WorldWideScience

Sample records for pole double throw

  1. 25–34 GHz Single-Pole, Double-Throw CMOS Switches for a Ka-Band Phased-Array Transceiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two single-pole, double-throw (SPDT mm-wave switches for Ka-band phased-array transceivers, fabricated with a 65-nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. One switch employs cross-biasing (CB control with a single supply, while the other uses dual-supply biasing (DSB control with positive and negative voltages. Negative voltages were generated internally, using a ring oscillator and a charge pump. Identical gate and body floated N-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (N-MOSFETs in a triple well were used as the switch core transistors. Inductors were used to improve the isolation between the transmitter (TX and receiver (RX, as well as insertion loss, by canceling the parasitic capacitance of the switch core transistors at resonance. The size of the proposed radio frequency (RF switch is 260 μm × 230 μm, excluding all pads. The minimum insertion losses of the CB and DSB switches were 2.1 dB at 28 GHz and 1.93 dB at 24 GHz, respectively. Between 25 GHz and 34 GHz, the insertion losses were less than 2.3 dB and 2.5 dB, the return losses were less than 16.7 dB and 17.3 dB, and the isolation was over 18.4 dB and 15.3 dB, respectively. The third order input intercept points (IIP3 of the CB and DSB switches were 38.4 dBm and 39 dBm at 28 GHz, respectively.

  2. Force interaction and 3D pole movement in double poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, T; Holmberg, H-C

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze double poling using combined kinetic and 3D kinematic analysis at high skiing speeds as regards pole force components, pole angles and pole behavior during the poling and swing phase. The hypothesis was that a horizontal pole force is more predictive for maximal skiing speed (V(max)) than the resultant pole force. Sixteen elite skiers performed a double-poling V(max) test while treadmill roller skiing. Pole forces and 3D kinematics of pole movement at a speed of 30 km/h were analyzed and related to V(max). The duration of the "preparation phase" showed the strongest relationship with V(max) (r=0.87, Pmax) compared with the resultant pole force. Impact force was not related to V(max). At high skiing speeds, skiers should aim to combine high pole forces with appropriate timing of pole forces and appropriate pole and body positions during the swing and poling phase. The emphasis in training should be on the development of specific strength capacities for pole force production and the utilization of these capacities in double-poling training sessions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Pole lengths influence O2-cost during double poling in highly trained cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Camilla Høivik; Rud, Bjarne; Myklebust, Håvard; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    In elite cross-country skiing, double poling is used in different terrain. This study compared O 2 -cost and kinematics during double poling with four different pole lengths [self-selected (SS), SS - 5 cm, SS + 5 cm, SS + 10 cm] at Low versus Moderate incline. Thirteen highly trained male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD 23 ± 3 years; 182 ± 4 cm; 77 ± 6 kg) completed eight submaximal trials with roller skis on a treadmill at two conditions: "Low incline" (1.7°; 4.5 m s -1 ) and "Moderate incline" (4.5°; 2.5 m s -1 ) with each of the four pole lengths. O 2 -cost and 3D body kinematics were assessed in each trial. In Low incline, SS + 10 cm induced a lower O 2 -cost than all the other pole lengths [P size (ES) 0.5-0.8], whereas no differences were found between the remaining pole lengths (P > 0.05; ES 0.2-0.4). In Moderate incline, significant differences between all pole lengths were found for O 2 -cost, with SS - 5 cm > SS > SS + 5 cm > SS + 10 cm (P differences in O 2 -cost between SS and the other pole lengths were greater in Moderate incline than Low incline (SS - 5 cm; 1.5%, ES 0.8, SS + 5 cm; 1.3%, ES 1.0, and SS + 10 cm; 1.9%, ES 1.0, all P difference was found in cycle, poling or reposition times between pole lengths. However, at both conditions a smaller total vertical displacement of center of mass was observed with SS + 10 cm compared to the other pole lengths. Increasing pole length from SS - 5 cm to SS + 10 cm during double poling induced lower O 2 -cost and this advantage was greater in Moderate compared to Low incline.

  4. High Isolation Single-Pole Four-Throw RF MEMS Switch Based on Series-Shunt Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel design of single-pole four-throw (SP4T RF-MEMS switch employing both capacitive and ohmic switches. It is designed on high-resistivity silicon substrate and has a compact area of 1.06 mm2. The series or ohmic switches have been designed to provide low insertion loss with good ohmic contact. The pull-in voltage for ohmic switches is calculated to be 7.19 V. Shunt or capacitive switches have been used in each port to improve the isolation for higher frequencies. The proposed SP4T switch provides excellent RF performances with isolation better than 70.64 dB and insertion loss less than 0.72 dB for X-band between the input port and each output port.

  5. Raman probes based on optically-poled double-clad fiber and coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Margulis, Walter; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    of a sample of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), when illuminating the waveguide with 1064nm laser light. The Raman signal is collected in the inner cladding, from which it is retrieved with either a bulk dichroic mirror or a double-clad fiber coupler. The coupler allows for a substantial reduction of the fiber......Two fiber Raman probes are presented, one based on an optically-poled double-clad fiber and the second based on an optically-poled double-clad fiber coupler respectively. Optical poling of the core of the fiber allows for the generation of enough 532nm light to perform Raman spectroscopy...

  6. Non-uniformly sampled grids in double pole coordinate system for freeform reflector construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Pacheco, Shaun; Feng, Zexin; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new method to design freeform reflectors by nonuniformly sampling the source intensity distribution in double pole coordinate system. In double pole coordinate system, there is no pole for the whole hemisphere because both poles of the spherical coordinate system are moved to southernmost point of the sphere and overlapped together. With symmetric definition of both angular coordinates in the modified double pole coordinate system, a better match between the source intensity distribution and target irradiance distribution can be achieved for reflectors with large acceptance solid angle, leading to higher light efficiency and better uniformity on the target surface. With non-uniform sampling of the source intensity, we can design circular freeform reflector to obtain uniform rectangular illumination pattern. Aided by the feedback optimization, the freeform reflector can achieve the collection efficiency for ideal point source over 0.7 and relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 0.1.

  7. An absorptive single-pole four-throw switch using multiple-contact MEMS switches and its application to a monolithic millimeter-wave beam-forming network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sanghyo; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Kwon, Youngwoo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new absorptive single-pole four-throw (SP4T) switch based on multiple-contact switching is proposed and integrated with a Butler matrix to demonstrate a monolithic beam-forming network at millimeter waves (mm waves). In order to simplify the switching driving circuit and reduce the number of unit switches in an absorptive SP4T switch, the individual switches were replaced with long-span multiple-contact switches using stress-free single-crystalline-silicon MEMS technology. This approach improves the mechanical stability as well as the manufacturing yield, thereby allowing successful integration into a monolithic beam former. The fabricated absorptive SP4T MEMS switch shows insertion loss less than 1.3 dB, return losses better than 11 dB at 30 GHz and wideband isolation performance higher than 39 dB from 20 to 40 GHz. The absorptive SP4T MEMS switch is integrated with a 4 × 4 Butler matrix on a single chip to implement a monolithic beam-forming network, directing beam into four distinct angles. Array factors from the measured data show that the proposed absorptive SPnT MEMS switch can be effectively used for high-performance mm-wave beam-switching systems. This work corresponds to the first demonstration of a monolithic beam-forming network using switched beams

  8. Biomechanical characteristics and speed adaptation during kick double poling on roller skis in elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpfert, Caroline; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan Josef

    2013-06-01

    Recent developments in cross-country ski racing should promote the use of kick double poling. This technique, however, has not been the focus in athletes' training and has barely been investigated. The aims of the present study were to develop a function-based phase definition and to analyse speed adaptation mechanisms for kick double poling in elite cross-country skiers. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded in 10 athletes while performing kick double poling at three submaximal roller skiing speeds. A speed increase was associated with increases in cycle length and rate, while absolute poling and leg push-off durations shortened. Despite maintained impulses of force, the peak and average pole/leg forces increased. During double poling and leg push-off, ranges of motion of elbow flexion and extension increased (p push-off showed high variability among elite skiers, thus illustrating important aspects for technique training.

  9. Raman Probe Based on Optically-Poled Double-Core Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Margulis, Walter; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    A Raman probe based on an optically-poled double-core fiber. In-fiber SHG allows for Raman spectroscopy of DMSO at 532nm when illuminating the fiber with 1064nm light. The fiber structure provides independent excitation and collection paths.......A Raman probe based on an optically-poled double-core fiber. In-fiber SHG allows for Raman spectroscopy of DMSO at 532nm when illuminating the fiber with 1064nm light. The fiber structure provides independent excitation and collection paths....

  10. Biomechanical analysis of double poling in elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Lindinger, Stefan; Stöggl, Thomas; Eitzlmair, Erich; Müller, Erich

    2005-05-01

    To further the understanding of double poling (DP) through biomechanical analysis of upper and lower body movements during DP in cross-country (XC) skiing at racing speed. Eleven elite XC skiers performed DP at 85% of their maximal DP velocity (V85%) during roller skiing at 1 degrees inclination on a treadmill. Pole and plantar ground reaction forces, joint angles (elbow, hip, knee, and ankle), cycle characteristics, and electromyography (EMG) of upper and lower body muscles were analyzed. 1) Pole force pattern with initial impact force peak and the following active force peak (PPF) correlated to V85%, (r = 0.66, P biomechanical aspects. Future research should further investigate the relationship between biomechanical and physiological variables and elaborate training models to improve DP performance.

  11. Throwing accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2018-05-01

    A simple throwing task is described to illustrate various aspects of projectile motion. The task was to throw a tennis ball in a waste paper bin about 2 m away. Success depends on skill, but it also depends on the physics of the problem. If the ball is thrown underarm, then success depends primarily on the throw speed, which must be controlled to within about 2%. The launch angle can be chosen within a wide range. If the ball is thrown overarm, then the launch angle is just as important as the throw speed.

  12. Do Maximal Roller Skiing Speed and Double Poling Performance Predict Youth Cross-Country Skiing Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Stöggl, Erich Müller, Thomas Stöggl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to analyze whether specific roller skiing tests and cycle length are determinants of youth cross-country (XC skiing performance, and to evaluate sex specific differences by applying non-invasive diagnostics. Forty-nine young XC skiers (33 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 yrs and 16 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 yrs performed roller skiing tests consisting of both shorter (50 m and longer durations (575 m. Test results were correlated with on snow XC skiing performance (PXC based on 3 skating and 3 classical distance competitions (3 to 6 km. The main findings of the current study were: 1 Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys’, but not to girls’ PXC; 2 Significant moderate to acceptable correlations between girls’ and boys’ short duration maximal roller skiing speed (double poling, V2 skating, leg skating and PXC were found; 3 Boys’ PXC was best predicted by double poling test performance on flat and uphill, while girls’ performance was mainly predicted by uphill double poling test performance; 4 When controlling for maturity offset, boys’ PXC was still highly associated with the roller skiing tests. The use of simple non-invasive roller skiing tests for determination of PXC represents practicable support for ski clubs, schools or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent.

  13. The design of multi-lead-compensators for stabilization and pole placement in double-integrator networks under saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Yan; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2009-01-01

    We study decentralized controller design for stabilization and pole-placement, in a network of autonomous agents with double-integrator internal dynamics and arbitrary observation topology. We show that a simple multi-lead-compensator architecture, in particular one in which each agent uses a

  14. The design of multi-lead-compensators for stabilization and pole placement in double-integrator networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Yan; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2010-01-01

    We study decentralized controller design for stabilization and pole-placement, in a network of autonomous agents with double-integrator internal dynamics and arbitrary observation topology. We show that a simple multi-lead-compensator architecture, in particular one in which each agent uses a

  15. Caffeine improves performance in double poling during acute exposure to 2,000-m altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadheim, H K; Nossum, E M; Olsen, R; Spencer, M; Jensen, J

    2015-12-15

    There is limited research on the physiological effects of caffeine (CAF) ingestion on exercise performance during acute hypoxia. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the effect of placebo (PLA) and CAF (4.5 mg/kg) on double poling (DP) performance during acute hypoxia. Thirteen male subelite cross-country skiers (V̇o2max 72.6 ± 5.68 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were included. Performance was assessed as 1) an 8-km cross-country DP time-trial (C-PT), and 2) time until task failure at a set workload equal to ∼90% of DP V̇o2max. Testing was carried out in a hypobaric chamber, at 800 mbar (Pio2: ∼125 mmHg) corresponding to ∼2,000 m above sea level in a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. CAF improved time to task failure from 6.10 ± 1.40 to 7.22 ± 1.30 min (P performance during acute exposure to altitude. Mechanisms underpinning improvements seem related to reduced pain RPE and increased heart rate during CAF C-PTs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Double Trouble: A Rare Case of Bilateral Upper Pole Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Peters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old girl presented with bilateral back pain caused by bilateral upper pole ureteropelvic junction obstructions; an extremely rare phenomenon. Bilateral robotically assisted upper pole pyeloplasties were preformed at the same setting with an excellent clinical response. Although rare, upper pole ureteropelvic junction obstruction is a defined entity that urologists should be aware of.

  17. Jordan blocks and Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions associated to a double pole of the S-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.; Mondragon, A.; Jauregui, A.

    2002-01-01

    An accidental degeneracy of resonances gives rise to a double pole in the scattering matrix, a double zero in the Jost function and a Jordan chain of length two of generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions of the radial Schrodinger equation. The generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions are basis elements of an expansion in bound and resonant energy eigenfunctions plus a continuum of scattering wave functions ol complex wave number. In this bi orthonormal basis, any operator f (H r (l) which is a regular function of the Hamiltonian is represented by a complex matrix which is diagonal except for a Jordan block of rank two. The occurrence of a double pole in the Green's function, as well as the non-exponential time evolution of the Gamow-Jordan generalized eigenfunctions are associated to the Jordan block in the complex energy representation. (Author)

  18. Threshold for strong thermal dephasing in periodically poled KTP in external cavity frequency doubling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundeman, Jesper Holm; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a measurement series of the efficiency of periodically poled KTP used for second-harmonic generation in an external phase-locked cavity. Due to the high absorption (0.01 cm^−1) in the PPKTP crystal at the pump wavelength a strong thermal dephasing of the periodically poled grating...

  19. The physiological and biomechanical differences between double poling and G3 skating in world class cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Leirdal, Stig; Ettema, Gertjan

    2015-03-01

    The current study compared differences in cycle characteristics, energy expenditure and peak speed between double poling (DP) and G3 skating. Eight world class male sprint skiers performed a 5-min submaximal test at 16 km h(-1) and an incremental test to exhaustion at a 5% incline during treadmill roller skiing with two different techniques: DP where all propulsion comes from poling, and G3 skating where leg skating is added to each double poling movement. Video analyses determined cycle characteristics; respiratory parameters and blood lactate concentration determined the physiological responses. G3 skating resulted in 16% longer cycle lengths at 16% lower cycle rates, whereas oxygen uptake was independent of technique during submaximal roller skiing. The corresponding advantages for G3 skating during maximal roller skiing were reflected in 14% higher speed, 30% longer cycle length at 16% lower cycle rate and 11% higher peak oxygen uptake (all p skating. This was done by major increases in cycle lengths at slightly lower cycle rates and a higher aerobic energy delivery. However, the oxygen uptake for a given submaximal speed was not affected by technique although higher cycle rate was used in DP.

  20. Robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloureterostomy in infants with duplex systems and upper pole hydronephrosis: Variations in double-J ureteral stenting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Minki; Au, Jason; Huang, Gene O; Koh, Chester J

    2017-04-01

    We describe our experience with robot-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) pyeloureterostomy in infants with duplex systems and upper pole hydronephrosis with an emphasis on the various double J (DJ) ureteral stent placement techniques. We used our RAL pyeloureterostomy technique in two female infants with duplex systems and upper pole hydronephrosis. For case 1, we introduced the DJ stent and placed it in the recipient lower pole ureter during the robotic operation in an antegrade fashion. For case 2, we inserted the DJ stent during retrograde pyelography prior to the robotic procedure in a retrograde fashion, and the proximal portion of the stent was placed across the anastomosis into the upper pole renal pelvis. Postoperatively, each of the patients were discharged on postoperative day 1 without complications. The postoperative renal ultrasound at 3 months demonstrated marked improvement of the right upper pole hydronephrosis in both patients. RAL pyeloureterostomy represents a minimally invasive option for upper tract reconstruction of duplex systems with upper pole hydronephrosis in infants. The DJ stent can be placed at the beginning or during the procedure. The stent can be placed in the lower pole ureter or across the anastomosis into the upper pole renal pelvis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Periodically poled self-frequency-doubling green laser fabricated from Nd:Mg:LiNbO₃ single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong Zhou; Sun, De Hui; Kang, Xue Liang; Sang, Yuan Hua; Yan, Bo Xia; Liu, Hong; Bi, Yong

    2015-07-13

    Although a breakthrough in the fabrication of green laser diodes has occurred, the high costs associated with the difficulty of manufacture still present a great obstacle for its practical application. Another approach for producing a green laser, by combining a laser device and a nonlinear crystal, entails the fabrication of complex structures and exhibits unstable performance due to interface contact defects, thus limiting its application. In this work, we report the fabrication by domain engineering of high quality periodically poled LiNbO₃, co-doped with Nd³⁺ and Mg²⁺, which combines a laser medium and a high efficiency second harmonic conversion crystal into a single system that is designed to overcome the above problems. An 80 mW self-frequency doubling green laser was constructed for the first time from a periodically poled Nd:Mg:LiNbO₃ crystal of 16 mm in length. This crystal can be used for developing compact, stable, highly efficient mini-solid-state-lasers, which promise to have many applications in portable laser-based spectroscopy, photo-communications, terahertz wave generation, and laser displays.

  2. Frequency doubling in poled polymers using anomalous dispersion phase-matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cahill, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The authors report on a second harmonic generation in a poled polymer waveguide using anomalous dispersion phase-matching. Blue light ({lambda} = 407 nm) was produced by phase-matching the lowest order fundamental and harmonic modes over a distance of 32 {micro}m. The experimental conversion efficiency was {eta} = 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}, in agreement with theory. Additionally, they discuss a method of enhancing the conversion efficiency for second harmonic generation using anomalous dispersion phase-matching to optimize Cerenkov second harmonic generation. The modeling shows that a combination of phase-matching techniques creates larger conversion efficiencies and reduces critical fabrication requirements of the individual phase-matching techniques.

  3. Influence of Hypoxic Interval Training and Hyperoxic Recovery on Muscle Activation and Oxygenation in Connection with Double-Poling Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Zinner

    Full Text Available Here, we evaluated the influence of breathing oxygen at different partial pressures during recovery from exercise on performance at sea-level and a simulated altitude of 1800 m, as reflected in activation of different upper body muscles, and oxygenation of the m. triceps brachii. Ten well-trained, male endurance athletes (25.3±4.1 yrs; 179.2±4.5 cm; 74.2±3.4 kg performed four test trials, each involving three 3-min sessions on a double-poling ergometer with 3-min intervals of recovery. One trial was conducted entirely under normoxic (No and another under hypoxic conditions (Ho; FiO2 = 0.165. In the third and fourth trials, the exercise was performed in normoxia and hypoxia, respectively, with hyperoxic recovery (HOX; FiO2 = 1.00 in both cases. Arterial hemoglobin saturation was higher under the two HOX conditions than without HOX (p<0.05. Integrated muscle electrical activity was not influenced by the oxygen content (best d = 0.51. Furthermore, the only difference in tissue saturation index measured via near-infrared spectroscopy observed was between the recovery periods during the NoNo and HoHOX interventions (P<0.05, d = 0.93. In the case of HoHo the athletes' Pmean declined from the first to the third interval (P < 0.05, whereas Pmean was unaltered under the HoHOX, NoHOX and NoNo conditions. We conclude that the less pronounced decline in Pmean during 3 x 3-min double-poling sprints in normoxia and hypoxia with hyperoxic recovery is not related to changes in muscle activity or oxygenation. Moreover, we conclude that hyperoxia (FiO2 = 1.00 used in conjunction with hypoxic or normoxic work intervals may serve as an effective aid when inhaled during the subsequent recovery intervals.

  4. Dual-wavelength green laser with a 4.5 THz frequency difference based on self-frequency- doubling in Nd3+ -doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, H; Torregrosa, A J; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Rico, M L; Capmany, J

    2008-05-01

    We report a dual-wavelength continuous-wave laser at 542.4 and 546.8 nm based on an Nd(3+)-doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Two fundamental infrared (IR) wavelengths at 1084.8 and 1093.6 nm are simultaneously oscillated and self-frequency-doubled to green. The aperiodic domain distribution patterned in the crystal allows for quasi-phase matched self-frequency-doubling of both IR fundamentals while avoiding their sum-frequency mixing.

  5. Electroweak radiative corrections to e+e-→WW→4 fermions in double-pole approximation -- the RACOONWW approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.; Roth, M.; Wackeroth, D.

    2000-01-01

    We calculate the complete O(α) electroweak radiative corrections to e + e - →WW→4f in the electroweak Standard Model in the double-pole approximation. We give analytical results for the non-factorizable virtual corrections and express the factorizable virtual corrections in terms of the known corrections to on-shell W-pair production and W decay. The calculation of the bremsstrahlung corrections, i.e., the processes e + e - →4fγ in lowest order, is based on the full matrix elements. The matching of soft and collinear singularities between virtual and real corrections is done alternatively in two different ways, namely by using a subtraction method and by applying phase-space slicing. The O(α) corrections as well as higher-order initial-state photon radiation are implemented in the Monte Carlo generator RACOONWW. Numerical results of this program are presented for the W-pair-production cross section, angular and W-invariant-mass distributions at LEP2. We also discuss the intrinsic theoretical uncertainty of our approach

  6. The Throws: Contemporary Theory, Technique and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Fred, Ed.

    This compilation of articles covers the subject of four throwing events--shot put, discus throw, hammer throw, and javelin throw. The history of the art and science of throwing is traced from ancient to modern times in the introduction. Theories on training and techniques of throwing are presented in essays contributed by coaches from the United…

  7. Double Regge pole exchange model analysis of a 7 Gev/c. pi. /sup -/p experiment. [Absolute cross sections, one-particle exchange, diffraction scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A C.L.

    1973-01-01

    A double Regge Pole Exchange Model is used to analyze Quasi-Three-Body final states selected from a 7 GeV/c - /sup -/p experiment. Three sets of data are analyzed namely: I ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. p..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..pi../sup -/; II ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. p..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..pi../sup -/..pi../sup 0/; III ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/..pi../sup -/n. The final states, selected from data sets I, II and III are (rho/sup 0/..pi../sup -/p, f/sup 0/..pi../sup -/p, ..pi../sup -/..pi../sup -/..delta../sup + +/), (rho/sup 0/..pi../sup -/..delta../sup +/, rho/sup -/..pi..-..delta../sup + +/, ..omega pi../sup -/p) and (rho/sup 0/..pi../sup -/..delta../sup +/), respectively. It is found that these channels after appropriate kinematic cuts can be well described by exchanging two Regge Trajectories. Predictions for the absolute cross-sections were also obtained by taking limits of one particle exchange and a diffraction scattering approximation. (auth)

  8. Snowball Throwing in Teaching Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuarti Apsari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to describe the implementation of snowball throwing in teaching grammar and to investigate the benefits of applying snowball throwing. The research was conducted at STKIP Siliwangi Bandung. This study applied qualitative research involving one class consisting of second semester students in English Department who were taking the subject of foundation of English Grammar. The data were obtained from classroom observation and students’ interview. The findings showed that there are seven stages in implementing snowball throwing in teaching grammar. The stages consist of preparing teaching material, forming group, re-explaining the material to the member of the group, formulating question, tossing the ball, answering questions and evaluating teaching and learning process. In addition, the findings also revealed that there are some benefits from applying snowball throwing in teaching grammar such as improving students’ comprehension in learning grammar, creating enjoyable learning atmosphere, increasing students’ vocabulary, developing students’ speaking skill, developing students’ cooperation skill and increasing students’ participation in the class.

  9. Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Frank C., III; and Others

    The majority of shoulder injuries occurring in throwing sports involve the soft tissue structures. Injuries often occur when the unit is overstretched to a point near its greatest length, involving the elastic tissues. The other injury mechanism involves the contractural unit of the muscle, which occurs near the midpoint of contractions, involving…

  10. Blast tests of expedient shelters in the DICE THROW event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearny, C.H.; Chester, C.V.

    1978-03-01

    To determine the worst blast environments that eight types of expedient shelters can withstand, we subjected a total of 18 shelters to the 1-kiloton blast effects of Defense Nuclear Agency's DICE THROW main event. These expedient shelters included two Russian and two Chinese types. The best shelter tested was a Small-Pole Shelter that had a box-like room of Russian design with ORNL-designed expedient blast entries and blast doors added. It was undamaged at the 53-psi peak overpressure range; the pressure rise inside was only 1.5 psi. An unmodified Russian Pole-Covered Trench Shelter was badly damaged at 6.8 psi. A Chinese ''Man'' Shelter, which skillfully uses very small poles to attain protective earth arching, survived 20 psi, undamaged. Two types of expedient shelters built of materials found in and around most American homes gave good protection at overpressures up to about 6 psi. Rug-Covered Trench Shelters were proved unsatisfactory. Water storage pits lined with ordinary plastic trash bags were proven practical at up to 53 psi, as were triangular expedient blast doors made of poles

  11. How to Throw a Bird?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Anne Lassen; Bruun, Charlotte

    been left behind in global economic development, it is important to recognise that interventions, such as within tourism, cannot start on a tabula rasa. Hence, in this paper we argue that geographical locations are living systems where different stakeholders, formal and informal institutions......, environment with its wildlife, etc., all interact and influence interventions and outcomes. In metaphorical terms developing locations through tourism is like attempting to make a bird fly in a desired direction: One can never predict completely the direction in which it will fly. On the contrary throwing...

  12. Changing Throwing Pattern: Instruction and Control Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Dan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of instruction and scaling up a control parameter (velocity of throw) on changes in throwing pattern. Sixty adult female throwers (ages 20-26 years) were randomly placed into one of four practice conditions: (a) scale up on velocity with no instruction, (b) maintain constant velocity with no…

  13. Magnet pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  14. Multiple Wheel Throwing: And Chess Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1978-01-01

    A chess set project is suggested to teach multiple throwing, the creation on a potter's wheel of several pieces of similar configuration. Processes and finished sets are illustrated with photographs. (SJL)

  15. The physics of an optimal basketball free throw

    OpenAIRE

    Barzykina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    A physical model is developed, which suggests a pathway to determining the optimal release conditions for a basketball free throw. Theoretical framework is supported by Monte Carlo simulations and a series of free throws performed and analysed at Southbank International School. The model defines a smile-shaped success region in angle-velocity space where a free throw will score. A formula for the minimum throwing angle is derived analytically. The optimal throwing conditions are determined nu...

  16. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  17. Examining impulse-variability in overarm throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbin, M A; Stodden, David; Boros, Rhonda; Shannon, David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine variability in overarm throwing velocity and spatial output error at various percentages of maximum to test the prediction of an inverted-U function as predicted by impulse-variability theory and a speed-accuracy trade-off as predicted by Fitts' Law Thirty subjects (16 skilled, 14 unskilled) were instructed to throw a tennis ball at seven percentages of their maximum velocity (40-100%) in random order (9 trials per condition) at a target 30 feet away. Throwing velocity was measured with a radar gun and interpreted as an index of overall systemic power output. Within-subject throwing velocity variability was examined using within-subjects repeated-measures ANOVAs (7 repeated conditions) with built-in polynomial contrasts. Spatial error was analyzed using mixed model regression. Results indicated a quadratic fit with variability in throwing velocity increasing from 40% up to 60%, where it peaked, and then decreasing at each subsequent interval to maximum (p < .001, η2 = .555). There was no linear relationship between speed and accuracy. Overall, these data support the notion of an inverted-U function in overarm throwing velocity variability as both skilled and unskilled subjects approach maximum effort. However, these data do not support the notion of a speed-accuracy trade-off. The consistent demonstration of an inverted-U function associated with systemic power output variability indicates an enhanced capability to regulate aspects of force production and relative timing between segments as individuals approach maximum effort, even in a complex ballistic skill.

  18. Influence of the throwing direction on biomechanics of movement patterns in handball throws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare players’ intra-individual variability in the movement pattern of four throwing directions, which were realized to one of the corners of the goal, in presence of the goalkeeper in handball. Five players participated at the first division of Spanish Handball. Each thrower completed 35 throws in different directions. 3D video techniques were used to determine the rectangular components of the spacial positions between 5 body markers and the ball. An analysis of variance was used to detect the changes produced by the direction of the throw. An additional analysis of variance was used to measure the temporary differences of the direction of the throw using the positions of the 5 body markers used by the 3 specialist throwers. The data showed that when the throw was directed to the left side, the time for the throw was significally longer, and when the throw was directed to lower zones, the time of release tended to increase even more, because the ball is released higher.

  19. A universal throw model and its applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Verolme, E.K.; Weerheijm, J.

    2008-01-01

    A deterministic model has been developed that describes the throw of debris or fragments from a source with an arbitrary geometry and for arbitrary initial conditions. The initial conditions are defined by the distributions of mass, launch velocity and launch direction. The item density in an

  20. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  1. Throw in the i-Drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Entrop

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although many consider drones to be toys, multiple industries, such as the agriculture and mining industry, already know what advantages professional Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs can offer. However, many companies in the construction industry do not seem to be familiar yet with the possible advantages of UAVs for their projects. In our 3TU Lighthouse project “Throw in the I-drone” we, the University of Twente, Delft University of Technology, and BeemFlights, would like to make the construction industry aware of the possibilities UAVs have by demonstrating possible usages, by providing a protocol on how to use them and by simplifying the interpretation of data collected.

  2. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  3. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  4. Complex conjugate poles and parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiburzi, B.C.; Detmold, W.; Miller, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate parton and generalized parton distributions in Minkowski space using a scalar propagator with a pair of complex conjugate poles. Correct spectral and support properties are obtained only after careful analytic continuation from Euclidean space. Alternately the quark distribution function can be calculated from modified cutting rules, which put the intermediate state on its complex mass shells. Distribution functions agree with those resulting from the model's Euclidean space double distribution which we calculate via nondiagonal matrix elements of twist-two operators. Thus one can use a wide class of analytic parametrizations of the quark propagator to connect Euclidean space Green functions to light-cone dominated amplitudes

  5. South Pole rockets, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Iwane

    1977-01-01

    Wave-particle interaction was observed, using three rockets, S-210 JA-20, -21 and S-310 JA-2, launched from the South Pole into aurora. Electron density and temperature were measured with these rockets. Simultaneous observations of waves were also made from a satellite (ISIS-II) and at two ground bases (Showa base and Mizuho base). Observed data are presented in this paper. These include electron density and temperature in relation to altitude; variation of electron (60 - 80 keV) count rate with altitude; VLF spectra measured by the PWL of S-210 JA-20 and -21 rockets and the corresponding VLF spectra at the ground bases; low-energy (<10 keV) electron flux measured by S-310 JA-2 rocket; and VLF spectrum measured with S-310 JA-2 rocket. Scheduled measurements for the next project are also briefly described. (Aoki, K.)

  6. Simulation and experimental research on line throwing rocket with flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bin Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The finite segment method is used to model the line throwing rocket system. A dynamic model of line throwing rocket with flight motion based on Kane's method is presented by the kinematics description of the system and the consideration of the forces acting on the system. The experiment designed according to the parameters of the dynamic model is made. The simulation and experiment results, such as range, velocity and flight time, are compared and analyzed. The simulation results are basically agreed with the test data, which shows that the flight motion of the line throwing rocket can be predicted by the dynamic model. A theoretical model and guide for the further research on the disturbance of rope and the guidance, flight control of line throwing rocket are provided by the dynamic modeling.

  7. Sport-Specific Training Targeting the Proximal Segments and Throwing Velocity in Collegiate Throwing Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Thomas; Uhl, Timothy L.; Howell, Dana; Hewett, Timothy E.; Viele, Kert; Mattacola, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    Context The ability to generate, absorb, and transmit forces through the proximal segments of the pelvis, spine, and trunk has been proposed to influence sport performance, yet traditional training techniques targeting the proximal segments have had limited success improving sport-specific performance. Objective To investigate the effects of a traditional endurance-training program and a sport-specific power-training program targeting the muscles that support the proximal segments and throwing velocity. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting University research laboratory and gymnasium. Patients or Other Participants A total of 46 (age = 20 ± 1.3 years, height = 175.7 ± 8.7 cm) healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III female softball (n = 17) and male baseball (n = 29) players. Intervention(s) Blocked stratification for sex and position was used to randomly assign participants to 1 of 2 training groups for 7 weeks: a traditional endurance-training group (ET group; n = 21) or a power-stability–training group (PS group; n = 25). Mean Outcome Measure(s) The change score in peak throwing velocity (km/h) normalized for body weight (BW; kilograms) and change score in tests that challenge the muscles of the proximal segments normalized for BW (kilograms). We used 2-tailed independent-samples t tests to compare differences between the change scores. Results The peak throwing velocity (ET group = 0.01 ± 0.1 km/h/kg of BW, PS group = 0.08 ± 0.03 km/h/kg of BW; P < .001) and muscle power outputs for the chop (ET group = 0.22 ± 0.91 W/kg of BW, PS group = 1.3 ± 0.91 W/kg of BW; P < .001) and lift (ET group = 0.59 ± 0.67 W/kg of BW, PS group = 1.4 ± 0.87 W/kg of BW; P < .001) tests were higher at postintervention in the PT than in the ET group. Conclusions An improvement in throwing velocity occurred simultaneously with measures of muscular endurance and power after a sport-specific training regimen targeting the proximal segments

  8. Simulation and experimental research on line throwing rocket with flight

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-bin Gu; Ming Lu; Jian-qing Liu; Qin-xing Dong; Zhen-xiong Wang; Jiang-hai Chen

    2014-01-01

    The finite segment method is used to model the line throwing rocket system. A dynamic model of line throwing rocket with flight motion based on Kane's method is presented by the kinematics description of the system and the consideration of the forces acting on the system. The experiment designed according to the parameters of the dynamic model is made. The simulation and experiment results, such as range, velocity and flight time, are compared and analyzed. The simulation results are basicall...

  9. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  10. Evaluation of the pole figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera B, E.; Macias B, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the present work it's shown the possibility of obtaining a pole-figure from the data generated in a conventional X-ray equipment, with a commercial goniometer and no electronic device to process the data. The way to plot the pole-figure on-line is by means of measuring the diffractogram and plot manually the stereographic projections. The atainable precision is very low in such a cumbersome process. In this paper we substitute such method by storing the data in a punched tape from a conventional teletype. The data is processed in a computer and the pole-figure is recorded by a plotter attached to the computer. (author)

  11. Effect of Core Training on Male Handball Players' Throwing Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchado, Carmen; García-Ruiz, José; Cortell-Tormo, Juan Manuel; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan

    2017-02-01

    In handball, throwing velocity is considered to be one of the essential factors in achieving the ultimate aim of scoring a goal. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of a core training program on throwing velocity in 30 handball players (age 18.7 ± 3.4 years, body height 179.3 ± 7.0 cm, body mass 78.9 ± 7.7 kg), 16 of whom were in the junior category and 14 of whom were in the senior category. The 30 players were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (n = 15) and the experimental group (n = 15). For a period of ten weeks, both groups attended their regular handball training sessions (four per week), but in addition, the experimental group participated in a program specifically aimed at progressively strengthening the lumbo-pelvic region and consisting of seven exercises performed after the general warm-up in each regular session. Pre- and post-tests were carried out to analyze each player's throwing velocity from different throwing positions and thus assess the effects of this specific training program. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in throwing velocity were observed between the experimental group, which presented a percentage improvement of 4.5%, and the control group, which did not show any improvement. The results seem to indicate that an increase in the strength and stability of the lumbo-pelvic region can contribute to an improvement in the kinetic chain of the specific movement of throwing in handball, thus, increasing throwing velocity.

  12. Effect of Core Training on Male Handball Players’ Throwing Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José; Cortell-Tormo, Juan Manuel; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In handball, throwing velocity is considered to be one of the essential factors in achieving the ultimate aim of scoring a goal. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of a core training program on throwing velocity in 30 handball players (age 18.7 ± 3.4 years, body height 179.3 ± 7.0 cm, body mass 78.9 ± 7.7 kg), 16 of whom were in the junior category and 14 of whom were in the senior category. The 30 players were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (n = 15) and the experimental group (n = 15). For a period of ten weeks, both groups attended their regular handball training sessions (four per week), but in addition, the experimental group participated in a program specifically aimed at progressively strengthening the lumbo-pelvic region and consisting of seven exercises performed after the general warm-up in each regular session. Pre- and post-tests were carried out to analyze each player’s throwing velocity from different throwing positions and thus assess the effects of this specific training program. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in throwing velocity were observed between the experimental group, which presented a percentage improvement of 4.5%, and the control group, which did not show any improvement. The results seem to indicate that an increase in the strength and stability of the lumbo-pelvic region can contribute to an improvement in the kinetic chain of the specific movement of throwing in handball, thus, increasing throwing velocity. PMID:28469756

  13. Regge poles and alpha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuleneer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The direct Regge pole model as a means of describing resonances in elastic particle scattering has been used for the analysis of the so-called ''anormalous large angle scattering'' of alpha particles by spinless nuclei. (Z.M.)

  14. Data-Based Interval Throwing Programs for Collegiate Softball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axe, Michael J.; Windley, Thomas C.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To construct interval throwing programs followed by a simulated game for collegiate softball players at all positions. The programs are intended to be used as functional progressions within a comprehensive rehabilitation program for an injured athlete or to augment off-season conditioning workouts. Design and Setting: We collected data over a single season of National Collegiate Athletic Association softball at the University of Delaware and Goldey Beacom College. We observed 220 half-innings of play and 2785 pitches during data collection. Subjects: The subjects were collegiate-level softball players at all positions of play. Measurements: We recorded the number of pitches for pitchers. For catchers, we recorded the number of sprints to back up a play, time in the squat stance, throws back to the pitcher, and the perceived effort and distance of all other throws. We also collected the perceived effort and distance of all throws for infielders and outfielders. Results: Pitchers threw an average of 89.61 pitches per game; catchers were in the squat stance 14.13 minutes per game; infielders threw the ball between 4.28 times per game and 6.30 times per game; and outfielders threw distances of up to 175 feet. Conclusions: We devised the interval throwing programs from the data collected, field dimensions, the types of injuries found to occur in softball, and a general understanding of tissue healing. We designed programs that allow a safe and efficient progressive return to sport. PMID:12937435

  15. Treatment of stress fracture of the olecranon in throwing athletes with internal fixation through a small incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujioka Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study is a report of retrospective case series of stress fracture of the olecranon. Six patients presented posterior elbow pain in throwing in baseball and softball, but fracture was not diagnosed in radiographs. We detected stress fracture of the olecranon using computed tomographic (CT scan and treated the patient with internal fixation with a headless cannulated double threaded screw through a small skin incision. All patients returned to competitive level without elbow complaints after the operation. When throwing athletes present with unusual posterior elbow pain and no significant findings on radiographs, a CT scan examination should be performed. We recommend surgical treatment of internal fixation with a screw through a small skin incision, as a good option for stress fracture of the olecranon in order to allow early return to sports activity in competitive athletes.

  16. Effect of Core Training on Male Handball Players’ Throwing Velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Manchado, Carmen; García-Ruiz, José; Cortell-Tormo, Juan M.; Tortosa Martínez, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In handball, throwing velocity is considered to be one of the essential factors in achieving the ultimate aim of scoring a goal. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of a core training program on throwing velocity in 30 handball players (age 18.7 ? 3.4 years, body height 179.3 ? 7.0 cm, body mass 78.9 ? 7.7 kg), 16 of whom were in the junior category and 14 of whom were in the senior category. The 30 players were randomly divided into two groups, the control g...

  17. Optical design of ultrashort throw liquid crystal on silicon projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2017-05-01

    An ultrashort throw liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) projector for home cinema, virtual reality, and automobile heads-up display has been designed and fabricated. To achieve the best performance and highest-quality image, this study aimed to design wide-angle projection optics and optimize the illumination for LCoS. Based on the telecentric lens projection system and optimized Koehler illumination, the optical parameters were calculated. The projector's optical system consisted of a conic aspheric mirror and image optics using either symmetric double Gauss or a large-angle eyepiece to achieve a full projection angle larger than 155 deg. By applying Koehler illumination, image resolution was enhanced and the modulation transfer function of the image in high spatial frequency was increased to form a high-quality illuminated image. The partial coherence analysis verified that the design was capable of 2.5 lps/mm within a 2 m×1.5 m projected image. The throw ratio was less than 0.25 in HD format.

  18. Comparison of trunk kinematics in trunk training exercises and throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F; Campbell, Brian M; Moyer, Todd M

    2008-01-01

    Strength and conditioning professionals, as well as coaches, have emphasized the importance of training the trunk and the benefits it may have on sport performance and reducing the potential for injury. However, no data on the efficacy of trunk training support such claims. The purpose of this study was to examine the maximum differential trunk rotation and maximum angular velocities of the pelvis and upper torso of participants while they performed 4 trunk exercises (seated band rotations, cross-overs, medicine ball throws, and twisters) and compare these trunk exercise kinematics with the trunk kinematics demonstrated in actual throwing performance. Nine NCAA Division I baseball players participated in this study. Each participant's trunk kinematics was analyzed while he performed 5 repetitions of each exercise in both dominant and nondominant rotational directions. Results indicated maximum differentiated rotation in all 4 trunk exercises was similar to maximum differentiated rotation (approximately 50-60 degrees) demonstrated in throwing performance. Maximum angular velocities of the pelvis and upper torso in the trunk exercises were appreciably slower (approximately 50% or less) than the angular velocities demonstrated during throwing performance. Incorporating trunk training exercises that demonstrate sufficient trunk ranges of motion and velocities into a strength and conditioning program may help to increase ball velocity and/or decrease the risk injury.

  19. Increasing Free Throw Accuracy through Behavior Modeling and Goal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erffmeyer, Elizabeth S.

    A two-year behavior-modeling training program focusing on attention processes, retention processes, motor reproduction, and motivation processes was implemented to increase the accuracy of free throw shooting for a varsity intercollegiate women's basketball team. The training included specific learning keys, progressive relaxation, mental…

  20. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  1. Poling of UV-written Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Hübner, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months......We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months...

  2. Comparison of In-Season-Specific Resistance vs. A Regular Throwing Training Program on Throwing Velocity, Anthropometry, and Power Performance in Elite Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; van den Tillaar, Roland; Khlifa, Riadh; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Chamari, Karim

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a specific resistance training program (throwing movement with a medicine ball) with that of regular training (throwing with regular balls) on ball velocity, anthropometry, maximal upper-body strength, and power. Thirty-four elite male team handball players (age: 18 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 80.6 ± 5.5 kg, height: 1.80 ± 5.1 m, body fat: 13.4 ± 0.6%) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: control (n = 10), resistance training group (n = 12), or regular throwing training group (n = 12). Over the 8-week in season, the athletes performed 3 times per week according to an assigned training program alongside their normal team handball training. One repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and 1RM pullover scores assessed maximal arm strength. Anthropometry was assessed by body mass, fat percentage, and muscle volumes of upper body. Handball throwing velocity was measured by a standing throw, a throw with run, and a jump throw. Power was measured by measuring total distance thrown by a 3-kg medicine ball overhead throw. Throwing ball velocity, maximal strength, power, and muscle volume increases for the specific resistance training group after the 8 weeks of training, whereas only maximal strength, muscle volume and power and in the jump throw increases were found for the regular throwing training group. No significant changes for the control group were found. The current findings suggest that elite male handball players can improve ball velocity, anthropometrics, maximal upper-body strength, and power during the competition season by implementing a medicine ball throwing program.

  3. Performance and Kinematics of Various Throwing Techniques in Team-Handball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; von Duvillard, Serge P.; Müller, Erich

    2011-01-01

    In team-handball competition, the players utilize various throwing techniques that differ in the lower body movements (with and without run-up or jump). These different lower body movements influence changes in the upper body movements and thus also affect the performance. A comprehensive analysis of 3D-kinematics of team-handball throws that may explain these differences in performance is lacking. Consequently, the purpose of this study was (1) to compare performance (ball velocity and throwing accuracy) between the jump throw, standing throw with and without run-up, and the pivot throw; (2) to calculate the influence of kinematic parameters to ball velocity; and (3) to determine if these four throwing techniques differ significantly in kinematics. Three-dimensional kinematic data (angles, angular velocities and their timing, ball velocity and velocity of the center of mass) of 14 elite team-handball players were measured using an 8 camera Vicon MX13 motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK), at 250 Hz. Significant difference was found between the four throwing techniques for ball velocity (p handball players achieved the greatest ball velocity in the standing throw with run-up (100%), followed by the standing throw without run-up (93%), jump throw (92%) and pivot throw (85%). Depending on the floor contact (standing vs. jump throws) the elite players of the study used two different strategies (lead leg braces the body vs. opposed leg movements during flight) to accelerate the pelvis and trunk that caused differences in ball velocity. Elite team-handball players were able to utilize the throwing arm similarly in all four throwing techniques. PMID:24149298

  4. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  5. INNOVATIVE CLUSTER OR COMPETITIVENESS POLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the situation of clusters in Romania and their areas of activity and innovation in entrepreneurship Romanian state. It is made also a territorial distribution of clusters on the eight regions. The findings lead to the conclusion that there are some clusters that have the vocation to become poles of competitiveness in areas such as renewable energy, automotive, electronics, health, biotechnology, mechatronics or ICT (Information and Communication Technology which represent the resources for future of the Romanian economy. Regarding the degree of innovation of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the level is relatively modest, 30.8% of all enterprises being innovative. If we were to answer the question the title suggests, we would say "yes" to both since the innovative cluster as well as the competitiveness pole promotes par excellence, innovation through study, research and stimulation of creativity. And this is more than enough to support economic growth of Romania and maintain the competitiveness worldwide.

  6. Chondromalacia of the trochlear notch in athletes who throw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robla, J; Hechtman, K S; Uribe, J W; Phillipon, M S

    1996-01-01

    Six athletes who throw and one shot-putter who underwent elbow arthroscopy were found to have an area of chondromalacia involving the posterolateral aspect of the olecranon. Preoperative symptoms were pain and tenderness to palpation over the lateral edge of the olecranon. On physical examination, range of motion was full or only slightly decreased (chondromalacia has not been previously described and, in our study, occurred in individuals whose elbows were subjected to repetitive valgus stress with lateral compression.

  7. CONNECTION OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES WITH JUMPING AND THROWING ATHLETIC DISCIPLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Stanojević; Dejan Milenković

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the connection between functional abilities with results of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines with athletes. The sample was taken from a population of elementary school students from Prokuplje region, 13 and 14 old, included in regular physical education classes. The sample consisted of 200 male athletes involved in the training process in sports clubs at least three times a week in addition to physical education classes. For assessment of functi...

  8. Pole counting and resonance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.

    1992-01-01

    S-wave resonances occurring close to an inelastic threshold can be classified according to the number of nearby poles they possess. One then has a useful possibility of distinguishing dynamical alternatives by objective appeal to data. Making this quantitative entails developing suitable effective range expansions for various realizations of potential scattering. A key application is deciding the make-up of f 0 (976) (S*). (author)

  9. CONNECTION OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES WITH JUMPING AND THROWING ATHLETIC DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stanojević

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the connection between functional abilities with results of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines with athletes. The sample was taken from a population of elementary school students from Prokuplje region, 13 and 14 old, included in regular physical education classes. The sample consisted of 200 male athletes involved in the training process in sports clubs at least three times a week in addition to physical education classes. For assessment of functional abilities six functional tests were used: resting heart rate, Cooper test, heart rate in the first minute after Cooper test, heart rate in the second minute after Cooper test, systolic arterial blood pressure, diastolic arterial blood pressure. For assessment of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines four tests were used: long jump, high jump, shot put and javelin. Data analysis was performed with canonical correlation and regression analysis. The results showed a statistically significant correlation between functional abilities with all of tests in jumping and throwing athletic disciplines.

  10. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S; Kimura, Y; Miki, M; Felder, B; Tsuzuki, K; Izumi, M; Ida, T; Umemoto, K; Aizawa, K; Yokoyama, M

    2010-01-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  11. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.

    2010-06-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  12. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Dawson, Richard Nils [Voorheesville, NY; Qu, Ronghai [Clifton Park, NY; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich [Moscow, RU

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  13. Relationship among maximal grip, throwing velocity and anthropometric parameters in elite water polo players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, C; Vila, H; Abraldes, J A; Argudo, F; Rodriguez, N; Alcaraz, P E

    2011-03-01

    As independent aspects, body size, body composition, and physiological performance of elite athletes have aroused the interest of sports scientists but, unfortunately, studies that combine these aspects are scarcely avalaible in water polo. The aim of the present study was to: 1) to develop an anthropometric profile of highly skilled male Water Polo players, and 2) to identify significant relationships between these features and overhead throwing velocity in highly skilled male water polo players. Thirteen male water polo players, with a mean age of 26.10±4.82, were recruited from the Spanish Water Polo team and an anthropometric assessment on all of them was carried out. Throwing velocity was evaluated in three different situations from the 5 m-penalty line on the center of the water polo goal: A) throwing without a defender nor a goalkeeper; B) throwing with a goalkeeper only, and C) 3) armfuls running shot with goalkeeper. Maximal handgrip was also tested. Biacromial breadth shows a significative correlation with hand grip in water polo players (r=0.792; P=0.001) and also correlates with Throwing velocity (r=0.716; P<0.001). Biepicondylar femur breadth correlates significatively with hand grip (r=0.727; P<0.05) and also with throwing velocity in "throwing with goalkeeper" situation (r=0.664; P<0.05). Hand grip shows a significant correlation with throwing velocity in "throwing with goalkeeper" situation (r=0.603; P<0.05). In conclusion, body mass aspects are not related with throwing velocity in highly skilled Water Polo players. Maximal hand grip is related with throwing velocity in "throwing with goalkeeper" situation. More investigations about water polo are necessary.

  14. Age and gender differences in adolescent and adult overarm throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorson, Kevin M; Stodden, David F; Langendorfer, Stephen J; Goodway, Jacqueline D

    2013-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine age and gender differences in throwing performance across an underexplored portion of the lifespan: middle adolescents (14-17 years old), young adults (18-25 years old), and adults (35-55 years old). Throwing performance was assessed using the body component levels from Roberton's developmental sequences for force and ball velocity that were recorded by a radar gun. Participants in each age group performed between 5 to 10 forceful overhand throws toward a target approximately 15m to 20m from the thrower. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test was used to determine gender differences and a Wilcoxon-Signed Ranks Test was used to determine age-group differences for each component. Gender and age-group differences in ball speed were determined by a 3 (age group) x 2 (gender) factorial analysis of variance with follow-up post-hoc tests. Young-adult men had higher body component levels and ball speed compared with the adolescent boys and adult men. Female age-group differences existed only for humerus action between young-adult and adult groups and for ball speed between young-adult and adolescent groups. Gender differences (p < .01) existed in component levels for the adolescent and young-adult groups, but not the adult groups. Gender differences in ball speed (p < .001) existed within each age group. Although these data were cross-sectional, the regressive developmental changes observed and the narrowing gender gap may eventually provide insight related to the relationships among motor skill competence, physical fitness, and physical activity across the lifespan.

  15. High explosive characterization for the dice throw event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, F.; Finger, M.; Hayes, B.; Lee, E.; Cheung, H.; Walton, J.

    1976-06-16

    An equation of state for detonation products was developed to describe the detonation of large charges of ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO). The equation of state will be used to predict air-blast and ground-motion effects in the Dice Throw Event. The explosive performance of ANFO is highly dependent on charge size. The equation developed from this work is applicable to heavily confined detonations 101.6 mm in diameter or larger. The equation of state is based on results from experiments in cylinders and hemispheres, and a large field test. The report contains a detailed discussion of the diagnostic and initiation techniques used in these experiments.

  16. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    synthetic error prone secondary pole-pole potential data. 1. Introduction. Analytical signal .... The meaning of the rest of the parameters is self- evident. The three ..... interpretation using 3-D analytic signal; Geophysics 57. 116–125. Starostenko ...

  17. PERFORMANCE AND KINEMATICS OF VARIOUS THROWING TECHNIQUES IN TEAM-HANDBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Wagner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In team-handball competition, the players utilize various throwing techniques that differ in the lower body movements (with and without run-up or jump. These different lower body movements influence changes in the upper body movements and thus also affect the performance. A comprehensive analysis of 3D-kinematics of team-handball throws that may explain these differences in performance is lacking. Consequently, the purpose of this study was (1 to compare performance (ball velocity and throwing accuracy between the jump throw, standing throw with and without run-up, and the pivot throw; (2 to calculate the influence of kinematic parameters to ball velocity; and (3 to determine if these four throwing techniques differ significantly in kinematics. Three-dimensional kinematic data (angles, angular velocities and their timing, ball velocity and velocity of the center of mass of 14 elite team-handball players were measured using an 8 camera Vicon MX13 motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK, at 250 Hz. Significant difference was found between the four throwing techniques for ball velocity (p < 0. 001, maximal velocity of the center of mass in goal-directed movement (p < 0.001, and 15 additional kinematic variables (p < 0.003. Ball velocity was significant impacted by the run-up and the pelvis and trunk movements. Depending on floor contact (standing vs. jump throws, elite players in the study used two different strategies (lead leg braces the body vs. opposed leg movements during flight to accelerate the pelvis and trunk to yield differences in ball velocity. However, these players were able to utilize the throwing arm similarly in all four throwing techniques.

  18. Throwing velocity and kinematics in elite male water polo players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorri, G; Padua, E; Padulo, J; D'Ottavio, S; Campagna, S; Bonifazi, M

    2011-12-01

    Fifty-three members of the Italian Men Water Polo Team were filmed using two synchronized cameras, while they were shooting a goal. Considering the differences in body mass, height, training strategies and the technical-tactical features of the players, the aims of this study were to employ video-analysis techniques in order to investigate selected kinematic parameters in water polo throwing, and to provide comprehensive quantitative information on the throwing movement in relation to the different team player positions. Video analysis was used to estimate the elbow angle at release, the shoulder angle at follow through, the back and head height at ball release, trunk rotation angle and ball velocity at release. Ball release velocities ranged from 21.0 to 29.8 m/s (average value 25.3±1.4 m/s), for field players. Goal keepers show the lowest team values (average 21.7±0.3 m/s). Similar to previous study results, ball release was typically reached just prior to the elbow approaching full extension (151.6±3.6°), and the follow through shoulder angle was 143±5.9°. No significant statistical difference was recorded between injured and non-injured athletes. No positive association was demonstrated between physical characteristics (body mass and height) and ball velocity.

  19. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One...

  20. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF LINE-OUT THROWING IN ELITE INTERNATIONAL RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G.L. Sayers

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The rugby union line-out is a key aspect of game play and involves players from both teams contesting for the ball after it has been thrown in from the side line. Successful lines-out throws require the ball to be delivered accurately to the hands of a jumping and/or lifted team mate (approximately 3-3.5 m off the ground over distances of between 5- 18 m. Previous research has suggested considerable inter and intra-individual differences in the throwing techniques of international level players. Accordingly, this project investigated the interrelationships between accuracy and the line-out throwing characteristics of three elite international rugby players, and then analyzed whether these changed for throws over increasing length. Three-dimensional (3D data were developed from video footage (50 Hz of three elite international subjects for 30 throws over three distances (6 m, 10 m, and 15 m. Results showed notable differences between subjects in many variables at each of the key throw phases. However, several variables such as the degree of trunk flexion at the end of the backswing and at ball release, coupled with elbow flexion angle at ball release remained constant as throw length increased. All subjects exhibited high levels of consistency in movement patterns across all throw lengths. Findings indicated that these high performance line-out throwers shared several common characteristics that will provide useful guides in the development of training programs

  1. The Kinetic Chain Revisited: New Concepts on Throwing Mechanics and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Samuel K; Jayabalan, Prakash; Kibler, W Ben; Press, Joel

    2016-03-01

    The overhead throwing motion is a complex activity that is achieved through activation of the kinetic chain. The kinetic chain refers to the linkage of multiple segments of the body that allows for transfer of forces and motion. The lower extremities and core provide a base of support, generating energy that is transferred eventually through the throwing arm and hand, resulting in release of the ball. The kinetic chain requires optimal anatomy, physiology, and mechanics and is involved in all 6 phases of overhead throwing: windup, stride, arm cocking, acceleration, deceleration, and follow-through. Breaks or deficits in the kinetic chain can lead to injury or decreased performance. Through an understanding of the mechanics and pathomechanics seen in each phase of throwing, the clinician can better evaluate and screen for potential kinetic chain deficits in the overhead throwing athlete. The purpose of this article is to review the biomechanics of the overhead throwing motion, the role of the kinetic chain in throwing, and the clinical evaluation and management of abnormal throwing mechanics and related injuries. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design of an MgB2 race track coil for a wind generator pole demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2014-01-01

    An MgB2 race track coil intended for demonstrating a down scaled pole of a 10 MW direct drive wind turbine generator has been designed. The coil consists of 10 double pancake coils stacked into a race track coil with a cross section of 84 mm × 80 mm. The length of the straight section is 0.5 m...

  3. Efektivitas Pembelajaran Matematika melalui Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Snowball Throwing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Mulawakkan Firdaus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available [Bahasa]: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian Eksperimen semu yang bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan hasil belajar siswa SMP Negeri 13 Makassar yang diajar dengan menggunakan Model Kooperatif Tipe Snowball Throwing dan Metode Ekspositori, serta untuk mengetahui apakah model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Snowball Throwing efektif digunakan dalam pembelajaran matematika pada siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 13 Makassar. Luaran yang akan dihasilkan dari penelitian ini adalah penerapan alternatif pembelajaran yang tidak monoton sehingga dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar matematika siswa dan perangkat pembelajaran (silabus dan RPP yang berorientasi pada pembelajaran koperatif tipe Snowball Throwing. Subjek penelitian dibagi dalam 2 kelompok, yakni kelompok eksperimen yang diajar dengan menggunakan pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Snowball Throwing dan kelompok kontrol yang diajar dengan menggunakan metode ekspositori. Setiap kelompok diajar dengan frekuensi pertemuan yang sama dengan materi yang sama. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa penerapan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Snowball Throwing lebih efektif jika dibandingkan dengan penerapan metode ekspositori untuk pokok bahasan sistem persamaan linear dua variabel. [English]: This experiment research aims to describe the learning outcomes of students at SMP Negeri 13 Makassar taught with snowball throwing (cooperative and expository method and to find out whether snowball throwing method is more effective in learning mathematics than the expository method in grade 7. The results of this research are implementing alternative learning method which is not monotonous to improve students' mathematics learning outcomes and producing learning tools that consist of syllabus and lesson plans based on snowball throwing method in cooperative learning. Research subjects are divided into two groups namely the experimental group taught with snowball throwing and the control group taught with the expository method. Each

  4. Metrópoles desgovernadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Maricato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de sua importância econômica, política, social, demográfica, cultural, territorial e ambiental, há, nas metrópoles brasileiras, uma significativa falta de governo, evidenciada pelas incipientes iniciativas de cooperação administrativa intermunicipal e federativa. Este artigo aborda as mudanças estruturais - no processo de urbanização/ metropolização - devidas à reestruturação produtiva do capitalismo global, e, na escala nacional, trata da mudança no marco institucional - jurídico/político - que passou de concentrador e centralizador, durante o regime militar, para descentralizador e esvaziado, após a Constituição de 1988. O recuo verificado nas políticas sociais durante os anos 1980 e 1990, notadamente em transporte, habitação e saneamento, além do desmonte dos organismos metropolitanos, conduziu nossas metrópoles a um destino de banalização das tragédias urbanas. Em que pese sua urgência, a questão metropolitana não sensibiliza nenhuma força política ou instituição que lhe atribua lugar de destaque na agenda nacional.Despite its economic, political, social, demographic, cultural, territorial and environmental importance, there is a significant lack of government in the brazilian metropolises, evidenced by the incipient initiatives of intermunicipal and federative administrative cooperation. This article analyses the structural changes - in the process of urbanization/metropolization - due to the productive restructuring of global capitalism, and, in a national scale, analyses the change in the institutional mark - legal/political - which passed from concentrator and centralizer, during the Military Regimen, to decentralized and emptied, after 1988 Constitution. The downturn verified in social policies during the years 1980 and 1990, notably in transport, housing and sanitation, besides the dismantling of the metropolitan agencies, has led our cities to the trivialization of urban tragedies. Despite

  5. Don't throw the bathwater in with the baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Presidential Address of the European Association of Developmental Psychology this year concerned how genes and environments interplay to shape loneliness and other developmental psychological relevant outcomes. This is a very welcome. However, when developmental psychology now is ready to integrate recent genetic and neuroscience knowledge and methods, I think it would be very wise to not uncritical go through the mistakes that have be done in other disciplines and instead learn from their hard lessons. I discuss some problems (genes versus environments, identifying gene for a phenotype, environments cause of developmental outcomes, and gene X environment interaction and epigenetics) and some suggestions for solutions which can be used to avoid throwing in the bathwater with the baby.

  6. Don’t throw the bathwater in with the baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Presidential Address of the European Association of Developmental Psychology this year concerned how genes and environments interplay to shape loneliness and other developmental psychological relevant outcomes. This is a very welcome. However, when developmental psychology now is ready to integrate recent genetic and neuroscience knowledge and methods, I think it would be very wise to not uncritical go through the mistakes that have be done in other disciplines and instead learn from their hard lessons. I discuss some problems (genes versus environments, identifying gene for a phenotype, environments cause of developmental outcomes, and gene X environment interaction and epigenetics) and some suggestions for solutions which can be used to avoid throwing in the bathwater with the baby. PMID:23745130

  7. KEEFEKTIFAN PEMBELAJARAN SNOWBALL THROWING BERBANTUAN LEMBAR KEGIATAN SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallant Alim Purbowo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keefektifan pembelajaran Snowball Throwing berbantuan LKS terhadap hasil belajar siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 1 Kaliori pada materi lingkaran tahun ajaran 2011/2012. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah semua siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 1 Kaliori tahun ajaran 2011/2012. Sampel dalam penelitian ini diambil secara cluster random sampling. Data hasil penelitian diperoleh dengan metode tes yang dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji proporsi, uji rata-rata, uji kesamaan dua proporsi, dan uji perbedaan dua rata-rata untuk menguji hipotesis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 zhitung =0,5>-(z(0,5-? =-1,64, artinya siswa yang tuntas terhadap hasil belajar pada kelas eksperimen dapat mencapai persentase ketuntasan minimal siswa, (2 thitung=3,9001 >t(1-? =1,69 artinya rata-rata hasil belajar siswa pada kelas eksperimen dapat mencapai KKM, (3 zhitung=2,335>z(0.5-? =1,64, artinya siswa yang tuntas pada kelas eksperimen lebih besar dari kelas kontrol, (4 thitung=2,0194 ? 1,668, artinya rata-rata hasil belajar siswa pada kelas eksperimen lebih dari kelas kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa penerapan Pembelajaran Snowball Throwing berbantuan LKS efektif terhadap hasil belajar siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 1 Kaliori pada materi lingkaran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Snowball Throwing learning assisted students worksheets to learning outcomes of VIII grade in SMP Negeri 1 Kaliori in circle material of the school year 2011/2012. The population in this study were all students in VIII grade SMP Negeri 1 Kaliori academic year 2011/2012. The sample in this study were drawn by cluster random sampling. Research data obtained with the test method were analyzed using the proportion test, test averages, test the equality of two proportions, and test the average difference in the two hypotheses. The results showed: (1 zcount = 0.5> - z(0,5-? = -1.64, meaning

  8. Holography with a Landau pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faedo, Antón F. [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Mateos, David [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys 23, ES-08010, Barcelona (Spain); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tarrío, Javier [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine CP 231, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N{sub f} quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale Λ{sub LP}. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E≪Λ{sub LP} no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E≲Λ{sub LP} the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T≲Λ{sub LP} the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ>d−1.

  9. Holography with a Landau pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N f quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale Λ LP . The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E≪Λ LP no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E≲Λ LP the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T≲Λ LP the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ>d−1.

  10. Strength and Power Correlates of Throwing Velocity on Subelite Male Cricket Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan L; Carter, Thomas; Whitaker, Gary; Nicholls, Owen; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-06-01

    Throwing velocity is an important aspect of fielding in cricket to affect run-outs and reduce the opponent's run-scoring opportunities. Although a relationship between strength and/or power and throwing velocity has been well established in baseball, water polo, and European handball, it has not been adequately explored in cricket. Consequently, this study aimed to determine the relationship between measures of strength and/or power and throwing velocity in cricket players. Seventeen male cricket players (mean ± SD; age, 21.1 ± 1.6 years; height, 1.79 ± 0.06 m; weight, 79.8 ± 6.4 kg) from an elite athlete program were tested for maximal throwing velocity from the stretch position and after a 3-meter shuffle. They were also assessed for strength and power using a range of different measures. Throwing velocity from the stretch position (30.5 ± 2.4 m·s) was significantly related to dominant leg lateral-to-medial jump (LMJ) distance (r = 0.71; p velocity and medicine ball chest pass (MB CP) distance (r = 0.67; p bench press strength (p = 0.90), height (p = 0.33), or weight (p = 0.29). Multiple regression analysis revealed that dominant MB Rot and MB CP explained 66% of the variance. The results were similar for velocity after a shuffle step (31.8 ± 2.1 m·s); however, VJ height reached statistical significance (r = 0.51; p ≤ 0.05). The multiple regression was also similar with MB Rot and MB CP explaining 70% of the variance. The cricketers in this study threw with greater velocity than elite junior and subelite senior cricketers but with lower velocities than elite senior cricketers and collegiate level and professional baseball players. This is the first study to demonstrate a link between strength and/or power and throwing velocity in cricket players and highlight the importance of power development as it relates to throwing velocity. Exercises that more closely simulated the speed (body weight jumps and medicine ball throws) or movement pattern (shoulder IR

  11. Utility poles not affected by CCA decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Venzio, H. [Arch Wood Protection Canada, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    A voluntary decision by industry to move non-industrial use of treated lumber products away from pressure-treated wood containing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative was announced by the Environmental Protection Agency on February 12, 2002. Although new alternative wood preservatives would be used, this decision does not affect utility poles, which will continue to be sold and installed. The author provides a brief historical outline concerning the creation of CCA in 1933 and its subsequent uses. CCA has many advantages, including clean surface of the poles, ground line treatment that is not required thus eliminating the requirement to rotate the poles during extended storage periods. Conductivity is low, as is corrosivity without affecting the bending characteristics of the wood. The injection of a refined hydrocarbon oil emulsion in the outer layer of the pole after the treatment with CCA is offered by some pole producers to facilitate gaff penetration. Sawing, drilling and nailing are also made easier. Water repellents can be added to the treating solution to improve climbability, slowing down the absorption and release of moisture. Warranties, extending for 50-year periods, are offered by some companies against wood-destroying organisms. The North American Wood Pole Coalition (NAWPC) was formed in 1998 to promote the use of wood poles, and publishes brochures and technical bulletins to that effect.

  12. Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.

  13. Tree-loop duality relation beyond single poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierenbaum, Isabella [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Buchta, Sebastian; Draggiotis, Petros; Malamos, Ioannis; Rodrigo, German [Valencia Univ. Paterna (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular

    2012-11-15

    We develop the Tree-Loop Duality Relation for two- and three-loop integrals with multiple identical propagators (multiple poles). This is the extension of the Duality Relation for single poles and multi-loop integrals derived in previous publications. We prove a generalization of the formula for single poles to multiple poles and we develop a strategy for dealing with higher-order pole integrals by reducing them to single pole integrals using Integration By Parts.

  14. Regge poles and Mandelstam representation in potential scattering; Poles de regge et representation de Mandelstam en theorie du potentiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessis, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    We deal with the scattering of two spinless particles interacting by a superposition of Yukawa potentials. We first obtain an upper bound for the scattering amplitude for simultaneous complex values of energy and angular momentum. We then show that the Regge poles remain confined in small domains of the complex angular momentum plane, we study the variation of these domains when the energy (complex) varies. These first results allow us to deduce an upper bound for the double spectral function, this upper bound is used to rigorously show that the Schroedinger equation implies the Mandelstam representation for the type of potentials we deal with. Finally, the problem of subtractions is entirely solved, showing that the Mellin transform of the double spectral function can be analytically continued into the different simple spectral functions. (author) [French] On traite de la diffusion de deux particules sans spin interagissant par l'intermediaire d'une superposition de potentiels de Yukawa. Nous obtenons tout d'abord une majorante pour l'amplitude de diffusion pour des valeurs simultanement complexes de l'energie et du moment cinetique. On montre alors que les Poles de Regge restent confines dans des domaines restreints du plan complexe du moment cinetique, domaines dont nous etudions la variation pour des valeurs complexes de l'energie. Ces premiers resultats nous permettent alors de deduire une majorante pour la fonction spectrale double, majorante qui est utilisee pour demontrer rigoureusement que l'equation de Schroedinger implique la representation de Mandelstam pour la classe des potentiels envisages. Enfin le probleme des soustractions est entierement resolu, en montrant que la transformee de Mellin de la fonction spectrale double se prolonge analytiquement dans les diverses fonctions spectrales simples. (auteur)

  15. Throwing velocities, anthropometric characteristics, and efficacy indices of women's European water polo subchampions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Pedro E; Abraldes, J Arturo; Ferragut, Carmen; Rodríguez, Nuria; Argudo, Francisco M; Vila, Helena

    2011-11-01

    Water polo is a team sport characterized by a high-intensity, intermittent activity, where technical and tactical aspect are of a great importance. For that reason, the main aim of this study was to define the anthropometrical characteristics, maximum isometric grip strength, training and competition throwing velocities, and the efficacy indices in female high-level water polo players. A second purpose was to examine the differences between the throwing velocities in training vs. European championships in the water polo female national team. Ten elite trained female water polo players participated in this study. Before the competitive phase of their season, the following measures were taken: standard anthropometry, static and dynamic training throwing velocities, and hand-grip dynamometry. In the competitive phase, efficacy indices, average and maximum throwing velocities from all the participants were also determined. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found between different training situations and different competitive throwing velocities. We concluded that elite female water polo players modify their throwing velocity depending if the throw is performed during training or competitive situation.

  16. The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4 with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch, and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

  17. Relationship between throwing velocity, muscle power, and bar velocity during bench press in elite handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Mario C; van den Tilaar, Roland; Vescovi, Jason D; Gonzalez-Badillo, Juan Jose

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball-throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw and dynamic strength, power, and bar velocity during a concentric-only bench-press exercise in team-handball players. Fourteen elite senior male team-handball players volunteered to participate. Each volunteer had power and bar velocity measured during a concentric-only bench-press test with 26, 36, and 46 kg, as well as having 1-repetition-maximum (1-RMBP) strength determined. Ball-throwing velocity was evaluated with a standard 3-step running throw using a radar gun. Ball-throwing velocity was related to the absolute load lifted during the 1-RMBP (r = .637, P = .014), peak power using 36 kg (r = .586, P = .028) and 46 kg (r = .582, P = .029), and peak bar velocity using 26 kg (r = .563, P = .036) and 36 kg (r = .625, P = .017). The results indicate that throwing velocity of elite team-handball players is related to maximal dynamic strength, peak power, and peak bar velocity. Thus, a training regimen designed to improve ball-throwing velocity in elite male team-handball players should include exercises that are aimed at increasing both strength and power in the upper body.

  18. Reliability and validity of a talent identification test battery for seated and standing Paralympic throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathis, Jemima Grace; Connick, Mark James; Beckman, Emma Maree; Newcombe, Peter Anthony; Tweedy, Sean Michael

    2015-01-01

    Paralympic throwing events for athletes with physical impairments comprise seated and standing javelin, shot put, discus and seated club throwing. Identification of talented throwers would enable prediction of future success and promote participation; however, a valid and reliable talent identification battery for Paralympic throwing has not been reported. This study evaluates the reliability and validity of a talent identification battery for Paralympic throws. Participants were non-disabled so that impairment would not confound analyses, and results would provide an indication of normative performance. Twenty-eight non-disabled participants (13 M; 15 F) aged 23.6 years (±5.44) performed five kinematically distinct criterion throws (three seated, two standing) and nine talent identification tests (three anthropometric, six motor); 23 were tested a second time to evaluate test-retest reliability. Talent identification test-retest reliability was evaluated using Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots (Limits of Agreement). Spearman's correlation assessed strength of association between criterion throws and talent identification tests. Reliability was generally acceptable (mean ICC = 0.89), but two seated talent identification tests require more extensive familiarisation. Correlation strength (mean rs = 0.76) indicated that the talent identification tests can be used to validly identify individuals with competitively advantageous attributes for each of the five kinematically distinct throwing activities. Results facilitate further research in this understudied area.

  19. Cold Hole Over Jupiter's Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Observations with two NASA telescopes show that Jupiter has an arctic polar vortex similar to a vortex over Earth's Antarctica that enables depletion of Earth's stratospheric ozone.These composite images of Jupiter's north polar region from the Hubble Space Telescope (right) and the Infrared Telescope Facility (left) show a quasi-hexagonal shape that extends vertically from the stratosphere down into the top of the troposphere. A sharp temperature drop, compared to surrounding air masses, creates an eastward wind that tends to keep the polar atmosphere, including the stratospheric haze, isolated from the rest of the atmosphere.The linear striations in the composite projections are artifacts of the image processing. The area closest to the pole has been omitted because it was too close to the edge of the planet in the original images to represent the planet reliably.The composite on the right combines images from the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope taken at a wavelength of 890 nanometers, which shows stratospheric haze particles.The sharp boundary and wave-like structure of the haze layer suggest a polar vortex and a similarity to Earth's stratospheric polar clouds. Images of Jupiter's thermal radiation clinch that identification. The composite on the left, for example, is made from images taken with Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mid-Infrared Large-Well Imager at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility at a wavelength of 17 microns. It shows polar air mass that is 5 to 6 degrees Celsius (9 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit) colder than its surroundings, with the same border as the stratospheric haze. Similar observations at other infrared wavelengths show the cold air mass extends at least as high as the middle stratosphere down to the top of the troposphere.These images were taken Aug. 11 through Aug. 13, 1999, near a time when Jupiter's north pole was most visible from Earth. Other Infrared Telescope Facility images at frequencies sensitive to the

  20. The Relationship of Throwing Arm Mechanics and Elbow Varus Torque: Within-Subject Variation for Professional Baseball Pitchers Across 82,000 Throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Christopher L; Tubbs, Travis G; Fleisig, Glenn S; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dowling, Brittany

    2017-11-01

    Likely due to the high level of strain exerted across the elbow during the throwing motion, elbow injuries are on the rise in baseball. To identify at-risk athletes and guide postinjury return-to-throw programs, a better understanding of the variables that influence elbow varus torque is desired. To describe the within-subject relationship between elbow varus torque and arm slot and arm rotation in professional baseball pitchers. Descriptive laboratory study. A total of 81 professional pitchers performed 82,000 throws while wearing a motusBASEBALL sensor and sleeve. These throws represented a combination of throw types, such as warm-up/catch, structured long-toss, bullpen throwing from a mound, and live game activity. Variables recorded for each throw included arm slot (angle of the forearm relative to the ground at ball release), arm speed (maximal rotational velocity of the forearm), arm rotation (maximal external rotation of the throwing arm relative to the ground), and elbow varus torque. Linear mixed-effects models and likelihood ratio tests were used to estimate the relationship between elbow varus torque and arm slot, arm speed, and arm rotation within individual pitchers. All 3 metrics-arm slot (χ 2 = 428, P relationship with elbow varus torque. Within individual athletes, a 1-N.m increase in elbow varus torque was associated with a 13° decrease in arm slot, a 116 deg/s increase in arm speed, and an 8° increase in arm rotation. Elbow varus torque increased significantly as pitchers increased their arm rotation during the arm cocking phase, increased the rotational velocity of their arm during the arm acceleration phase of throwing, and decreased arm slot at ball release. Thus, shoulder flexibility, arm speed, and elbow varus torque (and likely injury risk) are interrelated and should be considered collectively when treating pitchers. It is well established that elbow varus torque is related to ulnar collateral ligament injuries in overhead throwers. This

  1. Characterization of blade throw from a 2.3MW horizontal axis wind turbine upon failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlak, Hamid; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2015-01-01

    The present work concerns aerodynamics of thrown objects from a 2.3 MW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT), as a consequence of blade failure. The governing set of ordinary differential equations for the flying objects are derived and numerically solved using a 4th order Runge-Kutta time advancing...... on their size. Thereafter, throw distance picks up exponentially with the tip speed. By comparing the throw distance calculations with and without dynamic stall model being active, it is concluded that dynamic stall does not play a major role in throw distances....

  2. Effects of Six Weeks of Medicine Ball Training on Throwing Velocity, Throwing Precision, and Isokinetic Strength of Shoulder Rotators in Female Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Christian; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of medicine ball training (MBT) on throwing velocity, throwing precision, and isokinetic strength of shoulder rotators in competitive female handball players. Twenty-eight players (mean ± SD; age: 20.8 ± 3.3 years, height: 170.5 ± 5.6 cm, body mass: 65.2 ± 8.0 kg) were randomly assigned to an MBT group (TG; n = 15) and a control group (CG; n = 13). TG performed a supervised MBT program, 3 times a week for a total of 6 weeks, focusing on handball-specific movement patterns. Both groups, TG and CG, also conducted a supervised shoulder injury prevention program with elastic tubes, as part of the warm-up, finishing with regular handball throws. Results showed a significant group × time interaction in throwing velocity (p handball players, whereas throwing precision remained unaffected. Medicine ball training exercises seem to be a useful and inexpensive strength training strategy in enhancing functional performance by closely mimicking sport-specific movement activities.

  3. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  4. The pole tide in deep oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fluid-dynamical theory of the pole tide is examined by describing the oceanic response to the Chandler wobble and assessing its implications for mantle anelasticity and low-frequency ocean dynamics. The Laplace tide equations accounting for bottom friction are given, and a spherical harmonic approach is delineated in which the time-independent portion of the tide height is expanded. Pole-tide height and related inertia products are linearly proportional to wobble amplitude, and the final equations are modified to account for mantle elasticity and oceanic loading. Results for pole tide effects are given for various earth models with attention to the role of boundary constraints. A dynamic effect is identified which lengthens the Chandler period by about 1 day more than static lengthening, a contribution that suggests a vigorous low-frequency response. The values derived are shown to agree with previous models that do not incorporate the effects of the pole tide.

  5. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  6. Double Degenerate Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin-Lian, Luo; Hua, Bai; Lei, Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Regardless of the formation mechanism, an exotic object, the double degenerate star (DDS), is introduced and investigated, which is composed of baryonic matter and some unknown fermion dark matter. Different from the simple white dwarfs (WDs), there is additional gravitational force provided by the unknown fermion component inside DDSs, which may strongly affect the structure and the stability of such kind of objects. Many possible and strange observational phenomena connecting with them are concisely discussed. Similar to the normal WD, this object can also experience thermonuclear explosion as type Ia supernova explosion when DDS's mass exceeds the maximum mass that can be supported by electron degeneracy pressure. However, since the total mass of baryonic matter can be much lower than that of WD at Chandrasekhar mass limit, the peak luminosity should be much dimmer than what we expect before, which may throw a slight shadow on the standard candle of SN Ia in the research of cosmology. (general)

  7. Design and Implementation of an Embedded Digital Throwing System Based on MEMS Multiaxial Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen GAO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel embedded digital throwing system for synchronously sensing the throwing force of shot-put athletes in real time. The three axes integrated accelerometer, as a crucial device in the force sensing system, can acquire the kinetics data along three orthogonal directions with reasonably high accuracy. The digital shot with almost the same size and weight as the standard shot for open female has been designed, fabricated and implemented. The mechanical structure, signal processing system, and human-machine interface are illuminated in detail. In this manner, the force sensing system serves as a powerful tool for coaches and sports scientists to make scientific researches on professional throwing techniques. It also provides an intuitive and reliable guidance for the throwing athletes to improve their skills.

  8. Influence Of Opposition On Ball Velocity In The Handball Jump Throw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilla-Garcia, Jesús; Grande, Ignacio; Sampedro, Javier; Van Den Tillaar, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of different degrees of opposition on ball velocity in the jump throw in elite, amateur and adolescent team handball players. Thus, one hundred and nineteen elite, amateur and under 18 team handball players performed jump throws under three different conditions: 1) without opposition, 2) with the opposition of the goalkeeper and 3) with the opposition of the goalkeeper and a defensive player. The degree of opposition was found to have a negative effect on ball velocity in all three groups (p handball players in the jump throw. It indicated that an increase of external stimuli influences the execution of throwing. Experience does not seem to be a factor that can reduce the influence of these external stimuli. PMID:24150629

  9. Analysis, fabrication, and field test of an advanced embedded throwing electromechanical sensing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Dan [Beijing JiaoTong University, Beijing (China)

    2014-01-15

    Scientific measuring equipment is important in maintaining and further improving the daily training quality of professional athletes. In throwing sports, only kinematic information is usually recorded by several high-speed cameras, whereas the dynamic data are lacking. An advanced embedded throwing system is analyzed, fabricated, and field tested. This throwing system can be used to substitute the normal shot-put that obtains acceleration information from the upper limb when force is applied onto the device. This device has four main parts, namely, a mechanical shell, an embedded sensor, a signal processing circuit, and interface ports. The detailed design, simulation, and prototyping process are introduced in this work. The practical results obtained from the field test and feedback from users prove that the proposed throwing system is efficient for technical training and monitoring. This design provides a unique solution for the modeling and development of non-traditional, electro-mechanical sensing devices.

  10. BASIC TECHNICAL SKILLS (THROWS IN 17-19-YEAR-OLD JUDOKAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Jagiello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the research was to determine basic technical skills (throws in 17-19-year-old judokas and the level of their performance. Material: The study involved 30 judo athletes (aged 17-19. Results: To determine the athletes’ basic technical skills (throws, an analysis of source materials and a diagnostic survey were used. To determine the level of technical skills, the method of expert assessment was applied. Statistical software package Statistica 8 was used in the statistical analysis. In the coaches’ opinion, 17-19-year-old judokas have a specific, characteristic of this age group, set of basic technical skills (throws aptly defining their technical preparation. Conclusions: The tested group of judokas exhibited the highest level of demonstrating throws of the koshi-waza (hip group, and the lowest one of the ashi-waza (foot group.

  11. Improvement of the piezoelectric properties of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites by poling treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S M; Hwang, H Y

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a new non-destructive method has been proposed for damage monitoring of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials using the piezoelectric characteristics of a polymeric matrix. Several studies of the piezoelectric properties of unidirectional glass fiber epoxy composites and damage monitoring of double-cantilever beams have supported the claim that the piezoelectric method is feasible and powerful enough to monitor the damage of glass fiber epoxy composites. Generally, conventional piezoelectric materials have higher piezoelectric characteristics through poling treatment. In this work, we investigated the change of the piezoelectric properties of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites before and after poling treatment. The piezoelectric constants (d 33 ) of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites increased by more than 400%. Also, x-ray diffraction tests revealed that poling treatment changed the degree of crystallinity of the epoxy matrix, and this led to the improvement of the piezoelectric characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites. (paper)

  12. Kinematic Description of Elite Vs. Low Level Players in Team-Handball Jump Throw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Buchecker, Michael; von Duvillard, Serge P.; Müller, Erich

    2010-01-01

    The jump throw is the most applied throwing technique in team- handball (Wagner et al., 2008); however, a comprehensive analysis of 3D-kinematics of the team-handball jump throw is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of our study was: 1) to measure differences in ball release speed in team- handball jump throw and anthropometric parameters between groups of different levels of performance and (2) to analyze upper body 3D-kinematics (flexion/extension and rotation) to determine significant differences between these groups. Three-dimensional kinematic data was analyzed via the Vicon MX 13 motion capturing system (Vicon Peak, Oxford, UK) from 26 male team-handball players of different performance levels (mean age: 21.2 ± 5.0 years). The participants were instructed to throw the ball (IHF Size 3) onto a target at 8 m distance, and to hit the center of a square of 1 × 1 m at about eye level (1.75 m), with maximum ball release speed. Significant differences between elite vs. low level players were found in the ball release speed (p handball players who were taller and of greater body weight have the ability to achieve a higher ball release speed in the jump throw, and that an increase in trunk flexion and rotation angular velocity improve the performance in team-handball jump throw that should result in an increase of ball release speed. Key points Team-handball players who were taller and of greater body weight have the ability to achieve a higher ball release speed. An increase in trunk flexion, trunk rotation and shoulder internal rotation angular velocity should result in an increase of ball release speed. Trunk movements are normally well observable for experienced coaches, easy correctable and therefore practical to improve the performance in team-handball jump throw of low level players during training without using complex measurement devices. PMID:24149381

  13. Determinant Factors of Physical Performance and Specific Throwing in Handball Players of Different Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Becerra, Manuel; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Víctor; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2018-06-01

    Ortega-Becerra, M, Pareja-Blanco, F, Jiménez-Reyes, P, Cuadrado-Peñafiel, V, and González-Badillo, JJ. Determinant factors of physical performance and specific throwing in handball players of different ages. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1778-1786, 2018-This study aimed to analyze various fitness qualities in handball players of different ages and to determine the relationships between these parameters and throwing velocity. A total of 44 handball players participated, pooled by age groups: professional (ELITE, n = 13); under-18 (U18, n = 16); under-16 (U16, n = 15). The following tests were completed: 20-m running sprints; countermovement jumps (CMJs); jump squat to determine the load that elicited ∼20 cm jump height (JSLOAD-20 cm); a progressive loading test in full squat and bench press to determine the load that elicited ∼1 m·s (SQ-V1-LOAD and BP-V1-LOAD); and handball throwing (jump throw and 3-step throw). ELITE showed greater performance in almost all sprint distances, CMJ, JSLOAD-20 cm, and bench press strength than U18 and U16. The differences between U18 and U16 were unclear for these variables. ELITE also showed greater (p handball throwing velocity is strongly associated with lower-limb strength, although upper-limb strength, jumping and sprint capacities also play a relevant role in throwing performance, suggesting the need for coaches to include proper strength programs to improve handball players' throwing velocity.

  14. The potential of wood-based composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Cheng Piao; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Wood-based composite utility poles are receiving increasing attention in the North American pole market. This interest is being driven by many increasing factors such as increasing: (1) disposal costs of solid wood poles, (2) liability and environmental concerns with traditional means of disposal of solid wood poles, (3) cost and concerns of long-term...

  15. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH VS. BALLISTIC-POWER TRAINING ON THROWING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Zaras

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9 and Power (n = 8 groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ, Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively. Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively, while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05. Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05, while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (% decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations

  16. Pole shifting with constrained output feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, D.; Mensah, S.; Boisvert, J.

    1984-03-01

    The concept of pole placement plays an important role in linear, multi-variable, control theory. It has received much attention since its introduction, and several pole shifting algorithms are now available. This work presents a new method which allows practical and engineering constraints such as gain limitation and controller structure to be introduced right into the pole shifting design strategy. This is achieved by formulating the pole placement problem as a constrained optimization problem. Explicit constraints (controller structure and gain limits) are defined to identify an admissible region for the feedback gain matrix. The desired pole configuration is translated into an appropriate cost function which must be closed-loop minimized. The resulting constrained optimization problem can thus be solved with optimization algorithms. The method has been implemented as an algorithmic interactive module in a computer-aided control system design package, MVPACK. The application of the method is illustrated to design controllers for an aircraft and an evaporator. The results illustrate the importance of controller structure on overall performance of a control system

  17. POLE somatic mutations in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joana; Pinto, Carla; Pinto, Diana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Silva, Romina; Peixoto, Ana; Rocha, Patrícia; Veiga, Isabel; Santos, Catarina; Santos, Rui; Cabreira, Verónica; Lopes, Paula; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2017-12-01

    Despite all the knowledge already gathered, the picture of somatic genetic changes in colorectal tumorigenesis is far from complete. Recently, germline and somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit (POLE) gene have been reported in a small subset of microsatellite-stable and hypermutated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), affecting the proofreading activity of the enzyme and leading to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. To evaluate the role of POLE mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis, namely in advanced CRC, we searched for somatic mutations by Sanger sequencing in tumor DNA samples from 307 cases. Microsatellite instability and mutation analyses of a panel of oncogenes were performed in the tumors harboring POLE mutations. Three heterozygous mutations were found in two tumors, the c.857C>G, p.Pro286Arg, the c.901G>A, p.Asp301Asn, and the c.1376C>T, p.Ser459Phe. Of the POLE-mutated CRCs, one tumor was microsatellite-stable and the other had low microsatellite instability, whereas KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were found in one tumor each. We conclude that POLE somatic mutations exist but are rare in advanced CRC, with further larger studies being necessary to evaluate its biological and clinical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  19. PNRA. South-pole directory listing

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Carpen?, Andrea; Ramorino, Chiara; Rossi, Lucio

    1992-01-01

    In the following all DATA-SET descriptors (DSD) contained in the "South-Pole Directory" (vers. 1992) are listed. The "South-Pole Directory" was a joint project between ENEA and CNR. The IEI/CNR took care of the data digitalization and check and of the english translation (where necessary). The ARF/CNR and the Progetto Antartide/ENEA joined the IEI/CNR in defining the acronyms of the Sensor_Names and of the Source_Names, together with the short and long names for the Data_Centers. Finally, the...

  20. Frequent Immediate Knowledge of Results Enhances the Increase of Throwing Velocity in Overarm Handball Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štirn, Igor; Carruthers, Jamie; Šibila, Marko; Pori, Primož

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the effect of frequent, immediate, augmented feedback on the increase of throwing velocity was investigated. An increase of throwing velocity of a handball set shot when knowledge of results was provided or not provided during training was compared. Fifty female and seventy-three male physical education students were assigned randomly to the experimental or control group. All participants performed two series of ten set shots with maximal effort twice a week for six weeks. The experimental group received information regarding throwing velocity measured by a radar gun immediately after every shot, whereas the control group did not receive any feedback. Measurements of maximal throwing velocity of an ordinary handball and a heavy ball were performed, before and after the training period and compared. Participants who received feedback on results attained almost a four times greater relative increase of the velocity of the normal ball (size 2) as compared to the same intervention when feedback was not provided (8.1 ± 3.6 vs. 2.7 ± 2.9%). The velocity increases were smaller, but still significant between the groups for throws using the heavy ball (5.1 ± 4.2 and 2.5 ± 5.8 for the experimental and control group, respectively). Apart from the experimental group throwing the normal ball, no differences in velocity change for gender were obtained. The results confirmed that training oriented towards an increase in throwing velocity became significantly more effective when frequent knowledge of results was provided.

  1. Throwing behavior and mass distribution of stone selection in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, A; Rocca, A R; Wendt, E L; Westergaard, G C

    2003-12-01

    Cannell [Journal of Archaeological Science 29:335-339, 2002] argued that sex-based differences among humans in terms of the mass of chosen throwing stones could be used to infer body mass and patterns of sexual dimorphism in early hominids from Olduvai and Koobi Fora by examining the mass distributions of unaltered stone tools at those sites. We examined this hypothesis in tufted capuchin monkeys using a comparative approach, by investigating the relationships among body mass, sex, stone weight preference, and accuracy in a throwing task. The subject sample consisted of nine monkeys trained to perform an aimed-throwing task in which a food reward could be obtained by throwing a stone into a bucket. We found that 1) the subjects showed a strong mean stone mass preference; 2) the females chose heavier stones than the males, in terms of absolute mean selected stone mass and selected stone mass relative to body mass; 3) subjects threw more accurately when they used stones of preferred mass vs. stones of nonpreferred mass; and 4) overall, the males were more accurate in the throwing task than the females. We conclude that capuchins are highly selective when choosing throwing stones, and that this confers an advantage for throwing accuracy. Our results indicate that the sexually dimorphic pattern in stone mass preference observed among humans does not generalize to Cebus apella. We suggest that researchers examining this pattern in humans in an attempt to explain early hominid patterns of dimorphism and behavior should take into account not only stone weight preference, but also its adaptive advantage. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A Visit to the South Pole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    For these reasons, I could not buy many of the essential things .... Geomagnetic South Pole at 78° 27' S, 106° 48' E at an altitude of 3,488 metres on approximately .... Smokers at the station were often found searching for used cigarette butts.

  3. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  4. Stabilization, pole placement, and regular implementability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belur, MN; Trentelman, HL

    In this paper, we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a-given linear, differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding a suitable,

  5. Quasiparticle pole strength in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that single-particle-like behavior in nuclear matter is much less probable than Brueckner theory suggests. In particular, the quasiparticle pole strength is evaluated for nuclear matter and it is shown that, contrary to the spirit of Brueckner theory, low momentum states play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of z/sub k/sub F/. (auth)

  6. Pole masses of quarks in dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, L.V.; Kalmykov, M.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Pole masses of quarks in quantum chromodynamics are calculated to the two-loop order in the framework of the regularization by dimensional reduction. For the diagram with a light quark loop, the non-Euclidean asymptotic expansion is constructed with the external momentum on the mass shell of a heavy quark

  7. Rotor pole refurbishment for hydrogenerators: insulation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.R.; Rux, L.

    2005-01-01

    Rotor poles for Unit 1 at Lower Granite Powerhouse were removed from the rotor and shipped to a repair facility for refurbishment. Upon inspection, it was found that all of the pole bodies exhibited a distinct bow, center to end, on the pole mounting surface. In some cases, the deflection was as much as 0.106 inch. Concerns were raised about how this condition might affect the ability to properly insulate and/or re-seat the poles. This paper presents details of the rotor pole and field winding evaluation, the problems encountered, and the solutions implemented to successfully refurbish the rotor poles and field winding. (author)

  8. Where Are You Throwing the Ball? I Better Watch Your Body, Not Just Your Arm!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Maselli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to intercept or avoid a moving object, whether to catch a ball, snatch one’s prey, or avoid the path of a predator, is a skill that has been acquired throughout evolution by many species in the animal kingdom. This requires processing early visual cues in order to program anticipatory motor responses tuned to the forthcoming event. Here, we explore the nature of the early kinematics cues that could inform an observer about the future direction of a ball projected with an unconstrained overarm throw. Our goal was to pinpoint the body segments that, throughout the temporal course of the throwing action, could provide key cues for accurately predicting the side of the outgoing ball. We recorded whole-body kinematics from twenty non-expert participants performing unconstrained overarm throws at four different targets placed on a vertical plane at 6 m distance. In order to characterize the spatiotemporal structure of the information embedded in the kinematics of the throwing action about the outgoing ball direction, we introduced a novel combination of dimensionality reduction and machine learning techniques. The recorded kinematics clearly shows that throwing styles differed considerably across individuals, with corresponding inter-individual differences in the spatio-temporal structure of the thrower predictability. We found that for most participants it is possible to predict the region where the ball hit the target plane, with an accuracy above 80%, as early as 400–500 ms before ball release. Interestingly, the body parts that provided the most informative cues about the action outcome varied with the throwing style and during the time course of the throwing action. Not surprisingly, at the very end of the action, the throwing arm is the most informative body segment. However, cues allowing for predictions to be made earlier than 200 ms before release are typically associated to other body parts, such as the lower limbs and the

  9. Improvements Realized on the NiThrowTM Solution - 13075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moggia, F.; Objois, L.; Damerval, F.; Toulemonde, V.; Varet, T.; Guillot, S.; Richard, F.

    2013-01-01

    such as corners..). In this paper, the 'step by step' strategy to achieve those ambitious developments will be presented with a special attention to the NiThrow TM carrier development. (authors)

  10. PEMBELAJARANSNOWBALL THROWING DITINJAU DARIGAYA BELAJAR EKSTROVERT-INTROVERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Sulaiman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the results of students 'mathematics learning through cooperative learning model Snowball Throwingin terms of students' learning styles. The population of this research is all class VIII SMP Negeri 1 Adiluwih totaling 285 students. The sample was 70 students consisting of 35 students to a class of 35 students for the experimental and control classes were obtained by technique. cluster random sampling. The instrument used was a questionnaire and student mathematics achievement test. Data analysis techniques used a party t-test and t-test two parties. Based on t-test calculation of the two parties to the student's learning style extrovert, shows thitung = 3.07 and ttable = 2.021 at significance level of 5% that thitung > ttabel (3.07> 2,021, then H0 is rejected and  H1 received. For the t-test of the parties to the student's learning style extrovert show thitung = 3.07and ttabel = 1.684 at significance level of 5% that thitung > ttabel (3.07> 1.684, then H0  is rejected and  H1 accepted. T-test calculation of the two parties to the student's learning style introvert show thitung = -0.87 and ttabel = -2.069 at a significance level of 5% that thitung > ttabel (-0.87> -2.069, then H0 is  rejected and  H1  accepted. For the t-test for students' learning styles  introvertshow thitung = -0.87 and ttable = 1.714 at significance level of 5% that  thitung < ttabel   (-0.87 <1.714, then H0 is   rejected and H1 accepted.Key words: Snowball Throwing,learning style,ekstrovert, extrovert

  11. Effect of core stability training on throwing velocity in female handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeterbakken, Atle H; van den Tillaar, Roland; Seiler, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    The purpose was to study the effect of a sling exercise training (SET)-based core stability program on maximal throwing velocity among female handball players. Twenty-four female high-school handball players (16.6 ± 0.3 years, 63 ± 6 kg, and 169 ± 7 cm) participated and were initially divided into a SET training group (n = 14) and a control group (CON, n = 10). Both groups performed their regular handball training for 6 weeks. In addition, twice a week, the SET group performed a progressive core stability-training program consisting of 6 unstable closed kinetic chain exercises. Maximal throwing velocity was measured before and after the training period using photocells. Maximal throwing velocity significantly increased 4.9% from 17.9 ± 0.5 to 18.8 ± 0.4 m·s in the SET group after the training period (p core stability training using unstable, closed kinetic chain movements can significantly improve maximal throwing velocity. A stronger and more stable lumbopelvic-hip complex may contribute to higher rotational velocity in multisegmental movements. Strength coaches can incorporate exercises exposing the joints for destabilization force during training in closed kinetic chain exercises. This may encourage an effective neuromuscular pattern and increase force production and can improve a highly specific performance task such as throwing.

  12. Biomechanics of increased spin velocity of flying discs during forehand throws by skilled and unskilled throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kei; Umegaki, Koji; Sakurai, Shinji

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between throwing distance and kinematic release parameters of the flying disc in unskilled throwers, and to assess the relationship between kinetic variables acting on flying discs and the change in spin velocity during long forehand throws by skilled and unskilled throwers. Ten skilled and eleven unskilled throwers performed throws at maximum effort. Reflective marker positions on the disc and body were recorded with a 3D motion capture system during the throws to derive kinematic variables of a disc and kinetic variables acting on the disc. The analysis interval was from maximum external shoulder rotation to disc release. Significant correlations were observed between the throwing distance and spin velocity in skilled (r = 0.722, P < 0.05) and unskilled throwers (r = 0.794, P < 0.01), between the change in spin velocity and the angular impulse of moments of force, in unskilled throwers (r = 0.703, P < 0.05), and between the change in spin velocity and the angular impulse of torque among skilled throwers (r = 0.680, P < 0.01). Therefore, a strategy for increasing spin velocity in unskilled throwers could be used to generate a larger torque, similar to that observed in skilled throwers.

  13. Kinematical Comparison Analysis on the Discus Athletes Throwing Techniques Based on Data Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming, Li; Jihe, Zhou; Ting, Long

    2017-09-01

    In the discus final site of throwing event series game of China’s track and field sport in April, 2015, three dimensional camera analytical method which is an application of kinematical data project was used on female discus athletes’ discus throwing technology. And analysis was made for the top four discus throwers’ last exertion action, related kinematics parameter was thus obtained. Analysis results show that: first, Lu Xiaoxin behaves better in body twist tight effect when it is left foot on the ground and in capacity of beyond devices, followed by Su Xinyue and Tan Jian, with Feng Bin relatively weaker; second, our athletes’ discus shots speed is to be upgraded compared with world excellent female discus athletes; third, discus is left slightly earlier, with Tan Jian throwing in a reasonable angle, Feng Bin, Lu Xiaoxin in a larger angle, and Sue Xinyue in a smaller angle. Feng bin has a higher height of release, followed by Lu Xiaoxin and Tan jian.

  14. Perceptual training effects on anticipation of direct and deceptive 7-m throws in handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharji, Khaled E; Wade, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of perceptual training on the performance of handball goalkeepers when anticipating the direction of both direct and deceptive 7-m throws. Skilled goalkeepers were assigned equally to three matched-ability groups based on their pre-test performance: a perceptual training group (n = 14) received video-based perceptual training, a placebo training group (n = 14) received video-based regular training and a control group received no training. Participants in the perceptual training group significantly improved their performance compared to both placebo and control groups; however, anticipation of deceptive throws improved less than for direct throws. The results confirm that although anticipating deception in handball is a challenging task for goalkeepers, task-specific perceptual training can minimise its effect and improve performance.

  15. Fatigue failure and cracking in high mast poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive research project to investigate the fatigue : cracking and failure of galvanized high mast illumination poles (HMIP). Ultrasonic inspection of : poles throughout the state has revealed the presence...

  16. CAN UPPER EXTREMITY FUNCTIONAL TESTS PREDICT THE SOFTBALL THROW FOR DISTANCE: A PREDICTIVE VALIDITY INVESTIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, William J.; Kolber, Morey J.; Davies, George J.; Riemann, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Understanding the relationships between performance tests and sport activity is important to the rehabilitation specialist. The purpose of this study was two- fold: 1) To identify if relationships exist between tests of upper body strength and power (Single Arm Seated Shot Put, Timed Push-Up, Timed Modified Pull-Up, and The Davies Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test, and the softball throw for distance), 2) To determine which variable or group of variables best predicts the performance of a sport specific task (the softball throw for distance). Methods: One hundred eighty subjects (111 females and 69 males, aged 18-45 years) performed the 5 upper extremity tests. The Pearson product moment correlation and a stepwise regression were used to determine whether relationships existed between performance on the tests and which upper extremity test result best explained the performance on the softball throw for distance. Results: There were significant correlations (r=.33 to r=.70, p=0.001) between performance on all of the tests. The modified pull-up test was the best predictor of the performance on the softball throw for distance (r2= 48.7), explaining 48.7% of variation in performance. When weight, height, and age were added to the regression equation the r2 values increased to 64.5, 66.2, and 67.5 respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that several upper extremity tests demonstrate significant relationships with one another and with the softball throw for distance. The modified pull up test was the best predictor of performance on the softball throw for distance. PMID:21712942

  17. Relationship of pectoralis major muscle size with bench press and bench throw performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Ryota; Tohdoh, Yukihiro; Hirayama, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of muscle size indices of the pectoralis major muscle with bench press and bench throw performances in 18 male collegiate athletes. The maximal cross-sectional area (MCSAMAx) and volume (MV) of the pectoralis major muscle were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. First, subjects were tested for their one repetition maximum bench press strength (1RMBP) using a Smith machine. At a later date, subjects performed bench throws using the Smith machine with several different loads ranging from 30.0 kg to 90% of 1RMBP. Barbell positions were measured by a linear position transducer, and bench throw power was calculated using a dynamic equation. Three trials were performed for each load. In all the trials, the maximal peak power was adopted as bench throw peak power (PPBT). The 1RMBP was significantly correlated with MCSAMAx. Similarly, the correlation coefficient between MV and PPBT was significant. In contrast to the y-intercept of the MV-PPBT regression line, that of the MCSAMAx-1RMBP regression line was not significantly different from 0. These results suggested that, although the dependence on pectoralis major muscle size is slightly different between bench press strength and bench throw power, the pectoralis major muscle size has a significant impact on bench press and throw performances. Greater muscle size leads to heavier body weight, which can be a negative factor in some sports. We therefore recommend that athletes and their coaches develop training programs for improving sports performance by balancing the advantage of increased muscle size and the potential disadvantage of increased body weight.

  18. Reliability assessment of ballistic jump squats and bench throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Joseph A; Pandorf, Clay E; Montain, Scott J; Castellani, John W; Tuckow, Alexander P; Nindl, Bradley C

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the test-retest reliability and coefficient of variation of 2 novel physical performance tests. Ten healthy men (22.0 +/- 3.0 years, 87.0 +/- 8.0 kg, 20.0 +/- 5.0% body fat) performed 30 continuous and dynamic jump squats (JS) and bench throws (BT) on 4 separate occasions. The movements were performed under loaded conditions utilizing 30% of subject's predetermined 1 repetition maximum in the back squat and bench press. Mean power (MP; W), peak power (PP; W), mean velocity (MV; m.s(-1)), peak velocity (PV; m.s(-1)), and total work (TW; J) were assessed using a ballistic measurement system (Innervations Inc., Muncie, IN). Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with Duncan's post hoc test when mean differences were p < or = 0.05. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV%) were also calculated. All values are presented as mean +/- SE. BT variables were statistically similar across the 4 sessions: MP (350.0 +/- 13.9 W), PP (431.4 +/- 18.5 W) MV (1.6 +/- 0.03 m.s(-1)), PV (2.0 +/- 0.03 m.s(-1)), and TW (199.1 +/- 7.2 J). For JS, session 3 PP (1,669.8 +/- 111.2 W) was significantly greater vs. sessions 1, 2, and 4 (1,601.2 +/- 58.4 W). Session 4 MP (1,403.2 +/- 88.6 W) and MV (1.9 +/- 0.1 m.s(-1)) for JS were significantly lower during sessions 1, 2, and 3 (MP: 1,479.4.5 +/- 44.8 W, MV: 2.0 +/- 0.05 m.s(-1)). TW (834.7 +/- 24.3 J) and PV (2.2 +/- 0.04 m.s(-1)) were statistically similar during all sessions for JS. The CVs ranged from 3.0 to 7.6% for the BT and 3.2 to 5.7% for the JS. ICCs for MP, PP, MV, PV, and TW were 0.92, 0.95, 0.94, 0.91, and 0.95, respectively, during BT. ICCs during JS for MP, PP, MV, PV, and TW were 0.96, 0.98, 0.94, 0.94, and 0.89, respectively. The results of the current study support the use of a 30 continuous and dynamic BT protocol as a reliable upper-body physical performance test, which can be administered with

  19. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  20. Second-harmonic imaging of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2000-01-01

    Electric-field poled silica-based waveguides are characterized by measurements of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and of the linear electro-optic effect (LEO). A SHG scanning technique allowing for high-resolution imaging of poled devices is demonstrated. Scans along the direction of the poling...

  1. Permanent magnet machine and method with reluctance poles and non-identical PM poles for high density operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    2010-05-18

    A method and apparatus in which a stator (11) and a rotor (12) define a primary air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one source (23, 40), and preferably two sources (23, 24, 40) of DC excitation are positioned for inducing DC flux at opposite ends of the rotor (12). Portions of PM material (17, 17a) are provided as boundaries separating PM rotor pole portions from each other and from reluctance poles. The PM poles (18) and the reluctance poles (19) can be formed with poles of one polarity having enlarged flux paths in relation to flux paths for pole portions of an opposite polarity, the enlarged flux paths communicating with a core of the rotor (12) so as to increase reluctance torque produced by the electric machine. Reluctance torque is increased by providing asymmetrical pole faces. The DC excitation can also use asymmetric poles and asymmetric excitation sources. Several embodiments are disclosed with additional variations.

  2. Physics on the Z-pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Tsunehiko; Kurihara, Yoshimasa; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Keisuke

    1994-01-01

    JLC will provide a high luminosity of 2.0 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 on the Z-pole. To realize the Z-pole running we need to add a transport line to bypass unnecessary part of the main linac. With this high luminosity, the third angle of the unitality triangle (sin 2φ 3 ) can be measured in B s (B s ) → pK s channel with 3σ sensitivity in 1 year when sin 2φ 3 = -0.5, Xs = 10, and the branching ratio of the channel is 2 x 10 -5 . Also sin 2 θw can be measured with accuracy of Δsin 2 θw/sin 2 θw = 0.1%. (J.P.N.)

  3. Sun's pole-equator flux differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvedere, G [Istituto di Astronomia dell' Universita di Catania, Italy; Paterno, L [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Italy

    1977-04-01

    The possibility that large flux differences between the poles and the equator at the bottom of the solar convective zone are compatible with the small differences observed at the surface is studied. The consequences of increasing the depth of the convective zone due to overshooting are explored. A Boussinesq model is used for the convective zone and it is assumed that the interaction of the global convection with rotation is modelled through a convective flux coefficient whose perturbed part is proportional to the local Taylor number. The numerical integration of the equations of motion and energy shows that coexistence between large pole-equator flux differences at the bottom and small ones at the surface is possible if the solar convective zone extends to a depth of 0.4 R(Sun). The angular velocity distribution inside the convective zone is in agreement with the ..cap alpha omega..-dynamo theories of the solar cycle.

  4. Predictive Ability of the Medicine Ball Chest Throw and Vertical Jump Tests for Determining Muscular Strength and Power in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Daniel A.; Davies, Timothy B.; Ibel, Denis; Cobley, Stephen; Sanders, Ross

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the predictive ability of the medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump for muscular strength and power in adolescents. One hundred and ninety adolescents participated in this study. Participants performed trials of the medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump, with vertical jump peak power calculated via an estimation…

  5. Judgement bias in predicting the success of one’s own basketball free throws but not those of others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; Balch, L.; Niesert, L.

    2015-01-01

    Skilled basketball players are supposed to hit more often from the free throw distance than would be predicted by their shooting performances at adjacent distances. This is dubbed an especial skill. In the current study, we examined whether especial skills in free throw performance in basketball map

  6. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. The observational analysis of performance in the handball ´s throwing of the Spanish promises selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Blanco García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work has as objective to analyze the efficiency of the handball´s throwings. For it, there were analyzed five matches that the lower level spanish selection disputed in an european championship. This process was realized by an observational methodology, where were evaluated different parameters related to the handball´s throwing: the model of the throw, distance, position and opposition with regard to the variable goal-no goal. The results found that the variables distance and opposition have an influence in the throwing´s efficiency, so that training of these parameters must be taken into account in the game.Key Words: Observational methodology, Spanish selection, Handball, Throwing,  Efficiency.

  8. INCIDENCIA DE LOS TIROS LIBRES EN PARTIDOS DE BALONCESTO PROFESIONAL [Incidence of free throws in professional basketball games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente García Tormo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the incident of the free throw on the final results of the basketball match, and see how other factors may influence the final average of successful free throws, comparing national leagues with European competition. A total of 59,364 free throws have been analyzed, corresponding to 1722 matches from two seasons of the Spanish professional basketball league (ACB and LFB and European league (Euroleague Euroleague and women. Has been made descriptive analysis, an analysis of synchrony and an analysis of the residuals corrected. The results demonstrate the importance of free throws for the final score, especially in male and when is a close match. Likewise, the home court advantage is related to higher efficiency in free throws and win the match.

  9. Current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor with 8 salient poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Kazuaki; Hirata, Katsuhiro; Niguchi, Noboru; Kohara, Akira

    2017-12-01

    We propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor for a traction motor of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, which consists of 10 salient poles in the rotor and 12 slots in the stator. However, iron losses of this motor in high rotation speed ranges is large because the number of salient poles is large. In this paper, we propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor that consists of 8 salient poles and 12 slots. The characteristics of the 10-pole-12-slot and 8-pole-12-slot current superimposition variable flux reluctance motors are compared using finite element analysis under vector control.

  10. Current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor with 8 salient poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahara Kazuaki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor for a traction motor of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, which consists of 10 salient poles in the rotor and 12 slots in the stator. However, iron losses of this motor in high rotation speed ranges is large because the number of salient poles is large. In this paper, we propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor that consists of 8 salient poles and 12 slots. The characteristics of the 10-pole-12-slot and 8-pole-12-slot current superimposition variable flux reluctance motors are compared using finite element analysis under vector control.

  11. BASEBALL THROWING MECHANICS AS THEY RELATE TO PATHOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Whiteley

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a commonly held perception amongst biomechanists, sports medicine practitioners, baseball coaches and players, that an individual baseball player's style of throwing or pitching influences their performance and susceptibility to injury. With the results of a series of focus groups with baseball managers and pitching coaches in mind, the available scientific literature was reviewed regarding the contribution of individual aspects of pitching and throwing mechanics to potential for injury and performance. After a discussion of the limitations of kinematic and kinetic analyses, the individual aspects of pitching mechanics are discussed under arbitrary headings: Foot position at stride foot contact; Elbow flexion; Arm rotation; Arm horizontal abduction; Arm abduction; Lead knee position; Pelvic orientation; Deceleration-phase related issues; Curveballs; and Teaching throwing mechanics. In general, popular opinion of baseball coaching staff was found to be largely in concordance with the scientific investigations of biomechanists with several notable exceptions. Some difficulties are identified with the practical implementation of analyzing throwing mechanics in the field by pitching coaches, and with some unquantified aspects of scientific analyses

  12. Learning Method and Its Influence on Nutrition Study Results Throwing the Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin; Nugraha, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to know the difference between playing and learning methods of exploratory learning methods to learning outcomes throwing the ball. In addition, this study also aimed to determine the effect of nutritional status of these two learning methods mentioned above. This research was conducted at SDN Cipinang Besar Selatan 16 Pagi East…

  13. Effects of Variable Resistance Using Chains on Bench Throw Performance in Trained Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Mark S; Fernandes, John F T; Twist, Craig

    2018-04-01

    Godwin, MS, Fernandes, JFT, and Twist, C. Effects of variable resistance using chains on bench throw performance in trained rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 950-954, 2018-This study sought to determine the effects of variable resistance using chain resistance on bench throw performance. Eight male rugby union players (19.4 ± 2.3 years, 88.8 ± 6.0 kg, 1RM 105.6 ± 17.0 kg) were recruited from a national league team. In a randomized crossover design, participant's performed 3 bench throws at 45% one repetition maximum (1RM) at a constant load (no chains) or a variable load (30% 1RM constant load and 15% 1RM variable load; chains) with 7 days between conditions. For each repetition, the peak and mean velocity, peak power, peak acceleration, and time to peak velocity were recorded. Differences in peak and mean power were very likely trivial and unclear between the chain and no chain conditions, respectively. Possibly greater peak and likely greater mean bar velocity were accompanied by likely to most likely greater bar velocity between 50 and 400 ms from initiation of bench press in the chain condition compared with the no chain condition. Accordingly, bar acceleration was very likely greater in the chain condition compared with the no chain condition. In conclusion, these results show that the inclusion of chain resistance can acutely enhance several variables in the bench press throw and gives support to this type of training.

  14. The relationship between gluteal muscle activation and throwing kinematics in baseball and softball catchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Hillary A; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between gluteal muscle activation and pelvis and trunk kinematics when catchers throw to second base. Forty-two baseball and softball catchers (14.74 ± 4.07 years; 161.85 ± 15.24 cm; 63.38 ± 19.98 kg) participated in this study. Muscle activity of the bilateral gluteus maximus and medius as well as pelvis and trunk kinematics throughout the throwing motion were analyzed. It was discovered that at foot contact, there were 2 significant inverse relationships between stride leg gluteus maximus activity and pelvis axial rotation (r = -0.31, r2 = 0.10, p = 0.05), and between trunk axial rotation and pelvis lateral flexion (r = -0.34, r2= 0.12, p = 0.03). In addition, at foot contact, a significant positive relationship between the drive leg (throwing arm side) and trunk flexion (r = 0.33, r2 = 0.11, p = 0.04) was present. The results of this study provide evidence of gluteal activation both concentrically and eccentrically, in attempt to control the pelvis and trunk during the throwing motion of catchers. The gluteal muscles play a direct role in maintaining the stability of the pelvis, and catchers should incorporate strengthening of the entire lumbopelvic-hip complex into their training regimen. Incorporating concentric and eccentric gluteal exercises will help to improve musculoskeletal core stability, thereby assisting in upper extremity injury prevention.

  15. Bio-mechanical assessment toward throwing and lifting process of i-LOCA (Innovative Lobster Catcher)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiarno, A.; Dewi, D. S.; Putri, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is the country rich in marine resource, one of which is lobster. East java, one of Indonesian province, especially in Region of Gresik and Lamogan, has very huge potential of lobster. Current condition shown that lobster catch by the fisherman mostly depend on lucky factor, which the lobster unintentionally trapped in fisherman’s fish net. By using this mechanism, the number of lobster catch cannot be optimum. Previous researches have produced two versions of i-LOCA, Innovative Lobster Catcher, a special tool for catching the lobster. Although produce more lobster catch, second version of i-LOCA still needs to be scrutinized, one of that is bio-mechanical assessment. The second version of i-LOCA still has no tool to ease throwing and lifting it into the sea. This condition cause Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) toward the fisherman. This research perform bio-mechanical assessment toward throwing and lifting process in order to suggest improvement for i-LOCA as the third version. Based on body moment calculation, we found that throwing and lifting process of third version of i-LOCA, each was 3 times and 2 times better than second version of i-LOCA. Meanwhile, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) score of throwing and lifting process for third version of i-LOCA can be reduced by 5 points compared to second version of i-LOCA.

  16. performance routines followed by free throw shooting accuracy in secondary basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelps Ashley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of the current study was to determine whether existing pre-performance routines had an effect on free throw shooting accuracy in high school pupils as compared to shooting without a pre-performance routine.

  17. The effects of different focus of attention on throwing skills among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of external focus (EF) of attention compared to internal focus (IF) of attention instructions on throwing boules in a modified-petanque game among the ASD children. Ten ASD children aged from seven to 10 participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups ...

  18. Training Physical Education Students to Self-Regulate during Basketball Free Throw Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Zimmerman, Barry J.; Keating, Tedd

    2006-01-01

    The additive effects of self-regulation training in forethought, performance, and self-reflection phase processes on acquiring a novel motoric skill (i.e., basketball free throws) and self-reflective beliefs were studied with 50 college students. The results showed a positive linear trend between the number of self-regulatory phases, in which the…

  19. Sequence-dependent rotation axis changes and interaction torque use in overarm throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Rezzoug, Nasser; Gorce, Philippe; Venture, Gentiane; Isableu, Brice

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of rotation axes during an overarm throwing task. Participants performed such task and were asked to throw a ball at maximal velocity at a target. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the minimum inertia axis would be exploited during the throwing phases, a time when internal-external rotations of the shoulder are particularly important. A motion capture system was used to evaluate the performance and to compute the potential axes of rotation (minimum inertia axis, shoulder-centre of mass axis and the shoulder-elbow axis). More specifically, we investigated whether a velocity-dependent change in rotational axes can be observed in the different throwing phases and whether the control obeys the principle of minimum inertia resistance. Our results showed that the limbs' rotational axis mainly coincides with the minimum inertia axis during the cocking phase and with the shoulder-elbow axis during the acceleration phase. Besides these rotation axes changes, the use of interaction torque is also sequence-dependent. The sequence-dependent rotation axes changes associated with the use of interaction torque during the acceleration phase could be a key factor in the production of hand velocity at ball release.

  20. The Effect of Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on A Throwing Task Depends on Individual Level of Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Katayama, Takashi; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2018-02-10

    The effect of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor performance remains controversial. Some studies suggest that the effect of tDCS depends upon task-difficulty and individual level of task performance. Here, we investigated whether the effect of cerebellar tDCS on the motor performance depends upon the individual's level of performance. Twenty-four naïve participants practiced dart throwing while receiving a 2-mA cerebellar tDCS for 20 min under three stimulus conditions (anodal-, cathodal-, and sham-tDCS) on separate days with a double-blind, counter-balanced cross-over design. Task performance was assessed by measuring the distance between the center of the bull's eye and the dart's position. Although task performance tended to improve throughout the practice under all stimulus conditions, improvement within a given day was not significant as compared to the first no-stimulus block. In addition, improvement did not differ among stimulation conditions. However, the magnitude of improvement was associated with an individual's level of task performance only under cathodal tDCS condition (p performance improvement only for the sub-group of participants with lower performance levels as compared to that with sham-tDCS (p task performance. Thus, cerebellar tDCS would facilitate learning of a complex motor skill task only in a subset of individuals. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ulnohumeral chondral and ligamentous overload: biomechanical correlation for posteromedial chondromalacia of the elbow in throwing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbahr, Daryl C; Dines, Joshua S; Breazeale, Nathan M; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Altchek, David W

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have documented increased posteromedial contact forces with the elbow at lower flexion angles associated with valgus extension overload; however, the authors believe that posteromedial elbow impingement in association with valgus laxity is a complex pathological process that may occur throughout the entire throwing motion in the form of ulnohumeral chondral and ligamentous overload. Valgus laxity with the elbow at 90° of flexion may lead to chondromalacia secondary to a subtle shift in the contact point between the tip of the olecranon and the distal humeral trochlea. Controlled laboratory study. Six fresh human cadaveric elbows were dissected and subjected to a static valgus load. Pressure-sensitive Fuji film measured the contact pressure, contact area, and shift in contact area across the posteromedial elbow before and after sectioning the anterior bundle of the ulnar collateral ligament. The contact pressure between the tip of the olecranon process and the medial crista of the posterior humeral trochlea significantly increased, from an average of 0.27 ± 0.06 kg/cm² to 0.40 ± 0.08 kg/cm². The contact area also significantly decreased, from an average of 30.34 ± 9.17 mm² to 24.59 ± 6.44 mm², and shifted medially on the medial humeral crista, which corresponds to the position of the posteromedial chondral lesions that was observed in throwing athletes in the authors' clinical practice. While simulating the early acceleration phase of the throwing motion with the elbow in 90° of flexion, the results illustrate that abnormal contact may occur as a result of valgus laxity through increased contact pressures across the posteromedial elbow between the medial tip of the olecranon and medial crista of the humeral trochlea. In addition, congruency of the ulnohumeral joint changed, as there was a statistically significant medial shift of the olecranon on the posterior humeral trochlea with the elbow at 90° of flexion after sectioning the anterior

  2. THE LEVEL AND AGE DYNAMICS OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS OF ATHLETES-VETERANS OF THE HAMMER THROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Natalya Dmitrievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the records of the world and Russian athletes veterans in the hammer throw, starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years, and a comparison of the records of veterans subject to an age factor and of the high scores of athletes in the current sports. The aim of the work is to analyze the level and dynamics of the records of the world and Russian athletes, veterans in the hammer throw in each five-year group starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years. The novelty of the work consists in comparison of the records of the world and Russia in the hammer throw active athletes and records of veterans with the amendment to the age factor. Analysis of the level and age dynamics of sports achievements of domestic and foreign athletes-throwers older age groups. In the course of the research it is established, that in the throwing hammer, decreasing absolute (without regard to the age factor results, which is largely due to the natural age-related changes in the organism of athletes. Records of the world athletes-veterans compared with the records of active athletes and the transition from each of the five-year group in the following, decline on average in men by 10,0%, among women by 19,3%, in spite of the fact that the weight of the shells in the hammer throw with age decreases. Presented the reasons for the backwardness of Russian athletes older than 35 years of foreign veterans.

  3. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key pointsBallistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks.In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance.The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters.

  4. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, Alberto; Adumitroaie, V.

    2017-01-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars,...... of magnitude more precise. This has implications for the distribution of heavy elements in the interior, including the existence and mass of Jupiter's core. The observed magnetic field exhibits smaller spatial variations than expected, indicative of a rich harmonic content....

  5. Device for connecting pole bridges and poles to the terminals of a set of plates for a battery cell. Vorrichtung zum Verbinden von Polbruecken und Polen mit den Fahnenableitern eines Plattensatzes fuer eine Akkumulatorenzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallup, B.; Glittenberg, W.; Kubis, C.; Richter, G.; Ressel, C.

    1987-12-23

    The purpose of the invention is a device for attaching pole bridges and poles by casting them on to terminals of a completely mounted set of plates of electric batteries, in the form of a casting which is made to take the negative and the positive lug of the set of plates separately as a double tool. Each casting and its wall thickness are dimensioned so that the heat exchange between the bridge lead and the immersed volume of each negative or positive lug is equal. With this casting, it is also possible, using lugs made of lead or lead alloy, to cause the pole sections to solidify first and then to cause the bridge sections to solidify at the same time in a subsequent two-stage cooling process.

  6. Analysis of pp scattering at the CERN ISR energies in the multiple Regge pole model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrij, A.I.; Kobylinsky, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The simple Regge model is suggested for describing data on proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies. The simplest variant of the Regge model can be formulated as a sum of two pomerons, the first being a moving double pole and the second - a fixed simple pole. Comparison with known data is given. The model gives an infinite rise of the total cross section of pp-scattering. The differential cross section changes slowly with energy. The models of two pomerons reproduce many features of the geometric scaling, in particular, the shift of the dip and rise of scattering total cross section at the second maximum. The considered model is rather simple and is well consistent with experiment

  7. Tent-Poles of the Bestseller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Vistisen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for understanding and analysing how the passive audience of a media event turns into active stakeholders. The starting point is the cross-media content quadrant (Jensen and Vistisen, 2012), which shows how the producer’s control is distributed on social media...... platforms, while storytelling evolves around a tent-pole, for example, a bestseller or blockbuster. To further explain how the audience engages, a three-step rhetoric model largely based on Bitzer (1998) and Tolkien (1971) is developed and explained....

  8. Infrared solar physics from the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake

    1989-01-01

    Infrared (IR) observations of the sun could greatly benefit from the quality of the South Pole as an IR site, and the potential for multi-day sequences of uninterrupted observations. A nearly continuous picture of the evolution of the magnetic field in solar active regions could be obtained using vector magnetographs, especially vector magnetographs which incorporate IR array detectors. Observations of the sun over a range of wavelengths in the IR continuum could also be used to study the vertical propagation characteristics of the solar p-mode oscillations.

  9. Design of a portable CAT scanner for utility pole inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Work is under way at the University of Missouri, Columbia (UMC) to design, build, and test a portable computerized axial tomography (CAT) device for the nondestructive, field imaging of wooden utility poles. CAT is a well-established medical technology that has recently been applied to a number of industrial applications. Wooden utility poles are prone to rot and decay at ground level; current techniques to assess this loss of strength are relatively primitive, i.e., tapping the pole (hitting the pole with a hammer) or boring into the pole for samples and then testing inside the bore hole with an electrical pulse device. The accuracy in identifying poles needing replacement using these techniques is ∼ 70%. Since the cost of replacing a pole ranges from hundreds to thousands of dollars, an accurate, nondestructive method is needed. CAT can accurately image a wooden utility pole (since the size, density, and atomic elements of a pole are similar to the human head to torso), as was confirmed by imaging poles using the UMC nuclear engineering EMI-1010 medical scanner. Detailed images have been produced showing the ring structure of the wood and voids due to rot or decay. Images approaching this quality have also been produced on living trees using semiportable systems by other researchers

  10. Time-motion analysis of goalball players in attacks: differences of the player positions and the throwing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monezi, Lucas Antônio; Magalhães, Thiago Pinguelli; Morato, Márcio Pereira; Mercadante, Luciano Allegretti; Furtado, Otávio Luis Piva da Cunha; Misuta, Milton Shoiti

    2018-03-26

    In this study, we aimed to analyse goalball players time-motion variables (distance covered, time spent, maximum and average velocities) in official goalball match attacks, taking into account the attack phases (preparation and throwing), player position (centres and wings) and throwing techniques (frontal, spin and between the legs). A total of 365 attacks were assessed using a video based method (2D) through manual tracking using the Dvideo system. Inferential non-parametric statistics were applied for comparison of preparation vs. throwing phase, wings vs. centres and, among the throwing techniques, frontal, spin and between the legs. Significant differences were found between the attack preparation versus the throwing phase for all player time-motion variables: distance covered, time spent, maximum player velocity and average player velocity. Wing players performed most of the throws (85%) and covered longer distances than centres (1.65 vs 0.31 m). The between the legs and the spin throwing techniques presented greater values for most of the time-motion variables (distance covered, time spent and maximum player velocity) than did the frontal technique in both attack phases. These findings provide important information regarding players' movement patterns during goalball matches that can be used to plan more effective training.

  11. The Pole Orientation, Pole Precession, and Moment of Inertia Factor of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. A.; French, R. G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Marouf, E.; Rappaport, N.; McGhee, C.; Sepersky, T.; Lonergan, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses our determination of the Saturn's pole orientation and precession using a combination of Earthbased and spacecraft based observational data. From our model of the polar motion and the observed precession rate we obtain a value for Saturn's polar moment of inertia

  12. Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed

  13. Determination of the crystallite orientation distribution from direct pole figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Gomes, P.A.M. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate the crystallite orientation distribution in polycrystalline material, from direct pole figures data of its crystallographic planes (Roe's Method). The programme was applied to (1010), (0002), (1011) and (1120) complete pole figures data for a commercial, thin sheet Zircaloy-4 tubing specimen. A semi-automatic Rigaku-Denki texture goniometer, which scans the reciprocal lattice sphere pointwise outputting the data in a punched tape, was used to obtain the pole figures. This is consistent with the results obtained through direct conclusion from the pole figures. (author)

  14. Thermal poling of multi-wire array optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lin; An, Honglin; Hayashi, Juliano G.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate in this paper thermal poling of multi-wire array fibers, which extends poling of fibers with two anodes to similar to 50 and similar to 500 wire array anodes. The second harmonic microscopy observations show that second order nonlinearity (SON) layers are developed surrounding all...... the rings of wires in the similar to 50 anode array fiber with poling of 1.8kV, 250 degrees C and 30min duration, and the outer rings of the similar to 500 anode array fiber at lower poling temperature. Our simulations based on a two-dimensional charge dynamics model confirm this can be explained...

  15. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including...

  16. Generalized pole inflation: Hilltop, natural, and chaotic inflationary attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Takahiro, E-mail: takahiro.terada@apctp.org [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-10

    A reformulation of inflationary model analyses appeared recently, in which inflationary observables are determined by the structure of a pole in the inflaton kinetic term rather than the shape of the inflaton potential. We comprehensively study this framework with an arbitrary order of the pole taking into account possible additional poles in the kinetic term or in the potential. Depending on the setup, the canonical potential becomes the form of hilltop or plateau models, variants of natural inflation, power-law inflation, or monomial/polynomial chaotic inflation. We demonstrate attractor behaviors of these models and compute corrections from the additional poles to the inflationary observables.

  17. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  18. DESIGN EVALUATIONS OF DOUBLE ROTOR SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. ARAVIND

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The absence of magnets makes the reluctance machine typical for low cogging operations with the torque depending on the stator rotor interaction area. The air gap between stator pole and rotor pole gives a huge effect on the reluctance variation. The primitive double rotor switched reluctance machine lags to improvise the effect of the ripple value though the torque density is higher compared to conventional machines. An optimised circular hole position and dimensioned in the stator pole of lowers the torque ripple and reduce the acoustic noise as presented in this paper. A comparative evaluation of the conventional double rotor machine with this improved structure is done through numerical design and evaluations for the same sizing. It is found that the motor constant square density. It is found that the double rotor switched reluctance machine is improved by 140% to conventional machine.

  19. Throwing in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic: inferences from an analysis of humeral retroversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jill A; Churchill, Steven E

    2009-01-01

    When in evolutionary history did long-range projectile weapons become an important component of hunting toolkits? The archeological evidence for the development of projectile weaponry is complex and generally indirect, and has led to different conclusions about the origin and spread of this technology. Lithic evidence from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) has led some researchers to suggest that true long- range projectile weaponry developed in Africa perhaps as early as 80,000 years ago, and was part of the subsistence toolkit carried by modern humans who expanded out of Africa after 50,000 years ago. Alternatively, temporal patterns in the morphology of pointed lithics has led others to posit an independent, convergent origin of projectile weaponry in Africa, the Near East, and Europe during the interval between 50,000-40,000 years ago. By either scenario, projectile weapons would not have been a component of the hunting arsenal of Neandertals, but may have been in use by European early modern humans and thus, projectile technology may have entered into the competitive dynamics that existed between these two groups. The origins of projectile weapons can be addressed, in part, through analyses of the skeletal remains of the prehistoric humans who made and used them. Habitual behavior patterns--including those related to the production and use of technology--can be imprinted on the skeleton through both genetic and epigenetic pathways. Recent studies in the field of sports medicine indicate that individuals who engage in habitual throwing have increased humeral retroversion angles in their throwing arms and a greater degree of bilateral asymmetry in retroversion angles than do non-throwers. This contribution investigates humeral torsion through analysis of the retroversion angle in samples of Eurasian Neandertals, European early modern humans of the middle and late Upper Paleolithic, and comparative samples of recent humans. This analysis was conducted under the

  20. External Versus Two Different Internal Foci of Attention in Long-Distance Throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Yuta; Kokubu, Masahiro; Nakagomi, Shiro

    2018-02-01

    The present study examined the influence of attentional focus on performance during a long-distance throwing task. Twelve participants executed three maximum-effort, long-distance baseball throwing attempts in three focus conditions: internal focus on wrist flexion (wrist internal focus), internal focus on the separation between pelvis and upper torso orientations (torso internal focus), and external focus on the ball path (external focus). Compared with the external focus and torso internal focus conditions, performance was poorer in the wrist internal focus condition. Performances were not different in the torso internal and external focus conditions. In addition, attentional focus affected the release angle of the ball but not its initial velocity. Our results reveal that the body part targeted for internal focus of attention and the forcefulness of the motor activity can be as important to motor performance as whether the attention is internal or external.

  1. Relationships Between Parents' Child-Rearing Attitudes and the Jumping and Throwing Performance of Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl-Dickey, Elizabeth A.

    1977-01-01

    Permissive, indulgent home environments (characterized by low disciplinarian, high indulgent, and high protective child-rearing attitudes) were positively associated with superior throwing skill, while increased jumping skill was associated with higher maternal discipline. (MB)

  2. Differences in physical fitness and throwing velocity among elite and amateur male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiaga, E M; Granados, C; Ibáñez, J; Izquierdo, M

    2005-04-01

    This study compared physical characteristics (body height, body mass [BM], body fat [BF], and free fatty mass [FFM]), one repetition maximum bench-press (1RM (BP)), jumping explosive strength (VJ), handball throwing velocity, power-load relationship of the leg and arm extensor muscles, 5- and 15-m sprint running time, and running endurance in two handball male teams: elite team, one of the world's leading teams (EM, n = 15) and amateur team, playing in the Spanish National Second Division (AM, n = 15). EM had similar values in body height, BF, VJ, 5- and 15-m sprint running time and running endurance than AM. However, the EM group gave higher values in BM (95.2 +/- 13 kg vs. 82.4 +/- 10 kg, p vs. 72.4 +/- 7 kg, p vs. 83 +/- 10 kg, p vs. 21.8 +/- 1.6 m . s (-1), p vs. 22.9 +/- 1.4 m . s (-1), p individual values of velocity at 30 % of 1RM (BP) and individual values of ball velocity during a standing throw. Significant correlations were observed in EM, but not in AM, between the individual values of velocity during 3-step running throw and the individual values of velocity at 30 % of 1RM (BP) (r = 0.72, p individual values of power at 100 % of body mass during half-squat actions (r = 0.62, p < 0.05). The present results suggest that more muscular and powerful players are at an advantage in handball. The differences observed in free fatty mass could partly explain the differences observed between groups in absolute maximal strength and muscle power. In EM, higher efficiency in handball throwing velocity may be associated with both upper and lower extremity power output capabilities, whereas in AM this relationship may be different. Endurance capacity does not seem to represent a limitation for elite performance in handball.

  3. Rotational Acceleration during Head Impact Resulting from Different Judo Throwing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    MURAYAMA, Haruo; HITOSUGI, Masahito; MOTOZAWA, Yasuki; OGINO, Masahiro; KOYAMA, Katsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Most severe head injuries in judo are reported as acute subdural hematoma. It is thus necessary to examine the rotational acceleration of the head to clarify the mechanism of head injuries. We determined the rotational acceleration of the head when the subject is thrown by judo techniques. One Japanese male judo expert threw an anthropomorphic test device using two throwing techniques, Osoto-gari and Ouchigari. Rotational and translational head accelerations were measured with and without an ...

  4. Proceedings of the DICE THROW Symposium 21-23 June 1977. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    Engineering Research Facility. 27. BLAST TESTS OF EXPEDIENT SHELTERS IN THE DICE THROW EVENT- C.H. Kearny, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 28...Agency, 1977. 10. Gaffney , E., Close-in Measurements of Airblast and Ground Shock, POR 6909, Defense Nuclear Aqency, 1977. 11. Meyer, J., Crater and...EXPEDIENT SHELTERS FIELDED BY THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY; COMMAND CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS FIELDED BY THE BALLISTIC RESEARCH LABORATORY AND

  5. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikawa, Ken' ichi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yamashita, Yasuho [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Yoshida, Daisuke [Montreal Univ., QC (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    2017-09-15

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  6. Performance of new generation pole light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K C; Karunanithi, S; Thio, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a standalone photovoltaic power supply which caters for garden lighting scheme. New Generation Pole Light (NGPL) consists of three parts which are light dependent resistor (LDR) and pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors, microcontroller and light emitting diode (LED) and finally, solar charging system. During the night, LED is switched on with two operating modes which are ultra-bright lighting for a predetermine period (when human presence is detected) and dim lighting. Meanwhile, LED is switched off at day time and solar charging system will recover the capacity of discharged battery. NGPL provides portable, sustainable, environmental friendly and requires minimal maintenance for outdoor lighting scheme for both urban and rural areas.

  7. Two-pole microring weight banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alexander N; Wu, Allie X; Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Nahmias, Mitchell A; Shastri, Bhavin J; Prucnal, Paul R

    2018-05-15

    Weighted addition is an elemental multi-input to single-output operation that can be implemented with high-performance photonic devices. Microring (MRR) weight banks bring programmable weighted addition to silicon photonics. Prior work showed that their channel limits are affected by coherent inter-channel effects that occur uniquely in weight banks. We fabricate two-pole designs that exploit this inter-channel interference in a way that is robust to dynamic tuning and fabrication variation. Scaling analysis predicts a channel count improvement of 3.4-fold, which is substantially greater than predicted by incoherent analysis used in conventional MRR devices. Advances in weight bank design expand the potential of reconfigurable analog photonic networks and multivariate microwave photonics.

  8. Retratos da metrópole parisiense

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Julien, Thérèse; Goix, Renaud Le

    2009-01-01

    « La métropole parisienne, centralité, inégalité, proximité » propõe uma leitura e uma interpretação das tendências do território da Île de France (a região que inclui Paris e sete outros départements), ou seja, uma grande metrópole mundial de cerca de 11,3 milhões de habitantes em 2004, ligada às redes da globalização e da metropolização. O livro esboça os traços principais de suas estruturas territoriais emergentes, sublinha os desafios, o alcance dos mesmos e as contradições. Sem pretensão...

  9. Retratos da metrópole parisiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Saint-Julien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available « La métropole parisienne, centralité, inégalité, proximité » propõe uma leitura e uma interpretação das tendências do território da Île de France (a região que inclui Paris e sete outros départements, ou seja, uma grande metrópole mundial de cerca de 11,3 milhões de habitantes em 2004, ligada às redes da globalização e da metropolização. O livro esboça os traços principais de suas estruturas territoriais emergentes, sublinha os desafios, o alcance dos mesmos e as contradições. Sem pretensão...

  10. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikawa, Ken'ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamashita, Yasuho; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-09-01

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  11. Stride length: the impact on propulsion and bracing ground reaction force in overhand throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L

    2018-03-26

    Propulsion and bracing ground reaction force (GRF) in overhand throwing are integral in propagating joint reaction kinetics and ball velocity, yet how stride length effects drive (hind) and stride (lead) leg GRF profiles remain unknown. Using a randomised crossover design, 19 pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to throw 2 simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An integrated motion capture system with two force plates and radar gun tracked each throw. Vertical and anterior-posterior GRF was normalised then impulse was derived. Paired t-tests identified whether differences between conditions were significant. Late in single leg support, peak propulsion GRF was statistically greater for the drive leg with increased stride. Stride leg peak vertical GRF in braking occurred before acceleration with longer strides, but near ball release with shorter strides. Greater posterior shear GRF involving both legs demonstrated increased braking with longer strides. Conversely, decreased drive leg propulsion reduced both legs' braking effects with shorter strides. Results suggest an interconnection between normalised stride length and GRF application in propulsion and bracing. This work has shown stride length to be an important kinematic factor affecting the magnitude and timing of external forces acting upon the body.

  12. Rest Interval Required for Power Training With Power Load in the Bench Press Throw Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Davó, Jose L; Solana, Rafael Sabido; Sarabia Marín, Jose M; Fernández Fernández, Jaime; Moya Ramón, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to test the influence of various rest interval (RI) durations used between sets on power output performance and physiological and perceptual variables during a strength training session using 40% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press throw exercise. Thirty-one college students (18 males and 13 females) took part in the study. The experimental protocol consists of 5 sets of 8 repetitions of the bench press throw exercise with a load representing 40% of 1RM. Subjects performed the experimental protocol on 3 different occasions, differing by the RI between sets (1, 2, or 3 minutes). During the sessions, power data (mean power and peak power), physiological (lactate concentration [La]) and perceptual (rating of perceived exertion) variables were measured. In addition, delayed onset muscular soreness was reported 24 and 48 hours after the training session. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that 1-minute RI entailed higher power decreases and greater increases in values of physiological and perceptual variables compared with both 2- and 3-minute RIs. Nevertheless, no differences were found between 2- and 3-minute RIs. Therefore, this study showed that, when training with 40% of 1RM in the bench press throw exercise, a 2-minute RI between sets can be enough to avoid significant decreases in power output. Consequently, training sessions' duration could be reduced without causing excessive fatigue, allowing additional time to focus on other conditioning priorities.

  13. Unknown loads affect force production capacity in early phases of bench press throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Davó, J L; Sabido Solana, R; Sarabia Marínm, J M; Sánchez Martos, Á; Moya Ramón, M

    2015-10-01

    Explosive strength training aims to improve force generation in early phases of movement due to its importance in sport performance. The present study examined the influence of lack of knowledge about the load lifted in explosive parameters during bench press throws. Thirteen healthy young men (22.8±2.0 years) participated in the study. Participants performed bench press throws with three different loads (30, 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum) in two different conditions (known and unknown loads). In unknown condition, loads were changed within sets in each repetition and participants did not know the load, whereas in known condition the load did not change within sets and participants had knowledge about the load lifted. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that unknown conditions involves higher power in the first 30, 50, 100 and 150 ms with the three loads, higher values of ratio of force development in those first instants, and differences in time to reach maximal rate of force development with 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum. This study showed that unknown conditions elicit higher values of explosive parameters in early phases of bench press throws, thereby this kind of methodology could be considered in explosive strength training.

  14. Quantitative assessment of developmental levels in overarm throwing using wearable inertial sensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimpampi, Eleni; Masci, Ilaria; Pesce, Caterina; Vannozzi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Motor proficiency in childhood has been recently recognised as a public health determinant, having a potential impact on the physical activity level and possible sedentary behaviour of the child later in life. Among fundamental motor skills, ballistic skills assessment based on in-field quantitative observations is progressively needed in the motor development community. The aim of this study was to propose an in-field quantitative approach to identify different developmental levels in overarm throwing. Fifty-eight children aged 5-10 years performed an overarm throwing task while wearing three inertial sensors located at the wrist, trunk and pelvis level and were then categorised using a developmental sequence of overarm throwing. A set of biomechanical parameters were defined and analysed using multivariate statistics to evaluate whether they can be used as developmental indicators. Trunk and pelvis angular velocities and time durations before the ball release showed increasing/decreasing trends with increasing developmental level. Significant differences between developmental level pairs were observed for selected biomechanical parameters. The results support the suitability and feasibility of objective developmental measures in ecological learning contexts, suggesting their potential supportiveness to motor learning experiences in educational and youth sports training settings.

  15. Impulsive force on the head during performance of typical ukemi techniques following different judo throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Toshihiko; Ishii, Takanori; Okada, Naoyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    In this study, eight judo athletes who are major candidates for the Japan national team were recruited as participants. Kinematic analysis of exemplary ukemi techniques was carried out using two throws, o-soto-gari, a throw linked to frequent injury, and o-uchi-gari. The aim of this study was to kinematically quantify the timing patterns of exemplary ukemi techniques and to obtain kinematic information of the head, in a sequence of ukemi from the onset of the throw to the completion of ukemi. The results indicated that the vertical velocity with which the uke's head decelerated was reduced by increasing the body surface exposed to the collision with the tatami and by increasing the elapsed time. In particular, overall upper limb contact with the tatami is greatly associated with deceleration. In o-soto-gari, the impulsive force on the faller's head as the head reached the lowest point was 204.82 ± 19.95 kg m · s(-2) while in o-uchi-gari it was 118.46 ± 63.62 kg m · s(-2), z = -1.75, P = 0.08, and it did present a large-sized effect with r = 0.78. These findings indicate that the exemplary o-soto-gari as compared to o-uchi-gari is the technique that causes more significant damage to the uke's head.

  16. Measurement and calculation of cosmic radiation exposure during a pole-to-pole flight sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Graeme C.; Ojjeh, Captain Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic ray dosimetry measurements were carried out on board a Global Express business jet operated by TAG Aviation (UK) during a pole-to-pole flight sequence that took place in November 2008. One Hawk TEPC and two EPDN2s were flown, and the TEPC measurements compared to calculated values from the route dose codes AVIDOS, CARI 6M, EPCARD versions 3.2 and 3.34, QARM and SIEVERT (online version). The largest difference between measured and calculated doses for the total flight sequence was found to be 13%. Agreement between the readings of the TEPC and the EPDN2s (once a calibration factor from the CERN High Energy Reference Field had been applied) was reasonably good given the relatively large uncertainties associated with the EPDN2 measurements.

  17. Twice electric field poling for engineering multiperiodic Hex-PPLN microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarulo, Vito; Gennari, Oriella; Rega, Romina; Mecozzi, Laura; Grilli, Simonetta; Ferraro, Pietro

    2018-05-01

    Satellite bulk ferroelectric domains were observed everywhere around the larger main inverted ferroelectric domains when a Twice Electric Field Poling (TEFP) process is applied on a z-cut lithium niobate substrate. TEFP approach can be very advantageous for engineering multiperiodic poled microstructures in ferroelectrics. In fact, it is very difficult in the experimental practice to avoid underpoling and/or overpoling when structures with different sizes are requested in the same crystal. TEFP was applied to photoresist patterned crystal with 100 μm period and then a second EP step, with a ten-times smaller periodicity of 10 μm, was accomplished on the same sample. The intriguing fact is that the shorter 10 μm pattern disappeared everywhere except that around the larger satellite ferroelectric domains. The formation of this double-periodicity in the reversed ferroelectric domains occurs very easily and in repeatedly way. We have experimentally investigated the formation of such HePPLN structures by an interference microscopy in digital holography (DH) modality. The reported results demonstrate the possibility of fabricating multi-periodic structures and open the way to investigate the possibility to achieve hierarchical PPLN structures by multiple subsequent electric poling processes.

  18. Solar Open Flux Migration from Pole to Pole: Magnetic Field Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G-H; Lin, C-H; Lee, L C

    2017-08-25

    Coronal holes are solar regions with low soft X-ray or low extreme ultraviolet intensities. The magnetic fields from coronal holes extend far away from the Sun, and thus they are identified as regions with open magnetic field lines. Coronal holes are concentrated in the polar regions during the sunspot minimum phase, and spread to lower latitude during the rising phase of solar activity. In this work, we identify coronal holes with outward and inward open magnetic fluxes being in the opposite poles during solar quiet period. We find that during the sunspot rising phase, the outward and inward open fluxes perform pole-to-pole trans-equatorial migrations in opposite directions. The migration of the open fluxes consists of three parts: open flux areas migrating across the equator, new open flux areas generated in the low latitude and migrating poleward, and new open flux areas locally generated in the polar region. All three components contribute to the reversal of magnetic polarity. The percentage of contribution from each component is different for different solar cycle. Our results also show that the sunspot number is positively correlated with the lower-latitude open magnetic flux area, but negatively correlated with the total open flux area.

  19. Second harmonic generation from corona-poled polymer thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... We characterize thermal stability of second harmonic generation (SHG) properties of four different Y-type polymers poled using corona poling method. These polymers are based on donor–acceptor–donor-type repeating unit with different aromatic moieties acting as donors and dicyanomethylene acting as ...

  20. Poles of the S matrix for a complex potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Trajectories of S matrix poles in complex k plane are presented for a complex square well potential. A simple rule is given for predicting the effect of an absorptive potential on the location of these poles. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Secondary electron emission yield on poled silica based thick films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, D.; Poumellec, B.; Cannas, V.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the distribution of the electric field produced by a thermal poling process in a layer of Ge-doped silica on silicon substrate, by using secondary electron emission yield (SEEY) measurements () are presented. Comparing 0 between poled and unpoled areas, the SEEY at the origin of electr...

  2. Derivation of nominal strength for wood utility poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Jozsef Bodig; Patricia Lebow

    2001-01-01

    The designated fiber stress values published in the American National Standards Institute Standard for Poles, ANSI 05.1, no longer reflect the state of the knowledge. These values are based on a combination of test data from small clear wood samples and small poles (

  3. Water polo throwing velocity and kinematics: differences between competitive levels in male players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorri, G; Viero, V; Triossi, T; De Sanctis, D; Padua, E; Salvati, A; Galvani, C; Bonifazi, M; Del Bianco, R; Tancredi, V

    2015-11-01

    In water polo, throwing is one of the most important and frequently used technical skills for the player. There is no scientific literature that provides information about differences in throwing between elite and sub-elite water polo players. The aim of our study was to study differences in throwing velocities and kinematic variables in elite and sub-elite level male water polo players. We considered the variables under standardized conditions during a typical motion, the five-meter shot (penalty). Thirty-four athletes from the Men's First Division Water Polo Championship and forty-two players participating in the National Fourth Division League, took part in the study. Video analysis measures were taken with high-speed digital cameras and the videos were analyzed offline with Dartfish 5.0 Pro. No correlation was found between body mass, height and throwing velocity. Elite players had higher values ​for ball speed (22.8±2.4 m/s for elite team and 18.4±1.7 m/s for sub-elite team; P=0.002) and greater elbow angle (157.5±10.3 degree for elite team versus 146.7±8.9 degree for sub-elite team; P=0.002). In elite team the throwing time was lower (165.6±22.2 and 188.6±23.9 ms, respectively; P=0.05) and the shoulder angle was smaller (115.1±10.3 and 123.8±12.4 degree, respectively; P=0.03) than in sub-elite team. Head height was significantly greater in elite players (elite players 71.1±8.7 cm, sub-elite players 65.6±6.2 cm; P=0.03). Differences in kinematic characteristics between elite and sub-elite players were showed. Differences in elbow and shoulder action must be considered both in training and injury prevention.

  4. Pole orientation of 16 Psyche by two independent methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, E. F.; Taylor, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nineteen new lightcurves of 16 Psyche are presented along with a pole orientation derived using two independent methods, namely, photometric astrometry and magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect. The pole orientations found using these two methods agree to within 4 deg. The results from applying photometric astrometry were prograde rotation, a sidereal period of 0.1748143 days + or - 0.0000003 days, and a pole at longitude 223 deg and latitude +37 deg, with an uncertainty of 10 deg, and, from applying magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect a pole at 220 + or - 1 deg, +40 + or - 4 deg, and a modeled triaxial ellipsoid shape (a greater than b greater than c) and a/b = 1.33 + or - 0.07. The discrepancy between the high-pole latitude found here and the low latitudes reported by Lupishko et al. (1982) and Zhou and Yang (1982) is discussed.

  5. Pole Dancing Auto-ethnography – Practice, Pedagogy, Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Patricia Cadwallader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the author addresses the following four questions: 1 What are the implications of bringing pole dancing into concert dance, not as a caricature or theatrical version of what is performed in strip clubs, but as its own, free-standing art form? 2 In what ways will years of ballet and modern dance training influence the type of dancing that emerges from dancers when poles and other apparatuses are introduced? 3 How can the author create an original pole dancing style and pedagogical methods for teaching it? 4 Who participates in pole fitness classes and how does the demographic change based on location? What about when pole fitness classes are offered in an academic setting? The author shares first-hand experiences of investigating pole dancing in fitness classes, attending performances, engaging in a rehearsal process with highly trained dancers, and teaching pole dancing to movers with a wide range of abilities. The author addresses how research plans changed as she encountered limitations of budget and time constraints. The author also elaborates on the creative process that she engaged in with her thesis cast, collaborators, and supporting designers in the making of Super-beneath, a theatrical dance work that uses five, free-standing poles. She outline the vignettes, overall structure, and narrative of the work. The author then discusses where this research fits into the larger field of pole dancing, and the even larger field of dance. In the final sections of this paper, the author describes her pedagogical practices relating to pole classes, what “practice as research” means to her, and how she would like to continue on this research trajectory in the future.

  6. Simplified Analytic Approach of Pole-to-Pole Faults in MMC-HVDC for AC System Backup Protection Setting Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongkun Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AC (alternating current system backup protection setting calculation is an important basis for ensuring the safe operation of power grids. With the increasing integration of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC into power grids, it has been a big challenge for the AC system backup protection setting calculation, as the MMC-HVDC lacks the fault self-clearance capability under pole-to-pole faults. This paper focused on the pole-to-pole faults analysis for the AC system backup protection setting calculation. The principles of pole-to-pole faults analysis were discussed first according to the standard of the AC system protection setting calculation. Then, the influence of fault resistance on the fault process was investigated. A simplified analytic approach of pole-to-pole faults in MMC-HVDC for the AC system backup protection setting calculation was proposed. In the proposed approach, the derived expressions of fundamental frequency current are applicable under arbitrary fault resistance. The accuracy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC simulations.

  7. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  8. Heavy Cratering near Callisto's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft provide new insights into this region near Callisto's south pole. This two frame mosaic shows a heavily cratered surface with smooth plains in the areas between craters. North is to the top of the image. The smoothness of the plains appears to increase toward the south pole, approximately 480 kilometers (293 miles) south of the bottom of the image. This smoothness of Callisto's surface was not evident in images taken during the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft because the resolution was insufficient to show the effect. This smooth surface, and the process(es) that cause it, are among the most intriguing aspects of Callisto. Although not fully understood, the process(es) responsible for this smoothing could include erosion by tiny meteorites and energetic ions. Some craters, such as Keelut, the 47 kilometer (29 mile) crater in the lower right corner, have sharp, well defined rims. Keelut contains an inner ring surrounding a central depression about 17 kilometers (11 miles) in diameter. Keelut, and the more irregularly shaped, degraded Reginleif, the 32 kilometer (19.5 mile) crater in the top center of the image, are very shallow and have flat floors. Crater forms can be seen down to less than 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter in the image. Each picture element (pixel) in this image is approximately 0.68 kilometers (0.41 miles) across.This image which was taken by the Galileo spacecraft's solid state imaging (CCD) system during its eighth orbit around Jupiter, on May 6th, 1997. The center of the image is located at 71.3 degrees south latitude, 97.6 degrees west longitude, and was taken when the spacecraft was approximately 35,470 kilometers (21,637 miles) from Callisto.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  9. Torque characteristics of double-stator permanent magnet synchronous machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awah Chukwuemeka Chijioke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The torque profile of a double-stator permanent magnet (PM synchronous machine of 90 mm stator diameter having different rotor pole numbers as well as dual excitation is investigated in this paper. The analysis includes a comparative study of the machine’s torque and power-speed curves, static torque and inductance characteristics, losses and unbalanced magnetic force. The most promising flux-weakening potential is revealed in 13- and 7-rotor pole machines. Moreover, the machines having different rotor/stator (Nr/Ns pole combinations of the form Nr = Ns ± 1 have balanced and symmetric static torque waveforms variation with the rotor position in contrast to the machines having Nr = Ns ± 2. Further, the inductance results of the analyzed machines reveal that the machines with odd rotor pole numbers have better fault-tolerant capability than their even rotor pole equivalents. A prototype of the developed double-stator machine having a 13-pole rotor is manufactured and tested for verification.

  10. Pole-factorization theorem in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    In quantum electrodynamics a classical part of the S-matrix is normally factored out in order to obtain a quantum remainder that can be treated perturbatively without the occurrence of infrared divergences. However, this separation, as usually performed, introduces spurious large-distance effects that produce an apparent breakdown of the important correspondence between stable particles and poles of the S-matrix, and, consequently, lead to apparent violations of the correspondence principle and to incorrect results for computations in the mesoscopic domain lying between the atomic and classical regimes. An improved computational technique is described that allows valid results to be obtained in this domain, and that leads, for the quantum remainder, in the cases studied, to a physical-region singularity structure that, as regards the most singular parts, is the same as the normal physical-region analytic structure in theories in which all particles have non-zero mass. The key innovations here are to define the classical part in coordinate space, rather than in momentum space, and to define there a separation of the photon-electron coupling into its classical and quantum parts that has the following properties: (1) The contributions from the terms containing only classical couplings can be summed to all orders to give a unitary operator that generates the coherent state that corresponds to the appropriate classical process, and (2) The quantum remainder can be rigorously shown to exhibit, as regards its most singular parts, the normal analytic structure. 22 refs

  11. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1978-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p→π + pπ 0 and π + p→π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T=1 and T=2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965, which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that, if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) was dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  12. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1977-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p → π + pπ 0 and π + p → π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T = 1 and T = 2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965 which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) were dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  13. A New Learning Control System for Basketball Free Throws Based on Real Time Video Image Processing and Biofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sarang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Shooting free throws plays an important role in basketball. The major problem in performing a correct free throw seems to be inappropriate training. Training is performed offline and it is often not that persistent. The aim of this paper is to consciously modify and control the free throw using biofeedback. Elbow and shoulder dynamics are calculated by an image processing technique equipped with a video image acquisition system. The proposed setup in this paper, named learning control system, is able to quantify and provide feedback of the above parameters in real time as audio signals. Therefore, it yielded to performing a correct learning and conscious control of shooting. Experimental results showed improvements in the free throw shooting style including shot pocket and locked position. The mean values of elbow and shoulder angles were controlled approximately on 89o and 26o, for shot pocket and also these angles were tuned approximately on 180o and 47o respectively for the locked position (closed to the desired pattern of the free throw based on valid FIBA references. Not only the mean values enhanced but also the standard deviations of these angles decreased meaningfully, which shows shooting style convergence and uniformity. Also, in training conditions, the average percentage of making successful free throws increased from about 64% to even 87% after using this setup and in competition conditions the average percentage of successful free throws enhanced about 20%, although using the learning control system may not be the only reason for these outcomes. The proposed system is easy to use, inexpensive, portable and real time applicable.

  14. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating

  15. In Situ Poling and Imidization of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Wise, Kristopher E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An amorphous piezoelectric polyimide containing polar functional groups has been developed using a combination of experimental and molecular modeling for potential use in high temperature applications. This amorphous polyimide, (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, has exhibited good thermal stability and piezoelectric response at temperatures up to 150C. Density functional calculations predicted that a partially cured amic acid (open imide ring) possesses a dipole moment four times larger than the fully imidized closed ring. In situ poling and imidization of the partially cured (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, was studied in an attempt to maximize the degree of dipolar orientation and the resultant piezoelectric response. A positive corona poling was used to minimize localized arcing during poling and to allow use of higher poling fields without dielectric breakdown. The dielectric relaxation strength, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric response were evaluated as a function of the poling profile. The partially cured, corona poled polymers exhibited higher dielectric relaxation strength (delta varepsilon), remanent polarization (Pr) and piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33) than the fully cured, conventionally poled ones.

  16. Study on Pole Arrangement of the CEDM Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Myoung Goo; Kim, Hyun Min; Cho, Yeon Ho; Choi, Taek Sang

    2013-01-01

    The coil stack assembly is important for reliable operation of the CEDM, there have been efforts to improve the design by optimizing the design parameters such as dimensions and winding turns. However, magnetic forces of the CEDM can also change by different pole arrangement even if their design parameters are the same. Since the latch coil and lift coil are installed connected to each other, they produce magnetically coupled field when they are energized at the same time. This coupling field can affect the magnetic force of the CEDM significantly. In this paper, coil pole arrangement effects are studied. Electro-magnetic analysis is performed for the different pole arrangements of the CEDM coils to calculate the magnetic forces. Pole arrangement effects on magnetic forces were studied by static analysis of the CEDM magnetic field. Magnetic forces were calculated and compared for the two different pole arrangements of the coils. The results show that the magnetic poles of the lift coil and latch coil shall be arranged to have the same magnetic pole direction to achieve higher magnetic force

  17. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is characterized in a self-consistent manner by means of introducing a single nondifferential matrix equation compatible with the Liouville equation, modelling the ocean as global and of uniform depth. The deviations of the theory from the realistic ocean, associated with the nonglobality of the latter, are also given consideration, with an inference that in realistic oceans long-period modes of resonances would be increasingly likely to exist. The analysis of the nature of the pole tide and its effects on the Chandler wobble indicate that departures of the pole tide from the equilibrium may indeed be minimal.

  18. Domain wall width of lithium niobate poled during growth

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, R; Hole, D E; Callejo, D; Bermudez, V; Diéguez, E

    2003-01-01

    Good quality crystals of periodically poled lithium niobate can be generated directly during growth. However, the temperature gradients at the zone boundaries define the width of the regions where the polarity is reversed. Hence, the region influenced the domain transition may be a significant fraction of the overall poling period for material poled during growth. Evidence for the scale of this feature is reported both by chemical etching and by the less common method of ion beam luminescence and the 'domain wall' width approximately 1 mu m for these analyses. The influence of the reversal region may differ for alternative techniques but the relevance to device design for second harmonic generation is noted.

  19. A discussion on leading renormalon in the pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komijani, J.

    2017-08-01

    Perturbative series of some quantities in quantum field theories, such as the pole mass of a quark, suffer from a kind of divergence called renormalon divergence. In this paper, the leading renormalon in the pole mass is investigated, and a map is introduced to suppress this renormalon. The inverse of the map is then used to generate the leading renormalon and obtain an expression to calculate its overall normalization. Finally, the overall normalization of the leading renormalon of the pole mass is calculated for several values of quark flavors.

  20. State-PID Feedback for Pole Placement of LTI Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Sujitjorn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pole placement problems are especially important for disturbance rejection and stabilization of dynamical systems and regarded as algebraic inverse eigenvalue problems. In this paper, we propose gain formulae of state feedback through PID-elements to achieve desired pole placement for a delay-free LTI system with single input. Real and complex stable poles can be assigned with the proposed compact gain formulae. Numerical examples show that our proposed gain formulae can be used effectively resulting in very satisfactory responses.

  1. Throwing-related injuries of the subscapularis in professional baseball players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polster, Joshua M.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Subhas, Naveen [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lynch, T.S. [Columbia University Medical Center, Center for Shoulder, Elbow and Sports Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Bullen, Jennifer A. [Cleveland Clinic, Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland, OH (United States); Soloff, Lonnie [Cleveland Indians, Cleveland, OH (United States); Schickendantz, Mark S. [Cleveland Clinic, Orthopedic and Rheumatologic Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the MR appearance of a series of throwing-related injuries to the subscapularis muscle-tendon complex among baseball players. A retrospective review of MR scans of the shoulder in players from 1 professional baseball organization over the course of 5 years was performed to identify cases with findings suggestive of subscapularis injury. These findings were graded and the medical record was reviewed to assess clinical findings, treatment, and follow-up. Preinjury baseline measurements of arm external rotation at 90 of abduction were compared to measurements from a noninjured cohort to evaluate whether this measure is a risk factor for injury. A total of 133 MR scans of the shoulder were evaluated. Eleven of the scans demonstrated signal changes suggesting subscapularis injury; 10 of these 11 patients had clinical findings supporting a diagnosis of throwing-related subscapularis strain. There were four grade 1, four grade 2, and two grade 3 injuries. All injuries occurred in the inferior half of the subscapularis at the myotendinous junction. Risk of subscapularis injury increased with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation (odds ratio, 1.12; 95 % CI, 1.07-1.21; p < 0.001). A threshold of dominant arm external rotation of <106 demonstrated sensitivity of 0.700 (95 % CI, 0.392-0.897) and specificity of 0.951 (95 % CI, 0.888-0.982) for subscapularis injury. Throwing-related subscapularis injuries occur in the inferior half of the muscle at the myotendinous junction. Our data suggest that there is an increased risk of these injuries with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation. (orig.)

  2. Smith machine counterbalance system affects measures of maximal bench press throw performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingren, Jakob L; Buddhadev, Harsh H; Hill, David W

    2011-07-01

    Equipment with counterbalance weight systems is commonly used for the assessment of performance in explosive resistance exercise movements, but it is not known if such systems affect performance measures. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using a counterbalance weight system on measures of smith machine bench press throw performance. Ten men and 14 women (mean ± SD: age, 25 ± 4 years; height, 173 ± 10 cm; weight, 77.7 ± 18.3 kg) completed maximal smith machine bench press throws under 4 different conditions (2 × 2; counterbalance × load): with or without a counterbalance weight system and using 'light' or 'moderate' net barbell loads. Performance variables (peak force, peak velocity, and peak power) were measured using a linear accelerometer attached to the barbell. The counterbalance weight system resulted in significant (p velocity (light: -0.49 ± 0.10 m·s; moderate: -0.33 ± 0.07 m·s), and peak power (light: -220 ± 43 W; moderate: -143 ± 28 W) compared with no counterbalance system for both load conditions. Load condition did not affect absolute or percentage reductions from the counterbalance weight system for any variable. In conclusion, the use of a counterbalance weight system reduces accelerometer-based performance measures for the bench press throw exercise at light and moderate loads. This reduction in measures is likely because of an increase in the external resistance during the movement, which results in a discrepancy between the manually input and the actual value for external load. A counterbalance weight system should not be used when measuring performance in explosive resistance exercises with an accelerometer.

  3. Throwing-related injuries of the subscapularis in professional baseball players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polster, Joshua M.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Subhas, Naveen; Lynch, T.S.; Bullen, Jennifer A.; Soloff, Lonnie; Schickendantz, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    To describe the MR appearance of a series of throwing-related injuries to the subscapularis muscle-tendon complex among baseball players. A retrospective review of MR scans of the shoulder in players from 1 professional baseball organization over the course of 5 years was performed to identify cases with findings suggestive of subscapularis injury. These findings were graded and the medical record was reviewed to assess clinical findings, treatment, and follow-up. Preinjury baseline measurements of arm external rotation at 90 of abduction were compared to measurements from a noninjured cohort to evaluate whether this measure is a risk factor for injury. A total of 133 MR scans of the shoulder were evaluated. Eleven of the scans demonstrated signal changes suggesting subscapularis injury; 10 of these 11 patients had clinical findings supporting a diagnosis of throwing-related subscapularis strain. There were four grade 1, four grade 2, and two grade 3 injuries. All injuries occurred in the inferior half of the subscapularis at the myotendinous junction. Risk of subscapularis injury increased with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation (odds ratio, 1.12; 95 % CI, 1.07-1.21; p < 0.001). A threshold of dominant arm external rotation of <106 demonstrated sensitivity of 0.700 (95 % CI, 0.392-0.897) and specificity of 0.951 (95 % CI, 0.888-0.982) for subscapularis injury. Throwing-related subscapularis injuries occur in the inferior half of the muscle at the myotendinous junction. Our data suggest that there is an increased risk of these injuries with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation. (orig.)

  4. Strength, Endurance, Throwing Velocity and in-Water Jump Performance of Elite German Water Polo Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinner Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was threefold: 1 to assess the eggbeater kick and throwing performance using a number of water polo specific tests, 2 to explore the relation between the eggbeater kick and throwing performance, and 3 to investigate the relation between the eggbeater kick in the water and strength tests performed in a controlled laboratory setting in elite water polo players. Fifteen male water polo players of the German National Team completed dynamic and isometric strength tests for muscle groups (adductor, abductor, abdominal, pectoralis frequently used during water polo. After these laboratory strength tests, six water polo specific in-water tests were conducted. The eggbeater kick assessed leg endurance and agility, maximal throwing velocity and jump height. A 400 m test and a sprint test examined aerobic and anaerobic performance. The strongest correlation was found between jump height and arm length (p < 0.001, r = 0.89. The laboratory diagnostics of important muscles showed positive correlations with the results of the in-water tests (p < 0.05, r = 0.52-0.70. Muscular strength of the adductor, abdominal and pectoralis muscles was positively related to in-water endurance agility as assessed by the eggbeater kick (p < 0.05; r = 0.53-0.66. Findings from the current study emphasize the need to assess indices of water polo performance both in and out of the water as well as the relation among these parameters to best assess the complex profile of water polo players.

  5. Understanding and acknowledging the ice throw hazard - consequences for regulatory frameworks, risk perception and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, R. E.; Drapalik, M.; Butt, B.

    2017-11-01

    This study attempts to provide the necessary framework required to make sufficiently informed decisions regarding the safety implications of ice throw. The framework elaborates on how to cope with uncertainties, and how to describe results in a meaningful and useful manner to decision makers. Moreover, it points out the moral, judicial and economical obligations of wind turbine owners such that they are able to minimize risk of ice throws as much as possible. Building on the strength of knowledge as well as accounting for uncertainty are also essential in enabling clear communication with stakeholders on the most important/critical/vital issues. With increasing empirical evidence, one can assign a higher confidence level on the expert opinions on safety. Findings regarding key uncertainties of ice risk assessments are presented here to support the ongoing IEA Wind Task 19's work on creating the international guidelines on ice risk assessment due in 2018 (Krenn et al. 2017)[1-6]. In addition the study also incorporates the findings of a Norwegian information project, which focuses on the ice throw hazard for the public (Bredesen, Flage, Butt, Winterwind 2018)[7-9]. This includes measures to reduce damage and hazard from wind turbines for the general public. Recent theory of risk assessment questions the use of risk criteria for achieving optimum risk reduction and favours the use of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. Given the several practical problems associated with the ALARA approach (e.g. judicial realization), a joint approach, which uses a minimum set of criteria as well as the obligation to meet ALARA is suggested (associated with acceptable cost). The actual decision about acceptance criteria or obligations is a societal one, thus suggestions can be made at best. Risk acceptance, risk perception and risk communication are inextricably linked and should thus never be considered separately. Risk communication can shape risk perception

  6. Closed-kinetic chain upper-body training improves throwing performance of NCAA Division I softball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, Max P; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Nordenschild, Edwin; Katch, Frank I; Gaesser, Glenn A; Weltman, Arthur

    2008-11-01

    Closed-kinetic chain resistance training (CKCRT) of the lower body is superior to open-kinetic chain resistance training (OKCRT) to improve performance parameters (e.g., vertical jump), but the effects of upper-body CKCRT on throwing performance remain unknown. This study compared shoulder strength, power, and throwing velocity changes in athletes training the upper body exclusively with either CKCRT (using a system of ropes and slings) or OKCRT. Fourteen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I softball player volunteers were blocked and randomly placed into two groups: CKCRT and OKCRT. Blocking ensured the same number of veteran players and rookies in each training group. Training occurred three times weekly for 12 weeks during the team's supervised off-season program. Olympic, lower-body, core training, and upper-body intensity and volume in OKCRT and CKCRT were equalized between groups. Criterion variables pre- and posttraining included throwing velocity, bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM), dynamic single-leg balance, and isokinetic peak torque and power (PWR) (at 180 degrees x s(-1)) for shoulder flexion, extension, internal rotation, and external rotation (ER). The CKCRT group significantly improved throwing velocity by 2.0 mph (3.4%, p performance. Strength coaches can incorporate upper-body CKCRT without sacrificing gains in maximal strength or performance criteria associated with an athletic open-chain movement such as throwing.

  7. Associations between rate of force development metrics and throwing velocity in elite team handball players: a short research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Mário C; Saavedra, Francisco J; Abrantes, Catarina; Aidar, Felipe J

    2011-09-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring participant's development in distinct sports, yet limited and contradictory data are available in trained subjects. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw in elite team handball players and selected measures of rate of force development like force, power, velocity, and bar displacement during a concentric only bench press exercise in elite male handball players. Fitteen elite senior male team handball players volunteered to participate. Each volunteer had power and bar velocity measured during a concentric only bench press test with 25, 35, and 45 kg as well as having one-repetition maximum strength determined. Ball throwing velocity was evaluated with a standard 3-step running throw using a radar gun. The results of this study indicated significant associations between ball velocity and time at maximum rate of force development (0, 66; pvelocity was only median associated with maximum rate of force development with light loads. A training regimen designed to improve ball-throwing velocity in elite male team handball players should emphasize bench press movement using light loads.

  8. Comparison of three types of full-body compression garments on throwing and repeat-sprint performance in cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Portus, Marc

    2007-07-01

    To compare the effects of three types of full-body compression garments (Skins, Adidas and Under Armour) on repeat-sprint and throwing performance in cricket players. Following familiarisation, 10 male cricket players performed four randomised exercise sessions (3 garments and a control). Each session involved a 30 min repeat-sprint exercise protocol comprising 20 m sprints every minute, separated by submaximal exercise. Throwing tests included a pre-exercise and a postexercise maximal distance test and accuracy throwing tests. During each session, measures of heart rate, skin temperature, change in body mass, rate of perceived exertion and perceived muscle soreness were recorded. Capillary blood samples were analysed before and after exercise for lactate, pH, O(2) saturation and O(2) partial pressure, and 24 h after exercise for creatine kinase (CK). Ratings of perceived muscle soreness were also obtained 24 h after exercise. No significant differences (p>0.05) were evident in repeat-sprint performance (10 m, 20 m time or total submaximal distance covered) or throwing performance (maximum distance or accuracy). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in heart rate, body mass change or blood measures during exercise. Significant differences (p0.05). No benefit was noted when wearing compression garments for repeat-sprint or throwing performance; however, the use of the garments as a recovery tool, when worn after exercise, may be beneficial to reduce postexercise trauma and perceived muscle soreness.

  9. Double Trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime

  10. Intracavity quasi-phase-matched self-frequency conversion in a periodically poled Nd:Mg:LiNbO3 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, G D; Novikov, Aleksei A

    2001-01-01

    The theory of intracavity quasi-phase-matched self-frequency conversion in an active nonlinear periodically poled structure is developed. The processes of quasi-phase-matched self-frequency doubling, self-halving and mixing using the pump wave in a periodically poled Nd:Mg:LiNbO 3 crystal are studied. The dependences of the efficiency of nonlinear optical conversion in these processes on the reflection coefficient of the output mirror and on linear losses in the medium are investigated. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  11. Pole-zero adjustment of spectroscopy amplifiers using multichannel analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, K; Grigorov, T [Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The technique to eliminate the undesirable undershoot in the output signal of a spectroscopy amplifier is considered. The functional scheme of the pole-zero monitoring circuit is presented as well as its operation principles are considered. 3 refs.

  12. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  13. The Achievements of the GLAMOROUS Project on Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margulis, Walter; Myrén, N.; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    The GLAMOROUS project had as objective to demonstrate the feasibility of fibre and waveguide components with a second order nonlinearity induced by poling. The accomplishments of this nine-partners European Research Project are described.......The GLAMOROUS project had as objective to demonstrate the feasibility of fibre and waveguide components with a second order nonlinearity induced by poling. The accomplishments of this nine-partners European Research Project are described....

  14. Polymer poling characterization using second harmonic generation (SHG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Gildas; Averty, Dominique; Blart, Errol; Boisrobert, Christian; Gundel, Hartmut; Le Tacon, Sylvain; Monnereau, Cyrille; Odobel, Fabrice; Seveno, Raynald

    2006-04-01

    Several polymer molecules have structures which are suitable for the non-linear optic applications. We report on the design and fabrication of a high performance electro-optic modulator made of polymer thin films. The polymer we study contains a chromophore based on Disperse Red One covalently grafted to a host-matrix. The polymer materials are deposited in thin layers on a glass substrate by chemical solution deposition, either by spin-coating or by dip-coating. The thickness of the films is ranging from a hundred nanometers to several micrometers. Initially, the polymer molecules are randomly oriented and the films are isotropic, hence no electro-optic effect can be observed. In order to break the symmetry and align the chromophores, the films are submitted to the so-called corona poling process. As a result, their structure become non-centrosymmetric and the second-order susceptibility is no longer zero. The corona poling method consists of applying a high electric field to the polymer by means of a needle electrode, placed above the polymer film which is posed on a grounded sample support electrode. Thermal regulation of the support electrode allows to control the temperature during the poling of the films. Once the poling process has been established, a chemical cross-linking function is thermally activated in order to fix the orientation of the chromophores in the polymer matrix. The orientation and its stability in time is evaluated with a Second Harmonic Generation measurement set-up using the Makers Fringes configuration. We studied the influence of the poling temperature, the distance between the corona needle electrode and the sample, the high voltage applied, and the duration of the poling process on the efficiency of chromophore orientation in order to optimize the poling procedure. Finally, aging of poled polymer samples has been investigated at elevated temperatures, confirming the stability of the cross-linking process.

  15. Multijet final states: exact results and the leading pole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.; Owens, J.F.

    1984-09-01

    Exact results for the process gg → ggg are compared with those obtained using the leading pole approximation. Regions of phase space where the approximation breaks down are discussed. A specific example relevant for background estimates to W boson production is presented. It is concluded that in this instance the leading pole approximation may underestimate the standard QCD background by more than a factor of two in certain kinematic regions of physical interest

  16. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Arentoft, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SHSOM) is performed on electric-field poled silica-based waveguides. Two operation modes of SHSOM are considered. Oblique transmission reflection and normal reflection modes are used to image the spatial distribution of nonlinear susceptibilities...... and limitations of the two operation modes when used for SHSOM studies of poled silica-based waveguides are discussed. The influence of surface defects on the resulting second-harmonic images is also considered. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  17. Effectiveness of the attack and the throw of the first four teams in the Men's Handball Games ODESUR 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González Ramírez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyse the attack actions effectiveness for the first four teams qualified for male team Handball during South American Games 2014 (ODESUR and to compare them with de main international tournaments (Olympics games, World and European Championships. No previous records of this kind of studies had been found in this particular competition of the Olympics classification round. Patterns of observational methodology were followed. Results showed that in ODESUR games, differences between winners and losers where observed in the number of attack endings with throws and ball loses. No meaningful differences where showed in effectiveness throwing. The effectiveness attack and throwing levels were less than in other elite tournaments

  18. Pressure transmitter surveillance: the dominant real pole case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, J.; Ballestrin, J.

    1995-01-01

    There are about 500 pressure transmitters in a nuclear power plant. Due to Safety requirements, some of them must be specially surveilled. Sensor response time to a pressure ramp is the usual quantity to be measured. Response time, τ r , reflects the dynamics of the sensor and the sensing line. A real pole is due to the inner sensor structure, but the complex pole stands for the sensing line too. The real pole usually is the dominant in most sensors. On line monitoring noise analysis regards simultaneously both, the sensor and the sensing line, but the noise signal contains not only the sensor poles, but many others coming from the plant, so must be conditioned previously and the determination of τ r is not free of systematic errors. That is the price to be paid for non disturbing the plant. When the real pole is dominant, the sensing line contribution is negligible, so the on line noise monitoring methods are supported by the laboratory experiments and the real pole border in the PSD is properly identified. The mean square frequency results proportional to τ r -1 , so manual techniques are designed for response time surveillance made by non noise plant's maintenance technicians. (author)

  19. A poling study on lead zirconate titanate composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics produced by the conventional mixed oxide route are dual phased. Because the titania and zirconia are not perfectly homogenized, some parts of the ceramic are more tetragonal (titanium rich) and other parts more rhombohedral (zirconium rich). This inhomogeneity means that some domains can be more easily poled than others. Lastly, the density and porosity can affect the poling process if the flaw density becomes such that the breakdown voltage is exceeded by the required poling voltage. The phase boundary determined by most dielectric and piezoelectric measurements is significantly removed from the 44% titanium content determined by neutron diffraction. The indicators that are most consistent with this value are the minimum in the poling efficiency curve and the shape of the dissipative factor curve. The reason for the discrepancy appears to be related to the broad coexistence region of the two phases and the differing poling efficiencies of each phase. It has been established that different poling temperature profiles can substantially modify the observed properties. Such behaviour is again related to the inhomogeneity of the ceramic and the presence of the two phases. 4 refs., 5 figs

  20. THE RELATIONS BETWEEN MORPHOLOGICAL SPACE AND THE ATHLETES’ JUMPING AND THROWING EVENTS RESULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stanojević

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 200 primary school students in the region of Prokuplje, male, aged 13 and 14 years, who, in addition to regular physical education classes, were included in the sports clubs training activities. The variables sample included 13 anthropometric measures as a set of predictors and four specific-motor tests of jumping (high jump and long jump and throwing events (shot put and javelin, as well as a set of criteria. The aim of this research was to examine the relation of morphological characteristics with the jumping and throwing events results, with elementary school students as athletes. Determining the relations and influence between the morphological characteristics and the specific motor skills was obtained by applying the canonical-correlation and regression analysis. The research of canonical correlation analysis results showed that there are statistically significant interlinks between canonical factors of morphological dimension Can. 0.81% (p = .000 and the results of examinee’s specific-motor skills in a long running jump, running high jump, shot put and javelin. Regression analysis results show that the morphological dimensions have an important prediction of the results of examinee’s specific-motor skills.

  1. The optical design of ultra-short throw system for panel emitted theater video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2015-07-01

    In the past decade, the display format from (HD High Definition) through Full HD(1920X1080) to UHD(4kX2k), mainly guides display industry to two directions: one is liquid crystal display(LCD) from 10 inch to 100 inch and more, and the other is projector. Although LCD has been popularly used in market; however, the investment for production such kind displays cost more money expenditure, and less consideration of environmental pollution and protection[1]. The Projection system may be considered, due to more viewing access, flexible in location, energy saving and environmental protection issues. The topic is to design and fabricate a short throw factor liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) projection system for cinema. It provides a projection lens system, including a tele-centric lens fitted for emitted LCoS to collimate light to enlarge the field angle. Then, the optical path is guided by a symmetric lens. Light of LCoS may pass through the lens, hit on and reflect through an aspherical mirror, to form a less distortion image on blank wall or screen for home cinema. The throw ratio is less than 0.33.

  2. Prediction of shot success for basketball free throws: visual search strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yusuke; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Honda, Masaaki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    In ball games, players have to pay close attention to visual information in order to predict the movements of both the opponents and the ball. Previous studies have indicated that players primarily utilise cues concerning the ball and opponents' body motion. The information acquired must be effective for observing players to select the subsequent action. The present study evaluated the effects of changes in the video replay speed on the spatial visual search strategy and ability to predict free throw success. We compared eye movements made while observing a basketball free throw by novices and experienced basketball players. Correct response rates were close to chance (50%) at all video speeds for the novices. The correct response rate of experienced players was significantly above chance (and significantly above that of the novices) at the normal speed, but was not different from chance at both slow and fast speeds. Experienced players gazed more on the lower part of the player's body when viewing a normal speed video than the novices. The players likely detected critical visual information to predict shot success by properly moving their gaze according to the shooter's movements. This pattern did not change when the video speed was decreased, but changed when it was increased. These findings suggest that temporal information is important for predicting action outcomes and that such outcomes are sensitive to video speed.

  3. Deliberate utilization of interaction torques brakes elbow extension in a fast throwing motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Jon; Debicki, Derek B; Gribble, Paul L; Watts, Sherry

    2011-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in fast arm movements the CNS deliberately utilizes interaction torques to decelerate (brake) joint rotations. Twelve subjects performed fast 2-D overarm throws in which large elbow extension velocities occurred. Joint motions were computed from recordings made with search coils; joint torques were calculated using inverse dynamics. After ball release, a large follow-through shoulder extension acceleration occurred that was initiated by shoulder extensor muscle torque. This shoulder acceleration produced a flexor interaction torque at the elbow that initiated elbow deceleration (braking). An instantaneous mechanical interaction of passive torques then occurred between elbow and shoulder, i.e., elbow extension deceleration produced a large shoulder extensor interaction torque that contributed to the shoulder extension acceleration which, simultaneously, produced a large elbow flexor interaction torque that contributed to elbow extension deceleration, and so on. Late elbow flexor muscle torque also contributed to elbow deceleration. The interaction of passive torques between shoulder and elbow was braked by shoulder flexor muscle torque. In this mechanism, shoulder musculature contributed to braking elbow extension in two ways: shoulder extensors initiated the mechanical interaction of passive torques between shoulder and elbow and shoulder flexors dissipated kinetic energy from elbow braking. It is concluded that, in fast 2-D throws, the CNS deliberately utilizes powerful interaction torques between shoulder and elbow to brake motion at the elbow.

  4. Designing Pay-As-You-Throw schemes in municipal waste management services: A holistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, Valerio; Gnoni, Maria Grazia; Tornese, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) schemes are becoming widespread in several countries. • Economic, organizational and technological issues have to be integrated in an efficient PAYT model design. • Efficiency refers to a PAYT system which support high citizen participation rates as well as economic sustainability. • Different steps and constraints have to be evaluated from collection services to type technologies. • An holistic approach is discussed to support PAYT systems diffusion. - Abstract: Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) strategies are becoming widely applied in solid waste management systems; the main purpose is to support a more sustainable – from economic, environmental and social points of view – management of waste flows. Adopting PAYT charging models increases the complexity level of the waste management service as new organizational issues have to be evaluated compared to flat charging models. In addition, innovative technological solutions could also be adopted to increase the overall efficiency of the service. Unit pricing, user identification and waste measurement represent the three most important processes to be defined in a PAYT system. The paper proposes a holistic framework to support an effective design and management process. The framework defines most critical processes and effective organizational and technological solutions for supporting waste managers as well as researchers

  5. Designing Pay-As-You-Throw schemes in municipal waste management services: A holistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elia, Valerio; Gnoni, Maria Grazia, E-mail: mariagrazia.gnoni@unisalento.it; Tornese, Fabiana

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) schemes are becoming widespread in several countries. • Economic, organizational and technological issues have to be integrated in an efficient PAYT model design. • Efficiency refers to a PAYT system which support high citizen participation rates as well as economic sustainability. • Different steps and constraints have to be evaluated from collection services to type technologies. • An holistic approach is discussed to support PAYT systems diffusion. - Abstract: Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) strategies are becoming widely applied in solid waste management systems; the main purpose is to support a more sustainable – from economic, environmental and social points of view – management of waste flows. Adopting PAYT charging models increases the complexity level of the waste management service as new organizational issues have to be evaluated compared to flat charging models. In addition, innovative technological solutions could also be adopted to increase the overall efficiency of the service. Unit pricing, user identification and waste measurement represent the three most important processes to be defined in a PAYT system. The paper proposes a holistic framework to support an effective design and management process. The framework defines most critical processes and effective organizational and technological solutions for supporting waste managers as well as researchers.

  6. Plastic forming simulation analysis of marine engine crankshaft single-throw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Peipei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research object is for marine engine crankshaft single-throw.A 3D model of the crankshaft single-throw blank and die in forging process is established by SolidWorks software,then the 3D model is imported into metal plastic forming CAE software DEFROM-3D to carry on the plastic forming simulation,to verify the relationship between the internal flow stress and the external deformation conditions in the process of metal plastic deformation under different strain rate and temperature,and to carry on the scientific analysis based on the obtained data.The result shows that the preset temperature is higher,the stress-strain curve is relatively lower when the strain rate is constant.Sample internal flow stress will be greater and the resistance to fatigue strength will be poorer at a higher strain rate when the temperature of the blank is constant.The result also provides a theoretical basis for further optimization design.

  7. International Youth Conference on the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. K.; Kuhn, T. S.; Baeseman, J.; Garmulewicz, A.; Raymond, M.; Salmon, R.

    2006-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) is an international effort, involving more than 50 countries, to focus research in both the sciences and social sciences on the world's Polar Regions. In order to secure youth involvement in the IPY, the Youth Steering Committee (YSC) has been formed, aiming specifically to network young polar researchers from all backgrounds enabling collaboration and to involve this group in outreach focused towards other young people. A conference targeted directly at an audience of early career researchers and international youth will be central to fulfilling these aims. The YSC has therefore developed the concept of the International Youth Conference on the Poles (IYCP). Proposed for 2008, this conference will bring together youth from a diverse set of backgrounds and nationalities to discuss the issues affecting the Polar Regions, their effects on a global scale and ways of addressing these issues. The conference will also serve to highlight ongoing IPY research, especially research being undertaken by young researchers, and provide a perennial framework for youth involvement in polar research and policies. The IYCP will run for three days in May 2008, attracting an international youth audience, as well as representatives from polar organizations, teachers, politicians, policy makers, the general public and media. The IYCP will be divided into three sections. Youth Roundtable Discussions will bring youth together to discuss issues affecting the Polar Regions and potential solutions to these. A Young Researchers Conference will provide the opportunity for young researchers working in the Polar Regions to present their work to an interdisciplinary audience. The Polar Fair will provide an interactive environment for youth to learn about the Polar Regions. The IYCP will be of great importance to the IPY because it will serve as the principle venue during the Polar Year where youth from many different disciplines, backgrounds and countries will

  8. Changes in Muscle Architecture, Explosive Ability, and Track and Field Throwing Performance Throughout a Competitive Season and After a Taper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Mizuguchi, Satoshi; Harrison, Alex P; Sato, Kimitake; Kavanaugh, Ashley A; DeWeese, Brad H; Stone, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an overreach and taper on measures of muscle architecture, jumping, and throwing performance in Division I collegiate throwers preparing for conference championships. Six collegiate track and field throwers (3 hammer, 2 discus, 1 javelin) trained for 12 weeks using a block-periodization model culminating with a 1-week overreach followed by a 3-week taper (ORT). Session rating of perceived exertion training load (RPETL) and strength training volume-load times bar displacement (VLd) were recorded weekly. Athletes were tested pre-ORT and post-ORT on measures of vastus lateralis architecture, unloaded and loaded squat and countermovement jump performance, underhand and overhead throwing performance, and competition throwing performance. There was a statistical reduction in weight training VLd/session (d = 1.21, p ≤ 0.05) and RPETL/session (d = 0.9, p ≤ 0.05) between the in-season and ORT training phases. Five of 6 athletes improved overhead throw and competition throwing performance after the ORT (d = 0.50, p ≤ 0.05). Vastus lateralis muscle thickness statistically increased after the in-season training phase (d = 0.28, p ≤ 0.05) but did not change after the ORT. Unloaded countermovement jump peak force and relative peak power improved significantly after the ORT (d = 0.59, p ≤ 0.05, d = 0.31, p ≤ 0.05, respectively). These findings demonstrate that an overreaching week followed by a 3-week taper is an effective means of improving explosive ability and throwing performance in collegiate track and field throwers despite the absence of detectable changes in muscle architecture.

  9. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

  10. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Ali M.; Kassem, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. → Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. → The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. → The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. → The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  11. Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2013-06-01

    Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ≤15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ≤3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (≤15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy.

  12. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Ali M., E-mail: drali_yousef@yahoo.co [Electrical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University (Egypt); Kassem, Ahmed M., E-mail: kassem_ahmed53@hotmail.co [Control Technology Dep., Industrial Education College, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. {yields} Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. {yields} The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. {yields} The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. {yields} The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  13. Development of a multi-pole magnetorheological brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, Yaojung; Nguyen, Quang-Anh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the design and optimization of a novel multi-pole magnetorheological (MR) brake that employs magnetic flux more effectively on the surface of the rotor. MR brakes with conventional single ring-type electromagnetic poles have reached the limits of torque enhancement. One major reason is the limitation of the magnetic field strength within the active area of the MR fluid due to the geometric constraints of the coil. The multi-pole MR brake design features multiple electromagnetic poles surrounded by several coils. As a result, the active chaining areas for the MR fluid are greatly increased, and significant brake torque improvement is achieved. The coil structure, as a part of the stator, becomes flexible and customizable in terms of space usage for the winding and bobbin design. In addition, this brake offers extra options in its dimensions for torque enhancement because either the radial or the axial dimensions of the rotor can be increased. Magnetic circuit analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the design parameters on the field torque. After that, simulations were done to find the optimal design under all major geometric constraints with a given power supply. The results show that the multi-pole MR brake provides a considerable braking torque increase while maintaining a compact and solid design. This is confirmation of its feasibility in actual braking applications. (paper)

  14. Avoidance of a Landau pole by flat contributions in QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaczynski, Lutz, E-mail: lutz.klaczynski@gmx.de [Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: kreimer@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Alexander von Humboldt Chair in Mathematical Physics, Humboldt University, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    We consider massless Quantum Electrodynamics in the momentum scheme and carry forward an approach based on Dyson–Schwinger equations to approximate both the β-function and the renormalized photon self-energy (Yeats, 2011). Starting from the Callan–Symanzik equation, we derive a renormalization group (RG) recursion identity which implies a non-linear ODE for the anomalous dimension and extract a sufficient but not necessary criterion for the existence of a Landau pole. This criterion implies a necessary condition for QED to have no such pole. Solving the differential equation exactly for a toy model case, we integrate the corresponding RG equation for the running coupling and find that even though the β-function entails a Landau pole it exhibits a flat contribution capable of decreasing its growth, in other cases possibly to the extent that such a pole is avoided altogether. Finally, by applying the recursion identity, we compute the photon propagator and investigate the effect of flat contributions on both spacelike and timelike photons. -- Highlights: •We present an approach to approximate both the β-function and the photon self-energy. •We find a sufficient criterion for the self-energy to entail the existence of a Landau pole. •We study non-perturbative ‘flat’ contributions that emerge within the context of our approach. •We discuss a toy model and how it is affected by flat contributions.

  15. Choice of wood poles can reduce greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedjo, R. A.

    2002-07-01

    The first, second and third assessment reports on climate change of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are reviewed in an effort to highlight results of past studies on the total life cycle energy utilization of wood products compared with the use of substitute materials such as steel, concrete, bricks and aluminum. Without exception, all studies found that the total energy requirements associated with wood materials are substantially lower than those of other commonly substituted materials. For example, it has been clearly demonstrated that wooden poles are more environmentally benign than concrete or steel poles with regard to their energy utilization and their potential to contribute to atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. An estimate to convert wood poles to steel poles showed that while the greenhouse gas emissions associated with pole conversion were modest compared to the national total, they were nevertheless a significant percentage of US annual emission (approximately 2.8 per cent of annual US total of 5.28 billion tons of carbon dioxide). These studies provide empirical confirmation of the concept that substitution of high energy-intensive materials for low-energy-using wood materials contributes substantially to the overall increase of carbon dioxide emissions through their overall higher energy requirements.

  16. Analysis of car’s frontal collision against pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Nastasoiu, M.

    2017-10-01

    Reducing the effects of traffic accidents over the occupants is a major objective of collision attempts. Impacts between the car and the pole are very dangerous for the physical integrity of the car’s occupants. To minimalize the effects of such events on the passengers of a vehicle, a whole series of efforts by both designers and experienced engineers led to increasingly the vehicles safety. The main aim of these paper is to quantify the influences over the car passengers of loads involved by car against pole collisions using the same car model at different speeds. Also, this kind on occupant influences were study using a small car model. Other goal of the paper was the study of the cars stiffness in frontal collision against the pole. The paper’s experimental results were obtained by support of DSD, Dr. Steffan Datentechnik GmbH - Linz, Austria. The described tests were performed in full test facility of DSD Linz, in “Easter 2016 PC-Crash Seminar”. Cars accelerations, velocities, rotations angles after pole impact were registered and discussed. The novelty of the paper consists in studies referred for the same car model involved in car against pole collisions at different impact speeds. Paper’s conclusions can be future used for car safety improvement.

  17. Compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet with holmium poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, D.B.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Lobb, C.T.; Menzel, M.T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walstrom, P.L. (Grumman Space Systems, Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1992-03-15

    A compact high-field superconducting quadrupole magnet was designed and built with poles made of the rare-earth metal holmium. The magnet is intended for use in superconducting coupled-cavity linear accelerators where compact high-field quadrupoles are needed, but where the use of permanent magnets is ruled out because of trapped-flux losses. The magnet has a clear bore diameter of 1.8 cm, outside diameter of 11 cm, length of 11 cm, and pole tip length of 6 cm. The effect of using holmium, a material with a higher saturation field than iron, was investigated by replacing poles made of iron with identical poles made of holmium. The magnet was operated at a temperature of 4.2 K and reached a peak quadrupole field gradient of 355 T/m, a 10% increase over the same magnet with iron poles. This increase in performance is consistent with calculations based on B-H curves that were measured for holmium at 4.2 K. (orig.).

  18. The cell pole: the site of cross talk between the DNA uptake and genetic recombination machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidane, Dawit; Ayora, Silvia; Sweasy, Joann B; Graumann, Peter L; Alonso, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    Natural transformation is a programmed mechanism characterized by binding of free double-stranded (ds) DNA from the environment to the cell pole in rod-shaped bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis some competence proteins, which process the dsDNA and translocate single-stranded (ss) DNA into the cytosol, recruit a set of recombination proteins mainly to one of the cell poles. A subset of single-stranded binding proteins, working as "guardians", protects ssDNA from degradation and limit the RecA recombinase loading. Then, the "mediators" overcome the inhibitory role of guardians, and recruit RecA onto ssDNA. A RecA·ssDNA filament searches for homology on the chromosome and, in a process that is controlled by "modulators", catalyzes strand invasion with the generation of a displacement loop (D-loop). A D-loop resolvase or "resolver" cleaves this intermediate, limited DNA replication restores missing information and a DNA ligase seals the DNA ends. However, if any step fails, the "rescuers" will repair the broken end to rescue chromosomal transformation. If the ssDNA does not share homology with resident DNA, but it contains information for autonomous replication, guardian and mediator proteins catalyze plasmid establishment after inhibition of RecA. DNA replication and ligation reconstitute the molecule (plasmid transformation). In this review, the interacting network that leads to a cross talk between proteins of the uptake and genetic recombination machinery will be placed into prospective.

  19. The Relationships between Ball Throwing Velocity and Physical-Psychomotor Features for Talent Identification in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadenizli, Zeynep Inci

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between ball throwing velocity (BTV), and physical features and anaerobic power (AP) for talent identification in team handball players. Players (n: 54) at 21,91 ± 4,94 age, training experience 11,19 ± 4,46 years participated voluntarily to study. These players consist of 54 Turkish…

  20. The Influence of Task Constraints on the Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction Angle of the Overarm Throw of Novice Throwers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Garner, John C.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Parish, Loraine E.; St. Onge, Paul M.; Campbell, Brian J.; Weimar, Wendi H.

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the effects of three baseballs and softballs of different masses (0.113 kg, 0.198 kg, 0.340 kg) and regulation diameters (22.86 and 30.48 cm, respectively) on the glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle of an overarm throw performed by young children who were novice throwers. Glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle was…

  1. Examining Impulse-Variability Theory and the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in Children's Overarm Throwing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Sergio L; Stodden, David F

    2018-04-01

    This study examined variability in throwing speed and spatial error to test the prediction of an inverted-U function (i.e., impulse-variability [IV] theory) and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children were instructed to throw at a specified percentage of maximum speed (45%, 65%, 85%, and 100%) and hit the wall target. Results indicated no statistically significant differences in variable error across the target conditions (p = .72), failing to support the inverted-U hypothesis. Spatial accuracy results indicated no statistically significant differences with mean radial error (p = .18), centroid radial error (p = .13), and bivariate variable error (p = .08) also failing to support the speed-accuracy trade-off in overarm throwing. As neither throwing performance variability nor accuracy changed across percentages of maximum speed in this sample of children as well as in a previous adult sample, current policy and practices of practitioners may need to be reevaluated.

  2. The Overarm-Throwing Pattern among U-14 ASA Female Softball Players: A Comparative Study of Gender, Culture, and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranek, Laura Jones; Barton, Gina V.

    2011-01-01

    A developmental description of overarm-throwing characteristics of U-14 female ASA softball players is presented here. Comparisons were made between these athletes and teens of similar age in the United States (Runion, Roberton, & Langendorfer, 2003) and in Germany (Ehl, Roberton, & Langendorfer, 2005). A majority of the softball players…

  3. The Influence of the ‘Trier Social Stress Test’ on Free Throw Performance in Basketball: An Interdisciplinary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascret, Nicolas; Ibáñez-Gijón, Jorge; Bréjard, Vincent; Buekers, Martinus; Casanova, Rémy; Marqueste, Tanguy; Montagne, Gilles; Rao, Guillaume; Roux, Yannick; Cury, François

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between stress and sport performance in a controlled setting. The experimental protocol used to induce stress in a basketball free throw was the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and its control condition (Placebo-TSST). Participants (n = 19), novice basketball players but trained sportspersons, were exposed to two counterbalanced conditions in a crossover design. They were equipped with sensors to measure movement execution, while salivary cortisol and psychological state were also measured. The task consisted of two sequences of 40 free throws, one before either the TSST or Placebo-TSST and one after. Physiological and psychological measures evidenced that the TSST induced significant stress responses, whereas the Placebo-TSST did not. Shooting performance remained stable after the TSST but decreased after the Placebo-TSST. We found no effect of the TSST or Placebo-TSST on movement execution. A multivariate model of free throw performance demonstrated that timing, smoothness and explosiveness of the movements are more relevant to account for beginner’s behavior than stress-related physiological and psychological states. We conclude that the TSST is a suitable protocol to induce stress responses in sport context, even though the effects on beginners’ free throw performance and execution are small and complex. PMID:27309715

  4. Food Ration and Mental Training for the Improvement of the Free Throw Performance in Congolese Beginners Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhika, Eddie Janvier; Moussouami, Simplice Innocent; Tsiama Portejoie, Jean Aimé; Bazaba Kayilou, Jean Michel; Moyen, Rachel; Mizere Moungondo, Martin; Maouene, Michel; Mbemba, François

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Through an experimental study, the present work aims at testing the effectiveness of diet and mental imagery on the success of free throw in Congolese beginners Basketball Players. Method: 45 players participated in this experimental study in Brazzaville (Congo). These subjects were divided into 3 groups. Group I (n = 15), made up of…

  5. Ability Beliefs, Task Value, and Performance as a Function of Race in a Dart-Throwing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Kosma, Maria; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines differences in self-efficacy, expectancy-related beliefs, task value, and performance in a dart-throwing task as a function of race among diverse college students using the expectancy-value model and self-efficacy theory. It also examines the predictive contributions of these beliefs on task performance within each racial…

  6. The burden of secrecy? No effect on hill slant estimation and beanbag throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane; van Mierlo, Heleen; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Zeelenberg, René

    2015-08-01

    Slepian, Masicampo, Toosi, and Ambady (2012, Experiment 1) reported that participants who recalled a big secret estimated a hill as steeper than participants who recalled a small secret. This finding was interpreted as evidence that secrets are experienced as physical burdens. In 2 experiments, we tried to replicate this finding, but, despite larger power, did not find a difference in slant estimates between participants who recalled a big secret and those who recalled a small secret. This finding was further corroborated by a meta-analysis that included 8 published data sets of exact replications, which indicates that thinking of a big secret does not affect hill slant estimation. In a third experiment, we also failed to replicate the effect of recalling a secret on throwing a beanbag at a target (Slepian et al., 2012, Experiment 2). Together, our findings question the robustness of the original empirical findings. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Injuries to the shoulder in the throwing athlete. Part two: evaluation/treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, K

    2000-01-01

    In part one of this three-part series (March/April 2000), I concentrated on summarizing the biomechanics of the normal throwing shoulder and the pathophysiology of injury. A classification of injury was presented that was based on the principles contained in that article. Part two of this series will focus on the evaluation and treatment of injuries, expanded from an understanding of the principles learned in part one. The ability to perform a skillful examination, and thus develop an accurate diagnosis, is the foundation for treatment. Fortunately, many difficulties encountered in a thrower's shoulder can be treated with a nonoperative approach. However, in instances where conservative measures fail, an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of injury and the development of improved surgical techniques are leading to more accurate diagnoses and more successful rates of return of the athlete to a premorbid level of activity.

  8. Stresses in the plantar region for long- and short-range throws in women basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Massimiliano; Ciuti, Carla

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess plantar pressure pattern modifications caused by short- and long-distance shots in women basketball players. To this end, 24 experienced national- and regional-level basketball players performed 3 trials of 4 technical gestures (free throw, jump stop shot, three-point shot and lay-up) barefoot on a pressure platform placed in fixed positions on the court. Raw data were processed to calculate location and magnitude of pressure peaks in three sub-regions (forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot), and the increase ratio was calculated relative to plantar pressure measured during a static bipedal and unipedal upright stance. The results showed significant increases (ptraining and rehabilitation protocols.

  9. Strength Determinants of Jump Height in the Jump Throw Movement in Women Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, David; Østerås, Sindre; Ettema, Gertjan; Paulsen, Gøran; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2018-06-08

    McGhie, D, Østerås, S, Ettema, G, Paulsen, G, and Sandbakk, Ø. Strength determinants of jump height in the jump throw movement in women handball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of the study was to improve the understanding of the strength demands of a handball-specific jump through examining the associations between jump height in a jump throw jump (JTJ) and measures of lower-body maximum strength and impulse in handball players. For comparison, whether the associations between jump height and strength differed between the JTJ and the customarily used countermovement jump (CMJ) was also examined. Twenty women handball players from a Norwegian top division club participated in the study. Jump height was measured in the JTJ and in unilateral and bilateral CMJ. Lower-body strength (maximum isometric force, one-repetition maximum [1RM], impulse at ∼60% and ∼35% 1RM) was measured in seated leg press. The associations between jump height and strength were assessed with correlation analyses and t-tests of dependent r's were performed to determine if correlations differed between jump tests. Only impulse at ∼35% 1RM correlated significantly with JTJ height (p jump height and strength were significantly weaker in the JTJ than in both CMJ tests for all strength measures (p = 0.001-0.044) except one. Maximum strength and impulse at ∼60% 1RM did not seem to sufficiently capture the capabilities associated with JTJ height, highlighting the importance of employing tests targeting performance-relevant neuromuscular characteristics when assessing jump-related strength in handball players. Further, CMJ height seemed to represent a wider range of strength capabilities and care should be taken when using it as a proxy for handball-specific movements.

  10. Effects of Fatigue on Throwing Performance in Experienced Team Handball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Alberto; van den Tillaar, Roland; Guisado, Rafael; Martín, Ignacio; Martinez, Isidoro; Chirosa, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of central and peripheral physiological fatigue on throwing accuracy and ball release velocity in team handball. Twenty male subjects (age 24.7 ± 3.9 yrs, body mass 88.5 ± 5.0 kg, body height 1.86 ± 0.05 m, training experience 12.7 ± 3.8 yrs) from one handball team participated in this study. The participants completed four sets of eight laps of a circuit that consisted of specific team handball drills/exercises, with decreasing recovery times between the laps in each set in order to induce physiological fatigue. Duration of the recovery intervals determined the description of the effort made in each set: “light" (80 s recovery between laps), “moderate" (40 s), “hard" (20 s) and “very hard" (10 s). A heart rate, concentration of lactate in blood and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Ball velocity and accuracy were measured after each set and they both decreased during a fatigue protocol. However, accuracy only decreased significantly in the end of the protocol, while ball release was already affected after the first round of the protocol. The results substantiate the initial hypothesis and confirm that both throwing accuracy and ball release velocity decrease significantly as physiological fatigue increases. These variables began to decrease when the fatigue quantification values were high or very high. The findings can be used by coaches to develop training programs to teach players how to identify fatigue thresholds and combat the effects of fatigue through decision-making skills at critical game moments. PMID:28031762

  11. Rotational acceleration during head impact resulting from different judo throwing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Haruo; Hitosugi, Masahito; Motozawa, Yasuki; Ogino, Masahiro; Koyama, Katsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Most severe head injuries in judo are reported as acute subdural hematoma. It is thus necessary to examine the rotational acceleration of the head to clarify the mechanism of head injuries. We determined the rotational acceleration of the head when the subject is thrown by judo techniques. One Japanese male judo expert threw an anthropomorphic test device using two throwing techniques, Osoto-gari and Ouchi-gari. Rotational and translational head accelerations were measured with and without an under-mat. For Osoto-gari, peak resultant rotational acceleration ranged from 4,284.2 rad/s(2) to 5,525.9 rad/s(2) and peak resultant translational acceleration ranged from 64.3 g to 87.2 g; for Ouchi-gari, the accelerations respectively ranged from 1,708.0 rad/s(2) to 2,104.1 rad/s(2) and from 120.2 g to 149.4 g. The resultant rotational acceleration did not decrease with installation of an under-mat for both Ouchi-gari and Osoto-gari. We found that head contact with the tatami could result in the peak values of translational and rotational accelerations, respectively. In general, because kinematics of the body strongly affects translational and rotational accelerations of the head, both accelerations should be measured to analyze the underlying mechanism of head injury. As a primary preventative measure, throwing techniques should be restricted to participants demonstrating ability in ukemi techniques to avoid head contact with the tatami.

  12. NiThrowTM a dedicated tool to D and D applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objois, Laurent; Moggia, Fabrice; Damerval, Frederique; Varet, Thierry; Toulemonde, Valerie; Richard, Frederic

    2012-09-01

    D and D operations of nuclear site facilities, is a long, complicated and important stage. Usually, such operations involve the implementation of a large number of different technologies (mechanicals and/or chemicals) dedicated to cutting and decontamination operations. Such processes proved to work since facilities are being decommissioned. However as larger projects are foreseen, the capability of such applications to fulfil the requirement in term of economics, techniques and environment/social remains uncertain. Indeed, several aspects such as the efficiency, the speed but also the number of operators required to operate and for sure the quantity of generated wastes remain an important key point. In that context, it appears important to develop a new technology capable to be quicker, safer, and friendlier for operators and the environment. In this context, the Clean-Up Business Unit of AREVA group (BE/CL) with its partner Air Liquide worked on the development of a new cryogenic process. Started in 2008, this work was based on the use of highly pressurized liquid nitrogen in order to achieve the three mains D and D operations which are: - Cutting. - Surface decontamination. - Concrete scabbling. In this paper, three parts will be presented. The first one will give a brief overview of this new technology so called NiThrow TM . The second one will exhibit the results obtained during our different tests. And finally, the third part will be focused on the R and D developments we realized in order to fully nuclearized this NiThrow TM technology but also on its tuning in order to qualify it for nuclear environments. (authors)

  13. MISO Current-mode Biquad Filter with Independent Control of Pole Frequency and Quality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaikla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a three-inputs single-output biquadratic filter performing completely standard functions: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-reject and all-pass functions, based on current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCCTA. The quality factor and pole frequency can be electronically/independently tuned via the input bias current. The proposed circuit uses 2 CCCCTAs and 2 grounded capacitors without external any resistors which is very suitable to further develop into an integrated circuit. The filter does not require double input current signal. Each function response can be selected by suitably selecting input signals with digital method. Moreover, the circuit possesses high output impedance which would be an ideal choice for current-mode cascading. The PSPICE simulation results are included to verify the workability of the proposed filter. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.

  14. Russians, Jews, and Poles: Russification and Antisemitism 1881-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor R. Weeks

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Poles and Jews deteriorated significantly in the three decades leading up to World War I. Many reasons for this phenomenon can be given, for example: economic competition, a general atmosphere of acute nationalism, increased migration, perceived threats to traditional forms of life and religion. Exacerbating all of these factors, however, was the fact of Polish statelessness and the extreme sensitivity of Poles to perceived threats to their culture and nation. In particular within the Russian Empire, Poles perceived the very future of their nation at risk. In such circumstances the continued existence of Jewish cultural difference combined with the development of specifically Jewish forms of national awakening (e.g., the Bund and Zionism were understood by many in Polish society as ingratitude and collaboration with the Russian occupier

  15. PLANNING THE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR TIMISOARA GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Livia POPA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that planning the quality of life at local level through economic development can be a new approach for policy makers and community in improving quality of life. In this purpose, the Quality Function Deployment (QFD model will be use to planning the quality of life and to identify the main directions of economic development to support improving the quality of life at the level of Timisoara Growth Pole from Romania. The dimensions of quality of life are analyzed starting from the point of view of inhabitants. The results include a new approach in which the dimensions of quality of life are the key element that orients economic development in order to improve the quality of life of human being. The case study results refer to the main elements of quality of life at Timisoara Growth Pole and the relevant directions of economic development to improve the quality of life for Timisoara Growth Pole.

  16. Comparison of three types of full‐body compression garments on throwing and repeat‐sprint performance in cricket players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Portus, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of three types of full‐body compression garments (Skins, Adidas and Under Armour) on repeat‐sprint and throwing performance in cricket players. Methods Following familiarisation, 10 male cricket players performed four randomised exercise sessions (3 garments and a control). Each session involved a 30 min repeat‐sprint exercise protocol comprising 20 m sprints every minute, separated by submaximal exercise. Throwing tests included a pre‐exercise and a postexercise maximal distance test and accuracy throwing tests. During each session, measures of heart rate, skin temperature, change in body mass, rate of perceived exertion and perceived muscle soreness were recorded. Capillary blood samples were analysed before and after exercise for lactate, pH, O2 saturation and O2 partial pressure, and 24 h after exercise for creatine kinase (CK). Ratings of perceived muscle soreness were also obtained 24 h after exercise. Results No significant differences (p>0.05) were evident in repeat‐sprint performance (10 m, 20 m time or total submaximal distance covered) or throwing performance (maximum distance or accuracy). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in heart rate, body mass change or blood measures during exercise. Significant differences (p0.05). Conclusions No benefit was noted when wearing compression garments for repeat‐sprint or throwing performance; however, the use of the garments as a recovery tool, when worn after exercise, may be beneficial to reduce postexercise trauma and perceived muscle soreness. PMID:17341589

  17. Third Pole Environment (TPE): a new frontier for interdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yao, T.; Thompson, L. G.; Mosbrugger, V.; Zhang, F.; Ma, Y.; Yang, X.; Wang, W.; Joswiak, D.; Liu, X.; Devkota, L. P.; Tayal, S.; Luo, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges, referred to by scientists as the Third Pole (TP), represent one of the largest ice masses of the Earth. The region is one of the most sensitive areas responding to global climate change due to its high altitude and the presence of permafrost and glaciers. The near 100,000 km2 of glaciers ensure the permanent flow of major rivers in this region and provide water to 1.4 billion people in Asia. Thus, environmental changes taking place on the TP significantly influences social and economic development of countries in this region such as China, India, Nepal, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bhutan. With an average elevation higher than 4,000 metres above sea level, the Third Pole is characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes that bear special significance for the Earth's biodiversity, climate and water cycles. For a comprehensive understanding of the environment of the TP and its implications on the development of the region, we need to integrate different disciplines under a them of 'water-ice-air-ecosystem -human' interactions and reveal environmental change processes and mechanisms on the TP and their influences on and regional responses to global changes, and thus to serve for enhancement of human adaptation to the changing environment. Like Antarctica and the Arctic, the Third Pole region is drawing increased attention of the international academic community. A series of observations and monitoring programs in the Third Pole region has been widely implemented. However, data necessary to precisely assess the environmental, societal and economic changes caused by alterations in the Third Pole dynamics are either lacking or insufficient. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) program is thus established as a comprehensive and coordinated international research, monitoring and capacity building initiative, with goals to address the influence

  18. Magnetic transmission gear finite element simulation with iron pole hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Mattia; Alotto, Piergiorgio; Glehn, Gregor; Hameyer, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Ferromagnetic poles in a magnetic transmission gear require particular attention during their design process. Usually, during the numerical simulation of these devices the effects of hysteresis for loss estimation are neglected and considered only during post-processing calculations. Since the literature lacks hysteresis models, this paper adopts a homogenized hysteretic model able to include eddy current and hysteresis losses in 2D laminated materials for iron poles. In this article the results related to the hysteresis in a magnetic gear are presented and compared to the non-hysteretic approach.

  19. Revised paleomagnetic pole for the Sonoma Volcanics, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Paleomagnetic sampling of the Miocene and Pliocene Sonoma Volcanics, northern California, was undertaken to supplement an earlier collection. Data from 25 cooling units yield positive fold and reversal tests, and a paleomagnetic pole located at 80.2??N., 069.2??E., with ??95 = 6.8??. This paleopole is significantly displaced (9.6?? ?? 5.3?? of latitude) to the farside of the geographic pole. A highly elliptical distribution of the data in both direction and VGP space indicates that incomplete averaging of geomagnetic secular variation is a more likely explanation for this anomaly than is northward translation of the volcanic field. -Author

  20. Induction Motor with Switchable Number of Poles and Toroidal Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU, A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of an induction motor provided with toroidal stator winding. The ring-type coils offer a higher versatility in obtaining a different number of pole pairs by means of delta/star and series/parallel connections respectively. As consequence, the developed torque can vary within large limits and the motor can be utilized for applications that require, for example, high load torque values for a short time. The study involves experimental tests and FEM simulation for an induction machine with three configurations of pole pairs. The conclusions attest the superiority of the toroidal winding for certain applications such as electric vehicles or lifting machines.

  1. Poles Living in Ireland and their Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NOLKA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth of Ireland resulted in a significant number of Poles migrating to Ireland following the EU enlargement in 2004. The article explores the quality of life of Poles living in Ireland. Using data from a preliminary survey conducted in 2006, several dimensions of living conditions are analysed, including interpersonal relations, material security, health and healthcare. The study shows that evaluations of almost all aspects of quality of life improved, apart from components such as healthcare and the ability to acquire help from social organisations. Also interpersonal relations, contrary to the initial assumption, were enhanced by migration to Ireland.

  2. Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the distal pole of the scaphoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavuk Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Post traumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of scaphoid is very rare. We present a case of 34 years old male, drill operator by occupation with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of the scaphoid. The patient was managed conservatively and was kept under regular follow-up every three months. The patient was also asked to change his profession. Two years later, the patient had no pain and had mild restriction of wrist movements (less than 15 degrees in either direction. The radiographs revealed normal density of the scaphoid suggesting revascularization.

  3. Particles as S-matrix poles: hadron democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The connection between two theoretical ideas of the 1950s is traced in this article, namely that hadrons are nonfundamental, ''composite'' particles and that all physically observable particles correspond to singularities of an analytic scattering matrix. The S matrix theory developed by Werner Heisenberg in the early forties now incorporated the concepts of unitarity, invariance, analyticity and causality. The meson-exchange force meant that poles must be present in nucleon-nuclear and pion-nucleon scattering as predicted by dispersion relations. Experimental work in accessible regions determined pole residues. Pole residue became associated with force strength and pole position with particle mass. In 1959, the author discovered the so-called ''bootstrap'' theory the rho meson as a force generates a rho particle. By the end of the 1950s it was clear that all hadrons had equal status, each being bound states of other hadrons, sustained by hadron exchange forces and that hadrons are self-generated by an S-matrix bootstrap mechanism that determines all their properties. (UK)

  4. Determination of pole orientations and shapes of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, P.; Barucci, M.A.; Drummond, J.D.; Lumme, K.; Surdej, J.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of asteroid lightcurve inversion and the information available from photometry are reviewed. General tools as well as specific techniques for shape and pole determinations are summarized and their advantages and shortcomings are discussed. The authors present the results obtained so far in this very active field and discuss their significance in the general context of asteroid research and planetary formation

  5. Separable pole expansions in four-nucleon bound state calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofianos, S.A.; Fiedeldey, H.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-04-01

    We compare the utility of the Generalized Unitary Pole Expansion (GUPE) and the Energy-Dependent Pole Expansion (EDPE) for the three-body subsystem amplitudes in four-body state calculations for a variety of separable and local nucleon-nucleon interactions. It is found that, with the EDPE, the four-body binding energy is well reproduced with only two terms each for the (2+2)- and the (3+1)-subsystem, respectively, while the GUPE requires three terms for the (3+1)-channel and four terms for the (2+2)-channel. We thus conclude that pole dominance is of greater importance for the GUPE than for EDPE, which works equally well for both types of subsystems. It is found that both methods, in particular the EDPE, converge more rapidly with increasing repulsion in the two-body interaction, i.e. the more realistic the interaction becomes. Both expansions require similar computing times for a converged calculation and are about 15-20 times faster than the widely used Hilbert-Schmidt Expansion (HSE). The respective merits of the two pole expansions are discussed and compared with the HSE. (orig.)

  6. Biomechanical pole and leg characteristics during uphill diagonal roller skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Stefan Josef; Göpfert, Caroline; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2009-11-01

    Diagonal skiing as a major classical technique has hardly been investigated over the last two decades, although technique and racing velocities have developed substantially. The aims of the present study were to 1) analyse pole and leg kinetics and kinematics during submaximal uphill diagonal roller skiing and 2) identify biomechanical factors related to performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a time to exhaustion (performance) test on a treadmill. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded separately during diagonal roller skiing (9 degrees; 11 km/h). Performance was correlated to cycle length (r = 0.77; P Push-off demonstrated performance correlations for impulse of leg force (r = 0.84), relative duration (r= -0.76) and knee flexion (r = 0.73) and extension ROM (r = 0.74). Relative time to peak pole force was associated with performance (r = 0.73). In summary, diagonal roller skiing performance was linked to 1) longer cycle length, 2) greater impulse of force during a shorter push-off with larger flexion/extension ROMs in leg joints, 3) longer leg swing, and 4) later peak pole force, demonstrating the major key characteristics to be emphasised in training.

  7. Spectroscopic Binaries near the North Galactic Pole Paper 15: HD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Galactic Pole field he treated HD 106947 as if nothing were already known ... By good fortune a Palomar radial-velocity observing run in late 1986 fell near to a .... obvious to the naked eye as a grouping of fifth- and sixth-magnitude stars in an.

  8. In-situ poling and structurization of piezoelectric particulate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbareh, H; van der Zwaag, S; Groen, W A

    2017-11-01

    Composites of lead zirconate titanate particles in an epoxy matrix are prepared in the form of 0-3 and quasi 1-3 with different ceramic volume contents from 10% to 50%. Two different processing routes are tested. Firstly a conventional dielectrophoretic structuring is used to induce a chain-like particle configuration, followed by curing the matrix and poling at a high temperature and under a high voltage. Secondly a simultaneous combination of dielectrophoresis and poling is applied at room temperature while the polymer is in the liquid state followed by subsequent curing. This new processing route is practiced in an uncured thermoset system while the polymer matrix still possess a relatively high electrical conductivity. Composites with different degrees of alignment are produced by altering the magnitude of the applied electric field. A significant improvement in piezoelectric properties of quasi 1-3 composites can be achieved by a combination of dielectrophoretic alignment of the ceramic particles and poling process. It has been observed that the degree of structuring as well as the functional properties of the in-situ structured and poled composites enhance significantly compared to those of the conventionally manufactured structured composites. Improving the alignment quality enhances the piezoelectric properties of the particulate composites.

  9. Finite element analysis of boron diffusion in wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved...

  10. Simple Regge pole model for Compton scattering of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that by a phenomenological choice of the residue functions, the differential cross section for ν p → ν p, including the very recent measurements up to - t=4.3 (GeV/c) 2 , can be explained at all measured energies greater than 2 GeV with simple Regge pole model

  11. Evidence for differentiation of cell wall poles in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenfeld, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous data have suggested that the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis was found to the cell surface at polar regions. A significant corollary of DNA attachment to cell poles is the role of the cell wall in chromosome segregation. This project was mainly concerned with visualizing the DNA-cell wall association through autoradiography. The origin and terminus of replication were labelled with ( 3 H)-thymidine using a temperature-sensitive DNA initiation mutant. It was found that most of the radioactivity was associated with cell poles. Ultrastructural analyses of cell walls stained with dilute cationized ferritin showed that the polar area contained a site of dense electronegativity. It is not immediately apparent why cell wall poles would contain an area with a high concentration of negative charge. This finding may be related to the cell pole functioning as the site of chromosome attachment. An additional observation encountered in this study was that cell wall exhibited asymmetry with regard to negative charge, the outside surface being more electronegative than the inside. A significant consequence of this finding is that both teichoic acid and muramyl peptides are situated perpendicularly to the cell surface. This favored arrangement may facilitate cell separation during the division process due to opposition of like charges at septa. The results of this work provide further convincing evidence that the cell wall of B. subtilis is differentiated

  12. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  13. ENPA endine juht seisukohti muutnud pole / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    Eelmisel aastal Eestit vähemuste diskrimineerimises süüdistanud Euroopa Nõukogu Parlamentaarse Assamblee endine esimees Rene van der Linden pole oma seisukohta muutnud ning usub endiselt, et tema jutt inimõiguste rikkumiste kohta Eestis peab paika. Vt. samas: Van der Linden

  14. An estimate on the purely imaginary poles of scattering matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhkov, Y.D.

    1988-12-01

    In this work we obtain two estimates (upper and lower) on the number of purely imaginary poles of the scattering matrix for the wave equation in the exterior of a compact smooth obstacle in R n , n ≥ 3 odd. The method of Lax and Phillips is used. (author). 5 refs

  15. Diplodia natalensis , Pole Evans: a causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolations were made from the barks of gummosis-infected citrus trees from orchards of the University of Ghana Agricultural Research Station at Kade. The isolation media used were 1.5% water agar, 1.5% water agar + nystatin and 1.5% water agar + benomyl. Four isolates including Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, ...

  16. A variable-mode stator consequent pole memory machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Lyu, Shukang; Lin, Heyun; Zhu, Z. Q.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a variable-mode concept is proposed for the speed range extension of a stator-consequent-pole memory machine (SCPMM). An integrated permanent magnet (PM) and electrically excited control scheme is utilized to simplify the flux-weakening control instead of relatively complicated continuous PM magnetization control. Due to the nature of memory machine, the magnetization state of low coercive force (LCF) magnets can be easily changed by applying either a positive or negative current pulse. Therefore, the number of PM poles may be changed to satisfy the specific performance requirement under different speed ranges, i.e. the machine with all PM poles can offer high torque output while that with half PM poles provides wide constant power range. In addition, the SCPMM with non-magnetized PMs can be considered as a dual-three phase electrically excited reluctance machine, which can be fed by an open-winding based dual inverters that provide direct current (DC) bias excitation to further extend the speed range. The effectiveness of the proposed variable-mode operation for extending its operating region and improving the system reliability is verified by both finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments.

  17. Liz Taylor : minu van Gogh pole natsidele kuulunud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Elizabeth Taylor palus kohtult otsust, et talle kuuluvat 15 miljonit dollarit maksvat Vincent van Goghi maali "Vaade Saint-Remy varjupaigale" pole natsid Margarete Mauthneri juudiperekonna käest vägivaldselt ära võtnud. E. Taylori isa ostis maali 1963. a. Londonis oksjonilt

  18. Carrier Phase GPS Navigation to the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T.; Roberts, G. W.

    Over the last few years, on-the-fly integer ambiguity resolution for GPS has proven to be successful over short baselines (500 km. New techniques have been developed at the University of Nottingham to allow very long baseline integer ambiguity resolution, on-the-fly. A major problem with the use of carrier phase data is that posed by cycle slips. A technique for detecting and correcting cycle slips has been developed, and its use is discussed in this paper. The new technique has been proven through a series of trials, one of which included two flights to the North Pole, performing centimetric level positioning all the way to the pole. For many years, the GD Aero-Systems Course of the Air Warfare Centre based at RAF Cranwell executed a series of equipment flight trials to the North Pole, called the ARIES Flights. In May 1996, the authors were fortunate to take part in both flights, via Iceland and Greenland, to the North Pole. Based on reference stations at Thule Air Base, integer ambiguity resolution was accomplished, on-the-fly, and centimetric level navigation maintained throughout the flights. Earlier trials detailed in the paper demonstrate that the technique can resolve integer ambiguities on-the-fly within a few seconds over a baseline length of approximately 134 km, resulting in an accuracy of 12 cm. The majority of the residual error source for this being the ionosphere.

  19. Cross-poling textures in a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Shan; Bowman, Keith J.

    2000-01-01

    Tetragonal ferroelectric materials are polarized to induce the anisotropy necessary for the piezoelectric effect. This poling of the material is inherently an orientation process. Pole figure texture measurements of poling and cross-poling in a lead zirconate titanate Navy VI material show domain motion. The resulting axisymmetric and three-dimensional textures demonstrate the contribution of 90 degree sign domain motion to piezoelectricity. Cross-poling results in strong orientations with lower applied fields than in the initial poling steps. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society

  20. Plotter of pole figure using data from x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    Any polycrystalline aggregate normally has a preferred crystallographic orientation, or texture which depends on its thermal and or mechanical history. Preferred orientation is best described by means of a pole figure. A pole figure is a stereographic projection which shows the variation in pole density with pole orientation, for a selected set of crystal planes. In this work, computer programs was developed to plot pole figures. The corrected intensities are calculated and directly transmitted to the plotter. The different intensities levels are represented by different colors in the pole figure. (author)

  1. The practice of pole dance as a leisure activity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andorra Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the how pole dance is practiced as a form of leisure activity in Denmark. The methodical approach is qualitative and inspired by ethnography. I have conducted a field study where I have observed and participated in the pole dance culture in Copenhagen from May ...... addresses the difference between a focus on dance and a focus on tricks in pole dancing as well as it examines the different opinions pole studio owners have concerning ‘sexiness’ in pole dance and how this affects the way pole dance is practiced....

  2. Interplay between field observations and numerical modeling to understand temporal pulsing of tree root throw processes, Canadian Rockies, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Y. E.; Johnson, E. A.; Chaikina, O.

    2013-10-01

    During the cycle of forest disturbance, regeneration, and maturity, tree mortality leading to topple is a regular occurrence. When tree topple occurs relatively soon after mortality and if the tree has attained some threshold diameter at breast height (dbh) at the time of death, then notable amounts of soil may be upheaved along with the root wad. This upheaval may result in sediment transfers and soil production. A combination of field evidence and numerical modeling is used herein to gain insights regarding the temporal dynamics of tree topple, associated root throw processes, and pit-mound microtopography. Results from our model of tree population dynamics demonstrate temporal patterns in root throw processes in subalpine forests of the Canadian Rockies, a region in which forests are affected largely by wildfire disturbance. As the forest regenerates after disturbance, the new cohort of trees has to reach a critical dbh before significant root plate upheaval can occur; in the subalpine forests of the Canadian Rockies, this may take up to ~ 102 years. Once trees begin to reach this critical dbh for root plate upheaval, a period of sporadic root throw arises that is caused by mortality of trees during competition. In due course, another wildfire will occur on the landscape and a period of much increased root throw activity then takes place for the next several decades; tree sizes and, therefore, the amount of sediment disturbance will be greater the longer the time period since the previous fire. Results of previous root throw studies covering a number of regional settings are used to guide an exercise in diffusion modeling with the aim of defining a range of reasonable diffusion coefficients for pit-mound degradation; the most appropriate values to fit the field data ranged from 0.01 m2 y- 1 to 0.1 m2 y- 1. A similar exercise is then undertaken that is guided by our field observations in subalpine forests of the Canadian Rockies. For these forests, the most

  3. Double Chooz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The goal of the Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment is to search for the neutrino mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}. Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at 150 m and 1.05 km distance from the reactor cores. The near detector is used to monitor the reactor {nu}-bar {sub e} flux while the second is dedicated to the search for a deviation from the expected (1/distance){sup 2} behavior. This two detector concept will allow a relative normalization systematic error of ca. 0.6 %. The expected sensitivity for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is then in the range 0.02 - 0.03 after three years of data taking. The antineutrinos will be detected in a liquid scintillator through the capture on protons followed by a gamma cascade, produced by the neutron capture on Gd.

  4. Double supergeometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederwall, Martin [Division for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,SE 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-06-27

    A geometry of superspace corresponding to double field theory is developed, with type I I supergravity in D=10 as the main example. The formalism is based on an orthosymplectic extension OSp(d,d|2s) of the continuous T-duality group. Covariance under generalised super-diffeomorphisms is manifest. Ordinary superspace is obtained as a solution of the orthosymplectic section condition. A systematic study of curved superspace Bianchi identities is performed, and a relation to a double pure spinor superfield cohomology is established. A Ramond-Ramond superfield is constructed as an infinite-dimensional orthosymplectic spinor. Such objects in minimal orbits under the OSp supergroup (“pure spinors”) define super-sections.

  5. Double ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulio, Matti; Thorén, Kent; Rohrbeck, René

    2017-01-01

    We leverage the business model innovation and ambidexterity literature to investigate a contradictory case, the Swedish-Finnish Telecom operator TeliaSonera. Despite being challenged by three major disruptions, the company not only still exists but also enjoys remarkably good financial performance....... Building on extant archival data and interviews, we carefully identify and map 26 organizational responses during 1992–2016. We find that the firm has overcome three critical phases by experimenting and pioneering with portfolios of business models and/or technological innovations. We describe...... this behaviour as double ambidexterity. We use an in-depth case study to conceptualize double ambidexterity and discuss its impact on the business's survival and enduring success....

  6. Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children: just a normal variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Vogelius, Esben S.; Orth, Robert C.; Guillerman, R.P.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, E.B. Singleton Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification. (orig.)

  7. BASIC BIOMECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SECOND PHASE (TSUKURI OF JUDO THROWING TECHNIQUE OSOTO GARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadil Rexhepi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In a sample of a total of 11 judoists - one was the Tori (thrower, and the other ten were uke (those who were thrown during the performance of throwing technique, was analyzed the second phase of throwing (tsukuri judo technique osoto gari. Tori is an active athlete superior quality (master, body mass = 72 kg, and all the other, who were thrown (uke differ from each other as the weight and height of the body concerned. The average of their body weight was 73.8 kg, which means that it is almost even with body mass of tori. For data collection was used a three-dimensional motion analysis system APAS (Ariel Performance Analysis System. Tsukuri is the phase where occur most actions of reaping leg. The second phase (tsukuri begins when tori detach his right foot and lasts until the beginning of reaping opponent's leg, on which was concentrated its weight (uke's weight. The parameters that describe the effect of the reaping leg in the second phase of technique osoto gari are crucial for the successful execution of this leg technique. For the analysis of the second phase of the throw were selected 14 variables that describe the position of the body and certain body parts of both athletes, velocity parameters of tori's reaping leg and the duration of this phase (time. The role of the tori's standing leg is to maintain a stable position during this phase, while the other leg quickly and in full force acts reaping. The smallest angle of the knee joint of standing leg during the second phase was 130.84 °. Before the moment of reaping, or detachment of uke`s feet from the mat, standing leg has a tendency to extension in the knee joint, which impacts positively on raising the tori's body center of mass. Height tori's body center of mass at the beginning phase was 87.79 cm. As a result of tori's action by pulling onto uke, but little to his left side, the uke`s center of mass at the end of this phase is moved laterally to 6.10 cm. The results show quite

  8. Beyond Tree Throw: Wind, Water, Rock and the Mechanics of Tree-Driven Bedrock Physical Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. A.; Anderson, R. S.; Dawson, T. E.; Dietrich, W. E.; Minear, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    Tree throw is often invoked as the dominant process in converting bedrock to soil and thus helping to build the Critical Zone (CZ). In addition, observations of tree roots lifting sidewalk slabs, occupying cracks, and prying slabs of rock from cliff faces have led to a general belief in the power of plant growth forces. These common observations have led to conceptual models with trees at the center of the soil genesis process. This is despite the observation that tree throw is rare in many forested settings, and a dearth of field measurements that quantify the magnitude of growth forces. While few trees blow down, every tree grows roots, inserting many tens of percent of its mass below ground. Yet we lack data quantifying the role of trees in both damaging bedrock and detaching it (and thus producing soil). By combing force measurements at the tree-bedrock interface with precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed, and wind-driven tree sway data we quantified the magnitude and frequency of tree-driven soil-production mechanisms from two contrasting climatic and lithologic regimes (Boulder and Eel Creek CZ Observatories). Preliminary data suggests that in settings with relatively thin soils, trees can damage and detach rock due to diurnal fluctuations, wind response and rainfall events. Surprisingly, our data suggests that forces from roots and trunks growing against bedrock are insufficient to pry rock apart or damage bedrock although much more work is needed in this area. The frequency, magnitude and style of wind-driven tree forces at the bedrock interface varies considerably from one to another species. This suggests that tree properties such as mass, elasticity, stiffness and branch structure determine whether trees respond to gusts big or small, move at the same frequency as large wind gusts, or are able to self-dampen near-ground sway response to extended wind forces. Our measurements of precipitation-driven and daily fluctuations in root pressures exerted on

  9. Can we throw information out of visual working memory and does this leave informational residue in long-term memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh Monette Maxcey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Can we entirely erase a temporary memory representation from mind? This question has been addressed in several recent studies that tested the specific hypothesis that a representation can be erased from visual working memory based on a cue that indicated that the representation was no longer necessary for the task. In addition to behavioral results that are consistent with the idea that we can throw information out of visual working memory, recent neurophysiological recordings support this proposal. However, given the infinite capacity of long-term memory, it is unclear whether throwing a representation out of visual working memory really removes its effects on memory entirely. In this paper we advocate for an approach that examines our ability to erase memory representations from working memory, as well as possible traces that those erased representations leave in long-term memory.

  10. Personaliotsinguteenust tasub kasutada siis, kui rahaline kokkuhoid pole esmane / Merike Lees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lees, Merike, 1976-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. veebr. lk. 13. Personaliotsinguteenuse kasutamine on õigustatud siis, kui ettevõttes pole personalispetsialisti ning rahaline kokkuhoid pole esmatähtis. Kommenteerivad: Eero Erastus, Madis Sander ja Marti Rehemaa

  11. Effect of Biodiesel of Spent Cooking Oil Addition at Diesel Fuel to Opacity and Gas Emission Throw Away of CO, CO2 and HC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setyadji, Moch; Endang Susiantini

    2007-01-01

    Investigation of biodiesel spent cooking oil addition effect at diesel fuel to opacity and gas emission throw away on various engine rotation speed has been done. The variables observed were fuel specific used i.e. pure diesel fuel, biodiesel mix 5% (B5), mix 10% (B10), mix 15% (B15), mix 20% (B20) and engine rotation speed. Gas emission throw away observed were CO, CO 2 , HC and opacity. Opacity and gas emission throwaway were observed by Opacity Sagem apparatus and gas analyzer. Result of experiment showed that biodiesel addition at diesel fuel was very decreasing opacity and gas emission throw away. The opacity lowest on B20, gas emission throw away lowest of CO on B10, CO 2 on B10 and HC on B20. (author)

  12. Effects of a shoot training programme with a reduced hoop diameter rim on free-throw performance and kinematics in young basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlifa, Riadh; Aouadi, Ridha; Shephard, Roy; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Gabbett, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    The present paper investigated the effects of a shoot training programme with a reduced hoop diameter (0.35 m) rim on kinematics and performance of basketball free-throws. Eighteen young male basketball players were divided into control (CG, n = 9) and experimental (EG, n = 9) groups. Both groups undertook a 10-week training programme comprising two training sessions per week. Under fatigued conditions, each participant shot 150 free-throws in each training session, with the CG using a standard rim, and the EG a smaller rim. All other training was identical between groups. Ball release parameters, player's kinematics and mean of successful free-throws (out of 150 attempts) were determined for each participant, before and after completion of the training programme. Following training, a significant increase (P training with a reduced rim significantly improves free-throw performance in young basketball players.

  13. Influence of a sport-specific training background on vertical jumping and throwing performance in young female basketball and volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, G; Paoli, A; Bellafiore, M; Bianco, A; Palma, A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3 years of sport-specific training background (SSTB) on vertical jumping and throwing performance in young female basketball and volleyball players. Thirty-one healthy adolescent girls, of which 11 age-matched control subjects [C], 10 basketballers (BP) and 10 volleyballers (VP) participated to the study. The throwing performance was assessed by seated backward overhead ball throw (SBOMBT) and seated chest pass throw (SCPT) using a 3-kg rubber medicine ball. Instead, the vertical jumping performance was evaluated by squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump with (CMJ-AS) and without arm swing (CMJ) using Optojump system (Microgate srl, Italy). During SJ and CMJ with and without arm swing VP group showed a higher vertical jump performance than BP and C ones. In particular we showed that VP exhibited a higher flight time and jump height than C (Pbasketball athletes' maximal power compared to age-matched control subjects.

  14. Timing and Activation Intensity of Shoulder Muscles during Handball Penalty Throwing in Subjects with and without Shoulder Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zonnor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shoulder injuries are common among athletes in sports that involve overhead throwing of the ball such as handball. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the timing and activation intensity of shoulder muscles during handball penalty throwing in individuals with shoulder pain and in control subjects. Materials and Methods: Using BTS FREE EMG 300 system with bipolar surface electrodes, the timing (onset and intensity of the activation of the shoulder muscles were measured including upper trapezius, anterior, middle and posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, supraspinatus and triceps during penalty throwing. Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for between group comparisons with the significance level P< 0.05. Results: The activation intensity of upper trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles in the healthy individuals were about 50.74% and 43.42% higher than in patients. Middle deltoid in healthy individuals was about 38.05% smaller than that in patients. In control group, supraspinatus muscle started earlier (23.5 ms than the shoulder motion initiation. Triceps muscle was activated about 18.5 ms later than shoulder motion initiation. In patients, supraspinatus muscle started sooner (11 ms and triceps brachialis muscle started later than the other muscles (22.16 ms. Conclusion: The coordination of shoulder muscles i.e. the onset and intensity of muscle activity is disturbed in the patient group during throwing. Hence, strength and stretching programs are recommended for athletes to reduce the risk of shoulder pain syndrome. The rehabilitation program can be focused on modifying the pattern of activity in upper trapezius, supraspinatus, latissimus dorsi and deltoid muscles in addition to pain control in the rehabilitation centers.

  15. Can we throw information out of visual working memory and does this leave informational residue in long-term memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Ashleigh Monette Maxcey; Geoffrey F. Woodman

    2014-01-01

    Can we entirely erase a temporary memory representation from mind? This question has been addressed in several recent studies that tested the specific hypothesis that a representation can be erased from visual working memory based on a cue that indicated that the representation was no longer necessary for the task. In addition to behavioral results that are consistent with the idea that we can throw information out of visual working memory, recent neurophysiological recordings support this pr...

  16. Modelling the Small Throw Fault Effect on the Stability of a Mining Roadway and Its Verification by In Situ Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małkowski Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The small throw fault zones cause serious problems for mining engineers. The knowledge about the range of fractured zone around the roadway and about roadway’s contour deformations helps a lot with the right support design or its reinforcement. The paper presents the results of numerical analysis of the effect of a small throw fault zone on the convergence of the mining roadway and the extent of the fracturing induced around the roadway. The computations were performed on a dozen physical models featuring various parameters of rock mass and support for the purpose to select the settings that reflects most suitably the behavior of tectonically disturbed and undisturbed rocks around the roadway. Finally, the results of the calculations were verified by comparing them with in situ convergence measurements carried out in the maingate D-2 in the “Borynia-Zofiówka-Jastrzębie” coal mine. Based on the results of measurements it may be concluded that the rock mass displacements around a roadway section within a fault zone during a year were four times in average greater than in the section tectonically unaffected. The results of numerical calculations show that extent of the yielding zone in the roof reaches two times the throw of the fault, in the floor 3 times the throw, and horizontally approx. 1.5 to 1.8 times the width of modelled fault zone. Only a few elasto-plastic models or models with joints between the rock beds can be recommended for predicting the performance of a roadway which is within a fault zone. It is possible, using these models, to design the roadway support of sufficient load bearing capacity at the tectonically disturbed section.

  17. The effectiveness of snow cube throwing learning model based on exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Nenden Mutiara

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to know the effectiveness of Snow Cube Throwing (SCT) and Cooperative Model in Exploration-Based Math Learning in terms of the time required to complete the teaching materials and student engagement. This study was quasi-experimental research was conducted at SMPN 5 Cimahi, Indonesia. All student in grade VIII SMPN 5 Cimahi which consists of 382 students is used as population. The sample consists of two classes which had been chosen randomly with purposive sampling. First experiment class consists of 38 students and the second experiment class consists of 38 students. Observation sheet was used to observe the time required to complete the teaching materials and record the number of students involved in each meeting. The data obtained was analyzed by independent sample-t test and used the chart. The results of this study: SCT learning model based on exploration are more effective than cooperative learning models based on exploration in terms of the time required to complete teaching materials based on exploration and student engagement.

  18. Pole Shape Optimization of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using the Reduced Basis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jabbari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an integrated method of pole shape design optimization for reduction of torque pulsation components in permanent magnet synchronous motors is developed. A progressive design process is presented to find feasible optimal shapes. This method is applied on the pole shape optimization of two prototype permanent magnet synchronous motors, i.e., 4-poles/6-slots and 4-poles-12slots.

  19. Strength Training Using Elastic Bands: Improvement of Muscle Power and Throwing Performance in Young Female Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Naryana Cristina; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos Andrade, Marilia

    2017-05-01

    Imbalance in shoulder-rotator muscles has been considered a risk factor for injuries in handball. Strength training programs (STPs) may play an important preventive role. To verify the effects of an STP using elastic bands on shoulder muscles and ball-throwing speed. Randomized and prospective controlled trial. Exercise physiology laboratory. Thirty-nine female handball players were randomly assigned to an experimental (EG, n = 21, 15.3 ± 1.1 y) or a control (CG, n = 18, 15.0 ± 0.8 y) group. The EG performed the STP with elastic-band progressive exercises for 6 wk before regular handball training, and the CG underwent only their regular training. Before and after the STP, both groups underwent a ball-throwing-speed test and isokinetic test to assess shoulder internal- (IR) and external-rotator muscle performance. Average power values for IR muscles presented a significant group-vs-time interaction effect (F = 3.9, P = .05); EG presented significantly higher values after the STP (P = .03). Ball speed presented higher values in EG after the STP in standing (P = .04) and jumping (P = .03) throws. IR peak-torque values and balance in shoulder-rotator muscles presented no group-vs-time interaction effect. STP using elastic bands performed for 6 wk was effective to improve muscle power and ball speed for young female handball players.

  20. Motion database of disguised and non-disguised team handball penalty throws by novice and expert performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Helm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the motion database for a large sample (n = 2400 of 7-m penalty throws in team handball that includes 1600 disguised throws. Throws were performed by both novice (n = 5 and expert (n = 5 penalty takers. The article reports the methods and materials used to capture the motion data. The database itself is accessible for download via JLU Web Server and provides all raw files in a three-dimensional motion data format (.c3d. Additional information is given on the marker placement of the penalty taker, goalkeeper, and ball together with details on the skill level and/or playing history of the expert group. The database was first used by Helm et al. (2017 [1] to investigate the kinematic patterns of disguised movements. Results of this analysis are reported and discussed in their article “Kinematic patterns underlying disguised movements: Spatial and temporal dissimilarity compared to genuine movement patterns” (doi:10.1016/j.humov.2017.05.010 [1]. Keywords: Motion capture data, Disguise, Expertise

  1. The overarm-throwing pattern among U-14 ASA female softball players: a comparative study of gender, culture, and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranek, Laura Jones; Barton, Gina V

    2011-06-01

    A developmental description of overarm-throwing characteristics of U-14female ASA softballplayers is presented here. Comparisons were made between these athletes and teens of similar age in the United States (Runion, Roberton, & Langendorfe 2003) and in Germany (Ehl, Roberton, & Langendorfer, 2005). A majority of the softball players demonstrated the most advanced developmental levels for the backswing foot, humerus, and forearm components. Seventy percent (n = 26) demonstrated a Level 2 trunk, while 30% (n = 11) demonstrated a differentiated trunk, Level 3. The average throwing velocity was 62.58 ft/s (19.07 m/s). Comparisons were made to girls with less throwing experience in the United States (Runion et al.) and Germany (Ehl et al.); the softball players threw with greater velocity (9.12ft/s [2.77 m/s]and 15.89 ft/s [4.84 m/s], respectively) and demonstrated superior trunk, humerus, and forearm actions. The boys from both countries threw the ball faster than the softball players. Significant chi-square analyses found the softball players had superior humeral actions (Level 3) compared to the German boys and superior forearm actions (Level 3) compared to both groups of bays. Experience seems to have an impact when comparisons among girls are made; yet, explanations for differences seen between boys and girls still remain unclear and warrant further research.

  2. Differences in anthropometric characteristics in relation to throwing velocity and competitive level in professional male team handball: a tool for talent profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieseler, Georg; Hermassi, Souhail; Hoffmeyer, Birgit; Schulze, Stephan; Irlenbusch, Lars; Bartels, Thomas; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Laudner, Kevin G; Schwesig, René

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to examine the anthropometric characteristics as well as throwing and sprinting performance of professional handball players classified by playing position and competition level. 21 male players (age: 25.2±5.1 years) from the first German handball league (FGL) and 34 male players (age: 26.1±4.1 years) from the third German handball league (TGL) were categorized as backs, pivots, wings and goalkeepers. Measurements included anthropometric data (height, mass and body mass index (BMI)), throwing and sprinting performance selected out of a complex handball test (HBCT), which was conducted twice (2 rounds). During the HBCT, the subjects performed two sprints (10, 20 m), two standing throws with run-up (ST) and four vertical jump throws (VJT) over a hurdle (20 cm) with and without precision for goal shot. The anthropometric data revealed a significantly (P=0.038 and η2=0.079) shorter body height for TGL than for FGL players. In the cohort of first league athletes the pivots were the tallest (1.98±0.04 m), backs in the third league showed the maximum body height (1.90±0.05 m). Regarding body mass, pivots were the heaviest players independent from the league membership. The FGL players showed a significantly (P0.10) higher throwing velocity in all type of throws. Body height was significantly related to ST (r=0.53) and VJT (r=0.52) in the first round of HBCT but only for the FGL athletes. Throwing velocity was also correlated with BMI (r=-0.50) among the TGL players. Substantial differences of body characteristics, throwing and sprinting performance between playing positions and competitive levels underline the importance of a careful scouting and position-specific training for professional handball players.

  3. Effects of 4-Week Training Intervention with Unknown Loads on Power Output Performance and Throwing Velocity in Junior Team Handball Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sabido

    Full Text Available To compare the effect of 4-week unknown vs known loads strength training intervention on power output performance and throwing velocity in junior team handball players.Twenty-eight junior team-handball players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 75.6 ± 9.4 kgwere divided into two groups (unknown loads: UL; known loads: KL. Both groups performed two sessions weekly consisting of four sets of six repetitions of the bench press throw exercise, using the 30%, 50% and 70% of subjects' individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM. In each set, two repetitions with each load were performed, but the order of the loads was randomised. In the KL group, researchers told the subjects the load to mobilise prior each repetition, while in the UL group, researchers did not provide any information. Maximal dynamic strength (1RM bench press, power output (with 30, 50 and 70% of 1RM and throwing velocity (7 m standing throw and 9 m jumping throw were assessed pre- and post-training intervention.Both UL and KL group improved similarly their 1RM bench press as well as mean and peak power with all loads. There were significant improvements in power developed in all the early time intervals measured (150 ms with the three loads (30, 50, 70% 1RM in the UL group, while KL only improved with 30% 1RM (all the time intervals and with 70% 1RM (at certain time intervals. Only the UL group improved throwing velocity in both standing (4.7% and jumping (5.3% throw (p > 0.05.The use of unknown loads has led to greater gains in power output in the early time intervals as well as to increases in throwing velocity compared with known loads. Therefore unknown loads are of significant practical use to increase both strength and in-field performance in a short period of training.

  4. Effects of 4-Week Training Intervention with Unknown Loads on Power Output Performance and Throwing Velocity in Junior Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Moya, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effect of 4-week unknown vs known loads strength training intervention on power output performance and throwing velocity in junior team handball players. Twenty-eight junior team-handball players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 75.6 ± 9.4 kg)were divided into two groups (unknown loads: UL; known loads: KL). Both groups performed two sessions weekly consisting of four sets of six repetitions of the bench press throw exercise, using the 30%, 50% and 70% of subjects' individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM). In each set, two repetitions with each load were performed, but the order of the loads was randomised. In the KL group, researchers told the subjects the load to mobilise prior each repetition, while in the UL group, researchers did not provide any information. Maximal dynamic strength (1RM bench press), power output (with 30, 50 and 70% of 1RM) and throwing velocity (7 m standing throw and 9 m jumping throw) were assessed pre- and post-training intervention. Both UL and KL group improved similarly their 1RM bench press as well as mean and peak power with all loads. There were significant improvements in power developed in all the early time intervals measured (150 ms) with the three loads (30, 50, 70% 1RM) in the UL group, while KL only improved with 30% 1RM (all the time intervals) and with 70% 1RM (at certain time intervals). Only the UL group improved throwing velocity in both standing (4.7%) and jumping (5.3%) throw (p > 0.05). The use of unknown loads has led to greater gains in power output in the early time intervals as well as to increases in throwing velocity compared with known loads. Therefore unknown loads are of significant practical use to increase both strength and in-field performance in a short period of training.

  5. Finite element modeling of small-scale tapered wood-laminated composite poles with biomimicry features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2008-01-01

    Tapered composite poles with biomimicry features as in bamboo are a new generation of wood laminated composite poles that may some day be considered as an alternative to solid wood poles that are widely used in the transmission and telecommunication fields. Five finite element models were developed with ANSYS to predict and assess the performance of five types of...

  6. Least 1-Norm Pole-Zero Modeling with Sparse Deconvolution for Speech Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Liming; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a speech analysis method based on sparse pole-zero modeling of speech. Instead of using the all-pole model to approximate the speech production filter, a pole-zero model is used for the combined effect of the vocal tract; radiation at the lips and the glottal pulse shape...

  7. effect of number of rotor poles on ac losses of permanent magnet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    A study on permanent magnet (PM) eddy current and core losses of dual-stator PM machines is investigated in this paper. ... material in the retaining sleeves of surface-mounted ... rotor-pole numbers (13-poleand 14-pole in particular) ... Table 2: Optimized Machine Parameters. Number of rotor poles. 4. 5. 7. 8. 10. 11. 13. 14.

  8. The Written-Pole{sup TM} motor: high efficiency - low start current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, B. [C.Eng. Precise Power Corp., Bradenton, FL (United States); Friesen, D. [P.E. Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Written-Pole{sup TM} technology is a patented machine technology, which changes the magnetic polarity of the rotor field in a rotating machine, while the machine is operating. The number of poles is thereby changed, resulting in a constant frequency - variable speed machine. When operating as a motor, a Written-Pole machine has inherently low starting current and high operating efficiency. (orig.)

  9. Poles near the thresholds in the coupled ΛN - ΣN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, H.; Miyagawa, K.

    1999-01-01

    We find t-matrix poles near the ΣN threshold for the meson theoretical Nijmegen YN interactions including hard-core models. These poles are connected with the strength of the ΛN - ΣN coupling. We also observe antibound-state poles below the ΛN threshold which correlate with scattering lengths. Refs. 4, tabs. 2 (author)

  10. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Marquard, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2016-05-15

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  11. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  12. Poles of the Zagreb analysis partial-wave T matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinić, M.; Ceci, S.; Švarc, A.; Zauner, B.

    2010-09-01

    The Zagreb analysis partial-wave T matrices included in the Review of Particle Physics [by the Particle Data Group (PDG)] contain Breit-Wigner parameters only. As the advantages of pole over Breit-Wigner parameters in quantifying scattering matrix resonant states are becoming indisputable, we supplement the original solution with the pole parameters. Because of an already reported numeric error in the S11 analytic continuation [Batinić , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.57.1004 57, 1004(E) (1997); arXiv:nucl-th/9703023], we declare the old BATINIC 95 solution, presently included by the PDG, invalid. Instead, we offer two new solutions: (A) corrected BATINIC 95 and (B) a new solution with an improved S11 πN elastic input. We endorse solution (B).

  13. Study of recursive model for pole-zero cancellation circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Zhou Wei; Hong Xu; Hu Yunchuan; Wan Xinfeng; Du Xin; Wang Renbo

    2014-01-01

    The output of charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) is a negative exponential signal with long decay time which will result in undershoot after C-R differentiator. Pole-zero cancellation (PZC) circuit is often applied to eliminate undershoot in many radiation detectors. However, it is difficult to use a zero created by PZC circuit to cancel a pole in CSA output signal accurately because of the influences of electronic components inherent error and environmental factors. A novel recursive model for PZC circuit is presented based on Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) in this paper. The model is established by numerical differentiation algorithm between the input and the output signal. Some simulation experiments for a negative exponential signal are carried out using Visual Basic for Application (VBA) program and a real x-ray signal is also tested. Simulated results show that the recursive model can reduce the time constant of input signal and eliminate undershoot. (authors)

  14. Claw-pole Synchronous Generator for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL Valentina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a claw-poles generator for compressed air energy storage systems. It is presented the structure of such a system used for compensating of the intermittency of a small wind energy system. For equipping of this system it is chosen the permanent magnet claw pole synchronous generator obtained by using ring NdFeB permanentmagnets instead of excitation coil. In such a way the complexity of the scheme is reduced and the generator become maintenance free. The new magnetic flux density in the air-gap is calculated by magneticreluctance method and by FEM method and the results are compared with measured values in the old and new generator.

  15. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, M.; Marquard, P.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2017-12-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS ‾ mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS ‾ mass. Including an estimate of the internal bottom and charm quark mass effect, we conclude that this uncertainty is around 110 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be around 300 MeV.

  16. Separate Poles Mode for Large-Capacity HVDC System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Gao, Qin

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel connection mode, separate poles mode (SPM), for large-capacity HVDC systems. The proposed mode focuses on the core issues of HVDC connection in interconnected power grids and principally aims at increasing effective electric distance between poles, which helps to mitigate the interaction problems between AC system and DC system. Receiving end of bipolar HVDC has been divided into different inverter stations under the mode, and thus significantly alleviates difficulties in power transmission and consumption of receiving-end AC grids. By investigating the changes of multi-feed short-circuit ratio (MISCR), finding that HVDC with SPM shows critical impacts upon itself and other HVDC systems with conventional connection mode, which demonstrates that SPM can make balance between MISCR increase and short-circuit current limit.

  17. Shock wave lithotripsy outcomes for lower pole and non-lower pole stones from a university teaching hospital: Parallel group comparison during the same time period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Robert; Burr, Jacob; Simmonds, Nick; Somani, Bhaskar K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a treatment option for all locations of renal and ureteric stones. We compared the results of SWL for lower pole renal stones with all other non-lower pole renal and ureteric stones during the same time period. Material and Methods: All SWL procedures were carried out as day case procedures by a mobile lithotripter from January 2012 to August 2013. The follow-up imaging was a combination of KUB X-ray or USS. Following SWL treatment, the stone free rate (SFR) was defined as ≤3 mm fragments. Results: A total of 148 patients with a mean age of 62 years underwent 201 procedures. Of the 201 procedures, 93 (46%) were for lower pole stones. The non-lower pole stones included upper pole (n = 36), mid pole (n = 40), renal pelvis (n = 10), PUJ (n = 8), mid ureter (n = 3), upper ureter (n = 5) and a combination of upper, middle and/or lower pole (n = 6). The mean stone size for lower pole stones (7.4 mm; range: 4-16 mm) was slightly smaller than non-lower pole stones (8 mm; range: 4-17 mm). The stone fragmentation was successful in 124 (62%) of patients. However, the SFR was statistically significantly better (P = 0.023) for non-lower pole stones 43 (40%) compared to lower pole stones 23 (25%). There were 9 (4%) minor complications and this was not significantly different in the two groups. Conclusions: Although SWL achieves a moderately high stone fragmentation rate with a low complication rate, the SFR is variable depending on the location of stone and the definition of SFR, with lower pole stones fairing significantly worse than stones in all other locations. PMID:25657543

  18. Proton polarimetry using an Enge split-pole spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, J M; Brown, D R; Cornelius, W D [Texas Agricultural and Mechanical Univ., College Station (USA). Cyclotron Inst.

    1976-05-15

    A high-efficiency (4 x 10/sup -5/ at A=0.4) high resolution (150 keV) polarimeter used in conjunction with an Enge split-pole spectrograph is described. This device permits for the first time polarization transfer studies in elastic scattering. Spectra are shown for /sup 11/B(p(pol),p(pol)')/sup 11/B (2.14 MeV)at Esub(p)=31 MeV.

  19. Prevalent lightning sferics at 600 megahertz near Jupiter's poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon; Janssen, Michael; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Atreya, Sushil; Bolton, Scott; Gulkis, Samuel; Ingersoll, Andrew; Levin, Steven; Li, Cheng; Li, Liming; Lunine, Jonathan; Misra, Sidharth; Orton, Glenn; Steffes, Paul; Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin; Kolmašová, Ivana; Imai, Masafumi; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Gurnett, Donald; Connerney, John

    2018-06-01

    Lightning has been detected on Jupiter by all visiting spacecraft through night-side optical imaging and whistler (lightning-generated radio waves) signatures1-6. Jovian lightning is thought to be generated in the mixed-phase (liquid-ice) region of convective water clouds through a charge-separation process between condensed liquid water and water-ice particles, similar to that of terrestrial (cloud-to-cloud) lightning7-9. Unlike terrestrial lightning, which emits broadly over the radio spectrum up to gigahertz frequencies10,11, lightning on Jupiter has been detected only at kilohertz frequencies, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range12. Strong ionospheric attenuation or a lightning discharge much slower than that on Earth have been suggested as possible explanations for this discrepancy13,14. Here we report observations of Jovian lightning sferics (broadband electromagnetic impulses) at 600 megahertz from the Microwave Radiometer15 onboard the Juno spacecraft. These detections imply that Jovian lightning discharges are not distinct from terrestrial lightning, as previously thought. In the first eight orbits of Juno, we detected 377 lightning sferics from pole to pole. We found lightning to be prevalent in the polar regions, absent near the equator, and most frequent in the northern hemisphere, at latitudes higher than 40 degrees north. Because the distribution of lightning is a proxy for moist convective activity, which is thought to be an important source of outward energy transport from the interior of the planet16,17, increased convection towards the poles could indicate an outward internal heat flux that is preferentially weighted towards the poles9,16,18. The distribution of moist convection is important for understanding the composition, general circulation and energy transport on Jupiter.

  20. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's Stratosphere Near the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bampasidis, G.; Nixon, C. A.; Lavvas, P.; Cottini, V.; Flasar, F. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this Letter, we report the monitoring of seasonal evolution near Titan’s poles. We find Titan’s south pole to exhibit since 2010 a strong temperature decrease and a dramatic enhancement of several trace species such as complex hydrocarbons and nitriles (HC3N and C6H6 in particular) previously only observed at high northern latitudes. This results from the seasonal change on Titan going from winter (2002) to summer (2017) in the north and, at the same time, the onset of winter in the south pole. During this transition period atmospheric components with longer chemical lifetimes linger in the north, undergoing slow photochemical destruction, while those with shorter lifetimes decrease and reappear in the south. An opposite effect was expected in the north, but not observed with certainty until now. We present here an analysis of high-resolution nadir spectra acquired by Cassini/Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer in the past years and describe the temperature and composition variations near Titan’s poles. From 2013 until 2016, the northern polar region has shown a temperature increase of 10 K, while the south has shown a more significant decrease (up to 25 K) in a similar period of time. While the south polar region has been continuously enhanced since about 2012, the chemical content in the north is finally showing a clear depletion for most molecules only since 2015. This is indicative of a non-symmetrical response to the seasons in Titan’s stratosphere that can set constraints on photochemical and GCM models.

  1. Coherence between geophysical excitations and celestial pole offsets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ron, Cyril; Vondrák, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 243-247 ISSN 1214-9705. [Czech-Polish Workshop on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudeten and Adjacent Areas. Třešť, 04.11.2010-06.11. 2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : geophysical excitations * celestial pole offsets * coherence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011

  2. Pole mass, width, and propagators of unstable fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Sirlin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of pole mass and width are extended to unstable fermions in the general framework of parity-nonconserving gauge theories, such as the Standard Model. In contrast with the conventional on-shell definitions, these concepts are gauge independent and avoid severe unphysical singularities, properties of great importance since most fundamental fermions in nature are unstable particles. General expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of unstable fermions and their field-renormalization constants are presented. (orig.)

  3. Generalised pole-placement control of steam turbine speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del-Busto, R. [ITESM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias; Munoz, J. [ITESM, Xochimilco (Mexico). Div. de Ingenieria y Ciencias

    1996-12-31

    An application of a pole-placement self-tuning predictive control algorithm is developed to regulate speed of a power plant steam turbine model. Two types of system representation (CARMA and CARIMA) are used to test the control algorithm. Simulation results show that when using a CARMA model better results are produced. Two further comparisons are made when using a PI controller and a generalised predictive controller. (author)

  4. Tööpuudus 29%, palavikku pole / Rachel Donadio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donadio, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Lõuna-Hispaanias asuvas Cádizis on töötus 29%, ometi pole eurotsooni kõrgeim tööpuuduse määr tekitanud linnas sügavat sotsiaalset rahutust ega massilisi proteste, sest üsna kõrge elukvaliteedi tagavad töötutele kompleksne turvavõrk, mis koosneb varimajandusest, perekonna toetusest ja valitsuse toetusest

  5. Dipole Models for UXO Discrimination at Live Sites - Pole Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    48 ESTCP MR-201159 Pole Mountain Demonstration Report viii April 2012 Acronyms API Application Programming...working on transitioning our inversion algorithms to an API that will be generally accessible. 8 3. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES The performance...2098 35 0 0 Frag (light) 6 MD PM-2098 35 0 0 Frag (light) 4 MD PM-2098 35 0 0 Frag (light) 3.5 MD PM-1354 8.5 0 0 Frag (medium) 5 MD PM- 1104 3 15

  6. Clusters of cyclones encircling Jupiter’s poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Orton, G.; Hansen, C.; Altieri, F.; Moriconi, M. L.; Rogers, J.; Eichstädt, G.; Momary, T.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Filacchione, G.; Sindoni, G.; Tabataba-Vakili, F.; Dinelli, B. M.; Fabiano, F.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Lunine, J. I.; Tosi, F.; Migliorini, A.; Grassi, D.; Piccioni, G.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plainaki, C.; Olivieri, A.; O’Neill, M. E.; Turrini, D.; Stefani, S.; Sordini, R.; Amoroso, M.

    2018-03-01

    The familiar axisymmetric zones and belts that characterize Jupiter’s weather system at lower latitudes give way to pervasive cyclonic activity at higher latitudes. Two-dimensional turbulence in combination with the Coriolis β-effect (that is, the large meridionally varying Coriolis force on the giant planets of the Solar System) produces alternating zonal flows. The zonal flows weaken with rising latitude so that a transition between equatorial jets and polar turbulence on Jupiter can occur. Simulations with shallow-water models of giant planets support this transition by producing both alternating flows near the equator and circumpolar cyclones near the poles. Jovian polar regions are not visible from Earth owing to Jupiter’s low axial tilt, and were poorly characterized by previous missions because the trajectories of these missions did not venture far from Jupiter’s equatorial plane. Here we report that visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole by the Juno spacecraft during its first five orbits reveal persistent polygonal patterns of large cyclones. In the north, eight circumpolar cyclones are observed about a single polar cyclone; in the south, one polar cyclone is encircled by five circumpolar cyclones. Cyclonic circulation is established via time-lapse imagery obtained over intervals ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours. Although migration of cyclones towards the pole might be expected as a consequence of the Coriolis β-effect, by which cyclonic vortices naturally drift towards the rotational pole, the configuration of the cyclones is without precedent on other planets (including Saturn’s polar hexagonal features). The manner in which the cyclones persist without merging and the process by which they evolve to their current configuration are unknown.

  7. Poled-glass devices: Influence of surfaces and interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Devices in periodically poled glass must have a large periodic variation of the built-in field. We show that the periodic variation can be severely degraded by charge dynamics taking place at the external (glass–air) interface or at internal (glass–glass) interfaces if the interfaces have...... the device, one can reveal the existence of imperfect interfaces by use of electric field induced second-harmonic generation....

  8. Development of a superconducting claw-pole motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, E.; Kikukawa, K.; Satoh, Y.; Torii, S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed and produced a superconducting claw-pole motor for a trial purpose as a method to make the best use of the characteristic of superconductivity without collector rings or rotating superconducting coils that need to be cryocooled, and made some examinations. The unique feature in this motor is to have the mechanism that supports the reaction magnetic force generated in the axial direction

  9. Evidence of highly oxidizing environment over the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have discovered high levels of an air purifying chemical or oxidizing agent in the near-surface atmosphere over the South Pole. This research, funded by the National Science Foundation, has implications for interpreting historical global climate records stored in Antarctic ice cores. The hydroxyl (OH) radical is higher at the South Pole than that estimated from OH measurements recorded at the equator. The OH radical is vital to scrubbing pollution and naturally occurring chemicals from the air and prevents a buildup of toxic levels of chemicals. The near surface atmospheric zone is a highly oxidizing environment at the South Pole. There is evidence that oxidizing chemistry continues to occur in the buried snow. This active chemistry could modify chemical species before they are trapped in the ice in their final chemical forms. Therefore, glaciochemists who study climate change based on analysis of trace chemicals trapped in polar ice will have to be more careful in their interpretations of Antarctic ice cores. Any significant increase of nitric oxide levels in any snow-covered area should result in high OH levels. Scientists used the selected-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer technique to measure OH. To measure nitric oxide (NO), they used chemiluminescence with modifications to improve its sensitivity. Nitric oxide is also a radical and is a by-product of internal combustion engines. At the South Pole, it is formed when ultraviolet radiation interacts with nitrate ions. The source of NO is not clear, but it may originate from stratospheric denitrification and the long-range transport of nitric acid formed at low latitude during electrical storms. Scientists are also working to better understand the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under the cold conditions and high latitudes of Antarctica. This information will help glaciochemists to better interpret sulfate and methane sulfonate concentrations

  10. Stationarity of resonant pole trajectories in complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, S.; Goscinski, O.

    1978-01-01

    A reciprocity theorem relating the real parameters eta and α that define the complex scaling transformation r → eta r e/sup iα/ in the theory of complex scaling for resonant states is demonstrated. The virial theorem is used in connection with the stationarity of the pole trajectory. The Stark broadening in the hydrogen atom using a basis set generated by Rayleigh--Schroedinger perturbation theory is treated as an example. 18 references

  11. Poling of PVDF matrix composites for integrated structural load sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh; Greminger, Michael A.; Zhao, Ping

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to create and evaluate a smart composite structure that can be used for integrated load sensing and structural health monitoring. In this structure, PVDF films are used as the matrix material instead of epoxy resin or other thermoplastics. The reinforcements are two layers of carbon fiber with one layer of Kevlar separating them. Due to the electrical conductivity properties of carbon fiber and the dielectric effect of Kevlar, the structure acts as a capacitor. Furthermore, the piezoelectric properties of the PVDF matrix can be used to monitor the response of the structure under applied loads. In order to exploit the piezoelectric properties of PVDF, the PVDF material must be polarized to align the dipole moments of its crystalline structure. The optimal condition for poling the structure was found by performing a 23 factorial design of experiment (DoE). The factors that were studied in DoE were temperature, voltage, and duration of poling. Finally, the response of the poled structure was monitored by exposing the samples to an applied load.

  12. Improved technology for spun-cast concrete poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, W H; Ghali, A

    1984-07-01

    Different types of concrete were investigated with the goal of developing concrete suitable for the production of spun-cast concrete poles. A total of 65 different concrete mixes were investigated, with the suitability criteria defined as: compactability, no segregation of the mix components during the spinning operation, no shrinkage cracking, high strength, and durability. High strength normal weight concretes and semi-lightweight concretes, both with and without fly ash and/or silica fume and with different types of admixtures were used to produce spun-cast concrete pole segments. Of the 35 lightweight concretes only 3 were considered successful, as in all other specimens the inner layer of coarse aggregate was not well embedded in the mortar, and many mixes could not be compacted properly because they were too stiff, too wet, or started to set before spinning commenced. The three successful specimens contained fly ash and one contained silica fume, and had low water/cement ratios (0.26 to 0.29). Of the 23 normal weight concretes tested, only 5 were considered suitable, and all these had a sand/coarse aggregate ratio of 0.25 or smaller and a cement content between 350 and 400 kg/m{sup 3}. A theoretical study of the stresses in the end zones of pretensioned poles is presented. 10 refs., 53 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRASOV GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida CATANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demographic dynamics analysed in the context of the relationship between economic development and social inclusion presents an image of the sustainable development of a community as well as the manner how the financial resources have been used. With an allocation of 74.3 million euro in the programming period 2007-2013, the Brasov Growth Pole has pursued the contribution to the achievement of sustainable development since 2005 by the participation in the Agenda 21. The implementation of projects with European financing in areas such as transport, social and educational infrastructure or tourism have generated changes/demographic movements, which this paper proposes to present. The evolution of the stable population, its dynamics at the level of each locality that is part of the Brasov growth pole as well as the dynamics of the number of employees or the development of the unemployment rate are presented by the cluster analysis. The effects of the European financing obtained from Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 are thus reflected in the sustainable development of the Brasov growth pole from the point of view of the dynamics of the population

  14. Lunar South Pole Illumination: Review, Reassessment, and Power System Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews past analyses and research related to lunar south pole illumination and presents results of independent illumination analyses using an analytical tool and a radar digital elevation model. The analysis tool enables assessment at most locations near the lunar poles for any time and any year. Average illumination fraction, energy storage duration, solar/horizon terrain elevation profiles and illumination fraction profiles are presented for various highly illuminated sites which have been identified for manned or unmanned operations. The format of the data can be used by power system designers to develop mass optimized solar and energy storage systems. Data are presented for the worse case lunar day (a critical power planning bottleneck) as well as three lunar days during lunar south pole winter. The main site under consideration by present lunar mission planners (on the Crater Shackleton rim) is shown to have, for the worse case lunar day, a 0.71 average illumination fraction and 73 to 117 hours required for energy storage (depending on power system type). Linking other sites and including towers at either site are shown to not completely eliminate the need for energy storage.

  15. Comparative Investigation on the Performance of Modified System Poles and Traditional System Poles Obtained from PDC Data for Diagnosing the Ageing Condition of Transformer Polymer Insulation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The life expectancy of a transformer is largely depended on the service life of transformer polymer insulation materials. Nowadays, several papers have reported that the traditional system poles obtained from polarization and depolarization current (PDC data can be used to assess the condition of transformer insulation systems. However, the traditional system poles technique only provides limited ageing information for transformer polymer insulation. In this paper, the modified system poles obtained from PDC data are proposed to assess the ageing condition of transformer polymer insulation. The aim of the work is to focus on reporting a comparative investigation on the performance of modified system poles and traditional system poles for assessing the ageing condition of a transformer polymer insulation system. In the present work, a series of experiments have been performed under controlled laboratory conditions. The PDC measurement data, degree of polymerization (DP and moisture content of the oil-immersed polymer pressboard specimens were carefully monitored. It is observed that, compared to the relationships between traditional system poles and DP values, there are better correlations between the modified system poles and DP values, because the modified system poles can obtain much more ageing information on transformer polymer insulation. Therefore, the modified system poles proposed in the paper are more suitable for the diagnosis of the ageing condition of transformer polymer insulation.

  16. Repair and rehabilitation of wood utility poles with fibre-reinforced polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzois, D.; Kell, J.A. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-01-15

    In order to ensure safe and reliable service, all wood utility poles need an effective maintenance program. The service life of a wood utility pole depends on several factors, such as decay, mechanical damage, weathering, and changing design requirements. An effective preservative treatment and maintenance program can effectively extend the service life of the wood pole. However, all poles will attain a point when they are no longer suitable for their intended use. New innovative methods are therefore required to restore and maintain the structural integrity of existing wood poles, especially in light of the increasing cost of quality wood for use in poles as well as a result of environmental concerns regarding pole disposal and chemical treatment of existing poles. This article presented results from a research program carried out at the University of Manitoba to develop a repair and rehabilitation technique for wood poles using fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP). It also provided a brief overview of current standards for wood utility poles and reinforcing stubs and discussed the experimental program where long, air-dried jack pine poles were tested in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a proposed rehabilitation system consisting of FRP splines and FRP jackets. The ultimate capacity of the poles was determined using the CSA standard for wood poles. The capacity of the rehabilitated poles was nearly 93 per cent of the average ultimate capacity of the average ultimate capacity of poles tested during the first phase of the study, and 23 per cent higher than the capacity required by CSA standards. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis with Incomplete Double Ureter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaro Hayashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP is a type of chronic renal inflammation that usually occurs in immunocompromised middle-aged women with chronic urinary tract infection or ureteral obstruction induced by the formation of ureteral stones. XGP with an incomplete double ureter is extremely rare. Case Presentation. A 76-year-old woman was referred to our department to undergo further examination for a left renal tumor that was detected by ultrasonography. Dynamic contrast computed tomography (CT revealed an enhanced tumor in the upper renal parenchyma. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed based on a preoperative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Histological sections showed the aggregation of foam cells; thus, XGP was diagnosed. Conclusion. We herein report a rare case of XGP in the upper pole of the kidney, which might have been associated with an incomplete double ureter.

  18. Kinesthetic motor imagery training modulates frontal midline theta during imagination of a dart throw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E; Doppelmayr, M

    2016-12-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is a frequently used and effective method for motor learning in sports as well as in other domains. Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicated that experts within a certain sport exhibit a more pronounced brain activity during MI as compared to novices. Similar to the execution, during MI the motor sequence has to be planned. Thus, the frontal attentional system, in part represented by the frontal midline theta (4-7Hz), is closely related to these processes and presumably plays a major role in MI as well. In this study, a MI dart training and its impact on frontal midline theta activity (fmt) during MI are examined. 53 healthy subjects with no prior dart experience were randomly allocated to a kinesthetic training group (KinVis) or to a control group (Control). Both groups performed 15 training sessions. While in the KinVis group dart throwing was accompanied by MI, the Control group trained without MI. Dart performance and fmt activity during MI within the first and the 15th session were compared. As expected, the performance increase was more pronounced in the KinVis group. Furthermore, frontal theta amplitude was significantly increased in the KinVis group during MI in the 15th training session as compared to the baseline. These results confirm the effectivity of MI. The enhanced fmt activity in the KinVis group can be interpreted as a better allocation of the requested resources in the frontal attentional network after MI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. I act, therefore I err: EEG correlates of success and failure in a virtual throwing game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazmir, Boris; Reiner, Miriam

    2017-12-01

    What are the neural responses to success and failure in a throwing task? To answer this question, we compared Event Related Potentials (ERPs) correlated with success and failure during a highly-ecological-virtual game. Participants played a tennis-like game in an immersive 3D virtual world, against a computer player, by controlling a virtual tennis racket with a force feedback robotic arm. Results showed that success, i.e. hitting the target, and failure, by missing the target, evoked ERP's that differ by peak, latencies, scalp signal distributions, sLORETA source estimation, and time-frequency patterns. The success related grand averaged ERP at the Cz electrode, had two peaks - a negative peak at 244ms and a positive peak at 12ms, prior to the actual successful hit, suggesting a possible process of prediction of success. The grand averaged ERP correlated with failure at Cz, had two peaks, a negative peak at about 107ms and a positive peak at about 311ms post failure. These results suggest different top-down and bottom-up loops for success and failure, which seem to be rooted in the spatial arrangement of the virtual game. Although the latency of the latter is consistent with the error related potentials reported in the literature, the characteristic is unique to this specific error, and differ significantly from other error related potentials in the same environment. These results further provide a basis for EEG based assessment and prediction of user's successful or erroneous movements, and design of the feedback loop in EEG based Brain-Computer Interfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Throw the bathwater out but save the baby: new perspectives in Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo PEZZANO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss the status of critical theory and thinking, claiming that we should not throw the baby out with the bathwater: if a certain way of conceiving and practicing it has nowadays become partial and unfit, then it’s not true that it is qua tale useless, old-fashioned, or dead. I start stressing that, in general, Critical Theory highlights that there is a problematic relation between individuals and social structure, which has to be pointed out, to indicate actual and possible transformations. Then, I propose a heuristic distinction between two main paradigms of Critical Theory and thinking (the modern Critical Theory and the postmodern Critical Theory, discussing three main aspects, separated but intertwined. The first is more strictly philosophical, involving the problem of the transcendent or immanent position of the critique: on the one hand, we have the external condemnation of the society, in the name of some kind of superior truth; on the other hand, we have the inner problematization of a given social field, according to criteria that have been posited by itself or that are implicit in it (§ 1. The second is more strictly anthropological, dealing with the problem of human nature and alienation: on the one hand, we have the hope for the restoration of a lost state of originary plenitude; on the other hand, we have the effort of learning the better way to deal with human openness and relationality (§ 2. The third is more strictly sociological, posing the question of ways and forms of life: on the one hand, we have an ironical attitude, aiming to elaborate a true counter-society that should take the place of the false present one; on the other hand, we have a humoristic attitude, that attempts to make the problem that a society both poses and tries to answer a problem that reemerges, so that it can be again for the first time seen as a problem (§ 3.

  1. Live imaging of spindle pole disorganization in docetaxel-treated multicolor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaushi, Shinji; Nishida, Kumi; Minamikawa, Harumi; Fukada, Takashi; Oka, Shigenori; Sugimoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of cells with docetaxel at low concentrations induces aberrant bipolar spindles of which two centrosomes stay at only one pole, and also induces multipolar spindles. To gain insight into the relations between centrosome impairment and structural defects of the spindle, live-cell imaging was performed on a human MDA Auro/imp/H3 cell line in which centrosomes/mitotic spindles, nuclear membrane and chromatin were simultaneously visualized by fluorescent proteins. In the presence of docetaxel at IC 50 concentration, the centrosomes did not segregate, and multiple aster-like structures ectopically arose around the disappearing nuclear membrane. Those ectopic structures formed an acentrosomal pole opposing to the two-centrosomes-containing pole. In late metaphase, one pole often fragmented into multiple spindle poles, leading multipolar division. These results suggest that spindle pole fragility may be induced by centrosome impairment, and collapse of the pole may contribute to induction of aneuploid daughter cells

  2. Fibreglass as an alternative to wood poles : Transmission and distribution poles and crossarms : use of fiber reinforced composite materials for overhead electric utility lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, J.R. [Shakespeare Composites and Electronics, Newberry, SC (United States)

    2002-07-01

    For over thirty years, Shakespeare Composites and Electronics has manufactured fiberglass composite lighting and utility poles, as well as being the number one maker of composite crossarms. Composite poles have a few advantages, such as being lightweight, they do no rust, are woodpecker and termite resistant, use no harmful chemicals, and have long life. A chart displaying the comparative pole weights is presented. The key design factors of fiberglass composite utility poles are: pole diameter, fiberglass type and wind angle, layers (thickness) of fiberglass, resin type and formulation, resin mix consistency, cure cycle and maximum curing temperature, and others. Two charts were also displayed presenting 40 feet class 4 pole bending strengths and 40 feet class 2 pole bending strengths. The author indicated that composite poles have a better strength consistency than wood, while being as consistent as steel and prestressed concrete. The design is based on an overload factor of safety of 2.5 for numerous installations. Some of the analytical methods used include mechanical testing, finite element modeling, and thermal analysis. The author describes in detail the concerns associated with attachments. Coating consists of a system of ultra violet blockers in the resin followed by an added resin rich polyester veil outer surface. In addition, there is a proprietary coating process with additional ultra violet blockers. Quality control is effected at the plant. The weathering system lasts 80 years. figs.

  3. The structure of double scattering in old-fashioned perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneschi, L.; Halliday, I.G.; Schwimmer, A.

    1978-01-01

    The authors study in old-fashioned perturbation theory the time orderings that are relevant for the exchange of two Regge poles (ladders). They determine how the phase of double scattering is established in the Mandelstam diagram. The analysis clarifies the intermediate state structure of the multiple-scattering expansion and the role of the unitarity constraints. (Auth.)

  4. Laparoscopic upper pole heminephroureterectomy in children: Seven-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive surgery is the current approach to perform heminephroureterectomy (HN in children. This can be obtained through a transperitoneal (TP or a retroperitoneal approach. Here, we report our experience using a TP approach. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014, 22 TP laparoscopic upper poles HN were performed at our institution. There were nine girls and 13 boys aged between 20 months and 6 years (mean age 3.9. Eight patients were diagnosed prenatally, 17 patients presented with urinary tract infection (UTI and three with vomiting and failure to thrive. The indication for HN was reflux nephropathy and UTI in non-functioning upper pole in 19 patients and cystic dysplasia in 1 patient. The surgical technique involved the following steps: Cystoscopic recognition; positioning of 3-4 trocar (right HN; identification of the kidney (detachment of the colon; isolation and low ligation of the dilated ureter; decrossing from renal vessels; section of the parenchyma by LigaSure; haemostasis with clips and LigaSure; drain. Results: The mean operative time was 154 min (range: 81-220 min. All patients were discharged from the 2 nd to 4 th day. Neither major complication nor conversion was recorded. 1 patient presented leakage of urine for 7 days from the drainage which resolved spontaneously. At ultrasound follow-up, 5 patients showed a secondary perirenal cyst, 2-5 cm diameter that resolved spontaneously. Conclusion: The results indicate that laparoscopic upper pole heminephrectomy is the treatment of choice in cases of non-functioning dilated lower segments of duplicated kidneys. The use of laparoscopic approach offers a good working space, a good visual control of the vessels and allows a very low isolation of the ureteral stump which counterbalance the peritoneal violation.

  5. SNAP sky background at the north ecliptic pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldering, Greg

    2002-01-01

    I summarize the extant direct and indirect data on the sky background SNAP will see at the North Ecliptic Pole over the wavelength range 0.4 < λ < 1.7 (micro)m. At the spatial resolution of SNAP the sky background due to stars and galaxies is resolved, so the only source considered is zodiacal light. Several models are explored to provide interpolation in wavelength between the broadband data from HST and COBE observations. I believe the input data are now established well enough that the accuracy of the sky background presented here is sufficient for SNAP simulations, and that it will stand up to scrutiny by reviewers

  6. Pole Soccer - Implementering af netværksmodul

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Frank B; Kierkegaard, Jakob R; Hirszhorn, Andreas J

    2005-01-01

    Abstrakt Målet med dette projekt er at designe og implementere et netværksmodul til spillet PoleSoccer, som er et spil udviklet i det foregående semester. Fokus i implementeringen er at opn°a bedst mulig synkronisering klienterne imellem. Programmet er udviklet i programmeringssproget Java. I rapporten diskuteres valg af netværksarkitektur, transportlagsprotokol samt hvilke metoder Java tilbyder til netværkskommunikation, med vægt på Sockets. Ydermere beskrives metoder vi har anvendt til at o...

  7. Superconducting 63-Pole 2 Tesla Wiggler for Canadian Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khruschev, S.V.; Kuper, E.A.; Lev, V.H.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Miginsky, E.G.; Repkov, V.V.; Shkaruba, B.A.; Syrovatin, V.M.; Tsukanov, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    A superconducting 63-pole wiggler with the average period 34 mm designed and fabricated at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk for Synchrotron Radiation Center (CLS) in Canada is described. The maximum field 2.2 Tesla in the median plane has been achieved. The liquid helium consumption less than 0.03 liters per hour in operating mode has been reached. In January 2005, the wiggler was installed in the storage ring in CLS and now experiments are already underway. The main parameters of the magnet and the cryogenic systems as well as test results are presented

  8. Superconducting 63-pole 2 T wiggler for Canadian Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khruschev, S.V.; Kuper, E.A.; Lev, V.H.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Miginsky, E.G.; Repkov, V.V.; Shkaruba, V.A.; Syrovatin, V.M.; Tsukanov, V.M.

    2007-01-01

    A superconducting 63-pole wiggler with the average period 34 mm designed and fabricated in the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk for Synchrotron Radiation Center Canadian Light Source (CLS) in Canada is described. The maximum field 2.2 T in the median plane has been achieved. The liquid helium consumption less than 0.03 L h in operating mode has been reached. It allows refilling liquid helium once a year. In January 2005, the wiggler was installed in the storage ring in CLS and now experiments are carried out. The main parameters of the magnet and the cryogenic systems as well as test results are presented

  9. IMF sector behavior estimated from geomagnetic data at South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, S.; Xu, W.h.

    1981-01-01

    IMF sector behavior which has previously been estimated from the geomagnetic data at Godhavn is confirmed by study of the data at South Pole for 1959--1970 with the same estimation technique, taking the difference between northern and southern hemispheres into consideration. A method to improve (about 18%) the agreement between assigned and actual sector structures by study of the data at the two stations is suggested. Geomagnetic disturbance effects on sector estimation are discussed, and reversed sector effects in winter are given special emphasis

  10. Are Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Viewed Pole-on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    0.2’’ respectively. Figure 1 displays the position of each slit over a Barbosa et al. (2009) GMOS IFU image of the [S III] flux (which originates...C. Winge, H. Schmitt: Gemini/ GMOS IFU gas velocity ’tomography’ of the narrow line region of nearby active galaxies, MNRAS, 396 (2009) 2. [2] D...1995) 81. 4 P o S ( N L S 1 ) 0 5 0 Are NLS1s Pole-on? Travis C. Fischer 5 Figure 1: NGC 4051 GMOS IFU image showing integrated [SIII] flux

  11. Ülikoolid pole mängukannid / Sirje Tohver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tohver, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    TPÜ korraldas 16. märtsil̀ 2001 ümarlaua "Ülikoolid pole mängukannid", kus oli arutusel riikliku koolitustellimuse vähenemine avalik-õiguslikele ülikoolidele. Osalesid TPÜ filoloogiateaduskonna dekaan dots. H. Mattisen, kultuuriteaduskonna dekaan prof. A. Avarand, akadeemiline prorektor dots. L. Jõgi, teadus- ja arendusprorektor prof. P. Normak, haridusminister T. Lukas, TPÜ rektor prof. M. Arvisto ja EKA rektor prof. A. Keskküla, TTÜ rektor prof. A. Keevallik, EMA õppeprorektor A. Pung

  12. The effect of low extremity plyometric training on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the 'Power up plyometric training'. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st -4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th-8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th-12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times.

  13. Numerical simulation of the throwing power of cathodic prevention applied to marine reinforced concrete piles by means of sacrificial anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Luca; Redaelli, Elena [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , Via Mancinelli, 7, 20131 Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    The paper deals with the determination of current and potential distribution in reinforced concrete elements partially submerged in seawater aimed at predicting the throwing power of cathodic prevention applied by means of sacrificial anodes. Previous laboratory studies carried out on reinforced concrete columns 15 cm x 15 cm x 120 cm showed that the use of sacrificial anodes placed in the solution at the bottom of the column could provide protection of corroding steel bars in the emerged part of the pile up to about 60 cm from the water level. However, if sacrificial anodes were applied when the concrete was chloride free and steel bars were still passive, even the highest bar, placed at 1 m from the level of water, was protected. This is due to the higher polarizability of passive steel, that makes the throwing power of cathodic prevention higher compared to that of cathodic protection. In order to extend the results obtained on small-scale specimens to elements of higher dimensions, numerical simulations of current and potential distribution were carried out. Two-dimensional models were set up of reinforced concrete piles containing steel bars at different heights protected with sacrificial anodes placed in the water in which they were partially submerged. Boundary conditions describing the electrochemical behaviour of bars were obtained from polarisation curves measured on the previously mentioned columns. Values of concrete conductivity at different heights from the water level were also obtained from those tests. Several cases were considered, representative of conditions differing in electrochemical behaviour of steel bars, dimensions of element, position of sacrificial anodes. The paper discusses the results obtained from the models and compares them in terms of the throwing power that can be reached by using sacrificial anodes immersed in the seawater to protect reinforcing steel bars in the emerged part of a pile. (authors)

  14. DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF POLE-LIKE OBJECTS FROM MOBILE MAPPING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fukano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser scanners on a vehicle-based mobile mapping system can capture 3D point-clouds of roads and roadside objects. Since roadside objects have to be maintained periodically, their 3D models are useful for planning maintenance tasks. In our previous work, we proposed a method for detecting cylindrical poles and planar plates in a point-cloud. However, it is often required to further classify pole-like objects into utility poles, streetlights, traffic signals and signs, which are managed by different organizations. In addition, our previous method may fail to extract low pole-like objects, which are often observed in urban residential areas. In this paper, we propose new methods for extracting and classifying pole-like objects. In our method, we robustly extract a wide variety of poles by converting point-clouds into wireframe models and calculating cross-sections between wireframe models and horizontal cutting planes. For classifying pole-like objects, we subdivide a pole-like object into five subsets by extracting poles and planes, and calculate feature values of each subset. Then we apply a supervised machine learning method using feature variables of subsets. In our experiments, our method could achieve excellent results for detection and classification of pole-like objects.

  15. Investigation Effects of Narrowing Rotor Pole Embrace to Efficiency and Cogging Torque at PM BLDC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Ocak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Engineers think that pole embrace size of a PM BLDC motor affects directly the efficiency and the torque. Dealing with theexperimental research, in the studywe have investigated the effects of narrowing rotor pole embrace step by step by changing sizes parametrically. By doing so, high efficiency and low cogging torque would have been obtained for a 20 W PM BLDC motor. In order to do this,pole arc to pole pitch ratio of magnets at the rotor poles has been changed parametrically (0.5 to 1 by genetic algorithm methodfirst. Then the electromagnetic field dispersions, output parameters of the motor, new rotor constructions have been obtained; and new pole embrace has been derived from the variation of pole arc to pole pitch ratio. We have also calculatedthe magnetic flux distribution, output power, torque, cogging torque and efficiency values analytically and the effects of new pole embrace to motor efficiency and torque have been simulated. The developed 18 slots, 6 poles, surface mounted inner runner configuration rotor machine is proposed as to be used insmall dentistry apparatus.

  16. Meningkatkan Prestasi Belajar Siswa Kelas VIII.F SMP Negeri 33 Surabaya Pada Mata Pelajaran IPS Materi Pranata Sosial Dengan Model Pembelajaran Snowball Throwing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudjianingsih Mudjianingsih

    2017-01-01

                          Asks activities in social studies is an important part in carrying out the study, which asks activities serve to gather information from students, to confirm what was already known, and to bring attention to the aspect of the unknown. Based on observations in the classroom conditions VIII F SMP Negeri 33 Surabaya Surabaya are less enthusiastic in asking questions the need for action using the appropriate learning models, one model of learning that can improve student learning outcomes is learning models Snowball Throwing. In this research there are four research purposes, the fourth such purposes include: 1 To determine the application of learning models Snowball Throwing, 2 To determine activity students 3 To determine student learning outcomes, and 3 To know the constraints and solutions in applying learning models Snowball Throwing.                     This study was a classroom action research (PTK with a qualitative approach in the classroom VIII F SMP Negeri 33 Surabaya Surabaya, which amounted to 32 students. In the application of Snowball Throwing consisting of two cycles, each cycle consisting of the planning stage, the stage of action, observation and reflection stages. Data collection techniques interest asked in this study using observation sheet interest to ask, and for student learning outcomes using the test cycle I and II. Data analysis using data reduction, observation data, and drawing conclusions. The results of this study show that: 1 Application of Learning Model Throwing Snowball carried out with 2 cycles, with each cycle consisting of the planning phase, the implementation phase, observation and reflection phase, 2 Complete test results of students in the first cycle was 68.42% , to test cycle II completeness increased to 100%, completeness criteria in this second cycle in the category Very Good, 3 constraints experienced researchers, among others: the seriousness of the students

  17. Double inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The Ω-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig

  18. UPAYA MENINGKATKAN MINAT BELAJAR SISWA MELALUI MODEL PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TIPE SNOWBALL THROWING PADA MATA DIKLAT KOMUNIKASI SISWA SMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Pratiwi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian untuk meningkatkan minat belajar siswa melalui model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Snowball Throwing pada mata diklat komunikasi siswa kelas X AP SMK Gatra Praja Pekalongan. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas X AP yang berjumlah 37 siswa. jenis penelitian adalah penelitian tindakan kelas, dilakukan dalam dua siklus. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan observasi, kuesioner,dan dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan minat belajar hasil dari lembar pengamatan siklus I sebesar 60,33% dengan kategori kurang berminat dan pada siklus II menjadi 75,27% dengan kategori berminat. Sedangkan hasil minat belajar dari angket/kuesioner pada siklus I 68,90% dengan kategori berminat dan pada siklus II menjadi 76,71% dengan kategori berminat. Kesimpulanya Penerapan pembelajaran menggunakan model Snowball Throwing dapat meningkatkan minat belajar siswa kelas X AP pada mata diklat komunikasi SMK Gatra Praja Pekalongan, terbukti setiap siklusnya mengalami peningkatan. This study is aimed at improving students’ interest through cooperative learning model Snowball Throwing at Communication Training Subject in Class X Office Administration of Gatra Praja Vocational High School Pekalongan. Subject of this research was the 37 students of XI AP. This type of research is classroom action research and conducted in two cycles. Data collecting technique used is observation, questionnaires, and documentation. The result of the research shows that the learning interest form of the observation sheet on the first cycle is 60.33% with less interest category and the second cycle, it turns into 75.27% to the category of interest. While the results of the learning interest from the questionnaire in the first cycle is 68.90% of the maximum percentage of the interest category and the second cycle it turns into 76.71% to the category of interest. The conclusion is the application of learning using models Snowball Throwing can increase students’ interest in

  19. Improvements Realized on the NiThrow{sup TM} Solution - 13075

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moggia, F.; Objois, L.; Damerval, F. [AREVA - Clean-Up BU - 1, route de la Noue - 91196 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Toulemonde, V. [AREVA - R and D Corporate - 1, place Jean Miller - 92084 - Paris La Defense (France); Varet, T. [AREVA - D and D BU - 1, place Jean Miller - Paris La Defense (France); Guillot, S. [AREVA Federal Services LLC - 2101 Horn Rapids Road Richland, WA 99354-5102 (United States); Richard, F. [Air Liquide - Research Center - 13, rue d' Epluches - 95310 St Ouen L' Aumone (France)

    2013-07-01

    the singularities such as corners..). In this paper, the 'step by step' strategy to achieve those ambitious developments will be presented with a special attention to the NiThrow{sup TM} carrier development. (authors)

  20. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  1. Effects of slotting and unipolar flux on magnetic pull in a two-pole induction motor with an extra four-pole stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinervo, A.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is about the radial magnetic forces between the rotor and stator in twopole induction machines. The magnetic forces arise from rotor eccentricity. The asymmetric air-gap makes the flux density on one side of the rotor stronger than on the opposite side. This produces magnetic pull. The magnetic flux density distribution in the air-gap can be expressed with spatial harmonics, i.e. flux densities with different pole-pair numbers. In two-pole machines, the main part of the magnetic force is produced by the interaction of two- and fourpole flux unless the four-pole flux is damped by parallel paths in the stator winding or an extra four-pole stator winding. The rest of the force comes from the interaction of two-pole and unipolar flux and from the higher harmonics of the air-gap flux of which the slot harmonics are a major part. The force caused by the higher harmonics and the unipolar flux is studied in the case where a four-pole stator winding is used to reduce the four-pole flux. The higher harmonics are found to produce, in addition to the traditional unbalanced magnetic pull, a force similar to the effect of the unipolar flux and the two can be distinguished only by measuring the unipolar flux. In measurements at various operation points, the higher harmonics are found to produce much more force than the unipolar flux and two-pole flux but the unipolar flux is still significant. The four-pole winding also is used to actively control the four-pole flux and the magnetic forces. Designing the controller requires a low order model of the system. Such a model is derived and the effect of the slot harmonics and the unipolar flux are included in the model. Different measurements techniques and methods are presented to identify and validate the control model. The operation point dependence of the system dynamics is studied via measurements. All results are obtained from a 30 kW test motor. The rotor of the test machine has a long flexible shaft on external

  2. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Anjum, Raeesa S.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L.; Spiers, Hugo J.; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the “semantic hub” of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  3. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-06

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  4. Towards a research pole in photonics in Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Rominu, Mihai; Miutescu, Eftimie; Burlea, Amelia; Vlascici, Miomir; Gheorghiu, Nicolae; Cira, Octavian; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Mnerie, Corina; Demian, Dorin; Marcauteanu, Corina; Topala, Florin; Rolland, Jannick P.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-07-01

    We present our efforts in establishing a Research Pole in Photonics in the future Arad-Timisoara metropolitan area projected to unite two major cities of Western Romania. Research objectives and related training activities of various institutions and groups that are involved are presented in their evolution during the last decade. The multi-disciplinary consortium consists principally of two universities, UAVA (Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad) and UMF (Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University of Timisoara), but also of the Arad County Emergency University Hospital and several innovative SMEs, such as Bioclinica S.A. (the largest array of medical analysis labs in the region) and Inteliform S.R.L. (a competitive SME focused on mechatronics and mechanical engineering). A brief survey of the individual and joint projects of these institutions is presented, together with their teaching activities at graduate and undergraduate level. The research Pole collaborates in R&D, training and education in biomedical imaging with universities in USA and Europe. Collaborative activities, mainly on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) projects are presented in a multidisciplinary approach that includes optomechatronics, precision mechanics and optics, dentistry, medicine, and biology.

  5. Acoustic wave filter based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courjon, Emilie; Bassignot, Florent; Ulliac, Gwenn; Benchabane, Sarah; Ballandras, Sylvain

    2012-09-01

    Solutions for the development of compact RF passive transducers as an alternative to standard surface or bulk acoustic wave devices are receiving increasing interest. This article presents results on the development of an acoustic band-pass filter based on periodically poled ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate. The fabrication of periodically poled transducers (PPTs) operating in the range of 20 to 650 MHz has been achieved on 3-in (76.2-mm) 500-μm-thick wafers. This kind of transducer is able to excite elliptical as well as longitudinal modes, yielding phase velocities of about 3800 and 6500 ms(-1), respectively. A new type of acoustic band-pass filter is proposed, based on the use of PPTs instead of the SAWs excited by classical interdigital transducers. The design and the fabrication of such a filter are presented, as well as experimental measurements of its electrical response and transfer function. The feasibility of such a PPT-based filter is thereby demonstrated and the limitations of this method are discussed.

  6. A precise determination of the top-quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Si, Zong-Guo; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2018-01-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to eliminate the renormalization scheme and renormalization scale uncertainties for high-energy processes. We have observed that by applying PMC scale setting, one obtains comprehensive and self-consistent pQCD predictions for the top-quark pair total cross section and the top-quark pair forward-backward asymmetry in agreement with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. As a step forward, in the present paper, we determine the top-quark pole mass via a detailed comparison of the top-quark pair cross section with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. The results for the top-quark pole mass are m t = 174.6 +3.1 -3.2 GeV for the Tevatron with √(S) = 1.96 TeV, m t = 173.7 ± 1.5 and 174.2 ± 1.7 GeV for the LHC with √(S) = 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. Those predictions agree with the average, 173.34 ± 0.76 GeV, obtained from various collaborations via direct measurements. The consistency of the pQCD predictions using the PMC with all of the collider measurements at different energies provides an important verification of QCD. (orig.)

  7. A precise determination of the top-quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Si, Zong-Guo; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2018-03-01

    The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to eliminate the renormalization scheme and renormalization scale uncertainties for high-energy processes. We have observed that by applying PMC scale setting, one obtains comprehensive and self-consistent pQCD predictions for the top-quark pair total cross section and the top-quark pair forward-backward asymmetry in agreement with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. As a step forward, in the present paper, we determine the top-quark pole mass via a detailed comparison of the top-quark pair cross section with the measurements at the Tevatron and LHC. The results for the top-quark pole mass are m_t=174.6^{+3.1}_{-3.2} GeV for the Tevatron with √{S}=1.96 TeV, m_t=173.7± 1.5 and 174.2± 1.7 GeV for the LHC with √{S} = 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. Those predictions agree with the average, 173.34± 0.76 GeV, obtained from various collaborations via direct measurements. The consistency of the pQCD predictions using the PMC with all of the collider measurements at different energies provides an important verification of QCD.

  8. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  9. Groebner Basis Solutions to Satellite Trajectory Control by Pole Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukelova, Z.; Krsek, P.; Smutny, V.; Pajdla, T.

    2013-09-01

    Satellites play an important role, e.g., in telecommunication, navigation and weather monitoring. Controlling their trajectories is an important problem. In [1], an approach to the pole placement for the synthesis of a linear controller has been presented. It leads to solving five polynomial equations in nine unknown elements of the state space matrices of a compensator. This is an underconstrained system and therefore four of the unknown elements need to be considered as free parameters and set to some prior values to obtain a system of five equations in five unknowns. In [1], this system was solved for one chosen set of free parameters with the help of Dixon resultants. In this work, we study and present Groebner basis solutions to this problem of computation of a dynamic compensator for the satellite for different combinations of input free parameters. We show that the Groebner basis method for solving systems of polynomial equations leads to very simple solutions for all combinations of free parameters. These solutions require to perform only the Gauss-Jordan elimination of a small matrix and computation of roots of a single variable polynomial. The maximum degree of this polynomial is not greater than six in general but for most combinations of the input free parameters its degree is even lower. [1] B. Palancz. Application of Dixon resultant to satellite trajectory control by pole placement. Journal of Symbolic Computation, Volume 50, March 2013, Pages 79-99, Elsevier.

  10. Particle acceleration at the magnetic poles of a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic conversion of a photon in a neutron star magnetosphere near one of the magnetic poles is followed by acceleration of the electron and positron to ultra-relativistic energies. The positron moves along open magnetic flux lines to the light cylinder. The electron incident on the stellar surface produces an electromagnetic shower. Following a comment by Cheng and Ruderman (Astrophys.J.;214:598 (1977)), an order of magnitude estimate has been made of the spectrum of backward moving photons created in the electron shower. The most important source of photons is shown to be the formation of the giant dipole state in Fe 56 . Under the assumption that the surface magnetic flux density exceeds 10 12 G, the photons have, with high probability, mean free paths for magnetic conversion in the magnetosphere of 1 4 cm. An equation for the maximum acceleratin potential has been obtained in a one-dimensional model of pair creation and electron multiplication based on this photon source. The model has been applied to the phenomenon of subpulse drift in pulsars. The plasma accelerated at the magnetic pole has three components; positrons, protons and light nuclei (Z < approximately 6) formed by spallation, and iron group nuclei. Equations determining their relative fluxes have been found. The light nuclei include those with Z = 3 to 5, usually considered to be present in galactic cosmic rays only as a result of the interaction of heavier nuclei with the interstellar medium. (author)

  11. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii pole extraction, (iii components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  12. Pole-Like Street Furniture Decompostion in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i) acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii) pole extraction, (iii) components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  13. The effect of poling conditions on the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters fabricated by wet chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, Erika Maria-Anai

    2015-03-25

    The effect of poling conditions on the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters using sol-gel based Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O3-Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3 piezoelectric thin-films has been investigated. A strong correlation was established between the poling efficiency and harvester output. A method based on simple capacitance-voltage measurements is shown to be an effective approach to estimate the power output of harvesters poled under different conditions. The poling process was found to be thermally activated with an activation energy of 0.12 eV, and the optimum poling conditions were identified (200 kV cm-1, 250 °C for 50 min). The voltage output and power density obtained under optimum poling conditions were measured to be 558 V cm-2 and 325 μW cm-2, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.2015.

  14. Design of an adaptive pole assignment controller for steam generators and its experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; No, Hee Cheon

    1992-01-01

    An adaptive observer is designed that both parameters and state variables of the steam generator are estimated simultaneously. A pole assignment controller is derived on the basis of the adaptive observer. The characteristics of the overall closed-loop control system can be expressed in terms of its poles, assigned poles. The troublesome tuning procedure of the P-I controller is reduced to the determination of the desired poles only. The proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional P-I controller through numerical simulation. Also, the adaptive pole assignment controller is studied experimentally by implementing it to the mock-up of the nuclear steam generator. The adaptive pole assignment controller shows better responses than the P-l controller does. (Author)

  15. Field analysis and enhancement of multi-pole magnetic components fabricated on printed circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.-C.; Chen, C.-S.

    2007-01-01

    A multi-pole magnetic component magnetized with a fine magnetic pole pitch of less than 1 mm is very difficult to achieve by using traditional methods. Moreover, it requires a precise mechanical process and a complicated magnetization system. Different fine magnetic pole pitches of 300, 350 and 400 μm have been accomplished on 9-pole magnetic components through the printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing technology. Additionally, another fine magnetic pole pitch of 500 μm was also fabricated on a dual-layered (DL) wire circuit structure to investigate the field enhancement. After measurements, a gain factor of 1.37 was obtained in the field strength. The field variations among different magnetic pole pitches were analyzed in this paper

  16. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  17. Double hard scattering without double counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  18. Lower Pole Calyceal Stone and Lithotripsy are Issues with Clearance Fact or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammad Ather

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lower pole calyceal (LPC stone continues to be an enigma. The complex anatomy of the lower pole collecting system, along with other factors like acute pelvi calyceal angle and narrow and long infundibulum, are some of the complicating factors affecting stone clearance. There have been many studies assessing the impact of collecting system anatomy and most conclude that the complex anatomy of the lower pole collecting system does impact the overall stone-free rate.

  19. Iron Pole Shape Optimization of IPM Motors Using an Integrated Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JABBARI, A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An iron pole shape optimization method to reduce cogging torque in Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM motors is developed by using the reduced basis technique coupled by finite element and design of experiments methods. Objective function is defined as the minimum cogging torque. The experimental design of Taguchi method is used to build the approximation model and to perform optimization. This method is demonstrated on the rotor pole shape optimization of a 4-poles/24-slots IPM motor.

  20. Calculation of force and power during bench throws using a Smith machine: the importance of considering the effect of counterweights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Narazaki, K; Akagi, R; Nakagaki, K; Kawamori, N; Ohta, K

    2013-09-01

    For achieving accurate and safe measurements of the force and power exerted on a load during resistance exercise, the Smith machine has been used instead of free weights. However, because some Smith machines possess counterweights, the equation for the calculation of force and power in this system should be different from the one used for free weights. The purpose of this investigation was to calculate force and power using an equation derived from a dynamic equation for a Smith machine with counterweights and to determine the differences in force and power calculated using 2 different equations. One equation was established ignoring the effect of the counterweights (Method 1). The other equation was derived from a dynamic equation for a barbell and counterweight system (Method 2). 9 female collegiate judo athletes performed bench throws using a Smith machine with a counterweight at 6 different loading conditions. Barbell displacement was recorded using a linear position transducer. The force and power were subsequently calculated by Methods 1 and 2. The results showed that the mean and peak power and force in Method 1 were significantly lower relative to those of Method 2 under all loading conditions. These results indicate that the mean and peak power and force during bench throwing using a Smith machine with counterweights would be underestimated when the calculations used to determine these parameters do not account for the effect of counterweights. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Finite element analysis of relative shaft vibrations of two-pole induction motors with static rotor eccentricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Ulrich [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany). Industry, Drive Technologies, Large Drives, Industry Development

    2010-03-15

    The paper shows a computational methodology for calculating the relative shaft vibrations in the sleeve bearings of two-pole induction machines regarding excitation due to an electromagnetic force, which is caused by static rotor eccentricity. For a worst case calculation concerning the height of exciting magnetic force electromagnetic field damping effects and magnetic resistance concerning the homopolar flux are neglected. The calculated magnetic force, acting on the rotor core with double supply frequency in direction of the smallest air gap, is implemented into a finite element rotor dynamic model. With this model the influence of the rotor speed as well as influence of the direction of the magnetic force on the relative shaft displacements can be analyzed. Therefore the paper shows a computational methodology to check, whether the rotor-bearing design is sensitive for electromagnetic excitations due to static rotor eccentricity and prepares therefore the possibility to introduce improvements during the design phase of the induction motor. (orig.)

  2. Differences in ball speed and three-dimensional kinematics between male and female handball players during a standing throw with run-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrien, Ben; Clijsen, Ron; Blondeel, Jonathan; Goossens, Maggy; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine differences in ball release speed and throwing kinematics between male and female team-handball players in a standing throw with run-up. Other research has shown that this throwing type produces the highest ball release speeds and comparing groups with differences in ball release speed can suggest where this difference might come from. If throwing technique differs, perhaps gender-specific coordination- and strength-training guidelines are in order. Measurements of three-dimensional kinematics were performed with a seven-camera VICON motion capture system and subsequent joint angles and angular velocities calculations were executed in Mathcad. Data-analysis with Statistical Parametric Mapping allowed us to examine the entire time-series of every variable without having to reduce the data to certain scalar values such as minima/maxima extracted from the time-series. Statistical Parametric Mapping enabled us to detect several differences in the throwing kinematics (12 out of 20 variables had one or more differences somewhere during the motion). The results indicated two distinct strategies in generating and transferring momentum through the kinematic chain. Male team-handball players showed more activity in the transverse plane (pelvis and trunk rotation and shoulder horizontal abduction) whereas female team-handball players showed more activity in the sagital plane (trunk flexion). Also the arm cocking maneuver was quite different. The observed differences between male and female team handball players in the motions of pelvis, trunk and throwing arm can be important information for coaches to give feedback to athletes. Whether these differences contribute to the observed difference in ball release speed is at the present unclear and more research on the relation with anthropometric profile needs to be done. Kinematic differences might suggest gender-specific training guidelines in team-handball.

  3. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-07-28

    Traditionally, the necessary and sufficient condition for any system to be oscillating is that its poles are located on the imaginary (jω) axis. In this paper, for the first time, we have shown that systems can oscillate with time-domain oscillating poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating resistance and triangular shape of FFT are also demonstrated with mathematical reasoning and simulation results to support the unusual and surprising characteristics. © 2009 IEEE.

  4. Texture of poled tetragonal PZT detected by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and micromechanics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Steuwer, A.; Cherdhirunkorn, B.; Withers, P.J.; Mori, T.

    2005-01-01

    The texture and lattice elastic strain due to electrical poling of tetragonal PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramics have been measured using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It is shown that XRD peak intensity ratios associated with crystal planes of the form {002}, {112} and {202} exhibit a linear dependence on cos-bar 2 Ψ, where Ψ represents the orientation angle between the plane normal and the macroscopic poling axis. The observed dependence of texture and lattice strain on the grain orientation can be understood on the basis that the macroscopic strain due to poling is the average of the poling strains of all the individual grains

  5. Reuse of poles treated with CCA; CCA-kyllaestettyjen puupylvaeiden uudelleenkaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmus, E. [Vtt Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of re-using utility poles or parts of poles for structural use in construction. There are more than 10 million poles in Finland and about 200 000 poles will be removed from service yearly during the next few years. The directive 2003/2/EY will restrict the use of poles treated with CCA. This will change the practice that the energy and telecommunication companies have given the removed poles to the land owners. The present study launched by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) was carried out to determine the technical condition of CCA impregnated poles removed from service and the concentration levels and leaching of remaining preservatives. To summarize the results of the tests, it is safe to say that re-use of recovered poles of 30 to 50 years of age is possible. Both the preservative concentrations and strength/load-bearing capacity are high enough to allow the use of the poles as load-bearing structures. (orig.)

  6. Full cost accounting as a tool for the financial assessment of Pay-As-You-Throw schemes: a case study for the Panorama municipality, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, Avraam; Xirogiannopoulou, Anna; Tchobanoglous, George

    2008-12-01

    In the present paper, implementation scenarios of a Pay-As-You-Throw program were developed and analyzed for the first time in Greece. Firstly, the necessary steps for implementing a Pay-As-You-Throw program were determined. A database was developed for the needs of the full cost accounting method, where all financial and waste-production data were inserted, in order to calculate the unit price of charging for four different implementation scenarios of the "polluter-pays" principle. For each scenario, the input in waste management cost was estimated, as well as the total waste charges for households. Finally, a comparative analysis of the results was performed.

  7. A 15-pole high temperature superconductor filter for radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Xi, Weibin; Wu, Songtao

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a compact and high first harmonic frequency resonator. The characteristics of this resonator are theoretically analyzed. A highly selective 15-pole Chebyshev high temperature superconducting ultra-high frequency narrowband filter for radar applications was fabricated by using this resonator. The filter has a center frequency of 495 MHz and a fractional bandwidth of 1%. The first harmonic frequency is more than 3.3 times the fundamental frequency. The measured filter shows excellent selectivity, better than 85 dB/1 MHz skirt slopes, and more than 85 dB of rejection at 497.5 MHz from the band edge. The filter was fabricated on a 2 inch YBCO thin film with a 0.5 mm thick MgO substrate. The experimental results are consistent with the simulations.

  8. One-dimensional thermodynamical model for poling of ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiouny, E.

    1990-11-01

    In this work, we use a model developed to deduce a one-dimensional model for the description of the poling of ferroelectric ceramics. This is built within the scheme of the thermodynamical theory of internal variables. The model produces both plastic and electric hysteresis effects in the form of ''plasticity'', i.e., rate-independent evolution equations for the plastic strain, and the residual electric polarization and both mechanical and electric hardenings. The influence of stresses on ferroelectric hysteresis loops through piezoelectricity and electrostriction is a natural outcome of this model. Some simple experimental methods for the determination of the material coefficients of the considered ceramics are suggested. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  9. THE SPITZER-WISE SURVEY OF THE ECLIPTIC POLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Cutri, R. M.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Cohen, M.; Wright, E.; Petty, S.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P.; Mainzer, A.; Ressler, M.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Carey, S.; Surace, J.; Lonsdale, C.; Skrutskie, M.; Stanford, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out a survey of the north and south ecliptic poles, EP-N and EP-S, respectively, with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The primary objective was to cross-calibrate WISE with the Spitzer and Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) photometric systems by developing a set of calibration stars that are common to these infrared missions. The ecliptic poles were continuous viewing zones for WISE due to its polar-crossing orbit, making these areas ideal for both absolute and internal calibrations. The Spitzer IRAC and MIPS imaging survey covers a complete area of 0.40 deg 2 for the EP-N and 1.28 deg 2 for the EP-S. WISE observed the whole sky in four mid-infrared bands, 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm, during its eight-month cryogenic mission, including several hundred ecliptic polar passages; here we report on the highest coverage depths achieved by WISE, an area of ∼1.5 deg 2 for both poles. Located close to the center of the EP-N, the Sy-2 galaxy NGC 6552 conveniently functions as a standard calibrator to measure the red response of the 22 μm channel of WISE. Observations from Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS/IRS-LL and WISE show that the galaxy has a strong red color in the mid-infrared due to star-formation and the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), while over a baseline >1 year the mid-IR photometry of NGC 6552 is shown to vary at a level less than 2%. Combining NGC 6552 with the standard calibrator stars, the achieved photometric accuracy of the WISE calibration, relative to the Spitzer and MSX systems, is 2.4%, 2.8%, 4.5%, and 5.7% for W1 (3.4 μm), W2 (4.6 μm), W3 (12 μm), and W4 (22 μm), respectively. The WISE photometry is internally stable to better than 0.1% over the cryogenic lifetime of the mission. The secondary objective of the Spitzer-WISE Survey was to explore the poles at greater flux-level depths, exploiting the higher angular resolution Spitzer observations and the exceptionally deep (in total

  10. Performance of claw-poled PM-stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.P.; Jeng, G.R.; Chen, W.C.; Tsai, M.C.; Wu, K.T.; Yao, Y.D.

    2007-01-01

    Present work is to analyze the performance of a permanent-magnetic (PM) stepping motor with claw poles by using the magnetic-circuit simulation technique. In this paper, we calculate the torque characteristics of the motor, such as the detent and the holding torques, and the step-position error by changing the gap between the upper and the lower stators and the staggered angle between the two stators. Through comparison of numerical data with experiment measurements, we found that the detent torque could be effectively reduced by increasing the stator-to-stator gap and further by decreasing the step-position error. Furthermore, the holding torque could be unchanged as the stator assemblage changed; however, it would be degenerated under the condition of low magnetization

  11. Unitary pole approximations and expansions in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casel, A.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-01-01

    The unitary pole approximations or expansions of the two-body subsystem operators are well known, and particularly efficient and practical, methods to reduce the three-body problem to an effective two-body theory. In the present investigation we develop generalizations of these approximation techniques to the subsystem amplitudes of problems with higher particle numbers. They are based on the expansion of effective potentials which, in contrast to the genuine two-body interactions, are now energy dependent. Despite this feature our generalizations require only energy independent form factors, thus preserving one of the essential advantages of the genuine two-body approach. The application of these techniques to the four-body case is discussed in detail

  12. Lunar South Pole space water extraction and trucking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppero, A.; Zupp, G.; Schnitzler, B.; Larson, T.K.; Rice, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    This concept proposes to use thermal processes alone to extract water from the lunar South Pole and launch payloads to low lunar orbit. Thermal steam rockets would use water propellant for space transportation. The estimated mass of a space water tanker powered by a nuclear heated steam rocket suggests it can be designed for launch in the Space Shuttle bay. The performance depends on the feasibility of a nuclear reactor rocket engine producing steam at 1,100 degrees Kelvin, with a power density of 150 Megawatts per ton of rocket, and operating for thousands of 20 minute cycles. An example uses reject heat from a small nuclear electric power supply to melt 17,800 tons per year of lunar ice. A nuclear heated steam rocket would use the propellant water to launch and deliver 3,800 tons of water per year to a 100 km low lunar orbit

  13. Ruthenium therapy of choroidal melanomas of the posterior pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmann, G.; Faschinger, C.; Langmann, A.; Poier, E.

    1992-01-01

    The indications for conservative treatment of intraocular melanomas of the posterior pole with radioactive plaques are controversial. Melanomas located at the macula or adjacent to the fovea are regarded as relative contraindications for conservative treatment. Three melanomas of the macula have been treated at our department meanwhile. The tumor elevation ranged between 3.5 and 6 mm, the distance to the fovea between 0.5 and 2 dd. An average radiation dosage between 130 and 160 Gy was delivered to the apex of the tumors. The duration of observation was between 12 months to 4 years. The tumor regression was satisfactory in all 3 cases, additional photocoagulation was necessary in one case of incomplete tumor regression. Pretreatment visual acuity ranged between 0.8 and 0.1, posttreatment visual acuity between 0.8 and 0.25. In one case we observed a local radiation vasculopathy. General examination did not reveal any signs of metastases. (authors)

  14. Method of regulating magnetic field of magnetic pole center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masao; Yamada, Teruo; Kato, Norihiko; Toda, Yojiro; Kaneda, Yasumasa.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject method comprising using a plurality of magnetic metal pieces having different thicknesses, regulating very easily symmetry of the field of the magnetic pole center depending upon the combination of said metal pieces, thereby obtaining a magnetic field of high precision. Method: The regulation of magnetic field at the central part of the magnetic field is not depending only upon processing of the center plug, axial movement of trim coil and ion source but by providing a magnetic metal piece such as an iron ring, primary higher harmonics of the field at the center of the magnetic field can be regulated simply while the position of the ion source slit is on the equipotential surface in the field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  15. Patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymer electrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Xunlin

    2010-01-01

    Polymers with strong piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity are attractive for a wide range of applications. In particular, semicrystalline ferroelectric polymers are suitable for a large variety of piezo- and pyroelectric transducers or sensors, while amorphous polymers containing chromophore molecules are particularly interesting for photonic devices. Recently, a new class of polymer materials has been added to this family: internally charged cellular space-charge polymer electrets (so-called “ferroelectrets”), whose piezoelectricity can be orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional ferroelectric polymers. Suitable patterning of these materials leads to improved or unusual macroscopic piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectric or nonlinear optical properties that may be particularly useful for advanced transducer or waveguide applications. In the present paper, the piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity of poled polymers is briefly introduced, an overview on the preparation of polymer electrets with patterned piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectricity is provided and a survey of selected applications is presented.

  16. The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' for developing the nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' (PNB) is a high-technology and heavy industries cluster in Burgundy with an international calling. It aims at innovating, educating and federating in order to place the French nuclear industry in a leading position. PNB gathers 76 small-, and medium-sized enterprises, most of them operating in the metal sector, in design and in the control/measuring sector. The aim of PNB is to make enterprises work and cooperate on specific topics according to their sectors of activities and their skills. PNB has identified 3 domains of strategical innovations: -) ecological manufacturing and durability of heavy components, -) controls for high performance components, and -) maintenance and dismantling techniques in hostile environments. The various industry sectors represented in PNB allows a cross-fertilization between high-tech industries (aeronautics, energy, transportation)

  17. Determination of regional Euler pole parameters for Eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Schartner, Matthias; Brueckl, Ewald

    2017-04-01

    The horizontal motion of lithospheric plates can be described as rotations around a rotation axes through the Earth's center. The two possible points where this axes intersects the surface of the Earth are called Euler poles. The rotation is expressed by the Euler parameters in terms of angular velocities together with the latitude and longitude of the Euler pole. Euler parameters were calculated from GPS data for a study area in Eastern Austria. The observation network is located along the Mur-Mürz Valley and the Vienna Basin. This zone is part of the Vienna Transfer Fault, which is the major fault system between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. The project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) investigated intra plate tectonic movements within the Austrian part in order to estimate the seismic hazard. Precise site coordinate time series established from processing 5 years of GPS observations are available for the regional network spanning the years from 2010.0 to 2015.0. Station velocities with respect to the global reference frame ITRF2008 have been computed for 23 sites. The common Euler vector was estimated on base of a subset of reliable site velocities, for stations directly located within the area of interest. In a further step a geokinematic interpretation shall be carried out. Therefore site motions with respect to the Eurasian Plate are requested. To obtain this motion field different variants are conceivable. In a simple approach the mean ITRF2008 velocity of IGS site GRAZ can be adopted as Eurasian rotational velocity. An improved alternative is to calculate site-specific velocity differences between the Euler rotation and the individual site velocities. In this poster presentation the Euler parameters, the residual motion field as well as first geokinematic interpretation results are presented.

  18. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  19. AIP Single and double diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, Roberto; Mieskolainen, Mikael; Orava, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Single and double di ff raction dissociation at the LHC is studied in a factorizable Regge-pole model, dominated by a Pomeron pole exchange in the t channel. While the contribution from secondary reggeon exchanges at the LHC is negligible, they are indispensable to match the lower-energy, ISR and FNAL data. To this end we append to the leading Pomeron exchange an e ff ective reggeon. The main emphasis in our study is on the nucleon resonances in missing masses, that are accounted for by a dual model of the inelastic pP → M X vertex, similar to the DIS structure function, known from HERA, with a non-linear nucleon, N ∗ trajectory in the direct, M 2 X channel. Regge factorization and its breakdown due to a renormalization factor, tempering the energy rise is discussed.

  20. Gender differences in power production, energetic capacity and efficiency of elite cross‑country skiers during whole‑body, upper‑body, and arm poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Bucher, Elias; Ettema, Gertjan; Faude, Oliver; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2016-02-01

    To characterize gender differences in power output, energetic capacity and exercise efficiency during whole-body (WP), upper-body (UP), and arm poling (AP). Ten male and ten female elite cross-country skiers, matched for international performance level, completed three incremental submaximal tests and a 3-min self-paced performance test on a Concept2 SkiErg. Power output, cardiorespiratory and kinematic variables were monitored. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The men demonstrated 87, 97 and 103% higher power output, and 51, 65 and 71% higher VO2peak (L min(−1)) than the women during WP, UP and AP, respectively, while utilizing ~10% more of their running VO2max in all modes (all P lean mass in the whole body, upper body and arms (all P production and peak aerobic capacity increased sequentially from WP to UP to AP, coinciding with a greater portion of the muscle mass in the arms of the men. Although the men and women employed each poling technique differently, the estimated efficiency of double poling was independent of gender.

  1. Stellar population samples at the galactic poles. IV. Luminosity function for the M-type dwarfs at the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, O.J.

    1976-01-01

    The (UBVRI) photometry of all M dwarfs which are within 10degree of the South Galactic Pole and brighter than visual magnitude 15, and which have annual proper motions greater than 0/sup prime/./sub /096, are discussed. The observations themselves are listed and discussed in a recent Astrophysical Journal Supplement. The luminosity function is found to be very similar, in the overlapping sections, to that previously derived spectrophotometrically from the M stars near the Sun, and the extension to M/subV/ near +13 mag indicates that this luminosity is near the peak of that function. No support is found in these data for the recently suggested superabundance of low velocity M stars near the Sun

  2. Experience on impregnation of wood.en poles with water borne salts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. Leechability. Since the process depends on osmosis, the preservative must be highly soluble in water and rains may wash it away. 2. Diminished Mechanical Strength. Pricking of the pole at and around the ground line will diminish the mechanical strength of the pole. 3. Cost. Most important of all, the cost of the preserva-.

  3. The effect of poling conditions on the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters fabricated by wet chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, Erika Maria-Anai; Gnade, Bruce E; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel; Shah, Pradeep; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of poling conditions on the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters using sol-gel based Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O3-Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3 piezoelectric thin-films has been investigated. A strong correlation was established between the poling

  4. Risk Management in the Original Extreme Sporting Event: The Pole Vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…

  5. Renormalization Group Invariance of the Pole Mass in the Multi-Higgs System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungku

    2018-06-01

    We have investigated the renormalization group running of the pole mass in the multi-Higgs theory in two different types of gauge fixing conditions. The pole mass, when expressed in terms of the Lagrangian parameters, turns out to be invariant under the renormalization group with the beta and gamma functions of the symmetric phase.

  6. Converting point-wise nuclear cross sections to pole representation using regularized vector fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingjie; Ducru, Pablo; Liu, Shichang; Forget, Benoit; Liang, Jingang; Smith, Kord

    2018-03-01

    Direct Doppler broadening of nuclear cross sections in Monte Carlo codes has been widely sought for coupled reactor simulations. One recent approach proposed analytical broadening using a pole representation of the commonly used resonance models and the introduction of a local windowing scheme to improve performance (Hwang, 1987; Forget et al., 2014; Josey et al., 2015, 2016). This pole representation has been achieved in the past by converting resonance parameters in the evaluation nuclear data library into poles and residues. However, cross sections of some isotopes are only provided as point-wise data in ENDF/B-VII.1 library. To convert these isotopes to pole representation, a recent approach has been proposed using the relaxed vector fitting (RVF) algorithm (Gustavsen and Semlyen, 1999; Gustavsen, 2006; Liu et al., 2018). This approach however needs to specify ahead of time the number of poles. This article addresses this issue by adding a poles and residues filtering step to the RVF procedure. This regularized VF (ReV-Fit) algorithm is shown to efficiently converge the poles close to the physical ones, eliminating most of the superfluous poles, and thus enabling the conversion of point-wise nuclear cross sections.

  7. Crown Release Increases Diameter Growth and Bole Sprouting of Pole-Size Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M. Jr. Peterson

    1971-01-01

    During the second and third years after release, dominant, codominant, and intermediate pole-size yellow birch grew nearly twice as fast in diameter as unreleased poles. Growth rates were also related to foliage density. Epicormic sprouting was increased by crown release but most sprouting occured in the second log.

  8. Institutional Evaluation in Poles of the Open University System of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexciano de Sousa Martins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study wanted to know the institutional evaluation in poles of distance education, of the Open University of Brazil (UAB system, analyzing the poles of the State of Ceará. The UAB system of the Brazilian Ministry of Education makes it possible to offer courses of higher level agreements with public universities. Ceará counts on UAB poles, since 2006, that form teachers and other professionals, even in regions lacking public higher education. The objective of this study was to discuss the importance of the institutional evaluation in the poles of the Open University of Brazil program through an exploratory and descriptive field research, showing that the institutional evaluation at the poles is minimal and out of line with the legislation in force. Suggestions on how to develop the evaluative practice.

  9. Glass fiber -reinforced plastic tapered poles for transmission and distribution lines: development and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Burachysnsky, V.; Polyzois, D.

    1999-01-01

    A research project to develop lightweight poles for use in power transmission and distribution lines and involving the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic using the filament winding process is described. Twelve full scale specimen poles were designed, fabricated and subjected to cantilever bending to test failure modes. The test parameters included fiber orientation, ratio of longitudinal-to-circumferential fiber, and the number of layers. Results showed that local buckling was the most dominant failure mode, attributable to the high radius-to-thickness ratio of the specimen poles. Overall, however, these fiber-reinforced plastic poles compared favourably to wooden poles in carrying capacity with significant weight reduction. Lateral displacement at ultimate loads did not exceed the acceptable limit of 10 per cent of the specimen free length. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Optimizing detection of road furniture (pole-like object in Mobile Laser Scanner data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the road safety problem is becoming more and more serious recent years, existing road safety assessment by using automatic method is necessary. Meanwhile, since the pole-like objects have large effect on road safety and are in high demand as facilities to be managed, the automatic pole-like objects extraction is becoming a hot issue. As a result, a robust, quick and automatic pole-like object detection algorithm in MLS data is proposed in this paper. Two datasets are tested to show performance of the proposed algorithm, it demonstrates that it is feasible to detect tree with an overall accuracy of over 92% and other pole-like object of 72% in dataset A and 82% of tree points and 75% of other pole points in dataset B.

  11. FEM Analysis of Brushless DC Servomotor with Fractional Number of Slots per Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALUTA, G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present in this paper the analysis with Finite Element Method (FEM of the magnetic circuit for a Brushless DC servomotor with fractional number of slots/pole (9 slots and 10 poles. For this purpose, FEMM 4.2 software package was used for the analysis. To obtain the waveforms of Back-ElectroMotive Forces (BEMFs, electromagnetic and cogging torque for servomotor a program in LUA scripting language (integrated into interactive shell of FEMM4.2 has been created. A comparation with a structure with integer number of slots/pole (18 slots and 6 poles was also realized. The analysis results prove that the structure chosen is an optimal solution: sinusoidal waveforms of BEMFs, improved electromagnetic torque and reduced cogging torque. Therefore, the operating characteristics of the servomotor with 9/10 slots/poles manufactured by Sistem Euroteh Company and included in an integrated electrical drives system are presented in this paper.

  12. Gesture Recognition and Sensorimotor Learning-by-Doing of Motor Skills in Manual Professions: A Case Study in the Wheel-Throwing Art of Pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkova, Alina; Manitsaris, Sotiris

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological framework for the use of gesture recognition technologies in the learning/mastery of the gestural skills required in wheel-throwing pottery. In the case of self-instruction or training, learners face difficulties due to the absence of the teacher/expert and the consequent lack of guidance. Motion capture…

  13. The Effects of Shoulder- Girdle Muscles Fatigue on Ground Reaction Force, Elbow and Shoulder Joint Angle, and Accuracy of the Athletic Performance in Handball Penalty Throws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Shiravand

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: As the subjects were professional, muscle fatigue did not have a significant effect on postural control, angles and angular velocity; but did affect the reaction force and accuracy of the throws before and after fatigue, which could ultimately affect the performance of athletes and competition results.

  14. Acute influence of the application of strength treatment based on the combinated contrast training method on precision and velocity in overarm handball throwing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S. Gómez Navarrete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Combination of strengh training methods has been shown as an effective way for strengh development. This is specially indicated for improving explosive strengh and power. Our study shows the influence of combined contrast improvement method on overarm throwing in handball. Treatment consisted on one session of combined contras method. 10 handball palyers and 13 non-players participated in this estudy. The instrumental was a gun radar to know velocity throws, a camera to digitalize the accuracy, and an isometric dynamometer for strenght data collection. Results show a significant decrease in peak of force values in players group. Another significant decrease was obsesrved on integral to peak force for both groups. There are significant positive relations between throwing velocity parameters related to weight and size with isometric peak of force. We concluded that isometric time/strengh curve is an usefull instrument to observe changes produced in the subjet's capacity of producing strengh during training. Keywords: Precision, velocity, overarm handball throwing, isometric test, combined contrast method

  15. Reliability assessment of power pole infrastructure incorporating deterioration and network maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Paraic C.; Stewart, Mark G.; Spencer, Nathan; Li, Yue

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable investment in timber utility poles worldwide, and there is a need to examine the structural reliability and probability based management optimisation of these power distribution infrastructure elements. The work presented in this paper builds on the existing studies in this area through assessment of both treated and untreated timber power poles, with the effects of deterioration and network maintenance incorporated in the analysis. This more realistic assessment approach, with deterioration and maintenance considered, was achieved using event-based Monte Carlo simulation. The output from the probabilistic model is used to illustrate the importance of considering network maintenance in the time-dependent structural reliability assessment of timber power poles. Under wind load, treated and untreated poles designed and maintained in accordance with existing Australian standards were found to have similar failure rates. However, untreated pole networks required approximately twice as many maintenance based pole replacements to sustain the same level of reliability. The effect of four different network maintenance strategies on infrastructure performance was also investigated herein. This assessment highlighted the fact that slight alterations to network maintenance practices can lead to significant changes in performance of timber power pole networks. - Highlights: • A time-dependent structural reliability model was developed for timber power poles. • Deterioration and network maintenance were incorporated into this event based model. • Network maintenance had a significant impact on power pole wind vulnerability. • Treated and untreated poles designed to Australian standards had similar reliability. • Minor alterations to maintenance strategies had large effects on network performance

  16. Shoulder Rotator Muscle Dynamometry Characteristics: Side Asymmetry and Correlations with Ball-Throwing Speed in Adolescent Handball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontaga, Inese; Zidens, Janis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to: 1) compare shoulder external/internal rotator muscles’ peak torques and average power values and their ratios in the dominant and non-dominant arm; 2) determine correlations between shoulder rotator muscles’ peak torques, average power and ball-throwing speed in handball players. Fourteen 14 to 15-year-old male athletes with injury-free shoulders participated in the study (body height: 176 ± 7 cm, body mass 63 ± 9 kg). The tests were carried out by an isokinetic dynamometer system in the shoulder internal and external rotation movements at angular velocities of 60°/s, 90°/s and 240°/s during concentric contractions. The eccentric external– concentric internal rotator muscle contractions were performed at the velocity of 90°/s. The player threw a ball at maximal speed keeping both feet on the floor. The speed was recorded with reflected light rays. Training in handball does not cause significant side asymmetry in shoulder external/internal rotator muscle peak torques or the average power ratio. Positive correlations between isokinetic characteristics of the shoulder internal and external rotator muscles and ball-throwing speed were determined. The power produced by internal rotator muscles during concentric contractions after eccentric contractions of external rotator muscles was significantly greater in the dominant than in the non-dominant arm. Thus, it may be concluded that the shoulder eccentric external/concentric internal rotator muscle power ratio is significantly greater than this ratio in the concentric contractions of these muscles. PMID:25414738

  17. Plyometric Training Improves Sprinting, Jumping and Throwing Capacities of High Level Female Volleyball Players Better Than Skill-Based Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Gjinovci, Kemal Idrizovic, Ognjen Uljevic, Damir Sekulic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg, who participated in plyometric- (n = 21, or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20. Both programs were performed twice per week. Participants were tested on body-height, body-mass (BM, countermovement jump (CMJ, standing broad jump (SBJ, medicine ball throw, (MBT and 20-m sprint (S20M. All tests were assessed at the study baseline (pre- and at the end of the 12-week programs (post-testing. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements showed significant (p<0.05 “Group x Time” effects for all variables but body-height. Plyometric group significantly reduced body-mass (trivial effect size [ES] differences; 1% average pre- to post-measurement changes, and improved their performance in S20M (moderate ES; 8%, MBT (very large ES; 25%, CMJ (large ES; 27%, and SBJ (moderate ES; 8%. Players involved in skill-based-conditioning significantly improved CMJ (large ES; 18%, SBJ (small ES; 3%, and MBT (large ES; 9%. The changes which occurred between pre- and post-testing were more inter-correlated in plyometric-group. Although both training-modalities induced positive changes in jumping- and throwing-capacities, plyometric-training is found to be more effective than skill-based conditioning in improvement of conditioning capacities of female senior volleyball players. Future studies should evaluate differential program effects in less experienced and younger players.

  18. Plyometric Training Improves Sprinting, Jumping and Throwing Capacities of High Level Female Volleyball Players Better Than Skill-Based Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjinovci, Bahri; Idrizovic, Kemal; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir

    2017-01-01

    There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg), who participated in plyometric- (n = 21), or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20). Both programs were performed twice per week. Participants were tested on body-height, body-mass (BM), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing broad jump (SBJ), medicine ball throw, (MBT) and 20-m sprint (S20M). All tests were assessed at the study baseline (pre-) and at the end of the 12-week programs (post-testing). Two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements showed significant (pvolleyball players. Future studies should evaluate differential program effects in less experienced and younger players. Key points Plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning resulted in improvements in jumping and throwing capacities, but plyometric training additionally induced positive changes in anthropometrics and sprint-capacity The changes induced by plyometric training were larger in magnitude than those achieved by skill-based conditioning. The higher intensity together with possibility of more accurate adjustment of training load in plyometric training are probably the most important determinant of such differential influence. It is likely that the skill-based conditioning program did not result in changes of higher magnitude because of the players’ familiarity with volleyball-related skills. PMID:29238253

  19. Assist-as-needed robotic trainer based on reinforcement learning and its application to dart-throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Chihiro; Tamei, Tomoya; Shibata, Tomohiro

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel robotic trainer for motor skill learning. It is user-adaptive inspired by the assist-as-needed principle well known in the field of physical therapy. Most previous studies in the field of the robotic assistance of motor skill learning have used predetermined desired trajectories, and it has not been examined intensively whether these trajectories were optimal for each user. Furthermore, the guidance hypothesis states that humans tend to rely too much on external assistive feedback, resulting in interference with the internal feedback necessary for motor skill learning. A few studies have proposed a system that adjusts its assistive strength according to the user's performance in order to prevent the user from relying too much on the robotic assistance. There are, however, problems in these studies, in that a physical model of the user's motor system is required, which is inherently difficult to construct. In this paper, we propose a framework for a robotic trainer that is user-adaptive and that neither requires a specific desired trajectory nor a physical model of the user's motor system, and we achieve this using model-free reinforcement learning. We chose dart-throwing as an example motor-learning task as it is one of the simplest throwing tasks, and its performance can easily be and quantitatively measured. Training experiments with novices, aiming at maximizing the score with the darts and minimizing the physical robotic assistance, demonstrate the feasibility and plausibility of the proposed framework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plyometric Training Improves Sprinting, Jumping and Throwing Capacities of High Level Female Volleyball Players Better Than Skill-Based Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjinovci, Bahri; Idrizovic, Kemal; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir

    2017-12-01

    There is an evident lack of studies on the effectiveness of plyometric- and skill-based-conditioning in volleyball. This study aimed to evaluate effects of 12-week plyometric- and volleyball-skill-based training on specific conditioning abilities in female volleyball players. The sample included 41 high-level female volleyball players (21.8 ± 2.1 years of age; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm; 60.8 ± 7.0 kg), who participated in plyometric- (n = 21), or skill-based-conditioning-program (n = 20). Both programs were performed twice per week. Participants were tested on body-height, body-mass (BM), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing broad jump (SBJ), medicine ball throw, (MBT) and 20-m sprint (S20M). All tests were assessed at the study baseline (pre-) and at the end of the 12-week programs (post-testing). Two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements showed significant (pPlyometric group significantly reduced body-mass (trivial effect size [ES] differences; 1% average pre- to post-measurement changes), and improved their performance in S20M (moderate ES; 8%), MBT (very large ES; 25%), CMJ (large ES; 27%), and SBJ (moderate ES; 8%). Players involved in skill-based-conditioning significantly improved CMJ (large ES; 18%), SBJ (small ES; 3%), and MBT (large ES; 9%). The changes which occurred between pre- and post-testing were more inter-correlated in plyometric-group. Although both training-modalities induced positive changes in jumping- and throwing-capacities, plyometric-training is found to be more effective than skill-based conditioning in improvement of conditioning capacities of female senior volleyball players. Future studies should evaluate differential program effects in less experienced and younger players.

  1. Shoulder Rotator Muscle Dynamometry Characteristics: Side Asymmetry and Correlations with Ball-Throwing Speed in Adolescent Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontaga Inese

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to: 1 compare shoulder external/internal rotator muscles’ peak torques and average power values and their ratios in the dominant and non-dominant arm; 2 determine correlations between shoulder rotator muscles’ peak torques, average power and ball-throwing speed in handball players. Fourteen 14 to 15- year-old male athletes with injury-free shoulders participated in the study (body height: 176 ± 7 cm, body mass 63 ± 9 kg. The tests were carried out by an isokinetic dynamometer system in the shoulder internal and external rotation movements at angular velocities of 60°/s, 90°/s and 240°/s during concentric contractions. The eccentric external- concentric internal rotator muscle contractions were performed at the velocity of 90°/s. The player threw a ball at maximal speed keeping both feet on the floor. The speed was recorded with reflected light rays. Training in handball does not cause significant side asymmetry in shoulder external/internal rotator muscle peak torques or the average power ratio. Positive correlations between isokinetic characteristics of the shoulder internal and external rotator muscles and ball-throwing speed were determined. The power produced by internal rotator muscles during concentric contractions after eccentric contractions of external rotator muscles was significantly greater in the dominant than in the non-dominant arm. Thus, it may be concluded that the shoulder eccentric external/concentric internal rotator muscle power ratio is significantly greater than this ratio in the concentric contractions of these muscles

  2. Ulysses(*) reaches the South Pole of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    One of the many investigations being carried out is a search for the Sun's south magnetic pole. As in the case of the Earth, the magnetic pole is offset from the rotation axis, and at some time in September it should sweep directly into line with Ulysses. Just as the polar regions of the Earth were the last to be explored, so it is with the Sun. For more than thirty years spacecraft have investigated the stream of electric particles know as the solar wind. Ulysses, developed by ESA, built by European Industry and flown in collaboration with NASA, is the first to fly through the solar wind coming from the poles. As Ulysses reaches its highest solar latitude of 80.2 degrees on 13 September, European and American researchers will gather at the ESA/ESTEC, the European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, for a scientific workshop at which they will assess the results from the nine experiments carried by the spacecraft. For the week of the workshop, the ESA/ESTEC conference centre will be transformed into a busy scientific laboratory. The large meeting rooms will be divided into 24 working areas, where the Ulysses experiment teams will take up temporary residence. Bringing a variety of computing equipment with them, the scientists will be able to retrieve the latest data from the spacecraft and perform detailed analyses. The emphasis will be on informality, with exchange of scientific ideas - and data - the key ingredient, leading ultimately to a better understanding of the fascinating information being gathered by Ulysses on its unique exploratory journey. Presentations to the media at ESA/ESTEC will start at 10h00 on 16 September. Media representatives wishing to attend are kindly requested to fill out the attached form and return it - preferably by fax (+33.1.42.73.76.90) - to : ESA Public Relations Division, 8/10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS. Note to Television Editors : A video index, containing extensive background material on the

  3. Strategi Pengembangan Daerah Growth Pole melalui Pemanfaatan Potensi Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdarti Rusdarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the leading sectors that could be developed in each district in Cilacap Regency as a growth pole area. We use location quotient, shift share, and klassen typology as analysis methods. The research results show that not all of the district at Cilacap regency have a leading sector. Further, districts that have leading sectors are as follows. Wanareja only has a leading sector, i.e. agriculture. Secondly, Kawunganten has two leading sectors, agriculture and finance, rent, and company services. Thirdly, Agriculture becomes the only leading sector of Kampung Laut District. Fourthly, Mining and extraction are the leading sectors of Kesugihan District. Fifthly, Sampang District has buildings and finance sectors as the leading sectors. Sixthly, Kroya District leads in trade, hotel, and restaurant sectors. Seventhly, South Cilacap District leads in mining and extraction sectors. Eighthly, Central Cilacap District has manufacturing, electricity, gas and clean water, building and services as leading sectors. Lastly, North Cilacap District has electricity, gas and clean water, manufacturing, building and services as leading sectors. Abstrak   Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan sektor unggulan yang dapat dikembangkan di tiap kecamatan di Kabupaten Cilacap sebagai salah satu daerah growth pole. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu location quotient, shift share dan klassen typologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak semua kecamatan di kabupaten Cilacap memiliki sektor unggulan. Beberapa daerah yang memiliki sektor unggulan diantaranya adalah  Kecamatan Wanareja hanya memiliki satu sektor unggulan yaitu pertanian. Kedua adalah Kecamatan Kawunganten memiliki dua sektor unggulan yaitu sektor pertanian dan sektor keuangan, persewaan dan jasa perusahaan. Kecamatan Kampung Laut, dimana sektor pertanian pada kecamatan ini sangatlah unggul. Kecamatan kesugihan juga memiliki satu sektor unggulan yaitu

  4. Linking Atmospheric Pollution to Cryospheric Changes over the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Zhang, Q.; Ji, Z.; Li, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Cong, Z.; Chen, P.; Guo, J.; Huang, J.; Tripathee, L.; Rupakheti, D.; Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Panday, A. K.; Rupakheti, M.

    2016-12-01

    Known as "the Third Pole" (TP), the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountains hold the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the pole regions. Recent monitoring and projection indicated an accelerated glacier decline and increasing glacier runoff. The long-range transport of South Asian atmospheric pollutants, including light absorbing impurities (LAIs) such as black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD), can absorb the solar radiation in the atmosphere and reduce albedo after being deposited onto the cryosphere, thereby promoting glacier and snow melt. A coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network has been launched covering the TP with emphasis on trans-Himalayan transects since 2013. TSP were collected for 24h at an interval of 3-6 days. BC/OC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured. Results reveal a consistent decrease in almost all analyzed parameters from south to north across the Himalayas. Geochemical signatures of carbonaceous aerosols indicate dominant sources of biomass burning and vehicle exhaust, in line with results of PAHs. Integrated analysis of satellite images and air mass trajectories suggest that the trans-boundary air pollution occurred episodically and concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons via upper air circulation, through-valley wind, and local convection. Simulation results showed that carbonaceous aerosols produced positive/negative shortwave radiative forcing in the atmosphere/ground surface. Aerosols increased surface air temperatures by 0.1-0.5° over the TP and decreased temperatures in South Asia during the monsoon season. Surface snow/ice samples were collected from benchmark glaciers to estimate the impacts of LAIs on glacier melt with model assistance. BC (37%) and MD (32%) contribute to the summer melting of Laohugou Glacier in the northern TP. MD (38%) contributed more glacier melt than BC (11%) on Zhadang Glacier in the southern TP. In the southeastern TP, BC and MD contribute to 30% of the

  5. Searching for Terrain Softening near Mercury's North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobian, P. S.; Vilas, F.; Lederer, S. M.; Barlow, N. G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, following the initial discovery of radar bright craters near both poles of Mercury measured the depth-todiameter (d/D) ratios of 170 impact craters in Mariner 10 images covering four different regions on Mercury s surface. Rapid softening of crater structure, indicated by lower d/D ratios, could indicate the possibility of subsurface water ice in Mercury's terrain originating from an internal source in the planet. Their study included 3 specific radar bright craters suggested to contain ice. They concluded that no terrain softening was apparent, and a rapidly emplaced exogenic water source was the most likely source for the proposed ice in these craters. Recent radar observations of the Mercurian North pole have pinpointed many additional radar bright areas with a resolution 10x better than previous radar measurements, and which correlate with craters imaged by Mariner 10. These craters are correlated with regions that are permanently shaded from direct sunlight, and are consistent with observations of clean water ice. We have expanded the initial study by Barlow et al. to include d/D measurements of 12 craters newly identified as radar bright at latitudes poleward of +80o. The radar reflectivity resemblances to Mars south polar cap and echoes from three icy Galilean satellites suggest that these craters too may have polar ice on Mercury. The effect of subsurface H20 on impact craters is a decrease in its d/D ratio, and softening of crater rims over a period of time. The study of Barlow et al., focused on determining the d/D ratios of 170 impact craters in the Borealis (north polar), Tolstoj (equatorial), Kuiper (equatorial), and Bach (south polar) quadrangles. This work focuses on the newly discovered radar bright craters, investigating their d/D ratios as an expansion of the earlier work..We compare our results to the statistical results from Barlow et al. here. With the upcoming Messenger spacecraft mission to Mercury, this is an especially timely study

  6. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Körbl, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  7. India plans to land near moon's south pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2018-02-01

    Sometime this summer, an Indian spacecraft orbiting over the moon's far side will release a lander. The craft will ease to a soft landing just after lunar sunrise on an ancient, table-flat plain about 600 kilometers from the south pole. There, it will unleash a rover into territory never before explored at the surface. That's the ambitious vision for India's second voyage to the moon in a decade, due to launch in the coming weeks. If Chandrayaan-2 is successful, it will pave the way for even more ambitious Indian missions, such as landings on Mars and an asteroid, as well as a Venus probe. Lunar scientists have much at stake, too. Chandrayaan-2 will collect data on the moon's thin envelope of plasma, as well as isotopes such as helium-3, a potential fuel for future fusion energy reactors. And it will follow up on a stunning discovery by India's first lunar foray, which found water molecules on the moon in 2009.

  8. Fabrication of a Scaled MgB2 Racetrack Demonstrator Pole for a 10-MW Direct-Drive Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Niklas; Eliassen, Jan Christian; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2018-01-01

    Field windings made of MgB2 wires or tapes are considered for their potential to reduce volume, weight, and cost of large offshore wind turbine generators. To gain experience of how to use this relatively new material in full-scale generators, tests of different winding methodologies and techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe in detail the steps used to wind a racetrack coil with a length of 1 m and a width of 0.5 m out of 4.5 km of MgB2 superconducting tape. The width corresponds to a full-scale pole of a 10-MW generator, whereas the length of the straight section is shorter than...... the corresponding full-scale pole. The coil was built up of ten double pancake coils. Each double pancake coil was wet wound using a semiautomatic winding process, where Stycast 2850 was applied directly to the MgB2 tape without any other dedicated electrical insulation. The strengths and weaknesses of the winding...

  9. Aerosols at the poles: an AeroCom Phase II multi-model evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic and natural sources reach the polar regions through long-range transport and affect the local radiation balance. Such transport is, however, poorly constrained in present-day global climate models, and few multi-model evaluations of polar anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing exist. Here we compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD at 550 nm from simulations with 16 global aerosol models from the AeroCom Phase II model intercomparison project with available observations at both poles. We show that the annual mean multi-model median is representative of the observations in Arctic, but that the intermodel spread is large. We also document the geographical distribution and seasonal cycle of the AOD for the individual aerosol species: black carbon (BC from fossil fuel and biomass burning, sulfate, organic aerosols (OAs, dust, and sea-salt. For a subset of models that represent nitrate and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs, we document the role of these aerosols at high latitudes.The seasonal dependence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols differs with natural aerosols peaking in winter (sea-salt and spring (dust, whereas AOD from anthropogenic aerosols peaks in late spring and summer. The models produce a median annual mean AOD of 0.07 in the Arctic (defined here as north of 60° N. The models also predict a noteworthy aerosol transport to the Antarctic (south of 70° S with a resulting AOD varying between 0.01 and 0.02. The models have estimated the shortwave anthropogenic radiative forcing contributions to the direct aerosol effect (DAE associated with BC and OA from fossil fuel and biofuel (FF, sulfate, SOAs, nitrate, and biomass burning from BC and OA emissions combined. The Arctic modelled annual mean DAE is slightly negative (−0.12 W m−2, dominated by a positive BC FF DAE in spring and a negative sulfate DAE in summer. The Antarctic DAE is governed by BC FF. We perform sensitivity

  10. Self-Poling of BiFeO3 Thick Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakova, Evgeniya; Sadl, Matej; Ursic, Hana; Daniels, John; Malic, Barbara; Bencan, Andreja; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rojac, Tadej

    2016-08-03

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is difficult to pole because of the combination of its high coercive field and high electrical conductivity. This problem is particularly pronounced in thick films. The poling, however, must be performed to achieve a large macroscopic piezoelectric response. This study presents evidence of a prominent and reproducible self-poling effect in few-tens-of-micrometer-thick BiFeO3 films. Direct and converse piezoelectric measurements confirmed that the as-sintered BiFeO3 thick films yield d33 values of up to ∼20 pC/N. It was observed that a significant self-poling effect only appears in cases when the films are heated and cooled through the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition (Curie temperature TC ∼ 820 °C). These self-poled films exhibit a microstructure with randomly oriented columnar grains. The presence of a compressive strain gradient across the film thickness cooled from above the TC was experimentally confirmed and is suggested to be responsible for the self-poling effect. Finally, the macroscopic d33 response of the self-poled BiFeO3 film was characterized as a function of the driving-field frequency and amplitude.

  11. Large optical second-order nonlinearity of poled WO3-TeO2 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Narazaki, A; Hirao, K

    2000-02-15

    Second-harmonic generation, one of the second-order nonlinear optical properties of thermally and electrically poled WO>(3)-TeO>(2) glasses, has been examined. We poled glass samples with two thicknesses (0.60 and 0.86 mm) at various temperatures to explore the effects of external electric field strength and poling temperature on second-order nonlinearity. The dependence of second-harmonic intensity on the poling temperature is maximum at a specific poling temperature. A second-order nonlinear susceptibility of 2.1 pm/V was attained for the 0.60-mm-thick glass poled at 250 degrees C. This value is fairly large compared with those for poled silica and tellurite glasses reported thus far. We speculate that the large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of WO>(3)- TeO>(2) glasses gives rise to the large second-order nonlinearity by means of a X((2)) = 3X((3)) E(dc) process.

  12. Structural behaviour of concrete poles used in electric's power distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Zeynalian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a preliminary study on regional electric companies, it is shown that there is no precise structural design on the concrete poles. This leads to uneconomical and overestimated networks’ components. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the lateral performance of the concrete poles which are employed in electric’s power distribution network. This paper presents a numerical study on structural performance of 12 m concrete poles used in electric’s power distribution network using Abaqus software. A sensitivity study for mesh size is carried out and concrete damaged plasticity has been employed. The results show that relatively coarse mesh (average in damaged concrete method gives more reliable result. Some experimental tests based on the Iranian standards were performed in order to make a bench mark for numerical output. Comparison between numerical and experimental results indicates a good agreement between the results. The outcomes also suggest that while the applied lateral load is less than around 400 kg which is assumed as the nominal resistance of the pole, no transverse crack occurs. Based on both experimental and numerical results, one or two transverse cracks are reported when the applied force reaches up to 600 kg. The rate of cracks is amplified by increasing the applied force; and finally, the pole would lose its capacity when the load rises much more than 1200 kg. The study also shows that the poles are very weak when the load direction changes. Also, it can be concluded that the final strength of the pole is higher than what the standards recommend. Finally, seismic behavior factor of the poles around both main axes are evaluated. The estimated seismic resistance factor for the concrete poles indicates that the prescribed R factor for such structure is relatively low; and can be improved at least 20%.

  13. Integrated 3D printing and corona poling process of PVDF piezoelectric films for pressure sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoejin; Torres, Fernando; Wu, Yanyu; Villagran, Dino; Lin, Yirong; Tseng, Tzu-Liang(Bill

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel process to fabricate piezoelectric films from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer using integrated fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing and corona poling technique. Corona poling is one of many effective poling processes that has received attention to activate PVDF as a piezoelectric responsive material. The corona poling process occurs when a PVDF polymer is exposed to a high electric field created and controlled through an electrically charged needle and a grid electrode under heating environment. FDM 3D printing has seen extensive progress in fabricating thermoplastic materials and structures, including PVDF. However, post processing techniques such as poling is needed to align the dipoles in order to gain piezoelectric properties. To further simplify the piezoelectric sensors and structures fabrication process, this paper proposes an integrated 3D printing process with corona poling to fabricate piezoelectric PVDF sensors without post poling process. This proposed process, named ‘Integrated 3D Printing and Corona poling process’ (IPC), uses the 3D printer’s nozzle and heating bed as anode and cathode, respectively, to create poling electric fields in a controlled heating environment. The nozzle travels along the programmed path with fixed distance between nozzle tip and sample’s top surface. Simultaneously, the electric field between the nozzle and bottom heating pad promotes the alignment of dipole moment of PVDF molecular chains. The crystalline phase transformation and output current generated by printed samples under different electric fields in this process were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and through fatigue load frame. It is demonstrated that piezoelectric PVDF films with enhanced β-phase percentage can be fabricated using the IPC process. In addition, mechanical properties of printed PVDF was investigated by tensile testing. It is expected to expand the use of additive

  14. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-07-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. We briefly discuss the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Author)

  15. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  16. Double-double effect and coordination number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The original method of interpretation together with its theoretical foundations is developed, making it possible to use location and direction of the double-double (tetrad) effect within the Ln and An series to determine the coordination number (CN) complexes of the f-block elements. The method is applied for potentiometric and radiometric equilibrium studies. It has been pointed and that the decisive factor for the direction of the double-double effect in the case of the Gibbs energy variations is a difference in the CN of the f-element ion between the reaction product complex and that for the reaction substrate the ''regular'' effect for a given tetrad is accompanied by decrease in the CN while the ''reverse'' effect by increase in the CN. (author). 122 refs, 5 tabs, 8 figs

  17. Don't trust equivalency presumptions when choosing distribution poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollins, M.

    2003-08-01

    The variety of electric power distribution poles are described (wood, steel, prestressed concrete) in an effort to alert utilities that simple substitution of one type of pole for another based on presumed equivalency entails the risk that the replacement poles are unfit for the load conditions and do not comply with National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) requirements. A thorough evaluation of all design loads and the proper application of the appropriate overload and strength factors must take place prior to selecting the type of replacement to avoid misapplication of a product in situations for which it was not designed. Relevant provisions of NESC are described.

  18. Frequent POLE1 p.S297F mutation in Chinese patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Wang, Feng [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Li, Wei [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Mei-Zhen [Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); Huang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Qun [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Xu, Xiao-Yun [Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); Huang, Ou-Ping, E-mail: huangouping@gmail.com [Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); He, Ming, E-mail: jxhm56@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Nanchang University School of Pharmaceutical Science, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2014-03-15

    The catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE1) functions primarily in nuclear DNA replication and repair. Recently, POLE1 mutations were detected frequently in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas while with lower frequency in several other types of cancer, and the p.P286R and p.V411L mutations were the potential mutation hotspots in human cancers. Nevertheless, the mutation frequency of POLE1 in ovarian cancer still remains largely unknown. Here, we screened a total of 251 Chinese samples with distinct subtypes of ovarian carcinoma for the presence of POLE1 hotspot mutations by direct sequencing. A heterozygous somatic POLE1 mutation, p.S297F (c.890C>T), but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was identified in 3 out of 37 (8.1%) patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma; this mutation was evolutionarily highly conserved from Homo sapiens to Schizosaccharomyces. Of note, the POLE1 mutation coexisted with mutation in the ovarian cancer-associated PPP2R1A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, α) gene in a 46-year-old patient, who was also diagnosed with ectopic endometriosis in the benign ovary. In addition, a 45-year-old POLE1-mutated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma patient was also diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma while the remaining 52-year-old POLE1-mutated patient showed no additional distinctive clinical manifestation. In contrast to high frequency of POLE1 mutations in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, no POLE1 mutations were identified in patients with other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed for the first time that the POLE1 p.S297F mutation, but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was frequent in Chinese ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but absent in other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. These results implicated that POLE1 p.S297F mutation might be actively involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but might not be actively

  19. Investigation of experimental pole-figure errors by simulation of individual spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lychagina, T. A.; Nikolaev, D. I.

    2007-01-01

    The errors in measuring the crystallographic texture described by pole figures are studied. A set of diffraction spectra for a sample of the MA2-1 alloy (Mg + 4.5% Al + 1% Zn) are measured, simulation of individual spectra on the basis of which the pole figures were obtained is performed, and their errors are determined. The conclusion about the possibility of determining the effect of errors of the diffraction peak half-width on the pole figure errors that was drawn in our previous studies is confirmed

  20. Frequent POLE1 p.S297F mutation in Chinese patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Wang, Feng; Li, Wei; Huang, Mei-Zhen; Huang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Huang, Ou-Ping; He, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE1) functions primarily in nuclear DNA replication and repair. Recently, POLE1 mutations were detected frequently in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas while with lower frequency in several other types of cancer, and the p.P286R and p.V411L mutations were the potential mutation hotspots in human cancers. Nevertheless, the mutation frequency of POLE1 in ovarian cancer still remains largely unknown. Here, we screened a total of 251 Chinese samples with distinct subtypes of ovarian carcinoma for the presence of POLE1 hotspot mutations by direct sequencing. A heterozygous somatic POLE1 mutation, p.S297F (c.890C>T), but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was identified in 3 out of 37 (8.1%) patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma; this mutation was evolutionarily highly conserved from Homo sapiens to Schizosaccharomyces. Of note, the POLE1 mutation coexisted with mutation in the ovarian cancer-associated PPP2R1A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, α) gene in a 46-year-old patient, who was also diagnosed with ectopic endometriosis in the benign ovary. In addition, a 45-year-old POLE1-mutated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma patient was also diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma while the remaining 52-year-old POLE1-mutated patient showed no additional distinctive clinical manifestation. In contrast to high frequency of POLE1 mutations in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, no POLE1 mutations were identified in patients with other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed for the first time that the POLE1 p.S297F mutation, but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was frequent in Chinese ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but absent in other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. These results implicated that POLE1 p.S297F mutation might be actively involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but might not be actively

  1. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in non-global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is determined by solving Laplace tide equations which take into account the presence of continents in oceans, oceanic self-gravitation and loading, and mantle elasticity. Dynamical effects are found to be only mild. It is shown that the dynamical pole tide contributes about one day more to the Chandler period than a static pole tide would, and dissipates wobble energy at a very weak rate. It is noted that, depending on the wobble period predicted for an oceanless elastic earth, mantle anelasticity at low frequencies may nevertheless contribute negligibly to the Chandler period.

  2. Tuning characteristics of narrowband THz radiation generated via optical rectification in periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C; Torosyan, G; Meyn, J P; Wallenstein, R; Beigang, R; Avetisyan, Y

    2001-04-23

    The tuning properties of pulsed narrowband THz radiation generated via optical rectification in periodically poled lithium niobate have been investigated. Using a disk-shaped periodically poled crystal tuning was easily accomplished by rotating the crystal around its axis and observing the generated THz radiation in forward direction. In this way no beam deflection during tuning was observed. The total tuning range extended from 180 GHz up to 830 GHz and was limited by the poling period of 127 microm which determines the maximum THz frequency in forward direction.

  3. Diagnosis of excessive vibration signals of two-pole generator rotors in balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Po

    2000-01-01

    Cause of excessive vibration with twice the rotational speed of a two-pole generator rotor for the fossil power plants was investigated. The two-pole generator rotor, treated as a typically asymmetric rotor in vibration analysis, produces asynchronous vibration with twice the rotational speed, sub-harmonic critical speeds, and potentially unstable operating zones due to its own inertia and/or stiffness asymmetry. This paper introduces a practical balancing procedure, and presents the results of the investigation on sources of the excessive vibration based on the experimental vibration data of the asymmetric two-pole rotor in balancing

  4. Investigation of the spatial distribution of second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Honglin; Fleming, Simon

    2005-05-02

    The spatial distribution of second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled optical fibers was characterized by second-harmonic microscopy. The second-order nonlinearity was found to be confined to a thin layer close to the anode surface and progressed further into the silica as the poling time increased. Position uncertainty of the anode metal wire was observed to have an effect, as the nonlinear layers were found not always symmetrically located around the nearest points between the anode and cathode. Optical microscopy results were obtained on etched poled fiber cross-sections and compared with those from second-harmonic microscopy.

  5. Integrated fiber Michelson interferometer based on poled hollow twin-core fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihai; Bo, Fusen; Wang, Lei; Tian, Fengjun; Yuan, Libo

    2011-07-01

    We propose an integrated fiber Michelson interferometer based on a poled hollow twin-core fiber. The Michelson interferometer can be used as an electro-optic modulator by thermal poling one core of the twin-core fiber and introducing second-order nonlinearity in the fiber. The proposed fiber Michelson interferometer is experimentally demonstrated under driving voltages at the frequency range of 149 to 1000 Hz. The half-wave voltage of the poled fiber is 135 V, and the effective second-order nonlinear coefficient χ² is 1.23 pm/V.

  6. Semiclassical approach to Regge poles trajectories calculations for nonsingular potentials: Thomas-Fermi type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, S M; Avdonina, N B; Felfli, Z; Marletta, M; Msezane, A Z; Naboko, S N

    2004-01-01

    A simple semiclassical approach, based on the investigation of anti-Stokes line topology, is presented for calculating Regge poles for nonsingular (Thomas-Fermi type) potentials, namely potentials with singularities at the origin weaker than order -2. The anti-Stokes lines for Thomas-Fermi potentials have a more complicated structure than those of singular potentials and require careful application of complex analysis. The explicit solution of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition is used to obtain approximate Regge poles. We introduce and employ three hypotheses to obtain several terms of the Regge pole approximation

  7. Manufacturing aspects of the new Pole Face correcting coils for the PS main magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bodart, D

    2011-01-01

    This document reports about the Pole Face Winding (PFW) installed in the Main Magnets of the PS accelerator. Composed by sets of 4 and installed on every magnet, they are made of copper conductors and installed directly on the poles of the magnets. Their role is to compensate the saturation effect of the pole shape of the magnet yoke and compensate the eddy current in the vacuum chambers. Their manufacturing has evolved over the years, the dedicated fabrication process and requirements are explained in this document.

  8. Maximal power training induced different improvement in throwing velocity and muscle strength according to playing positions in elite male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, M; Chtourou, H; Souissi, N; Aouidet, A; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training. The training was designed to improve strength and power with an intensity of 85-95% of the 1RM. In addition to their usual routine handball training sessions, participants performed two sessions per week. During each session, they performed 3-5 sets of 3-8 repetitions with 3 min of rest in between. Then, they performed specific shots (i.e., 12 to 40). Ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001) was higher after the training period in rear line players (RL). The training programme resulted in an improvement of 1RM bench press (p<0.001), 1RM developed neck (p<0.001) and 1RM print (p<0.001) in both front line (FL) and RL. The control group showed a significant improvement only in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.01) and 1RM bench press (p<0.01) in RL. A significantly greater improvement was found in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001), 1RM bench press (p<0.001), and 1RM half-back squat exercises in players of the central axis (CA) compared to the lateral axis (LA) (p<0.01). The power training programme induced significantly greater increases in ball-throwing velocity and muscle strength in FL than RL and in CA than LA axis players.

  9. Periods, poles, and shapes of Saturn's irregular moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    We report rotational-lightcurve observations of irregular moons of Saturn based on disk-integrated observations with the Narrow-Angle Camera of the Cassini spacecraft. From 24 measured rotation periods, 20 are now known with an accuracy of ~2% or better. The numbers are as follows (in hours; an '*' marks the less reliable periods): Hati 5.42; Mundilfari 6.74; Loge 6.94*; Skoll 7.26; Kari 7.70; Suttungr 7.82*, Bergelmir 8.13; Phoebe 9.274; Siarnaq 10.188; Narvi 10.21; Tarvos 10.69; Skathi 11.30; Ymir 11.922; Hyrrokkin 12.76; Greip 12.79*; Ijiraq 13.03; Albiorix 13.32; Bestla 14.624; Bebhionn 16.40; Paaliaq 18.75; Kiviuq 21.96; Erriapus 28.15; Thrymr 35 or >45* Tarqeq 76.8.More recent data strengthen the notion that objects in orbits with an inclination supplemental angle i' > 27° have significantly slower spin rates than those at i' 27°, Siarnaq, stands opposed to at least eight objects with faster spins and i' 27° bin contains all nine known prograde moons and four retrograde objects.A total of 25 out of 38 known outer moons has been observed with Cassini, and there is no chance to observe the 13 missing objects until end-of-mission. However, all unobserved objects are part of the i' 27° are known, and none of them is a fast rotator, with no exception.Several objects were observed repeatedly to determine pole directions, sidereal periods, and convex shapes. A few lightcurves have been observed to show three maxima and three minima even at low phase angles, suggesting objects with a triangular equatorial cross-section. Some objects with 2 maxima/ 2 minima are probably quite elongated. One moon even shows lightcurves with 4 maxima/ 4 minima.

  10. Cytoarchitecture, probability maps and functions of the human frontal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, S; Eickhoff, S B; Mohlberg, H; Caspers, S; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K; Amunts, K

    2014-06-01

    The frontal pole has more expanded than any other part in the human brain as compared to our ancestors. It plays an important role for specifically human behavior and cognitive abilities, e.g. action selection (Kovach et al., 2012). Evidence about divergent functions of its medial and lateral part has been provided, both in the healthy brain and in psychiatric disorders. The anatomical correlates of such functional segregation, however, are still unknown due to a lack of stereotaxic, microstructural maps obtained in a representative sample of brains. Here we show that the human frontopolar cortex consists of two cytoarchitectonically and functionally distinct areas: lateral frontopolar area 1 (Fp1) and medial frontopolar area 2 (Fp2). Based on observer-independent mapping in serial, cell-body stained sections of 10 brains, three-dimensional, probabilistic maps of areas Fp1 and Fp2 were created. They show, for each position of the reference space, the probability with which each area was found in a particular voxel. Applying these maps as seed regions for a meta-analysis revealed that Fp1 and Fp2 differentially contribute to functional networks: Fp1 was involved in cognition, working memory and perception, whereas Fp2 was part of brain networks underlying affective processing and social cognition. The present study thus disclosed cortical correlates of a functional segregation of the human frontopolar cortex. The probabilistic maps provide a sound anatomical basis for interpreting neuroimaging data in the living human brain, and open new perspectives for analyzing structure-function relationships in the prefrontal cortex. The new data will also serve as a starting point for further comparative studies between human and non-human primate brains. This allows finding similarities and differences in the organizational principles of the frontal lobe during evolution as neurobiological basis for our behavior and cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Hydrological network and classification of lakes on the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Weicai; Yao, Tandong; Lu, Ning; Lu, Anxin

    2018-05-01

    The intensity and form of changes in closed lakes, upstream lakes and outflow lakes on the Third Pole (TP) differ based on their drainage mode. Researchers' insufficient understanding of the hydrological networks associated with lakes hampers studies of the relationship between lakes and climate. In this study, we establish a comprehensive hydrological network for each lake (>1 km2) on the TP using 106 Landsat images, 236 Chinese topographic maps, and SRTM DEM. Three-hundred-ninety-seven closed lakes, 488 upstream lakes and 317 outflow lakes totaling 3,5498.49 km2, 7,378.82 km2, and 3,382.29 km2, respectively, were identified on the TP using 2010 data. Two-hundred-thirty-four closed lakes were found to not be linked to upstream lakes. The remaining 163 closed lakes were connected to and fed by the 488 upstream lakes. The object-oriented analyses within this study indicated that more rapid changes occurred in the surface extent of closed lakes than in upstream lakes or outflow lakes on the TP from 1970 s to 2010. Furthermore, the water volume of the examined closed lakes was almost nine times greater than that of the upstream lakes from 2003 to 2009. All the examined closed lakes exhibited an obvious water volume change compared to the corresponding upstream lakes in the same basin. Furthermore, two case studies illustrate that the annual and seasonal dynamics associated with the changes in closed lakes may reflect climate change patterns, while the upstream lake dynamics may be more controlled by the lakeshore terrain and drainage characteristics. The lake inventory and hydrological network catalogued in this study provide a basis for developing a better understanding of lake response to climate change on the TP.

  12. ULYSSES comes full circle, before revisiting the Sun's poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    From its unique perspective, Ulysses has provided scientists with the very first all-round map of the heliosphere, the huge bubble in space filled by the Sun's wind. The Earth swims deep inside the heliosphere, and gusts and shocks in the solar wind can harm satellites, power supplies and ommunications. They may also affect our planet's weather. A better grasp of the solar weather in the heliosphere is therefore one of the major aims of ESA's science programme. In a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA, Ulysses was launched towards Jupiter in October 1990 by the US space shuttle Discovery. Arriving in February 1992, Ulysses stole energy from the giant planet in a slingshot manoeuvre and was propelled back towards the Sun in an elongated orbit almost at right angles to the ecliptic plane, where the Earth and other planets circle the Sun. "This month Ulysses returns to the point in space where its out-of-ecliptic journey began, but Jupiter isn't there," explains Richard Marsden, ESA's project scientist for Ulysses. "Following its own inexorable path around the Sun, Jupiter is far away on the opposite side of the Solar System. So Ulysses' course will not be changed a second time. The spacecraft is now in effect a man-made comet, forever bound into a 6-year polar orbit around the Sun." Ulysses now starts its second orbit. It will travel over the poles of the Sun in 2000-2001 just as the count of dark sunspots is expected to reach a maximum. With its operational life extended for the Ulysses Solar Maximum Mission, the spacecraft will find the heliosphere much stormier than during its first orbit. Discoveries so far Like its mythical namesake, Ulysses has already had an eventful voyage of discovery. Its unique trajectory has provided the scientific teams with a new perspective, from far out in space and especially in the previously unknown regions of the heliosphere over the Sun's poles. Passing within 9.8 degrees of the polar axis, the highly

  13. Influence of the absorptive part of the complex potential on the S-Matrix poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, C.; Grama, N.; Zamfirescu, I

    2001-01-01

    Although the polology of the S-matrix has been extensively studied, it occurred that some aspects remained disputable in the case of complex central potential V(r)=gV(r), g in C . These aspects are related to the origin of the observed narrow Σ-hypernuclear states that have been interpreted by Gal, Toker and Alexander as states which correspond to S-matrix poles situated in the second k-plane quadrant. From the analytical properties of the S-matrix for a real potential it results that there is no pole in the first and second k-plane quadrants, except for the imaginary k-axis. By switching on the absorption the S-matrix poles for real potential can evolve into the second quadrant of the k-plane. A critical study of the Σ-hypernuclear states needs the analysis of the motion of the S-matrix poles in the k-plane for variable complex coupling strength g. Recently contradictory opinions relative to the S-matrix poles trajectories in the complex k-plane for a complex square potential occurred. According to some authors the poles in the second quadrant can occur either from bound state poles moving anticlockwise, or from virtual state poles and capture resonant state poles moving clockwise as the absorption is switched on. Dabrowski argues that the statement made by Gal et al, Bonetti et al and Oset et al concerning the movement of the virtual poles with increasing absorptive potential is in general not correct. Dabrowski relates the direction in which the pole moves when the potential absorption increases to the direction in which the pole moves with increasing the real part of the potential, without clarifying this last question. For example, two poles moving in opposite directions along the imaginary k-axis are associated by Dabrowski to the same state. This is a wrong result, because one should associate a single pole to each quantum state. The aim of our work is to study the influence of the absorptive part of the potential on the S-matrix poles for the non

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (Mason+ 2001-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B. D.; Wycoff, G. L.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Douglass, G. G.; Worley, C. E.

    2018-05-01

    The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (WDS) is the successor to the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0 (IDS; Jeffers and van den Bos, Publ. Lick Obs. 21). Three earlier double star catalogs in XXth century, those by Burnham (BDS, 1906, "General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), Innes (SDS, 1927, "Southern Double Star Catalogue -19 to -90 degrees", Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa), and Aitken (ADS, 1932 "New General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), each covered only a portion of the sky. Both the IDS and the WDS cover the entire sky, and the WDS is intended to contain all known visual double stars for which at least one differential measure has been published. The WDS is continually updated as published data become available. Prior to this, three major updates have been published (Worley and Douglass 1984, "Washington Visual Double Star Catalog, 1984.0", U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington; Worley and Douglass 1997A&AS..125..523W, Cat. I/237; Mason, Wycoff, Hartkopf, Douglass and Worley 2001AJ....122.3466M; and Mason et al. 2006.5). The Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) has seen numerous changes since the last major release of the catalog. The application of many techniques and considerable industry over the past few years has yielded significant gains in both the number of systems and the number of measures. Is is maintained by the US Naval Observatory, and represents the world's principal database of astrometric double and multiple star information. The WDS contains positions (J2000), discoverer designations, epochs, position angles, separations, magnitudes, spectral types, proper motions, and, when available, Durchmusterung numbers and notes for the components of the systems. (3 data files).

  15. Repair of impact damaged utility poles with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Vehicle collisions with steel or aluminum utility poles are common occurrences that yield substantial but often repairable : damage. This project investigates the use of a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite system for in situ repair that : mini...

  16. Fault Current Distribution and Pole Earth Potential Rise (EPR) Under Substation Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnassereddine, M.; Rizk, J.; Hellany, A.; Nagrial, M.

    2013-09-01

    New high-voltage (HV) substations are fed by transmission lines. The position of these lines necessitates earthing design to ensure safety compliance of the system. Conductive structures such as steel or concrete poles are widely used in HV transmission mains. The earth potential rise (EPR) generated by a fault at the substation could result in an unsafe condition. This article discusses EPR based on substation fault. The pole EPR assessment under substation fault is assessed with and without mutual impedance consideration. Split factor determination with and without the mutual impedance of the line is also discussed. Furthermore, a simplified formula to compute the pole grid current under substation fault is included. Also, it includes the introduction of the n factor which determines the number of poles that required earthing assessments under substation fault. A case study is shown.

  17. Performance analysis of variable speed multiphase induction motor with pole phase modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huijuan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pole phase modulation (PPM technique is an effective method to extend speed range and torque capabilities for an integrated starter and hybrid electric vehicles applications. In this paper, the five pole-phase combination types of a multiphase induction motor (IM with 36 stator slots and 36 stator conductors are presented and compared quantitatively by using the time-stepping finite element method (TS-FEM. The 36 stator conductors of the proposed multiphase IM are fed by a 36 leg inverter and the current phase angle and amplitude of each stator conductor can be controlled independently. This paper focuses on the winding connection, the PPM technique and the performance comparative analysis of each pole-phase combination types of the proposed multiphase IM. The flux distribution, air-gap flux density, output torque, core losses and efficiency of five pole-phase combination types have been investigated.

  18. The effects of poling on physiological, kinematic and kinetic responses in roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasaas, Erik; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of poling on physiological, kinematic and kinetic responses in the G4 skating technique where the poling movement is synchronized with the leg push-off on one side (strong side) followed by a forward arm swing during the leg push-off on the other side (weak side). G4 skating with (G4-P) and without (G4-NP) poling was compared in 17 elite male cross-country skiers during 4-min submaximal tests on a 2% inclined roller ski treadmill at 10, 15 and 20 km h(-1). G4-P demonstrated less ventilatory stress and higher gross efficiency compared to G4-NP at all velocities, and the blood lactate concentration was lower at the high velocity (all P skating technique. Thus, poling provides possibilities to increase total propulsion, to reduce ski forces and to enhance skiing efficiency.

  19. REGION NORTH OF TEACHER EDUCATION POLICY AND EVALUATION OF POLES OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso José da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to present, in general, the north region and policies for teacher training implemented in the last 5 years, locating in this context the importance of the Brazil Open University system and its supporting poles face as methodology research linked to the project "Institutionalization of Distance Education in Brazil." Greater emphasis will be given to data from the states of Pará and Acre, given that two authors of this text act as coordinators of the poles supporting attendance System Open University of Brazil in these states. We design the text, based on testimony of poles coordinators who participated in participatory research, conducted by the Research Group "Teacher education and information and communication technologies", LANTE / UFF. We aim also to identify the structure and functioning of the Poles face Supporting UAB in the North as well as the assessment tool applied in this region.

  20. Low equation, pion-nucleon scattering, and Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, K.; Nogami, Y.

    1986-01-01

    We examine the p-wave πN scattering at medium energies by means of the Low equation with a view to determining the form factor of the πN interaction. Solutions of the equation with and without a Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson (CDD) pole are used. The solution with no CDD pole corresponds to the old Chew-Low model, whereas the one with a CDD pole corresponds to the quark version of the Chew-Low model. The πN interaction form factor is determined so that the Δ resonance is well reproduced. We find that the solution with a CDD pole leads to a softer form factor but is not as soft as those expected from the nucleon size in the quark model. Using the solutions and form factors thus determined, we also examine the pionic contributions to the nucleon magnetic moment and the nucleon mass

  1. The cos2φ azimuthal asymmetry of unpolarized dilepton production at the Z pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the Boer-Mulders effect contribution to the cos2φ azimuthal asymmetry of unpolarized dilepton production near the Z-pole. Based on the tree-level expression in the transverse momentum dependent factorization framework, we show that the corresponding asymmetry near the Z-pole is negative, which is opposite to the asymmetry in the low Q 2 region, dominated by the production via a virtual photon. We calculate the asymmetry generated by the Boer-Mulders effect near the Z-pole at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with √(s)=500 GeV. We find that the magnitude of the asymmetry is several percent, and therefore it is measurable. The experimental confirmation of this sign change of the asymmetry from the low Q 2 region to the Z-pole provides direct evidence of the chiral-odd structure of quarks inside an unpolarized nucleon.

  2. RHEED transmission mode and pole figures thin film and nanostructure texture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    2014-01-01

    This unique book covers the fundamental principle of electron diffraction, basic instrumentation of RHEED, definitions of textures in thin films and nanostructures, mechanisms and control of texture formation, and examples of RHEED transmission mode measurements of texture and texture evolution of thin films and nanostructures. Also presented is a new application of RHEED in the transmission mode called RHEED pole figure technique that can be used to monitor the texture evolution in thin film growth and nanostructures and is not limited to single crystal epitaxial film growth. Details of the construction of RHEED pole figures and the interpretation of observed pole figures are presented.  Materials covered include metals, semiconductors, and thin insulators. This book also: Presents a new application of RHEED in the transmission mode Introduces a variety of textures from metals, semiconductors, compound semiconductors, and their characteristics in RHEED pole figures Provides examples of RHEED measurements o...

  3. Pahane Berlusconi : pole ma teile mingi kääbus / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis toimuvate parlamendivalimiste võidus täiesti kindel olev Itaalia ekspeaminister Silvio Berlusconi pole rahul karikatuuridega, mis rõhutavad ta lühikest kasvu. Vt. samas: Soovitus: teenige rohkem!

  4. Subtotal splenectomy preserving the inferior splenic pole for the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Subtotal splenectomy is efficacious to preserve the splenic functions and to prevent adverse effects of a large spleen on the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma confined to superior pole and producing significant abdominal symptoms and hematological effects.

  5. The Impact of Obajana Cement Company as a Growth Pole in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remember me, or Register ... Results of analysis are discussed and presented in tables, graphs and pictures. The study found ... Key words: Economic Development, Growth pole, Multiplier effect, Regional development, Spatial development ...

  6. Sensing technology for damage assessment of sign supports and cantilever poles : final report, August 31, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    This report presents the results of research activities conducted under Contract No. 519691-PIT 008 on Sensing Technology for : Damage Assessment of Sign Supports and Cantilever Poles between the University of Pittsburgh and the Pennsylvania De...

  7. Separate Vertical Wirings for the Extra-articular Fractures of the Distal Pole of the Patella

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Mo; Yang, Jun Young; Kim, Kyung Cheon; Kang, Chan; Joo, Yong Bum; Lee, Woo Yong; Hwang, Jung Mo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of separate vertical wirings for extra-articular fracture of distal pole of patella. Materials and Methods We have analyzed the clinical results of 18 cases that underwent separate vertical wirings for extra-articular fracture of distal pole of the patella from March 2005 to March 2010, by using the range of motion and Bostman score. Occurrence of complication was also evaluated. Additionally, by taking simple radiographs, the correlation between the postope...

  8. CABLE MECHANISMS USED FOR ACTUATING CAR ELEVATORS WITH 2 AND 4 POLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MESARICI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the kinematic scheme and the operating mode of the cable mechanism used for car elevators with 2 and 4 poles. In order to increase the efficiency of the 4- pole elevator, we suggest using a new hoists type cable mechanism, which can multiply the piston travel inside the actuating cylinder twice at the platform level, when lifting and lowering.

  9. Direct kinetochore?spindle pole connections are not required for chromosome segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Magidson, Valentin; Steinman, Jonathan B.; He, Jie; Le Berre, Ma?l; Tikhonenko, Irina; Ault, Jeffrey G.; McEwen, Bruce F.; Chen, James K.; Sui, Haixin; Piel, Matthieu; Kapoor, Tarun M.; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Segregation of genetic material occurs when chromosomes move to opposite spindle poles during mitosis. This movement depends on K-fibers, specialized microtubule (MT) bundles attached to the chromosomes? kinetochores. A long-standing assumption is that continuous K-fibers connect every kinetochore to a spindle pole and the force for chromosome movement is produced at the kinetochore and coupled with MT depolymerization. However, we found that chromosomes still maintained their position at the...

  10. PolyPole-1: An accurate numerical algorithm for intra-granular fission gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzocri, D.; Rabiti, C.; Luzzi, L.; Barani, T.; Van Uffelen, P.; Pastore, G.

    2016-01-01

    The transport of fission gas from within the fuel grains to the grain boundaries (intra-granular fission gas release) is a fundamental controlling mechanism of fission gas release and gaseous swelling in nuclear fuel. Hence, accurate numerical solution of the corresponding mathematical problem needs to be included in fission gas behaviour models used in fuel performance codes. Under the assumption of equilibrium between trapping and resolution, the process can be described mathematically by a single diffusion equation for the gas atom concentration in a grain. In this paper, we propose a new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the fission gas diffusion equation in time-varying conditions. The PolyPole-1 algorithm is based on the analytic modal solution of the diffusion equation for constant conditions, combined with polynomial corrective terms that embody the information on the deviation from constant conditions. The new algorithm is verified by comparing the results to a finite difference solution over a large number of randomly generated operation histories. Furthermore, comparison to state-of-the-art algorithms used in fuel performance codes demonstrates that the accuracy of PolyPole-1 is superior to other algorithms, with similar computational effort. Finally, the concept of PolyPole-1 may be extended to the solution of the general problem of intra-granular fission gas diffusion during non-equilibrium trapping and resolution, which will be the subject of future work. - Highlights: • A new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) for intra-granular fission gas release in time-varying conditions is developed. • The concept combines the modal analytic solution for constant conditions and a polynomial correction. • PolyPole-1 is extensively verified and compared to other state-of-the-art algorithms. • PolyPole-1 exhibits a superior accuracy and a similar computational time relative to other algorithms. • The PolyPole-1 algorithm can be

  11. Relation between bottom-quark MS Yukawa coupling and pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Piclum, J.H.; Steinhauser, M.

    2004-04-01

    We calculate the O (αα s ) corrections to the relationships between the MS Yukawa couplings and the pole masses of the first five quark flavours in the standard model. We also present the corresponding relationships between the MS and pole masses, which emerge as by-products of our main analysis. The occurring self-energies are evaluated using the method of asymptotic expansion. (orig.)

  12. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A nove...

  13. POLE proofreading mutations elicit an anti-tumor immune response in endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gool, Inge C; Eggink, Florine A; Freeman-Mills, Luke; Stelloo, Ellen; Marchi, Emanuele; de Bruyn, Marco; Palles, Claire; Nout, Remi A; de Kroon, Cor D; Osse, Elisabeth M; Klenerman, Paul; Creutzberg, Carien L; Tomlinson, Ian PM; Smit, Vincent THBM; Nijman, Hans W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have shown that 7-12% of endometrial cancers (ECs) are ultramutated due to somatic mutation in the proofreading exonuclease domain of the DNA replicase POLE. Interestingly, these tumors have an excellent prognosis. In view of the emerging data linking mutation burden, immune response and clinical outcome in cancer, we investigated whether POLE-mutant ECs showed evidence of increased immunogenicity. Experimental design We examined immune infiltration and activation according to tumor POLE proofreading mutation in a molecularly defined EC cohort including 47 POLE-mutant tumors. We sought to confirm our results by analysis of RNAseq data from the TCGA EC series and used the same series to examine whether differences in immune infiltration could be explained by an enrichment of immunogenic neoepitopes in POLE-mutant ECs. Results Compared to other ECs, POLE-mutants displayed an enhanced cytotoxic T cell response, evidenced by increased numbers of CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and CD8A expression, enrichment for a tumor-infiltrating T cell gene signature, and strong upregulation of the T cell cytotoxic differentiation and effector markers T-bet, Eomes, IFNG, PRF and granzyme B. This was accompanied by upregulation of T cell exhaustion markers, consistent with chronic antigen exposure. In-silico analysis confirmed that POLE-mutant cancers are predicted to display more antigenic neo-epitopes than other ECs, providing a potential explanation for our findings. Conclusions Ultramutated POLE proofreading-mutant ECs are characterized by a robust intratumoral T cell response, which correlates with, and may be caused by an enrichment of antigenic neo-peptides. Our study provides a plausible mechanism for the excellent prognosis of these cancers. PMID:25878334

  14. PolyPole-1: An accurate numerical algorithm for intra-granular fission gas release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzocri, D. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, Nuclear Engineering Division, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Rabiti, C. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Luzzi, L.; Barani, T. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, Nuclear Engineering Division, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Van Uffelen, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Pastore, G., E-mail: giovanni.pastore@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The transport of fission gas from within the fuel grains to the grain boundaries (intra-granular fission gas release) is a fundamental controlling mechanism of fission gas release and gaseous swelling in nuclear fuel. Hence, accurate numerical solution of the corresponding mathematical problem needs to be included in fission gas behaviour models used in fuel performance codes. Under the assumption of equilibrium between trapping and resolution, the process can be described mathematically by a single diffusion equation for the gas atom concentration in a grain. In this paper, we propose a new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) to efficiently solve the fission gas diffusion equation in time-varying conditions. The PolyPole-1 algorithm is based on the analytic modal solution of the diffusion equation for constant conditions, combined with polynomial corrective terms that embody the information on the deviation from constant conditions. The new algorithm is verified by comparing the results to a finite difference solution over a large number of randomly generated operation histories. Furthermore, comparison to state-of-the-art algorithms used in fuel performance codes demonstrates that the accuracy of PolyPole-1 is superior to other algorithms, with similar computational effort. Finally, the concept of PolyPole-1 may be extended to the solution of the general problem of intra-granular fission gas diffusion during non-equilibrium trapping and resolution, which will be the subject of future work. - Highlights: • A new numerical algorithm (PolyPole-1) for intra-granular fission gas release in time-varying conditions is developed. • The concept combines the modal analytic solution for constant conditions and a polynomial correction. • PolyPole-1 is extensively verified and compared to other state-of-the-art algorithms. • PolyPole-1 exhibits a superior accuracy and a similar computational time relative to other algorithms. • The PolyPole-1 algorithm can be

  15. On nonlinear differential equation with exact solutions having various pole orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a nonlinear ordinary differential equation having solutions with various movable pole order on the complex plane. We show that the pole order of exact solution is determined by values of parameters of the equation. Exact solutions in the form of the solitary waves for the second order nonlinear differential equation are found taking into account the method of the logistic function. Exact solutions of differential equations are discussed and analyzed

  16. Generation of tunable narrow-band surface-emitted terahertz radiation in periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C; Torosyan, G; Avetisyan, Y; Beigang, R

    2001-04-15

    Generation of tunable narrow-band terahertz (THz) radiation perpendicular to the surface of periodically poled lithium niobate by optical rectification of femtosecond pulses is reported. The generated THz radiation can be tuned by use of different poling periods and different observation angles, limited only by the available bandwidth of the pump pulse. Typical bandwidths were 50-100 GHz, depending on the collection angle and the number of periods involved.

  17. Design, modeling and testing of the Askaryan Radio Array South Pole autonomous renewable power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, D.Z., E-mail: zedlam@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, 1082 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskaya Highway, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Kennedy, D.M., E-mail: dmkennedy@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, 1082 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Ratzlaff, K., E-mail: ratzlaff@ku.edu [Instrumentation Design Laboratory, University of Kansas, 6042 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Young, R., E-mail: rwyoung@ku.edu [Instrumentation Design Laboratory, University of Kansas, 6042 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We describe the design, construction and operation of the Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) Autonomous Renewable Power Stations, initially installed at the South Pole in December, 2010 with the goal of providing an independently operating 100 W power source capable of year-round operation in extreme environments. In addition to particle astrophysics applications at the South Pole, such a station can easily be, and has since been, extended to operation elsewhere, as described herein.

  18. Preliminary Analyses of Transmedia Adaptations of Pictorial Narratives and Aesthetic Pole Interpretations: Reflections on Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chai Lai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmedia narratives are a key topic of communication research. Transmedia adaptations occur when a narrator transposes an original work by using various media platforms. Considering pictorial turn, this study employed the intermediality of an animated work that was adapted from an award-winning picture book as an example to propose an analysis for theory building. After examining the literature on transmedia narratives, intermediality, and aesthetic communication, this study proposed analyses for the dimensions of transmedia adaptations of pictorial narratives and aesthetic pole interpretations. Focusing on the three layers of the artistic pole, aesthetic pole, and interactions and effects, this study cited the cases of award-winning picture books and adapted animated works as the basis for reflecting on aesthetic communication. The artistic pole of transmedia adaptation was used as an example of how a narrator employs intermediality by citing the pictures, plot, or art forms from an original work to reinvent structures and then adapts them according to intermediality. If the aesthetic pole views the adapted animated work after reading the picture book or forms an expectation of the adaptation because of intermediality, then when the audience watches the adapted animated work, their imagination could be stimulated by the intermediality (i.e., picture book graphics and scene depictions. For transmedia narrative interaction, the aesthetic pole must “fill blanks” or “negate” to continue to view the adaptation. For filling blanks, because of intermediality, the aesthetic pole must construct an “intracompositional intermediality” to connect with the visual and audio links of the same work or construct “extracompositional intermedialtiy” to associate the original work with the transmedia adaptation. For negation, when viewing the adaptation (i.e., presentation of picture book graphics, added music, or theme song, the aesthetic pole

  19. A Study of Effect of Walking Pole on the Walking Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 麻樹; 下平, 佳江; 佐藤, 健

    2010-01-01

    So-called metabolic syndrome is one of the medical problems in our country, because many of people have difficulty at lack of exercises. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare suggest healthy life by exercise and moderate foods. Walking is one of the effective exercises to keep health in everyday life. Walking with poles, the exercise method of cross country skiing, is noticed as the effective exercise nowadays. Some studies show the effect of the pole walking exercise from view points of c...

  20. Temperature development and sterilization of red pine poles during CCA treatment, elevated temperature fixation and drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.; Albright, M.; Srinivasan, U.; Ung, A. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Wood Science and Technology Centre

    2002-07-01

    The application of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment and fixation and drying under the conditions of the study to large red pine poles left for an air seasoning period of 10 months in Quebec, Canada progressively reduced the number of micro-organisms present. A large number of microfungi isolations were effected before the treatment from the sapwood and heartwood of all poles and wood decay fungi on 8 selected poles from the 20 test poles. They originated from the sapwood zone. A reduction of approximately 50 per cent in the number of microfungi isolated from the sapwood was noted after the CCA treatment. In the case of 9 of 30 poles, basidiomycetes were isolated after treatment primarily from the untreated heartwood. There were a few instances where basidiomycetes were isolated from unpenetrated sapwood (wet pockets). Temperatures of 55 to 60 degrees Celsius were achieved under moderate temperature fixation schedules (20 hours) for approximately 5 hours at full sapwood depth. Only by the end of the schedule was a temperature of 55 degrees celsius achieved at the centre of the poles. Most of the microfungi were eliminated by this temperature regime. Trichoderma was eliminated, and only one isolation of basidiomycetes was left from the heartwood of one pole. Temperatures of 55 to 60 degrees Celsius were achieved in the wood core for 9 to 10 days during kiln drying. No basidiomycete isolations remained after this exposure. In several of the poles, there was evidence of Paecilomyces variotii, a thermo-tolerant species and a number of species of Penicillium moulds. It was concluded that there was a negligible probability of decay fungi surviving the sequence of processes as described, given the effectiveness of the fixation exposure and the higher wood temperatures sustained for longer periods. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.