are determined between them. This work has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2012-2015) under grant agreement No. 284461 (eHEROES).

  12. Meteorological observatory for Antarctic data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigioni, P.; De Silvestri, L.

    1996-01-01

    In the last years, a great number of automatic weather stations was installed in Antarctica, with the aim to examine closely the weather and climate of this region and to improve the coverage of measuring points on the Antarctic surface. In 1987 the Italian Antarctic Project started to set up a meteorological network, in an area not completely covered by other countries. Some of the activities performed by the meteorological observatory, concerning technical functions such as maintenance of the AWS's and the execution of radio soundings, or relating to scientific purposes such as validation and elaboration of collected data, are exposed. Finally, some climatological considerations on the thermal behaviour of the Antarctic troposphere such as 'coreless winter', and on the wind field, including katabatic flows in North Victoria Land are described

  13. Virtual Observatory: From Concept to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Williams, R.

    2005-12-01

    We review the origins of the Virtual Observatory (VO) concept, and the current status of the efforts in this field. VO is the response of the astronomical community to the challenges posed by the modern massive and complex data sets. It is a framework in which information technology is harnessed to organize, maintain, and explore the rich information content of the exponentially growing data sets, and to enable a qualitatively new science to be done with them. VO will become a complete, open, distributed, web-based framework for astronomy of the early 21st century. A number of significant efforts worldwide are now striving to convert this vision into reality. The technological and methodological challenges posed by the information-rich astronomy are also common to many other fields. We see a fundamental change in the way all science is done, driven by the information technology revolution.

  14. SOFIA: The Next Generation Airborne Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Edward; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy, will carry a 2.5 meter telescope into the stratosphere on 160 7.5 hour flights per year. At stratospheric altitudes SOFIA will operate above 99% of the water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere, allowing observation of wide regions of the infrared spectrum that are totally obscured from even the best ground-based sites. Its mobility and long range will allow worldwide observation of ephemeral events such as occultations and eclipses. SOFIA will be developed jointly by NASA and DARA, the German space agency. It has been included in the President's budget request to Congress for a development start in FY96 (this October!) and enjoys strong support in Germany. This talk will cover SOFIA's scientific goals, technical characteristics, science operating plan, and political status.

  15. Supernova observations at McDonald Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The programs to obtain high quality spectra and photometry of supernovae at McDonald Observatory are reviewed. Spectra of recent Type I supernovae in NGC 3227, NGC 3625, and NGC 4419 are compared with those of SN 1981b in NGC 4536 to quantitatively illustrate both the homogeneity of Type I spectra at similar epochs and the differences in detail which will serve as a probe of the physical processes in the explosions. Spectra of the recent supernova in NGC 0991 give for the first time quantitative confirmation of a spectrally homogeneous, but distinct subclass of Type I supernovae which appears to be less luminous and to have lower excitation at maximum light than classical Type I supernovae

  16. Lower Pole Calyceal Stone and Lithotripsy are Issues with Clearance Fact or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammad Ather

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lower pole calyceal (LPC stone continues to be an enigma. The complex anatomy of the lower pole collecting system, along with other factors like acute pelvi calyceal angle and narrow and long infundibulum, are some of the complicating factors affecting stone clearance. There have been many studies assessing the impact of collecting system anatomy and most conclude that the complex anatomy of the lower pole collecting system does impact the overall stone-free rate.

  17. Iron Pole Shape Optimization of IPM Motors Using an Integrated Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JABBARI, A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An iron pole shape optimization method to reduce cogging torque in Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM motors is developed by using the reduced basis technique coupled by finite element and design of experiments methods. Objective function is defined as the minimum cogging torque. The experimental design of Taguchi method is used to build the approximation model and to perform optimization. This method is demonstrated on the rotor pole shape optimization of a 4-poles/24-slots IPM motor.

  18. Towards a new Mercator Observatory Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, W.; Raskin, G.; Prins, S.; Saey, P.; Merges, F.; Padilla, J. P.; Van Winckel, H.; Waelkens, C.

    2010-07-01

    A new control system is currently being developed for the 1.2-meter Mercator Telescope at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain). Formerly based on transputers, the new Mercator Observatory Control System (MOCS) consists of a small network of Linux computers complemented by a central industrial controller and an industrial real-time data communication network. Python is chosen as the high-level language to develop flexible yet powerful supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software for the Linux computers. Specialized applications such as detector control, auto-guiding and middleware management are also integrated in the same Python software package. The industrial controller, on the other hand, is connected to the majority of the field devices and is targeted to run various control loops, some of which are real-time critical. Independently of the Linux distributed control system (DCS), this controller makes sure that high priority tasks such as the telescope motion, mirror support and hydrostatic bearing control are carried out in a reliable and safe way. A comparison is made between different controller technologies including a LabVIEW embedded system, a PROFINET Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and motion controller, and an EtherCAT embedded PC (soft-PLC). As the latter is chosen as the primary platform for the lower level control, a substantial part of the software is being ported to the IEC 61131-3 standard programming languages. Additionally, obsolete hardware is gradually being replaced by standard industrial alternatives with fast EtherCAT communication. The use of Python as a scripting language allows a smooth migration to the final MOCS: finished parts of the new control system can readily be commissioned to replace the corresponding transputer units of the old control system with minimal downtime. In this contribution, we give an overview of the systems design, implementation details and the current status of the project.

  19. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-07-28

    Traditionally, the necessary and sufficient condition for any system to be oscillating is that its poles are located on the imaginary (jω) axis. In this paper, for the first time, we have shown that systems can oscillate with time-domain oscillating poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating resistance and triangular shape of FFT are also demonstrated with mathematical reasoning and simulation results to support the unusual and surprising characteristics. © 2009 IEEE.

  20. Texture of poled tetragonal PZT detected by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and micromechanics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Steuwer, A.; Cherdhirunkorn, B.; Withers, P.J.; Mori, T.

    2005-01-01

    The texture and lattice elastic strain due to electrical poling of tetragonal PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramics have been measured using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It is shown that XRD peak intensity ratios associated with crystal planes of the form {002}, {112} and {202} exhibit a linear dependence on cos-bar 2 Ψ, where Ψ represents the orientation angle between the plane normal and the macroscopic poling axis. The observed dependence of texture and lattice strain on the grain orientation can be understood on the basis that the macroscopic strain due to poling is the average of the poling strains of all the individual grains

  1. Reuse of poles treated with CCA; CCA-kyllaestettyjen puupylvaeiden uudelleenkaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmus, E. [Vtt Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of re-using utility poles or parts of poles for structural use in construction. There are more than 10 million poles in Finland and about 200 000 poles will be removed from service yearly during the next few years. The directive 2003/2/EY will restrict the use of poles treated with CCA. This will change the practice that the energy and telecommunication companies have given the removed poles to the land owners. The present study launched by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) was carried out to determine the technical condition of CCA impregnated poles removed from service and the concentration levels and leaching of remaining preservatives. To summarize the results of the tests, it is safe to say that re-use of recovered poles of 30 to 50 years of age is possible. Both the preservative concentrations and strength/load-bearing capacity are high enough to allow the use of the poles as load-bearing structures. (orig.)

  2. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 2. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  3. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 4. Quarter of 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  4. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 3. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  5. University Observatory, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The University Observatory of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität was founded in 1816. Astronomers who worked or graduated at the Munich Observatory include: Fraunhofer, Soldner, Lamont, Seeliger and Karl Schwarzschild. At present four professors and ten staff astronomers work here. Funding comes from the Bavarian Government, the German Science Foundation, and other German and European research progra...

  6. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 1. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  7. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 4. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  8. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 3. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  9. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 4. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  10. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 2. Quarter of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  11. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 1. Quarter of 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  12. Science requirements and the design of cabled ocean observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mikada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean sciences are beginning a new phase in which scientists will enter the ocean environment and adaptively observe the Earth-Ocean system through remote control of sensors and sensor platforms. This new ocean science paradigm will be implemented using innovative facilities called ocean observatories which provide unprecedented levels of power and communication to access and manipulate real-time sensor networks deployed within many different environments in the ocean basins. Most of the principal design drivers for ocean observatories differ from those for commercial submarine telecommunications systems. First, ocean observatories require data to be input and output at one or more seafloor nodes rather than at a few land terminuses. Second, ocean observatories must distribute a lot of power to the seafloor at variable and fluctuating rates. Third, the seafloor infrastructure for an ocean observatory inherently requires that the wet plant be expandable and reconfigurable. Finally, because the wet communications and power infrastructure is comparatively complex, ocean observatory infrastructure must be designed for low life cycle cost rather than zero maintenance. The origin of these differences may be understood by taking a systems engineering approach to ocean observatory design through examining the requirements derived from science and then going through the process of iterative refinement to yield conceptual and physical designs. This is illustrated using the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory power and data communications sub-systems.

  13. Electricity and gas market Observatory - 1. Quarter of 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. Since 2013, it also covers the wholesale CO 2 market. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  14. Silicon pore optics for the international x-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, E.; Wallace, K.; Bavdaz, M.; Collon, M. J.; Günther, R.; Ackermann, M.; Beijersbergen, M. W.; Riekerink, M. O.; Blom, M.; Lansdorp, B.; de Vreede, L.

    2017-11-01

    Lightweight X-ray Wolter optics with a high angular resolution will enable the next generation of X-ray telescopes in space. The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) requires a mirror assembly of 3 m2 effective area (at 1.5 keV) and an angular resolution of 5 arcsec. These specifications can only be achieved with a novel technology like Silicon Pore Optics, which is developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor industry. We present the manufacturing process ranging from single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules mounted in flight configuration. The performance of the mirror modules is tested using X-ray pencil beams or full X-ray illumination. In 2009, an angular resolution of 9 arcsec was achieved, demonstrating the improvement of the technology compared to 17 arcsec in 2007. Further development activities of Silicon Pore Optics concentrate on ruggedizing the mounting system and performing environmental tests, integrating baffles into the mirror modules and assessing the mass production.

  15. A 15-pole high temperature superconductor filter for radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Xi, Weibin; Wu, Songtao

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a compact and high first harmonic frequency resonator. The characteristics of this resonator are theoretically analyzed. A highly selective 15-pole Chebyshev high temperature superconducting ultra-high frequency narrowband filter for radar applications was fabricated by using this resonator. The filter has a center frequency of 495 MHz and a fractional bandwidth of 1%. The first harmonic frequency is more than 3.3 times the fundamental frequency. The measured filter shows excellent selectivity, better than 85 dB/1 MHz skirt slopes, and more than 85 dB of rejection at 497.5 MHz from the band edge. The filter was fabricated on a 2 inch YBCO thin film with a 0.5 mm thick MgO substrate. The experimental results are consistent with the simulations.

  16. One-dimensional thermodynamical model for poling of ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiouny, E.

    1990-11-01

    In this work, we use a model developed to deduce a one-dimensional model for the description of the poling of ferroelectric ceramics. This is built within the scheme of the thermodynamical theory of internal variables. The model produces both plastic and electric hysteresis effects in the form of ''plasticity'', i.e., rate-independent evolution equations for the plastic strain, and the residual electric polarization and both mechanical and electric hardenings. The influence of stresses on ferroelectric hysteresis loops through piezoelectricity and electrostriction is a natural outcome of this model. Some simple experimental methods for the determination of the material coefficients of the considered ceramics are suggested. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  17. THE SPITZER-WISE SURVEY OF THE ECLIPTIC POLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Cutri, R. M.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Cohen, M.; Wright, E.; Petty, S.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P.; Mainzer, A.; Ressler, M.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Carey, S.; Surace, J.; Lonsdale, C.; Skrutskie, M.; Stanford, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out a survey of the north and south ecliptic poles, EP-N and EP-S, respectively, with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The primary objective was to cross-calibrate WISE with the Spitzer and Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) photometric systems by developing a set of calibration stars that are common to these infrared missions. The ecliptic poles were continuous viewing zones for WISE due to its polar-crossing orbit, making these areas ideal for both absolute and internal calibrations. The Spitzer IRAC and MIPS imaging survey covers a complete area of 0.40 deg 2 for the EP-N and 1.28 deg 2 for the EP-S. WISE observed the whole sky in four mid-infrared bands, 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm, during its eight-month cryogenic mission, including several hundred ecliptic polar passages; here we report on the highest coverage depths achieved by WISE, an area of ∼1.5 deg 2 for both poles. Located close to the center of the EP-N, the Sy-2 galaxy NGC 6552 conveniently functions as a standard calibrator to measure the red response of the 22 μm channel of WISE. Observations from Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS/IRS-LL and WISE show that the galaxy has a strong red color in the mid-infrared due to star-formation and the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), while over a baseline >1 year the mid-IR photometry of NGC 6552 is shown to vary at a level less than 2%. Combining NGC 6552 with the standard calibrator stars, the achieved photometric accuracy of the WISE calibration, relative to the Spitzer and MSX systems, is 2.4%, 2.8%, 4.5%, and 5.7% for W1 (3.4 μm), W2 (4.6 μm), W3 (12 μm), and W4 (22 μm), respectively. The WISE photometry is internally stable to better than 0.1% over the cryogenic lifetime of the mission. The secondary objective of the Spitzer-WISE Survey was to explore the poles at greater flux-level depths, exploiting the higher angular resolution Spitzer observations and the exceptionally deep (in total

  18. Performance of claw-poled PM-stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.P.; Jeng, G.R.; Chen, W.C.; Tsai, M.C.; Wu, K.T.; Yao, Y.D.

    2007-01-01

    Present work is to analyze the performance of a permanent-magnetic (PM) stepping motor with claw poles by using the magnetic-circuit simulation technique. In this paper, we calculate the torque characteristics of the motor, such as the detent and the holding torques, and the step-position error by changing the gap between the upper and the lower stators and the staggered angle between the two stators. Through comparison of numerical data with experiment measurements, we found that the detent torque could be effectively reduced by increasing the stator-to-stator gap and further by decreasing the step-position error. Furthermore, the holding torque could be unchanged as the stator assemblage changed; however, it would be degenerated under the condition of low magnetization

  19. Unitary pole approximations and expansions in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casel, A.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-01-01

    The unitary pole approximations or expansions of the two-body subsystem operators are well known, and particularly efficient and practical, methods to reduce the three-body problem to an effective two-body theory. In the present investigation we develop generalizations of these approximation techniques to the subsystem amplitudes of problems with higher particle numbers. They are based on the expansion of effective potentials which, in contrast to the genuine two-body interactions, are now energy dependent. Despite this feature our generalizations require only energy independent form factors, thus preserving one of the essential advantages of the genuine two-body approach. The application of these techniques to the four-body case is discussed in detail

  20. Lunar South Pole space water extraction and trucking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppero, A.; Zupp, G.; Schnitzler, B.; Larson, T.K.; Rice, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This concept proposes to use thermal processes alone to extract water from the lunar South Pole and launch payloads to low lunar orbit. Thermal steam rockets would use water propellant for space transportation. The estimated mass of a space water tanker powered by a nuclear heated steam rocket suggests it can be designed for launch in the Space Shuttle bay. The performance depends on the feasibility of a nuclear reactor rocket engine producing steam at 1,100 degrees Kelvin, with a power density of 150 Megawatts per ton of rocket, and operating for thousands of 20 minute cycles. An example uses reject heat from a small nuclear electric power supply to melt 17,800 tons per year of lunar ice. A nuclear heated steam rocket would use the propellant water to launch and deliver 3,800 tons of water per year to a 100 km low lunar orbit

  1. Ruthenium therapy of choroidal melanomas of the posterior pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmann, G.; Faschinger, C.; Langmann, A.; Poier, E.

    1992-01-01

    The indications for conservative treatment of intraocular melanomas of the posterior pole with radioactive plaques are controversial. Melanomas located at the macula or adjacent to the fovea are regarded as relative contraindications for conservative treatment. Three melanomas of the macula have been treated at our department meanwhile. The tumor elevation ranged between 3.5 and 6 mm, the distance to the fovea between 0.5 and 2 dd. An average radiation dosage between 130 and 160 Gy was delivered to the apex of the tumors. The duration of observation was between 12 months to 4 years. The tumor regression was satisfactory in all 3 cases, additional photocoagulation was necessary in one case of incomplete tumor regression. Pretreatment visual acuity ranged between 0.8 and 0.1, posttreatment visual acuity between 0.8 and 0.25. In one case we observed a local radiation vasculopathy. General examination did not reveal any signs of metastases. (authors)

  2. Method of regulating magnetic field of magnetic pole center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masao; Yamada, Teruo; Kato, Norihiko; Toda, Yojiro; Kaneda, Yasumasa.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject method comprising using a plurality of magnetic metal pieces having different thicknesses, regulating very easily symmetry of the field of the magnetic pole center depending upon the combination of said metal pieces, thereby obtaining a magnetic field of high precision. Method: The regulation of magnetic field at the central part of the magnetic field is not depending only upon processing of the center plug, axial movement of trim coil and ion source but by providing a magnetic metal piece such as an iron ring, primary higher harmonics of the field at the center of the magnetic field can be regulated simply while the position of the ion source slit is on the equipotential surface in the field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  3. Patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymer electrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Xunlin

    2010-01-01

    Polymers with strong piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity are attractive for a wide range of applications. In particular, semicrystalline ferroelectric polymers are suitable for a large variety of piezo- and pyroelectric transducers or sensors, while amorphous polymers containing chromophore molecules are particularly interesting for photonic devices. Recently, a new class of polymer materials has been added to this family: internally charged cellular space-charge polymer electrets (so-called “ferroelectrets”), whose piezoelectricity can be orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional ferroelectric polymers. Suitable patterning of these materials leads to improved or unusual macroscopic piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectric or nonlinear optical properties that may be particularly useful for advanced transducer or waveguide applications. In the present paper, the piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymers is briefly introduced, an overview on the preparation of polymer electrets with patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity is provided and a survey of selected applications is presented.

  4. The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' for developing the nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' (PNB) is a high-technology and heavy industries cluster in Burgundy with an international calling. It aims at innovating, educating and federating in order to place the French nuclear industry in a leading position. PNB gathers 76 small-, and medium-sized enterprises, most of them operating in the metal sector, in design and in the control/measuring sector. The aim of PNB is to make enterprises work and cooperate on specific topics according to their sectors of activities and their skills. PNB has identified 3 domains of strategical innovations: -) ecological manufacturing and durability of heavy components, -) controls for high performance components, and -) maintenance and dismantling techniques in hostile environments. The various industry sectors represented in PNB allows a cross-fertilization between high-tech industries (aeronautics, energy, transportation)

  5. Determination of regional Euler pole parameters for Eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Schartner, Matthias; Brueckl, Ewald

    2017-04-01

    The horizontal motion of lithospheric plates can be described as rotations around a rotation axes through the Earth's center. The two possible points where this axes intersects the surface of the Earth are called Euler poles. The rotation is expressed by the Euler parameters in terms of angular velocities together with the latitude and longitude of the Euler pole. Euler parameters were calculated from GPS data for a study area in Eastern Austria. The observation network is located along the Mur-Mürz Valley and the Vienna Basin. This zone is part of the Vienna Transfer Fault, which is the major fault system between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. The project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) investigated intra plate tectonic movements within the Austrian part in order to estimate the seismic hazard. Precise site coordinate time series established from processing 5 years of GPS observations are available for the regional network spanning the years from 2010.0 to 2015.0. Station velocities with respect to the global reference frame ITRF2008 have been computed for 23 sites. The common Euler vector was estimated on base of a subset of reliable site velocities, for stations directly located within the area of interest. In a further step a geokinematic interpretation shall be carried out. Therefore site motions with respect to the Eurasian Plate are requested. To obtain this motion field different variants are conceivable. In a simple approach the mean ITRF2008 velocity of IGS site GRAZ can be adopted as Eurasian rotational velocity. An improved alternative is to calculate site-specific velocity differences between the Euler rotation and the individual site velocities. In this poster presentation the Euler parameters, the residual motion field as well as first geokinematic interpretation results are presented.

  6. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  7. Designing Observatories for the Hydrologic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.

    2004-05-01

    The need for longer-term, multi-scale, coherent, and multi-disciplinary data to test hypotheses in hydrologic science has been recognized by numerous prestigious review panels over the past decade (e.g. NRC's Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science). Designing such observatories has proven to be a challenge not only on scientific, but also technological, economic and even sociologic levels. The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) has undertaken a "paper" prototype design of a hydrologic observatory (HO) for the Neuse River Basin, NC and plans to solicit proposals and award grants to develop implementation plans for approximately 10 basins (which may be defined by topographic or groundwater divides) during the summer of 2004. These observatories are envisioned to be community resources with data available to all scientists, with support facilities to permit their use by both local and remote investigators. This paper presents the broad design concepts which were developed from a national team of scientists for the Neuse River Basin Prototype. There are three fundamental characteristics of a watershed or river basin that are critical for answering the major scientific questions proposed by the NRC to advance hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological sciences: (1) the store and flux of water, sediment, nutrients and contaminants across interfaces at multiple scales must be identified; (2) the residence time of these constituents, and (3) their flowpaths and response spectra to forcing must be estimated. "Stores" consist of subsurface, land surface and atmospheric volumes partitioned over the watershed. The HO will require "core measurements" which will serve the communities of hydrologic science for long range research questions. The core measurements will also provide context for shorter-term or hypothesis-driven research investigations. The HO will support "mobile measurement facilities" designed to support teams

  8. The Rapid Ice Sheet Change Observatory (RISCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P.; Howat, I. M.; Ahn, Y.; Porter, C.; McFadden, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The recent expansion of observational capacity from space has revealed dramatic, rapid changes in the Earth’s ice cover. These discoveries have fundamentally altered how scientists view ice-sheet change. Instead of just slow changes in snow accumulation and melting over centuries or millennia, important changes can occur in sudden events lasting only months, weeks, or even a single day. Our understanding of these short time- and space-scale processes, which hold important implications for future global sea level rise, has been impeded by the low temporal and spatial resolution, delayed sensor tasking, incomplete coverage, inaccessibility and/or high cost of data available to investigators. New cross-agency partnerships and data access policies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve the resolution of ice sheet observations by an order of magnitude, from timescales of months and distances of 10’s of meters, to days and meters or less. Advances in image processing technology also enable application of currently under-utilized datasets. The infrastructure for systematically gathering, processing, analyzing and distributing these data does not currently exist. Here we present the development of a multi-institutional, multi-platform observatory for rapid ice change with the ultimate objective of helping to elucidate the relevant timescales and processes of ice sheet dynamics and response to climate change. The Rapid Ice Sheet Observatory (RISCO) gathers observations of short time- and space-scale Cryosphere events and makes them easily accessible to investigators, media and general public. As opposed to existing data centers, which are structured to archive and distribute diverse types of raw data to end users with the specialized software and skills to analyze them, RISCO focuses on three types of geo-referenced raster (image) data products in a format immediately viewable with commonly available software. These three products are (1) sequences of images

  9. Stellar population samples at the galactic poles. IV. Luminosity function for the M-type dwarfs at the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, O.J.

    1976-01-01

    The (UBVRI) photometry of all M dwarfs which are within 10degree of the South Galactic Pole and brighter than visual magnitude 15, and which have annual proper motions greater than 0/sup prime/./sub /096, are discussed. The observations themselves are listed and discussed in a recent Astrophysical Journal Supplement. The luminosity function is found to be very similar, in the overlapping sections, to that previously derived spectrophotometrically from the M stars near the Sun, and the extension to M/subV/ near +13 mag indicates that this luminosity is near the peak of that function. No support is found in these data for the recently suggested superabundance of low velocity M stars near the Sun

  10. Regge poles and Mandelstam representation in potential scattering; Poles de regge et representation de Mandelstam en theorie du potentiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessis, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    We deal with the scattering of two spinless particles interacting by a superposition of Yukawa potentials. We first obtain an upper bound for the scattering amplitude for simultaneous complex values of energy and angular momentum. We then show that the Regge poles remain confined in small domains of the complex angular momentum plane, we study the variation of these domains when the energy (complex) varies. These first results allow us to deduce an upper bound for the double spectral function, this upper bound is used to rigorously show that the Schroedinger equation implies the Mandelstam representation for the type of potentials we deal with. Finally, the problem of subtractions is entirely solved, showing that the Mellin transform of the double spectral function can be analytically continued into the different simple spectral functions. (author) [French] On traite de la diffusion de deux particules sans spin interagissant par l'intermediaire d'une superposition de potentiels de Yukawa. Nous obtenons tout d'abord une majorante pour l'amplitude de diffusion pour des valeurs simultanement complexes de l'energie et du moment cinetique. On montre alors que les Poles de Regge restent confines dans des domaines restreints du plan complexe du moment cinetique, domaines dont nous etudions la variation pour des valeurs complexes de l'energie. Ces premiers resultats nous permettent alors de deduire une majorante pour la fonction spectrale double, majorante qui est utilisee pour demontrer rigoureusement que l'equation de Schroedinger implique la representation de Mandelstam pour la classe des potentiels envisages. Enfin le probleme des soustractions est entierement resolu, en montrant que la transformee de Mellin de la fonction spectrale double se prolonge analytiquement dans les diverses fonctions spectrales simples. (auteur)

  11. Experience on impregnation of wood.en poles with water borne salts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. Leechability. Since the process depends on osmosis, the preservative must be highly soluble in water and rains may wash it away. 2. Diminished Mechanical Strength. Pricking of the pole at and around the ground line will diminish the mechanical strength of the pole. 3. Cost. Most important of all, the cost of the preserva-.

  12. The effect of poling conditions on the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters fabricated by wet chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, Erika Maria-Anai; Gnade, Bruce E; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel; Shah, Pradeep; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of poling conditions on the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters using sol-gel based Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O3-Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3 piezoelectric thin-films has been investigated. A strong correlation was established between the poling

  13. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S; Kimura, Y; Miki, M; Felder, B; Tsuzuki, K; Izumi, M; Ida, T; Umemoto, K; Aizawa, K; Yokoyama, M

    2010-01-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  14. Risk Management in the Original Extreme Sporting Event: The Pole Vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…

  15. Renormalization Group Invariance of the Pole Mass in the Multi-Higgs System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungku

    2018-06-01

    We have investigated the renormalization group running of the pole mass in the multi-Higgs theory in two different types of gauge fixing conditions. The pole mass, when expressed in terms of the Lagrangian parameters, turns out to be invariant under the renormalization group with the beta and gamma functions of the symmetric phase.

  16. Converting point-wise nuclear cross sections to pole representation using regularized vector fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingjie; Ducru, Pablo; Liu, Shichang; Forget, Benoit; Liang, Jingang; Smith, Kord

    2018-03-01

    Direct Doppler broadening of nuclear cross sections in Monte Carlo codes has been widely sought for coupled reactor simulations. One recent approach proposed analytical broadening using a pole representation of the commonly used resonance models and the introduction of a local windowing scheme to improve performance (Hwang, 1987; Forget et al., 2014; Josey et al., 2015, 2016). This pole representation has been achieved in the past by converting resonance parameters in the evaluation nuclear data library into poles and residues. However, cross sections of some isotopes are only provided as point-wise data in ENDF/B-VII.1 library. To convert these isotopes to pole representation, a recent approach has been proposed using the relaxed vector fitting (RVF) algorithm (Gustavsen and Semlyen, 1999; Gustavsen, 2006; Liu et al., 2018). This approach however needs to specify ahead of time the number of poles. This article addresses this issue by adding a poles and residues filtering step to the RVF procedure. This regularized VF (ReV-Fit) algorithm is shown to efficiently converge the poles close to the physical ones, eliminating most of the superfluous poles, and thus enabling the conversion of point-wise nuclear cross sections.

  17. Crown Release Increases Diameter Growth and Bole Sprouting of Pole-Size Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M. Jr. Peterson

    1971-01-01

    During the second and third years after release, dominant, codominant, and intermediate pole-size yellow birch grew nearly twice as fast in diameter as unreleased poles. Growth rates were also related to foliage density. Epicormic sprouting was increased by crown release but most sprouting occured in the second log.

  18. Threshold for strong thermal dephasing in periodically poled KTP in external cavity frequency doubling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundeman, Jesper Holm; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a measurement series of the efficiency of periodically poled KTP used for second-harmonic generation in an external phase-locked cavity. Due to the high absorption (0.01 cm^−1) in the PPKTP crystal at the pump wavelength a strong thermal dephasing of the periodically poled grating...

  19. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.

    2010-06-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  20. Electricity and gas market observatory. 2. Quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). The present observatory is dedicated only to eligible customers before 1 July 2007, i.e. non-residential customers. Statistics related to residential customers will be published in the next observatory (1 December 2007). Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Non-residential customer segments and their respective weights, Status at July 1, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 2. Quarter 2007); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market, Striking fact of the second quarter 2007); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, The non-residential customer segments and their respective weights, Status at July 1, 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  1. Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory: from Voeikovo subdivision to INTERMAGNET certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Roman; Soloviev, Anatoly; Krasnoperov, Roman; Kudin, Dmitry; Grudnev, Andrei; Kopytenko, Yury; Kotikov, Andrei; Sergushin, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Since June 2012 the Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory is being developed and maintained by two institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - the Geophysical Center of RAS (GC RAS) and the Saint Petersburg branch of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of RAS (IZMIRAN SPb). On 29 April 2016 the application of the Saint Petersburg observatory (IAGA code SPG) for introduction into the INTERMAGNET network was accepted after approval by the experts of the first definitive dataset over 2015, produced by the GC RAS, and on 9 June 2016 the SPG observatory was officially certified. One of the oldest series of magnetic observations, originating in 1834, was resumed in the 21st century, meeting the highest quality standards and all modern technical requirements. In this paper a brief historical and scientific background of the SPG observatory foundation and development is given, the stages of its renovation and upgrade in the 21st century are described, and information on its current state is provided. The first results of the observatory functioning are discussed and geomagnetic variations registered at the SPG observatory are assessed and compared with geomagnetic data from the INTERMAGNET observatories located in the same region.

  2. Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory: from Voeikovo subdivision to INTERMAGNET certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sidorov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since June 2012 the Saint Petersburg magnetic observatory is being developed and maintained by two institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS – the Geophysical Center of RAS (GC RAS and the Saint Petersburg branch of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of RAS (IZMIRAN SPb. On 29 April 2016 the application of the Saint Petersburg observatory (IAGA code SPG for introduction into the INTERMAGNET network was accepted after approval by the experts of the first definitive dataset over 2015, produced by the GC RAS, and on 9 June 2016 the SPG observatory was officially certified. One of the oldest series of magnetic observations, originating in 1834, was resumed in the 21st century, meeting the highest quality standards and all modern technical requirements. In this paper a brief historical and scientific background of the SPG observatory foundation and development is given, the stages of its renovation and upgrade in the 21st century are described, and information on its current state is provided. The first results of the observatory functioning are discussed and geomagnetic variations registered at the SPG observatory are assessed and compared with geomagnetic data from the INTERMAGNET observatories located in the same region.

  3. Ukpik: testbed for a miniaturized robotic astronomical observatory on a high Arctic mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbring, Eric; Leckie, Brian; Hardy, Tim; Caputa, Kris; Fletcher, Murray

    2012-09-01

    Mountains along the northwestern coast of Ellesmere Island, Canada, possess the highest peaks nearest the Pole. This geography, combined with an atmospheric thermal inversion restricted to below ~1000 m during much of the long arctic night, provides excellent opportunities for uninterrupted cloud-free astronomy - provided the challenges of these incredibly remote locations can be overcome. We present a miniaturized robotic observatory for deployment on a High Arctic mountaintop. This system tested the operability of precise optical instruments during winter, and the logistics of installation and maintenance during summer. It is called Ukpik after the Inuktitut name for the snowy owl, and was deployed at two sites accessible only by helicopter, each north of 82 degrees latitude; one on rock at 1100 m elevation and another on a glacier at 1600 m. The instrument suite included at first an all-sky-viewing camera, with the later addition of a small telescope to monitor Polaris, both protected by a retractable weather-proof enclosure. Expanding this to include a narrow-field drift-scanning camera for studying extra-solar planet transits was also investigated, but not implemented. An unique restriction was that all had to be run on batteries recharged primarily by a wind turbine. Supplementary power came from a methanol fuel-cell electrical generator. Communications were via the Iridium satellite network. The system design, and lessons learned from three years of operation are discussed, along with prospects for time-domain astronomy from isolated, high-elevation polar mountaintops.

  4. TWO EXOPLANETS DISCOVERED AT KECK OBSERVATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, Jeff A.; Fischer, Debra; Giguere, Matt; Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Henry, Gregory W.; Wright, Jason T.

    2009-01-01

    We present two exoplanets detected at Keck Observatory. HD 179079 is a G5 subgiant that hosts a hot Neptune planet with M sin i = 27.5 M + in a 14.48 days, low-eccentricity orbit. The stellar reflex velocity induced by this planet has a semiamplitude of K = 6.6 m s -1 . HD 73534 is a G5 subgiant with a Jupiter-like planet of M sin i = 1.1 M Jup and K = 16 m s -1 in a nearly circular 4.85 yr orbit. Both stars are chromospherically inactive and metal-rich. We discuss a known, classical bias in measuring eccentricities for orbits with velocity semiamplitudes, K, comparable to the radial velocity uncertainties. For exoplanets with periods longer than 10 days, the observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution is nearly flat for large amplitude systems (K > 80 m s -1 ), but rises linearly toward low eccentricity for lower amplitude systems (K > 20 m s -1 ).

  5. The CARIBIC flying observatory and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C.

    2012-01-01

    The troposphere can be considered as a complex chemical reactor reaching from the boundary layer up to the tropopause region, in which a multitude of reactions takes place driven by sunlight and supplied with precursors emitted by vegetation, wildfires, and obviously human activities on earth, like burning oil products. Research aircraft (say modified business jets) are far too expensive for a global view of this extensive atmospheric system that changes from day to night, season to season, year to year, and will keep changing. CARIBIC (www.caribic.de) is a logical answer; it is a flying observatory, a 1.5 ton freight container packed with over 15 instruments, for exploring the atmosphere on a regular basis using cargo space in a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 on intercontinental flights. By means of various results obtained by CARIBIC, about among others volcanic eruptions, the monsoon and accompanying emissions of methane, and long range transport of pollution, we will show how some of the questions atmospheric research grapples with are being addressed, without having a fleet of business jets. (author)

  6. Distributed Computing for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudoba, J.

    2015-01-01

    Pierre Auger Observatory operates the largest system of detectors for ultra-high energy cosmic ray measurements. Comparison of theoretical models of interactions with recorded data requires thousands of computing cores for Monte Carlo simulations. Since 2007 distributed resources connected via EGI grid are successfully used. The first and the second versions of production system based on bash scripts and MySQL database were able to submit jobs to all reliable sites supporting Virtual Organization auger. For many years VO auger belongs to top ten of EGI users based on the total used computing time. Migration of the production system to DIRAC interware started in 2014. Pilot jobs improve efficiency of computing jobs and eliminate problems with small and less reliable sites used for the bulk production. The new system has also possibility to use available resources in clouds. Dirac File Catalog replaced LFC for new files, which are organized in datasets defined via metadata. CVMFS is used for software distribution since 2014. In the presentation we give a comparison of the old and the new production system and report the experience on migrating to the new system. (paper)

  7. Neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Q.R.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen, T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Barton,J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler,M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Buhler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky,M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac,M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar, R.J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter,T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A.D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,D.S.; McDonald, A.B.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer, R.; Mifflin,C.; Miller, G.G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B.A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Ng, H.S.; Noble, A.J.; Norman, E.B.; Novikov, V.M.; O' Neill, M.; Okada, C.E.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J.L.; Oser, S.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Radcliffe, T.J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rosendahl, S.S.E.; Rowley, J.K.; Rusu, V.L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K.K.; Schwendener,M.H.; Schulke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J.J.; Sims, C.J.; et al.

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  8. Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Full text. The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to observe cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV . The southern site, located in Malargue, Argentina, is now fully operational (since mid 2008) and has been collecting data continuously while being deployed. The northern site, which will give a full sky coverage, is under development in Lamar, Colorado, USA. The PAO uses two complementary techniques to measure the direction of arrival and the energy of the comic rays. In the southern site, its 1600 water Cerenkov tanks, spread over 3000 km 2 , sample the extended air shower front when it hits the ground, measuring time and energy deposited, while the 4 fluorescence detectors stations, each with 6 telescopes, collect the UV light emitted by the shower core, registering the time, intensity and angle of reception. Though the Pierre Auger collaboration will be taking data for the next two decades, several results have already been published based on data collected until 2009 and will be discussed briefly: the energy spectrum and its implications on the GZK cut off controversy, limits on photon and neutrino fluxes, anisotropy, point sources and mass composition. (author)

  9. The upgrade of the HAWC observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoorlemmer, Harm [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: HAWC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) high-energy gamma-ray observatory has recently been completed near the Sierra Negra volcano in central Mexico. HAWC consists of 300 Water Cherenkov Detectors, each containing 200 tons of purified water, that cover a total surface area of 20,000 m{sup 2}. HAWC observes gamma rays in the 0.1-100 TeV range and has a sensitivity to TeV-scale gamma-ray sources an order of magnitude better than previous air-shower arrays. The HAWC trigger for the highest energy gamma rays reaches an effective area of 10{sup 5} m{sup 2} but many of them are poorly reconstructed because the shower core falls outside the array. An upgrade that increases the present fraction of well reconstructed showers above 10 TeV by a factor of 3-4 can be done with a sparse outrigger array of small water Cherenkov detectors that pinpoint the core position and by that improve the angular resolution of the reconstructed showers. Such an outrigger array would be of the order of 300 small water Cherenkov detectors of 2.5 m{sup 3} placed over an area four times larger than HAWC. The Max Planck Institute fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg just joined the collaboration and will provide the FADC electronics for the readout of the outrigger tanks. Detailed simulations are being performed to optimize the performance of the upgrade.

  10. Distributed Computing for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudoba, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pierre Auger Observatory operates the largest system of detectors for ultra-high energy cosmic ray measurements. Comparison of theoretical models of interactions with recorded data requires thousands of computing cores for Monte Carlo simulations. Since 2007 distributed resources connected via EGI grid are successfully used. The first and the second versions of production system based on bash scripts and MySQL database were able to submit jobs to all reliable sites supporting Virtual Organization auger. For many years VO auger belongs to top ten of EGI users based on the total used computing time. Migration of the production system to DIRAC interware started in 2014. Pilot jobs improve efficiency of computing jobs and eliminate problems with small and less reliable sites used for the bulk production. The new system has also possibility to use available resources in clouds. Dirac File Catalog replaced LFC for new files, which are organized in datasets defined via metadata. CVMFS is used for software distribution since 2014. In the presentation we give a comparison of the old and the new production system and report the experience on migrating to the new system.

  11. Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouffon, Philippe [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to observe cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV . The southern site, located in Malargue, Argentina, is now fully operational (since mid 2008) and has been collecting data continuously while being deployed. The northern site, which will give a full sky coverage, is under development in Lamar, Colorado, USA. The PAO uses two complementary techniques to measure the direction of arrival and the energy of the comic rays. In the southern site, its 1600 water Cerenkov tanks, spread over 3000 km{sup 2}, sample the extended air shower front when it hits the ground, measuring time and energy deposited, while the 4 fluorescence detectors stations, each with 6 telescopes, collect the UV light emitted by the shower core, registering the time, intensity and angle of reception. Though the Pierre Auger collaboration will be taking data for the next two decades, several results have already been published based on data collected until 2009 and will be discussed briefly: the energy spectrum and its implications on the GZK cut off controversy, limits on photon and neutrino fluxes, anisotropy, point sources and mass composition. (author)

  12. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. B?hler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  13. The Importance of Marine Observatories and of RAIA in Particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Bastos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal and Oceanic Observatories are important tools to provide information on ocean state, phenomena and processes. They meet the need for a better understanding of coastal and ocean dynamics, revealing regional characteristics and vulnerabilities. These observatories are extremely useful to guide human actions in response to natural events and potential climate change impacts, anticipating the occurrence of extreme weather and oceanic events and helping to minimize consequent personal and material damages and costs.International organizations and local governments have shown an increasing interest in operational oceanography and coastal, marine and oceanic observations, which resulted in substantial investments in these areas. A variety of physical, chemical and biological data have been collected to better understand the specific characteristics of each ocean area and its importance in the global context. Also the general public’s interest in marine issues and observatories has been raised, mainly in relation to vulnerability, sustainability and climate change issues. Data and products obtained by an observatory are hence useful to a broad range of stakeholders, from national and local authorities to the population in general.An introduction to Ocean Observatories, including their national and regional importance, and a brief analysis of the societal interest in these observatories and related issues are presented. The potential of a Coastal and Ocean Observatory is then demonstrated using the RAIA observatory as example. This modern and comprehensive observatory is dedicated to improve operational oceanography, technology and marine science for the North Western Iberian coast, and to provide services to a large range of stakeholders.

  14. Institutional Evaluation in Poles of the Open University System of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexciano de Sousa Martins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study wanted to know the institutional evaluation in poles of distance education, of the Open University of Brazil (UAB system, analyzing the poles of the State of Ceará. The UAB system of the Brazilian Ministry of Education makes it possible to offer courses of higher level agreements with public universities. Ceará counts on UAB poles, since 2006, that form teachers and other professionals, even in regions lacking public higher education. The objective of this study was to discuss the importance of the institutional evaluation in the poles of the Open University of Brazil program through an exploratory and descriptive field research, showing that the institutional evaluation at the poles is minimal and out of line with the legislation in force. Suggestions on how to develop the evaluative practice.

  15. Glass fiber -reinforced plastic tapered poles for transmission and distribution lines: development and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Burachysnsky, V.; Polyzois, D.

    1999-01-01

    A research project to develop lightweight poles for use in power transmission and distribution lines and involving the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic using the filament winding process is described. Twelve full scale specimen poles were designed, fabricated and subjected to cantilever bending to test failure modes. The test parameters included fiber orientation, ratio of longitudinal-to-circumferential fiber, and the number of layers. Results showed that local buckling was the most dominant failure mode, attributable to the high radius-to-thickness ratio of the specimen poles. Overall, however, these fiber-reinforced plastic poles compared favourably to wooden poles in carrying capacity with significant weight reduction. Lateral displacement at ultimate loads did not exceed the acceptable limit of 10 per cent of the specimen free length. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Optimizing detection of road furniture (pole-like object in Mobile Laser Scanner data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the road safety problem is becoming more and more serious recent years, existing road safety assessment by using automatic method is necessary. Meanwhile, since the pole-like objects have large effect on road safety and are in high demand as facilities to be managed, the automatic pole-like objects extraction is becoming a hot issue. As a result, a robust, quick and automatic pole-like object detection algorithm in MLS data is proposed in this paper. Two datasets are tested to show performance of the proposed algorithm, it demonstrates that it is feasible to detect tree with an overall accuracy of over 92% and other pole-like object of 72% in dataset A and 82% of tree points and 75% of other pole points in dataset B.

  17. Non-uniformly sampled grids in double pole coordinate system for freeform reflector construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Pacheco, Shaun; Feng, Zexin; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new method to design freeform reflectors by nonuniformly sampling the source intensity distribution in double pole coordinate system. In double pole coordinate system, there is no pole for the whole hemisphere because both poles of the spherical coordinate system are moved to southernmost point of the sphere and overlapped together. With symmetric definition of both angular coordinates in the modified double pole coordinate system, a better match between the source intensity distribution and target irradiance distribution can be achieved for reflectors with large acceptance solid angle, leading to higher light efficiency and better uniformity on the target surface. With non-uniform sampling of the source intensity, we can design circular freeform reflector to obtain uniform rectangular illumination pattern. Aided by the feedback optimization, the freeform reflector can achieve the collection efficiency for ideal point source over 0.7 and relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 0.1.

  18. FEM Analysis of Brushless DC Servomotor with Fractional Number of Slots per Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALUTA, G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present in this paper the analysis with Finite Element Method (FEM of the magnetic circuit for a Brushless DC servomotor with fractional number of slots/pole (9 slots and 10 poles. For this purpose, FEMM 4.2 software package was used for the analysis. To obtain the waveforms of Back-ElectroMotive Forces (BEMFs, electromagnetic and cogging torque for servomotor a program in LUA scripting language (integrated into interactive shell of FEMM4.2 has been created. A comparation with a structure with integer number of slots/pole (18 slots and 6 poles was also realized. The analysis results prove that the structure chosen is an optimal solution: sinusoidal waveforms of BEMFs, improved electromagnetic torque and reduced cogging torque. Therefore, the operating characteristics of the servomotor with 9/10 slots/poles manufactured by Sistem Euroteh Company and included in an integrated electrical drives system are presented in this paper.

  19. One second vector and scalar magnetic measurements at the low-latitude Choutuppal (CPL) magnetic observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phani Chandrasekhar, Nelapatla; Potharaju, Sai Vijay Kumar; Arora, Kusumita; Shakar Rao Kasuba, Chandra; Rakhlin, Leonid; Tymoshyn, Sergey; Merenyi, Laszlo; Chilukuri, Anusha; Bulusu, Jayashree; Khomutov, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    One second measurements of the geomagnetic field variations, which meet INTERMAGNET quality and transmission specifications, require very special conditions to be maintained at the observatories over sustained periods of time, which pose serious challenges for the operators, particularly when infrastructural and environmental conditions are far from ideal. This work presents the progressive steps, which led to the successful setup of such measurements at the new magnetic observatory of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) in the Choutuppal (CPL) campus, Hyderabad (HYB), India. The 1 s magnetic measurements in trial mode commenced in 2015 using the newly developed observatory-grade 1 s fluxgate magnetometer, GEOMAG-02MO, from Research Centre GEOMAGNET (GM), Ukraine, and the Overhauser proton precession magnetometer, GSM-90F1, along with the data acquisition system, Magrec-4B from Mingeo, Hungary. Iterative tuning of the setup led to the generation of good quality data from 2016 onward. The processes of commissioning this setup in low-latitude conditions, with the aim of producing 1 s definitive data, and the characteristics of the data from this new instrument are presented here.

  20. One second vector and scalar magnetic measurements at the low-latitude Choutuppal (CPL magnetic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Phani Chandrasekhar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One second measurements of the geomagnetic field variations, which meet INTERMAGNET quality and transmission specifications, require very special conditions to be maintained at the observatories over sustained periods of time, which pose serious challenges for the operators, particularly when infrastructural and environmental conditions are far from ideal. This work presents the progressive steps, which led to the successful setup of such measurements at the new magnetic observatory of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI in the Choutuppal (CPL campus, Hyderabad (HYB, India. The 1 s magnetic measurements in trial mode commenced in 2015 using the newly developed observatory-grade 1 s fluxgate magnetometer, GEOMAG-02MO, from Research Centre GEOMAGNET (GM, Ukraine, and the Overhauser proton precession magnetometer, GSM-90F1, along with the data acquisition system, Magrec-4B from Mingeo, Hungary. Iterative tuning of the setup led to the generation of good quality data from 2016 onward. The processes of commissioning this setup in low-latitude conditions, with the aim of producing 1 s definitive data, and the characteristics of the data from this new instrument are presented here.

  1. The integrated water balance and soil data set of the Rollesbroich hydrological observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Bogena, Heye R.; Huisman, Johan A.; Schmidt, Marius; Kunkel, Ralf; Weuthen, Ansgar; Schiedung, Henning; Schilling, Bernd; Sorg, Jürgen; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-10-01

    The Rollesbroich headwater catchment located in western Germany is a densely instrumented hydrological observatory and part of the TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories) initiative. The measurements acquired in this observatory present a comprehensive data set that contains key hydrological fluxes in addition to important hydrological states and properties. Meteorological data (i.e., precipitation, air temperature, air humidity, radiation components, and wind speed) are continuously recorded and actual evapotranspiration is measured using the eddy covariance technique. Runoff is measured at the catchment outlet with a gauging station. In addition, spatiotemporal variations in soil water content and temperature are measured at high resolution with a wireless sensor network (SoilNet). Soil physical properties were determined using standard laboratory procedures from samples taken at a large number of locations in the catchment. This comprehensive data set can be used to validate remote sensing retrievals and hydrological models, to improve the understanding of spatial temporal dynamics of soil water content, to optimize data assimilation and inverse techniques for hydrological models, and to develop upscaling and downscaling procedures of soil water content information. The complete data set is freely available online (http://www.tereno.net, doi:10.5880/TERENO.2016.001, doi:10.5880/TERENO.2016.004, doi:10.5880/TERENO.2016.003) and additionally referenced by three persistent identifiers securing the long-term data and metadata availability.

  2. Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade from 1924 to 1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanac, M.

    2014-12-01

    History of the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade, as the presentation is done here, become the field of interest to the author of the present monograph in early 2002. Then, together with Luka C. Popovic, during the Conference "Development of Astronomy among Serbs II" held in early April of that year, he prepared a paper entitled "Astronomska opservatorija tokom Drugog Svetskog rata" (Astronomical Observatory in the Second World War). This paper was based on the archives material concerning the Astronomical Observatory which has been professionally bearing in mind the author's position the subject of his work.

  3. The First Astronomical Observatory in Cluj-Napoca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenkovits, Ferenc

    2008-09-01

    One of the most important cities of Romania is Cluj-Napoca (Kolozsvár, Klausenburg). This is a traditional center of education, with many universities and high schools. From the second half of the 18th century the University of Cluj has its own Astronomical Observatory, serving for didactical activities and scientific researches. The famous astronomer Maximillian Hell was one of those Jesuits who put the base of this Astronomical Observatory. Our purpose is to offer a short history of the beginnings of this Astronomical Observatory.

  4. Astronomy and astrophysics communication in the UCM Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Chacón, I.; de Castro, E.; Díaz, C.; Gallego, J.; Gálvez, M. C.; Hernán-Obispo, M.; López-Santiago, J.; Montes, D.; Pascual, S.; Verdet, A.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.

    We present a summary of the last activities of science communication that have taken place in the Observatorio de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM Observatory) on the occasion of the Third Science Week of the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid (3-16 November 2003), including guided tours through the observatory facilities, solar observations, and several talks. Moreover the current telescopes, instruments and tools of the UCM Observatory have allowed us to organize other communicating activities such as the live observation, together with its internet broadcast, of total lunar eclipses and other exceptional astronomical events as the Venus transit that took place in 8 June 2004.

  5. Reliability assessment of power pole infrastructure incorporating deterioration and network maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Paraic C.; Stewart, Mark G.; Spencer, Nathan; Li, Yue

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable investment in timber utility poles worldwide, and there is a need to examine the structural reliability and probability based management optimisation of these power distribution infrastructure elements. The work presented in this paper builds on the existing studies in this area through assessment of both treated and untreated timber power poles, with the effects of deterioration and network maintenance incorporated in the analysis. This more realistic assessment approach, with deterioration and maintenance considered, was achieved using event-based Monte Carlo simulation. The output from the probabilistic model is used to illustrate the importance of considering network maintenance in the time-dependent structural reliability assessment of timber power poles. Under wind load, treated and untreated poles designed and maintained in accordance with existing Australian standards were found to have similar failure rates. However, untreated pole networks required approximately twice as many maintenance based pole replacements to sustain the same level of reliability. The effect of four different network maintenance strategies on infrastructure performance was also investigated herein. This assessment highlighted the fact that slight alterations to network maintenance practices can lead to significant changes in performance of timber power pole networks. - Highlights: • A time-dependent structural reliability model was developed for timber power poles. • Deterioration and network maintenance were incorporated into this event based model. • Network maintenance had a significant impact on power pole wind vulnerability. • Treated and untreated poles designed to Australian standards had similar reliability. • Minor alterations to maintenance strategies had large effects on network performance

  6. Ulysses(*) reaches the South Pole of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    One of the many investigations being carried out is a search for the Sun's south magnetic pole. As in the case of the Earth, the magnetic pole is offset from the rotation axis, and at some time in September it should sweep directly into line with Ulysses. Just as the polar regions of the Earth were the last to be explored, so it is with the Sun. For more than thirty years spacecraft have investigated the stream of electric particles know as the solar wind. Ulysses, developed by ESA, built by European Industry and flown in collaboration with NASA, is the first to fly through the solar wind coming from the poles. As Ulysses reaches its highest solar latitude of 80.2 degrees on 13 September, European and American researchers will gather at the ESA/ESTEC, the European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, for a scientific workshop at which they will assess the results from the nine experiments carried by the spacecraft. For the week of the workshop, the ESA/ESTEC conference centre will be transformed into a busy scientific laboratory. The large meeting rooms will be divided into 24 working areas, where the Ulysses experiment teams will take up temporary residence. Bringing a variety of computing equipment with them, the scientists will be able to retrieve the latest data from the spacecraft and perform detailed analyses. The emphasis will be on informality, with exchange of scientific ideas - and data - the key ingredient, leading ultimately to a better understanding of the fascinating information being gathered by Ulysses on its unique exploratory journey. Presentations to the media at ESA/ESTEC will start at 10h00 on 16 September. Media representatives wishing to attend are kindly requested to fill out the attached form and return it - preferably by fax (+33.1.42.73.76.90) - to : ESA Public Relations Division, 8/10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS. Note to Television Editors : A video index, containing extensive background material on the

  7. Strategi Pengembangan Daerah Growth Pole melalui Pemanfaatan Potensi Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdarti Rusdarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the leading sectors that could be developed in each district in Cilacap Regency as a growth pole area. We use location quotient, shift share, and klassen typology as analysis methods. The research results show that not all of the district at Cilacap regency have a leading sector. Further, districts that have leading sectors are as follows. Wanareja only has a leading sector, i.e. agriculture. Secondly, Kawunganten has two leading sectors, agriculture and finance, rent, and company services. Thirdly, Agriculture becomes the only leading sector of Kampung Laut District. Fourthly, Mining and extraction are the leading sectors of Kesugihan District. Fifthly, Sampang District has buildings and finance sectors as the leading sectors. Sixthly, Kroya District leads in trade, hotel, and restaurant sectors. Seventhly, South Cilacap District leads in mining and extraction sectors. Eighthly, Central Cilacap District has manufacturing, electricity, gas and clean water, building and services as leading sectors. Lastly, North Cilacap District has electricity, gas and clean water, manufacturing, building and services as leading sectors. Abstrak   Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan sektor unggulan yang dapat dikembangkan di tiap kecamatan di Kabupaten Cilacap sebagai salah satu daerah growth pole. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu location quotient, shift share dan klassen typologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak semua kecamatan di kabupaten Cilacap memiliki sektor unggulan. Beberapa daerah yang memiliki sektor unggulan diantaranya adalah  Kecamatan Wanareja hanya memiliki satu sektor unggulan yaitu pertanian. Kedua adalah Kecamatan Kawunganten memiliki dua sektor unggulan yaitu sektor pertanian dan sektor keuangan, persewaan dan jasa perusahaan. Kecamatan Kampung Laut, dimana sektor pertanian pada kecamatan ini sangatlah unggul. Kecamatan kesugihan juga memiliki satu sektor unggulan yaitu

  8. Linking Atmospheric Pollution to Cryospheric Changes over the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Zhang, Q.; Ji, Z.; Li, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Cong, Z.; Chen, P.; Guo, J.; Huang, J.; Tripathee, L.; Rupakheti, D.; Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Panday, A. K.; Rupakheti, M.

    2016-12-01

    Known as "the Third Pole" (TP), the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountains hold the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the pole regions. Recent monitoring and projection indicated an accelerated glacier decline and increasing glacier runoff. The long-range transport of South Asian atmospheric pollutants, including light absorbing impurities (LAIs) such as black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD), can absorb the solar radiation in the atmosphere and reduce albedo after being deposited onto the cryosphere, thereby promoting glacier and snow melt. A coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network has been launched covering the TP with emphasis on trans-Himalayan transects since 2013. TSP were collected for 24h at an interval of 3-6 days. BC/OC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured. Results reveal a consistent decrease in almost all analyzed parameters from south to north across the Himalayas. Geochemical signatures of carbonaceous aerosols indicate dominant sources of biomass burning and vehicle exhaust, in line with results of PAHs. Integrated analysis of satellite images and air mass trajectories suggest that the trans-boundary air pollution occurred episodically and concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons via upper air circulation, through-valley wind, and local convection. Simulation results showed that carbonaceous aerosols produced positive/negative shortwave radiative forcing in the atmosphere/ground surface. Aerosols increased surface air temperatures by 0.1-0.5° over the TP and decreased temperatures in South Asia during the monsoon season. Surface snow/ice samples were collected from benchmark glaciers to estimate the impacts of LAIs on glacier melt with model assistance. BC (37%) and MD (32%) contribute to the summer melting of Laohugou Glacier in the northern TP. MD (38%) contributed more glacier melt than BC (11%) on Zhadang Glacier in the southern TP. In the southeastern TP, BC and MD contribute to 30% of the

  9. Searching for Terrain Softening near Mercury's North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobian, P. S.; Vilas, F.; Lederer, S. M.; Barlow, N. G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, following the initial discovery of radar bright craters near both poles of Mercury measured the depth-todiameter (d/D) ratios of 170 impact craters in Mariner 10 images covering four different regions on Mercury s surface. Rapid softening of crater structure, indicated by lower d/D ratios, could indicate the possibility of subsurface water ice in Mercury's terrain originating from an internal source in the planet. Their study included 3 specific radar bright craters suggested to contain ice. They concluded that no terrain softening was apparent, and a rapidly emplaced exogenic water source was the most likely source for the proposed ice in these craters. Recent radar observations of the Mercurian North pole have pinpointed many additional radar bright areas with a resolution 10x better than previous radar measurements, and which correlate with craters imaged by Mariner 10. These craters are correlated with regions that are permanently shaded from direct sunlight, and are consistent with observations of clean water ice. We have expanded the initial study by Barlow et al. to include d/D measurements of 12 craters newly identified as radar bright at latitudes poleward of +80o. The radar reflectivity resemblances to Mars south polar cap and echoes from three icy Galilean satellites suggest that these craters too may have polar ice on Mercury. The effect of subsurface H20 on impact craters is a decrease in its d/D ratio, and softening of crater rims over a period of time. The study of Barlow et al., focused on determining the d/D ratios of 170 impact craters in the Borealis (north polar), Tolstoj (equatorial), Kuiper (equatorial), and Bach (south polar) quadrangles. This work focuses on the newly discovered radar bright craters, investigating their d/D ratios as an expansion of the earlier work..We compare our results to the statistical results from Barlow et al. here. With the upcoming Messenger spacecraft mission to Mercury, this is an especially timely study

  10. SIRTA, a ground-based atmospheric observatory for cloud and aerosol research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haeffelin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based remote sensing observatories have a crucial role to play in providing data to improve our understanding of atmospheric processes, to test the performance of atmospheric models, and to develop new methods for future space-borne observations. Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, a French research institute in environmental sciences, created the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique (SIRTA, an atmospheric observatory with these goals in mind. Today SIRTA, located 20km south of Paris, operates a suite a state-of-the-art active and passive remote sensing instruments dedicated to routine monitoring of cloud and aerosol properties, and key atmospheric parameters. Detailed description of the state of the atmospheric column is progressively archived and made accessible to the scientific community. This paper describes the SIRTA infrastructure and database, and provides an overview of the scientific research associated with the observatory. Researchers using SIRTA data conduct research on atmospheric processes involving complex interactions between clouds, aerosols and radiative and dynamic processes in the atmospheric column. Atmospheric modellers working with SIRTA observations develop new methods to test their models and innovative analyses to improve parametric representations of sub-grid processes that must be accounted for in the model. SIRTA provides the means to develop data interpretation tools for future active remote sensing missions in space (e.g. CloudSat and CALIPSO. SIRTA observation and research activities take place in networks of atmospheric observatories that allow scientists to access consistent data sets from diverse regions on the globe.

  11. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  12. Regional energy observatory. Energy status - greenhouse effect in the Aquitaine region. First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The IDEA organization (information about the environmental development in Aquitaine region) has created an energy observatory, the mission of which is to supply regularly a reliable, objective and useful information about energy and greenhouse effect in the Aquitaine region (SW France). This document presents: the end-use energy consumption, the sectorial statuses (residential, tertiary sector, industry, agriculture, transports), the energy production and the renewable energy sources in Aquitaine region. Details are given in separate files at the end of the document for the 5 departements of Aquitaine (Dordogne, Gironde, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrennees Atlantiques). (J.S.)

  13. Virtual Observatories, Data Mining, and Astroinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borne, Kirk

    The historical, current, and future trends in knowledge discovery from data in astronomy are presented here. The story begins with a brief history of data gathering and data organization. A description of the development ofnew information science technologies for astronomical discovery is then presented. Among these are e-Science and the virtual observatory, with its data discovery, access, display, and integration protocols; astroinformatics and data mining for exploratory data analysis, information extraction, and knowledge discovery from distributed data collections; new sky surveys' databases, including rich multivariate observational parameter sets for large numbers of objects; and the emerging discipline of data-oriented astronomical research, called astroinformatics. Astroinformatics is described as the fourth paradigm of astronomical research, following the three traditional research methodologies: observation, theory, and computation/modeling. Astroinformatics research areas include machine learning, data mining, visualization, statistics, semantic science, and scientific data management.Each of these areas is now an active research discipline, with significantscience-enabling applications in astronomy. Research challenges and sample research scenarios are presented in these areas, in addition to sample algorithms for data-oriented research. These information science technologies enable scientific knowledge discovery from the increasingly large and complex data collections in astronomy. The education and training of the modern astronomy student must consequently include skill development in these areas, whose practitioners have traditionally been limited to applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and statisticians. Modern astronomical researchers must cross these traditional discipline boundaries, thereby borrowing the best of breed methodologies from multiple disciplines. In the era of large sky surveys and numerous large telescopes, the potential

  14. Cyberinfrastructure for the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Arrott, M.; Chave, A.; Krueger, I.; Schofield, O.; Glenn, S.; Peach, C.; Nayak, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Internet today is vastly different than the Internet that we knew even five years ago and the changes that will be evident five years from now, when the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) prototype has been installed, are nearly unpredictable. Much of this progress is based on the exponential growth in capabilities of consumer electronics and information technology; the reality of this exponential behavior is rarely appreciated. For example, the number of transistors on a square cm of silicon will continue to double every 18 months, the density of disk storage will double every year, and network bandwidth will double every eight months. Today's desktop 2TB RAID will be 64TB and the 10Gbps Regional Scale Network fiber optical connection will be running at 1.8Tbps. The same exponential behavior characterizes the future of genome sequencing. The first two sequences of composites of individuals' genes cost tens of millions of dollars in 2001. Dr. Craig Venter just published a more accurate complete human genome (his own) at a cost on the order of 100,000. The J. Craig Venter Institute has provided support for the X Prize for Genomics offering 10M to the first successful sequencing of a human genome for $1,000. It's anticipated that the prize will be won within five years. Major advances in technology that are broadly viewed as disruptive or revolutionary rather than evolutionary will often depend upon the exploitation of exponential expansions in capability. Applications of these ideas to the OOI will be discussed. Specifically, the agile ability to scale cyberinfrastructure commensurate with the exponential growth of sensors, networks and computational capability and demand will be described.

  15. The Science and Design of the AGIS Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroedter, Martin

    2010-02-01

    The AGIS observatory is a next-generation array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) for gamma-ray astronomy between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. The AGIS observatory is the next logical step in high energy gamma-ray astronomy, offering improved angular resolution and sensitivity compared to FERMI, and overlapping the high energy end of FERMI's sensitivity band. The baseline AGIS observatory will employ an array of 36 Schwarzschild-Couder IACTs in combination with a highly pixelated (0.05^o diameter) camera. The instrument is designed to provide millicrab sensitivity over a wide (8^o diameter) field of view, allowing both deep studies of faint point sources as well as efficient mapping of the Galactic plane and extended sources. I will describe science drivers behind the AGIS observatory and the design and status of the project. )

  16. Science Potential of a Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, S.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822 (United States); College of Natural Sciences, Hawaii Pacific University, 45-045 Kamehameha Highway, Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This paper presents science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observatory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables precision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and {theta}{sub 13}. At a mid-Pacific location the observatory measures the flux and ratio of uranium and thorium decay neutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subsequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral heterogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle.

  17. ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO): Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP): Velocity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Hawaii's ALOHA ("A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment") Cabled Observatory (ACO) is located 100 km north of the island of Oahu, Hawaii (22...

  18. Integration of space geodesy: a US National Geodetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Neilan, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    In the interest of improving the performance and efficiency of space geodesy a diverse group in the U.S., in collaboration with IGGOS, has begun to establish a unified National Geodetic Observatory (NGO).

  19. 150th Anniversary of the Astronomical Observatory Library of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntseva, T.

    The scientific library of the Astronomical observatory of Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University is one of the oldest ones of such a type in Ukraine. Our Astronomical Observatory and its scientific library will celebrate 150th anniversary of their foundation. 900 volumes of duplicates of Olbers' private library underlay our library. These ones were acquired by Russian Academy of Sciences for Poulkovo observatory in 1841 but according to Struve's order were transmitted to Kyiv Saint Volodymyr University. These books are of great value. There are works edited during Copernicus', Kepler's, Galilei's, Newton's, Descartes' lifetime. Our library contains more than 100000 units of storage - monographs, periodical astronomical editions from the first (Astronomische Nachrichten, Astronomical journal, Monthly Notices etc.), editions of the majority of the astronomical observatories and institutions of the world, unique astronomical atlases and maps

  20. How Mount Stromlo Observatory shed its imperial beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2014-12-01

    In the 90 years since its foundation in 1924, Mount Stromlo Observatory in Australia has changed from an outpost of empire to an international research institution. Ragbir Bhathal examines how the British influence waxed and waned.

  1. Experience in CCD Photometry at the Tartu Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuvikene T.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We give overview of the CCD instrumentation and data reduction techniques used at the Tartu Observatory. The first results from photometric observations of the peculiar variable V838 Mon are presented.

  2. A Regional Observatory for Producers' Climate Change Adaptation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... A Regional Observatory for Producers' Climate Change Adaptation in Thies, Senegal ... The Adaptation Insights series is a joint publication of the International Development Research Centre and the Centre for ... Innovation.

  3. Grain investigation by the help of satellite observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedemann, C.

    1988-01-01

    Interstellar grains are investigated by the help of satellite observatories taking into account extraterrestrical ultraviolet observations, infrared astronomy by the help of orbiting cooled telescopes, observed ultraviolet properties of interstellar grains, and consequences of infrared astronomy for dust investigation

  4. Visualization of Large Amount of Spectra in Virtual Observatory Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šaloun, P.; Andrešič, D.; Škoda, Petr; Zelinka, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2014), s. 613-620 ISSN 1476-8186 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : SPLAT-VO * virtual observatory * spectra Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  5. Astronomy from the Moon and International Lunar Observatory Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.; Takahashi, Y. D.

    2018-04-01

    Astronomy from the Moon provides a promising new frontier for 21st century astrophysics and related science activity. International Lunar Observatory Association is an enterprise advancing missions to the Moon for observation and communication.

  6. NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The very largest black holes reach a certain point and then grow no more, according to the best survey to date of black holes made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Scientists have also discovered many previously hidden black holes that are well below their weight limit. These new results corroborate recent theoretical work about how black holes and galaxies grow. The biggest black holes, those with at least 100 million times the mass of the Sun, ate voraciously during the early Universe. Nearly all of them ran out of 'food' billions of years ago and went onto a forced starvation diet. Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North On the other hand, black holes between about 10 and 100 million solar masses followed a more controlled eating plan. Because they took smaller portions of their meals of gas and dust, they continue growing today. "Our data show that some supermassive black holes seem to binge, while others prefer to graze", said Amy Barger of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and the University of Hawaii, lead author of the paper describing the results in the latest issue of The Astronomical Journal (Feb 2005). "We now understand better than ever before how supermassive black holes grow." One revelation is that there is a strong connection between the growth of black holes and the birth of stars. Previously, astronomers had done careful studies of the birthrate of stars in galaxies, but didn't know as much about the black holes at their centers. DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole "These galaxies lose material into their central black holes at the same time that they make their stars," said Barger. "So whatever mechanism governs star formation in galaxies also governs black hole growth." Astronomers have made an accurate census of both the biggest, active black holes in the distance, and the relatively smaller, calmer ones closer by. Now, for the first

  7. Characterization of a cold-active bacterium isolated from the South Pole “Ice Tunnel”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madigan, Michael T.; Kempher, Megan L.; Bender, Kelly S.; Sullivan, Paul; Matthew Sattley, W.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Joye, Samantha B.

    2017-07-05

    Abstract Extremely cold microbial habitats on Earth (those below -30 °C) are rare and have not been surveyed for microbes as extensively as environments in the 0 to -20 °C range. Using cryoprotected growth media incubated at -5 °C, we enriched a cold-active Pseudomonas species from -50 °C ice collected from a utility tunnel for wastewater pipes under Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. The isolate, strain UC-1, is related to other cold-active Pseudomonas species, most notably P. psychrophila, and grew at -5 °C to +34–37 °C; growth of UC-1 at +3 °C was significantly faster than at +34 °C. Strain UC-1 synthesized a surface exopolymer and high levels of unsaturated fatty acids under cold growth conditions. A 16S rRNA gene diversity screen of the ice sample that yielded strain UC-1 revealed over 1200 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) distributed across eight major classes of Bacteria. Many of the OTUs were Clostridia and Bacteriodia and some of these were probably of wastewater origin. However, a significant fraction of the OTUs were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria of likely environmental origin. Our results shed light on the lower temperature limits to life and the possible existence of functional microbial communities in ultra-cold environments.

  8. India plans to land near moon's south pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2018-02-01

    Sometime this summer, an Indian spacecraft orbiting over the moon's far side will release a lander. The craft will ease to a soft landing just after lunar sunrise on an ancient, table-flat plain about 600 kilometers from the south pole. There, it will unleash a rover into territory never before explored at the surface. That's the ambitious vision for India's second voyage to the moon in a decade, due to launch in the coming weeks. If Chandrayaan-2 is successful, it will pave the way for even more ambitious Indian missions, such as landings on Mars and an asteroid, as well as a Venus probe. Lunar scientists have much at stake, too. Chandrayaan-2 will collect data on the moon's thin envelope of plasma, as well as isotopes such as helium-3, a potential fuel for future fusion energy reactors. And it will follow up on a stunning discovery by India's first lunar foray, which found water molecules on the moon in 2009.

  9. Stomata open at night in pole-sized and mature ponderosa pine: implications for O{sub 3} exposure metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grulke, N. E.; Alonso, R.; Nguyen, T.; Dobrowolski, W. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Station, Riverside, CA (United States); Cascio, C. [University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2004-09-01

    Nighttime stomatal behaviour in two tree size stands of ponderosa pine are described. Ponderosa pine is one of the most ozone-sensitive conifers in western North America. The study involved measurement of time required to reach equilibrium in response to small increases in low irradiances at sites differing in environmental stressors. The contribution of nighttime ozone uptake to total daily ozone uptake in early and later summer was also investigated. Nighttime stomata conductance ranged between one tenth and one fifth that of maximum day-time values. Pole-size trees (i.e. less than 40 years old) showed greater ozone conductance than mature trees (i.e. over 250 years old). In June, nighttime ozone uptake accounted for 9, 5, and 3 per cent of the total daily ozone uptake of pole-sized trees. In late summer, ozone uptake at night was less than two percent of daily uptake at all sites. It is suspected that nighttime uptake of oxidants may have harmful physiological effects, such as contributing to the declining health of forest trees, owing to the fact that oxidants absorbed at night are not detoxified as well during the day. 67 refs.,1 tab., 8 figs.

  10. Copper naphthenate: an update and status report on an effective wood pole and crossarm preservative for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M.

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this PowerPoint presentation was three-fold: (1) tp provide information on copper naphthenate and treated wood, (2) to demonstrate that copper naphthenate is an excellent choice for wood poles, and (3) to provide an evaluation of copper naphthenate-treated poles in service. The author proceeded by describing the nature of naphthenic acid and copper naphthenate. Only those petroleum-based alicyclic carboxylic acids with acid numbers between 180-250 milligram KOH/gram. The author specified that two samples produced in Europe and Australia contain either naphthenic acid blends or 100 per cent synthetic acids, which could result in reduced preservatives performance. As for copper naphthenate, it is produced by the reaction of naphthenic acid and copper compounds. A drawing of the molecule was displayed. The toxicity for humans is low, minimal to avian, and moderate to high aquatic toxicity. Discovered in the late 1800s, copper naphthenate is used for pressure and non-pressure treatment, and the anticipated annual growth rate is 5 per cent. The regulatory status of copper naphthenate was described in both the United States and Canada. Results from field skate decay measurements were presented. The author concluded by stating that copper naphthenate is an excellent choice, recognized for its performance and efficacy. It is considered as an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) unrestricted use pesticide, imposes minimal regulatory requirements on treaters and users, and there are no federal disposal restrictions. Copper naphthenate is a safe and effective wood preservative. refs., figs.

  11. A New Observatory for Eastern College: A Dream Realized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradstreet, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    The Eastern College Observatory began as a rooftop observing deck with one Celestron 8 telescope in 1976 as the workhorse instrument of the observational astronomy lab within the core curriculum. For 20 years the observing deck served as the crude observatory, being augmented through the years by other computerized Celestron 8's and a 17.5" diameter Dobsonian with computerized setting circles. The lab consisted primarily of visual observations and astrophotography. In 1987 plans were set into motion to raise money to build a permanent Observatory on the roof of the main classroom building. Fundraising efforts included three Jog-A-Thons (raising more than $40,000) and many donations from individuals and foundations. The fundraising was completed in 1996 and a two telescope observatory was constructed in the summer of 1996 complete with warm room, CCD cameras, computers, spectrograph, video network, and computerized single channel photometer. The telescopes are computerized 16" diameter Meade LX200 Schmidt-Cassegrains, each coupled to Gateway Pentium Pro 200 MHz computers. SBIG ST-8 CCD cameras were also secured for each telescope and an Optec SSP-7 photometer and Optomechanics Research 10C Spectrograph were also purchased. A Daystar H-alpha solar filter and Thousand Oaks visual light solar filter have expanded the Observatory's functionality to daytime observing as well. This is especially useful for the thousands of school children who frequent the Planetarium each year. The Observatory primarily serves the core astronomy lab where students must observe and photograph a prescribed number of celestial objects in a semester. Advanced students can take directed studies where they conduct photometry on eclipsing binaries or other variable stars or search for new asteroids. In addition, the Observatory and Planetarium are open to the public. Interested members of the community can reserve time on the telescopes and receive training and supervision from lab assistants

  12. Social Media Programs at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Robert T.; Walker, Constance Elaine; Pompea, Stephen M.

    2015-08-01

    Observatories and other science research organizations want to share their research and activities with the public. The last several years, social media has become and increasingly important venue for communicating information about observatory activities, research and education and public outreach.The National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) uses a wide variety of social media to communicate with different audiences. NOAO is active on social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and Pinterest. Our social media accounts include those for the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Kitt Peak National Observatory and our dark skies conservation program Globe at Night.Our social media programs have a variety of audiences. NOAO uses social media to announce and promote NOAO sponsored meetings, observatory news and proposal deadlines to the professional astronomical community. Social media accounts are used to disseminate NOAO press releases, images from the observatory and other science using data from NOAO telescopes.Social media is important in our Education and Public Outreach programs (EPO). Globe at Night has very active facebook and twitter accounts encouraging people to become involved in preserving dark skies. Social media plays a role in recruiting teachers for professional development workshops such as Project Astro.NOAO produces monthly podcasts for the 365 Days of Astronomy podcast featuring interviews with NOAO astronomers. Each podcast highlights the science of an NOAO astronomer, an NOAO operated telescope or instrument, or an NOAO program. A separate series of podcasts is produced for NOAO’s Dark Skies Education programs. All the podcasts are archived at 365daysofastronomy.org.

  13. The LAGO (Large Aperture GRB Observatory) in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueros-Cuadros, E.; Otiniano, L.; Chirinos, J.; Soncco, C.; Guevara-Day, W.

    2012-07-01

    The Large Aperture GRBs Observatory is a continental-wide observatory devised to detect high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), by using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCDs) at high mountain sites of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela and Peru. Details of the instalation and operation of the detectors in Marcapomacocha in Peru at 4550 m.a.s.l. are given. The detector calibration method will also be shown.

  14. Setting-up a small observatory from concept to construction

    CERN Document Server

    Arditti, David

    2008-01-01

    Every amateur astronomer who is considering a purpose-built observatory will find this book absolutely invaluable during both the planning and the construction stages. Drawing on David Arditti’s practical experience and that of many other amateur astronomers, it gives invaluable help in making all the important decisions. To begin with, Setting up a Small Observatory addresses what you really need from an observatory, whether to build or buy, what designs you should consider, and where you should site it. Uniquely, it also considers the aesthetics of an amateur observatory: how to make it fit in with your home, garden, and yard, even disguising it as a more common garden building if necessary. There’s also a wealth of practical details for constructing and equipping your small observatory – everything from satisfying local planning laws and building codes through to making sure that your completed observatory is well-equipped, convenient, and comfortable to use. Whether you are considering a simple low-...

  15. Sierra Stars Observatory Network: An Accessible Global Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Beshore, Edward

    2011-03-01

    The Sierra Stars Observatory Network (SSON) is a unique partnership among professional observatories that provides its users with affordable high-quality calibrated image data. SSON comprises observatories in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere and is in the process of expanding to a truly global network capable of covering the entire sky 24 hours a day in the near future. The goal of SSON is to serve the needs of science-based projects and programs. Colleges, universities, institutions, and individuals use SSON for their education and research projects. The mission of SSON is to promote and expand the use of its facilities among the thousands of colleges and schools worldwide that do not have access to professional-quality automated observatory systems to use for astronomy education and research. With appropriate leadership and guidance educators can use SSON to help teach astronomy and do meaningful scientific projects. The relatively small cost of using SSON for this type of work makes it affordable and accessible for educators to start using immediately. Remote observatory services like SSON need to evolve to better support education and research initiatives of colleges, institutions and individual investigators. To meet these needs, SSON is developing a sophisticated interactive scheduling system to integrate among the nodes of the observatory network. This will enable more dynamic observations, including immediate priority interrupts, acquiring moving objects using ephemeris data, and more.

  16. Electricity and gas market observatory. 3. Quarter 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. This observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr). Since the 1 of July 2007, all customers can choose their gas and electricity suppliers. The present observatory is including residential customer's statistics. Content: A - The electricity market: The retail electricity market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status at September 30, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 3. Quarter 2007); The wholesale electricity market (Introduction, Wholesale market activity in France, Wholesale market activity in France, Prices on the French wholesale market and European comparison, Import and export volumes, Concentration of the French electricity market); B - The gas market: The retail gas market (Introduction, Customer segments and their respective weight, Status on September 30, 2007, Dynamic analysis: 3. Quarter 2007); The wholesale gas market (Gas pricing and gas markets in Europe, The wholesale market in France); C - Appendices: Electricity and gas market observatories combined glossary, Specific electricity market observatory glossary, Specific gas market observatory glossary

  17. Self-Poling of BiFeO3 Thick Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakova, Evgeniya; Sadl, Matej; Ursic, Hana; Daniels, John; Malic, Barbara; Bencan, Andreja; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rojac, Tadej

    2016-08-03

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is difficult to pole because of the combination of its high coercive field and high electrical conductivity. This problem is particularly pronounced in thick films. The poling, however, must be performed to achieve a large macroscopic piezoelectric response. This study presents evidence of a prominent and reproducible self-poling effect in few-tens-of-micrometer-thick BiFeO3 films. Direct and converse piezoelectric measurements confirmed that the as-sintered BiFeO3 thick films yield d33 values of up to ∼20 pC/N. It was observed that a significant self-poling effect only appears in cases when the films are heated and cooled through the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition (Curie temperature TC ∼ 820 °C). These self-poled films exhibit a microstructure with randomly oriented columnar grains. The presence of a compressive strain gradient across the film thickness cooled from above the TC was experimentally confirmed and is suggested to be responsible for the self-poling effect. Finally, the macroscopic d33 response of the self-poled BiFeO3 film was characterized as a function of the driving-field frequency and amplitude.

  18. Large optical second-order nonlinearity of poled WO3-TeO2 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Narazaki, A; Hirao, K

    2000-02-15

    Second-harmonic generation, one of the second-order nonlinear optical properties of thermally and electrically poled WO>(3)-TeO>(2) glasses, has been examined. We poled glass samples with two thicknesses (0.60 and 0.86 mm) at various temperatures to explore the effects of external electric field strength and poling temperature on second-order nonlinearity. The dependence of second-harmonic intensity on the poling temperature is maximum at a specific poling temperature. A second-order nonlinear susceptibility of 2.1 pm/V was attained for the 0.60-mm-thick glass poled at 250 degrees C. This value is fairly large compared with those for poled silica and tellurite glasses reported thus far. We speculate that the large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of WO>(3)- TeO>(2) glasses gives rise to the large second-order nonlinearity by means of a X((2)) = 3X((3)) E(dc) process.

  19. The Greek National Observatory of Forest Fires (NOFFi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompoulidou, Maria; Stefanidou, Alexandra; Grigoriadis, Dionysios; Dragozi, Eleni; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris; Gitas, Ioannis Z.

    2016-08-01

    Efficient forest fire management is a key element for alleviating the catastrophic impacts of wildfires. Overall, the effective response to fire events necessitates adequate planning and preparedness before the start of the fire season, as well as quantifying the environmental impacts in case of wildfires. Moreover, the estimation of fire danger provides crucial information required for the optimal allocation and distribution of the available resources. The Greek National Observatory of Forest Fires (NOFFi)—established by the Greek Forestry Service in collaboration with the Laboratory of Forest Management and Remote Sensing of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the International Balkan Center—aims to develop a series of modern products and services for supporting the efficient forest fire prevention management in Greece and the Balkan region, as well as to stimulate the development of transnational fire prevention and impacts mitigation policies. More specifically, NOFFi provides three main fire-related products and services: a) a remote sensing-based fuel type mapping methodology, b) a semi-automatic burned area mapping service, and c) a dynamically updatable fire danger index providing mid- to long-term predictions. The fuel type mapping methodology was developed and applied across the country, following an object-oriented approach and using Landsat 8 OLI satellite imagery. The results showcase the effectiveness of the generated methodology in obtaining highly accurate fuel type maps on a national level. The burned area mapping methodology was developed as a semi-automatic object-based classification process, carefully crafted to minimize user interaction and, hence, be easily applicable on a near real-time operational level as well as for mapping historical events. NOFFi's products can be visualized through the interactive Fire Forest portal, which allows the involvement and awareness of the relevant stakeholders via the Public Participation GIS

  20. Structural behaviour of concrete poles used in electric's power distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Zeynalian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a preliminary study on regional electric companies, it is shown that there is no precise structural design on the concrete poles. This leads to uneconomical and overestimated networks’ components. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the lateral performance of the concrete poles which are employed in electric’s power distribution network. This paper presents a numerical study on structural performance of 12 m concrete poles used in electric’s power distribution network using Abaqus software. A sensitivity study for mesh size is carried out and concrete damaged plasticity has been employed. The results show that relatively coarse mesh (average in damaged concrete method gives more reliable result. Some experimental tests based on the Iranian standards were performed in order to make a bench mark for numerical output. Comparison between numerical and experimental results indicates a good agreement between the results. The outcomes also suggest that while the applied lateral load is less than around 400 kg which is assumed as the nominal resistance of the pole, no transverse crack occurs. Based on both experimental and numerical results, one or two transverse cracks are reported when the applied force reaches up to 600 kg. The rate of cracks is amplified by increasing the applied force; and finally, the pole would lose its capacity when the load rises much more than 1200 kg. The study also shows that the poles are very weak when the load direction changes. Also, it can be concluded that the final strength of the pole is higher than what the standards recommend. Finally, seismic behavior factor of the poles around both main axes are evaluated. The estimated seismic resistance factor for the concrete poles indicates that the prescribed R factor for such structure is relatively low; and can be improved at least 20%.