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Sample records for pole body activation

  1. Unitary pole approximations and expansions in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casel, A.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-01-01

    The unitary pole approximations or expansions of the two-body subsystem operators are well known, and particularly efficient and practical, methods to reduce the three-body problem to an effective two-body theory. In the present investigation we develop generalizations of these approximation techniques to the subsystem amplitudes of problems with higher particle numbers. They are based on the expansion of effective potentials which, in contrast to the genuine two-body interactions, are now energy dependent. Despite this feature our generalizations require only energy independent form factors, thus preserving one of the essential advantages of the genuine two-body approach. The application of these techniques to the four-body case is discussed in detail

  2. The practice of pole dance as a leisure activity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andorra Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the how pole dance is practiced as a form of leisure activity in Denmark. The methodical approach is qualitative and inspired by ethnography. I have conducted a field study where I have observed and participated in the pole dance culture in Copenhagen from May ...... addresses the difference between a focus on dance and a focus on tricks in pole dancing as well as it examines the different opinions pole studio owners have concerning ‘sexiness’ in pole dance and how this affects the way pole dance is practiced....

  3. Person perception involves functional integration between the extrastriate body area and temporal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Inez M; Ramsey, Richard

    2017-02-01

    The majority of human neuroscience research has focussed on understanding functional organisation within segregated patches of cortex. The ventral visual stream has been associated with the detection of physical features such as faces and body parts, whereas the theory-of-mind network has been associated with making inferences about mental states and underlying character, such as whether someone is friendly, selfish, or generous. To date, however, it is largely unknown how such distinct processing components integrate neural signals. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and connectivity analyses, we investigated the contribution of functional integration to social perception. During scanning, participants observed bodies that had previously been associated with trait-based or neutral information. Additionally, we independently localised the body perception and theory-of-mind networks. We demonstrate that when observing someone who cues the recall of stored social knowledge compared to non-social knowledge, a node in the ventral visual stream (extrastriate body area) shows greater coupling with part of the theory-of-mind network (temporal pole). These results show that functional connections provide an interface between perceptual and inferential processing components, thus providing neurobiological evidence that supports the view that understanding the visual environment involves interplay between conceptual knowledge and perceptual processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Duplication and Nuclear Envelope Insertion of the Yeast Microtubule Organizing Centre, the Spindle Pole Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rüthnick

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main microtubule organizing centre in the unicellular model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pompe is the spindle pole body (SPB. The SPB is a multilayer structure, which duplicates exactly once per cell cycle. Unlike higher eukaryotic cells, both yeast model organisms undergo mitosis without breakdown of the nuclear envelope (NE, a so-called closed mitosis. Therefore, in order to simultaneously nucleate nuclear and cytoplasmic MTs, it is vital to embed the SPB into the NE at least during mitosis, similarly to the nuclear pore complex (NPC. This review aims to embrace the current knowledge of the SPB duplication cycle with special emphasis on the critical step of the insertion of the new SPB into the NE.

  5. Gender differences in power production, energetic capacity and efficiency of elite cross‑country skiers during whole‑body, upper‑body, and arm poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Bucher, Elias; Ettema, Gertjan; Faude, Oliver; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2016-02-01

    To characterize gender differences in power output, energetic capacity and exercise efficiency during whole-body (WP), upper-body (UP), and arm poling (AP). Ten male and ten female elite cross-country skiers, matched for international performance level, completed three incremental submaximal tests and a 3-min self-paced performance test on a Concept2 SkiErg. Power output, cardiorespiratory and kinematic variables were monitored. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The men demonstrated 87, 97 and 103% higher power output, and 51, 65 and 71% higher VO2peak (L min(−1)) than the women during WP, UP and AP, respectively, while utilizing ~10% more of their running VO2max in all modes (all P lean mass in the whole body, upper body and arms (all P production and peak aerobic capacity increased sequentially from WP to UP to AP, coinciding with a greater portion of the muscle mass in the arms of the men. Although the men and women employed each poling technique differently, the estimated efficiency of double poling was independent of gender.

  6. Force interaction and 3D pole movement in double poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, T; Holmberg, H-C

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze double poling using combined kinetic and 3D kinematic analysis at high skiing speeds as regards pole force components, pole angles and pole behavior during the poling and swing phase. The hypothesis was that a horizontal pole force is more predictive for maximal skiing speed (V(max)) than the resultant pole force. Sixteen elite skiers performed a double-poling V(max) test while treadmill roller skiing. Pole forces and 3D kinematics of pole movement at a speed of 30 km/h were analyzed and related to V(max). The duration of the "preparation phase" showed the strongest relationship with V(max) (r=0.87, Pmax) compared with the resultant pole force. Impact force was not related to V(max). At high skiing speeds, skiers should aim to combine high pole forces with appropriate timing of pole forces and appropriate pole and body positions during the swing and poling phase. The emphasis in training should be on the development of specific strength capacities for pole force production and the utilization of these capacities in double-poling training sessions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Walking with and without Nordic Pole on Upper Extremity and Lower Extremity Muscle Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Je-Myung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Ha-Roo; Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Nordic pole walking on the electromyographic activities of upper extremity and lower extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as follows: without Nordic pole walking group (n=13) and with Nordic pole walking group (n=13). The EMG data were collected by measurement while the subjects walking on a treadmill for 30 minutes by measuring from one heel strike to the next. [Results] Both the average values and maximum values of the muscle activity of the upper extremity increased in both the group that used Nordic poles and the group that did not use Nordic poles, and the values showed statistically significant differences. There was an increase in the average value for muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi, but the difference was not statistically significant, although there was a statistically significant increase in its maximum value. The average and maximum values for muscle activity of the lower extremity did not show large differences in either group, and the values did not show any statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] The use of Nordic poles by increased muscle activity of the upper extremity compared with regular walking but did not affect the lower extremity.

  8. Influence of Hypoxic Interval Training and Hyperoxic Recovery on Muscle Activation and Oxygenation in Connection with Double-Poling Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Zinner

    Full Text Available Here, we evaluated the influence of breathing oxygen at different partial pressures during recovery from exercise on performance at sea-level and a simulated altitude of 1800 m, as reflected in activation of different upper body muscles, and oxygenation of the m. triceps brachii. Ten well-trained, male endurance athletes (25.3±4.1 yrs; 179.2±4.5 cm; 74.2±3.4 kg performed four test trials, each involving three 3-min sessions on a double-poling ergometer with 3-min intervals of recovery. One trial was conducted entirely under normoxic (No and another under hypoxic conditions (Ho; FiO2 = 0.165. In the third and fourth trials, the exercise was performed in normoxia and hypoxia, respectively, with hyperoxic recovery (HOX; FiO2 = 1.00 in both cases. Arterial hemoglobin saturation was higher under the two HOX conditions than without HOX (p<0.05. Integrated muscle electrical activity was not influenced by the oxygen content (best d = 0.51. Furthermore, the only difference in tissue saturation index measured via near-infrared spectroscopy observed was between the recovery periods during the NoNo and HoHOX interventions (P<0.05, d = 0.93. In the case of HoHo the athletes' Pmean declined from the first to the third interval (P < 0.05, whereas Pmean was unaltered under the HoHOX, NoHOX and NoNo conditions. We conclude that the less pronounced decline in Pmean during 3 x 3-min double-poling sprints in normoxia and hypoxia with hyperoxic recovery is not related to changes in muscle activity or oxygenation. Moreover, we conclude that hyperoxia (FiO2 = 1.00 used in conjunction with hypoxic or normoxic work intervals may serve as an effective aid when inhaled during the subsequent recovery intervals.

  9. Sme4 coiled-coil protein mediates synaptonemal complex assembly, recombinosome relocalization, and spindle pole body morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espagne, Eric; Vasnier, Christelle; Storlazzi, Aurora; Kleckner, Nancy E; Silar, Philippe; Zickler, Denise; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2011-06-28

    We identify a large coiled-coil protein, Sme4/PaMe4, that is highly conserved among the large group of Sordariales and plays central roles in two temporally and functionally distinct aspects of the fungal sexual cycle: first as a component of the meiotic synaptonemal complex (SC) and then, after disappearing and reappearing, as a component of the spindle pole body (SPB). In both cases, the protein mediates spatial juxtaposition of two major structures: linkage of homolog axes through the SC and a change in the SPB from a planar to a bent conformation. Corresponding mutants exhibit defects, respectively, in SC and SPB morphogenesis, with downstream consequences for recombination and astral-microtubule nucleation plus postmeiotic nuclear migration. Sme4 is also required for reorganization of recombination complexes in which Rad51, Mer3, and Msh4 foci relocalize from an on-axis position to a between-axis (on-SC) position concomitant with SC installation. Because involved recombinosome foci represent total recombinational interactions, these dynamics are irrespective of their designation for maturation into cross-overs or noncross-overs. The defined dual roles for Sme4 in two different structures that function at distinct phases of the sexual cycle also provide more functional links and evolutionary dynamics among the nuclear envelope, SPB, and SC.

  10. The SUN protein Mps3 is required for spindle pole body insertion into the nuclear membrane and nuclear envelope homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Friederichs

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The budding yeast spindle pole body (SPB is anchored in the nuclear envelope so that it can simultaneously nucleate both nuclear and cytoplasmic microtubules. During SPB duplication, the newly formed SPB is inserted into the nuclear membrane. The mechanism of SPB insertion is poorly understood but likely involves the action of integral membrane proteins to mediate changes in the nuclear envelope itself, such as fusion of the inner and outer nuclear membranes. Analysis of the functional domains of the budding yeast SUN protein and SPB component Mps3 revealed that most regions are not essential for growth or SPB duplication under wild-type conditions. However, a novel dominant allele in the P-loop region, MPS3-G186K, displays defects in multiple steps in SPB duplication, including SPB insertion, indicating a previously unknown role for Mps3 in this step of SPB assembly. Characterization of the MPS3-G186K mutant by electron microscopy revealed severe over-proliferation of the inner nuclear membrane, which could be rescued by altering the characteristics of the nuclear envelope using both chemical and genetic methods. Lipid profiling revealed that cells lacking MPS3 contain abnormal amounts of certain types of polar and neutral lipids, and deletion or mutation of MPS3 can suppress growth defects associated with inhibition of sterol biosynthesis, suggesting that Mps3 directly affects lipid homeostasis. Therefore, we propose that Mps3 facilitates insertion of SPBs in the nuclear membrane by modulating nuclear envelope composition.

  11. Phase Method of Invariant Measurement of Active-Inductive Measuring Two-Pole Parameters

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    Boris MAMIKONYAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been given the solution of the technical problem of separate measurement of parameters of inductance coils and inductive primary converters on alternating current without application of potential-current signals. As a measuring circuit the scheme of voltage divider with active-inductive two-pole is used, and as an output signal there has been used the angle of phase shift between two output voltages of the measuring circuit. For forming the output signal temporal separation of measurement channel is used. The advantages of phase method are mostly due to capacity of using microcontrollers. In the technical solutions under consideration the microcontroller regulates the measuring process and develops the measurement results.

  12. Species-specific calls evoke asymmetric activity in the monkey's temporal poles.

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    Poremba, Amy; Malloy, Megan; Saunders, Richard C; Carson, Richard E; Herscovitch, Peter; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2004-01-29

    It has often been proposed that the vocal calls of monkeys are precursors of human speech, in part because they provide critical information to other members of the species who rely on them for survival and social interactions. Both behavioural and lesion studies suggest that monkeys, like humans, use the auditory system of the left hemisphere preferentially to process vocalizations. To investigate the pattern of neural activity that might underlie this particular form of functional asymmetry in monkeys, we measured local cerebral metabolic activity while the animals listened passively to species-specific calls compared with a variety of other classes of sound. Within the superior temporal gyrus, significantly greater metabolic activity occurred on the left side than on the right, only in the region of the temporal pole and only in response to monkey calls. This functional asymmetry was absent when these regions were separated by forebrain commissurotomy, suggesting that the perception of vocalizations elicits concurrent interhemispheric interactions that focus the auditory processing within a specialized area of one hemisphere.

  13. The usefulness of descriptive statistics in the interpretation of data on occupational physical activity of Poles

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    Elżbieta Biernat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to assess whether basic descriptive statistics is sufficient to interpret the data on physical activity of Poles within occupational domain of life. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 964 randomly selected Polish working professionals. The long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was used. Descriptive statistics included characteristics of variables using: mean (M, median (Me, maximal and minimal values (max–min., standard deviation (SD and percentile values. Statistical inference was based on the comparison of variables with the significance level of 0.05 (Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson’s Chi2 tests. Results: Occupational physical activity (OPA was declared by 46.4% of respondents (vigorous – 23.5%, moderate – 30.2%, walking – 39.5%. The total OPA amounted to 2751.1 MET-min/week (Metabolic Equivalent of Task with very high standard deviation (SD = 5302.8 and max = 35 511 MET-min/week. It concerned different types of activities. Approximately 10% (90th percentile overstated the average. However, there was no significant difference depended on the character of the profession, or the type of activity. The average time of sitting was 256 min/day. As many as 39% of the respondents met the World Health Organization standards only due to OPA (42.5% of white-collar workers, 38% of administrative and technical employees and only 37.9% of physical workers. Conclusions: In the data analysis it is necessary to define quantiles to provide a fuller picture of the distributions of OPA in MET-min/week. It is also crucial to update the guidelines for data processing and analysis of long version of IPAQ. It seems that 16 h of activity/day is not a sufficient criterion for excluding the results from further analysis. Med Pr 2014;65(6:743–753

  14. Characterization of a cold-active bacterium isolated from the South Pole “Ice Tunnel”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madigan, Michael T.; Kempher, Megan L.; Bender, Kelly S.; Sullivan, Paul; Matthew Sattley, W.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Joye, Samantha B.

    2017-07-05

    Abstract Extremely cold microbial habitats on Earth (those below -30 °C) are rare and have not been surveyed for microbes as extensively as environments in the 0 to -20 °C range. Using cryoprotected growth media incubated at -5 °C, we enriched a cold-active Pseudomonas species from -50 °C ice collected from a utility tunnel for wastewater pipes under Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. The isolate, strain UC-1, is related to other cold-active Pseudomonas species, most notably P. psychrophila, and grew at -5 °C to +34–37 °C; growth of UC-1 at +3 °C was significantly faster than at +34 °C. Strain UC-1 synthesized a surface exopolymer and high levels of unsaturated fatty acids under cold growth conditions. A 16S rRNA gene diversity screen of the ice sample that yielded strain UC-1 revealed over 1200 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) distributed across eight major classes of Bacteria. Many of the OTUs were Clostridia and Bacteriodia and some of these were probably of wastewater origin. However, a significant fraction of the OTUs were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria of likely environmental origin. Our results shed light on the lower temperature limits to life and the possible existence of functional microbial communities in ultra-cold environments.

  15. Energy-dependent pole expansions for the effective potentials in the four-body integral equations with tensor forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofianos, S.; Fiedeldey, H.; Haberzettl, H.

    1980-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of the energy-dependent pole expansion for the (3+1) and (2+2) subamplitudes in the calculation of the binding energy of the α particle, E/sub α/, for separable NN potentials with tensor components. We employ the truncated t-matrix (t 00 ) approximation and compare our results for E/sub α/ to those obtained, independent of any separable expansion, by Gibson and Lehman and to the results for E/sub α/ obtained with the Hilbert-Schmidt expansion of the subamplitudes. It is shown that the energy-dependent pole expansion is both more economical and converges faster than the Hilbert-Schmidt expansion, even one term of the energy-dependent pole approximation already being accurate to better than 1.5%

  16. Modeling Human Body Using Four-Pole Debye Model in Piecewise Linear Recursive Convolution FDTD Method for the SAR Calculation in the Case of Vehicular Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Guellab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient finite difference time domain (FDTD method based on the piecewise linear recursive convolution (PLRC technique to evaluate the human body exposure to electromagnetic (EM radiation. The source of radiation considered in this study is a high-power antenna, mounted on a military vehicle, covering a broad band of frequency (100 MHz–3 GHz. The simulation is carried out using a nonhomogeneous human body model which takes into consideration most of the internal body tissues. The human tissues are modeled by a four-pole Debye model which is derived from experimental data by using particle swarm optimization (PSO. The human exposure to EM radiation is evaluated by computing the local and whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR for each occupant. The higher in-tissue electric field intensity points are localized, and the SAR values are compared with the crew safety standard recommendations. The accuracy of the proposed PLRC-FDTD approach and the matching of the Debye model with the experimental data are verified in this study.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics near resonances of a rotor-active magnetic bearings system with 16-pole legs and time varying stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R. Q.; Zhang, W.; Yao, M. H.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the complicated nonlinear dynamics of rotor-active magnetic bearings (rotor-AMB) with 16-pole legs and the time varying stiffness. The magnetic force with 16-pole legs is obtained by applying the electromagnetic theory. The governing equation of motion for rotor-active magnetic bearings is derived by using the Newton's second law. The resulting dimensionless equation of motion for the rotor-AMB system is expressed as a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system including the parametric excitation, quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The averaged equation of the rotor-AMB system is obtained by using the method of multiple scales when the primary parametric resonance and 1/2 subharmonic resonance are taken into account. From the frequency-response curves, it is found that there exist the phenomena of the soft-spring type nonlinearity and the hardening-spring type nonlinearity in the rotor-AMB system. The effects of different parameters on the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the rotor-AMB system are investigated. The numerical results indicate that the periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic motions occur alternately in the rotor-AMB system.

  18. COMPARISON OF FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES ON STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF THE INFERIOR PATELLAR POLE

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    Wallmann, Harvey; Stalcup, Patrick; DiTommaso, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Background It is well known that eccentric and concentric exercise produce varied amounts of stress on the connective tissues. Diagnostic ultrasound has been used to measure these structural changes by observing fascicle length, angle, and thickness; however, there is a lack of evidence comparing the structural changes as it relates to eccentric, concentric, and stretching protocols. Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static stretching, eccentric, concentric, and a combination of eccentric/concentric exercises on structural changes of the muscle tendon unit at the inferior patellar pole utilizing the diagnostic ultrasound. Study Design A repeated measures 2 × 4 within factorial study design with repeated measures on both factors was used to determine the differences in patellar tendon thickness within and between groups. Methods Forty-seven healthy subjects were screened for any lower extremity deficits or orthopaedic pathology. Forty-four (N=44) subjects completed all four protocols; the attrition was due to injuries to the lower extremity, occurring unrelated to the study. A baseline measurement of the anterior inferior patellar tendon was performed with the diagnostic ultrasound prior to each participant completing one of the four interventions per week over a four-week period. Interventions completed by each participant included static stretching, concentric, eccentric, and combined concentric and eccentric exercises. Immediately following each intervention, a post-intervention inferior patellar tendon measurement was recorded using the diagnostic ultrasound. Results Significant differences in anterior to posterior tendon thickness of the inferior patellar tendon were observed between pre (4.983 ± 0.041mm) and post (5.198 ± 0.055mm) measurements (peffect of time. However, no differences in tendon thickness were noted comparing each intervention to one another (p=0.351). Conclusion Differences in tendon thickness

  19. Regulation of mitosis by the NIMA kinase involves TINA and its newly discovered partner, An-WDR8, at spindle pole bodies

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    Shen, Kuo-Fang; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The NIMA kinase is required for mitotic nuclear pore complex disassembly and potentially controls other mitotic-specific events. To investigate this possibility, we imaged NIMA–green fluorescent protein (GFP) using four-dimensional spinning disk confocal microscopy. At mitosis NIMA-GFP locates to spindle pole bodies (SPBs), which contain Cdk1/cyclin B, followed by Aurora, TINA, and the BimC kinesin. NIMA promotes NPC disassembly in a spatially regulated manner starting near SPBs. NIMA is also required for TINA, a NIMA-interacting protein, to locate to SPBs during initiation of mitosis, and TINA is then necessary for locating NIMA back to SPBs during mitotic progression. To help expand the NIMA-TINA pathway, we affinity purified TINA and found it to uniquely copurify with An-WDR8, a WD40-domain protein conserved from humans to plants. Like TINA, An-WDR8 accumulates within nuclei during G2 but disperses from nuclei before locating to mitotic SPBs. Without An-WDR8, TINA levels are greatly reduced, whereas TINA is necessary for mitotic targeting of An-WDR8. Finally, we show that TINA is required to anchor mitotic microtubules to SPBs and, in combination with An-WDR8, for successful mitosis. The findings provide new insights into SPB targeting and indicate that the mitotic microtubule-anchoring system at SPBs involves WDR8 in complex with TINA. PMID:24152731

  20. Nuclear inner membrane fusion facilitated by yeast Jem1p is required for spindle pole body fusion but not for the first mitotic nuclear division during yeast mating.

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    Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Hirata, Aiko; Endo, Toshiya

    2008-11-01

    During mating of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two haploid nuclei fuse to produce a diploid nucleus. The process of nuclear fusion requires two J proteins, Jem1p in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and Sec63p, which forms a complex with Sec71p and Sec72p, in the ER membrane. Zygotes of mutants defective in the functions of Jem1p or Sec63p contain two haploid nuclei that were closely apposed but failed to fuse. Here we analyzed the ultrastructure of nuclei in jem1 Delta and sec71 Delta mutant zygotes using electron microscope with the freeze-substituted fixation method. Three-dimensional reconstitution of nuclear structures from electron microscope serial sections revealed that Jem1p facilitates nuclear inner-membrane fusion and spindle pole body (SPB) fusion while Sec71p facilitates nuclear outer-membrane fusion. Two haploid SPBs that failed to fuse could duplicate, and mitotic nuclear division of the unfused haploid nuclei started in jem1 Delta and sec71 Delta mutant zygotes. This observation suggests that nuclear inner-membrane fusion is required for SPB fusion, but not for SPB duplication in the first mitotic cell division.

  1. Spindle pole body-anchored Kar3 drives the nucleus along microtubules from another nucleus in preparation for nuclear fusion during yeast karyogamy.

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    Gibeaux, Romain; Politi, Antonio Z; Nédélec, François; Antony, Claude; Knop, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Nuclear migration during yeast karyogamy, termed nuclear congression, is required to initiate nuclear fusion. Congression involves a specific regulation of the microtubule minus end-directed kinesin-14 motor Kar3 and a rearrangement of the cytoplasmic microtubule attachment sites at the spindle pole bodies (SPBs). However, how these elements interact to produce the forces necessary for nuclear migration is less clear. We used electron tomography, molecular genetics, quantitative imaging, and first principles modeling to investigate how cytoplasmic microtubules are organized during nuclear congression. We found that Kar3, with the help of its light chain, Cik1, is anchored during mating to the SPB component Spc72 that also serves as a nucleator and anchor for microtubules via their minus ends. Moreover, we show that no direct microtubule-microtubule interactions are required for nuclear migration. Instead, SPB-anchored Kar3 exerts the necessary pulling forces laterally on microtubules emanating from the SPB of the mating partner nucleus. Therefore, a twofold symmetrical application of the core principle that drives nuclear migration in higher cells is used in yeast to drive nuclei toward each other before nuclear fusion.

  2. Magnet pole tips

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    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  3. Rotor pole refurbishment for hydrogenerators: insulation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.R.; Rux, L.

    2005-01-01

    Rotor poles for Unit 1 at Lower Granite Powerhouse were removed from the rotor and shipped to a repair facility for refurbishment. Upon inspection, it was found that all of the pole bodies exhibited a distinct bow, center to end, on the pole mounting surface. In some cases, the deflection was as much as 0.106 inch. Concerns were raised about how this condition might affect the ability to properly insulate and/or re-seat the poles. This paper presents details of the rotor pole and field winding evaluation, the problems encountered, and the solutions implemented to successfully refurbish the rotor poles and field winding. (author)

  4. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  5. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

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    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate.

  6. Biomechanical analysis of double poling in elite cross-country skiers.

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    Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Lindinger, Stefan; Stöggl, Thomas; Eitzlmair, Erich; Müller, Erich

    2005-05-01

    To further the understanding of double poling (DP) through biomechanical analysis of upper and lower body movements during DP in cross-country (XC) skiing at racing speed. Eleven elite XC skiers performed DP at 85% of their maximal DP velocity (V85%) during roller skiing at 1 degrees inclination on a treadmill. Pole and plantar ground reaction forces, joint angles (elbow, hip, knee, and ankle), cycle characteristics, and electromyography (EMG) of upper and lower body muscles were analyzed. 1) Pole force pattern with initial impact force peak and the following active force peak (PPF) correlated to V85%, (r = 0.66, P biomechanical aspects. Future research should further investigate the relationship between biomechanical and physiological variables and elaborate training models to improve DP performance.

  7. INNOVATIVE CLUSTER OR COMPETITIVENESS POLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the situation of clusters in Romania and their areas of activity and innovation in entrepreneurship Romanian state. It is made also a territorial distribution of clusters on the eight regions. The findings lead to the conclusion that there are some clusters that have the vocation to become poles of competitiveness in areas such as renewable energy, automotive, electronics, health, biotechnology, mechatronics or ICT (Information and Communication Technology which represent the resources for future of the Romanian economy. Regarding the degree of innovation of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the level is relatively modest, 30.8% of all enterprises being innovative. If we were to answer the question the title suggests, we would say "yes" to both since the innovative cluster as well as the competitiveness pole promotes par excellence, innovation through study, research and stimulation of creativity. And this is more than enough to support economic growth of Romania and maintain the competitiveness worldwide.

  8. Body image and physical activity among black university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BMI was associated with overweight preoccupation and self-classified weight. Fitness orientation, health evaluation and body areas satisfaction were associated ... Key words: Body image, physical activity, black women and men, South Africa.

  9. Pole lengths influence O2-cost during double poling in highly trained cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Camilla Høivik; Rud, Bjarne; Myklebust, Håvard; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    In elite cross-country skiing, double poling is used in different terrain. This study compared O 2 -cost and kinematics during double poling with four different pole lengths [self-selected (SS), SS - 5 cm, SS + 5 cm, SS + 10 cm] at Low versus Moderate incline. Thirteen highly trained male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD 23 ± 3 years; 182 ± 4 cm; 77 ± 6 kg) completed eight submaximal trials with roller skis on a treadmill at two conditions: "Low incline" (1.7°; 4.5 m s -1 ) and "Moderate incline" (4.5°; 2.5 m s -1 ) with each of the four pole lengths. O 2 -cost and 3D body kinematics were assessed in each trial. In Low incline, SS + 10 cm induced a lower O 2 -cost than all the other pole lengths [P size (ES) 0.5-0.8], whereas no differences were found between the remaining pole lengths (P > 0.05; ES 0.2-0.4). In Moderate incline, significant differences between all pole lengths were found for O 2 -cost, with SS - 5 cm > SS > SS + 5 cm > SS + 10 cm (P differences in O 2 -cost between SS and the other pole lengths were greater in Moderate incline than Low incline (SS - 5 cm; 1.5%, ES 0.8, SS + 5 cm; 1.3%, ES 1.0, and SS + 10 cm; 1.9%, ES 1.0, all P difference was found in cycle, poling or reposition times between pole lengths. However, at both conditions a smaller total vertical displacement of center of mass was observed with SS + 10 cm compared to the other pole lengths. Increasing pole length from SS - 5 cm to SS + 10 cm during double poling induced lower O 2 -cost and this advantage was greater in Moderate compared to Low incline.

  10. Fluorescently labeled inhibitors detect localized serine protease activities in Drosophila melanogaster pole cells, embryos, and ovarian egg chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Rasmus Kragh; Ono, S.; Powers, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    processes that they mediate. Until only recently, the tools to conveniently address the question of where and when serine proteases are active within complex tissues have been lacking. In order to detect spatially restricted serine protease activities in Drosophila embryos and ovaries we introduce...... activity localized to the oocyte-somatic follicle cell interface of the developing egg chamber. Our results suggest that this technique holds promise to identify new spatially restricted activities in adult Drosophila tissues and developing embryos....

  11. The impact of human activities in africa,the north and south pole regions on global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    As a result of the rapid increase in the petroleum exploration, Industrial, deforestation and other human activities going on within or around the Arctic and Antarctica ice caps near or in the temperate region countries like Canada, Greenland, Russia, U.S.A (Alaska), Iceland, Finland, Argentina, Tasmania and New Zealand among many others plus the increase in deforestation activities in Tropical world countries like the Amazon of Brazil, The Tropical Rain forest of Nigeria, Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo), Cotedvoire, Indonesia etc. in addition to the Sahara and the Kalahari deserts encouragement as a result of human factors plus the uncontrolled disposals of broken Refrigerators, Air conditioners and propellants containing chlorofluorocarbon substances capable of destroying the Ozone layer in African refuse dumps (B.Abubkar,2006) are collectively becoming a threat to the world climate. This explains why the volume of the Ocean keeps on rising, global temperature keeps ascending and the global climate is becoming abnormal since the beginning of the above mentioned activities in the above mentioned locations. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed suggestions/recommendations: 1. The temperature region countries like Canada, Russia, U.S.A, Argentina etc. should come up with polices restricting certain industries with the possibilities of causing environmental hazards from operating near the Ice Caps of the Arctic or Antarctica even in areas which the Ice was frozen thousands of years ago as the case with Greenland. 2. The research and exploration activities going on around or on the Arctic and the Antarctica regions should be carried out with utmost care and concern to the global climate. 3. The deforestation activities going on without control in most of the Tropical World Countries should be monitored by the United Nation's Specialized Agencies on forest and other related international organization in such

  12. Sub-nanosecond periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric generator and amplifier pumped by an actively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG microlaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Wang, H. Y.; Ning, Y.; Shen, C.; Si, L.; Yang, Y.; Bao, Q. L.; Ren, G.

    2017-05-01

    A sub-nanosecond seeded optical parametric generator (OPG) based on magnesium oxide-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystal is presented. Pumped by an actively Q-switched diode-pumped 1 kHz, 1064 nm, Nd:YAG microlaser and seeded with a low power distributed feedback (DFB) diode continuous-wave (CW) laser, the OPG generated an output energy of 41.4 µJ and 681 ps pulse duration for the signal at 1652.4 nm, achieving a quantum conversion efficiency of 61.2% and a slope efficiency of 41.8%. Signal tuning was achieved from 1651.0 to 1652.4 nm by tuning the seed-laser current. The FWHM of the signal spectrum was approximately from 35 nm to 0.5 nm by injection seed laser. The SHG doubled the frequency of OPG signal to produce a output energy of 12 µJ with the energy conversion efficiency of 29.0% and tunanble wavelength near 826 nm.

  13. Active children and quiet bodies wanted!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2016-01-01

    better results and – strengthen the confidence to and the wellbeing in the school. These objectives should among other initiatives be achieved by a longer and more diversified school day. Physical activities and movements have been seen as an important tool to create more varied forms of teaching....... Research indicates that there is a correlation between physical activity and cognitive learning. In order to improve the pupils’ health, cognitive learning and wellbeing all pupils from grade 0-9 must have at least 45 minutes of physical activity and movements in average every day. Next to physical...... from a child perspective (Sommer et al. 2010). The presentation will focus on the pupils lived bodily experiences with bodily activities within the school in order to produce knowledge on increased physical activity and movements’ contribution to the pupils’ wellbeing. The analyses indicates that even...

  14. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (pworkplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  15. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  16. POLE somatic mutations in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joana; Pinto, Carla; Pinto, Diana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Silva, Romina; Peixoto, Ana; Rocha, Patrícia; Veiga, Isabel; Santos, Catarina; Santos, Rui; Cabreira, Verónica; Lopes, Paula; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2017-12-01

    Despite all the knowledge already gathered, the picture of somatic genetic changes in colorectal tumorigenesis is far from complete. Recently, germline and somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit (POLE) gene have been reported in a small subset of microsatellite-stable and hypermutated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), affecting the proofreading activity of the enzyme and leading to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. To evaluate the role of POLE mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis, namely in advanced CRC, we searched for somatic mutations by Sanger sequencing in tumor DNA samples from 307 cases. Microsatellite instability and mutation analyses of a panel of oncogenes were performed in the tumors harboring POLE mutations. Three heterozygous mutations were found in two tumors, the c.857C>G, p.Pro286Arg, the c.901G>A, p.Asp301Asn, and the c.1376C>T, p.Ser459Phe. Of the POLE-mutated CRCs, one tumor was microsatellite-stable and the other had low microsatellite instability, whereas KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were found in one tumor each. We conclude that POLE somatic mutations exist but are rare in advanced CRC, with further larger studies being necessary to evaluate its biological and clinical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Argentina's regulatory body: its communication activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesario, Pablo A.; Terigi, Gabriel E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regard to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. It must also advise the Executive on issues under its purview. The objective of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority is to establish, develop and enforce a regulatory system applicable to all nuclear activities carried out in Argentina. Two of the goals of this regulatory system are to provide an appropriate standard of protection for individuals against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and to maintain a reasonable degree of radiological and nuclear safety in the nuclear activities performed in Argentina. The responsibility of the radiation protection community in performing the tasks to accomplish this goals is twofold. On one hand, it must ensure a high technical quality in performing these functions. It must also provide information on its activities which has to be accurate, comprehensive and understandable. The way a society understands the concept of 'risk' needs to be kept in mind. Risk perception is the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Cultural theory refers to theories of risk perception that focus on culture, rather than individual psychology as an explanation for differences in risk judgments. It is widely agreed that trust is a key factor in influencing people's perceptions of risk. It is understood there are two main ways trust may impact in risk perceptions: an activity is perceived as more risky if the people or agencies managing it are perceived as untrustworthy; and information presented by trusted sources is given more credibility than information from untrusted sources. One of the primary purposes of ARN's Communication Program is to provide a means whereby those engaged in radiation protection activities may communicate more readily with each other and the public and

  18. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Lycoperdon perlatum whole fruit body on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activities of extracts of fruit bodies of Lycoperdon perlatum against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were investigated. Antimicrobial components from the mushrooms were extracted using ethanol, methanol and ...

  20. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. It is recommended that children accumulate at least one hour of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily. Objective: The level of physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated in pupils attending private ...

  1. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY COMPOSITION IN ADULT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára NAGY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data published by the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO suggests that the number of obese people in Europe has tripled in the last 20 years and resulted in a prevalence of 130 million obese and 400 million people overweight (Sassi et al., 2009.Body composition is the relative percentage of fat and fat-free mass (bones, muscles, organs, water, blood of total body weight. After Wilmore, Buskirk, DiGirolamo and Lohman (1986 the optimal level for health of body fat is 16-25% (18-30% for women.The objective of our study was to assess body composition of adult women, identifying the effect of intervention program on body fat and lean mass, and uncover cases of obesity and overweight.The study involved 95 adult women from Fit4U Fitness Center in Oradea. Period of the study: February 2015 -June 2016. Anthropometric measurements were made: height, weight, circumference, subcutaneous folds. It was calculated the body mass index (BMI, body composition and optimal body weight (estimation based on the five skinfolds measures. The physical activity program consisted of Step -aerobics, Pilates and strength training in the gym, 3 times a week for 60-90 minutes, for 12 months.Results:mean body mass, BMI, BF%, real BF decreased significantly. Mean body fat percentage from 25,63% (± 6,53 decreased to 22,95% (± 5,56. In the studied group overweight and obesity is more frequent in the age group between 35-44 years, but it can be seen the prevalence in all age groups.Conclusions:the physical activity program had a beneficial effect on body composition -by reducing body fat.We found cases of overweight and obesity (21% of the study group.

  2. South Pole rockets, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Iwane

    1977-01-01

    Wave-particle interaction was observed, using three rockets, S-210 JA-20, -21 and S-310 JA-2, launched from the South Pole into aurora. Electron density and temperature were measured with these rockets. Simultaneous observations of waves were also made from a satellite (ISIS-II) and at two ground bases (Showa base and Mizuho base). Observed data are presented in this paper. These include electron density and temperature in relation to altitude; variation of electron (60 - 80 keV) count rate with altitude; VLF spectra measured by the PWL of S-210 JA-20 and -21 rockets and the corresponding VLF spectra at the ground bases; low-energy (<10 keV) electron flux measured by S-310 JA-2 rocket; and VLF spectrum measured with S-310 JA-2 rocket. Scheduled measurements for the next project are also briefly described. (Aoki, K.)

  3. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already...... the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and creating teacher organised play activities during recess....

  4. The effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle activation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBV) on muscle activation has recently been a topic for discussion amongst some researchers. ... Participants then performed two different exercises: standing calf raises and prone bridging, without and with WBV.

  5. Assessment of the physical activity, body mass index and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Declining levels of physical activity at workplaces, during leisure time and when travelling, accompanied by increasing exposure to the mass media, are major determinants of the global obesity epidemic. This study aimed to assess physical activity, the body mass index (BMI) and energy intake of human ...

  6. Body Segment Kinematics and Energy Expenditure in Active Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Birgit; Hartmann, Michael; Böhm, Harald

    2016-06-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) in active videogames (AVGs) is a component for assessing its benefit for cardiovascular health. Existing evidence suggests that AVGs are able to increase EE above rest and when compared with playing passive videogames. However, the association between body movement and EE remains unclear. Furthermore, for goal-directed game design, it is important to know the contribution of body segments to EE. This knowledge will help to acquire a certain level of exercise intensity during active gaming. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the best predictors of EE from body segment energies, acceleration, and heart rate during different game situations. EE and body segment movement of 17 subjects, aged 22.1 ± 2.5 years, were measured in two different AVGs. In randomized order, the subjects played a handheld-controlled Nintendo(®) Wii™ tennis (NWT) game and a whole body-controlled Sony EyeToy(®) waterfall (ETW) game. Body segment movement was analyzed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. From the video data, mean values of mechanical energy change and acceleration of 10 body segments were analyzed. Measured EE was significantly higher in ETW (7.8 ± 1.4 metabolic equivalents [METs]) than in NWT (3.4 ± 1.0 METs). The best prediction parameter for the more intense ETW game was the energy change of the right thigh and for the less intense hand-controlled NWT game was the energy change of the upper torso. Segment acceleration was less accurate in predicting EE. The best predictors of metabolic EE were the thighs and the upper torso in whole body and handheld-controlled games, respectively. Increasing movement of these body segments would lead to higher physical activity intensity during gaming, reducing sedentary behavior.

  7. Human Activity Recognition from Body Sensor Data using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Huda, Shamsul; Uddin, Md Zia; Almogren, Ahmad; Alrubaian, Majed

    2018-04-16

    In recent years, human activity recognition from body sensor data or wearable sensor data has become a considerable research attention from academia and health industry. This research can be useful for various e-health applications such as monitoring elderly and physical impaired people at Smart home to improve their rehabilitation processes. However, it is not easy to accurately and automatically recognize physical human activity through wearable sensors due to the complexity and variety of body activities. In this paper, we address the human activity recognition problem as a classification problem using wearable body sensor data. In particular, we propose to utilize a Deep Belief Network (DBN) model for successful human activity recognition. First, we extract the important initial features from the raw body sensor data. Then, a kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are performed to further process the features and make them more robust to be useful for fast activity recognition. Finally, the DBN is trained by these features. Various experiments were performed on a real-world wearable sensor dataset to verify the effectiveness of the deep learning algorithm. The results show that the proposed DBN outperformed other algorithms and achieves satisfactory activity recognition performance.

  8. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  9. Evaluation of the pole figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera B, E.; Macias B, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the present work it's shown the possibility of obtaining a pole-figure from the data generated in a conventional X-ray equipment, with a commercial goniometer and no electronic device to process the data. The way to plot the pole-figure on-line is by means of measuring the diffractogram and plot manually the stereographic projections. The atainable precision is very low in such a cumbersome process. In this paper we substitute such method by storing the data in a punched tape from a conventional teletype. The data is processed in a computer and the pole-figure is recorded by a plotter attached to the computer. (author)

  10. Total body neutron activation analysis of calcium: calibration and normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, N S.J.; Eastell, R; Ferrington, C M; Simpson, J D; Strong, J A [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK); Smith, M A; Tothill, P [Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)

    1982-05-01

    An irradiation system has been designed, using a neutron beam from a cyclotron, which optimises the uniformity of activation of calcium. Induced activity is measured in a scanning, shadow-shield whole-body counter. Calibration has been effected and reproducibility assessed with three different types of phantom. Corrections were derived for variations in body height, depth and fat thickness. The coefficient of variation for repeated measurements of an anthropomorphic phantom was 1.8% for an absorbed dose equivalent of 13 mSv (1.3 rem). Measurements of total body calcium in 40 normal adults were used to derive normalisation factors which predict the normal calcium in a subject of given size and age. The coefficient of variation of normalised calcium was 6.2% in men and 6.6% in women, with the demonstration of an annual loss of 1.5% after the menopause. The narrow range should make single measurements useful for diagnostic purposes.

  11. Aging and exercise: Perceptions of the active lived-body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, Marit; Bergland, Astrid; Lund, Anne; Debesay, Jonas

    2018-03-30

    Exploring older people's evocation of their positive experiences of aging has been proposed as a counterweight to the Western stereotype of aging as a process of decline. The aim of this article is to explore how aging women, who participate regularly in group exercise classes, perceive their own bodies and the bodies of others. This article reports on the findings from interviews with 16 women between the age of 70 and 85. We analyzed the data using qualitative content analysis. Two overarching and interrelated themes concerning body perception emerged from the interviews: "The aging body and appearance" and "The body as subject and object." The binary discourse of old age, as either a decline or a success appears in our findings. The training contributes to a sense of well-being experienced through perceived increased physical abilities, self- image and self-esteem. Physical ability was perceived as being more important than appearance by the participants in this study, considering their preconception of an association between declining health, abilities, and older age. Involvement in physical activity appears to play a significant role in the perception of the women's own aging. Although physical attractiveness is a desirable outcome, the most important positive impact of the group exercise was related to increased social belonging and well-being, physical abilities, and capabilities. Thus implications for practice suggests that an intensive group training contributes to the opinion that an aging body is not necessarily a barrier to positive and successful aging.

  12. Regge poles and alpha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuleneer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The direct Regge pole model as a means of describing resonances in elastic particle scattering has been used for the analysis of the so-called ''anormalous large angle scattering'' of alpha particles by spinless nuclei. (Z.M.)

  13. Dynamic recruitment of active proteasomes into polyglutamine initiated inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper-Krom, Sabine; Juenemann, Katrin; Jansen, Anne H; Wiemhoefer, Anne; van den Nieuwendijk, Rianne; Smith, Donna L; Hink, Mark A; Bates, Gillian P; Overkleeft, Hermen; Ovaa, Huib; Reits, Eric

    2014-01-03

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease are hallmarked by neuronal intracellular inclusion body formation. Whether proteasomes are irreversibly recruited into inclusion bodies in these protein misfolding disorders is a controversial subject. In addition, it has been proposed that the proteasomes may become clogged by the aggregated protein fragments, leading to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here, we show by fluorescence pulse-chase experiments in living cells that proteasomes are dynamically and reversibly recruited into inclusion bodies. As these recruited proteasomes remain catalytically active and accessible to substrates, our results challenge the concept of proteasome sequestration and impairment in Huntington's disease, and support the reported absence of proteasome impairment in mouse models of Huntington's disease. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

  14. Recognizing Multi-user Activities using Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2011-01-01

    The advances of wireless networking and sensor technology open up an interesting opportunity to infer human activities in a smart home environment. Existing work in this paradigm focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user. In this work, we address the fundamental problem...... activity classes of data—for building activity models and design a scalable, noise-resistant, Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single- and multi-user activities. We develop a multi-modal, wireless body sensor network for collecting real-world traces in a smart...... home environment, and conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate our system. Results show that epMAR outperforms existing schemes in terms of accuracy, scalability and robustness....

  15. Changes in body chemical composition with age measured by total-body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.; Roginsky, M.S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Total-body levels of calcium and phosphorus (reflecting skeletal mass) and total-body levels of potassium (reflecting muscle mass) were measured by neutron activation analysis in 39 men and 40 women ages 30 to 90 yr. In order to intercompare the total body calcium (TBCa) values in a heterogeneous population, such as this, it was necessary to normalize the data for skeletal size. The normalization consisted of dividing the absolute calcium level by the predicted calcium level for each individual matched to a set of critical parameters. The parameter used in the computation of normal values were age, sex, muscle mass, i.e., total body potassium (TBK) and height. For the calcium data of the women, it was necessary to add an age correction factor after the age of 55 yr. The calcium ratio (mean ratio of the predicted to measured TBCa) in men was 1.000 +- 7.8 percent and in women 0.996 +- 7.1 percent. The TBCa of normal males and females can thus be predicted to +-13 percent (at the 90 percent confidence level). An exception to this was found in males (70 to 90 yr) who exhibited a mean calcium ratio greater than 1.13

  16. Whole-body dose meters. Measurements of total activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.; Klinikum Steglitz, Berlin

    1990-01-01

    By means of measurements using a whole-body dose meter, the course of the incorporation of radionuclides was established between April 1986 and May 1989 for unchanged conditions of alimentation, activity-conscious alimentation, and uniquely increased incorporation. Monitoring covered persons from the most different spheres of life. The incorporation is compared with the one resulting from nuclear weapons explosions in the atmosphere. (DG) [de

  17. STUDYING THE EFFECT OF AN ADDITIONAL ACTIVE RESISTANCE IN THE FIELD WINDING CIRCUIT ON STARTING CHARACTERISTICS OF SALIENT-POLE SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Malyar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the developed method for calculating steady-state asynchronous operation modes of salient-pole synchronous motors, a procedure of mathematical modelling of the starting characteristics is proposed. The problem of calculating the steady-state asynchronous mode is solved as a boundary value one for differential equations of motor circuit electrical equilibrium. Algebraization of the system of differential equations is carried out by approximating the equations of state using cubic spline functions on a grid of period nodes, taking into account the periodic law of variation of the coordinates. This results in the changeover from continual values to nodal ones. The starting static characteristics are calculated using the parameter continuation method. The study of the effect of the starting resistance value on the asynchronous characteristics of the motor relied on a mathematical model of the motor taking into consideration real field circuits, saturation and asymmetry of the magnetic path.

  18. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  19. Mediating effects of body composition between physical activity and body esteem in Hong Kong adolescents: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Cerin, Ester; McManus, Alison M; Lai, Ching-Man; Day, Jeffrey R; Ho, Sai-Yin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of body mass index (BMI) in the relationship between physical activity and body esteem in adolescents. Nine hundred and five Hong Kong Chinese students aged 12-18 years participated in a cross-sectional study in 2007. Students' BMI was computed as an indicator of their body composition. Their physical activity level and body esteem were examined using the Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth (PARCY) and Body Esteem Scale (BES), respectively. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the mediating effects of BMI and physical activity in predicting body esteem, with stratification by sex. The overall fit of the hypothesized models was satisfactory in boys (NFI = 0.94; NNFI = 0.88; CFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.07) and girls (NFI = 0.89; NNFI = 0.77; CFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.11). When BMI was considered as a mediator, higher physical activity had a significant negative total effect on body esteem in boys, but not in girls. The indirect effect of higher physical activity on body esteem via BMI was positive in boys, but negative in girls. Regular physical activity may help overweight adolescents, especially boys, improve their body esteem. Kinesiologists and health professionals could explore the use of physical activity prescriptions for weight management, aiming at body esteem improvement in community health programs for adolescents. Among Western adolescents, negative body esteem is more pervasive in girls than in boys. There are consistent findings of the association between higher body mass index and lower body esteem in adolescents, but the association between physical activity and body esteem are equivocal. A negative association between body mass index and body esteem was found in both Hong Kong adolescent boys and girls. The indirect effect of physical activity on body esteem via body mass index was positive in Hong Kong adolescent boys, but negative in girls.

  20. [Body image and participation in physical activities by obese subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Anne; Perera, Éric; Rodhain, Angélique; Férez, Sylvain

    2016-06-08

    From a sociological perspective, physical activity and diet are perceived as social and cultural practices, constructed and transmitted within human societies. The body is then thought of as a social construct, a sign and foundation of individual and collective identities. In this context, this article was designed to highlight some social processes underlying the obesity epidemic. Clarifying issues about a medical definition of obesity in an obesogenic society, and theoretical approaches to the meanings of the obesity epidemic are proposed. Individual stories of a gradual shift towards obesity are presented to illustrate the variety of trajectories that can lead to obesity in adulthood but also the variety of subjective experiences about the situation of obesity. In particular, the relationship to the body and experiences in terms of physical activity are investigated in order to understand how obesity is associated with non-commitment, low commitment or abandonment of physical activity. The issue of configurations in which commitment or re-commitments in regular exercise for sedentary populations can be possible are discussed. The discussion shows that although commitment to regular and sustainable physical activity requires a profound transformation of lifestyle for the persons concerned, the collective dimension of this change is rarely taken into account..

  1. Separable pole expansions in four-nucleon bound state calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofianos, S.A.; Fiedeldey, H.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-04-01

    We compare the utility of the Generalized Unitary Pole Expansion (GUPE) and the Energy-Dependent Pole Expansion (EDPE) for the three-body subsystem amplitudes in four-body state calculations for a variety of separable and local nucleon-nucleon interactions. It is found that, with the EDPE, the four-body binding energy is well reproduced with only two terms each for the (2+2)- and the (3+1)-subsystem, respectively, while the GUPE requires three terms for the (3+1)-channel and four terms for the (2+2)-channel. We thus conclude that pole dominance is of greater importance for the GUPE than for EDPE, which works equally well for both types of subsystems. It is found that both methods, in particular the EDPE, converge more rapidly with increasing repulsion in the two-body interaction, i.e. the more realistic the interaction becomes. Both expansions require similar computing times for a converged calculation and are about 15-20 times faster than the widely used Hilbert-Schmidt Expansion (HSE). The respective merits of the two pole expansions are discussed and compared with the HSE. (orig.)

  2. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes.

  3. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  4. Catalytic Growth of Macroscopic Carbon Nanofibers Bodies with Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N.; Rinaldi, A.; Muhammad, I. S.; Hamid, S. B. Abd.; Su, D. S.; Schlogl, R.

    2009-06-01

    Carbon-carbon composite of activated carbon and carbon nanofibers have been synthesized by growing Carbon nanofiber (CNF) on Palm shell-based Activated carbon (AC) with Ni catalyst. The composites are in an agglomerated shape due to the entanglement of the defective CNF between the AC particles forming a macroscopic body. The macroscopic size will allow the composite to be used as a stabile catalyst support and liquid adsorbent. The preparation of CNT/AC nanocarbon was initiated by pre-treating the activated carbon with nitric acid, followed by impregnation of 1 wt% loading of nickel (II) nitrate solutions in acetone. The catalyst precursor was calcined and reduced at 300° C for an hour in each step. The catalytic growth of nanocarbon in C2H4/H2 was carried out at temperature of 550° C for 2 hrs with different rotating angle in the fluidization system. SEM and N2 isotherms show the level of agglomeration which is a function of growth density and fluidization of the system. The effect of fluidization by rotating the reactor during growth with different speed give a significant impact on the agglomeration of the final CNF/AC composite and thus the amount of CNFs produced. The macrostructure body produced in this work of CNF/AC composite will have advantages in the adsorbent and catalyst support application, due to the mechanical and chemical properties of the material.

  5. Exergy performance of human body under physical activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian; Albuquerque, Cyro; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Yanagihara, Jurandir Itizo; Oliveira, Silvio de

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to apply performance indicators for individuals under physical activity based on the concepts of exergy destroyed and exergy efficiency. The cardiopulmonary exercise test is one of the most used tests to assess the functional capacity of individuals with varying degrees of physical training. To perform the exergy analysis during the test, it is necessary to calculate heat and mass flow rates, associated with radiation, convection, vaporization and respiration, determined from the measurements and some relations found in the literature. The energy balance allowed the determination of the internal temperature over time and the exergy variation of the body along the experiment. Eventually, it was possible to calculate the destroyed exergy and the exergy efficiency from the exergy analysis. The exergy rates and flow rates are dependent of the exercise level and the body metabolism. The results show that the relation between the destroyed exergy and the metabolism is almost constant during the test, furthermore its value has a great dependence of the subject age. From the exergy analysis it was possible to divide the subjects according to their training level, for the same destroyed exergy, subjects with higher lactate threshold can perform more work. - Highlights: • Exergy analysis was applied to the human body under physical activities. • Concept of maximum available work from ATP hydrolysis was compared with exergy analysis results. • For the same destroyed exergy, subjects with higher lactate threshold can perform more work. • Runners during physical activities tend to a state of minimum destroyed exergy and maximum exergy efficiency

  6. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  7. Poling of UV-written Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Hübner, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months......We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months...

  8. Preservative activity of lavender hydrosols in moisturizing body gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicka-Styczyńska, A; Śmigielski, K; Prusinowska, R; Rajkowska, K; Kuśmider, B; Sikora, M

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to verify the antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia hydrosols in moisturizing body gels. The inhibition efficacy of four lavender hydrosols (obtained from fresh or dry herbs or flowers) was tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 1627, Candida sp. ŁOCK 0008 and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 in compliance with the standards of the European Pharmacopoeia Commission. Although the tested hydrosols did not express any remarkable antimicrobial action when tested via the macrodilution method, they show preservative activity in cosmetic preparations. Criterion A for fungi was fulfilled for the cosmetic formulation containing dried flower hydrosol (reduction of the inoculum by two logarithmic units within 14 days with no increase up to the 28th day) and Criterion B for bacteria E. coli and Staph. aureus (reduction of the inoculum by three logarithmic units within 14 days with no increase up to the 28th day). The fresh herb lavender hydrosol in the cosmetic formulation was regarded as the second one effectively satisfying Criterion B for bacteria, but its activity against fungi was below the acceptance value set out in the official regulations. Lavender hydrosols used as a replacement for water phase in cosmetics may contribute to maintaining microbiological stability of cosmetic formulations. The presented research proved antimicrobial activity of hydrosols obtained from fresh or dried Lavandula angustifolia herbs or flowers in moisturizing body gel. The study shows the usefulness of lavender hydrosols as a natural, ecologically friendly component of cosmetics with potential preservative activity in formulations. Hydrosols are commonly regarded as waste in the production of essential oils. The use of lavender hydrosols in the cosmetic industry as a replacement for water phase in cosmetics may not only result in expenses reduction for chemical stabilizers and preservatives but also in substantial decrease

  9. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  10. Polymer poling characterization using second harmonic generation (SHG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Gildas; Averty, Dominique; Blart, Errol; Boisrobert, Christian; Gundel, Hartmut; Le Tacon, Sylvain; Monnereau, Cyrille; Odobel, Fabrice; Seveno, Raynald

    2006-04-01

    Several polymer molecules have structures which are suitable for the non-linear optic applications. We report on the design and fabrication of a high performance electro-optic modulator made of polymer thin films. The polymer we study contains a chromophore based on Disperse Red One covalently grafted to a host-matrix. The polymer materials are deposited in thin layers on a glass substrate by chemical solution deposition, either by spin-coating or by dip-coating. The thickness of the films is ranging from a hundred nanometers to several micrometers. Initially, the polymer molecules are randomly oriented and the films are isotropic, hence no electro-optic effect can be observed. In order to break the symmetry and align the chromophores, the films are submitted to the so-called corona poling process. As a result, their structure become non-centrosymmetric and the second-order susceptibility is no longer zero. The corona poling method consists of applying a high electric field to the polymer by means of a needle electrode, placed above the polymer film which is posed on a grounded sample support electrode. Thermal regulation of the support electrode allows to control the temperature during the poling of the films. Once the poling process has been established, a chemical cross-linking function is thermally activated in order to fix the orientation of the chromophores in the polymer matrix. The orientation and its stability in time is evaluated with a Second Harmonic Generation measurement set-up using the Makers Fringes configuration. We studied the influence of the poling temperature, the distance between the corona needle electrode and the sample, the high voltage applied, and the duration of the poling process on the efficiency of chromophore orientation in order to optimize the poling procedure. Finally, aging of poled polymer samples has been investigated at elevated temperatures, confirming the stability of the cross-linking process.

  11. Tent-Poles of the Bestseller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Vistisen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for understanding and analysing how the passive audience of a media event turns into active stakeholders. The starting point is the cross-media content quadrant (Jensen and Vistisen, 2012), which shows how the producer’s control is distributed on social media...... platforms, while storytelling evolves around a tent-pole, for example, a bestseller or blockbuster. To further explain how the audience engages, a three-step rhetoric model largely based on Bitzer (1998) and Tolkien (1971) is developed and explained....

  12. Infrared solar physics from the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake

    1989-01-01

    Infrared (IR) observations of the sun could greatly benefit from the quality of the South Pole as an IR site, and the potential for multi-day sequences of uninterrupted observations. A nearly continuous picture of the evolution of the magnetic field in solar active regions could be obtained using vector magnetographs, especially vector magnetographs which incorporate IR array detectors. Observations of the sun over a range of wavelengths in the IR continuum could also be used to study the vertical propagation characteristics of the solar p-mode oscillations.

  13. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt γ neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients

  14. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  15. My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  16. My Body Looks Like That Girl's: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  17. Pole counting and resonance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.

    1992-01-01

    S-wave resonances occurring close to an inelastic threshold can be classified according to the number of nearby poles they possess. One then has a useful possibility of distinguishing dynamical alternatives by objective appeal to data. Making this quantitative entails developing suitable effective range expansions for various realizations of potential scattering. A key application is deciding the make-up of f 0 (976) (S*). (author)

  18. The effect of poling conditions on the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters fabricated by wet chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, Erika Maria-Anai

    2015-03-25

    The effect of poling conditions on the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters using sol-gel based Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O3-Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3 piezoelectric thin-films has been investigated. A strong correlation was established between the poling efficiency and harvester output. A method based on simple capacitance-voltage measurements is shown to be an effective approach to estimate the power output of harvesters poled under different conditions. The poling process was found to be thermally activated with an activation energy of 0.12 eV, and the optimum poling conditions were identified (200 kV cm-1, 250 °C for 50 min). The voltage output and power density obtained under optimum poling conditions were measured to be 558 V cm-2 and 325 μW cm-2, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.2015.

  19. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  20. Dynamic recruitment of active proteasomes into polyglutamine initiated inclusion bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper-Krom, Sabine; Juenemann, Katrin; Jansen, Anne H.; Wiemhoefer, Anne; van den Nieuwendijk, Rianne; Smith, Donna L.; Hink, Mark A.; Bates, Gillian P.; Overkleeft, Hermen; Ovaa, Huib; Reits, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease are hallmarked by neuronal intracellular inclusion body formation. Whether proteasomes are irreversibly recruited into inclusion bodies in these protein misfolding disorders is a controversial subject. In addition, it has been proposed that

  1. Development of a multi-pole magnetorheological brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, Yaojung; Nguyen, Quang-Anh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the design and optimization of a novel multi-pole magnetorheological (MR) brake that employs magnetic flux more effectively on the surface of the rotor. MR brakes with conventional single ring-type electromagnetic poles have reached the limits of torque enhancement. One major reason is the limitation of the magnetic field strength within the active area of the MR fluid due to the geometric constraints of the coil. The multi-pole MR brake design features multiple electromagnetic poles surrounded by several coils. As a result, the active chaining areas for the MR fluid are greatly increased, and significant brake torque improvement is achieved. The coil structure, as a part of the stator, becomes flexible and customizable in terms of space usage for the winding and bobbin design. In addition, this brake offers extra options in its dimensions for torque enhancement because either the radial or the axial dimensions of the rotor can be increased. Magnetic circuit analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the design parameters on the field torque. After that, simulations were done to find the optimal design under all major geometric constraints with a given power supply. The results show that the multi-pole MR brake provides a considerable braking torque increase while maintaining a compact and solid design. This is confirmation of its feasibility in actual braking applications. (paper)

  2. Solar Open Flux Migration from Pole to Pole: Magnetic Field Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G-H; Lin, C-H; Lee, L C

    2017-08-25

    Coronal holes are solar regions with low soft X-ray or low extreme ultraviolet intensities. The magnetic fields from coronal holes extend far away from the Sun, and thus they are identified as regions with open magnetic field lines. Coronal holes are concentrated in the polar regions during the sunspot minimum phase, and spread to lower latitude during the rising phase of solar activity. In this work, we identify coronal holes with outward and inward open magnetic fluxes being in the opposite poles during solar quiet period. We find that during the sunspot rising phase, the outward and inward open fluxes perform pole-to-pole trans-equatorial migrations in opposite directions. The migration of the open fluxes consists of three parts: open flux areas migrating across the equator, new open flux areas generated in the low latitude and migrating poleward, and new open flux areas locally generated in the polar region. All three components contribute to the reversal of magnetic polarity. The percentage of contribution from each component is different for different solar cycle. Our results also show that the sunspot number is positively correlated with the lower-latitude open magnetic flux area, but negatively correlated with the total open flux area.

  3. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Dawson, Richard Nils [Voorheesville, NY; Qu, Ronghai [Clifton Park, NY; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich [Moscow, RU

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  4. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition

  5. Does small-bodied salmon spawning activity enhance streambed mobility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Tonina, Daniele; Buxton, Todd H.

    2015-09-01

    Female salmonids bury and lay their eggs in streambeds by digging a pit, which is then covered with sediment from a second pit that is dug immediately upstream. The spawning process alters streambed topography, winnows fine sediment, and mixes sediment in the active layer. The resulting egg nests (redds) contain coarser and looser sediments than those of unspawned streambed areas, and display a dune-like shape with an amplitude and length that vary with fish size, substrate conditions, and flow conditions. Redds increase local bed surface roughness (drag, resulting in lower grain shear stress and less particle mobility. Spawning, also prevents streambed armoring by mixing surface and subsurface material, potentially increasing particle mobility. Here we use two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with detailed prespawning and postspawning bathymetries and field observations to test the effect of spawning by small-bodied salmonids on sediment transport. Our results show that topographical roughness from small salmon redds has negligible effects on shear stress at the reach-unit scale, and limited effects at the local scale. Conversely, results indicate sediment mixing reduces armoring and enhances sediment mobility, which increases potential bed load transport by subsequent floods. River restoration in fish-bearing streams should take into consideration the effects of redd excavation on channel stability. This is particularly important for streams that historically supported salmonids and are the focus of habitat restoration actions.

  6. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomchesson, Joshua L

    2006-01-01

    .... Responses to environmental enrichment included: body weight (BW), Body Mass Index score (BMI), Lee Index score (LI), consumption of standard rat chow, Oreo cookies, and Lays potato chips, and physical activity...

  7. Body image dissatisfaction, physical activity and screen-time in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Elizabeth; Fornieles-Deu, Albert; Fauquet-Ars, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Puntí-Vidal, Joaquim; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

    2018-01-01

    This cross-sectional study contributes to the literature on whether body dissatisfaction is a barrier/facilitator to engaging in physical activity and to investigate the impact of mass-media messages via computer-time on body dissatisfaction. High-school students ( N = 1501) reported their physical activity, computer-time (homework/leisure) and body dissatisfaction. Researchers measured students' weight and height. Analyses revealed that body dissatisfaction was negatively associated with physical activity on both genders, whereas computer-time was associated only with girls' body dissatisfaction. Specifically, as computer-homework increased, body dissatisfaction decreased; as computer-leisure increased, body dissatisfaction increased. Weight-related interventions should improve body image and physical activity simultaneously, while critical consumption of mass-media interventions should include a computer component.

  8. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water

  9. Improved models for determination of body fat by in vivo neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.; Vaswani, A.; Yasumura, S.; Yuen, K.; Ellis, K.

    1984-01-01

    In the present study, two different models of body composition, based on data obtained by nuclear techniques are used. Total body nitrogen, calcium, and chlorine were obtained by total body neutron activation. Total body chlorine was used to estimate extracellular water, and total body calcium to determine bone mineral and extracellular solids. Total body potassium was measured by whole body counting to obtain the body cell mass. In addition, total body water was measured by the tritium dilution technique. It was found that either model can be used equally well to measure total body fat in normal subjects. Estimation of body fat as the difference between body weight and the sum of total body nitrogen (protein), total body water, and bone ash (model 1) appears to have an advantage over model 2, which uses body cell mass, extracellular water, and extracellular solids, particularly for patients with metabolic disorders. This advantage is partly due to the fact that the parameter protein (total body nitrogen) is less affected in metabolic disorders than the more labile total body potassium. The closely correlated results obtained with the two models based on nuclear measurements support the conclusion that these techniques provide reliable measurements of total body fat

  10. Determination of pole orientations and shapes of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, P.; Barucci, M.A.; Drummond, J.D.; Lumme, K.; Surdej, J.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of asteroid lightcurve inversion and the information available from photometry are reviewed. General tools as well as specific techniques for shape and pole determinations are summarized and their advantages and shortcomings are discussed. The authors present the results obtained so far in this very active field and discuss their significance in the general context of asteroid research and planetary formation

  11. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  12. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    synthetic error prone secondary pole-pole potential data. 1. Introduction. Analytical signal .... The meaning of the rest of the parameters is self- evident. The three ..... interpretation using 3-D analytic signal; Geophysics 57. 116–125. Starostenko ...

  13. Functional activity of cows in body povnovikovyh independent period

    OpenAIRE

    PISCHAN S.; LYTVYSCHENKO L.; MARTYNENKO A.; PISCHAN І.

    2011-01-01

    The results of studies of physiological and productive milking cows in the early postnatal period. Proved that nepatolohichna modified organism physiological state accompanied by changes in body temperature, milk production and quality of dairy animals.

  14. E-Glider: Active Electrostatic Flight for Airless Body Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The environment near the surface of airless bodies (asteroids, comets, Moon) is electrically charged due to Sun's photoelectric bombardment. Charged dust is ever...

  15. The Influence of Body Discourses on Adolescents' (Non)Participation in Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Devís-Devís, José; Peiró-Velert, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on semi-structured interviews with older adolescents, this article examines how healthism, ideal body discourses and performative body discourses influence their (non)participation in physical activity (PA) and their identity construction concerning exercise, sport and physical education. We illustrate that body transformation through PA,…

  16. Body image, BMI, and physical activity in girls and boys aged 14-16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanista, Adam; Osiński, Wiesław; Borowiec, Joanna; Tomczak, Maciej; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body image, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys aged 14-16 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was evaluated by the Physical Activity Screening Measure. Body image was assessed using the Feelings and Attitudes Towards the Body Scale, and participants' BMI was determined based on measured height and weight. Compared to boys, girls reported more negative body image (pboys than in girls. These findings suggest that body image, rather than BMI, is important in undertaking physical activity in adolescents and should be considered when preparing programs aimed at improving physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemia H. Shaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents’ self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public, TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females’ body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.

  18. Brain activation upon ideal-body media exposure and peer feedback in late adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meulen, Mara; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Braams, Barbara R.; Peters, Sabine; Konijn, Elly A.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2017-01-01

    Media?s prevailing thin-body ideal plays a vital role in adolescent girls? body image development, but the co-occurring impact of peer feedback is understudied. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test media imagery and peer feedback combinations on neural activity related to thin-body ideals. Twenty-four healthy female late adolescents rated precategorized body sizes of bikini models (too thin or normal), directly followed by ostensible peer feedback (too t...

  19. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  20. Metrópoles desgovernadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Maricato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de sua importância econômica, política, social, demográfica, cultural, territorial e ambiental, há, nas metrópoles brasileiras, uma significativa falta de governo, evidenciada pelas incipientes iniciativas de cooperação administrativa intermunicipal e federativa. Este artigo aborda as mudanças estruturais - no processo de urbanização/ metropolização - devidas à reestruturação produtiva do capitalismo global, e, na escala nacional, trata da mudança no marco institucional - jurídico/político - que passou de concentrador e centralizador, durante o regime militar, para descentralizador e esvaziado, após a Constituição de 1988. O recuo verificado nas políticas sociais durante os anos 1980 e 1990, notadamente em transporte, habitação e saneamento, além do desmonte dos organismos metropolitanos, conduziu nossas metrópoles a um destino de banalização das tragédias urbanas. Em que pese sua urgência, a questão metropolitana não sensibiliza nenhuma força política ou instituição que lhe atribua lugar de destaque na agenda nacional.Despite its economic, political, social, demographic, cultural, territorial and environmental importance, there is a significant lack of government in the brazilian metropolises, evidenced by the incipient initiatives of intermunicipal and federative administrative cooperation. This article analyses the structural changes - in the process of urbanization/metropolization - due to the productive restructuring of global capitalism, and, in a national scale, analyses the change in the institutional mark - legal/political - which passed from concentrator and centralizer, during the Military Regimen, to decentralized and emptied, after 1988 Constitution. The downturn verified in social policies during the years 1980 and 1990, notably in transport, housing and sanitation, besides the dismantling of the metropolitan agencies, has led our cities to the trivialization of urban tragedies. Despite

  1. Effects of slotting and unipolar flux on magnetic pull in a two-pole induction motor with an extra four-pole stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinervo, A.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is about the radial magnetic forces between the rotor and stator in twopole induction machines. The magnetic forces arise from rotor eccentricity. The asymmetric air-gap makes the flux density on one side of the rotor stronger than on the opposite side. This produces magnetic pull. The magnetic flux density distribution in the air-gap can be expressed with spatial harmonics, i.e. flux densities with different pole-pair numbers. In two-pole machines, the main part of the magnetic force is produced by the interaction of two- and fourpole flux unless the four-pole flux is damped by parallel paths in the stator winding or an extra four-pole stator winding. The rest of the force comes from the interaction of two-pole and unipolar flux and from the higher harmonics of the air-gap flux of which the slot harmonics are a major part. The force caused by the higher harmonics and the unipolar flux is studied in the case where a four-pole stator winding is used to reduce the four-pole flux. The higher harmonics are found to produce, in addition to the traditional unbalanced magnetic pull, a force similar to the effect of the unipolar flux and the two can be distinguished only by measuring the unipolar flux. In measurements at various operation points, the higher harmonics are found to produce much more force than the unipolar flux and two-pole flux but the unipolar flux is still significant. The four-pole winding also is used to actively control the four-pole flux and the magnetic forces. Designing the controller requires a low order model of the system. Such a model is derived and the effect of the slot harmonics and the unipolar flux are included in the model. Different measurements techniques and methods are presented to identify and validate the control model. The operation point dependence of the system dynamics is studied via measurements. All results are obtained from a 30 kW test motor. The rotor of the test machine has a long flexible shaft on external

  2. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health.

  3. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  4. A Hierarchical Approach to Real-time Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Gu, Tao; Tao, Xianping

    2012-01-01

    Real-time activity recognition in body sensor networks is an important and challenging task. In this paper, we propose a real-time, hierarchical model to recognize both simple gestures and complex activities using a wireless body sensor network. In this model, we rst use a fast and lightweight al...

  5. Real-time Human Activity Recognition using a Body Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Gu, Tao; Chen, Hanhua

    2010-01-01

    Real-time activity recognition using body sensor networks is an important and challenging task and it has many potential applications. In this paper, we propose a realtime, hierarchical model to recognize both simple gestures and complex activities using a wireless body sensor network. In this mo...

  6. Parallel Vortex Body Interaction Enabled by Active Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingaertner, Andre; Tewes, Philipp; Little, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    An experimental study was conducted to explore the flow physics of parallel vortex body interaction between two NACA 0012 airfoils. Experiments were carried out at chord Reynolds numbers of 740,000. Initially, the leading airfoil was characterized without the target one being installed. Results are in good agreement with thin airfoil theory and data provided in the literature. Afterward, the leading airfoil was fixed at 18° incidence and the target airfoil was installed 6 chord lengths downstream. Plasma actuation (ns-DBD), originating close to the leading edge, was used to control vortex shedding from the leading airfoil at various frequencies (0.04 governing parameters of this vortex body interaction are explored. This work was supported by the Army Research Office under ARO Grant No. W911NF-14-1-0662.

  7. Gender differences in physical activity, sedentary behavior, and their relation to body composition in active Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Julia Aparecida Devide; Macedo da Costa, Teresa Helena

    2009-01-01

    Body weight and composition are determined by genotype, environment, and energy balance. Physical activity or sedentary behavior have different associations with body weight, fat mass, and fat-free mass, a relationship that is not clear in adolescents. The aim of this study was to test the associations between gender, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body composition in physically active adolescents. Weight, height, and skinfold thickness were measured in 326 physically active boys and girls age 11 to 15 years. All subjects answered a questionnaire assessing their usual daily activities for the last month. Time spent on each activity was used to estimate the physical activity level (PAL). PAL was associated with body composition after adjustment for age and maturation, with differences between genders. For boys, PAL was positively and significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) and fat-free mass index (beta=0.14 and 0.15, respectively). For girls, PAL was negatively and significantly associated with BMI and fat mass index (beta=-0.11 and -0.75, respectively). Sedentary behavior, expressed by hours of TV, videogame, and computer use, was not associated with any body-composition outcome for either gender. The accumulated amount of physical activity, but not of sedentary behavior, was related to body composition in active adolescents.

  8. Holography with a Landau pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faedo, Antón F. [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Mateos, David [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys 23, ES-08010, Barcelona (Spain); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tarrío, Javier [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine CP 231, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N{sub f} quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale Λ{sub LP}. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E≪Λ{sub LP} no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E≲Λ{sub LP} the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T≲Λ{sub LP} the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ>d−1.

  9. Holography with a Landau pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N f quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale Λ LP . The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E≪Λ LP no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E≲Λ LP the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T≲Λ LP the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ>d−1.

  10. Activate Your Body (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    As people age, it gets tougher to be physically active. While cutting back on certain activities is inevitable, finding ways to exercise on a regular basis is important for maintaining good health. In this podcast, Dr. Kathy Watson discusses the importance of older adults maintaining an active lifestyle.

  11. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity......%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Body fat distribution was independently linked to both insulin concentrations and physical activity. In contrast, TBF, AFM, and BF% were linked to physical activity only and not to insulin concentrations. In conclusion in this population of non-diabetic...... was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF), also calculated as percentage of body weight (BF...

  12. Utility poles not affected by CCA decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Venzio, H. [Arch Wood Protection Canada, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    A voluntary decision by industry to move non-industrial use of treated lumber products away from pressure-treated wood containing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative was announced by the Environmental Protection Agency on February 12, 2002. Although new alternative wood preservatives would be used, this decision does not affect utility poles, which will continue to be sold and installed. The author provides a brief historical outline concerning the creation of CCA in 1933 and its subsequent uses. CCA has many advantages, including clean surface of the poles, ground line treatment that is not required thus eliminating the requirement to rotate the poles during extended storage periods. Conductivity is low, as is corrosivity without affecting the bending characteristics of the wood. The injection of a refined hydrocarbon oil emulsion in the outer layer of the pole after the treatment with CCA is offered by some pole producers to facilitate gaff penetration. Sawing, drilling and nailing are also made easier. Water repellents can be added to the treating solution to improve climbability, slowing down the absorption and release of moisture. Warranties, extending for 50-year periods, are offered by some companies against wood-destroying organisms. The North American Wood Pole Coalition (NAWPC) was formed in 1998 to promote the use of wood poles, and publishes brochures and technical bulletins to that effect.

  13. Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.

  14. The role of physical activity, body mass index and maturity status in body-related perceptions and self-esteem of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıntaş, A; Aşçı, F H; Kin-İşler, A; Güven-Karahan, B; Kelecek, S; Özkan, A; Yılmaz, A; Kara, F M

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence represents a transitional period which is marked by physical, social and psychological changes. Changes in body shape and physical activity especially alter and shape the psychological well-being of adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of physical activity level, body mass index and maturity status in body-related perception and self-esteem of 11-18 years old adolescents. A total of 1012 adolescents participated in this study. The "Social Physique Anxiety Scale", "Body Image Satisfaction Scale", "Physical Self-Perception Profile for Children" and "Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory" were administered. Physical activity level and body mass index were assessed using the "Physical Activity Questionnaire" and "Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer", respectively. Regression analysis indicated that body mass index was the only predictor of perceived body attractiveness, social physique anxiety, body image satisfaction and self-esteem for female adolescents. For male adolescents, both physical activity and body mass index were correlated with perceived body attractiveness and social physique anxiety. Pubertal status were not correlated with self-esteem and body-related perceptions for both males and females adolescents. In summary, body mass index and physical activity plays an important role in body-related perceptions and self-esteem of adolescents.

  15. Tree-loop duality relation beyond single poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierenbaum, Isabella [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Buchta, Sebastian; Draggiotis, Petros; Malamos, Ioannis; Rodrigo, German [Valencia Univ. Paterna (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular

    2012-11-15

    We develop the Tree-Loop Duality Relation for two- and three-loop integrals with multiple identical propagators (multiple poles). This is the extension of the Duality Relation for single poles and multi-loop integrals derived in previous publications. We prove a generalization of the formula for single poles to multiple poles and we develop a strategy for dealing with higher-order pole integrals by reducing them to single pole integrals using Integration By Parts.

  16. Activate Your Body (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-15

    As people age, it gets tougher to be physically active. While cutting back on certain activities is inevitable, finding ways to exercise on a regular basis is important for maintaining good health. In this podcast, Dr. Kathy Watson discusses the importance of older adults maintaining an active lifestyle.  Created: 9/15/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/15/2016.

  17. Cold Hole Over Jupiter's Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Observations with two NASA telescopes show that Jupiter has an arctic polar vortex similar to a vortex over Earth's Antarctica that enables depletion of Earth's stratospheric ozone.These composite images of Jupiter's north polar region from the Hubble Space Telescope (right) and the Infrared Telescope Facility (left) show a quasi-hexagonal shape that extends vertically from the stratosphere down into the top of the troposphere. A sharp temperature drop, compared to surrounding air masses, creates an eastward wind that tends to keep the polar atmosphere, including the stratospheric haze, isolated from the rest of the atmosphere.The linear striations in the composite projections are artifacts of the image processing. The area closest to the pole has been omitted because it was too close to the edge of the planet in the original images to represent the planet reliably.The composite on the right combines images from the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope taken at a wavelength of 890 nanometers, which shows stratospheric haze particles.The sharp boundary and wave-like structure of the haze layer suggest a polar vortex and a similarity to Earth's stratospheric polar clouds. Images of Jupiter's thermal radiation clinch that identification. The composite on the left, for example, is made from images taken with Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mid-Infrared Large-Well Imager at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility at a wavelength of 17 microns. It shows polar air mass that is 5 to 6 degrees Celsius (9 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit) colder than its surroundings, with the same border as the stratospheric haze. Similar observations at other infrared wavelengths show the cold air mass extends at least as high as the middle stratosphere down to the top of the troposphere.These images were taken Aug. 11 through Aug. 13, 1999, near a time when Jupiter's north pole was most visible from Earth. Other Infrared Telescope Facility images at frequencies sensitive to the

  18. Carotid body (Thermoreceptors, sympathetic neural activation, and cardiometabolic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Iturriaga

    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB is the main peripheral chemoreceptor that senses the arterial PO2, PCO2 and pH. In response to hypoxemia, hypercapnia and acidosis, carotid chemosensory discharge elicits reflex respiratory, autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. The classical construct considers the CB as the main peripheral oxygen sensor, triggering reflex physiological responses to acute hypoxemia and facilitating the ventilatory acclimation to chronic hypoxemia at high altitude. However, a growing body of experimental evidence supports the novel concept that an abnormally enhanced CB chemosensory input to the brainstem contributes to overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, and consequent pathology. Indeed, the CB has been implicated in several diseases associated with increases in central sympathetic outflow. These include hypertension, heart failure, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, ablation of the CB has been proposed for the treatment of severe and resistant hypertension in humans. In this review, we will analyze and discuss new evidence supporting an important role for the CB chemoreceptor in the progression of autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome.

  19. 200 terms for 'embodied activity'. The body in interaction: terminology for the body in ROLSI papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this guest blog, Maurice Nevile tracks the way that articles in ROLSI have coped with the complex task of choosing what terms to use in describing …. well, what to call it? Bodily movement? Embodied activity? Gesture? Each of these (and many more) have pros and cons as descriptors. But with th...

  20. Sensing technology for damage assessment of sign supports and cantilever poles : final report, August 31, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    This report presents the results of research activities conducted under Contract No. 519691-PIT 008 on Sensing Technology for : Damage Assessment of Sign Supports and Cantilever Poles between the University of Pittsburgh and the Pennsylvania De...

  1. Physical activity, body composition and physical fitness status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... BMI for age and gender was used to classify the children as underweight, overweight or obese ... health crises associated with underweight and low levels of PA status in the children.

  2. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute of Child Health, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria. Abstract. Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. ..... and treatment of high blood pressure in children and ad- olescents.

  3. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  4. The pole tide in deep oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    The fluid-dynamical theory of the pole tide is examined by describing the oceanic response to the Chandler wobble and assessing its implications for mantle anelasticity and low-frequency ocean dynamics. The Laplace tide equations accounting for bottom friction are given, and a spherical harmonic approach is delineated in which the time-independent portion of the tide height is expanded. Pole-tide height and related inertia products are linearly proportional to wobble amplitude, and the final equations are modified to account for mantle elasticity and oceanic loading. Results for pole tide effects are given for various earth models with attention to the role of boundary constraints. A dynamic effect is identified which lengthens the Chandler period by about 1 day more than static lengthening, a contribution that suggests a vigorous low-frequency response. The values derived are shown to agree with previous models that do not incorporate the effects of the pole tide.

  5. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  6. Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, N.S.J.; Eastell, R.; Smith, M.A.; Tothill, P.

    1983-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to measure total body sodium and chlorine in 18 male and 18 female normal adults. Corrections for body size were developed. Normalisation factors were derived which enable the prediction of the normal levels of sodium and chlorine in a subject. The coefficient of variation of normalised sodium was 5.9% in men and 6.9% in women, and of normalised chlorine 9.3% in men and 5.5% in women. In the range examined (40-70 years) no significant age dependence was observed for either element. Total body sodium was correlated with total body chlorine and total body calcium. Sodium excess, defined as the amount of body sodium in excess of that associated with chlorine, also correlated well with total body calcium. In females there was a mean annual loss of sodium excess of 1.2% after the menopause, similar to the loss of calcium. (author)

  7. Physical activity and body image among men and boys: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; McEwan, Desmond; Kamarhie, Aria

    2017-09-01

    Three meta-analytic reviews have concluded that physical activity is positively related to body image. Historically, research regarding physical activity and body image has been disproportionately focused on female samples. For example, the most recent meta-analysis (2009) extracted 56 effect sizes for women and only 12 for men. The current paper provides an update to the literature regarding the relationship between physical activity and body image among men and boys across 84 individual effect sizes. The analysis also provides insight regarding moderator variables including participant age, and physical activity type and intensity. Overall, physical activity was positively related to body image among men and boys with various moderator variables warranting further investigation. Pragmatic implications are discussed as well as the limitations within existing research and need for additional research to further understand moderator and mediator variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  9. Body image dissatisfaction and its relationship with physical activity and nutritional status in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pinheiro Ferrari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of body image dissatisfaction with physical activity level and nutritional status in freshmen from a public Brazilian university. A total of 832 university students (485 men with a mean age of 20.1 years (standard deviation = 4.6 participated in the study. Self-reported body weight and height were used for the calculation of body mass index. The students responded to the Body Shape Questionnaire and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, considering p < .05. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and physical inactivity was 10.1% and 14.5%, respectively. No significant association was observed between body image dissatisfaction and physical activity level. Body image dissatisfaction was associated with nutritional status in both genders (p < .05. University students with excess body weight should be encouraged to pursue a healthier lifestyle in order to promote an adequate nutritional status and also to improve their body image.

  10. Body size satisfaction and physical activity levels among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Lee, Chong-Do; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Macera, Caroline A

    2008-08-01

    Body size satisfaction may be an important factor associated with physical activity. We analyzed data from the 2002 National Physical Activity and Weight Loss Survey (NPAWLS), a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey of US adults. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of body size satisfaction on being regularly active. Participants were aged > or =18 years with complete data on weight, race/ethnicity, physical activity level, and body size satisfaction (n = 10,021). More than half of men (55.8%) and women (53.3%) who reported being very satisfied with the body size were regularly active. After adjustment for covariates, participants who reported being somewhat or not satisfied with their body size had a 13 and 44% lower odds of being regularly active, respectively, compared with those very satisfied with their body size. When stratified by race/ethnicity, this association remained in whites (P for trend physical activity than those less satisfied. Further research is needed to explore predictors of physical activity to reduce health disparities.

  11. Physical Activity And Dietary Fat As Determinants Of Body Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical activity and dietary fat. The main indicator of ...

  12. Physical Activity Plays an Important Role in Body Weight Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging literature highlights the need to incorporate physical activity into every strategy intended to prevent weight gain as well as to maintain weight loss over time. Furthermore, physical activity should be part of any plan to lose weight. The stimulus of exercise provides valuable metabolic adaptations that improve energy and macronutrient balance regulation. A tight coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure has been documented at high levels of physical exercise, suggesting that exercise may improve appetite control. The regular practice of physical activity has also been reported to reduce the risk of stress-induced weight gain. A more personalized approach is recommended when planning exercise programs in a clinical weight loss setting in order to limit the compensatory changes associated to exercise-induced weight loss. With modern environment promoting overeating and sedentary behavior, there is an urgent need for a concerted action including legislative measures to promote healthy active living in order to curb the current epidemic of chronic diseases.

  13. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven...

  14. Brain activation upon ideal-body media exposure and peer feedback in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, J.; van der Meulen, Mara; Braams, Barbara; Peters, Sabine; Konijn, E.A.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2017-01-01

    Media’s prevailing thin-body ideal plays a vital role in adolescent girls’ body image development, but the co-occurring impact of peer feedback is understudied. The present study used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to test media imagery and peer feedback combinations on neural activity

  15. Knowledge Management Tools in Application to Regulatory Body Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, E.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the application of knowledge management tools to regulatory authority activity. Knowledge management tools are considered a means for improving the efficiency of regulator activities. Three case studies are considered: 1. a knowledge management audit procedure in the regulator (tools for knowledge management audit application, results and the audit outcomes); 2. the development of a guide to identify causes of discrepancies and shortcomings revealed during inspections in NPP maintenance (ontologies of factors influencing on a maintenance quality and causes of discrepancies and shortcoming development); 3. the development of a knowledge portal for regulator (regulator needs which could be covered by the portal, definition and basic function of the portal, it’s functioning principles, development goals and tasks, common model, development stages). (author)

  16. Daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness and body fat in an urban sample of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between objectively measured daily physical activity vs aerobic fitness and body fat in children aged 8-11 years. A cross-sectional study of 225 children aged 7.9-11.1 years was performed. Abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF) were quantified by dual......-energy x-ray absorptiometry. TBF was calculated as percentage of total body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Aerobic fitness was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 4 days...... and daily accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous activity was calculated. Significant relationships (Pfitness (r=0.38), whereas moderate-to-vigorous activity displayed weaker relationships...

  17. Whole-Body MRI versus PET in assessment of multiple myeloma disease activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shortt, Conor P

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET; whole-body MRI; and the reference standard, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, to determine the best imaging technique for assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma.

  18. Prostate Can Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos J

    2006-01-01

    ... that environmental factors can greatly influence the risk of this cancer. The purpose of this investigation is therefore, to study the relationship of physical activity and body habitus with prostate cancer mortality among...

  19. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  20. The potential of wood-based composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Cheng Piao; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Wood-based composite utility poles are receiving increasing attention in the North American pole market. This interest is being driven by many increasing factors such as increasing: (1) disposal costs of solid wood poles, (2) liability and environmental concerns with traditional means of disposal of solid wood poles, (3) cost and concerns of long-term...

  1. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction in Portuguese adolescents: obesity, sports activity and TV watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles de Castro Coelho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to determine the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors in Portuguese adolescents (N=529, 10-18 years, 53.7% male and 46.3% female. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction (estimated through Collins's silhouettes was 58%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the variables associated were: obesity, watch TV over 2 hours/day and practice sport activities 4 or more days/week. In male, obesity and watch TV over 2 hours/day were related to body dissatisfaction and among female only obesity had statistical significance. It is necessary to considered different public health interventions for men and women in order to reduce this high body image dissatisfaction.   Keywords: Body image, adolescence, gender, obesity, sports activity

  2. Creating Inclusive Physical Activity Spaces: The Case of Body-Positive Yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Andrew C; Cunningham, George B

    2017-09-01

    Within the modern cultural climate, those in larger bodies face high levels of weight stigma, particularly in sport and physical activity spaces, which serves as a strong barrier to their participation. However, given the strong link between physical activity and general health and well-being for participants, it is important to explore strategies that encourage participation of these individuals. Thus, the current research examined strategies that physical activity instructors use to develop inclusive exercise spaces for all body sizes. This study employed a series of semistructured qualitative interviews (n = 9) with instructors of body-inclusive yoga classes to explore the ways in which they encourage participation for those in larger bodies. Emergent themes from the current study suggested support for 6 factors for creating body-inclusive physical activity spaces: authentic leadership, a culture of inclusion, a focus on health, inclusive language, leader social activism, and a sense of community. This study revealed that leaders must intentionally cultivate inclusion in their spaces to encourage those in nonconforming bodies to participate. These findings have important health and management implications for the sport and physical activity context and provide a basic outline of practical strategies that practitioners can use to foster inclusion in their spaces.

  3. Physical activity, health, body mass index, sleeping habits and body complaints in Australian senior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alricsson, Marie; Domalewski, Debra; Romild, Ulla; Asplund, Ragnar

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents in the industrial world are becoming less physically active and are increasingly adopting a sedentary life-style in front of computers and television screens. to determine self-related health, physical activity, sleeping habits, prevalence of overweight, and body complaints in Australian senior high school students. Participants were 466 high school students aged 15-17 years enrolled in academic and vocational programs. A questionnaire was completed at two senior high schools with questions about weight and height, health, physical activity, type of physical activity/sport, intensity, sleeping habits, and possible injuries or complaints during the last three months. Seventy seven percent of the high school students participated in sports on a regular basis. Compared with vocational programs, more males and females in academic programs participated in sports (71% and 80% respectively) (p = .036). Males reported significantly better health than females (p sleep was reported in 82.1% of males and in 76.6% of females. In males, 44.3% were often sleepy in the daytime (females 56.6%, p sleep are factors with significant positive effect on good health, whereas overweight is a negative factor. Proper sleep habits and higher physical activity levels should be promoted among high school students, and TV viewing time and video game use restricted. Additionally, schools should provide opportunities for young people to participate in a wider range of physical activities that address their individual needs while promoting the health benefits of engaging in regular exercise.

  4. Expanding the agenda for research on the physically active aging body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Cassandra; Grant, Bevan

    2009-07-01

    In this article, the authors consider the different approaches that can be used to examine the relationship between physical activity and aging. They propose that much is to be gained in our awareness of this dynamic relationship by drawing on multiple forms of knowledge that can generate diverse understandings regarding the impact of physical activity on physiological, psychological, and social aspects of aging. Accordingly, 3 different approaches to understanding the older physically (in)active body are presented. These are categorized as (a) the objective truth about the aging, physically active body; (b) the subjective truth about the aging, physically active body; and (c) "tales" about the aging, physically active body. The key underpinnings, strengths, and weaknesses of each approach are outlined. A number of examples from the literature are also offered to demonstrate where and how each approach has been used to contribute to our understanding about older people and physical activity. The more thorough, multidisciplinary, and wide spanning our knowledge of the aging, active body is, the more informed we might become in every dimension of its existence.

  5. Association between self-reported physical activity and indicators of body composition in Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Sim, Pei Ying; Nahar, Azmi Mohamed; Majid, Hazreen Abd; Murray, Liam J; Cantwell, Marie M; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and lack of physical activity are fast becoming a concern among Malaysian adolescents. This study aims to assess physical activity levels among Malaysian adolescents and investigate the association between physical activity levels and body composition such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat. 1361 school-going 13 year old multi-ethnic adolescents from population representative samples in Malaysia were involved in our study. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Height, weight, body fat composition and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Data collection period was from March to May 2012. 10.8% of the males and 7.4% of the females were obese according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. A majority of the adolescents (63.9%) were physically inactive. There is a weak but significant correlation between physical activity scores and the indicators of obesity. The adjusted coefficient for body fatness was relatively more closely correlated to physical activity scores followed by waist circumference and lastly BMI. This study demonstrates that high physical activity scores were associated with the decreased precursor risk factors of obesity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Parasympathetic activity and blood catecholamine responses following a single partial-body cryostimulation and a whole-body cryostimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Hausswirth

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a single whole-body cryostimulation (WBC and a partial-body cryostimulation (PBC (i.e., not exposing the head to cold on indices of parasympathetic activity and blood catecholamines. Two groups of 15 participants were assigned either to a 3-min WBC or PBC session, while 10 participants constituted a control group (CON not receiving any cryostimulation. Changes in thermal, physiological and subjective variables were recorded before and during the 20-min after each cryostimulation. According to a qualitative statistical analysis, an almost certain decrease in skin temperature was reported for all body regions immediately after the WBC (mean decrease±90% CL, -13.7±0.7°C and PBC (-8.3±0.3°C, which persisted up to 20-min after the session. The tympanic temperature almost certainly decreased only after the WBC session (-0.32±0.04°C. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were very likely increased after the WBC session, whereas these changes were trivial in the other groups. In addition, heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-10.9% and WBC (-15.2% sessions, in a likely greater proportion for WBC compared to PBC. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF were very likely increased after PBC (RMSSD: +54.4%, HF: +138% and WBC (RMSSD: +85.2%, HF: +632% sessions without any marked difference between groups. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations were likely to very likely increased after PBC (+57.4% and WBC (+76.2%, respectively. Finally, cold and comfort sensations were almost certainly altered after WBC and PBC, sensation of discomfort being likely more pronounced after WBC than PBC. Both acute cryostimulation techniques effectively stimulated the autonomic nervous system (ANS, with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation. The results of this study also suggest

  7. Protein kinase A activation enhances β-catenin transcriptional activity through nuclear localization to PML bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available The Protein Kinase A (PKA and Wnt signaling cascades are fundamental pathways involved in cellular development and maintenance. In the osteoblast lineage, these pathways have been demonstrated functionally to be essential for the production of mineralized bone. Evidence for PKA-Wnt crosstalk has been reported both during tumorigenesis and during organogenesis, and the nature of the interaction is thought to rely on tissue and cell context. In this manuscript, we analyzed bone tumors arising from mice with activated PKA caused by mutation of the PKA regulatory subunit Prkar1a. In primary cells from these tumors, we observed relocalization of β-catenin to intranuclear punctuate structures, which were identified as PML bodies. Cellular redistribution of β-catenin could be recapitulated by pharmacologic activation of PKA. Using 3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts as a model system, we found that PKA phosphorylation sites on β-catenin were required for nuclear re-localization. Further, β-catenin's transport to the nucleus was accompanied by an increase in canonical Wnt-dependent transcription, which also required the PKA sites. PKA-Wnt crosstalk in the cells was bi-directional, including enhanced interactions between β-catenin and the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB and transcriptional crosstalk between the Wnt and PKA signaling pathways. Increases in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling were associated with a decrease in the activity of the non-canonical Wnt/Ror2 pathway, which has been shown to antagonize canonical Wnt signaling. Taken together, this study provides a new understanding of the complex regulation of the subcellular distribution of β-catenin and its differential protein-protein interaction that can be modulated by PKA signaling.

  8. Fitness, daily activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between...... the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy...... fitness and daytime spent in intensive activity. Overweight children are physically less active than normal weight children....

  9. Pole shifting with constrained output feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, D.; Mensah, S.; Boisvert, J.

    1984-03-01

    The concept of pole placement plays an important role in linear, multi-variable, control theory. It has received much attention since its introduction, and several pole shifting algorithms are now available. This work presents a new method which allows practical and engineering constraints such as gain limitation and controller structure to be introduced right into the pole shifting design strategy. This is achieved by formulating the pole placement problem as a constrained optimization problem. Explicit constraints (controller structure and gain limits) are defined to identify an admissible region for the feedback gain matrix. The desired pole configuration is translated into an appropriate cost function which must be closed-loop minimized. The resulting constrained optimization problem can thus be solved with optimization algorithms. The method has been implemented as an algorithmic interactive module in a computer-aided control system design package, MVPACK. The application of the method is illustrated to design controllers for an aircraft and an evaporator. The results illustrate the importance of controller structure on overall performance of a control system

  10. Frequent POLE1 p.S297F mutation in Chinese patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Wang, Feng [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Li, Wei [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Mei-Zhen [Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); Huang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Qun [Key Laboratory of Women' s Reproductive Health of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Central Laboratory, Jiangxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Xu, Xiao-Yun [Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); Huang, Ou-Ping, E-mail: huangouping@gmail.com [Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Institute, Jiangxi Provincial Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330029 (China); He, Ming, E-mail: jxhm56@hotmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Nanchang University School of Pharmaceutical Science, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2014-03-15

    The catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE1) functions primarily in nuclear DNA replication and repair. Recently, POLE1 mutations were detected frequently in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas while with lower frequency in several other types of cancer, and the p.P286R and p.V411L mutations were the potential mutation hotspots in human cancers. Nevertheless, the mutation frequency of POLE1 in ovarian cancer still remains largely unknown. Here, we screened a total of 251 Chinese samples with distinct subtypes of ovarian carcinoma for the presence of POLE1 hotspot mutations by direct sequencing. A heterozygous somatic POLE1 mutation, p.S297F (c.890C>T), but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was identified in 3 out of 37 (8.1%) patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma; this mutation was evolutionarily highly conserved from Homo sapiens to Schizosaccharomyces. Of note, the POLE1 mutation coexisted with mutation in the ovarian cancer-associated PPP2R1A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, α) gene in a 46-year-old patient, who was also diagnosed with ectopic endometriosis in the benign ovary. In addition, a 45-year-old POLE1-mutated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma patient was also diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma while the remaining 52-year-old POLE1-mutated patient showed no additional distinctive clinical manifestation. In contrast to high frequency of POLE1 mutations in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, no POLE1 mutations were identified in patients with other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed for the first time that the POLE1 p.S297F mutation, but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was frequent in Chinese ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but absent in other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. These results implicated that POLE1 p.S297F mutation might be actively involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but might not be actively

  11. Frequent POLE1 p.S297F mutation in Chinese patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Yang; Liu, Fa-Ying; Liu, Huai; Wang, Feng; Li, Wei; Huang, Mei-Zhen; Huang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Huang, Ou-Ping; He, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE1) functions primarily in nuclear DNA replication and repair. Recently, POLE1 mutations were detected frequently in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas while with lower frequency in several other types of cancer, and the p.P286R and p.V411L mutations were the potential mutation hotspots in human cancers. Nevertheless, the mutation frequency of POLE1 in ovarian cancer still remains largely unknown. Here, we screened a total of 251 Chinese samples with distinct subtypes of ovarian carcinoma for the presence of POLE1 hotspot mutations by direct sequencing. A heterozygous somatic POLE1 mutation, p.S297F (c.890C>T), but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was identified in 3 out of 37 (8.1%) patients with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma; this mutation was evolutionarily highly conserved from Homo sapiens to Schizosaccharomyces. Of note, the POLE1 mutation coexisted with mutation in the ovarian cancer-associated PPP2R1A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, α) gene in a 46-year-old patient, who was also diagnosed with ectopic endometriosis in the benign ovary. In addition, a 45-year-old POLE1-mutated ovarian endometrioid carcinoma patient was also diagnosed with uterine leiomyoma while the remaining 52-year-old POLE1-mutated patient showed no additional distinctive clinical manifestation. In contrast to high frequency of POLE1 mutations in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, no POLE1 mutations were identified in patients with other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed for the first time that the POLE1 p.S297F mutation, but not p.P286R and p.V411L hotspot mutations observed in other cancer types, was frequent in Chinese ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but absent in other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. These results implicated that POLE1 p.S297F mutation might be actively involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, but might not be actively

  12. Relation of body mass index and body fat mass for Spanish university students, taking into account leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos; Queralt, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relation of Body Mass Index with body fat mass while taking into account the amount of leisure-time physical activity for 299 male university students. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. An estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity in metabolic equivalents (METs) was obtained so participants were divided into six activity groups by percentile: no physical activity by the first group and participants physically active were divided into five groups by percentiles: 90% group.

  13. Integrated 3D printing and corona poling process of PVDF piezoelectric films for pressure sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoejin; Torres, Fernando; Wu, Yanyu; Villagran, Dino; Lin, Yirong; Tseng, Tzu-Liang(Bill

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel process to fabricate piezoelectric films from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer using integrated fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing and corona poling technique. Corona poling is one of many effective poling processes that has received attention to activate PVDF as a piezoelectric responsive material. The corona poling process occurs when a PVDF polymer is exposed to a high electric field created and controlled through an electrically charged needle and a grid electrode under heating environment. FDM 3D printing has seen extensive progress in fabricating thermoplastic materials and structures, including PVDF. However, post processing techniques such as poling is needed to align the dipoles in order to gain piezoelectric properties. To further simplify the piezoelectric sensors and structures fabrication process, this paper proposes an integrated 3D printing process with corona poling to fabricate piezoelectric PVDF sensors without post poling process. This proposed process, named ‘Integrated 3D Printing and Corona poling process’ (IPC), uses the 3D printer’s nozzle and heating bed as anode and cathode, respectively, to create poling electric fields in a controlled heating environment. The nozzle travels along the programmed path with fixed distance between nozzle tip and sample’s top surface. Simultaneously, the electric field between the nozzle and bottom heating pad promotes the alignment of dipole moment of PVDF molecular chains. The crystalline phase transformation and output current generated by printed samples under different electric fields in this process were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and through fatigue load frame. It is demonstrated that piezoelectric PVDF films with enhanced β-phase percentage can be fabricated using the IPC process. In addition, mechanical properties of printed PVDF was investigated by tensile testing. It is expected to expand the use of additive

  14. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. EFFECTS OF OUTSCHOOL BODY ACTIVITIES ON QUALITATIVE CHANGES OF MOTORICAL STATUS PUPILS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STRATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izudin Tanović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Population of pupil high classes primary school present one of cariks in chain of complex education and systematic social influence in body and health education, which are used a new generations (Mikić,1991. Including that we have a very sensibility population in way of strature and development in phase of adolescental period, it is necessary that throw the classes body education and extra outschool activities, give enough quantity of motorical activities, which will completly satisfied necessy of children this strature and also completly give them normal biopsychosocial growth. Explorations of effects extra outschool activities in frame of school sport sections pupils of primary school tell us that with a correct planning and programming work, which understand correctly choice adequate methods and operators of work could been very significant transformations of anthropological status of pupils (Malacko 2002. The basic target of this explorations was that confirm influence of outschool body activities on level qualitative changes of structure motorical space of pupils primary school strature, under influence applying programme of outschool activities. With help of factory analise, but also of method of congruation, it was explored structure of motorical space in the start but also at the end of this applying experimental programme of outschool body activities , and we concluded that changes which was appear in structure of explored motorical space, tell us on positive influence outschool body activities in sense transformation and progressing of motorical status of explorated sample.

  16. Predictors of body appearance cognitive distraction during sexual activity in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, Patrícia; Narciso, Isabel; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive distraction is a core concept in cognitive models of sexual dysfunction. Body appearance cognitive distraction during sexual activity (BACDSA) has been mainly studied among female college samples. However, the relative contribution of different indicators of body dissatisfaction among men and women from community samples, including the contribution of relationship variables to BACDSA, has yet to be examined. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which aspects of body dissatisfaction and relationship variables predict BACDSA. A total of 669 cohabitating, heterosexual, Portuguese participants (390 women and 279 men) with no sexual problems completed an anonymous online survey. The survey included a sociodemographic questionnaire and a set of questionnaires assessing body- and relationship-related variables. We used a single item measure of the participant's satisfaction with the opinion that they perceive their partner has about the participant's body (PPO); the Global Body Dissatisfaction Subscale of the Body Attitudes Test (GBD); a version of the Contour Drawing Rating Scale; the Global Measure of Relationship Satisfaction; and the Inclusion of Other in Self Scale. Focus on specific body parts during sexual activity (FBP) and relationship length were assessed with an open-ended question. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that GBD and FBP were the only body dissatisfaction variables that significantly predicted BACDSA in both men and women. The relationship variables significantly increased the amount of variance explained in BACDSA for both men and women. However, PPO was the only significant relationship variable that predicted BACDSA and only in women. Body and relationship variables are significant factors in body appearance cognitive distraction. They require further research and assessment, particularly for clinical intervention. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Prevalent lightning sferics at 600 megahertz near Jupiter's poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon; Janssen, Michael; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Atreya, Sushil; Bolton, Scott; Gulkis, Samuel; Ingersoll, Andrew; Levin, Steven; Li, Cheng; Li, Liming; Lunine, Jonathan; Misra, Sidharth; Orton, Glenn; Steffes, Paul; Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin; Kolmašová, Ivana; Imai, Masafumi; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Gurnett, Donald; Connerney, John

    2018-06-01

    Lightning has been detected on Jupiter by all visiting spacecraft through night-side optical imaging and whistler (lightning-generated radio waves) signatures1-6. Jovian lightning is thought to be generated in the mixed-phase (liquid-ice) region of convective water clouds through a charge-separation process between condensed liquid water and water-ice particles, similar to that of terrestrial (cloud-to-cloud) lightning7-9. Unlike terrestrial lightning, which emits broadly over the radio spectrum up to gigahertz frequencies10,11, lightning on Jupiter has been detected only at kilohertz frequencies, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range12. Strong ionospheric attenuation or a lightning discharge much slower than that on Earth have been suggested as possible explanations for this discrepancy13,14. Here we report observations of Jovian lightning sferics (broadband electromagnetic impulses) at 600 megahertz from the Microwave Radiometer15 onboard the Juno spacecraft. These detections imply that Jovian lightning discharges are not distinct from terrestrial lightning, as previously thought. In the first eight orbits of Juno, we detected 377 lightning sferics from pole to pole. We found lightning to be prevalent in the polar regions, absent near the equator, and most frequent in the northern hemisphere, at latitudes higher than 40 degrees north. Because the distribution of lightning is a proxy for moist convective activity, which is thought to be an important source of outward energy transport from the interior of the planet16,17, increased convection towards the poles could indicate an outward internal heat flux that is preferentially weighted towards the poles9,16,18. The distribution of moist convection is important for understanding the composition, general circulation and energy transport on Jupiter.

  18. Clusters of cyclones encircling Jupiter’s poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Orton, G.; Hansen, C.; Altieri, F.; Moriconi, M. L.; Rogers, J.; Eichstädt, G.; Momary, T.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Filacchione, G.; Sindoni, G.; Tabataba-Vakili, F.; Dinelli, B. M.; Fabiano, F.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Lunine, J. I.; Tosi, F.; Migliorini, A.; Grassi, D.; Piccioni, G.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Plainaki, C.; Olivieri, A.; O’Neill, M. E.; Turrini, D.; Stefani, S.; Sordini, R.; Amoroso, M.

    2018-03-01

    The familiar axisymmetric zones and belts that characterize Jupiter’s weather system at lower latitudes give way to pervasive cyclonic activity at higher latitudes. Two-dimensional turbulence in combination with the Coriolis β-effect (that is, the large meridionally varying Coriolis force on the giant planets of the Solar System) produces alternating zonal flows. The zonal flows weaken with rising latitude so that a transition between equatorial jets and polar turbulence on Jupiter can occur. Simulations with shallow-water models of giant planets support this transition by producing both alternating flows near the equator and circumpolar cyclones near the poles. Jovian polar regions are not visible from Earth owing to Jupiter’s low axial tilt, and were poorly characterized by previous missions because the trajectories of these missions did not venture far from Jupiter’s equatorial plane. Here we report that visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole by the Juno spacecraft during its first five orbits reveal persistent polygonal patterns of large cyclones. In the north, eight circumpolar cyclones are observed about a single polar cyclone; in the south, one polar cyclone is encircled by five circumpolar cyclones. Cyclonic circulation is established via time-lapse imagery obtained over intervals ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours. Although migration of cyclones towards the pole might be expected as a consequence of the Coriolis β-effect, by which cyclonic vortices naturally drift towards the rotational pole, the configuration of the cyclones is without precedent on other planets (including Saturn’s polar hexagonal features). The manner in which the cyclones persist without merging and the process by which they evolve to their current configuration are unknown.

  19. Evidence of highly oxidizing environment over the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have discovered high levels of an air purifying chemical or oxidizing agent in the near-surface atmosphere over the South Pole. This research, funded by the National Science Foundation, has implications for interpreting historical global climate records stored in Antarctic ice cores. The hydroxyl (OH) radical is higher at the South Pole than that estimated from OH measurements recorded at the equator. The OH radical is vital to scrubbing pollution and naturally occurring chemicals from the air and prevents a buildup of toxic levels of chemicals. The near surface atmospheric zone is a highly oxidizing environment at the South Pole. There is evidence that oxidizing chemistry continues to occur in the buried snow. This active chemistry could modify chemical species before they are trapped in the ice in their final chemical forms. Therefore, glaciochemists who study climate change based on analysis of trace chemicals trapped in polar ice will have to be more careful in their interpretations of Antarctic ice cores. Any significant increase of nitric oxide levels in any snow-covered area should result in high OH levels. Scientists used the selected-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer technique to measure OH. To measure nitric oxide (NO), they used chemiluminescence with modifications to improve its sensitivity. Nitric oxide is also a radical and is a by-product of internal combustion engines. At the South Pole, it is formed when ultraviolet radiation interacts with nitrate ions. The source of NO is not clear, but it may originate from stratospheric denitrification and the long-range transport of nitric acid formed at low latitude during electrical storms. Scientists are also working to better understand the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under the cold conditions and high latitudes of Antarctica. This information will help glaciochemists to better interpret sulfate and methane sulfonate concentrations

  20. Effects of programmed physical activity on body composition in post-pubertal schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson dos Santos Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. METHODS: The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG comprised 195 students and the control group (CG, 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass (FM, and lean mass (LM. RESULTS: A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (p < 0.001 was observed, as well as on the interaction time x group in all the variables analyzed in both genders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58% and waist circumference (-2.33 cm, as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. CONCLUSION: The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren.

  1. Effects of programmed physical activity on body composition in post-pubertal schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Edson Dos Santos; Gonçalves, Ezequiel Moreira; Morcillo, André Moreno; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2015-01-01

    To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG) comprised 195 students and the control group (CG), 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), and lean mass (LM). A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (pgenders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58%) and waist circumference (-2.33 cm), as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg) were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of body-related self-conscious emotions in motivating women's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Kowalski, Kent C; Wilson, Philip M; Mack, Diane E; Crocker, Peter R E

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model where body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride were associated with physical activity regulations and behavior. Adult women (N = 389; M age = 29.82, SD = 15.20 years) completed a questionnaire assessing body-related pride, shame, and guilt, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. The hypothesized measurement and structural models were deemed adequate, as was a revised model examining shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame. In the revised structural model, body-related pride was positively significantly related to identified and intrinsic regulations. Body-related shame-free guilt was significantly associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations. Body-related guilt-free shame was significantly positively related to external and introjected regulation, and negatively associated with intrinsic regulation. Identified and intrinsic regulations were significantly positively related to physical activity (R2 = .62). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding the realm of body-related self-conscious emotions and the associated links to regulations and physical activity behavior.

  3. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  4. PNRA. South-pole directory listing

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Carpen?, Andrea; Ramorino, Chiara; Rossi, Lucio

    1992-01-01

    In the following all DATA-SET descriptors (DSD) contained in the "South-Pole Directory" (vers. 1992) are listed. The "South-Pole Directory" was a joint project between ENEA and CNR. The IEI/CNR took care of the data digitalization and check and of the english translation (where necessary). The ARF/CNR and the Progetto Antartide/ENEA joined the IEI/CNR in defining the acronyms of the Sensor_Names and of the Source_Names, together with the short and long names for the Data_Centers. Finally, the...

  5. Body painting to promote self-active learning of hand anatomy for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Punsawad, Chuchard; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Kongthong, Paranyu

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to use the body painting method to teach hand anatomy to a group of preclinical medical students. Methods Students reviewed hand anatomy using the traditional method and body painting exercise. Feedback and retention of the anatomy-related information were examined by a questionnaire and multiple-choice questions, respectively, immediately and 1 month after the painting exercise. Results Students agreed that the exercise was advantageous and helped facilitate self-active learning after in-class anatomy lessons. While there was no significant difference in knowledge retention between the control and experimental groups, the students appreciated the exercise in which they applied body paint to the human body to learn anatomy. Conclusion The body painting was an efficient tool for aiding the interactive learning of medical students and increasing the understanding of gross anatomy.

  6. The articulated body. Physical activity, fitness and neew technologies of health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lene

    2010-01-01

    learns to be sensitive to differences, shape individuals’ bodily experiences. I will discuss how the Foucauldian concept of ‘technologies of the self’ and Latour’s idea bodies are ´learning to be affected’ can be helpful to understand this process. Latour suggests that the concept of ‘articulation’ – how...... of anticipations of fit bodies as essential to individual health. I identify a physical activity discourse in which new modes of knowing, experiencing and doing bodies involve new types of health technologies in which bodies must be connected to mechanical and electronic appliances, inscribed with biomedical...... the body become more articulated through knowledge and practices - can help direct our focus to “take on board the artificial and material components allowing one to progressively have a body” (1), and according to Foucault, technologies of the self “permit individuals to effect by their own means...

  7. Body painting to promote self-active learning of hand anatomy for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Punsawad, Chuchard; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Kongthong, Paranyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the body painting method to teach hand anatomy to a group of preclinical medical students. Students reviewed hand anatomy using the traditional method and body painting exercise. Feedback and retention of the anatomy-related information were examined by a questionnaire and multiple-choice questions, respectively, immediately and 1 month after the painting exercise. Students agreed that the exercise was advantageous and helped facilitate self-active learning after in-class anatomy lessons. While there was no significant difference in knowledge retention between the control and experimental groups, the students appreciated the exercise in which they applied body paint to the human body to learn anatomy. The body painting was an efficient tool for aiding the interactive learning of medical students and increasing the understanding of gross anatomy.

  8. Mitochondrial monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain after whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, I.V.; Tsybul'skij, V.V.; Grivtsev, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that γ-irradiation of albino rats with a dose of 30 Gy leads to pronounced phase changes in monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain at early times after whole-body exposure. These is a similar direction of changes in the activity of the enzyme and in the content of the substrate adequate to the latter

  9. Whole body and muscle energy metabolism in preruminant calves: effects of nutrient synchrony and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Hocquette, J.F.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of asynchronous availability of amino acids and glucose on muscle composition and enzyme activities in skeletal muscle were studied in preruminant calves. It was hypothesized that decreased oxidative enzyme activities in muscle would explain a decreased whole body heat production with

  10. University Students Meeting the Recommended Standards of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaofen; Castelli, Darla; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Guan, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated student physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in relation to the "Healthy Campus 2010" objectives set by the American College Health Association in 2002. Students (N = 1125) at a U.S. southern state university participated in the study. The percentages of students who were physically active and whose…

  11. HACMAC: A reliable human activity-based medium access control for implantable body sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuppiah Ramachandran, Vignesh Raja; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana

    Chronic care is an eminent application of implantable body sensor networks (IBSN). Performing physical activities such as walking, running, and sitting is unavoidable during the long-term monitoring of chronic-care patients. These physical activities cripple the radio frequency (RF) signal between

  12. Body posture in children with obesity - the relationship to physical activity (PA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Anna; Sołtys, Jacek; Gallert-Kopyto, Weronika; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Plinta, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    The modern world of electronic devices offers children and young people various forms of leisure activities, while reducing the need for natural movement, necessary for normal psychomotor development. Sedentary life contributes to an increased body weight and, thereby, to the development of body posture abnormalities. The aim of the study was to evaluate body posture, leisure activities, and the number of hours spent using electronic devices among children with obesity. The study involved 51 children with obesity (BMI above 95 percentile) - A group, and 69 children with normal body weight at the age of 9-13 years (10.98 ± 1.29) - B group (control). Body posture has been evaluated with the scoliometer, the digital inclinometer and the plumb line. The hump ratio has been calculated on the basis of SOSORT recommendations. Time spent in front of electronic devices based on a questionnaire results has also been calculated. Children with obesity have more body posture defects in the sagittal plane than children with normal z-scores (pchildren in group A have distorted depth of the two curvatures of the spine. In the control group, the majority of deviations have been observed in the evaluation of the ATR (Angle Trunk Rotation) at the lumbar spine (pelectronic devices at least 3 days a week (p>0.05). Obese children often use mobile devices, while children with normal body weight often use desktop equipment. Definitely more body posture abnormalities are found in the group of obese children. Children use electronic devices regardless of weight. It is worth to expand educational activities with programs that improve the quality of body posture through a daily change of abnormal patterns. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  13. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M.; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)–dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level. PMID:25082895

  14. TRIM5α association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Byeongwoon; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Park, Do Hyun; Rogers, Thomas; Stremlau, Matthew; Sodroski, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5α, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5α. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5α proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5α from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5α proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5α-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5α fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5α domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5α

  15. Measurement of total-body oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon in vivo by photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulin, K.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of assessing nutritional status, the feasibility of measuring the total body quantities of the major body elements, i.e. oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, using the photon beam of a 45 MV betatron and a whole-body counter, has been evaluated in detail. Following photon activation a single energy γ-radiation (.511 MeV) is observed from all three elements to be measured. The half-lives of 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C, however, are sufficiently different (20.5 min, 10.0 min, and 20.4 min. respectively) to permit their measurement from an analysis of the measured decay curve. Following corrections for interfering reactions, a computer curve-fitting algorithm is used to resolve the data into 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C components. Measurements of O, N, and C have been made both in phantoms and in live and dead rats. A comparison of the body composition results from this technique with results from chemical analysis indicates that measured carbon can quite accurately predict total body fat. The comparison of the total body nitrogen measurement by photon activation with total body protein by chemical analysis was inconclusive and suggests that further work be done to verify the estimated accuracy of the nitrogen measurement

  16. Predictors of body appearance cognitive distraction during sexual activity in a sample of men with ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, P M; Raposo, C F; Oliveira, L B

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to scrutinize the extent to which aspects of body dissatisfaction and relationship variables predict body appearance cognitive distraction during sexual activity (BACDSA) in a sample of men diagnosed with ED. A total of 65 heterosexual Portuguese participants with ED completed a survey that included questions on socio-demographic data as well as body-related and relationship measures. We used the Global Body Dissatisfaction (GBD) Subscale of the Body Attitudes Test; a version of the Contour Drawing Rating Scale; a single item on partner's opinion perceived about one's body appearance; the Global Measure of Relationship Satisfaction; and the Inclusion of Other in Self Scale. Open questions assessed focus on specific body parts during sexual activity and relationship length. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that only GBD was a significant predictor of BACDSA, contrary to the relationship measures that showed no significant predictive effect (R(2) =0.47). Our results support the important role of individual factors on explanatory models of sexual dysfunctions, suggesting that interventions addressing individual factors that affect BACDSA may be of preference.

  17. Body-Related Shame and Guilt Predict Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andrée L; Wrosch, Carsten; Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2017-07-01

    To test body-related shame and guilt as predictors of breast cancer survivors' (BCS') moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) during six months and to examine motivational regulations as mediators of this association.
. Prospective study.
. Survivors were recruited through advertisements and oncologist referrals from medical clinics and hospitals in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
. 149 female BCS.
. Self-reports of body-related shame and guilt, motivational regulations, and MVPA were measured among BCS at baseline. MVPA was assessed a second time six months later. Residual change scores were used.
. Body-related shame and guilt; external, introjected, and autonomous (identified and intrinsic) motivational regulations; MVPA.
. In the multiple mediation models, body-related shame was associated with low levels of MVPA, as well as external, introjected, and autonomous motivational regulations. Guilt was related to high levels of MVPA and introjected and autonomous motivational regulations. Indirect effects linked shame, guilt, and MVPA via autonomous motivation. Only body-related shame was a significant predictor of six-month changes in MVPA.
. Based on these results, the specific emotions of shame and guilt contextualized to the body differentially predict BCS' health motivations and behavior over time.
. Survivorship programs may benefit from integrating intervention strategies aimed at reducing body-related shame and helping women manage feelings of guilt to improve physical activity.

  18. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity: a qualitative case study among the least physical active schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Troelsen, Jens; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-06

    Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already physically active. This study was conducted to explore the least physically active children's "lived experiences" within four existential lifeworlds linked to physical activity during recess: space, body, time, and relations. The study builds on ethnographic fieldwork in a public school in Denmark using a combination of participatory photo interviews and participant observation. Thirty-seven grade five children (11-12 years old) were grouped in quartiles based on their objectively measured daily physical activity levels. Eight children in the lowest activity quartile (six girls) were selected to participate in the study. To avoid stigmatising and to make generalisations more reliable we further recruited eight children from the two highest activity quartiles (four girls) to participate. An analysis of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of space, body, time and relations revealed several key factors influencing their recess physical activity: perceived classroom safety, indoor cosiness, lack of attractive outdoor facilities, bodily dissatisfaction, bodily complaints, tiredness, feeling bored, and peer influence. We found that the four existential lifeworlds provided an in-depth understanding of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of recess physical activity. Our findings imply that specific intervention strategies might be needed to increase the least physically active children's physical activity level. For example, rethinking the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and

  19. Low nuclear body formation and tax SUMOylation do not prevent NF-kappaB promoter activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnet Amandine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tax protein encoded by Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a powerful activator of the NF-κB pathway, a property critical for HTLV-1-induced immortalization of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Tax permanently stimulates this pathway at a cytoplasmic level by activating the IκB kinase (IKK complex and at a nuclear level by enhancing the binding of the NF-κB factor RelA to its cognate promoters and by forming nuclear bodies, believed to represent transcriptionally active structures. In previous studies, we reported that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation play a critical role in Tax localization and NF-κB activation. Indeed, analysis of lysine Tax mutants fused or not to ubiquitin or SUMO led us to propose a two-step model in which Tax ubiquitination first intervenes to activate IKK while Tax SUMOylation is subsequently required for promoter activation within Tax nuclear bodies. However, recent studies showing that ubiquitin or SUMO can modulate Tax activities in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm and that SUMOylated Tax can serve as substrate for ubiquitination suggested that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation may mediate redundant rather than successive functions. Results In this study, we analyzed the properties of a new Tax mutant that is properly ubiquitinated, but defective for both nuclear body formation and SUMOylation. We report that reducing Tax SUMOylation and nuclear body formation do not alter the ability of Tax to activate IKK, induce RelA nuclear translocation, and trigger gene expression from a NF-κB promoter. Importantly, potent NF-κB promoter activation by Tax despite low SUMOylation and nuclear body formation is also observed in T cells, including CD4+ primary T lymphocytes. Moreover, we show that Tax nuclear bodies are hardly observed in HTLV-1-infected T cells. Finally, we provide direct evidence that the degree of NF-κB activation by Tax correlates with the level of Tax ubiquitination, but not

  20. Low nuclear body formation and tax SUMOylation do not prevent NF-kappaB promoter activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Amandine; Randrianarison-Huetz, Voahangy; Nzounza, Patrycja; Nedelec, Martine; Chazal, Maxime; Waast, Laetitia; Pene, Sabrina; Bazarbachi, Ali; Mahieux, Renaud; Bénit, Laurence; Pique, Claudine

    2012-09-25

    The Tax protein encoded by Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a powerful activator of the NF-κB pathway, a property critical for HTLV-1-induced immortalization of CD4⁺ T lymphocytes. Tax permanently stimulates this pathway at a cytoplasmic level by activating the IκB kinase (IKK) complex and at a nuclear level by enhancing the binding of the NF-κB factor RelA to its cognate promoters and by forming nuclear bodies, believed to represent transcriptionally active structures. In previous studies, we reported that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation play a critical role in Tax localization and NF-κB activation. Indeed, analysis of lysine Tax mutants fused or not to ubiquitin or SUMO led us to propose a two-step model in which Tax ubiquitination first intervenes to activate IKK while Tax SUMOylation is subsequently required for promoter activation within Tax nuclear bodies. However, recent studies showing that ubiquitin or SUMO can modulate Tax activities in either the nucleus or the cytoplasm and that SUMOylated Tax can serve as substrate for ubiquitination suggested that Tax ubiquitination and SUMOylation may mediate redundant rather than successive functions. In this study, we analyzed the properties of a new Tax mutant that is properly ubiquitinated, but defective for both nuclear body formation and SUMOylation. We report that reducing Tax SUMOylation and nuclear body formation do not alter the ability of Tax to activate IKK, induce RelA nuclear translocation, and trigger gene expression from a NF-κB promoter. Importantly, potent NF-κB promoter activation by Tax despite low SUMOylation and nuclear body formation is also observed in T cells, including CD4⁺ primary T lymphocytes. Moreover, we show that Tax nuclear bodies are hardly observed in HTLV-1-infected T cells. Finally, we provide direct evidence that the degree of NF-κB activation by Tax correlates with the level of Tax ubiquitination, but not SUMOylation. These data reveal that the

  1. Camouflage through an active choice of a resting spot and body orientation in moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C-K; Moon, J-Y; Lee, S-I; Jablonski, P G

    2012-09-01

    Cryptic colour patterns in prey are classical examples of adaptations to avoid predation, but we still know little about behaviours that reinforce the match between animal body and the background. For example, moths avoid predators by matching their colour patterns with the background. Active choice of a species-specific body orientation has been suggested as an important function of body positioning behaviour performed by moths after landing on the bark. However, the contribution of this behaviour to moths' crypticity has not been directly measured. From observations of geometrid moths, Hypomecis roboraria and Jankowskia fuscaria, we determined that the positioning behaviour, which consists of walking and turning the body while repeatedly lifting and lowering the wings, resulted in new resting spots and body orientations in J. fuscaria and in new resting spots in H. roboraria. The body positioning behaviour of the two species significantly decreased the probability of visual detection by humans, who viewed photographs of the moths taken before and after the positioning behaviour. This implies that body positioning significantly increases the camouflage effect provided by moth's cryptic colour pattern regardless of whether the behaviour involves a new body orientation or not. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of morphological adaptations, such as colour pattern of moths, cannot be fully understood without taking into account a behavioural phenotype that coevolved with the morphology for increasing the adaptive value of the morphological trait. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Measurement of total body chlorine by prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    A method of measuring total body chlorine (TBCl) by prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis is described depending on the same NaI(Tl) spectra used for determinations of total body nitrogen. Ratios of chlorine to hydrogen are derived and TBCl determined using a model of body composition depending on measured body weight, total body water (by tritium dilution) and protein (6.25 x nitrogen) as well as estimated body minerals and glycogen. The precision of the method based on scanning an anthropomorphic phantom is approximately 9% (SD), for a patient dose equivalent of less than 0.30 mSv. Spectra collected from 67 normal volunteers (32 male, 35 female) yielded mean values of TBCl of 72 +- 19 (SD) g in males and 53.6 +- 15 g in females, in broad agreement with values reported by workers using delayed gamma methods. Results are presented for two human cadavers analysed by neutron activation and conventional chemical analysis; the ratios of TBCl (neutron activation) to TBCl (chemical) were 0.980 +- 0.028 (SEM) and 0.91 +- 0.09. It is suggested that an improvement in precision will be achieved by increasing the scanning time (thereby increasing the radiation dose equivalent) and by adding two more detectors. (author)

  3. Relationship between alcohol intake, body fat, and physical activity – a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W.; Qi, Rong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Aside from fat, ethanol is the macronutrient with the highest energy density. Whether the energy derived from ethanol affects the body composition and fat mass is debatable. We investigated the relationship between alcohol intake, body composition, and physical activity in the US population using the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods Ten thousand five hundred and fifty subjects met eligible criteria and constituted our study cohort. Estimated percent body fat and resting metabolic rate were calculated based on the sum of the skinfolds. Multivariate regression analyses were performed accounting for the study sampling weight. Results In both genders, moderate and hazardous alcohol drinkers were younger (pphysical activity compared to those with no alcohol use and moderate drinkers in both genders. Female had significantly higher percent body fat than males. In the multivariate linear regression analyses, the levels of alcohol consumption were found to be an independent predictor associated with lower percent body fat only in male subjects. Conclusions Our results showed that alcoholics are habitually less active and that alcohol drinking is an independent predictor of lower percent body fat especially in male alcoholics. PMID:20696406

  4. Body-Selective Areas in the Visual Cortex are less active in Children than in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy D Ross

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to read other people’s non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas. In view of the importance of whole-body expressions in interpersonal communication it is important to understand the development of brain areas sensitive to these social signals.Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare brain activity in a group of 24 children (age 6-11 and 26 adults while they passively watched short videos of body or object movements. We observed activity in similar regions in both groups; namely the extra-striate body area (EBA, fusiform body area (FBA, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, amygdala and premotor regions. Adults showed additional activity in the inferior frontal gyrus. Within the main body-selective regions (EBA, FBA and pSTS, the strength and spatial extent of fMRI signal change was larger in adults than in children. Multivariate Bayesian analysis showed that the spatial pattern of neural representation within those regions did not change over age.Our results indicate, for the first time, that body perception, like face perception, is still maturing through the second decade of life.

  5. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  6. A triboelectric motion sensor in wearable body sensor network for human activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Huang; Xian Li; Ye Sun

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this study is to design a novel triboelectric motion sensor in wearable body sensor network for human activity recognition. Physical activity recognition is widely used in well-being management, medical diagnosis and rehabilitation. Other than traditional accelerometers, we design a novel wearable sensor system based on triboelectrification. The triboelectric motion sensor can be easily attached to human body and collect motion signals caused by physical activities. The experiments are conducted to collect five common activity data: sitting and standing, walking, climbing upstairs, downstairs, and running. The k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) clustering algorithm is adopted to recognize these activities and validate the feasibility of this new approach. The results show that our system can perform physical activity recognition with a successful rate over 80% for walking, sitting and standing. The triboelectric structure can also be used as an energy harvester for motion harvesting due to its high output voltage in random low-frequency motion.

  7. A Visit to the South Pole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    For these reasons, I could not buy many of the essential things .... Geomagnetic South Pole at 78° 27' S, 106° 48' E at an altitude of 3,488 metres on approximately .... Smokers at the station were often found searching for used cigarette butts.

  8. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  9. Stabilization, pole placement, and regular implementability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belur, MN; Trentelman, HL

    In this paper, we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a-given linear, differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding a suitable,

  10. Quasiparticle pole strength in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that single-particle-like behavior in nuclear matter is much less probable than Brueckner theory suggests. In particular, the quasiparticle pole strength is evaluated for nuclear matter and it is shown that, contrary to the spirit of Brueckner theory, low momentum states play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of z/sub k/sub F/. (auth)

  11. Pole masses of quarks in dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, L.V.; Kalmykov, M.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Pole masses of quarks in quantum chromodynamics are calculated to the two-loop order in the framework of the regularization by dimensional reduction. For the diagram with a light quark loop, the non-Euclidean asymptotic expansion is constructed with the external momentum on the mass shell of a heavy quark

  12. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A; Møller, N C; Andersen, L B; Stodden, D F

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO 2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven-year longitudinal study with three measuring points (mean ages [in years] and respective sample size: 6.75±0.37, n=696; 9.59±1.07, n=617; 13.35±0.34, n=513). PA (moderate-to-vigorous PA-MVPA and vigorous PA-VPA) was monitored using accelerometers. MC was assessed by the "Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder-KTK" test battery. VO 2peak was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Body fatness was determined by the sum of four skinfolds. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations among PA, MC, VO 2peak, and body fatness and the potential mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO 2peak . All coefficients presented were standardized (z-scores). MC and VO 2peak directly influenced the development of body fatness, and VO 2peak mediated the associations between MVPA, VPA, MC, and body fatness. MC also mediated the associations between MVPA, VPA, and body fatness. In addition, VO 2peak had the largest total association with body fatness (β=-0.431; Pfitness and MC through developmentally appropriate physical activities, as the synergistic interactions of all three variables impacted body fatness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Influence of apolipoprotein-E gene on lipid profile, physical activity and body fat relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Boaventura Rachid Nascimento

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and body fat modify lipemia, and this effect seems to be influenced by apolipoprotein-E (APOE gene polymorphism. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review main results of studies that have analyzed the relation of APOE gene with physical activity and body fat on triglycerides, total cholesterol and low (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL concentrations. The Scientific Electronic Library Online – SciELO, Web of Science and PubMed database were used to locate the articles. The keywords used in combination were: apoe genotype, apolipoprotein-E polymorphism, physical exercise, physical activity, aerobic exercise, body fat and obesity. Originals scientific investigations performed with humans were included, and excluded those ones which involved samples with diseases, except obesity and/or lipemic disorders. It was observed a trend, that ε2 allele carriers are the ones with the greater improvements on lipemia from physical exercise. In addition, the body fat impact on the elevation of triglycerides and LDL are stronger in carriers of the ε2 and ε4 allele, respectively. Considering the small number of originals scientific investigations and their divergent results, reliable inferences can not be made about the APOE gene polymorphism influences on physical activity and body fat effect on lipemia. Thus, further studies with others populations and more volunteers for allele, as well as others exercise modalities and intensities, are necessary.

  14. Potentiation of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity using the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Ferreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Boa constrictor is widely used in traditional communities in many different folk remedies and products derived from it are sold in public markets throughout northeastern Brazil and as its body fat has many different therapeutic indications as a folk remedy. The present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor when employed either alone or in combination with antibiotics and discusses the ecological implications of the use of this traditional remedy. Oil (OBC was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of B. constrictor using hexane as a solvent. The antibacterial activity of OBC was tested against standard as well as multi-resistant lines, either alone and in combination with antibiotics. OBC did not demonstrate any relevant antibacterial activity against standard or multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. OBC showed synergistic activity when combined with the aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our results indicate that the body fat of Boa constrictor does not possess bactericidal activity, from the clinical point of view, but when combined with an antibiotic, the fat demonstrated a significant synergistic activity.

  15. Potentiation of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity using the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Boa constrictor is widely used in traditional communities in many different folk remedies and products derived from it are sold in public markets throughout northeastern Brazil and as its body fat has many different therapeutic indications as a folk remedy. The present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of the body fat from the snake Boa constrictor when employed either alone or in combination with antibiotics and discusses the ecological implications of the use of this traditional remedy. Oil (OBC was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of B. constrictor using hexane as a solvent. The antibacterial activity of OBC was tested against standard as well as multi-resistant lines, either alone and in combination with antibiotics. OBC did not demonstrate any relevant antibacterial activity against standard or multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. OBC showed synergistic activity when combined with the aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our results indicate that the body fat of Boa constrictor does not possess bactericidal activity, from the clinical point of view, but when combined with an antibiotic, the fat demonstrated a significant synergistic activity.

  16. Brain activation upon ideal-body media exposure and peer feedback in late adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Mara; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Braams, Barbara R; Peters, Sabine; Konijn, Elly A; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-08-01

    Media's prevailing thin-body ideal plays a vital role in adolescent girls' body image development, but the co-occurring impact of peer feedback is understudied. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test media imagery and peer feedback combinations on neural activity related to thin-body ideals. Twenty-four healthy female late adolescents rated precategorized body sizes of bikini models (too thin or normal), directly followed by ostensible peer feedback (too thin or normal). Consistent with prior studies on social feedback processing, results showed increased brain activity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral insula in incongruent situations: when participants rated media models' body size as normal while peer feedback indicated the models as too thin (or vice versa). This effect was stronger for girls with lower self-esteem. A subsequent behavioral study (N = 34 female late adolescents, separate sample) demonstrated that participants changed behavior in the direction of the peer feedback: precategorized normal sized models were rated as too thin more often after receiving too thin peer feedback. This suggests that the neural responses upon peer feedback may influence subsequent choice. Our results show that media-by-peer interactions have pronounced effects on girls' body ideals.

  17. POLE proofreading mutations elicit an anti-tumor immune response in endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gool, Inge C; Eggink, Florine A; Freeman-Mills, Luke; Stelloo, Ellen; Marchi, Emanuele; de Bruyn, Marco; Palles, Claire; Nout, Remi A; de Kroon, Cor D; Osse, Elisabeth M; Klenerman, Paul; Creutzberg, Carien L; Tomlinson, Ian PM; Smit, Vincent THBM; Nijman, Hans W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have shown that 7-12% of endometrial cancers (ECs) are ultramutated due to somatic mutation in the proofreading exonuclease domain of the DNA replicase POLE. Interestingly, these tumors have an excellent prognosis. In view of the emerging data linking mutation burden, immune response and clinical outcome in cancer, we investigated whether POLE-mutant ECs showed evidence of increased immunogenicity. Experimental design We examined immune infiltration and activation according to tumor POLE proofreading mutation in a molecularly defined EC cohort including 47 POLE-mutant tumors. We sought to confirm our results by analysis of RNAseq data from the TCGA EC series and used the same series to examine whether differences in immune infiltration could be explained by an enrichment of immunogenic neoepitopes in POLE-mutant ECs. Results Compared to other ECs, POLE-mutants displayed an enhanced cytotoxic T cell response, evidenced by increased numbers of CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and CD8A expression, enrichment for a tumor-infiltrating T cell gene signature, and strong upregulation of the T cell cytotoxic differentiation and effector markers T-bet, Eomes, IFNG, PRF and granzyme B. This was accompanied by upregulation of T cell exhaustion markers, consistent with chronic antigen exposure. In-silico analysis confirmed that POLE-mutant cancers are predicted to display more antigenic neo-epitopes than other ECs, providing a potential explanation for our findings. Conclusions Ultramutated POLE proofreading-mutant ECs are characterized by a robust intratumoral T cell response, which correlates with, and may be caused by an enrichment of antigenic neo-peptides. Our study provides a plausible mechanism for the excellent prognosis of these cancers. PMID:25878334

  18. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Oxygen Uptake Among Norwegian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated activity levels among adolescents, but no study has examined longitudinal changes in physical activity (PA level, body mass, and oxygen uptake among the same adolescents from the age of 14 to 19 years. The present study examined data from a research project that included a group of randomly selected students (N = 116 with objective measurements of PA (accelerometer data, self-reported PA level, and body mass and oxygen uptake during a 5-year period. The results show a significant decrease in the accelerometer-based PA level over time, from age 14 to 19. At 14 years of age, the minutes of moderate and/or vigorous PA was 66.7 min·day−1, but was less than half, at only 24.4 min·day−1, at 19 years of age. The self-reported activity data show a decrease in girls’ general activity level over time, while boys’ activity level during school breaks decreased strongly during the period: at age 14, 61% of the boys were classified as active, while at age 19, only 11% were physically active. Furthermore, body mass index increased during the period for both genders, while oxygen uptake decreased. Since both BMI and maximal oxygen uptake are important risk factors for future CVD, these findings point toward the importance of maintaining a high activity level during childhood and adolescence, in order to keep fit later in life.

  19. Association between body mass index and activities of daily living in homecare patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Guzin Zeren; Egici, Memet Taskın; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Toprak, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Overweight or obesity may cause many chronic illnesses. Furthermore, several studies have shown that high body mass index is associated with mortality and morbidity among the elderly. Therefore, obesity or being overweight could adversely affect the performance of activities of daily living. In this study our aim was to investigate the association between Body Mass Index and Activity of Daily Living in Homecare Patients. The records of 2016 from the homecare unit of Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. During this period, 1105 patients visited this facility. Unconscious or bedridden patients (hemiplegia, hemiparesia, and tetraparesis) and patients with incomplete data were excluded from the study. Therefore, the survey was completed with 250 files, which included all the data needed for our research. Age, gender, Body Mass Index and Barthel Index scores were recorded to the statistical program; p≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. One hundred fifty one (60.4%) were women, and 99 (39.6%) were men. The relations between gender and age, weight, and Barthel index scores were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive correlation between weight and Barthel index scores as well as between Body Mass Index and Barthel index scores (r = 0.190; p = 0.003). The patients were divided into two groups: Group-I (underweight and normal weight) and Group-II (overweight and obese). Group-II exhibited a much higher ability to perform Activity of Daily Living than Group-I (p = 0.002). Some studies report that obesity is protective against Activity of Daily Living, but the opposite is reported in some others. Our study showed increased values of Body Mass Index and Activity of Daily Living ability, which are indicative of protective effects. The relationship between Body Mass Index and physical disability is not yet proven to be linear.

  20. Refolding Techniques for Recovering Biologically Active Recombinant Proteins from Inclusion Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yamaguchi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  1. Effects of a physical activity programme on body perception and composition in overweight adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onofre Ricardo Contreras-Jordán

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a six months' physical activity programme for overweight and obese adolescents, in order to improve the perception of their own body image and composition between two groups of adolescents, and to check possible gender differences. Aims The aim is to improve the body perception and composition in overweight adolescents with a physical activity programme. Methods It was a quasi-experimental design, with a control group and intervention group. Measures of pre-test and post-test were taken. A total of 38 adolescents that belong to the first cycle of Compulsory Secondary aged 12–15, with a body mass index (BMI higher than the 85th percentile according to the WHO (World Health Organization, participated in the intervention. The anthropometric variables, height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and the circumference of the waist, hip, arm and medial calf, were measured pre- and post-treatment. The body image perception was measured using the Gardner test. The experimental group participated in the physical activity programme for a six months period. The physical activity intervention consisted of three sessions of 90 minutes each week in a sports centre. The structure of the sessions consisted of a warm-up (5–10 minutes, a main activity (60–70 minutes, combineding strength and cardiovascular training and a cool-down (7–10 minutes. Results After physical activity intervention the results showed significant improvements in the experimental group compared to the control group in the circumference of the waist, the hip, the arm, the medial calf (p<0.01 and as well as the fat percentage, the percentage of muscle mass (p<0.05. The results showed how the body image distortion presented a significant and negative correlation with the circumference of the waist (p<0.001, of the hips (p<0.01, and of the arm (p<0.001, differences were observed between gender. Conclusion Our study

  2. Physical activity, exercise, and inflammatory markers in older adults : findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colbert, Lisa H; Visser, Marjolein; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tracy, Russell P; Newman, Anne B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Pahor, Marco; Taaffe, Dennis R; Brach, Jennifer S; Rubin, Susan; Harris, Tamara B

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers, with consideration for body fatness and antioxidant use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, using baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. SETTING: Metropolitan areas surrounding

  3. The effect of music video clips on adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Volcevski-Kostas, Diana; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research that has examined experimentally the effects of muscular images on adolescent boys' body image, with no research specifically examining the effects of music television. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of viewing muscular and attractive singers in music video clips on early, mid, and late adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation. Participants were 180 boys in grade 7 (mean age = 12.73 years), grade 9 (mean age = 14.40 years) or grade 11 (mean age = 16.15 years) who completed pre- and post-test measures of mood and body satisfaction after viewing music videos containing male singers of muscular or average appearance. They also completed measures of schema activation and social comparison after viewing the clips. The results showed that the boys who viewed the muscular clips reported poorer upper body satisfaction, lower appearance satisfaction, lower happiness, and more depressive feelings compared to boys who viewed the clips depicting singers of average appearance. There was no evidence of increased appearance schema activation but the boys who viewed the muscular clips did report higher levels of social comparison to the singers. The results suggest that music video clips are a powerful form of media in conveying information about the male ideal body shape and that negative effects are found in boys as young as 12 years.

  4. Are Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Viewed Pole-on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    0.2’’ respectively. Figure 1 displays the position of each slit over a Barbosa et al. (2009) GMOS IFU image of the [S III] flux (which originates...C. Winge, H. Schmitt: Gemini/ GMOS IFU gas velocity ’tomography’ of the narrow line region of nearby active galaxies, MNRAS, 396 (2009) 2. [2] D...1995) 81. 4 P o S ( N L S 1 ) 0 5 0 Are NLS1s Pole-on? Travis C. Fischer 5 Figure 1: NGC 4051 GMOS IFU image showing integrated [SIII] flux

  5. Fatigue failure and cracking in high mast poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive research project to investigate the fatigue : cracking and failure of galvanized high mast illumination poles (HMIP). Ultrasonic inspection of : poles throughout the state has revealed the presence...

  6. Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddison Ralph

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™ intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI, which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. Objective To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Methods Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n = 322 were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and food snacking at 24 weeks. Results Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Conclusion Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493

  7. Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Foley, Louise S; Jiang, Yannan

    2012-05-03

    Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™) intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI), which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n = 322) were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and food snacking at 24 weeks. Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493.

  8. Telomere Shortening Unrelated to Smoking, Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Alcohol Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross......-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary...... disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake...

  9. Mining Emerging Sequential Patterns for Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2010-01-01

    Body Sensor Networks oer many applications in healthcare, well-being and entertainment. One of the emerging applications is recognizing activities of daily living. In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge pattern named Emerging Sequential Pattern (ESP)|a sequential pattern that discovers...... signicant class dierences|to recognize both simple (i.e., sequential) and complex (i.e., interleaved and concurrent) activities. Based on ESPs, we build our complex activity models directly upon the sequential model to recognize both activity types. We conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate...

  10. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  11. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : The Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J. C.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  12. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J C; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  13. Sensitivity to Disgust and Perceptions of Natural Bodies of Water and Watercraft Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Bixler; Gwynn Powell

    2003-01-01

    A written 7-item self-report scale on sensitivity to disgust and participation in watercraft activities was administered to 450 seasonal park employees. Correlations indicate that nonparticipation in seven different watercraft sports was weakly related with reactions of disgust to contact with natural bodies of water (rpbis...

  14. Gender-Specific Associations between Personality Traits, Physical Activity, and Body Size Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewyk, Ken; Sullivan, Philip

    2017-01-01

    A recently validated trait personality framework is the HEXACO (honesty-humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience). Little is yet known about how the HEXACO personality dimensions and its subsets--particularly the dimension of honesty-humility--relates to physical activity and body size…

  15. Relationship between physical activity and the development of body mass index in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmers, T.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Gubbels, J.S.; Vries, S.I. de; Mommers, M.; Penders, J.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Studies estimating the contribution of physical activity (PA) to the development of body mass index (BMI) in critical periods of childhood are warranted. Therefore, we have prospectively investigated this relationship in boys and girls of the KOALA Birth Cohort study, the Netherlands, in

  16. Quantitation of the degree of osteoporosis by measure of total-body calcium employing neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A.; Wallach, S.; Aloia, J.; Ellis, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two techniques for measuring the amount of Ca in the total skeleton were employed: total-body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) and the determination of the mineral content of a bone of the appendicular skeleton (absorptiometric measurement of the radius, BMC). (U.S.)

  17. The influence of loss and gain of body mass on ovarian activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian activity was studied in 36 dry, Bos taurus cows fed to achieve different rates of body mass loss and gain in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. Cows were fed hay to supply either 70% (Treatments 1, 2) or 40% (Treatments. 3,4) of their ME requirements for maintenance until they became anoestrus. Following a 90-day ...

  18. Total body-calcium measurements: comparison of two delayed-gamma neutron activation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This study compares two independently calibrated delayed-gamma neutron activation (DGNA) facilities, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, New York, and the other at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), Houston, Texas that measure total body calcium (TBCa). A set of BNL phantoms was sent to CNRC for neutron activation analysis, and a set of CNRC phantoms was measured at BNL. Both facilities showed high precision (<2%), and the results were in good agreement, within 5%. (author)

  19. Bodies of Work: Organization of Everyday Life Activities in Urban New Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Wesp, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing skeletal remains from an urban, colonial hospital in Central Mexico, this dissertation strives to illustrate how an examination of the bodies from archaeological contexts can shed light on the activities of everyday life in the past. While other archaeological material can tell us about the tools used to perform activities, we do not always have accurate information about who was doing what, when, and for how long. If not careful, scholars can fall into the trap of preconceived no...

  20. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  1. Second-harmonic imaging of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2000-01-01

    Electric-field poled silica-based waveguides are characterized by measurements of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and of the linear electro-optic effect (LEO). A SHG scanning technique allowing for high-resolution imaging of poled devices is demonstrated. Scans along the direction of the poling...

  2. Towards a research pole in photonics in Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Rominu, Mihai; Miutescu, Eftimie; Burlea, Amelia; Vlascici, Miomir; Gheorghiu, Nicolae; Cira, Octavian; Hutiu, Gheorghe; Mnerie, Corina; Demian, Dorin; Marcauteanu, Corina; Topala, Florin; Rolland, Jannick P.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-07-01

    We present our efforts in establishing a Research Pole in Photonics in the future Arad-Timisoara metropolitan area projected to unite two major cities of Western Romania. Research objectives and related training activities of various institutions and groups that are involved are presented in their evolution during the last decade. The multi-disciplinary consortium consists principally of two universities, UAVA (Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad) and UMF (Victor Babes Medicine and Pharmacy University of Timisoara), but also of the Arad County Emergency University Hospital and several innovative SMEs, such as Bioclinica S.A. (the largest array of medical analysis labs in the region) and Inteliform S.R.L. (a competitive SME focused on mechatronics and mechanical engineering). A brief survey of the individual and joint projects of these institutions is presented, together with their teaching activities at graduate and undergraduate level. The research Pole collaborates in R&D, training and education in biomedical imaging with universities in USA and Europe. Collaborative activities, mainly on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) projects are presented in a multidisciplinary approach that includes optomechatronics, precision mechanics and optics, dentistry, medicine, and biology.

  3. Relationship of Physical Activity Facilitators and Body Mass Index in Kashan Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khalili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many factors that affect the level of physical activity and body mass index of the elderly. The current study aimed to assess the relationship of  physical activity facilitators and body mass index of Kashan elderly. Methods: The cross-sectional study sampled 400 elderly older than 60 referred to 10 healthcare centers in Kashan, 2014, via multistage quota method. Participations were tested under demographic characters, body mass index(BMI level, and exercise benefits part of exercise benefits and barrier scale (persian  version for measurig  physical activity facilitators. Data were analyzed in SPSS software, descriptive statistic, Spearman correlation test, Chi-Square and Ordinal regression. Results: Of the participations73.6% were overweight or obese. Median and interquartile range (IQR of  physical activity facilitators was 75 and 33 respectively. The most prominent  physical activity facilitators was" physical activity increases my physical ability, (83.2%. There was a significantly inverse relationship between  physical activity facilitators  score and BMI of participants (r=-0.233, P=0.001. Ordinal regression evealed that mostly predictor of  BMI among  physical activity facilitators was "physical activity improves the quality of my work " (OR=8.683, P=0.001. Conclusion: Results identified  physical activity facilitators directly is related to improve physical circumstances of the elderly people. Surly poviding  physical activity facilitators through educational and interventional programs may improve the health status of aging population.

  4. Permanent magnet machine and method with reluctance poles and non-identical PM poles for high density operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    2010-05-18

    A method and apparatus in which a stator (11) and a rotor (12) define a primary air gap (20) for receiving AC flux and at least one source (23, 40), and preferably two sources (23, 24, 40) of DC excitation are positioned for inducing DC flux at opposite ends of the rotor (12). Portions of PM material (17, 17a) are provided as boundaries separating PM rotor pole portions from each other and from reluctance poles. The PM poles (18) and the reluctance poles (19) can be formed with poles of one polarity having enlarged flux paths in relation to flux paths for pole portions of an opposite polarity, the enlarged flux paths communicating with a core of the rotor (12) so as to increase reluctance torque produced by the electric machine. Reluctance torque is increased by providing asymmetrical pole faces. The DC excitation can also use asymmetric poles and asymmetric excitation sources. Several embodiments are disclosed with additional variations.

  5. International Youth Conference on the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. K.; Kuhn, T. S.; Baeseman, J.; Garmulewicz, A.; Raymond, M.; Salmon, R.

    2006-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) is an international effort, involving more than 50 countries, to focus research in both the sciences and social sciences on the world's Polar Regions. In order to secure youth involvement in the IPY, the Youth Steering Committee (YSC) has been formed, aiming specifically to network young polar researchers from all backgrounds enabling collaboration and to involve this group in outreach focused towards other young people. A conference targeted directly at an audience of early career researchers and international youth will be central to fulfilling these aims. The YSC has therefore developed the concept of the International Youth Conference on the Poles (IYCP). Proposed for 2008, this conference will bring together youth from a diverse set of backgrounds and nationalities to discuss the issues affecting the Polar Regions, their effects on a global scale and ways of addressing these issues. The conference will also serve to highlight ongoing IPY research, especially research being undertaken by young researchers, and provide a perennial framework for youth involvement in polar research and policies. The IYCP will run for three days in May 2008, attracting an international youth audience, as well as representatives from polar organizations, teachers, politicians, policy makers, the general public and media. The IYCP will be divided into three sections. Youth Roundtable Discussions will bring youth together to discuss issues affecting the Polar Regions and potential solutions to these. A Young Researchers Conference will provide the opportunity for young researchers working in the Polar Regions to present their work to an interdisciplinary audience. The Polar Fair will provide an interactive environment for youth to learn about the Polar Regions. The IYCP will be of great importance to the IPY because it will serve as the principle venue during the Polar Year where youth from many different disciplines, backgrounds and countries will

  6. Effects of active video games on body composition: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Foley, Louise; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jiang, Yannan; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Hohepa, Maea; Rodgers, Anthony

    2011-07-01

    Sedentary activities such as video gaming are independently associated with obesity. Active video games, in which players physically interact with images on screen, may help increase physical activity and improve body composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of active video games over a 6-mo period on weight, body composition, physical activity, and physical fitness. We conducted a 2-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial in Auckland, New Zealand. A total of 322 overweight and obese children aged 10-14 y, who were current users of sedentary video games, were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive either an active video game upgrade package (intervention, n = 160) or to have no change (control group, n = 162). The primary outcome was the change from baseline in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Secondary outcomes were changes in percentage body fat, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, video game play, and food snacking. At 24 wk, the treatment effect on BMI (-0.24; 95% CI: -0.44, -0.05; P = 0.02) favored the intervention group. The change (±SE) in BMI from baseline increased in the control group (0.34 ± 0.08) but remained the same in the intervention group (0.09 ± 0.08). There was also evidence of a reduction in body fat in the intervention group (-0.83%; 95% CI: -1.54%, -0.12%; P = 0.02). The change in daily time spent playing active video games at 24 wk increased (10.03 min; 95% CI: 6.26, 13.81 min; P video games (-9.39 min; 95% CI: -19.38, 0.59 min; P = 0.06). An active video game intervention has a small but definite effect on BMI and body composition in overweight and obese children. This trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at http://www.anzctr.org.au/ as ACTRN12607000632493.

  7. Physics on the Z-pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Tsunehiko; Kurihara, Yoshimasa; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Keisuke

    1994-01-01

    JLC will provide a high luminosity of 2.0 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 on the Z-pole. To realize the Z-pole running we need to add a transport line to bypass unnecessary part of the main linac. With this high luminosity, the third angle of the unitality triangle (sin 2φ 3 ) can be measured in B s (B s ) → pK s channel with 3σ sensitivity in 1 year when sin 2φ 3 = -0.5, Xs = 10, and the branching ratio of the channel is 2 x 10 -5 . Also sin 2 θw can be measured with accuracy of Δsin 2 θw/sin 2 θw = 0.1%. (J.P.N.)

  8. Sun's pole-equator flux differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvedere, G [Istituto di Astronomia dell' Universita di Catania, Italy; Paterno, L [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Italy

    1977-04-01

    The possibility that large flux differences between the poles and the equator at the bottom of the solar convective zone are compatible with the small differences observed at the surface is studied. The consequences of increasing the depth of the convective zone due to overshooting are explored. A Boussinesq model is used for the convective zone and it is assumed that the interaction of the global convection with rotation is modelled through a convective flux coefficient whose perturbed part is proportional to the local Taylor number. The numerical integration of the equations of motion and energy shows that coexistence between large pole-equator flux differences at the bottom and small ones at the surface is possible if the solar convective zone extends to a depth of 0.4 R(Sun). The angular velocity distribution inside the convective zone is in agreement with the ..cap alpha omega..-dynamo theories of the solar cycle.

  9. Muscle activity and spine load during anterior chain whole body linkage exercises: the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart; Andersen, Jordan; Cannon, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined anterior chain whole body linkage exercises, namely the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up. Investigation of these exercises focused on which particular muscles were challenged and the magnitude of the resulting spine load. Fourteen males performed the exercises while muscle activity, external force and 3D body segment motion were recorded. A sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force, and thus sensitivity to each individual's choice of motor control for each task. Gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics were observed across tasks. On average, the hanging straight leg raise created approximately 3000 N of spine compression while the body saw created less than 2500 N. The hanging straight leg raise created the highest challenge to the abdominal wall (>130% MVC in rectus abdominis, 88% MVC in external oblique). The body saw resulted in almost 140% MVC activation of the serratus anterior. All other exercises produced substantial abdominal challenge, although the body saw did so in the most spine conserving way. These findings, along with consideration of an individual's injury history, training goals and current fitness level, should assist in exercise choice and programme design.

  10. Activity identification using body-mounted sensors—a review of classification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, Stephen J; Kenney, Laurence P J; Howard, Dave; Goulermas, John Y; Crompton, Robin; Meijer, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of miniaturized sensing technology, which can be body-worn, it is now possible to collect and store data on different aspects of human movement under the conditions of free living. This technology has the potential to be used in automated activity profiling systems which produce a continuous record of activity patterns over extended periods of time. Such activity profiling systems are dependent on classification algorithms which can effectively interpret body-worn sensor data and identify different activities. This article reviews the different techniques which have been used to classify normal activities and/or identify falls from body-worn sensor data. The review is structured according to the different analytical techniques and illustrates the variety of approaches which have previously been applied in this field. Although significant progress has been made in this important area, there is still significant scope for further work, particularly in the application of advanced classification techniques to problems involving many different activities. (topical review)

  11. Influence of transaction costs on controlling activity of territorial taxation bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to disclose and justify transaction costs of controlling activities of the territorial taxation bodies and their impact on tax control under the need for effective functioning and optimal decision making with a view of reducing the state expenditures on tax control. Methods general scientific synthesis deduction induction generalization testing interviewing observation forecasting scientific abstraction statistical analysis logic and methods of grouping and classification expert assessment. Results the analysis and grouping of transaction costs of controlling activities of the territorial taxation bodies have been carried out. It was found that the most time and resource consuming are onsite tax inspections. The factors that have a significant impact on the efficiency of tax control were revealed. It is proved that the release of material and time resources contributes to the transformation of the tax bodies. Scientific novelty the main problem of implementation of the onsite tax control is its costs. The existing studies do not give a systematic list of tax control costs of the territorial tax bodies in general and transaction costs of tax control in particular. The author shows that the reduction of transaction costs as factors of influence on the tax control will free up the working time of the inspectors and will bring economic benefits and also will allow to consolidate territorial tax bodies and change the status of a tax inspector. Practical significance reducing the cost of tax control is becoming increasingly important in terms of saving financial resources of the state.

  12. Physical activity prevents augmented body fat accretion in moderately iron-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Andersen, Nancy E; Tarr, Tyson N; Stahl, Chad H; Young, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies describe an association between poor iron status and obesity in humans, although the mechanism explaining this relationship is unclear. The present study aimed to determine the effect of moderate iron deficiency and physical activity (PA) on body composition in an animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed iron-adequate (IA; 40 mg/kg) or moderately iron-deficient (ID; 9 mg/kg) diets ad libitum for 12 wk. Rats were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 10 per group): IA, sedentary (IAS); IA, PA (IAPA); ID, sedentary (IDS); or ID, PA (IDPA). Activity involved running on motorized running wheels at 4 m/min for 1 h/d for 5 d/wk. After 12 wk, ID rats were not anemic, but body iron stores were reduced as indicated by diminished (P IA rats. Treatment group did not affect body weight or feed consumption. However, fat mass was greater (P IAS (31.8 +/- 2.9%), IAPA (31.8 +/- 2.0%), and IDPA (32.8 +/- 4.5%) rats. Furthermore, lean body mass was diminished in IDS rats (58.7 +/- 6.8%) compared with IAS (65.6 +/- 3.0%), IAPA (65.6 +/- 2.1%), and IDPA (64.7 +/- 4.5%) rats. Thus, moderate iron deficiency may cause increased body fat accretion in rats and PA attenuates that effect.

  13. INVESTIGETING THE EFFECTS OF STANDING TRAINING ON BODY FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITY FOR NONAMBULATORY CHILDREN WITH MYELOMENINGOCELE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Cankaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: It was indicated in many studies that verticalization have positive effects such as preventing fractures,regulating cardiopulmonary functions, increasing the head control, and the facilitation of postural muscles in pediatric patients, however, no study showing the effect of supported standing in patients with myelomeningocele on body functions and activity was encountered. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of structured supported standing training in children with myelomeningocele on body functions and activity according to ICF-CY. Methods: Twenty-five children with MMC aged between 3 and 17, who were divided into two groups-SST and control. The supported standing training was given to supported standing group 2 hours a day for 8 weeks in addition to the routine physical therapy program. Body functions were assessed with the Trunk Impairment Scale, and activity levels were assessed with the Gross Motor Function Measurement-88 and Pediatric Functional Independence Measurement at the beginning of the study, at the end of 8 weeks and at the end of 12 weeks from beginning. Results: The results of the structured supported standing training program during 8 weeks showed that children’s body functions and activity increased statistically significantly in SST group (p0.05. Conclusion: The results show that supported standing training effects the body functions and activity positively. It is recommended to educate the families for the supported standing training to be added to the routine physiotherapy and rehabilitation program for children with MMC and continue the training at home.

  14. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. Association between body composition and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Buenfil-Rello, Fátima Annai; Pacheco-Pantoja, Elda Leonor

    2016-01-01

    Reports regarding the association between body composition and inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have consistently yielded contradictory results. To perform a systematic review on the association between overweight/obesity and inflammatory activity in RA. FAST approach: Article search (Medline, EBSCO, Cochrane Library), followed by abstract retrieval, full text review and blinded assessment of methodological quality for final inclusion. Because of marked heterogeneity in statistical approach and RA activity assessment method, a meta-analysis could not be done. Results are presented as qualitative synthesis. One hundred and nineteen reports were found, 16 of them qualified for full text review. Eleven studies (8,147 patients; n range: 37-5,161) approved the methodological quality filter and were finally included. Interobserver agreement for methodological quality score (ICC: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.82-0.98; P.001) was excellent. In all reports body composition was assessed by BMI; however a marked heterogeneity was found in the method used for RA activity assessment. A significant association between BMI and RA activity was found in 6 reports having larger mean sample size: 1,274 (range: 140-5,161). On the other hand, this association was not found in 5 studies having lower mean sample size: 100 (range: 7-150). The modulation of RA clinical status by body fat mass is suggested because a significant association was found between BMI and inflammatory activity in those reports with a trend toward higher statistical power. The relationship between body composition and clinical activity in RA requires be approached with further studies with higher methodological quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  16. Body composition, dietary intake and physical activity of young survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Alford, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Lockwood, Liane; Hallahan, Andrew; Davies, Peter S W

    2018-03-07

    To describe the body composition, dietary intake and physical activity and of paediatric, adolescent and young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and examine the factors that impact body composition after treatment. This prospective cross-sectional study involved 74 subjects who were at least three years post treatment. Measurements included anthropometry, whole body potassium counting, air displacement plethysmography, and three day physical activity and diet diaries. The CCS had significantly reduced body cell mass index Z-scores compared to controls (p = 0.0001), with 59% considered undernourished. The CCS had a significantly higher percent fat (p = 0.002) than the controls, with 27% classified as obese. The intake of 60% of CCS met estimated energy requirements, but the CCS consumed high amount of energy from fat and low amount of energy from carbohydrates. A high percentage of CCS did not meet their dietary requirements for calcium (61%), magnesium (46%), folate (38%) and iodine (38%). The CCS group had a light active lifestyle with 64% spending more than 2 h daily on screen time. Receiving a bone marrow transplant (r = -0.27; p = 0.02) and physical activity level (r = 0.49; p = 0.0001) were significantly correlated with body cell mass index. This study demonstrates that increased fat mass and decreased body cell mass is a concern for CCS and that CCS have poor health behaviours including light active lifestyles, excessive screentime, high fat intake, and poor intake of essential nutrients. This study has highlighted that CCS are at risk of both obesity and undernutrition and that increasing body cell mass as well as decreasing fat mass should be a focus of energy balance interventions in survivorship. There is a need for parents and children undergoing treatment for cancer to be educated about diet quality and importance of daily physical activity to ensure healthy habits are established and maintained into survivorship. Copyright © 2018

  17. "BodyWorks": A Parent-Focused Program to Promote Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)

  18. Machine Learning Methods for Classifying Human Physical Activity from On-Body Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Andrea; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2010-01-01

    The use of on-body wearable sensors is widespread in several academic and industrial domains. Of great interest are their applications in ambulatory monitoring and pervasive computing systems; here, some quantitative analysis of human motion and its automatic classification are the main computational tasks to be pursued. In this paper, we discuss how human physical activity can be classified using on-body accelerometers, with a major emphasis devoted to the computational algorithms employed for this purpose. In particular, we motivate our current interest for classifiers based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). An example is illustrated and discussed by analysing a dataset of accelerometer time series. PMID:22205862

  19. The elastic body model: a pedagogical approach integrating real time measurements and modelling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, C; Guastella, I; Tarantino, G

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a pedagogical approach to elastic body movement based on measurements of the contact times between a metallic rod and small bodies colliding with it and on modelling of the experimental results by using a microcomputer-based laboratory and simulation tools. The experiments and modelling activities have been built in the context of the laboratory of mechanical wave propagation of the two-year graduate teacher education programme of Palermo's University. Some considerations about observed modifications in trainee teachers' attitudes in utilizing experiments and modelling are discussed

  20. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis. Reference data for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on the chemical composition of the human body during growth. Total body calcium (TBCa) has been reported for only one male child, aged 41/2 yr. TBCa values for 25 children and 27 young women using in vivo neutron activation analysis have been obtained. TBCa results were lower than those reported for the one male cadaver, as well as the estimates derived for the 'Reference Man' model. It was concluded that the reference values for TBCa may need to be adjusted to appropriately describe skeletal mineralization of contemporary children. (author)

  1. Cumulus cell mitochondrial activity in relation to body mass index in women undergoing assisted reproductive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K. Gorshinova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have considered the negative influence of obesity on fertility in both genders. In the present study, we assessed mitochondrial activity expressed as the mitochondrial potential index (MPI in cumulus cells from obese women and women with a normal body mass index (BMI during assisted reproductive therapy. The results revealed a significant reduction of MPI with increased body mass. The lower MPI levels in cumulus cells from obese women may reflect mitochondrial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress, which can affect the cumulus-oocyte complex and have an impact on oocyte development.

  2. The use of Total Body In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (TBIVNAA) in balance studies in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.A.; Lindsay, R.L.; Anderson, J.

    1976-01-01

    In the investigation of animals subject to alteration in diet or other metabolic experiments, the measurements of change in body calcium, phosphorus, sodium and nitrogen are of considerable interest. However, conventional balance studies are tedious and subject to both random and cumulative error, necessitating as they do accurate estimates of dietary intake and faecal and urinary output. The object of the present study was to determine the usefulness of total body in vivo neutron activation analysis, used at the beginning and end of the experimental period, as an alternative to conventional balance techniques. (orig.) [de

  3. Improvement of the legal framework of the bodies of self-organization of people activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Yedynak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed the state of the activity of the bodies of self-organization of people according to the legislative standards. The necessity of changing of legislation, that determine the demands of creation such bodies, is justified here. Despite the modern legislation there some problems in the order of their creation, registration, definition of their status as a taxpayer, continuing and the termination of their authority, the accounting of the citizens who live in private sector. Problems appears because of disparity of self-governmental legislation to modern circumstances.

  4. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO 3 was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl 2 Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm

  5. The contribution of ketone bodies to basal and activity-dependent neuronal oxidation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Golam M I; Jiang, Lihong; Rothman, Douglas L; Behar, Kevin L

    2014-07-01

    The capacity of ketone bodies to replace glucose in support of neuronal function is unresolved. Here, we determined the contributions of glucose and ketone bodies to neocortical oxidative metabolism over a large range of brain activity in rats fasted 36 hours and infused intravenously with [2,4-(13)C₂]-D-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Three animal groups and conditions were studied: awake ex vivo, pentobarbital-induced isoelectricity ex vivo, and halothane-anesthetized in vivo, the latter data reanalyzed from a recent study. Rates of neuronal acetyl-CoA oxidation from ketone bodies (V(acCoA-kbN)) and pyruvate (V(pdhN)), and the glutamate-glutamine cycle (V(cyc)) were determined by metabolic modeling of (13)C label trapped in major brain amino acid pools. V(acCoA-kbN) increased gradually with increasing activity, as compared with the steeper change in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate (V(tcaN)), supporting a decreasing percentage of neuronal ketone oxidation: ∼100% (isoelectricity), 56% (halothane anesthesia), 36% (awake) with the BHB plasma levels achieved in our experiments (6 to 13 mM). In awake animals ketone oxidation reached saturation for blood levels >17 mM, accounting for 62% of neuronal substrate oxidation, the remainder (38%) provided by glucose. We conclude that ketone bodies present at sufficient concentration to saturate metabolism provides full support of basal (housekeeping) energy needs and up to approximately half of the activity-dependent oxidative needs of neurons.

  6. Insulators target active genes to transcription factories and polycomb-repressed genes to polycomb bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bing Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Polycomb bodies are foci of Polycomb proteins in which different Polycomb target genes are thought to co-localize in the nucleus, looping out from their chromosomal context. We have shown previously that insulators, not Polycomb response elements (PREs, mediate associations among Polycomb Group (PcG targets to form Polycomb bodies. Here we use live imaging and 3C interactions to show that transgenes containing PREs and endogenous PcG-regulated genes are targeted by insulator proteins to different nuclear structures depending on their state of activity. When two genes are repressed, they co-localize in Polycomb bodies. When both are active, they are targeted to transcription factories in a fashion dependent on Trithorax and enhancer specificity as well as the insulator protein CTCF. In the absence of CTCF, assembly of Polycomb bodies is essentially reduced to those representing genomic clusters of Polycomb target genes. The critical role of Trithorax suggests that stable association with a specialized transcription factory underlies the cellular memory of the active state.

  7. Active Transport to School and Children's Body Weight: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshmand E. Masoumi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of decreasing physical activity of children, they are becoming more obese. Moreover, commuting to school has become more passive during the past decades. The objective was to update the previous systematic reviews by narrowing down the topic to body mass index of children (3-12 years as a representative of body composition.  Applying search terms such as active transport to school, body mass index, childhood obesity, and so on in four online databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, WorldCat, and Google Scholar. Peer-reviewed English journal papers published between 2005 and 2015 presenting empirical quantitative studies were eligible studies to be reviewed. 310 journal papers were screened, 27 of which were reviewed by studying the full text. The final 13 papers were limited to those that focused only on active commuting to school and body mass index of children and adolescents. Out of 13 final studies, 3 found conclusive associations, three indicate partial associations in subgroups or societal or geographical limitations, and seven show no correlations. The existing literature are still inconsistent, so this study suggests conducting surveys with larger samples on less-studied contexts and applying more complex statistical methods for adjusting some of the variables. It is also argued that this topic can be culturally and contextually specific.

  8. History of body weight and physical activity of elderly women differing in current physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L E; Meijers, J H; Sol, P; Seidell, J C; van Staveren, W.A.

    Development of overweight and physical activity during life was studied retrospectively in a group of physically active and a group of sedentary elderly women. The two groups of elderly women were selected based on a validated physical activity questionnaire. A previous study on their current

  9. The association between body mass index and physical activity, and body image, self esteem and social support in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Laura A; Dewey, Deborah

    2014-08-01

    To examine the associations between body mass index (BMI) and physical activity with body image, self-esteem and social support in adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to adolescents without health conditions. We studied 46 adolescents with type 1 diabetes and 27 comparison adolescents who provided self-reports of height and weight, which were used to calculate BMI z-scores. Participants also completed validated questionnaires that assessed physical activity, body image, self-esteem and social support. No significant group differences were found between adolescents with type 1 diabetes and comparison adolescents in terms of BMI and physical activity. Examination of group and gender revealed that higher BMI was significantly associated with a less positive body image in girls with diabetes only. Higher BMI was associated with poorer self-esteem and lower levels of social support in adolescents with diabetes, particularly girls. Higher levels of physical activity were not associated with a more positive body image and no significant associations were found between physical activity and self-esteem or social support. BMI and physical activity levels of adolescents with type 1 diabetes do not differ from those of adolescents without diabetes. Higher BMI is associated with a less positive body image and poorer psychosocial outcomes, particularly in girls with diabetes. As body image concerns and various psychosocial factors could be precursors to the development of eating-disorder symptoms, future research in adolescents with diabetes with higher BMIs should examine the associations among these variables. Further, it is essential that research on body image take into account gender differences. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modification effects of physical activity and protein intake on heritability of body size and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Lallukka, Tea

    2009-01-01

    with the Mx statistical package (Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA). RESULTS: High physical activity was associated with lower mean values, and a high proportion of protein in the diet was associated with higher mean BMI, waist......BACKGROUND: The development of obesity is still a poorly understood process that is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine how physical activity and the proportion of energy as protein in the diet modify the genetic variation of body mass index....... The participants reported the frequency and intensity of their leisure time physical activity. Waist circumference and BMI were measured. Percentage body fat was assessed in Denmark by using a bioelectrical impedance method. The data were analyzed by using gene-environment interaction models for twin data...

  11. Current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor with 8 salient poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Kazuaki; Hirata, Katsuhiro; Niguchi, Noboru; Kohara, Akira

    2017-12-01

    We propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor for a traction motor of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, which consists of 10 salient poles in the rotor and 12 slots in the stator. However, iron losses of this motor in high rotation speed ranges is large because the number of salient poles is large. In this paper, we propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor that consists of 8 salient poles and 12 slots. The characteristics of the 10-pole-12-slot and 8-pole-12-slot current superimposition variable flux reluctance motors are compared using finite element analysis under vector control.

  12. Current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor with 8 salient poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahara Kazuaki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor for a traction motor of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, which consists of 10 salient poles in the rotor and 12 slots in the stator. However, iron losses of this motor in high rotation speed ranges is large because the number of salient poles is large. In this paper, we propose a current superimposition variable flux reluctance motor that consists of 8 salient poles and 12 slots. The characteristics of the 10-pole-12-slot and 8-pole-12-slot current superimposition variable flux reluctance motors are compared using finite element analysis under vector control.

  13. Body composition changes over 9 years in healthy elderly subjects and impact of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Laurence; Karsegard, Véronique L; Chevalley, Thierry; Kossovsky, Michel P; Darmon, Patrice; Pichard, Claude

    2011-08-01

    Age-related changes of body composition affect health status. This study aims at clarifying body composition changes in healthy elderly subjects, and evaluating the impact of physical activity on these changes. In 1999, 213 subjects ≥ 65 years recruited through advertisements underwent assessment of health state, energy expenditure by physical activity, body composition by bioimpedance analysis and body cell mass by total body potassium. In 2008, 112 of them repeated these assessments with additional determination of Barthel index, Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Score. Lean tissues decreased in both genders (p men: -3.7 ± 5.4 vs. 0.4 ± 5.4 kg, women: -3.6 ± 5.5 vs. 0.3 ± 5.2 kg, both p men: -3.6 ± 3.3 vs. -0.4 ± 2.7 kg, women: -1.8 ± 2.3 vs. -0.1 ± 2.5 kg, both p physical activity limited lean tissue loss in men but not in women. Loss of lean tissues occurs exponentially with aging. Further research should confirm these changes in subjects over 80 years. Increasing physical activity limits fat-free mass loss in men but not women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Telemetric Evaluation of Body Temperature and Physical Activity as Predictors of Mortality in a Murine Model of Staphylococcal Enterotoxic Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vlach, Kim

    2000-01-01

    .... This study determined whether body temperature and physical activity, monitored telemetrically, could predict impending death and provide an earlier, more humane experimental endpoint. Methods...

  15. Acute effects of walking with Nordic poles in persons with mild to moderate low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revord, Landon P; Lomond, Karen V; Loubert, Peter V; Hammer, Roger L

    2016-01-01

    Regular walking with or without Nordic poles is effective over time at reducing discomfort in individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP). Nordic pole use increases balance and stability, distributes weight through the arms and torso, and decreases loading of the spine and lower limbs. The purpose of this study was to determine if Nordic poles would reduce perceived acute discomfort while self-paced walking in individuals with LBP. We also examined whether walking with or without poles increased heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) or speed of movement. Subjects included 20 adults (12 males, 8 females; mean age of 45.1±16.3) who were experiencing LBP of at least six months' duration (Oswestry Disability Index (ODI): mean 17 ± 8%, range 6-36% indicating minimal to moderate disability) with no current active flare-up. Participants walked a predetermined dirt-path course (805 m or 0.5 mi) with and without poles in randomized order. Data were analyzed using a 2 X 2 repeated measures ANOVA (Condition X Time), where Condition was poles vs no poles and Time was pre- and post-walk. HR and RPE increased significantly from walking the course, whereas pain did not change. There were also no differences between walking with or without poles for pain (ODI Sec #1: 0.2 points, p=0.324), HR (4 bpm, p=0.522) and RPE (0 points, p=0.759). The mean course time (sec) was slower with poles: 617±87 vs 566±65 (pNordic pole use is well tolerated in those with current back pain and can be encouraged, however it cannot be recommended as a superior method of addressing acute symptoms when walking.

  16. Insights on activation enthalpy for non-Schmid slip in body-centered cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Lucas M.; Lim, Hojun; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Battaile, Corbett C.; Weinberger, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    We use insights gained from atomistic simulation to develop an activation enthalpy model for dislocation slip in body-centered cubic iron. Using a classical potential that predicts dislocation core stabilities consistent with ab initio predictions, we quantify the non-Schmid stress-dependent effects of slip. The kink-pair activation enthalpy is evaluated and a model is identified as a function of the general stress state. Our model enlarges the applicability of the classic Kocks activation enthalpy model to materials with non-Schmid behavior

  17. Active video gaming improves body coordination in survivors of childhood brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, M.; Sjölund, A.; Broeren, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether active video gaming (AVG) could bring about regular, enjoyable, physical exercise in children treated for brain tumours, what level of physical activity could be reached and if the children’s physical functioning improved. Methods: Thirteen children, aged 7–17 years...... compared to their healthy peers. Active video gaming (AVG), supported by Internet coaching, is a feasible home-based intervention in children treated for brain tumours, promoting enjoyable, regular physical exercise of moderate intensity. In this pilot study, AVG with Nintendo Wii improved Body...

  18. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Durner, George M.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of “ice” bears in summer is unknown, “shore” bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  19. Neutron activation probe for measuring the presence of uranium in ore bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Smith, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron activation proble comprises a pulsed neutron source in series with a plurality of delayed neutron detectors for measuring radioactivity in a well borehole together with a NaI (Tl) counter for measuring the high energy 2.62 MeV gamma line from thorium. The neutron source emits neutrons which produce fission in uranium and thorium in the ore body and the delayed neutron detectors measure the delayed neutrons produced from such fission while the NaI (Tl) counter measures the 2.62 MeV gamma line from the undisturbed thorium in the ore body. The signal from the NaI (Tl) counter is processed and subtracted from the signal from the delayed neutron detectors with the result being indicative of the amount of uranium present in the ore body

  20. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Physical activity and body composition, body physique, and quality of life in premenopausal breast cancer patients during endocrine therapy--a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojan, Katarzyna; Molińska-Glura, Marta; Milecki, Piotr

    2013-02-01

    Endocrine therapy (ET) is a common method of treatment in breast cancer patients; however, its negative impact on body composition, body physique (physical body shape/measurements), and quality of life (QoL) remains controversial. Previous studies have shown physical exercise can have a positive effect on QoL in breast cancer patients, especially premenopausal subjects. In this feasibility study, we sought to assess the impact that physical exercise had on body composition and QoL in premenopausal breast cancer patients undergoing ET, and to determine the appropriateness of further testing of this intervention in this patient group. This study involved 41 premenopausal female breast cancer patients before and after six, 12, and 18 months of ET. Aerobic training began in the 6th month and resistance training was added in the 12th month. Body composition was evaluated using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, body physique was evaluated using anthropometric measurement techniques, and QoL was evaluated using questionnaires from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. The initial period of ET with no exercise resulted in a reduction in fat-free body mass (FFBM), an increase in fat body mass (FBM), and a decline in QoL scores. Adding aerobic training resulted in a reduction of FBM and percentage of android fat, and improved QoL scores. The introduction of resistance training further reduced percentage of android and gynoid fat, increased FFBM, and further improved QoL scores. ET negatively impacts body composition, body physique, and QoL of premenopausal breast cancer patients. This feasibility study shows that physical activity may improve QoL and reduce adverse effects of ET on body composition and body physique, indicating appropriateness for further investigation on the use of exercise programs in premenopausal breast cancer patients to improve the outcomes of therapy.

  2. Effects of whole-body and partial-body x irradiation upon epidermal mitotic activity during wound healing in mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.

    1977-01-01

    Mitotic activity of normal (unwounded) and wounded skin was measured in the control (nonirradiated) and whole-body or partial-body x-irradiated mouse. Higher mitotic activity in the anterior than in the posterior region of the body was found in both the normal and the wounded skin of the control mouse. Whole-body irradiation (500 R) depressed completely the mitotic activity of normal skin 2 to 4 days after irradiation. In spite of this depression in mitotic activity, a surgical incision made 1 to 3 days after irradiation could induce a burst of proliferation after an inhibition of an initial mitosis increase. When the animals were partially irradiated with 500 R 3 days before wounding, it was shown that mitosis at 24 hr after wounding was inhibited markedly by the local effect of irradiation and that mitosis also could be inhibited diversely by the abscopal effect of irradiation. Because of a close similarity of sequential mitotic patterns between whole-body-irradiated and flapped-skin-only-irradiated groups (direct irradiation), the effect of irradiation upon mitosis was considered to be primarily local. Some discussions were made concerning the possible reasons which made a difference in mitotic patterns between the head-only-irradiated group, the irradiated group including the head and other parts of the body except for the skin flap

  3. Brain activity elicited by viewing pictures of the own virtually amputated body predicts xenomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo-Sommerfeld, Silvia; Hänggi, Jürgen; Coletta, Ludovico; Skoruppa, Silke; Thiel, Aylin; Stirn, Aglaja V

    2018-01-08

    Xenomelia is a rare condition characterized by the persistent desire for the amputation of physically healthy limbs. Prior studies highlighted the importance of superior and inferior parietal lobuli (SPL/IPL) and other sensorimotor regions as key brain structures associated with xenomelia. We expected activity differences in these areas in response to pictures showing the desired body state, i.e. that of an amputee in xenomelia. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired in 12 xenomelia individuals and 11 controls while they viewed pictures of their own real and virtually amputated body. Pictures were rated on several dimensions. Multivariate statistics using machine learning was performed on imaging data. Brain activity when viewing pictures of one's own virtually amputated body predicted group membership accurately with a balanced accuracy of 82.58% (p = 0.002), sensitivity of 83.33% (p = 0.018), specificity of 81.82% (p = 0.015) and an area under the ROC curve of 0.77. Among the highest predictive brain regions were bilateral SPL, IPL, and caudate nucleus, other limb representing areas, but also occipital regions. Pleasantness and attractiveness ratings were higher for amputated bodies in xenomelia. Findings show that neuronal processing in response to pictures of one's own desired body state is different in xenomelia compared with controls and might represent a neuronal substrate of the xenomelia complaints that become behaviourally relevant, at least when rating the pleasantness and attractiveness of one's own body. Our findings converge with structural peculiarities reported in xenomelia and partially overlap in task and results with that of anorexia and transgender research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of activity incorporated in human body by means of a HPGe-detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshkova, T; Minev, L [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet; Konstantinov, V [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    Human body models (phantoms) have been used to study relations between efficiency in measurement of radionuclide activity and measurement conditions. A comparison is made between the activity measurement with and without a motion. When the phantom is moved under the detector, an absolute efficiency increase of 30-40% in homogeneously distributed activity and 2-3 times increase in activity concentrated in the lungs are found. Incorrect calibration is found to introduce an error of 30-40% in the measurement with motion while without motion the error can reach 150-300%. The effects of object weight, size and shield are studied. A procedure for accurate measurement has been developed. The incorporated activity in a human body has been measured using this procedure. Two Kozloduy-2 staff members have been subject to measurement. Cs-137 activity was homogeneously distributed with values 175 Bq in person X and 1050 Bq in person Y. Co-60 activity was concentrated in the lungs with values of 110 Bq and 470 Bq respectively. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.S.; Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) is currently used to measure body composition in metabolic and nutritional studies in many clinical situations, but has not previously been validated by comparison with chemical analysis of human cadavers. Total body nitrogen (TBN) and chlorine (TBCl) were measured in two human cadavers by NAA before homogenization and chemical analysis (CHEM) after (cadaver 1: TBN, 1.47 NAA, 1.51 CHEM; TBCl, 0.144 NAA, 0.147 CHEM; cadaver 2: TBN, 0.576 NAA, 0.572 CHEM; TBCl, 0.0227 NAA, 0.0250 CHEM). The homogenates were also analyzed by NAA, and no significant differences were found, indicating that the effects of elemental inhomogeneity on the measurement of TBN and TBCl are insignificant. Total body water, fat, protein, minerals, and carbohydrates were measured chemically for each cadaver and compared with estimates for these compartments obtained from a body composition model, which when used in vivo involves NAA and tritium dilution. The agreement found justifies the use of the model for the measurement of changes in total body protein, water, and fat in sequential studies in groups of patients

  6. Redesigning Human Body Systems: Effective Pedagogical Strategy for Promoting Active Learning and STEM Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abour H. Cherif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body is a remarkable biological machine maintained by interdependent body systems and organized biochemical reactions. Evolution has worked on humans for hundreds of thousands of years, yet the current pace of technological and social change have radically affected our life style and have exposed possible human frailties. This raises the question of whether or not nature’s work could be improved upon. We provide two-sided perspectives as a rationale for the need for the redesign of the human body. Then, we describe pedagogical strategy through which students study morphological and anatomical structures and the physiological functions of the human body systems and their respective organs and parts. The students select their own favorite system or organ to redesign in order to optimize the efficiency of the anatomical structural, physiological function, and/or the aesthetic and functional morphology; a redesign that might lead to, for example, lowering risk of diabetes, heart attack, and/or stroke. Through group work and interaction (student groups compete for a prestigious “in-house” patent award, students actively engage in the learning process in order to understand the role of design in the efficiency and functionality and vulnerability to disease of the human body system.

  7. Health perceptions, self and body image, physical activity and nutrition among undergraduate students in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Gonen, Ester; Shaked, Yael; Golan, Moria

    2013-01-01

    This study examines health perceptions, self and body image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students. A structured, self-reported questionnaire was administered to more than 1500 students at a large academic institute in Israel. The study population was heterogenic in both gender and fields of academic study. High correlations between health perceptions, appropriate nutrition, and positive self and body image were found. The relationships between these variables differed between the subpopulation in the sample and the different genders. Engagement in physical exercise contributed to positive body image and positive health perceptions more than engagement in healthy nutrition. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, positive self and body image and higher engagement in physical exercise in comparison to all other students in the sample. This study suggests, as have many before, that successful health promotion policy should reflect a collectivist rather than an individualist ethos by providing health prerequisites through a public policy of health-promotion, where the academic settings support a healthy lifestyle policy, by increasing availability of a healthy, nutritious and varied menu in the cafeterias, and offering students various activities that enhance healthy eating and exercise. IMPLICATIONS AND CONTRIBUTION: This study examined health perceptions, self-image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students and found high correlations between these topics. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, and positive self and body image and engaged more in physical exercise when compared with all other students in the sample.

  8. 'Keeping your body and mind active': an ethnographic study of aspirations for healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guell, Cornelia; Shefer, Guy; Griffin, Simon; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-07

    To describe and explore perceptions, practices and motivations for active living in later life. Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and 'semistructured' participant observations of participant-selected activities, such as exercise classes, private or organised walks, shopping and gardening. 27 participants (65-80 years) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk study, purposefully selected by gender, age, occupational class, living status and residential location; 19 of the participants agreed to be accompanied for observed activities. Participants' homes, neighbourhoods, places of leisure activities and workplaces in Norfolk, England. All participants regarded a positive attitude as important for healthy ageing; this included staying active, both physically and mentally through sedentary activities such as reading and crosswords. 'Getting out of the house', being busy, or following a variety of interests were regarded as both important motivators and descriptions of their 'activeness'. Purposeful activities formed an important part of this, for example, still being engaged in paid or voluntary work, having caring responsibilities, or smaller incidental activities such as helping neighbours or walking for transport. Many also reported adapting previous, often lifelong, activity preferences and habits to their ageing body, or replacing them altogether with lower impact activities such as walking. This included adapting to the physical limitations of partners and friends which dictated the intensity and frequency of shared activities. The social context of activities could thus form a barrier to active living, but could also encourage it through companionship, social responsibilities and social pressures. Promoting and maintaining physical activity among older people may require more attention to activeness as an attitude and way of life as well as to its social context, and initiatives encouraging broader activity habits rather

  9. Correlation between temporal pole MRI abnormalities and surface ictal EEG patterns in patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, Luís Otávio S F; Garzon, Eliana; Oliveira, Pedro A L; Carrete, Henrique; Centeno, Ricardo S; Bianchin, Marino M; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T; Sakamoto, Américo C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study is to analyze ictal patterns observed during continuous Video-EEG monitoring in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS), and to correlate these EEG patterns to temporal pole abnormalities observed on magnetic resonance imaging exams. We analyzed 147 seizures from 35 patients with TLE and unilateral HS. Ictal patterns were classified and correlated to signal abnormalities and volumetric measures of the temporal poles. Volume differences over 10% were considered abnormal. The most frequent type of ictal pattern was rhythmic theta activity (RTA), encountered in 65.5% of the seizures. Rhythmic beta activity (RBA) was observed in 11% of the seizures, localized attenuation in 8%, interruption of epileptiform discharges in 6%, repetitive discharges in 5.5%, and rhythmic delta activity (RDA) in 4%. Sixty-six percent of the patients presented signal abnormalities in the temporal pole that were always ipsilateral to the HS. Sixty percent presented significant asymmetry of the temporal poles consisting of reduced volume that was also always ipsilateral to HS. Although patients with RTA as the predominant ictal pattern tended to present asymmetry of temporal poles (p=0.305), the ictal EEG pattern did not correlate with temporal pole asymmetry or signal abnormalities. RTA is the most frequent initial ictal pattern in patients with TLE due to unilateral HS. Temporal pole signal changes and volumetric reduction were commonly found in this group of patients, both abnormalities appearing always ipsilateral to the HS. However, neither temporal pole volume reduction nor signal abnormalities correlated with the predominant ictal pattern, suggesting that the temporal poles are not crucially involved in the process of epileptogenesis.

  10. S-phenylpiracetam, a selective DAT inhibitor, reduces body weight gain without influencing locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvejniece, Liga; Svalbe, Baiba; Vavers, Edijs; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Makarova, Elina; Liepins, Vilnis; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija

    2017-09-01

    S-phenylpiracetam is an optical isomer of phenotropil, which is a clinically used nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. Recently, it was shown that S-phenylpiracetam is a selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor that does not influence norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of S-phenylpiracetam treatment on body weight gain, blood glucose and leptin levels, and locomotor activity. Western diet (WD)-fed mice and obese Zucker rats were treated daily with peroral administration of S-phenylpiracetam for 8 and 12weeks, respectively. Weight gain and plasma metabolites reflecting glucose metabolism were measured. Locomotor activity was detected in an open-field test. S-phenylpiracetam treatment significantly decreased body weight gain and fat mass increase in the obese Zucker rats and in the WD-fed mice. In addition, S-phenylpiracetam reduced the plasma glucose and leptin concentration and lowered hyperglycemia in a glucose tolerance test in both the mice and the rats. S-phenylpiracetam did not influence locomotor activity in the obese Zucker rats or in the WD-fed mice. The results demonstrate that S-phenylpiracetam reduces body weight gain and improves adaptation to hyperglycemia without stimulating locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that selective DAT inhibitors, such as S-phenylpiracetam, could be potentially useful for treating obesity in patients with metabolic syndrome with fewer adverse health consequences compared to other anorectic agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The ergonomics body posture on repetitive and heavy lifting activities of workers in aerospace manufacturing warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, S. R.; Zula, N. E. N. Md; Rayme, N. S.; Shamsuddin, S.; Husain, K.

    2017-06-01

    Warehouse is an important entity in manufacturing organizations. It usually involves working activities that relate ergonomics risk factors including repetitive and heavy lifting activities. Aerospace manufacturing workers are prone of having musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) problems because of the manual handling activities. From the questionnaires is states that the workers may have experience discomforts experience during manual handling work. Thus, the objectives of this study are; to investigate the body posture and analyze the level of discomfort for body posture of the workers while performing the repetitive and heavy lifting activities that cause MSD problems and to suggest proper body posture and alternatives to reduce the MSD related problems. Methodology of this study involves interviews, questionnaires distribution, anthropometry measurements, RULA (Right Upper Limb Assessment) assessment sheet and CATIA V5 RULA analysis, NIOSH lifting index (LI) and recommended weight limit (RWL). Ten workers are selected for pilot study and as for anthropometry measurement all workers in the warehouse department were involved. From the first pilot study, the RULA assessment score in CATIA V5 shows the highest score which is 7 for all postures and results after improvement of working posture is very low hence, detecting weight of the material handling is not in recommendation. To reduce the risk of MSD through the improvisation of working posture, the weight limit is also calculated in order to have a RWL for each worker. Therefore, proposing a guideline for the aerospace workers involved with repetitive movement and excessive lifting will help in reducing the risk of getting MSD.

  12. The lower body muscle activation of intermediate to experienced kayakers when navigating white water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Misha; Brooks, Darrell; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    In white-water kayaking, the legs play a vital part in turning, stabilising and bracing actions. To date, there has been no reported information on neuromuscular activation of the legs in an authentic white-water environment. The aim of the current study was to identify lower body muscle activation, using 'in-boat' electromyography (EMG), whilst navigating a white-water run. Ten experienced male kayakers (age 31.5 ± 12.5 yr, intermediate to advanced experience) completed three successful runs of an international standard white-water course (grade 3 rapids), targeting right and left sides of the course, in a zigzag formation. Surface EMG (sEMG) outputs were generated, bilaterally, for the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius, expressed as a percentage of a dynamic maximal voluntary contraction (dMVC). Only RF showed significantly higher activation than any muscle on the left side of the body, and only on the left side of the course (P = .004; ETA(2) = 0.56). Other results showed no significant difference between muscle activation in the right and left legs during each run, nor when assessed at either the right or left side of the course (P > .05). These findings indicate that contralateral symmetry in lower limb muscle activation is evident during white-water kayaking. This symmetry may provide a stable base to allow more asymmetrical upper body and trunk movements to be fully optimised. Lower body symmetry development should be considered useful in targeted training programmes for white-water kayakers.

  13. Three-body correlations and conditional forces in suspensions of active hard disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, Andreas; Richard, David; Speck, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Self-propelled Brownian particles show rich out-of-equilibrium physics, for instance, the motility-induced phase separation (MIPS). While decades of studying the structure of liquids have established a deep understanding of passive systems, not much is known about correlations in active suspensions. In this work we derive an approximate analytic theory for three-body correlations and forces in systems of active Brownian disks starting from the many-body Smoluchowski equation. We use our theory to predict the conditional forces that act on a tagged particle and their dependence on the propulsion speed of self-propelled disks. We identify preferred directions of these forces in relation to the direction of propulsion and the positions of the surrounding particles. We further relate our theory to the effective swimming speed of the active disks, which is relevant for the physics of MIPS. To test and validate our theory, we additionally run particle-resolved computer simulations, for which we explicitly calculate the three-body forces. In this context, we discuss the modeling of active Brownian swimmers with nearly hard interaction potentials. We find very good agreement between our simulations and numerical solutions of our theory, especially for the nonequilibrium pair-distribution function. For our analytical results, we carefully discuss their range of validity in the context of the different levels of approximation we applied. This discussion allows us to study the individual contribution of particles to three-body forces and to the emerging structure. Thus, our work sheds light on the collective behavior, provides the basis for further studies of correlations in active suspensions, and makes a step towards an emerging liquid state theory.

  14. Is Being a Boy and Feeling Fat a Barrier for Physical Activity? The Association between Body Image, Gender and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical activity leads to physical and mental health benefits. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with body image and gender. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the associations of body image with physical activity of adolescents and whether

  15. Time-Resolved Records of Magnetic Activity on the Pallasite Parent Body and Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, J. F. J.; Nichols, C. I. O.; Herrero-Albillos, J.; Kronast, F.; Kasama, T.; Alimadadi, H.; van der Laan, G.; Nimmo, F.; Harrison, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although many small bodies apparently generated dynamo fields in the early solar system, the nature and temporal evolution of these fields has remained enigmatic. Time-resolved records of the Earth's planetary field have been essential in understanding the dynamic history of our planet, and equivalent information from asteroids could provide a unique insight into the development of the solar system. Here we present time-resolved records of magnetic activity on the main-group pallasite parent body and (16) Psyche, obtained using newly-developed nanomagnetic imaging techniques. For the pallasite parent body, the inferred field direction remained relatively constant and the intensity was initially stable at ~100 μT before it decreased in two discrete steps down to 0 μT. We interpret this behaviour as due to vigorous dynamo activity driven by compositional convection in the core, ultimately transitioning from a dipolar to multipolar field as the inner core grew from the bottom-up. For Psyche (measured from IVA iron meteorites), the inferred field direction reversed, while the intensity remained stable at >50 μT. Psyche cooled rapidly as an unmantled core, although the resulting thermal convection alone cannot explain these observations. Instead, this behaviour required top-down core solidification, and is attributed either to compositional convection (if the core also solidified from the bottom-up) or convection generated directly by top-down solidification (e.g. Fe-snow). The mechanism governing convection in small body cores is an open question (due partly to uncertainties in the direction of core solidification), and these observations suggest that unconventional (i.e. not thermal) mechanisms acted in the early solar system. These mechanisms are very efficient at generating convection, implying a long-lasting and widespread epoch of dynamo activity among small bodies in the early solar system.

  16. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes enriched with selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake (Lentinus edodes belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3 of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.

  17. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  18. Convolutional Neural Networks for Human Activity Recognition Using Body-Worn Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moya Rueda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition (HAR is a classification task for recognizing human movements. Methods of HAR are of great interest as they have become tools for measuring occurrences and durations of human actions, which are the basis of smart assistive technologies and manual processes analysis. Recently, deep neural networks have been deployed for HAR in the context of activities of daily living using multichannel time-series. These time-series are acquired from body-worn devices, which are composed of different types of sensors. The deep architectures process these measurements for finding basic and complex features in human corporal movements, and for classifying them into a set of human actions. As the devices are worn at different parts of the human body, we propose a novel deep neural network for HAR. This network handles sequence measurements from different body-worn devices separately. An evaluation of the architecture is performed on three datasets, the Oportunity, Pamap2, and an industrial dataset, outperforming the state-of-the-art. In addition, different network configurations will also be evaluated. We find that applying convolutions per sensor channel and per body-worn device improves the capabilities of convolutional neural network (CNNs.

  19. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Evaluation of a smartphone human activity recognition application with able-bodied and stroke participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capela, N A; Lemaire, E D; Baddour, N; Rudolf, M; Goljar, N; Burger, H

    2016-01-20

    Mobile health monitoring using wearable sensors is a growing area of interest. As the world's population ages and locomotor capabilities decrease, the ability to report on a person's mobility activities outside a hospital setting becomes a valuable tool for clinical decision-making and evaluating healthcare interventions. Smartphones are omnipresent in society and offer convenient and suitable sensors for mobility monitoring applications. To enhance our understanding of human activity recognition (HAR) system performance for able-bodied and populations with gait deviations, this research evaluated a custom smartphone-based HAR classifier on fifteen able-bodied participants and fifteen participants who suffered a stroke. Participants performed a consecutive series of mobility tasks and daily living activities while wearing a BlackBerry Z10 smartphone on their waist to collect accelerometer and gyroscope data. Five features were derived from the sensor data and used to classify participant activities (decision tree). Sensitivity, specificity and F-scores were calculated to evaluate HAR classifier performance. The classifier performed well for both populations when differentiating mobile from immobile states (F-score > 94 %). As activity recognition complexity increased, HAR system sensitivity and specificity decreased for the stroke population, particularly when using information derived from participant posture to make classification decisions. Human activity recognition using a smartphone based system can be accomplished for both able-bodied and stroke populations; however, an increase in activity classification complexity leads to a decrease in HAR performance with a stroke population. The study results can be used to guide smartphone HAR system development for populations with differing movement characteristics.

  1. Body dimensions, exercise capacity and physical activity level of adolescent Nandi boys in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Bøgh; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Nolan, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize untrained Nandi boys (mean age 16.6 years) from a town (n = 11) and from a rural area (n = 19) in western Kenya (altitude approximately 2000 m.a.s.l.) in regard to their body dimensions, oxygen uptake and physical activity level. The town boys had a mean...... that the body dimensions of adolescent Nandi town and village boys corresponds well with findings in Kenyan elite runners. They are very slender with relatively long legs. In addition, the VO(2 max) of the village boys was higher than that of the town boys, which is probably due to a higher physical activity...... level of the village boys during secondary school....

  2. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, Alberto; Adumitroaie, V.

    2017-01-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars,...... of magnitude more precise. This has implications for the distribution of heavy elements in the interior, including the existence and mass of Jupiter's core. The observed magnetic field exhibits smaller spatial variations than expected, indicative of a rich harmonic content....

  3. An active cooperation-aware spectrum allocation mechanism for body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fu; Guo, Ying; Peng, Jun; Hu, Jiankun

    2015-01-28

    A cognitive radio-based spectrum allocation scheme using an active cooperative-aware mechanism is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures that the primary user and secondary users cooperate actively for their own benefits. The primary user releases some spectrum resources to secondary users to actively stimulate them to actively join the cooperative transmission of the primary user, and secondary users help the primary user to relay data in return, as well as its self-data transmission at the same time. The Stackelberg game is used to evenly and jointly optimize the utilities of both the primary and secondary users. Simulation results show that the proposed active cooperation-aware mechanism could improve the body sensor network performance.

  4. An Active Cooperation-Aware Spectrum Allocation Mechanism for Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio-based spectrum allocation scheme using an active cooperative-aware mechanism is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures that the primary user and secondary users cooperate actively for their own benefits. The primary user releases some spectrum resources to secondary users to actively stimulate them to actively join the cooperative transmission of the primary user, and secondary users help the primary user to relay data in return, as well as its self-data transmission at the same time. The Stackelberg game is used to evenly and jointly optimize the utilities of both the primary and secondary users. Simulation results show that the proposed active cooperation-aware mechanism could improve the body sensor network performance.

  5. Evaluation of muscle activity for loaded and unloaded dynamic squats during vertical whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Kenno, Kenji A; Jakobi, Jennifer M

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine if the addition of a light external load would enhance whole-body vibration (WBV)-induced increases in muscle activity during dynamic squatting in 4 leg muscles. Thirteen recreationally active male university students performed a series of dynamic squats (unloaded with no WBV, unloaded with WBV, loaded with no WBV, and loaded with WBV). The load was set to 30% of body mass and WBV included 25-, 35-, and 45-Hz frequencies with 4-mm amplitude. Muscle activity was recorded with surface electromyography (EMG) on the vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GC) and is reported as EMGrms (root mean square) normalized to %maximal voluntary exertion. During unloaded dynamic squats, exposure to WBV (45 Hz) significantly (p squat exercise in all muscles but decreased the TA. This loaded level of muscle activity was further increased with WBV (45 Hz) in all muscles. The WBV-induced increases in muscle activity in the loaded condition (approximately 3.5%) were of a similar magnitude to the WBV-induced increases during the unloaded condition (approximately 2.5%) demonstrating the addition of WBV to unloaded or loaded dynamic squatting results in an increase in muscle activity. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of using external loads with exposure to WBV.

  6. Body weight as an indicator of fat-free mass in active elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline G; Modeneze, Dênis M; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Erika S; Boccaletto, Estela M A

    2011-04-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) reduction and the tendency for a reduction in surrounding fatty issue and increase in the middle are a natural consequence of growing old and should be studied in order to gain a better understanding of the aging process. This study set out to find the FFM differences between active elderly women in two age groups (60-69 and 70-80 years) and to determine which of the anthropometric measurements, body weight (BW), abdominal circumference (AC), or body mass index (BMI) are the best predictors of FFM variation within the group. Eighty-one (n=81) active elderly women of the Third Age willingly signed up to participate in the research during the activities at the University of the Third Age (UTA) in Brazil. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Body weight (BW), height (H) and the BMI were measured according to the international standards. The AC was measured in centimetres at the H of the navel and body composition was ascertained using bioimpedance analysis. The SAS program was used to perform the statistical analysis of independent samples and parametric data. The results showed FFM values with significant differences between the two groups, with the lowest values occurring among the women who were over 70 years of age. In the analysis, the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient for each measured independent variable was ascertained, with the BW measurement showing the highest ratio (0.900). The BW measurement was regarded as reliable, low-cost and easy to use for monitoring FFM in elderly women who engage in physical activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring nutritional status, physical activity and body mass index of Pakistani teens

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Khan; Nazia Jameel; Rehana Khalil; Saadia Gul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem in Pakistan, as it has in other developing countries. Childhood obesity poses high cost to the well-being and negatively affects children's health, causes chronic disease as children grow older. The aim of this study was to explore nutritional status, physical activity and body mass index (BMI) of school and college going students of mid and late adolescence age (14 to 19 years) studying in multi-ethnic city of Karachi, Pakista...

  8. Characterization of the rhyolitic rocks from the Lela ore body using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.C.; Fortes, B.P.; Guevara, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a well-known analytical method for nondestructive, sensitive and accurate determination of elemental composition of geological samples. In the present work twenty-two elements were determined by INAA in nine rhyolitic geological samples from a wolframium ore body Lela, located in the territory of Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. The obtained results are important for the preliminary geochemical evaluation of the studied rocks. (author)

  9. Status of bone mineral content and body composition in boys engaged in intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madić Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. To examine the influence of training on body composition and bone mineral density we have studied a group of prepubertal soccer players as well as a group of inactive prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. Methods. A total of 62 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 32 soccer players (aged 10.7 ± 0.5 years, who had been playing football for at least 1 year (10-15 h per week. The second group a control group 30 boys (aged 11.2 ± 0.7 years doing 1.5 h per week physical activity at school. Body composition was assessed by a Body Fat Analyzer 'BES 200 Z'. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and the right calcaneus were done by using ultrasound densitometer 'Sahara' (Hologic, Inc., MA, USA. Results. There were significant differences between soccer players and the control group in fat mass (p = 0.01. Besides, a significant difference was determined between the group of athletes and the control group in bone mineral density of both calcaneal bones (p = 0.01. Conclusion. The results of this study confirm the significant effects of physical activity on reducing body mass and increasing bone density. Considering that football training can be very easily implemented in the broader population of children and young people, which does not apply to many other sports, it should be used more in the prevention of obesity and osteoporosis.

  10. RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND BODY EXERCISE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Olaitan; Olukunmi ‘Lanre; Bakinde; Surajudeen Tosho; Ibraheem; Tajudeen Olanrewaju

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the influence of recreational activities and body exercise among secondary school students in Kwara State. This paper explores types of exercise, benefits of physical exercise, risk of physical exercise and well as health and recreation. Four research questions and four research hypotheses were raised and generated to guide the study.This researcher employed a descriptive research survey method. The population consists of all secondary school students in Kwara State. T...

  11. Mechanical evidence that flamingos can support their body on one leg with little active muscular force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Hui; Ting, Lena H

    2017-05-01

    Flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) often stand and sleep on one leg for long periods, but it is unknown how much active muscle contractile force they use for the mechanical demands of standing on one leg: body weight support and maintaining balance. First, we demonstrated that flamingo cadavers could passively support body weight on one leg without any muscle activity while adopting a stable, unchanging, joint posture resembling that seen in live flamingos. By contrast, the cadaveric flamingo could not be stably held in a two-legged pose, suggesting a greater necessity for active muscle force to stabilize two-legged versus one-legged postures. Our results suggest that flamingos engage a passively engaged gravitational stay apparatus (proximally located) for weight support during one-legged standing. Second, we discovered that live flamingos standing on one leg have markedly reduced body sway during quiescent versus alert behaviours, with the point of force application directly under the distal joint, reducing the need for muscular joint torque. Taken together, our results highlight the possibility that flamingos stand for long durations on one leg without exacting high muscular forces and, thus, with little energetic expenditure. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Complex conjugate poles and parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiburzi, B.C.; Detmold, W.; Miller, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate parton and generalized parton distributions in Minkowski space using a scalar propagator with a pair of complex conjugate poles. Correct spectral and support properties are obtained only after careful analytic continuation from Euclidean space. Alternately the quark distribution function can be calculated from modified cutting rules, which put the intermediate state on its complex mass shells. Distribution functions agree with those resulting from the model's Euclidean space double distribution which we calculate via nondiagonal matrix elements of twist-two operators. Thus one can use a wide class of analytic parametrizations of the quark propagator to connect Euclidean space Green functions to light-cone dominated amplitudes

  13. Age-associated increase of the active zone protein Bruchpilot within the honeybee mushroom body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin B Gehring

    Full Text Available In honeybees, age-associated structural modifications can be observed in the mushroom bodies. Prominent examples are the synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG in the mushroom body calyces, which were shown to alter their size and density with age. It is not known whether the amount of intracellular synaptic proteins in the MG is altered as well. The presynaptic protein Bruchpilot (BRP is localized at active zones and is involved in regulating the probability of neurotransmitter release in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we explored the localization of the honeybee BRP (Apis mellifera BRP, AmBRP in the bee brain and examined age-related changes in the AmBRP abundance in the central bee brain and in microglomeruli of the mushroom body calyces. We report predominant AmBRP localization near the membrane of presynaptic boutons within the mushroom body MG. The relative amount of AmBRP was increased in the central brain of two-week old bees whereas the amount of Synapsin, another presynaptic protein involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release, shows an increase during the first two weeks followed by a decrease. In addition, we demonstrate an age-associated modulation of AmBRP located near the membrane of presynaptic boutons within MG located in mushroom body calyces where sensory input is conveyed to mushroom body intrinsic neurons. We discuss that the observed age-associated AmBRP modulation might be related to maturation processes or to homeostatic mechanisms that might help to maintain synaptic functionality in old animals.

  14. The role of lean body mass and physical activity in bone health in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Fátima; Barrigas, Carlos; Vieira, Filomena; Santa-Clara, Helena; Homens, Pedro Mil; Fragoso, Isabel; Teixeira, Pedro J; Sardinha, Luís B

    2012-01-01

    In the context of physical education curricula, markers of physical fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity, muscular strength, flexibility, and body mass index or body fat) are usually evaluated in reference to health standards. Despite their possible mediating role in the relationship between weight-bearing or muscle forces and features of bone tissue, these attributes of fitness may not be the most relevant to predict skeletal health. It is therefore important to analyze the relative contribution of these factors to the variability in bone tissue of different parts of the skeleton, and to analyze it by gender, as sensitivity to mechanical loading can diverge for boys and girls. We compared the effects of habitual physical activity (PA) and lean mass, as surrogates of weight-bearing and muscle forces, and of physical fitness (aerobic and muscle capacity of lower and upper limbs) on bone mineral content (BMC) and size of total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and 1/3 radius in 53 girls and 64 boys from 7.9 to 9.7 years of age. After controlling for bone age, body mass, body height, and calcium intake, lean mass was the most important predictor of bone size and/or mineral in both genders (p  608 counts/min/day (~105 min/day of moderate and vigorous intensity) showed 13-20% more BMC than those with less physical activity, and girls with a lean mass >19 kg showed 12-19% more BMC than those with less lean mass. These findings suggest that lean mass was the most important predictor of bone size and/or mineralization in both genders, while habitual weight-bearing PA appears to positively impact on bone mineral in prepubertal boys and that both lean mass and PA need to be considered in physical education curricula and other health-enhancing programs.

  15. Design of a portable CAT scanner for utility pole inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Work is under way at the University of Missouri, Columbia (UMC) to design, build, and test a portable computerized axial tomography (CAT) device for the nondestructive, field imaging of wooden utility poles. CAT is a well-established medical technology that has recently been applied to a number of industrial applications. Wooden utility poles are prone to rot and decay at ground level; current techniques to assess this loss of strength are relatively primitive, i.e., tapping the pole (hitting the pole with a hammer) or boring into the pole for samples and then testing inside the bore hole with an electrical pulse device. The accuracy in identifying poles needing replacement using these techniques is ∼ 70%. Since the cost of replacing a pole ranges from hundreds to thousands of dollars, an accurate, nondestructive method is needed. CAT can accurately image a wooden utility pole (since the size, density, and atomic elements of a pole are similar to the human head to torso), as was confirmed by imaging poles using the UMC nuclear engineering EMI-1010 medical scanner. Detailed images have been produced showing the ring structure of the wood and voids due to rot or decay. Images approaching this quality have also been produced on living trees using semiportable systems by other researchers

  16. Novel Treatment of a Scapholunate Ligament Injury with Proximal Pole Scaphoid Nonunion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P.; Kane, Patrick M.; Jacoby, Sidney M.; Culp, Randall W.

    2016-01-01

    Background  Nonunion of scaphoid proximal pole fractures presents a challenging management dilemma to hand surgeons. This problem is further complicated in the uncommon concurrence of scapholunate (SL) ligament disruption. Case Description  A 39-year-old male patient presented with new-onset wrist pain following a remote history of a proximal pole scaphoid fracture sustained as a teenager, which was treated nonoperatively. Six months before presentation, the patient sustained a fall while snowboarding. The patient was found to have a chronic nonunion of his scaphoid proximal pole with an associated SL ligament disruption. As the proximal fragment was too small to be amenable to fixation, the patient was treated with an arthroscopic partial scaphoid excision and SL ligament reconstruction using a scapholunateintercarpal screw placed percutaneously. At 26 months, the patient exhibited no pain, near-normal strength, and wrist motion, and expressed a high-level of satisfaction from his surgery. Literature Review  Although cases of SL ligament disruption with concomitant proximal scaphoid fractures have been reported, to our knowledge, this is the first report of SL ligament rupture occurring in the setting of a preexisting proximal pole scaphoid nonunion. Clinical Relevance  We report the use of SL ligament reconstruction augmented with intercarpal screw fixation, and excision of the proximal pole scaphoid nonunion. This minimallyinvasive approach may be a particularly useful option in young, active patients such as our own, where a motion-sacrificing salvage procedure would be less than ideal. PMID:27616829

  17. Neural activations are related to body-shape, anxiety, and outcomes in adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Harper, Jessica A; Van Enkevort, Erin A; Latimer, Kelsey; Kelley, Urszula; McAdams, Carrie J

    2017-04-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an illness that frequently begins during adolescence and involves weight loss. Two groups of adolescent girls (AN-A, weight-recovered following AN) and (HC-A, healthy comparison) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task involving social evaluations, allowing comparison of neural activations during self-evaluations, friend-evaluations, and perspective-taking self-evaluations. Although the two groups were not different in their whole-brain activations, anxiety and body shape concerns were correlated with neural activity in a priori regions of interest. A cluster in medial prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate correlated with the body shape questionnaire; subjects with more body shape concerns used this area less during self than friend evaluations. A cluster in medial prefrontal cortex and the cingulate also correlated with anxiety such that more anxiety was associated with engagement when disagreeing rather than agreeing with social terms during self-evaluations. This data suggests that differences in the utilization of frontal brain regions during social evaluations may contribute to both anxiety and body shape concerns in adolescents with AN. Clinical follow-up was obtained, allowing exploration of whether brain function early in course of disease relates to illness trajectory. The adolescents successful in recovery used the posterior cingulate and precuneus more for friend than self evaluations than the adolescents that remained ill, suggesting that neural differences related to social evaluations may provide clinical predictive value. Utilization of both MPFC and the precuneus during social and self evaluations may be a key biological component for achieving sustained weight-recovery in adolescents with AN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Active numerical model of human body for reconstruction of falls from height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowicz, Marcin; Kędzior, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Falls from height constitute the largest group of incidents out of approximately 90,000 occupational accidents occurring each year in Poland. Reconstruction of the exact course of a fall from height is generally difficult due to lack of sufficient information from the accident scene. This usually results in several contradictory versions of an incident and impedes, for example, determination of the liability in a judicial process. In similar situations, in many areas of human activity, researchers apply numerical simulation. They use it to model physical phenomena to reconstruct their real course over time; e.g. numerical human body models are frequently used for investigation and reconstruction of road accidents. However, they are validated in terms of specific road traffic accidents and are considerably limited when applied to the reconstruction of other types of accidents. The objective of the study was to develop an active numerical human body model to be used for reconstruction of accidents associated with falling from height. Development of the model involved extension and adaptation of the existing Pedestrian human body model (available in the MADYMO package database) for the purposes of reconstruction of falls from height by taking into account the human reaction to the loss of balance. The model was developed by using the results of experimental tests of the initial phase of the fall from height. The active numerical human body model covering 28 sets of initial conditions related to various human reactions to the loss of balance was developed. The application of the model was illustrated by using it to reconstruct a real fall from height. From among the 28 sets of initial conditions, those whose application made it possible to reconstruct the most probable version of the incident was selected. The selection was based on comparison of the results of the reconstruction with information contained in the accident report. Results in the form of estimated

  19. Total body irradiation for installment of arylsulfatase B activity in a cat by bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macy, D.W.; Gillette, E.L.; Gasper, P.W.; Thrall, M.A.; Wenger, D.A.; Kessell, M.L.; Hoover, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI is an inherited, metabolic defect in which a deficiency of arylsulfatase B, results in accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in lysosomes. Arylsulfatase B activity was installed in an affected 2 year old siamese cat with no arylsulfatase B activity, excess urinary GAG, Alder-Reilly bodies in neutrophils, facial dysmorphia, corneal clouding, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, and hind limb paresis. Following grafting of bone marrow from an immunologically nonreactive, female sibling with normal arylsulfatase B activity, increased arylsulfatase B activity and urinary excretion of hexuronic acid decreased by 19 days post transplantation. There were no metachromatic inclusions in circulating neutrophils, which were phenotypically female. The cat now has competent trilineage hematopoiesis, resolution of the facial dysmorphia, no corneal clouding, and improved movement of the head, neck, and mandible. The technique, sequence of hematologic recovery, and evidence of engraftment, are discussed. This may be a model for correction of mucopolysaccharidosis VI in man

  20. A 10-Month Physical Activity Intervention Improves Body Composition in Young Black Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Howe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if a 10-month after-school physical activity (PA intervention could prevent deleterious changes in body composition and cardiovascular (CV fitness in young black boys. Methods. Following baseline measures, 106 boys (8–12 yrs were randomized to either a control group or an intervention group, further divided into attenders (ATT and nonattenders (NATT, participating in ≥60% or <60% of the intervention, respectively. The daily intervention consisted of skills development (25 min, vigorous PA (VPA, 35 min, and strengthening/stretching (20 min components. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. Following the intervention, the ATT exhibited an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA and a significant reduction in BMI, fat mass, and %BF compared to the control group. A significant association among the intervention energy expenditure and changes in body composition and CV fitness was observed only in the ATT group. Conclusion. An after-school PA program of sufficient length and intensity can promote healthy changes in body composition and fitness levels in black boys who attend at least 3 days/week.

  1. Analysis of Muscle Activity Utilizing Bench Presses in the AnyBody Simulation Modelling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiu Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the AnyBody human modeling system with identical weights and varying grip distance (40.0 cm, 50.0 cm, and 60.0 cm, the stress distribution for the pectoralis and the muscle of upper extremity during a bench press was simulated, and the surface myoelectricity (EMG method was validated. Methods. The physical parameters driving the model of the human body were selected as weights of 35.0% (25.0 kg and grip distances. Conclusion. The validation of AnyBody software was proved as a high validity by using EMG test of four muscles’ activity compared to AnyBody software. During a bench press, the pectoralis major is the main muscle, the pectoralis major discharge increases with the height of barbell increases, and the pectoralis major discharge decreases as the short grip width increases. When the grip width equals the shoulder width, the value of pectoralis minor is lowest; when the grip width is smaller or larger than the shoulder width, the value is larger. As the short grip distance increases, the discharge of posterior deltoid muscle and triceps surface myoelectricity increases; thus, as the short grip distance increases, the deltoid muscle and triceps assist the pectoralis major during a bench press.

  2. Body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The research examined the relationship between body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore. Method : 137 youths (82 boys and 55 girls; age 12-13 enrolled in school sport completed two self-report questionnaires- SCOFF for disordered eating and body weight satisfaction- on two separate occasions that were six months apart (T1 vs. T2. Results : Body mass index for age classifications revealed that 5.1% were severely underweight; 1.5% underweight; 88.3% acceptable weight; 4.4% overweight and 0.7% were severely overweight. Conclusions : (i the prevalence of disordered eating was 46% at baseline measurement and this remained stable at 45.3% six months later; (ii there was no sex difference for disordered eating on the two measurement occasions (T1 vs. T2, p>0.05; (iii the prevalence of youths unsure of their bodyweight satisfaction was 26.6-21.2% which compared to 88.3% adjudged to be of healthy weight; across T1 and T2, more male subjects wanted to gain bodyweight while more female subjects wanted to lose bodyweight; and (iv subjects who were dissatisfied with their bodyweight had significantly greater odds of being at risk for developing DE. Holistic education programmes based upon body image and nutrition, are recommended.

  3. The Pole Orientation, Pole Precession, and Moment of Inertia Factor of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. A.; French, R. G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Marouf, E.; Rappaport, N.; McGhee, C.; Sepersky, T.; Lonergan, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses our determination of the Saturn's pole orientation and precession using a combination of Earthbased and spacecraft based observational data. From our model of the polar motion and the observed precession rate we obtain a value for Saturn's polar moment of inertia

  4. Associations of physical activity and inactivity with body tissue composition among healthy Polish women and women after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, U; Demuth, A; Skrzypczak, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and body composition among healthy women and women who have had mastectomy. This is in order to establish whether physical activity of women after breast cancer treatment improves composition and distribution of body mass components to a degree which will allow to achieve the body composition of healthy women. Research material consists of anthropometric measurements (body height, weight) of women and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition (using Akern - BIA 101 composition analyzer). Intensity of activity was assessed using the Physical Activity International Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 healthy women (active 44.74%, inactive 55.26%) and 70 females after mastectomy (54.29% and 45.71%, respectively). Mean chronological age of women after mastectomy was 53.40 years, SD=7.55, and of the healthy ones 52.38 years SD=11.01). A significant difference in body composition was noted among active and inactive women after mastectomy; namely the active females had lower weight (by approximately 12 kg), body mass index (BMI), level of fat mass (by approximately 8%) and (by approximately 5%) total body water. The active healthy women had 6% less fat mass, almost 4% more body water and 6% more fat free mass. Programmed physical activity undertaken by women after mastectomy is recommended and produces good results in the form of reduction of excessive body fat tissue. Through physical activity these women are able to achieve the same level of fat mass as healthy women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Intelligent landing strategy for the small bodies: from passive bounce to active trajectory control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pingyuan; Liu, Yanjie; Yu, Zhengshi; Zhu, Shengying; Shao, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Landing exploration is an important way to improve the understanding of small bodies. Considering the weak gravity field as well as the strict attitude constraints which make bounce a common situation and a tough issue for safe landing on small bodies, a novel active trajectory control-based intelligent landing strategy is proposed to improve the safety and reliability of mission. The scenarios of intelligent landing strategy for both safe landing and hopping exploration are introduced in detail and a potential structure for autonomous navigation and control system is presented. Furthermore, a convex optimization-based control algorithm is developed, which is the key technology fulfilling the active trajectory control. Meanwhile a novel discretization method based on the fourth-order Runge-Kutta rule is proposed to improve the accuracy. A helpful adjustment process of time-to-landing is also introduced when the feasible trajectory does not exist. Comprehensive simulations about the proposed intelligent landing strategy are performed to demonstrate the improved safety and accuracy of both landing and hopping exploration on small bodies. Meanwhile, the performance and accuracy of the proposed convex optimization-based control algorithms is also compared and discussed thoroughly. Some useful conclusions for control system design are also obtained.

  6. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  7. Assessment of physical activity of the human body considering the thermodynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Stefan; Rauschenberger, Philipp; Weigand, Bernhard; Siebert, Tobias; Schmitt, Syn; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2016-01-01

    Correctly dosed physical activity is the basis of a vital and healthy life, but the measurement of physical activity is certainly rather empirical resulting in limited individual and custom activity recommendations. Certainly, very accurate three-dimensional models of the cardiovascular system exist, however, requiring the numeric solution of the Navier-Stokes equations of the flow in blood vessels. These models are suitable for the research of cardiac diseases, but computationally very expensive. Direct measurements are expensive and often not applicable outside laboratories. This paper offers a new approach to assess physical activity using thermodynamical systems and its leading quantity of entropy production which is a compromise between computation time and precise prediction of pressure, volume, and flow variables in blood vessels. Based on a simplified (one-dimensional) model of the cardiovascular system of the human body, we develop and evaluate a setup calculating entropy production of the heart to determine the intensity of human physical activity in a more precise way than previous parameters, e.g. frequently used energy considerations. The knowledge resulting from the precise real-time physical activity provides the basis for an intelligent human-technology interaction allowing to steadily adjust the degree of physical activity according to the actual individual performance level and thus to improve training and activity recommendations.

  8. Can segmental model reductions quantify whole-body balance accurately during dynamic activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamkrajang, Parunchaya; Robinson, Mark A; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat; Vanrenterghem, Jos

    2017-07-01

    When investigating whole-body balance in dynamic tasks, adequately tracking the whole-body centre of mass (CoM) or derivatives such as the extrapolated centre of mass (XCoM) can be crucial but add considerable measurement efforts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reduced kinematic models can still provide adequate CoM and XCoM representations during dynamic sporting tasks. Seventeen healthy recreationally active subjects (14 males and 3 females; age, 24.9±3.2years; height, 177.3±6.9cm; body mass 72.6±7.0kg) participated in this study. Participants completed three dynamic movements, jumping, kicking, and overarm throwing. Marker-based kinematic data were collected with 10 optoelectronic cameras at 250Hz (Oqus Qualisys, Gothenburg, Sweden). The differences between (X)CoM from a full-body model (gold standard) and (X)CoM representations based on six selected model reductions were evaluated using a Bland-Altman approach. A threshold difference was set at ±2cm to help the reader interpret which model can still provide an acceptable (X)CoM representation. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement profiles of the CoM representation based on lower limbs, trunk and upper limbs showed strong agreement, slightly reduced for lower limbs and trunk only. Representations based on lower limbs only showed less strong agreement, particularly for XCoM in kicking. Overall, our results provide justification of the use of certain model reductions for specific needs, saving measurement effort whilst limiting the error of tracking (X)CoM trajectories in the context of whole-body balance investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla H; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine L; Mogensen, Mette S

    2008-01-01

    (-16)). Furthermore, obesity-related quantitative traits such as body weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and fasting serum leptin levels were significantly elevated in A-allele carriers. An interaction between the FTO rs9939609 genotype and physical activity (P = 0.007) was found, where physically inactive...... homozygous risk A-allele carriers had a 1.95 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) increase in BMI compared with homozygous T-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate that variation in FTO is associated with type 2 diabetes when not adjusted for BMI and with an overall increase in body fat mass. Furthermore, low physical......OBJECTIVE: Three independent studies have shown that variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associates with BMI and obesity. In the present study, the effect of FTO variation on metabolic traits including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related quantitative phenotypes...

  10. Upper body push and pull strength ratio in recreationally active adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Rodney J; Hanney, William J; Pabian, Patrick; Kolber, Morey J

    2013-04-01

    Agonist to antagonist strength data is commonly analyzed due to its association with injury and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the agonist to antagonist ratio of upper body strength using two simple field tests (timed push up/timed modified pull up) in recreationally active adults and to establish the basis for reference standards. One hundred eighty (180) healthy recreationally active adults (111 females and 69 males, aged 18-45 years) performed two tests of upper body strength in random order: 1. Push-ups completed during 3 sets of 15 seconds with a 45 second rest period between each set and 2. Modified pull-ups completed during 3 sets of 15 seconds with a 45 second rest period between each set. The push-up to modified pull-up ratio for the males was 1.57:1, whereas females demonstrated a ratio of 2.72:1. The results suggest that for our group of healthy recreationally active subjects, the upper body "pushing" musculature is approximately 1.5-2.7 times stronger than the musculature involved for pulling. In this study, these recreationally active adults displayed greater strength during the timed push-ups than the modified pull-ups. The relationship of these imbalances to one's performance and or injury risk requires further investigation. The reference values, however, may serve the basis for future comparison and prospective investigations. The field tests in this study can be easily implemented by clinicians and an agonist/antagonist ratio can be determined and compared to our findings. 2b.

  11. Imagining with the body in analytical psychology. Movement as active imagination: an interdisciplinary perspective from philosophy and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Ana

    2018-04-01

    This article explores how the body and imagination operate as pathways of knowledge through the use of Movement as Active Imagination in clinical practice. This method activates the transcendent function, thus encouraging new therapeutic responses. A philosophical perspective (Spinoza, Nietzsche, Merleau-Ponty) and some concepts from neuroscience (embodied cognition, somatic markers, image schema, mirror neurons, neuronal plasticity) will accompany us throughout this work, illustrated with a clinical vignette. Three levels of integration: 1) body, 2) body-emotion, 3) body-emotion-imagination are proposed: these mark a progressive sense of articulation and complexity. Finally the relation between creativity and neuronal plasticity will be considered. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  12. Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed

  13. Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W; Page, Melanie; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Moulton, Michelle; Topham, Glade

    2013-01-01

    Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of the crystallite orientation distribution from direct pole figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Gomes, P.A.M. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate the crystallite orientation distribution in polycrystalline material, from direct pole figures data of its crystallographic planes (Roe's Method). The programme was applied to (1010), (0002), (1011) and (1120) complete pole figures data for a commercial, thin sheet Zircaloy-4 tubing specimen. A semi-automatic Rigaku-Denki texture goniometer, which scans the reciprocal lattice sphere pointwise outputting the data in a punched tape, was used to obtain the pole figures. This is consistent with the results obtained through direct conclusion from the pole figures. (author)

  15. Thermal poling of multi-wire array optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lin; An, Honglin; Hayashi, Juliano G.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate in this paper thermal poling of multi-wire array fibers, which extends poling of fibers with two anodes to similar to 50 and similar to 500 wire array anodes. The second harmonic microscopy observations show that second order nonlinearity (SON) layers are developed surrounding all...... the rings of wires in the similar to 50 anode array fiber with poling of 1.8kV, 250 degrees C and 30min duration, and the outer rings of the similar to 500 anode array fiber at lower poling temperature. Our simulations based on a two-dimensional charge dynamics model confirm this can be explained...

  16. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including...

  17. Generalized pole inflation: Hilltop, natural, and chaotic inflationary attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Takahiro, E-mail: takahiro.terada@apctp.org [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-10

    A reformulation of inflationary model analyses appeared recently, in which inflationary observables are determined by the structure of a pole in the inflaton kinetic term rather than the shape of the inflaton potential. We comprehensively study this framework with an arbitrary order of the pole taking into account possible additional poles in the kinetic term or in the potential. Depending on the setup, the canonical potential becomes the form of hilltop or plateau models, variants of natural inflation, power-law inflation, or monomial/polynomial chaotic inflation. We demonstrate attractor behaviors of these models and compute corrections from the additional poles to the inflationary observables.

  18. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  19. On activation of cholesterologenesis under the effect of ionizing radiation on mammalian body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomijtseva, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    The assumption is made that ionizing radiation induces cholesterologenesis activation in different cells of mammalian organism as an early reaction to the harmful effect necessary for restoration of biomembranes. Liver cells activate adaptively the cholesterol synthesis in the animal body irradiated with lethal doses in response to the injury to radiosensitive cells in order to make them recover and compensate for their functions (with the gastrointestinal syndrome, for instance, to compensate for the cholesterol-producing function of the intestine and to make it recover). With lethal radiation doses, a change in the lipid content and metabolism of microsomal membrane lipids of the liver is associated with activation of synthetic functions of the liver due to compensation of the injury to radiosensitive tissues

  20. Association between body weight, physical activity and food choices among metropolitan transit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between body weight, physical activity and dietary intake among a population of metropolitan transit workers are described. Methods Data were collected during October through December, 2005, as part of the baseline measures for a worksite weight gain prevention intervention in four metro transit bus garages. All garage employees were invited to complete behavioral surveys that assessed food choices and physical activity, and weight and height were directly measured. Seventy-eight percent (N = 1092 of all employees participated. Results The prevalence of obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m2 was 56%. Over half of the transit workers reported consuming fruit (55% and vegetables (59% ≥ 3/week. Reported fast food restaurant frequency was low (13% visited ≥ 3/week. Drivers reported high levels of physical activity (eg. walking 93 minutes/day. However, an objective measure of physical activity measured only 16 minutes moderate/vigorous per day. Compared to other drivers, obese drivers reported significantly less vigorous physical activity, more time sitting, and more time watching television. Healthy eating, physical activity and weight management were perceived to be difficult at the worksite, particularly among obese transit workers, and perceived social support for these behaviors was modest. However, most workers perceived weight management and increased physical activity to be personally important for their health. Conclusion Although transit workers' self-report of fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity was high, perceived access to physical activity and healthful eating opportunities at the worksite was low. Obese workers were significantly less physically active and were more likely to report work environmental barriers to physical activity.

  1. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women w...

  2. Muscle activity during backward and forward running with body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Kenji; Soucy, Michael T; Bailey, Joshua P; Mercer, John A

    2017-10-01

    We investigated muscle activity during backward (BR) and forward (FR) running with body weight support (BWS). Ten participants completed BR and FR on a lower body positive pressure treadmill while selecting a preferred speed (PS) for different BWS conditions (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%BWS). Muscle activity from the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GA), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), preferred stride frequency (PSF), and PS were measured. Magnitude of muscle activity (BF, TA, and GA), RPE, PSF, and PS were not influenced by the interaction of direction and BWS (P>0.05). BF, TA, and GA were not different between directions (P>0.05) but were different between BWS conditions (P<0.01). RF was influenced by the interaction of direction and BWS (P<0.01). RF, BF, TA, and GA during BR were lower with increasing BWS. RF during BR was 59-86% higher than that of FR within BWS condition. RPE was lower with increasing BWS (P<0.001), regardless of direction of locomotion. PSF was lower and PS was higher during BR and FR with increasing BWS (both P<0.001). PSF during BR was 6-9% higher than that of FR. PS during BR was 24-31% lower than that of FR. These observations demonstrate that a change in BWS influences magnitude of muscle activity, PS, PSF, and RPE for both BR and FR. However, a change in direction of locomotion may not influence magnitude of muscle activity or RPE during running for a given BWS, even though muscle activity pattern, PS, and PSF were different between BR and FR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Body mass index, physical activity, and risk of adult meningioma and glioma: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermaier, Tobias; Behrens, Gundula; Schmid, Daniela; Schlecht, Inga; Fischer, Beate; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2015-10-13

    Whether adiposity and lack of physical activity affect the risk for developing meningioma and glioma is poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize these associations in detail. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of adiposity and physical activity in relation to meningioma and glioma using cohort and case-control studies published through February 2015. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We identified 12 eligible studies of body mass index (BMI) and 6 studies of physical activity, comprising up to 2,982 meningioma cases and 3,057 glioma cases. Using normal weight as the reference group, overweight (summary relative risk [RR] = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.43) and obesity (RR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.32-1.79) were associated with increased risk of meningioma. In contrast, overweight (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.94-1.20) and obesity (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.98-1.27) were unrelated to glioma. Similarly, dose-response meta-analyses revealed a statistically significant positive association of BMI with meningioma, but not glioma. High vs low physical activity levels showed a modest inverse relation to meningioma (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61-0.88) and a weak inverse association with glioma (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.76-0.97). Relations persisted when the data were restricted to prospective studies, except for the association between physical activity and glioma, which was rendered statistically nonsignificant (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.77-1.07). Adiposity is related to enhanced risk for meningioma but is unassociated with risk for glioma. Based on a limited body of evidence, physical activity is related to decreased risk of meningioma but shows little association with risk of glioma. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Dimensionally regularized Tsallis' statistical mechanics and two-body Newton's gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, J. D.; Rocca, M. C.; Plastino, A.; Ferri, G. L.

    2018-05-01

    Typical Tsallis' statistical mechanics' quantifiers like the partition function and the mean energy exhibit poles. We are speaking of the partition function Z and the mean energy 〈 U 〉 . The poles appear for distinctive values of Tsallis' characteristic real parameter q, at a numerable set of rational numbers of the q-line. These poles are dealt with dimensional regularization resources. The physical effects of these poles on the specific heats are studied here for the two-body classical gravitation potential.

  5. The effects of whole body vibration combined computerized postural control training on the lower extremity muscle activity and cerebral cortex activity in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Yo-Han; Yang, Dae-Jung

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of computerized postural control training using whole body vibration on lower limb muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation in acute stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated and were divided into groups of 10, a group of the computerized postural control training using whole body vibration (Group I), the computerized postural control training combined with aero step (Group II) and computerized postural control training (Group III). MP100 was used to measure lower limb muscle activity, and QEEG-8 was used to measure cerebral cortical activation. [Results] Comparison of muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation before and after intervention between groups showed that Group I had significant differences in lower limb muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation compared to Groups II and III. [Conclusion] This study showed that whole body vibration combined computerized postural control training is effective for improving muscle activity and cerebral cortex activity in stroke patients.

  6. Whole-body profile scanner for in vivo quantitative activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    A whole-body profile scanner has been developed by fitting parallel slit collimators to a shadow shield whole-body counter. Sensitivity, uniformity and resolution measurements were performed using a number of different counting conditions. It is shown that improved accuracy of activity measurements is obtained by using a wide window counting technique for low and medium energy gamma emitters (99m Tc, 131 I), whereas a photopeak window should be used for high energy gamma emitters (47 Ca). Due to the finite spatial resolution of the system a systematic error in evaluating regional activities from the counting rate profile occurs which is characterized by a spatial spillover factor. The spatial spillover factor is measured and is subsequently used to calculate the error on basis of a simple model. It is shown that only small errors are caused by spatial spillover when the length of a region is at least three times the full width half maximum of the point spread function. Applying the above mentioned simple rules it is concluded that profile scanning is a sensitive and accurate technique for activity measurements in vivo. Two examples of clinical applications (measurement of bone accretion rates of calcium and Tc-pyrophosphate, regional radioiodine retention in patients with thyroid carcinoma) and a review of the papers on profile scanning demonstrate the types of investigations in which profile scanning is superior to alternative techniques. (author)

  7. Hilar activity on the F-18 FDG whole-body PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kubo, Atsushi; Yasuda, Seiei; Ide, Michiru; Takahashi, Wakoh; Shohtsu, Akira

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical characteristics of hilar activity that would be false positive findings for cancer screening on whole-body FDG PET. The cases with increased hilar activity were selected from 1,126 cases who received whole-body FDG PET between September 1996 and August 1997, and their age, sex, complication of inflammatory process in lungs, numbers of visualized mediastinal lymph nodes, frequency of smoking, blood sugar level and concentration of HbA1c were studied. FDG accumulation in the hilar regions was found in 63 cases (5.6%). The cases with increased hilar activity were older, a higher incidence of complication of pulmonary inflammation, a larger number of visualized mediastinal lymph nodes and were more frequent smokers than the control cases with normal FDG distribution. Their male-to-female ratio, blood sugar level and concentration of HbA1c were not significantly different from those of the control cases. These results suggested that an inflammatory process around the hilar region might induce this confusing FDG accumulation. (author)

  8. Melatonin synthesis in the human ciliary body triggered by TRPV4 activation: Involvement of AANAT phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozi, Hanan Awad; Perez de Lara, María J; Pintor, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Melatonin is a substance synthesized in the pineal gland as well as in other organs. This substance is involved in many ocular functions, giving its synthesis in numerous eye structures. Melatonin is synthesized from serotonin through two enzymes, the first limiting step into the synthesis of melatonin being aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). In this current study, AANAT phosphorylation after the activation of TRPV4 was studied using human non-pigmented epithelial ciliary body cells. Firstly, it was necessary to determine the adequate time and dose of the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A to reach the maximal phosphorylation of AANAT. An increase of 72% was observed after 5 min incubation with 10 nM GSK (**p melatonin synthesis. The involvement of a TRPV4 channel in melatonin synthesis was verified by antagonist and siRNA studies as a previous step to studying intracellular signalling. Studies performed on the second messengers involved in GSK induced AANAT phosphorylation were carried out by inhibiting several pathways. In conclusion, the activation of calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II was confirmed, as shown by the cascade seen in AANAT phosphorylation (***p melatonin levels. In conclusion, the activation of a TRPV4 present in human ciliary body epithelial cells produced an increase in AANAT phosphorylation and a further melatonin increase by a mechanism in which Ca-calmodulin and the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II are involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bench Press Upper-Body Muscle Activation Between Stable and Unstable Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnick, Dustin D; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Lynn, Scott K; Barillas, Saldiam R

    2015-12-01

    The bench press is one of the most commonly used upper-body exercises in training and is performed with many different variations, including unstable loads (ULs). Although there is much research on use of an unstable surface, there is little to none on the use of an UL. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation during the bench press while using a stable load (SL) vs. UL. Twenty resistance-trained men (age = 24.1 ± 2 years; ht = 177.5 ± 5.8 cm; mass = 88.7 ± 13.7 kg) completed 2 experimental conditions (SL and UL) at 2 different intensities (60 and 80% one repetition maximum). Unstable load was achieved by hanging 16 kg kettlebells by elastic bands from the end of the bar. All trial lifts were set to a 2-second cadence with a slight pause at the bottom. Subjects had electrodes attached to 5 muscles (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, triceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi) and performed 3 isometric bench press trials to normalize electromyographic data. All 5 muscles demonstrated significantly greater activation at 80% compared with 60% load and during concentric compared with eccentric actions. These results suggest that upper body muscle activation is not different in the bench press between UL and SL. Therefore, coaches should use their preference when designing training programs.

  10. Catalytically-active inclusion bodies-Carrier-free protein immobilizates for application in biotechnology and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ulrich; Jäger, Vera D; Diener, Martin; Pohl, Martina; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2017-09-20

    Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) consist of unfolded protein aggregates and represent inactive waste products often accumulating during heterologous overexpression of recombinant genes in Escherichia coli. This general misconception has been challenged in recent years by the discovery that IBs, apart from misfolded polypeptides, can also contain substantial amounts of active and thus correctly or native-like folded protein. The corresponding catalytically-active inclusion bodies (CatIBs) can be regarded as a biologically-active sub-micrometer sized biomaterial or naturally-produced carrier-free protein immobilizate. Fusion of polypeptide (protein) tags can induce CatIB formation paving the way towards the wider application of CatIBs in synthetic chemistry, biocatalysis and biomedicine. In the present review we summarize the history of CatIBs, present the molecular-biological tools that are available to induce CatIB formation, and highlight potential lines of application. In the second part findings regarding the formation, architecture, and structure of (Cat)IBs are summarized. Finally, an overview is presented about the available bioinformatic tools that potentially allow for the prediction of aggregation and thus (Cat)IB formation. This review aims at demonstrating the potential of CatIBs for biotechnology and hopefully contributes to a wider acceptance of this promising, yet not widely utilized, protein preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' for developing the nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' (PNB) is a high-technology and heavy industries cluster in Burgundy with an international calling. It aims at innovating, educating and federating in order to place the French nuclear industry in a leading position. PNB gathers 76 small-, and medium-sized enterprises, most of them operating in the metal sector, in design and in the control/measuring sector. The aim of PNB is to make enterprises work and cooperate on specific topics according to their sectors of activities and their skills. PNB has identified 3 domains of strategical innovations: -) ecological manufacturing and durability of heavy components, -) controls for high performance components, and -) maintenance and dismantling techniques in hostile environments. The various industry sectors represented in PNB allows a cross-fertilization between high-tech industries (aeronautics, energy, transportation)

  12. Magnetic Signature of the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin: Character, Origin, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purucker, Michael E.; Head, James W., III; Wilson, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    A new magnetic map of the Moon, based on Lunar Prospector (LP) magnetometer observations, sheds light on the origin of the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA), the largest and oldest of the recognized lunar basins. A set of WNW-trending linear to arcuate magnetic features, evident in both the radial and scalar observations, covers much of a 1000 km wide region centered on the NW portion of SPA. The source bodies are not at the surface because the magnetic features show no first-order correspondence to any surface topographic or structural feature. Patchy mare basalts of possible late Imbrianage are emplaced within SPA and are inferred to have been emplaced through dikes, directly from mantle sources. We infer that the magnetic features represent dike swarms that served as feeders for these mare basalts, as evident from the location of the Thomson/ Mare Ingenii, Van de Graaff, and Leeuwenhoek mare basalts on the two largest magnetic features in the region. Modeling suggests that the dike zone is between 25 and 50 km wide at the surface, and dike magnetization contrasts are in the range of 0.2 A/m. We theorize that the basaltic dikes were emplaced in the lunar crust when a long-lived dynamo was active. Based on pressure, temperature, and stress conditions prevalent in the lunar crust, dikes are expected to be a dominantly subsurface phenomenon, consistent with the observations reported here.

  13. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  14. The relationship between Facebook and Instagram appearance-focused activities and body image concerns in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rachel; Newton-John, Toby; Slater, Amy

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to identify the specific social networking sites (SNS) features that relate to body image concerns in young women. A total of 259 women aged 18-29years completed questionnaire measures of SNS use (Facebook and Instagram) and body image concerns. It was found that appearance-focused SNS use, rather than overall SNS use, was related to body image concerns in young women. Specifically, greater engagement in photo activities on Facebook, but not general Facebook use, was associated with greater thin-ideal internalisation and body surveillance. Similarly, following appearance-focused accounts on Instagram was associated with thin-ideal internalisation, body surveillance, and drive for thinness, whereas following appearance-neutral accounts was not associated with any body image outcomes. Implications for future SNS research, as well as for body image and disordered eating interventions for young women, are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the rhyolites from the ore body Lela using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Pena Fortes, B.

    1996-01-01

    Is the present work 22 elements were determined in nine rhyolitic geological samples from a wolframium ore body Lela located in the territory of La Isla de la Juventud. The results obtained are of great importance for the evaluation of the potentiality of the mentioned rocks as a source of uranium mineralization. The neutron activation analysis is an important analytical method used for a multi-elementary determination in geological samples, because its non-destructive character and high accuracy and precision. The irradiation of the samples was developed in the research reactor RA-6 of the Atomic Center of Bariloche, Argentina

  16. Early activation of the coagulation system during lower body negative pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, M; Johansson, P I; Nielsen, L B

    2009-01-01

    We considered that a moderate reduction of the central blood volume (CBV) may activate the coagulation system. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is a non-invasive means of reducing CBV and, thereby, simulates haemorrhage. We tested the hypothesis that coagulation markers would increase following...... moderate hypovolemia by exposing 10 healthy male volunteers to 10 min of 30 mmHg LBNP. Thoracic electrical impedance increased during LBNP (by 2.6 +/- 0.7 Omega, mean +/- SD; P pressure decreased (84 +/- 5 to 80...

  17. A 2-Tesla active shield magnet for whole body imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, F.J.; Elliott, R.T.; Hawksworth, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and testing of a 2T superconducting Active Shield magnet, with a 0.99m diameter warm bore for whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy. The magnet and cryostat were designed to meet the same performance standards as existing MRI magnets, but with the volume of the stray field region reduced to less than 4% of that for an unshielded magnet. The 0.5 mT stray field contour is within 5m axially and 3m radially of the magnet center. The system weight is only 14 tonnes

  18. Preventive Activities of Preliminary Investigation Bodies in Respect of Crime Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Timko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the prevention of victimization by the investigation and inquiry divisions of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation. It defines the main forms and methods of working with the victim during the investigation of a crime aimed at reducing the possibility of again becoming a victim of criminal assault. The organizational and legal directions of victimological prevention are analyzed, the necessity of developing effective mechanisms for assessing the activities of the units of internal affairs agencies in crime prevention is justified.

  19. Peculiarities of applying complex marketing elements in the activity of public administration bodies in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy ZBYRANIK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many practices are implemented in the activity of public administration bodies, which are used by the representatives of the business sector at the current stage of development of Ukraine. One of these practices is marketing. The article considers the theoretical aspects of marketing that can be applied in the work of public authorities. The fundamental differences between the sphere of public administration and the business are stated in this context. The main elements of the marketing mix are analysed and the peculiarities of marketing tools, which can be applied to the sphere of public administration, are noted.

  20. Physical Activity, Body Size, Intentional Weight Loss and Breast Cancer Risk: Fellowship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    early life physical activity and weight interactions in postmenopausal women; 2) age specific intentional weight loss; 3) method of weight loss. In...Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in obese women. Am J Clin...3600 1 soccer , and swimming as well as labor, but not high school 1-2 561 696 0.95 (0.83-1.08) s r 3-4 694 957 0.91 (0.81-1.02) physical education. Up

  1. Spontaneous and evoked cerebral activity modifications on whole-body γ irradiated adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, L.; Dufour, R.; Bassant, M.H.; Fatome, M.

    1976-01-01

    Whole-body γ-exposure from 150 to 850 rads (dose-rate: 14 rads.min -1 ) delivered to adult rabbits chronically implanted with electrodes resulted in prompt and delayed changes of behavior, arousal and spontaneous and evoked electrical activities. Electrophysiological techniques of polygraphic recording and signal processing showed that the alterations were related to the absorbed dose. The threshold dose accompanied with transient changes of arousal should be in the range of 50-100 rads; below this range, to the exclusion of some possible behavior changes, exposure should act as a stimulation that would become nociceptive at higher doses only [fr

  2. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikawa, Ken' ichi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Yamashita, Yasuho [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Yoshida, Daisuke [Montreal Univ., QC (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    2017-09-15

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  3. Performance of new generation pole light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K C; Karunanithi, S; Thio, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a standalone photovoltaic power supply which caters for garden lighting scheme. New Generation Pole Light (NGPL) consists of three parts which are light dependent resistor (LDR) and pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors, microcontroller and light emitting diode (LED) and finally, solar charging system. During the night, LED is switched on with two operating modes which are ultra-bright lighting for a predetermine period (when human presence is detected) and dim lighting. Meanwhile, LED is switched off at day time and solar charging system will recover the capacity of discharged battery. NGPL provides portable, sustainable, environmental friendly and requires minimal maintenance for outdoor lighting scheme for both urban and rural areas.

  4. Two-pole microring weight banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alexander N; Wu, Allie X; Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Nahmias, Mitchell A; Shastri, Bhavin J; Prucnal, Paul R

    2018-05-15

    Weighted addition is an elemental multi-input to single-output operation that can be implemented with high-performance photonic devices. Microring (MRR) weight banks bring programmable weighted addition to silicon photonics. Prior work showed that their channel limits are affected by coherent inter-channel effects that occur uniquely in weight banks. We fabricate two-pole designs that exploit this inter-channel interference in a way that is robust to dynamic tuning and fabrication variation. Scaling analysis predicts a channel count improvement of 3.4-fold, which is substantially greater than predicted by incoherent analysis used in conventional MRR devices. Advances in weight bank design expand the potential of reconfigurable analog photonic networks and multivariate microwave photonics.

  5. Retratos da metrópole parisiense

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Julien, Thérèse; Goix, Renaud Le

    2009-01-01

    « La métropole parisienne, centralité, inégalité, proximité » propõe uma leitura e uma interpretação das tendências do território da Île de France (a região que inclui Paris e sete outros départements), ou seja, uma grande metrópole mundial de cerca de 11,3 milhões de habitantes em 2004, ligada às redes da globalização e da metropolização. O livro esboça os traços principais de suas estruturas territoriais emergentes, sublinha os desafios, o alcance dos mesmos e as contradições. Sem pretensão...

  6. Retratos da metrópole parisiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Saint-Julien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available « La métropole parisienne, centralité, inégalité, proximité » propõe uma leitura e uma interpretação das tendências do território da Île de France (a região que inclui Paris e sete outros départements, ou seja, uma grande metrópole mundial de cerca de 11,3 milhões de habitantes em 2004, ligada às redes da globalização e da metropolização. O livro esboça os traços principais de suas estruturas territoriais emergentes, sublinha os desafios, o alcance dos mesmos e as contradições. Sem pretensão...

  7. Pole inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikawa, Ken'ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamashita, Yasuho; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-09-01

    We investigate inflation models in Jordan frame supergravity, in which an inflaton non-minimally couples to the scalar curvature. By imposing the condition that an inflaton would have the canonical kinetic term in the Jordan frame, we construct inflation models with asymptotically flat potential through pole inflation technique and discuss their relation to the models based on Einstein frame supergravity. We also show that the model proposed by Ferrara et al. has special position and the relation between the Kaehler potential and the frame function is uniquely determined by requiring that scalars take the canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame and that a frame function consists only of a holomorphic term (and its anti-holomorphic counterpart) for symmetry breaking terms. Our case corresponds to relaxing the latter condition.

  8. The Accuracy of Praziquantel Dose Poles for Mass Treatment of Schistosomiasis in School Girls in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baan, Marije; Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Gagai, Silindile

    2016-01-01

    and the recently developed Modified Dose Pole for adults with two additional intervals and correction for body mass index (BMI). Methodology In randomly selected primary and secondary schools of schistosomiasis-endemic areas, height and weight of female pupils were measured. The WHO Tablet Pole and Modified Dose....... Conclusions This study shows that the WHO Tablet Pole will be inaccurate in estimating the dose of praziquantel in South African girls due to high prevalence of overweight/obesity. Under-dosing of individuals who appear overweight/obese could be largely prevented by adding an extra praziquantel tablet...

  9. Nordic walking versus walking without poles for rehabilitation with cardiovascular disease: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girold, Sébastien; Rousseau, Jérome; Le Gal, Magalie; Coudeyre, Emmanuel; Le Henaff, Jacqueline

    2017-07-01

    With Nordic walking, or walking with poles, one can travel a greater distance and at a higher rate than with walking without poles, but whether the activity is beneficial for patients with cardiovascular disease is unknown. This randomized controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether Nordic walking was more effective than walking without poles on walk distance to support rehabilitation training for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Patients were recruited in a private specialized rehabilitation centre for cardiovascular diseases. The entire protocol, including patient recruitment, took place over 2 months, from September to October 2013. We divided patients into 2 groups: Nordic Walking Group (NWG, n=21) and Walking Group without poles (WG, n=21). All patients followed the same program over 4 weeks, except for the walk performed with or without poles. The main outcome was walk distance on the 6-min walk test. Secondary outcomes were maximum heart rate during exercise and walk distance and power output on a treadmill stress test. We included 42 patients (35 men; mean age 57.2±11 years and BMI 26.5±4.5kg/m 2 ). At the end of the training period, both groups showed improved walk distance on the 6-min walk test and treatment stress test as well as power on the treadmill stress test (PNordic walking training appeared more efficient than training without poles for increasing walk distance on the 6-min walk test for patients with ACS and PAOD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Facebook photo activity associated with body image disturbance in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Evelyn P; Gray, James

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between body image and adolescent girls' activity on the social networking site (SNS) Facebook (FB). Research has shown that elevated Internet "appearance exposure" is positively correlated with increased body image disturbance among adolescent girls, and there is a particularly strong association with FB use. The present study sought to replicate and extend upon these findings by identifying the specific FB features that correlate with body image disturbance in adolescent girls. A total of 103 middle and high school females completed questionnaire measures of total FB use, specific FB feature use, weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, appearance comparison, and self-objectification. An appearance exposure score was calculated based on subjects' use of FB photo applications relative to total FB use. Elevated appearance exposure, but not overall FB usage, was significantly correlated with weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, and self-objectification. Implications for eating disorder prevention programs and best practices in researching SNSs are discussed.

  11. CNS β3-adrenergic receptor activation regulates feeding behavior, white fat browning, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jennifer E; López-Ferreras, Lorena; Chanclón, Belén; Eerola, Kim; Micallef, Peter; Skibicka, Karolina P; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Pharmacological β 3 -adrenergic receptor (β 3 AR) activation leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process commonly referred to as "browning", and transiently increased insulin release. These effects are associated with improved metabolic function and weight loss. It is assumed that this impact of β 3 AR agonists is mediated solely through activation of β 3 ARs in adipose tissue. However, β 3 ARs are also found in the brain, in areas such as the brain stem and the hypothalamus, which provide multisynaptic innervation to brown and white adipose depots. Thus, contrary to the current adipocentric view, the central nervous system (CNS) may also have the ability to regulate energy balance and metabolism through actions on central β 3 ARs. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate whether CNS β 3 ARs can regulate browning of WAT and other aspects of metabolic regulation, such as food intake control and insulin release. We found that acute central injection of β 3 AR agonist potently reduced food intake, body weight, and increased hypothalamic neuronal activity in rats. Acute central β 3 AR stimulation was also accompanied by a transient increase in circulating insulin levels. Moreover, subchronic central β 3 AR agonist treatment led to a browning response in both inguinal (IWAT) and gonadal WAT (GWAT), along with reduced GWAT and increased BAT mass. In high-fat, high-sugar-fed rats, subchronic central β 3 AR stimulation reduced body weight, chow, lard, and sucrose water intake, in addition to increasing browning of IWAT and GWAT. Collectively, our results identify the brain as a new site of action for the anorexic and browning impact of β 3 AR activation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Physical activity practice, body image and visual impairment: a comparison between Brazilian and Italian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physical activity and body image of children and adolescents with visual impairment (VI) in Brazil and Italy. For this, 41 children and adolescents with VI (19 Brazilian and 22 Italian) aged 10.22 ± 2.19 years old (18 girls and 23 boys) answered the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C), the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), and an instrument with information about the disability, body weight and height. We analyzed the relationship between data from PAQ-C and OSIQ, as well as the gender, level of disability (blindness or low vision) and country using independent Mann-Whitney test. Body mass index (BMI) values were higher for Brazilian youths, with more than half of them classified as overweight and obese. Italian youths exhibited values of body image that were more positive and only 27% presented overweight or obesity. Blind children and adolescents were less active than those with low vision, but no differences were found between countries or genders. In Brazil, we detected significant correlations (p>0.05) between physical activity, body image and BMI, which more active youths presenting lower values of BMI and a better perception of body image. Physical activity seems to have a positive influence on body image and BMI for children and adolescents with VI, thus it should be encouraged especially for those with higher disability degrees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Turnover of whole body proteins and myofibrillar proteins in middle-aged active men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackin, M.; Meredith, C.; Frontera, W.; Evans, W.

    1986-01-01

    Endurance-trained older men have a higher proportion of lean tissue and greater muscle cell oxidative capacity, reversing age-related trends and suggesting major changes in protein metabolism. In this study, protein turnover was determined in 6 middle-aged (52+/-1 yr) men who were well trained (VO 2 max 55.2+/-5.0 ml O 2 /kg.min) and lean (body fat 18.9+/-2.8%, muscle mass 36.6+/-0.6%). The maintained habitual exercise while consuming 0.6, 0.9 or 1.2 g protein/kg.day for 10-day periods. N flux was measured from 15 N in urea after oral 15 N-glycine administration. Myofibrillar protein breakdown was estimated from urinary 3-methyl-histidine. Dietary protein had no effect on turnover rates, even when N balance was negative. Whole body protein synthesis was 3.60+/-0.12 g/kg.day and breakdown was 3.40+/-0.14 g/kg.day for all N intakes. Whole body protein flux, synthesis and breakdown were similar to values reported for sedentary young (SY) or sedentary old (SO) men on comparable diets. 3-me-his (3.67+/-0.14 μmol/kg.day) was similar to values reported for SY but higher (p<0.01) than for SO. Myofibrillar protein breakdown per unit muscle mass (185+/-7 μmol 3-me-his/g creatinine) was higher (p<0.01) than for SY or SO. In active middle-aged men, myofibrillar proteins may account for a greater proportion of whole body protein turnover, despite an age-related reduction in muscle mass

  14. PLTP activity in premenopausal women. Relationship with lipoprotein lipase, HDL, LDL, body fat, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, S J; Carr, M C; Hokanson, J E; Brunzell, J D; Albers, J J

    2000-02-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is thought to play a major role in the facilitated transfer of phospholipids between lipoproteins and in the modulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size and composition. However, little has been reported concerning the relationships of PLTP with plasma lipoprotein parameters, lipolytic enzymes, body fat distribution, insulin, and glucose in normolipidemic individuals, particularly females. In the present study, 50 normolipidemic healthy premenopausal females were investigated. The relationships between the plasma PLTP activity and selected variables were assessed. PLTP activity was significantly and positively correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.53), apoB (r(s) = 0.44), glucose (r(s) = 0.40), HDL cholesterol (r(s) = 0.38), HDL(3) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.37), lipoprotein lipase activity (r(s) = 0.36), insulin (r(s) = 0.33), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.36), intra-abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.29), and body mass index (r(s) = 0.29). HDL(2) cholesterol, triglyceride, and hepatic lipase were not significantly related to PLTP activity. As HDL(2) can be decreased by hepatic lipase and hepatic lipase is increased in obesity with increasing intra-abdominal fat, the participants were divided into sub-groups of non-obese (n = 35) and obese (n = 15) individuals and the correlation of PLTP with HDL(2) cholesterol was re-examined. In the non-obese subjects, HDL(2) cholesterol was found to be significantly and positively related to PLTP activity (r(s) = 0.44). Adjustment of the HDL(2) values for the effect of hepatic lipase activity resulted in a significant positive correlation between PLTP and HDL(2) (r(s) = 0.41), indicating that the strength of the relationship between PLTP activity and HDL(2) can be reduced by the opposing effect of hepatic lipase on HDL(2) concentrations. We conclude that PLTP-facilitated lipid transfer activity is related to HDL and LDL metabolism, as well as

  15. Characteristics of eating habits and physical activity in relation to body mass index among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic-Nikic, Marina; Dopsaj, Milivoj

    2013-01-01

    To assess eating habits and the level of physical activity in adolescents and develop a predictive model for the body mass index (BMI) based on these variables. In this cross-sectional study, eating habits and the level of physical activity were assessed using a questionnaire validated in adolescents. Body mass and height collected during the last annual checkup were extracted from personal medical records. The sample included 330 boys and 377 girls (mean age 15.8 ± 0.2 years) who were first-year high school students in the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Responses to each of the 14 questions about eating habits and 6 questions about physical activity were scored from the least (0) to the most (3) desired behaviors. These ratings were then averaged to arrive to an aggregate score for each domain. The BMI was calculated according to the standard method. A series of regression analyses was performed to derive the best model for predicting BMI in boys and girls based on individual eating habits and physical activity items, first separately and then combined. In the sample, 24.5% of boys and 9.5% of girls were overweight or obese. Girls' eating habits were better than boys (mean aggregate score 2.3 ± 0.3 and 2.1 ± 0.3, respectively, p physical activity was greater in boys than girls (2.1 ± 0.6 vs 1.9 ± 0.6, p boys and girls in the BMI, eating habits, and physical activity remained significant after controlling for their knowledge about healthy eating and education level of their parents. Eating habits were a better predictor of BMI than physical activity, particularly in boys (R (2) = 0.13 vs R (2) = 0.02) compared to girls (R (2) = 0.04 vs R (2) = 0.01). Combining eating habits and physical activity in the multivariate model of BMI resulted in a better predictive accuracy in boys (R (2) = 0.17) but not girls (R (2) = 0.04). Eating habits and physical activity differ between adolescent boys and girls and can predict BMI, particularly in boys. The results suggest the

  16. Measurement and calculation of cosmic radiation exposure during a pole-to-pole flight sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Graeme C.; Ojjeh, Captain Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic ray dosimetry measurements were carried out on board a Global Express business jet operated by TAG Aviation (UK) during a pole-to-pole flight sequence that took place in November 2008. One Hawk TEPC and two EPDN2s were flown, and the TEPC measurements compared to calculated values from the route dose codes AVIDOS, CARI 6M, EPCARD versions 3.2 and 3.34, QARM and SIEVERT (online version). The largest difference between measured and calculated doses for the total flight sequence was found to be 13%. Agreement between the readings of the TEPC and the EPDN2s (once a calibration factor from the CERN High Energy Reference Field had been applied) was reasonably good given the relatively large uncertainties associated with the EPDN2 measurements.

  17. Breakdown of the equivalence between active gravitational mass and energy for a quantum body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, Andrei G.

    2016-01-01

    We determine active gravitational mass operator of the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom - within the semiclassical approach to the Einstein equation for a gravitational field. We show that the expectation value of the mass is equivalent to energy for stationary quantum states. On the other hand, it occurs that, for quantum superpositions of stationary states with constant expectation values of energy, the expectation values of the gravitational mass exhibit time-dependent oscillations. This breaks the equivalence between active gravitational mass and energy and can be observed as a macroscopic effect for a macroscopic ensemble of coherent quantum states of the atoms. The corresponding experiment could be the first direct observation of quantum effects in General Relativity. (paper)

  18. Whole-Body Vibration Does Not Seem to Affect Postural Control in Healthy Active Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. C. Gomes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated the acute residual effects induced by different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV on postural control of elderly women. Design. Thirty physically active elderly women (67±5 years were randomly divided into three groups: two experimental groups (high WBV frequency: 45 Hz and 4 mm amplitude, n=10; low WBV frequency: 30 Hz and 4 mm amplitude, n=10 and one control group (n=10, with no treatment. The participants were first subjected to stabilometry tests and were then guided through three sets of isometric partial squats for 60 s while the WBV stimulation was applied. The control group was subjected to the same conditions but without the WBV stimulation. The participants were again subjected to body balance tests immediately following the end of the intervention period and again at 8, 16, and 24 min. To measure body sway control, three 60 s tests were performed at 10 s intervals for each of the following experimental conditions: (1 eyes opened and (2 eyes closed. The following variables were investigated: the average velocity of the displacement of the centre of pressure in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral planes as well as in the elliptical area. Results. A 3 (condition × 5 (test two-way repeated-measures ANOVA did not identify significant differences in the stabilometric variables, regardless of group, time, or experimental condition. Conclusions. The effect of WBV, regardless of the stimulation frequency, did not have a significant effect immediately after or up to 24 minutes after vibration cessation, on the variables involved in the control of postural stability in physically active elderly women.

  19. Physical Activity and Compensation of Body Posture Disorders in Children Aged Seven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hricková Katarína

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity is an indelible part of human life, but the impact of industrial changes on society has led to a hypokinetic lifestyle not only in adults but also in children and youth. This paper aims to present the results of a study of the body posture of 7-year-olds, which is an essential part of their physical development evaluation. The aim of our study was to expand our knowledge of the occurrence of body posture disorders in 7-year-olds, as well as to develop an appropriate movement programme which would help improve the current situation. Material and methods. The research sample consisted of 393 first-graders from 4 grammar schools in Kosice. We used muscle testing according to Janda and Tichy to obtain data on individual muscle weaknesses and postural deviations. Results. Our research confirmed the findings of several other researchers who had pointed out that muscle weaknesses and postural deviations can be observed already in preschoolers. Due to a lack of physical activity and movement, muscle weakness in preschool children results in more serious health issues at school age and later in adulthood. Conclusions. We managed to stabilise and even to correct the weaknesses we observed by implementing a movement programme focusing on the diagnosed muscle weakness.

  20. Production of Biologically Active Cecropin A Peptide in Rice Seed Oil Bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Montesinos

    Full Text Available Cecropin A is a natural antimicrobial peptide that exhibits fast and potent activity against a broad spectrum of pathogens and neoplastic cells, and that has important biotechnological applications. However, cecropin A exploitation, as for other antimicrobial peptides, is limited by their production and purification costs. Here, we report the efficient production of this bioactive peptide in rice bran using the rice oleosin 18 as a carrier protein. High cecropin A levels were reached in rice seeds driving the expression of the chimeric gene by the strong embryo-specific oleosin 18 own promoter, and targeting the peptide to the oil body organelle as an oleosin 18-cecropin A fusion protein. The accumulation of cecropin A in oil bodies had no deleterious effects on seed viability and seedling growth, as well as on seed yield. We also show that biologically active cecropin A can be easily purified from the transgenic rice seeds by homogenization and simple flotation centrifugation methods. Our results demonstrate that the oleosin fusion technology is suitable for the production of cecropin A in rice seeds, which can potentially be extended to other antimicrobial peptides to assist their exploitation.

  1. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent changes in regional body fat distributions was examined. In total, 1,236 men and 1,201 women were included at baseline and participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study. A questionnaire was used to assess PA at 5 and 11 years after baseline examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). LTPA and OPA were associated with reduced subsequent 6-year changes in regional fat distribution for men. For women, no associations were observed in relation to WC; however, OPA seemed to increase HC among women. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhen, E-mail: zhen.huang@sjtu.edu.cn [Academy of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ruiz, H.S., E-mail: dr.harold.ruiz@le.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Coombs, T.A., E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  3. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhen; Ruiz, H.S.; Coombs, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  4. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  5. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaheer, D; Olsen, J; Lahiff, M; Forsberg, S; Lähteenmäki, J; da Silveira, I G; Rocha, F A; Magalhães Laurindo, I M; Henrique da Mota, L M; Drosos, A A; Murphy, E; Sheehy, C; Quirke, E; Cutolo, M; Rexhepi, S; Dadoniene, J; Verstappen, S M M; Sokka, T

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student's t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men.

  6. Second harmonic generation from corona-poled polymer thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... We characterize thermal stability of second harmonic generation (SHG) properties of four different Y-type polymers poled using corona poling method. These polymers are based on donor–acceptor–donor-type repeating unit with different aromatic moieties acting as donors and dicyanomethylene acting as ...

  7. Poles of the S matrix for a complex potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Trajectories of S matrix poles in complex k plane are presented for a complex square well potential. A simple rule is given for predicting the effect of an absorptive potential on the location of these poles. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Secondary electron emission yield on poled silica based thick films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, D.; Poumellec, B.; Cannas, V.

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the distribution of the electric field produced by a thermal poling process in a layer of Ge-doped silica on silicon substrate, by using secondary electron emission yield (SEEY) measurements () are presented. Comparing 0 between poled and unpoled areas, the SEEY at the origin of electr...

  9. Derivation of nominal strength for wood utility poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Jozsef Bodig; Patricia Lebow

    2001-01-01

    The designated fiber stress values published in the American National Standards Institute Standard for Poles, ANSI 05.1, no longer reflect the state of the knowledge. These values are based on a combination of test data from small clear wood samples and small poles (

  10. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity.

  11. Positive effect of pedometer-based walking intervention on body image and physical activity enjoyment in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantanista Adam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: To assess the effects of an eight-week pedometer-based walking intervention, using different strategies of goalsetting, on self-efficacy, physical activity enjoyment, and body image.

  12. Body / Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Schehr

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Unique object in the exchange-system, the gay body occupies a locus where a phantom identity and an imagined reciprocity define the poles of the subject-object relation. Made of the right stuff, it is an object circulating in a system that tends to reproduce the concept of identity in its search for mirror images of itself. Often rejected by the world, it has recently become a cynosure equated with sickness, pestilence, and death in the age of AIDS. The representations of that object change: no longer perceived as a part of libidinal economy, it has become a mass of symptoms, having changed from being an index of sexuality into being the visible dissipation of the flesh. The gay body in the age of AIDS is the mark of a pariah with the abject nature of the outcast. The body with AIDS takes the form of a text made of many signs and with many ways of reading the checkerboard pattern of the flesh. And the AIDS-narrative turns the body into the limit of the representable.

  13. Pole orientation of 16 Psyche by two independent methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, E. F.; Taylor, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nineteen new lightcurves of 16 Psyche are presented along with a pole orientation derived using two independent methods, namely, photometric astrometry and magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect. The pole orientations found using these two methods agree to within 4 deg. The results from applying photometric astrometry were prograde rotation, a sidereal period of 0.1748143 days + or - 0.0000003 days, and a pole at longitude 223 deg and latitude +37 deg, with an uncertainty of 10 deg, and, from applying magnitude-amplitude-shape-aspect a pole at 220 + or - 1 deg, +40 + or - 4 deg, and a modeled triaxial ellipsoid shape (a greater than b greater than c) and a/b = 1.33 + or - 0.07. The discrepancy between the high-pole latitude found here and the low latitudes reported by Lupishko et al. (1982) and Zhou and Yang (1982) is discussed.

  14. Determination of regional Euler pole parameters for Eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Schartner, Matthias; Brueckl, Ewald

    2017-04-01

    The horizontal motion of lithospheric plates can be described as rotations around a rotation axes through the Earth's center. The two possible points where this axes intersects the surface of the Earth are called Euler poles. The rotation is expressed by the Euler parameters in terms of angular velocities together with the latitude and longitude of the Euler pole. Euler parameters were calculated from GPS data for a study area in Eastern Austria. The observation network is located along the Mur-Mürz Valley and the Vienna Basin. This zone is part of the Vienna Transfer Fault, which is the major fault system between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. The project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) investigated intra plate tectonic movements within the Austrian part in order to estimate the seismic hazard. Precise site coordinate time series established from processing 5 years of GPS observations are available for the regional network spanning the years from 2010.0 to 2015.0. Station velocities with respect to the global reference frame ITRF2008 have been computed for 23 sites. The common Euler vector was estimated on base of a subset of reliable site velocities, for stations directly located within the area of interest. In a further step a geokinematic interpretation shall be carried out. Therefore site motions with respect to the Eurasian Plate are requested. To obtain this motion field different variants are conceivable. In a simple approach the mean ITRF2008 velocity of IGS site GRAZ can be adopted as Eurasian rotational velocity. An improved alternative is to calculate site-specific velocity differences between the Euler rotation and the individual site velocities. In this poster presentation the Euler parameters, the residual motion field as well as first geokinematic interpretation results are presented.

  15. The effects of body weight unloading on kinetics and muscle activity of overweight males during Overground walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arielle G; Wolf, Alon

    2018-02-01

    Excess body weight has become a major worldwide health and social epidemic. Training with body weight unloading, is a common method for gait corrections for various neuromuscular impairments. In the present study we assessed the effects of body weight unloading on knee and ankle kinetics and muscle activation of overweight subjects walking overground under various levels of body weight unloading. Ten overweight subjects (25 ≤ BMI weight unloading experimental conditions. Gait parameters assessed under these conditions included knee and ankle flexion moments and the Electromygraphic activity of the Tibialis Anterior, Lateral Gastrocnemius and Vastus Lateralis. Increasing body weight unloading levels from 0% to 30% was found to significantly reduce the peak knee flexion and ankle plantarflexion moments. Also observed was a significant reduction in muscle activity of the Tibialis Anterior, Lateral Gastrocnemius and Vastus Lateralis under the three body-weight unloading conditions. Our results demonstrate that a reduction of up to 30% overweight subjects' body weight during gait is conducive to a reduction in the knee and ankle flexion moments and in the balancing net quadriceps moment and ankle flexors moment. The newly devised body weight unloading device is therefore an effective method for reducing joint loads allowing overweight people who require controlled weight bearing scenarios to retrain their gait while engaging in sustained walking exercise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pole Dancing Auto-ethnography – Practice, Pedagogy, Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Patricia Cadwallader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the author addresses the following four questions: 1 What are the implications of bringing pole dancing into concert dance, not as a caricature or theatrical version of what is performed in strip clubs, but as its own, free-standing art form? 2 In what ways will years of ballet and modern dance training influence the type of dancing that emerges from dancers when poles and other apparatuses are introduced? 3 How can the author create an original pole dancing style and pedagogical methods for teaching it? 4 Who participates in pole fitness classes and how does the demographic change based on location? What about when pole fitness classes are offered in an academic setting? The author shares first-hand experiences of investigating pole dancing in fitness classes, attending performances, engaging in a rehearsal process with highly trained dancers, and teaching pole dancing to movers with a wide range of abilities. The author addresses how research plans changed as she encountered limitations of budget and time constraints. The author also elaborates on the creative process that she engaged in with her thesis cast, collaborators, and supporting designers in the making of Super-beneath, a theatrical dance work that uses five, free-standing poles. She outline the vignettes, overall structure, and narrative of the work. The author then discusses where this research fits into the larger field of pole dancing, and the even larger field of dance. In the final sections of this paper, the author describes her pedagogical practices relating to pole classes, what “practice as research” means to her, and how she would like to continue on this research trajectory in the future.

  17. Chemosensory danger detection in the human brain: Body odor communicating aggression modulates limbic system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutic, Smiljana; Brünner, Yvonne F; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    Although the sense of smell is involved in numerous survival functions, the processing of body odor emitted by dangerous individuals is far from understood. The aim of the study was to explore how human fight chemosignals communicating aggression can alter brain activation related to an attentional bias and danger detection. While the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was seen involved in processing threat-related emotional information, danger detection and error evaluation, it still remains unknown whether human chemosignals communicating aggression can potentially modulate this activation. In the fMRI experiment, healthy male and female normosmic odor recipients (n=18) completed a higher-order processing task (emotional Stroop task with the word categories anger, anxiety, happiness and neutral) while exposed to aggression and exercise chemosignals (collected from a different group of healthy male donors; n=16). Our results provide first evidence that aggression chemosignals induce a time-sensitive attentional bias in chemosensory danger detection and modulate limbic system activation. During exposure to aggression chemosignals compared to exercise chemosignals, functional imaging data indicates an enhancement of thalamus, hypothalamus and insula activation (pbody odor signals are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A strategy for actualization of active targeting nanomedicine practically functioning in a living body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Jin; Shin, Seol Hwa; Lee, Jae Hee; Ju, Eun Jin; Park, Yun-Yong; Hwang, Jung Jin; Suh, Young-Ah; Hong, Seung-Mo; Jang, Se Jin; Lee, Jung Shin; Song, Si Yeol; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2017-10-01

    Designing nanocarriers with active targeting has been increasingly emphasized as for an ideal delivery mechanism of anti-cancer therapeutic agents, but the actualization has been constrained by lack of reliable strategy ultimately applicable. Here, we designed and verified a strategy to achieve active targeting nanomedicine that works in a living body, utilizing animal models bearing a patient's tumor tissue and subjected to the same treatments that would be used in the clinic. The concept for this strategy was that a novel peptide probe and its counterpart protein, which responded to a therapy, were identified, and then the inherent ability of the peptide to target the designated tumor protein was used for active targeting in vivo. An initial dose of ionizing radiation was locally delivered to the gastric cancer (GC) tumor of a patient-derived xenograft mouse model, and phage-displayed peptide library was intravenously injected. The peptides tightly bound to the tumor were recovered, and the counterpart protein was subsequently identified. Peptide-conjugated liposomal drug showed dramatically improved therapeutic efficacy and possibility of diagnostic imaging with radiation. These results strongly suggested the potential of our strategy to achieve in vivo functional active targeting and to be applied clinically for human cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactive oxygen radicals and gaseous transmitters in carotid body activation by intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Peng, Ying-Jie; Yuan, Guoxiang; Nanduri, Jayasri

    2018-05-01

    Sleep apnea is a prevalent respiratory disease characterized by periodic cessation of breathing during sleep causing intermittent hypoxia (IH). Sleep apnea patients and rodents exposed to IH exhibit elevated sympathetic nerve activity and hypertension. A heightened carotid body (CB) chemoreflex has been implicated in causing autonomic abnormalities in IH-treated rodents and in sleep apnea patients. The purpose of this article is to review the emerging evidence showing that interactions between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and gaseous transmitters as a mechanism cause hyperactive CB by IH. Rodents treated with IH exhibit markedly elevated ROS in the CB, which is due to transcriptional upregulation of pro-oxidant enzymes by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and insufficient transcriptional regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes by HIF-2. ROS, in turn, increases cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE)-dependent H 2 S production in the CB. Blockade of H 2 S synthesis prevents IH-evoked CB activation. However, the effects of ROS on H 2 S production are not due to direct effects on CSE enzyme activity but rather due to inactivation of heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), a carbon monoxide (CO) producing enzyme. CO inhibits H 2 S production through inactivation of CSE by PKG-dependent phosphorylation. During IH, reduced CO production resulting from inactivation of HO-2 by ROS releases the inhibition of CO on CSE thereby increasing H 2 S. Inhibiting H 2 S synthesis prevented IH-evoked sympathetic activation and hypertension.

  20. Mice Lacking EGR1 Have Impaired Clock Gene (BMAL1) Oscillation, Locomotor Activity, and Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Casper Schwartz; Georg, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Hannibal, Jens; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Early growth response transcription factor 1 (EGR1) is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) after light stimulation. We used EGR1-deficient mice to address the role of EGR1 in the clock function and light-induced resetting of the clock. The diurnal rhythms of expression of the clock genes BMAL1 and PER1 in the SCN were evaluated by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization. We found no difference in the expression of PER1 mRNA between wildtype and EGR1-deficient mice; however, the daily rhythm of BMAL1 mRNA was completely abolished in the EGR1-deficient mice. In addition, we evaluated the circadian running wheel activity, telemetric locomotor activity, and core body temperature of the mice. Loss of EGR1 neither altered light-induced phase shifts at subjective night nor affected negative masking. Overall, circadian light entrainment was found in EGR1-deficient mice but they displayed a reduced locomotor activity and an altered temperature regulation compared to wild type mice. When placed in running wheels, a subpopulation of EGR1-deficient mice displayed a more disrupted activity rhythm with no measurable endogenous period length (tau). In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence that the circadian clock in the SCN is disturbed in mice deficient of EGR1.

  1. Time perspective, personality and smoking, body mass, and physical activity: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Nettle, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Time perspective describes how individuals conceptualize and value future events, and may be related to health behaviours. Research to date has focused on addictive behaviours, used a variety of different measures of time perspective, and not explored the role of personality. This work aimed to: explore the relationships between: five previously used measures of time perspective; time perspective and the broad domains of the five-factor model of personality; and time perspective and smoking, body mass, and physical activity after controlling for socio-demographics and personality. Cross-sectional self-report data were collected using a web based survey. Participants (N=423) were recruited via local community internet message boards in US urban areas. The survey collected information on: delay discount rate, the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS), the future scale of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), subjective probability of living to age 75, and time period for financial planning, the five-factor personality inventory, smoking, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity. After controlling for socio-demographics, most markers of time perspective were significantly correlated with each other, but the strength of correlations was rarely strong. Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Openness were associated with some markers of time perspective. After controlling for socio-demographic and personality domains, only CFCS score was associated with smoking status and BMI. There is some overlap between previously used markers of time perspective and the five-factor personality domains but this is neither strong nor consistent. Smoking and BMI, but not physical activity, are associated with CFCS, but not other measures of time perspective.

  2. Body weight, eating patterns, and physical activity: the role of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atella, Vincenzo; Kopinska, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    In this article, we empirically study the role of education attainment on individual body mass index (BMI), eating patterns, and physical activity. We allow for endogeneity of schooling choices for females and males in a mean and quantile instrumental variables framework. We find that completion of lower secondary education has a significant positive impact on reduction of individual BMI, containment of calorie consumption, and promotion of physical activity. Interestingly, these effects are heterogeneous across genders and distributions. In particular, for BMI and calorie expenditure, the effect of education is significant for females and is more pronounced for women with high body mass and low physical activity. On the other hand, the effect of education on eating patterns is significant mainly for males, being more beneficial for men with elevated calorie consumption. We also show that education attainment is likely to foster productive and allocative efficiency of individuals in the context of BMI formation. Given that the literature suggests that education fosters development of cognition, self-control, and a variety of skills and abilities, in our context it is thus likely to promote lifetime preferences and means of individuals, which in turn enable them to achieve better health outcomes. Education also provides exposure to physical education and to school subjects enhancing individual deliberative skills, which are important factors shaping calorie expenditure and intake. Finally, we show that in the presence of strong socioeconomic inequalities in BMI, education is likely to have a pronounced impact on healthy BMI for the disadvantaged groups, represented in our framework by females.

  3. Simplified Analytic Approach of Pole-to-Pole Faults in MMC-HVDC for AC System Backup Protection Setting Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongkun Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AC (alternating current system backup protection setting calculation is an important basis for ensuring the safe operation of power grids. With the increasing integration of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC into power grids, it has been a big challenge for the AC system backup protection setting calculation, as the MMC-HVDC lacks the fault self-clearance capability under pole-to-pole faults. This paper focused on the pole-to-pole faults analysis for the AC system backup protection setting calculation. The principles of pole-to-pole faults analysis were discussed first according to the standard of the AC system protection setting calculation. Then, the influence of fault resistance on the fault process was investigated. A simplified analytic approach of pole-to-pole faults in MMC-HVDC for the AC system backup protection setting calculation was proposed. In the proposed approach, the derived expressions of fundamental frequency current are applicable under arbitrary fault resistance. The accuracy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC simulations.

  4. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  5. Heavy Cratering near Callisto's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft provide new insights into this region near Callisto's south pole. This two frame mosaic shows a heavily cratered surface with smooth plains in the areas between craters. North is to the top of the image. The smoothness of the plains appears to increase toward the south pole, approximately 480 kilometers (293 miles) south of the bottom of the image. This smoothness of Callisto's surface was not evident in images taken during the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft because the resolution was insufficient to show the effect. This smooth surface, and the process(es) that cause it, are among the most intriguing aspects of Callisto. Although not fully understood, the process(es) responsible for this smoothing could include erosion by tiny meteorites and energetic ions. Some craters, such as Keelut, the 47 kilometer (29 mile) crater in the lower right corner, have sharp, well defined rims. Keelut contains an inner ring surrounding a central depression about 17 kilometers (11 miles) in diameter. Keelut, and the more irregularly shaped, degraded Reginleif, the 32 kilometer (19.5 mile) crater in the top center of the image, are very shallow and have flat floors. Crater forms can be seen down to less than 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter in the image. Each picture element (pixel) in this image is approximately 0.68 kilometers (0.41 miles) across.This image which was taken by the Galileo spacecraft's solid state imaging (CCD) system during its eighth orbit around Jupiter, on May 6th, 1997. The center of the image is located at 71.3 degrees south latitude, 97.6 degrees west longitude, and was taken when the spacecraft was approximately 35,470 kilometers (21,637 miles) from Callisto.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  6. Objectively-determined intensity- and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Tineke; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the independent and joint associations of overall, intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with bioelectrical impedance-determined percent body fat. Physical activity was measured in 442 Flemish adults (41.4 ± 9.8 years) using the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Two-way analyses of covariance investigated the interaction of physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, examined the associations of intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Results showed a significant main effect for physical activity in both genders and for sedentary behavior in women, but no interaction effects. Light activity was positively (β = 0.41 for men and 0.43 for women) and moderate (β = -0.64 and -0.41), vigorous (β = -0.21 and -0.24) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) inversely associated with percent body fat, independent of sedentary time. Regarding domain-specific physical activity, significant associations were present for occupation, leisure time and household chores, irrespective of sedentary time. The positive associations between body fat and total and domain-specific sedentary behavior diminished after MVPA was controlled for. MVPA during leisure time, occupation and household chores may be essential to prevent fat gain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. THE SPITZER-WISE SURVEY OF THE ECLIPTIC POLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Cutri, R. M.; Marsh, K.; Padgett, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Cohen, M.; Wright, E.; Petty, S.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P.; Mainzer, A.; Ressler, M.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Carey, S.; Surace, J.; Lonsdale, C.; Skrutskie, M.; Stanford, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out a survey of the north and south ecliptic poles, EP-N and EP-S, respectively, with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The primary objective was to cross-calibrate WISE with the Spitzer and Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) photometric systems by developing a set of calibration stars that are common to these infrared missions. The ecliptic poles were continuous viewing zones for WISE due to its polar-crossing orbit, making these areas ideal for both absolute and internal calibrations. The Spitzer IRAC and MIPS imaging survey covers a complete area of 0.40 deg 2 for the EP-N and 1.28 deg 2 for the EP-S. WISE observed the whole sky in four mid-infrared bands, 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm, during its eight-month cryogenic mission, including several hundred ecliptic polar passages; here we report on the highest coverage depths achieved by WISE, an area of ∼1.5 deg 2 for both poles. Located close to the center of the EP-N, the Sy-2 galaxy NGC 6552 conveniently functions as a standard calibrator to measure the red response of the 22 μm channel of WISE. Observations from Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS/IRS-LL and WISE show that the galaxy has a strong red color in the mid-infrared due to star-formation and the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), while over a baseline >1 year the mid-IR photometry of NGC 6552 is shown to vary at a level less than 2%. Combining NGC 6552 with the standard calibrator stars, the achieved photometric accuracy of the WISE calibration, relative to the Spitzer and MSX systems, is 2.4%, 2.8%, 4.5%, and 5.7% for W1 (3.4 μm), W2 (4.6 μm), W3 (12 μm), and W4 (22 μm), respectively. The WISE photometry is internally stable to better than 0.1% over the cryogenic lifetime of the mission. The secondary objective of the Spitzer-WISE Survey was to explore the poles at greater flux-level depths, exploiting the higher angular resolution Spitzer observations and the exceptionally deep (in total

  8. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Condello

    Full Text Available Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs, young-old (65-74 yrs, and old (75-84 yrs senior athletes (n = 56, physically active (n = 58 or sedentary adults (n = 65 were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception. Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (P<0.05 from each other in body mass index (BMI and several components of body image and exercise dependence. Senior athletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (P<0.05 in eating attitudes and in both PCS and MCS. Mediation analysis showed that the relationship between physical activity habit and MCS, but not PCS, was indirectly explained by a serial mediation chain composed of objective BMI and subjective body image (dissatisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health

  9. Association of objectively measured physical activity with body components in European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Pavón, David; Fernández-Vázquez, Amaya; Alexy, Ute; Pedrero, Raquel; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Polito, Angela; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Manios, Yannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Dénes; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A

    2013-07-18

    Physical activity (PA) is suggested to contribute to fat loss not only through increasing energy expenditure "per se" but also increasing muscle mass; therefore, it would be interesting to better understand the specific associations of PA with the different body's components such as fat mass and muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between objectively measured PA and indices of fat mass and muscle components independently of each other giving, at the same time, gender-specific information in a wide cohort of European adolescents. A cross-sectional study in a school setting was conducted in 2200 (1016 males) adolescents (14.7 ± 1.2 years). Weight, height, skinfold thickness, bioimpedance and PA (accelerometry) were measured. Indices of fat mass (body mass index, % fat mass, sum of skinfolds) and muscular component (assessed as fat-free mass) were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for several confounders including fat-free mass and fat mass when possible. Vigorous PA was positively associated with height (pgenders, except for average PA in relation with body mass index in females. Regarding muscular components, vigorous PA showed positive associations with fat-free mass and muscle mass (all pgenders. Average PA was positively associated with fat-free mass (both p<0.05) in males and females. The present study suggests that PA, especially vigorous PA, is negatively associated with indices of fat mass and positively associated with markers of muscle mass, after adjusting for several confounders (including indices of fat mass and muscle mass when possible). Future studies should focus not only on the classical relationship between PA and fat mass, but also on PA and muscular components, analyzing the independent role of both with the different PA intensities.

  10. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne Bjerre; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and chan......Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity...

  11. sEMG during Whole-Body Vibration Contains Motion Artifacts and Reflex Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lienhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the excessive spikes observed in the surface electromyography (sEMG spectrum recorded during whole-body vibration (WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and/or reflex activity. The occurrence of motion artifacts was tested by electrical recordings of the patella. The involvement of reflex activity was investigated by analyzing the magnitude of the isolated spikes during changes in voluntary background muscle activity. Eighteen physically active volunteers performed static squats while the sEMG was measured of five lower limb muscles during vertical WBV using no load and an additional load of 33 kg. In order to record motion artifacts during WBV, a pair of electrodes was positioned on the patella with several layers of tape between skin and electrodes. Spectral analysis of the patella signal revealed recordings of motion artifacts as high peaks at the vibration frequency (fundamental and marginal peaks at the multiple harmonics were observed. For the sEMG recordings, the root mean square of the spikes increased with increasing additional loads (p < 0.05, and was significantly correlated to the sEMG signal without the spikes of the respective muscle (r range: 0.54 - 0.92, p < 0.05. This finding indicates that reflex activity might be contained in the isolated spikes, as identical behavior has been found for stretch reflex responses evoked during direct vibration. In conclusion, the spikes visible in the sEMG spectrum during WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and possibly reflex activity.

  12. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Hyun

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  13. Longitudinal Association Between Physical Activity and Body Fat During Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires, Virgílio Viana; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Gonçalves, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity (PA) practice has been inversely associated to body fat (BF) and recommended as a way to reduce and prevent obesity. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the association of PA and BF in adolescence. The review includes 18 longitudinal studies found in the PubMed database, comprising papers published from January 1990 to July 2014. Studies assessing BF only through body mass index were excluded. Among the outcomes analyzed, waist circumference, skinfolds, and absolute and relative fat mass measurement were identified. Questionnaires were the more predominant way to evaluate PA. Most studies showed that PA promotes a protective effect against a higher BF gain. It was concluded that PA has a protective effect against BF with differences between the genders and according to the BF marker or measurement assessed; higher intensity PA leads to a greater effect against BF gain in both genders; and the maintenance or increase of PA level on BF observed through analysis of change in PA level yielded more consistent findings in the relation between PA and BF.

  14. Activation of murine pre-proglucagon-producing neurons reduces food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykema, Ronald P; Newmyer, Brandon A; Ottolini, Matteo; Raje, Vidisha; Warthen, Daniel M; Lambeth, Philip S; Niccum, Maria; Yao, Ting; Huang, Yiru; Schulman, Ira G; Harris, Thurl E; Patel, Manoj K; Williams, Kevin W; Scott, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide-secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake. Stimulation of GCG neurons had no effect on corticosterone secretion, body weight, or conditioned taste aversion. In the diet-induced obese state, the effects of GCG neuronal stimulation on gluconeogenesis were lost, while the food intake-lowering effects remained, resulting in reductions in body weight and adiposity. Our work suggests that GCG peptide-expressing neurons can alter feeding, metabolic rate, and glucose production independent of their effects on hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, aversive conditioning, or insulin secretion. We conclude that GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal.

  15. Activation of murine pre-proglucagon–producing neurons reduces food intake and body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Ottolini, Matteo; Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Niccum, Maria; Yao, Ting; Huang, Yiru; Schulman, Ira G.; Harris, Thurl E.; Patel, Manoj K.; Williams, Kevin W.

    2017-01-01

    Peptides derived from pre-proglucagon (GCG peptides) act in both the periphery and the CNS to change food intake, glucose homeostasis, and metabolic rate while playing a role in anxiety behaviors and physiological responses to stress. Although the actions of GCG peptides produced in the gut and pancreas are well described, the role of glutamatergic GGC peptide–secreting hindbrain neurons in regulating metabolic homeostasis has not been investigated. Here, we have shown that chemogenetic stimulation of GCG-producing neurons reduces metabolic rate and food intake in fed and fasted states and suppresses glucose production without an effect on glucose uptake. Stimulation of GCG neurons had no effect on corticosterone secretion, body weight, or conditioned taste aversion. In the diet-induced obese state, the effects of GCG neuronal stimulation on gluconeogenesis were lost, while the food intake–lowering effects remained, resulting in reductions in body weight and adiposity. Our work suggests that GCG peptide–expressing neurons can alter feeding, metabolic rate, and glucose production independent of their effects on hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, aversive conditioning, or insulin secretion. We conclude that GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal. PMID:28218622

  16. Pole-factorization theorem in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    In quantum electrodynamics a classical part of the S-matrix is normally factored out in order to obtain a quantum remainder that can be treated perturbatively without the occurrence of infrared divergences. However, this separation, as usually performed, introduces spurious large-distance effects that produce an apparent breakdown of the important correspondence between stable particles and poles of the S-matrix, and, consequently, lead to apparent violations of the correspondence principle and to incorrect results for computations in the mesoscopic domain lying between the atomic and classical regimes. An improved computational technique is described that allows valid results to be obtained in this domain, and that leads, for the quantum remainder, in the cases studied, to a physical-region singularity structure that, as regards the most singular parts, is the same as the normal physical-region analytic structure in theories in which all particles have non-zero mass. The key innovations here are to define the classical part in coordinate space, rather than in momentum space, and to define there a separation of the photon-electron coupling into its classical and quantum parts that has the following properties: (1) The contributions from the terms containing only classical couplings can be summed to all orders to give a unitary operator that generates the coherent state that corresponds to the appropriate classical process, and (2) The quantum remainder can be rigorously shown to exhibit, as regards its most singular parts, the normal analytic structure. 22 refs

  17. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1978-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p→π + pπ 0 and π + p→π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T=1 and T=2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965, which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that, if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) was dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  18. π π scattering by pole extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, F.W. III.

    1977-01-01

    A 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber was used at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevatron to produce 300,000 pictures of π + p interactions at an incident momentum of the π + of 2.67 GeV/c. The 2-prong events were processed using the FSD and the FOG-CLOUDY-FAIR data reduction system. Events of the nature π + p → π + pπ 0 and π + p → π + π + n with values of momentum transfer to the proton of -t less than or equal to 0.238 GeV 2 were selected. These events were used to extrapolate to the pion pole (t = m/sub π/ 2 ) in order to investigate the π π interaction with isospins of both T = 1 and T = 2. Two methods were used to do the extrapolation: the original Chew-Low method developed in 1959 and the Durr-Pilkuhn method developed in 1965 which takes into account centrifugal barrier penetration factors. At first it seemed that, while the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave better values for the total π π cross section, the Chew-Low method gave better values for the angular distribution. Further analysis, however, showed that if the requirement of total OPE (one-pion-exchange) were dropped, then the Durr-Pilkuhn method gave more reasonable values of the angular distribution as well as for the total π π cross section

  19. Gender differences in brain activity generated by unpleasant word stimuli concerning body image: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirao, Naoko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Mantani, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Yuri; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that the temporomesial area, including the amygdala, is activated in women when processing unpleasant words concerning body image. To detect gender differences in brain activation during processing of these words. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate 13 men and 13 women during an emotional decision task consisting of unpleasant words concerning body image and neutral words. The left medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were activated only among men, and the left amygdala was activated only among women during the task; activation in the apical prefrontal region was significantly greater in men than in women. Our data suggest that the prefrontal region is responsible for the gender differences in the processing of words concerning body image, and may also be responsible for gender differences in susceptibility to eating disorders.

  20. GCN5 Regulates FGF Signaling and Activates Selective MYC Target Genes during Early Embryoid Body Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise control of gene expression during development is orchestrated by transcription factors and co-regulators including chromatin modifiers. How particular chromatin-modifying enzymes affect specific developmental processes is not well defined. Here, we report that GCN5, a histone acetyltransferase essential for embryonic development, is required for proper expression of multiple genes encoding components of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling pathway in early embryoid bodies (EBs. Gcn5−/− EBs display deficient activation of ERK and p38, mislocalization of cytoskeletal components, and compromised capacity to differentiate toward mesodermal lineage. Genomic analyses identified seven genes as putative direct targets of GCN5 during early differentiation, four of which are cMYC targets. These findings established a link between GCN5 and the FGF signaling pathway and highlighted specific GCN5-MYC partnerships in gene regulation during early differentiation.

  1. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p bench press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  2. Urban Sprawl, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index: Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troped, Philip J.; Hart, Jaime E.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Ewing, Reid; Laden, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the association between the county sprawl index, a measure of residential density and street accessibility, and physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Methods. We conducted a multilevel cross-sectional analysis in a sample of Nurses’ Health Study participants living throughout the United States in 2000 to 2001 (n = 136 592). Results. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking status, race, and husband’s education, a 1-SD (25.7) increase in the county sprawl index (indicating a denser, more compact county) was associated with a 0.13 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.18, −0.07) lower BMI and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.17, 0.65) more metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week of total physical activity, 0.26 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.33) more MET hours per week of walking, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.34, 0.59) more MET hours per week of walking, bicycling, jogging, and running. We detected potential effect modification for age, previous disease status, husband’s education level (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and race. Conclusions. Our results suggest that living in a dense, compact county may be conducive to higher levels of physical activity and lower BMI in women. PMID:22698015

  3. Urban sprawl, physical activity, and body mass index: Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Troped, Philip J; Hart, Jaime E; Joshu, Corinne E; Colditz, Graham A; Brownson, Ross C; Ewing, Reid; Laden, Francine

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the association between the county sprawl index, a measure of residential density and street accessibility, and physical activity and body mass index (BMI). We conducted a multilevel cross-sectional analysis in a sample of Nurses' Health Study participants living throughout the United States in 2000 to 2001 (n = 136 592). In analyses adjusted for age, smoking status, race, and husband's education, a 1-SD (25.7) increase in the county sprawl index (indicating a denser, more compact county) was associated with a 0.13 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.18, -0.07) lower BMI and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.17, 0.65) more metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week of total physical activity, 0.26 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.33) more MET hours per week of walking, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.34, 0.59) more MET hours per week of walking, bicycling, jogging, and running. We detected potential effect modification for age, previous disease status, husband's education level (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and race. Our results suggest that living in a dense, compact county may be conducive to higher levels of physical activity and lower BMI in women.

  4. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE BODIES IN THE MAIN BELT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, James M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Masiero, Joseph R.; Blauvelt, Erin K.; Cherry, De' Andre [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 183-401, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, Tommy [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States); Walker, Russell G. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, 200 Eighth Street, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); McMillan, Robert S.; Scotti, James V. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Kuiper Space Science Building 92, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Fernandez, Yan R.; Kramer, Emily [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, P.S. Building, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Meech, Karen J.; Tholen, David J.; Riesen, Timm; Urban, Laurie; Khayat, Alain [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Manoa, HI 96822 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States); Cutri, Roc M.; Dailey, John W.; Pearman, George, E-mail: bauer@scn.jpl.nasa.gov [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Collaboration: WISE Team; and others

    2012-03-01

    We report results based on mid-infrared photometry of five active main belt objects (AMBOs) detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft. Four of these bodies, P/2010 R2 (La Sagra), 133P/Elst-Pizarro, (596) Scheila, and 176P/LINEAR, showed no signs of activity at the time of the observations, allowing the WISE detections to place firm constraints on their diameters and albedos. Geometric albedos were in the range of a few percent, and on the order of other measured comet nuclei. P/2010 A2 was observed on 2010 April 2-3, three months after its peak activity. Photometry of the coma at 12 and 22 {mu}m combined with ground-based visible-wavelength measurements provides constraints on the dust particle mass distribution (PMD), dlog n/dlog m, yielding power-law slope values of {alpha} = -0.5 {+-} 0.1. This PMD is considerably more shallow than that found for other comets, in particular inbound particle fluence during the Stardust encounter of comet 81P/Wild 2. It is similar to the PMD seen for 9P/Tempel 1 in the immediate aftermath of the Deep Impact experiment. Upper limits for CO{sub 2} and CO production are also provided for each AMBO and compared with revised production numbers for WISE observations of 103P/Hartley 2.

  5. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (plocomotor physical activity have an important inherent component (r=0.864 and r=0.784, respectively, plocomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Strength, flexibility, balance, resistance and flexibility assessment according to body mass index in active older women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Martínez González-Moro, Ignacio; Alacid Cárceles, Fernando; Ros Simón, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate among older people. This is mainly because this population is predominantly sedentary. The aim of this study was to classify, according to the body mass index (BMI), a group of older active women and to evaluate the different basic physical abilities as a function of this. The BMI and fitness were evaluated in 60 elderly active women (mean age: 66.14 ± 6.59 years) using the 2-minute step test, arm curl test, chair stand test, back scratch test, chair-sit and reach-test, flamenco test, and 8-foot up-and-go test. It was found that 52.23% of the women studied had a normal BMI and 47.76% were slightly overweight. There were no cases of obesity or underweight. Women with normal BMI had better values in all tests than overweight women. Significant differences were found in the flamenco test (P<.05), and 8-foot up-and-go test (P<.01). Older women who usually do physical activity had a normal or slightly overweight BMI. It was also found that women with lower BMI have better resistance, flexibility, balance and strength. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of whole body neutron irradiation on certain enzyme activities in different brain areas in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotb, M.A.; Ashour, A.M.; El-Bassiouni, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Male swiss albino mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation by fast neutrons of 14 MeV average energy. Two single doses of 0.08 sievert and 0.16 sievert were used, corresponding to fluences of 1.27 X 10 8 and 2.54 X 10 8 n/cm 2 respectively. Two enzymes were assessed in different layers of the cerebrum and cerebellum of mouse brain. Changes in the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) were taken to measure alterations in lysosomal and mitochondrial functions respectively. The degrees of lysosomal affection in different layers of the cerebrum were not uniform, while changes in A activity were very prominent in certain layers (e.g. external pyramidal layer, polymorphous cells layer and white matter), they were practically absent in others (e.g. internal pyramidal layer). Stronger effect was noted in the tissue layers of the cerebellum. The activity of SDH decreased as result of fast neutron irradiation. The response was more apparent for this enzyme than for ACP. This indicates more liability for a decrease in energy metabolism with consequent effect on behavioural and physiological functions under central nervous system control. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating

  9. Bidirectional associations between activity-related parenting practices, and child physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior and body mass index: a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Gubbels, Jessica S.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; van der Plas, Eline; Thijs, Carel

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been generally assumed that activity-related parenting practices influence children?s activity behavior and weight status. However, vice versa parents may also change their parenting behaviors in response to their perceptions of their child?s activity behavior and weight status. This study examined the bidirectional relationships between activity-related parenting practices, and physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior, and body mass index (BMI) between children?s ...

  10. The effects of Ramadan fasting and physical activity on body composition and hematological biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hunger and reduction in regular energy intake can lead to a number of problems based on their intensity. For instance, low energy level can cause blood cell production to decline or it may pose a higher risk of anemia. It can also weaken the immune system and platelet aggregation or negatively affect clot formation. This study aimed to have a closer look at fasting and regular physical activity and their impacts on body composition and blood hematological-biochemical parameters among professional wrestlers. Method: In this semi-experimental study, 9 subjects were selected by convenience sampling. The selected training program included participation in this exerciseprogram, 90 min per session, 6 times per week for a period of one month. Blood samples were obtained four times: before the start of Ramadan, 2 weeks after the start, during the last week and 2 weeks after the end of Ramadan. To make intra-group comparison, repeated measure analysis of variance was used. For all statistical comparisons, the level of significance was considered at PResults: Body weight and red blood cell count (RBC dropped significantly at the end of Ramadan (Respectively P= 0.001 and P=0.034. However, the number of white blood cells (WBC and circulating platelets (PLT significantly increased during fasting (Respectively P= 0.048 and P=0.042. As a matter of fact, PLT and WBC were the only factors which dramatically increased during fasting. Intra-group variations of tetracycline (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, LDL: high-density lipoprotein (HDL, triglyceride (TG: HDL and TC: HDL reduced at the end of Ramadan. However, HDL levels ​​drastically increased during fasting (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of the research, despite being a regular activity and fasting has beneficial effects on lipid profile in athletes, however, they can with tangible changes in hematological factors may lead to weaken the immune system of athletes.

  11. Upper and lower limb functionality and body mass index in physically active older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Molinari Tecchio

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Aging leads to sarcopenia and functional capacity decline, compromising upper (UL and lower limb (LL performance of activities. Body mass index (BMI is an important parameter for the assessment of health conditions in older adults, especially with regard to obesity, since it leads to functional limitations in terms of mobility and task performance. Objective: To investigate the potential association between UL and LL functionality and BMI in physically active older adults; and to characterize this population with regard to BMI and UL and LL functionality. Methods: The data were collected between August 2013 and April 2014. The sample comprised 371 physically active older adults. This study used secondary data from the program “PET Saúde IPA/SMS”. The program interviewed older adults living in areas comprised by the Third Family Health Unit of a neighborhood in Porto Alegre/RS. This paper used questions from the “Instrumento de Avaliação Multidimensional Rápida da Pessoa Idosa” (Instrument for Rapid Multidimensional Assessment of Elderly People, in English that had to do with UL and LL functionality, weight, height and BMI. Results and Conclusion: There was no association between UL and LL functionality and BMI in physically active older adults. More than half of the sample was overweight. Most participants had functional UL and LL. While occupation, self-perception of health as “good” and “very good”, and physical activity were found to be associated with LL functionality; regular physical exercise was found to be associated with UL and LL functionality.

  12. Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies – A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from 13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide

  13. Metabolic features of Protochlamydia amoebophila elementary bodies--a link between activity and infectivity in Chlamydiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S Sixt

    Full Text Available The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB, has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from (13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila

  14. Associations of Body Mass Index and Physical Activity With Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Rezende, Fabiana Faria; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; Mauad, Edmundo Carvalho; Zucca-Matthes, Gustavo; Carneseca, Estela Cristina; Syrjänen, Kari Juhani; Schover, Leslie R

    2016-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common and distressing consequence of breast cancer (BC) treatment. In the present study, we investigated the sexual functioning of BC patients and its association with women's personal characteristics and cancer treatments. In this cross-sectional study, sexual function was assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was measured using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and its breast module BR-23. Of the 235 participants approached, 216 participants were included in the study. Of these, 63 patients reported no sexual activity in the last month and thus were analyzed only in relation to the sexual desire domain of FSFI. A total of 154 (71.3 %) patients were classified with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). From those patients reporting sexual activity in the last month, 63.3 % (97 out of 153) were classified with sexual dysfunction. Using hierarchical logistic regression, the variance explained (change in R 2 ) by the addition of body mass index (BMI) and mild to moderate physical activity in the prediction models of sexual dysfunction and HSDD were 6.8 and 7.2 %, respectively. Age, BMI, and physical activity were independently associated with sexual dysfunction and HSDD. Additionally, BC patients with sexual dysfunction reported lower scores on global HRQOL, role functioning, and fatigue. Based on our findings, BC survivors should be encouraged to practice regular physical activity and to lose weight in order to avoid sexual dysfunction. However, future clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  15. In Situ Poling and Imidization of Amorphous Piezoelectric Polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Wise, Kristopher E.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An amorphous piezoelectric polyimide containing polar functional groups has been developed using a combination of experimental and molecular modeling for potential use in high temperature applications. This amorphous polyimide, (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, has exhibited good thermal stability and piezoelectric response at temperatures up to 150C. Density functional calculations predicted that a partially cured amic acid (open imide ring) possesses a dipole moment four times larger than the fully imidized closed ring. In situ poling and imidization of the partially cured (Beta-CN)APB/ODPA, was studied in an attempt to maximize the degree of dipolar orientation and the resultant piezoelectric response. A positive corona poling was used to minimize localized arcing during poling and to allow use of higher poling fields without dielectric breakdown. The dielectric relaxation strength, remanent polarization, and piezoelectric response were evaluated as a function of the poling profile. The partially cured, corona poled polymers exhibited higher dielectric relaxation strength (delta varepsilon), remanent polarization (Pr) and piezoelectric strain coefficient (d33) than the fully cured, conventionally poled ones.

  16. Study on Pole Arrangement of the CEDM Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Myoung Goo; Kim, Hyun Min; Cho, Yeon Ho; Choi, Taek Sang

    2013-01-01

    The coil stack assembly is important for reliable operation of the CEDM, there have been efforts to improve the design by optimizing the design parameters such as dimensions and winding turns. However, magnetic forces of the CEDM can also change by different pole arrangement even if their design parameters are the same. Since the latch coil and lift coil are installed connected to each other, they produce magnetically coupled field when they are energized at the same time. This coupling field can affect the magnetic force of the CEDM significantly. In this paper, coil pole arrangement effects are studied. Electro-magnetic analysis is performed for the different pole arrangements of the CEDM coils to calculate the magnetic forces. Pole arrangement effects on magnetic forces were studied by static analysis of the CEDM magnetic field. Magnetic forces were calculated and compared for the two different pole arrangements of the coils. The results show that the magnetic poles of the lift coil and latch coil shall be arranged to have the same magnetic pole direction to achieve higher magnetic force

  17. Complex evaluation of student‘s physical activity by physical health, physical fitness and body composition parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Šiupšinskas, Laimonas

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity level of students is decreasing. Students are specific population group with similar patterns of habitual physical activity influenced by study process. That formed requirement to search for a new ways to assess physical activity of the students indirectly. Offered method assesses level of physical health, measures physical fitness and evaluates body composition. The aim of the study is to evaluate indirectly measured health-enhanced physical activity of the students by phys...

  18. Body composition and physical activity assessment by euthopic and obese adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfrimer, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The increase of prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents has called the attention of researchers and professionals in the health area, because the consequences of the comorbidities associated with weight gains. Inactivity is one of the risk factors for adolescents. In the literature, precise methods to assess physical activity are not found. The aim of this research is to assess the body composition and the level of physical activity by euthophic and obese adolescents classified by the growth curve of the World Health Organization, 2006 in Brazil (WHO, 2006). Methods: 29 adolescents were selected aged between 11 and 15 years from state schools of Ribeirão Preto- SP- Brazil. Nineteen are euthophic and 10 are obese. Weight, height, waist and hip circumference and electric bioimpedance were measured it. To assess physical activity it was used accelerometer (activPAL®, Glasgow, UK) for 7 days and IPAQ questionnaire. It was also evaluated eating habits by the food behavior questionnaire. Results: BMI mean for obese was 29.40 kg/m² and 21.27 kg/m² for the eutrophic. The obese adolescents classified by BMI showed higher mean fat mass by electric bioimpedance when compared to euthophic adolescents, 38.6% versus 26%, respectively. The relation waist/hip circumference was higher in the obese group than in the euthophic (0.85 for obese and 0.71 for euthophic). Reading to high cardio vascular risk above 0.8. The level of physical inactivity by IPAQ was 89.5% for the euthophic and 80% for the obese. The inactivity classification was determined by those individuals who did less than 300 minutes of physical activity per week. The results of the accelerometer did not show statistical difference in the activities performed by the obese and eutrophic. These activities are the time spend sitting, walking and standing. 63% of the euthophic and 60% of the obese have the habit of watching television while eating. Conclusion: Adolescents have the same profile

  19. Evaluation of upper body muscle activity during cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance in simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, A. B.; Krygiel, R. G.; Susin, T. B.; Baptista, R.; Rehnberg, L.; Heidner, G. S.; de Campos, F.; Falcão, F. P.; Russomano, T.

    2013-09-01

    Performance of efficient single-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is vital to maintain cardiac and cerebral perfusion during the 2-4 min it takes for deployment of advanced life support during a space mission. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential differences in upper body muscle activity during CPR performance at terrestrial gravity (+1Gz) and in simulated microgravity (μG). Muscle activity of the triceps brachii, erector spinae, rectus abdominis and pectoralis major was measured via superficial electromyography in 20 healthy male volunteers. Four sets of 30 external chest compressions (ECCs) were performed on a mannequin. Microgravity was simulated using a body suspension device and harness; the Evetts-Russomano (ER) method was adopted for CPR performance in simulated microgravity. Heart rate and perceived exertion via Borg scores were also measured. While a significantly lower depth of ECCs was observed in simulated microgravity, compared with +1Gz, it was still within the target range of 40-50 mm. There was a 7.7% decrease of the mean (±SEM) ECC depth from 48 ± 0.3 mm at +1Gz, to 44.3 ± 0.5 mm during microgravity simulation (p < 0.001). No significant difference in number or rate of compressions was found between the two conditions. Heart rate displayed a significantly larger increase during CPR in simulated microgravity than at +1Gz, the former presenting a mean (±SEM) of 23.6 ± 2.91 bpm and the latter, 76.6 ± 3.8 bpm (p < 0.001). Borg scores were 70% higher post-microgravity compressions (17 ± 1) than post +1Gz compressions (10 ± 1) (p < 0.001). Intermuscular comparisons showed the triceps brachii to have significantly lower muscle activity than each of the other three tested muscles, in both +1Gz and microgravity. As shown by greater Borg scores and heart rate increases, CPR performance in simulated microgravity is more fatiguing than at +1Gz. Nevertheless, no significant difference in muscle activity between conditions

  20. Physical activity and calorie intake mediate the relationship from depression to body fat mass among female Mexican health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Amado D; Macías-Waldman, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge; Swigart, Tessa; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia

    2017-11-17

    Depression is a foremost cause of morbidity throughout the world and the prevalence of depression in women is about twice as high as men. Additionally, overweight and obesity are major global health concerns. We explored the relationship between depression and body fat, and the role of physical activity and diet as mediators of this relationship in a sample of 456 adult female Mexican health workers. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses using data from adult women of the Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS) Measures of body fat mass (kg from DEXA), dietary intake (kcal from FFQ), leisure time activity (METs/wk) and depression (CES-D) were determined in two waves (2004-2006 and 2010-2011). We explored the interrelation between body fat, diet, leisure time, physical activity, and depression using a cross-lagged effects model fitted to longitudinal data. We also fitted a structural equations model to cross-sectional data with body fat as the main outcome, and dietary intake and physical activity from leisure time as mediators between depression and body fat. Baseline depression was significantly related to higher depression, higher calorie intake, and lower leisure time physical activity at follow-up. From our cross-sectional model, each standard deviation increase in the depression score was associated with an average increase of 751 ± 259 g (± standard error) in body fat through the mediating effects of calorie intake and physical activity. The results of this study show how depression may influence energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended, resulting in higher body fat among those with a greater depression score. Evaluating the role of mental conditions like depression in dietary and physical activity behaviors should be positioned as a key research goal for better designed and targeted public health interventions. The HealthWorkers Cohort Study (HWCS) has been approved by the Institutional IRB. Number: 2005-785-012.

  1. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is characterized in a self-consistent manner by means of introducing a single nondifferential matrix equation compatible with the Liouville equation, modelling the ocean as global and of uniform depth. The deviations of the theory from the realistic ocean, associated with the nonglobality of the latter, are also given consideration, with an inference that in realistic oceans long-period modes of resonances would be increasingly likely to exist. The analysis of the nature of the pole tide and its effects on the Chandler wobble indicate that departures of the pole tide from the equilibrium may indeed be minimal.

  2. Domain wall width of lithium niobate poled during growth

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, R; Hole, D E; Callejo, D; Bermudez, V; Diéguez, E

    2003-01-01

    Good quality crystals of periodically poled lithium niobate can be generated directly during growth. However, the temperature gradients at the zone boundaries define the width of the regions where the polarity is reversed. Hence, the region influenced the domain transition may be a significant fraction of the overall poling period for material poled during growth. Evidence for the scale of this feature is reported both by chemical etching and by the less common method of ion beam luminescence and the 'domain wall' width approximately 1 mu m for these analyses. The influence of the reversal region may differ for alternative techniques but the relevance to device design for second harmonic generation is noted.

  3. A discussion on leading renormalon in the pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komijani, J.

    2017-08-01

    Perturbative series of some quantities in quantum field theories, such as the pole mass of a quark, suffer from a kind of divergence called renormalon divergence. In this paper, the leading renormalon in the pole mass is investigated, and a map is introduced to suppress this renormalon. The inverse of the map is then used to generate the leading renormalon and obtain an expression to calculate its overall normalization. Finally, the overall normalization of the leading renormalon of the pole mass is calculated for several values of quark flavors.

  4. State-PID Feedback for Pole Placement of LTI Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Sujitjorn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pole placement problems are especially important for disturbance rejection and stabilization of dynamical systems and regarded as algebraic inverse eigenvalue problems. In this paper, we propose gain formulae of state feedback through PID-elements to achieve desired pole placement for a delay-free LTI system with single input. Real and complex stable poles can be assigned with the proposed compact gain formulae. Numerical examples show that our proposed gain formulae can be used effectively resulting in very satisfactory responses.

  5. Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    On November 17, 2003, Attorney General John Ashcroft announced the U.S. Department of Justice's Body Armor Safety Initiative in response to concerns from the law enforcement community regarding the effectiveness of body armor in use...

  6. Interaction and activity coordination of territorial customs bodies of the State fiscal service of Ukraine with local state administrations and local self-government bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олексій Павлович Федотов

    2016-06-01

    Based on the results of the study the author notes that the interaction of the Ukrainian SFS customs offices and local state administrations with local self-government bodies is an inherent quality, link and component of the Ukrainian SFS Customs offices functioning organization, which aims to improve the state customs service implementation standards by the Ukrainian SFS customs houses and to ensure the said implementation efficiency. However, in the course of interaction of the Ukrainian SFS customs with local state administrations and local self-government bodies each of the mentioned organizations specializes in solving their specific tasks in accordance with their subject expertise, and forms a clear organizational system. The complementarity of such kind helps to improve the state customs affairs conductance quality and is realized through the coordination of performance of the Ukrainian SFS customs offices, local state administrations and local self-government bodies as the interaction subjects through normative, informational and analytical provision for the interaction and concretization of the activities of each subject within the planned activities.

  7. Dietary intake, physical activity and body mass index among postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Ranasinghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nutrition plays a vital role in the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Aim: The aim is to determine the dietary intake, physical activity, and assess the body mass index (BMI among postmenopausal women. Settings and Design: A community-based sample survey. Materials and Methods: The present study included 140 postmenopausal women (40–70 years from Udupi, Manipal areas of Karnataka. The study was carried out between July and December 2013. Sociodemographic data were collected using a questionnaire. Anthropometric data included height, weight, waist, and hip circumference. Dietary intake was determined using 24 h dietary recall. Physical activity information was collected. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Paired t-test was performed to determine the dietary adequacy. Results: Obesity was 42.1% among the study participants. Increased WHR and waist circumference were 82.1% and 77.1%. Mean daily intake of calcium and saturated fatty acids were significantly higher than recommended dietary allowance (RDA (P < 0.001. Mean intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, mono and poly unsaturated fatty acid, fiber and sodium were significantly lower than RDA (P < 0.001. Average daily intake of cereals, pulses, roots and tubers, meat and products, fats and oils, green leafy, and other vegetables were significantly (P < 0.001 lower than RDA. Intake of fruits, milk and milk products, and sugar was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than RDA. Only 37.1% of women performed moderate or active exercises regularly. Conclusions: Even though, nutrient and food group deficiencies were observed among postmenopausal women physical inactivity and effects of menopausal transition instigate increased BMI imposing a need to educate on nutrition and physical activity.

  8. CHANGING TRENDS IN LIFESTYLE BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY MASS INDEX AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Early sleep, early waking up, regular breakfast and light-to-moderate exercise all constitute healthy habits. Balanced diet, regular sleep and adequate physical activity are major factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health in human life. Regrettably these habits are not very frequent among medical students, because of exceptionally tiring schedule, protracted studies and burden of performing well in medical colleges. The study aims to correlate the trends in breakfast habits, mid-day snacking, sleeping habits and physical activity in relation to body mass index among medical students. METHOD This was a single centre cross-sectional questionnaire based study conducted at Jubilee Mission Medical College & Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala. The target population was 1 st year MBBS students. We collected data from 234 students. The study duration was from August 2014 till September 2015. Convenient sampling was implied for the collection of data. RESULTS Mean age of participants was 20.85 ± 0.9 years, while mean BMI of participants was 24.7 ± 6.31 kg/m2. Average sleep duration was 7.1 hours ± 3.9 hours while average physical activity was 208 min/week ± 92 min/week. We observed that females (63.4% tend to skip breakfast twice more than males (27.9%. Students who had regular breakfast were found to have a lower BMI than those who did not. Moreover, those who took breakfast were found to be more physically active than those who skipped breakfast. CONCLUSION Since it was found that a regular consumption of breakfast, adequate sleep and exercise not only lowers BMI but also makes a person more physically fit. Therefore, it is recommended to start the day with a healthy breakfast having all the essential nutrients.

  9. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pifferi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly.

  10. EQPlanar: a maximum-likelihood method for accurate organ activity estimation from whole body planar projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, N; Frey, E C; He, B; Wahl, R L

    2011-01-01

    Optimizing targeted radionuclide therapy requires patient-specific estimation of organ doses. The organ doses are estimated from quantitative nuclear medicine imaging studies, many of which involve planar whole body scans. We have previously developed the quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method and demonstrated its ability to provide more accurate activity estimates than conventional geometric-mean-based planar (CPlanar) processing methods using physical phantom and simulation studies. The QPlanar method uses the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm, 3D organ volume of interests (VOIs), and rigorous models of physical image degrading factors to estimate organ activities. However, the QPlanar method requires alignment between the 3D organ VOIs and the 2D planar projections and assumes uniform activity distribution in each VOI. This makes application to patients challenging. As a result, in this paper we propose an extended QPlanar (EQPlanar) method that provides independent-organ rigid registration and includes multiple background regions. We have validated this method using both Monte Carlo simulation and patient data. In the simulation study, we evaluated the precision and accuracy of the method in comparison to the original QPlanar method. For the patient studies, we compared organ activity estimates at 24 h after injection with those from conventional geometric mean-based planar quantification using a 24 h post-injection quantitative SPECT reconstruction as the gold standard. We also compared the goodness of fit of the measured and estimated projections obtained from the EQPlanar method to those from the original method at four other time points where gold standard data were not available. In the simulation study, more accurate activity estimates were provided by the EQPlanar method for all the organs at all the time points compared with the QPlanar method. Based on the patient data, we concluded that the EQPlanar method provided a

  11. Formation of active inclusion bodies induced by hydrophobic self-assembling peptide GFIL8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhou, Bihong; Hu, Weike; Zhao, Qing; Lin, Zhanglin

    2015-06-16

    In the last few decades, several groups have observed that proteins expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs) in bacteria could still be biologically active when terminally fused to an appropriate aggregation-prone partner such as pyruvate oxidase from Paenibacillus polymyxa (PoxB). More recently, we have demonstrated that three amphipathic self-assembling peptides, an alpha helical peptide 18A, a beta-strand peptide ELK16, and a surfactant-like peptide L6KD, have properties that induce target proteins into active IBs. We have developed an efficient protein expression and purification approach for these active IBs by introducing a self-cleavable intein molecule. In this study, the self-assembling peptide GFIL8 (GFILGFIL) with only hydrophobic residues was analyzed, and this peptide effectively induced the formation of cytoplasmic IBs in Escherichia coli when terminally attached to lipase A and amadoriase II. The protein aggregates in cells were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis and retained ~50% of their specific activities relative to the native counterparts. We constructed an expression and separation coupled tag (ESCT) by incorporating an intein molecule, the Mxe GyrA intein. Soluble target proteins were successfully released from active IBs upon cleavage of the intein between the GFIL8 tag and the target protein, which was mediated by dithiothreitol. A variant of GFIL8, GFIL16 (GFILGFILGFILGFIL), improved the ESCT scheme by efficiently eliminating interference from the soluble intein-GFIL8 molecule. The yields of target proteins at the laboratory scale were 3.0-7.5 μg/mg wet cell pellet, which is comparable to the yields from similar ESCT constructs using 18A, ELK16, or the elastin-like peptide tag scheme. The all-hydrophobic self-assembling peptide GFIL8 induced the formation of active IBs in E. coli when terminally attached to target proteins. GFIL8 and its variant GFIL16 can act as a "pull-down" tag to produce purified soluble proteins with

  12. The effects of feed restriction on physical activity, body weight, physiology, haematology and immunology in female mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if adult mink females characterised as having a high or low residual feed intake (RFI) differed in their response to feed restriction with regard to activity, body weight loss and physiological parameters. For RFI-High, the activity was higher prior...

  13. Body composition of 80-years old men and women and its relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, L.; Schroll, M.

    2002-01-01

    , and physical activity and functional ability. BMI was related to body fat mass, and FFM was related to muscle strength. Muscle strength was related to mobility and PPT. Mobility and PPT were mutually related and were related to physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our cross sectional study did not support newly...

  14. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (8): Effects and Sustainability of Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition of Chinese Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; Hu, X.Q.; Schouten, E.G.; Liu, A.L.; Du, S.M.; Li, L.Z.; Cui, Z.H.; Wang, D.; Kok, F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Ma, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether a large-scale physical activity intervention could affect body composition in primary school students in Beijing, China. Methods The study design was one-year cluster randomized controlled trial of physical activity intervention (20 min of daily exercise in the

  15. The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

  16. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs), young-old (65-74 yrs), and old (75-84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (Psatisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health by ensuring the maintenance, also at older age, of a satisfactory body image.

  17. 77 FR 22345 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Body Armor in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Collection: Establishment survey and initial approval of collection. (2) Title of Form/Collection: Body Armor... Agency-Level Survey and Body Armor Individual-level Correctional Officer Survey. (3) Agency form number... approaches to overcome those barriers. (a) For the Body Armor Administrative Agency-Level Survey, the chief...

  18. 77 FR 39259 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Body Armor in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...: Establishment survey and initial approval of collection. (2) Title of Form/Collection: Body Armor in Correctional Institutions Survey. The collections include the forms Body Armor Administrative Agency-Level Survey and Body Armor Individual-level Correctional Officer Survey. (3) Agency form number, if any, and...

  19. An equivalent body surface charge model representing three-dimensional bioelectrical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.; Chernyak, Y. B.; Cohen, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    A new surface-source model has been developed to account for the bioelectrical potential on the body surface. A single-layer surface-charge model on the body surface has been developed to equivalently represent bioelectrical sources inside the body. The boundary conditions on the body surface are discussed in relation to the surface-charge in a half-space conductive medium. The equivalent body surface-charge is shown to be proportional to the normal component of the electric field on the body surface just outside the body. The spatial resolution of the equivalent surface-charge distribution appears intermediate between those of the body surface potential distribution and the body surface Laplacian distribution. An analytic relationship between the equivalent surface-charge and the surface Laplacian of the potential was found for a half-space conductive medium. The effects of finite spatial sampling and noise on the reconstruction of the equivalent surface-charge were evaluated by computer simulations. It was found through computer simulations that the reconstruction of the equivalent body surface-charge from the body surface Laplacian distribution is very stable against noise and finite spatial sampling. The present results suggest that the equivalent body surface-charge model may provide an additional insight to our understanding of bioelectric phenomena.

  20. The impact of adolescent girls' life concerns and leisure activities on body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to situate adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem in the context of their life concerns and leisure activities. Questionnaires containing measures of life concerns, leisure activities, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem were administered to 306 girls with a mean age of 16 years. It was found that although academic success and intelligence were rated as the most important life concerns, an emphasis on slimness was most strongly linked to body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and global self-esteem. An emphasis on popularity with girls also was related to body dissatisfaction, and hours spent watching television were related to lower self-esteem. In contrast, emphasis on sport seemed to serve a protective function. It was concluded that adolescent girls who have a high concern for slimness should be assisted in decreasing this emphasis in order to improve their general well-being.

  1. Assessment of the distribution of protein in the human body by in-vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkinshaw, L.; Hill, G.L.; Morgan, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Whole-body in-vivo neutron activation analysis has been developed into a clinically acceptable technique for measuring total-body nitrogen. Since most of the nitrogen is in protein, the result gives an estimates of total-body protein, and this has proved very informative in studies of nutritional problems. It would often be useful to know how the total protein is divided between muscle and other lean tissues, and this could be determined if the body content of some other substance, distributed differently between the two types of tissue, were known. Potassium is a suitable substance. The total amount in the body is always measured in the course of the activation analysis procedure, and its concentration relative to nitrogen is more than twice as high in muscle as it is in the other lean tissues. Therefore a high proportion of muscle in the body will be reflected in a high ratio of total-body potassium to total-body nitrogen. Starting with this observation, a mathematical model has been developed which makes it possible to estimate the masses and protein contents of muscle and non-muscle lean tissues from total-body nitrogen and potassium. The errors of estimation are too large to allow conclusions to be drawn from a single measurement of an individual, but they do permit mean values for groups of subjects to be compared. This way of interpreting the results of in-vivo neutron activation analysis is expected to increase the value of the technique for studying nutritional problems. (author)

  2. Effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaïne, M; Hamaoui, A; Zanone, P-G

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern. Twelve asymptomatic participants performed a 5-min reading task while sitting, in six experimental conditions manipulating the table top slope (20° backward slope, no slope) and its height (low, medium, up). EMGs recordings were taken on 9 superficial muscles located at the trunk and shoulder level, and the angular positions of the head, trunk and pelvis were assessed using an inertial orientation system. Results revealed that the sloping table top was associated with a higher activity of deltoideus pars clavicularis (P<0.05) and a smaller flexion angle of the head (P<0.05). A tentative conclusion is that a sloping table top induces a more erect posture of the head and the neck, but entails an overload of the shoulder, which might be harmful on the long run. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced carotid body chemosensory activity and the cardiovascular alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eIturriaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation.

  4. Enhanced carotid body chemosensory activity and the cardiovascular alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C.; Del Rio, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular, and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation. PMID:25520668

  5. Decreased physical activity attributable to higher body mass index influences fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Clauw, Daniel; Oh, Terry H; Whipple, Mary O; Toussaint, Loren L

    2014-09-01

    Although previous studies report associations between increased body mass index (BMI) and fibromyalgia symptoms, there is uncertainty as to whether this relationship is driven by physical factors, psychological factors, or both. To assess these relationships in a clinical sample of patients with fibromyalgia. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary care facility. A total of 686 patients from an existing national fibromyalgia registry. Patients completed a demographic form and self-report questionnaires including the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQ-R), the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and the 30-item Profile of Mood States (30-item POMS). FIQ-R overall impact subscale. BMI was significantly correlated with fibromyalgia impact (P BMI and fibromyalgia impact was almost fully accounted for by physical factors and not by psychological factors. Despite patient report that pain hinders physical activity, clinicians who encounter patients with fibromyalgia, particularly patients with increased BMI, should be cognizant of the need to invest time and resources to counsel patients on physical factors (ie, physical activity) that could improve the patients' symptom experience. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing the Effect of Fasting and Physical Activity on Active and Non-active Males’ Body Composition, Serum Osmolarity Levels and Some Parameters of Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nematy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ever since there is insufficient and incoherent information about the effect of the Ramadan Fasting together with regular exercise on levels of serum osmolarity, and electrolytes concentration. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of fasting and physical activity on active and non-active males’ body composition, serum osmolarity levels and some parameters of electrolytes. Methods: Twenty six healthy males, who were selected by convenience sampling method, were divided into two (active and non-active groups. The Active group participated in football training for three sessions per week during the fasting month. All measurements were repeated on the first and last day of fasting month and were used to analyze the test results. Results: The average differences were significantly decreased in weight, BMI, WHR, mineral, total water in two groups (P≤0.05. There was a significant difference in average of BMI, WHR, body fat, mineral and total water between two groups (P≤0.05. Within-group mean differences in glucose, potassium, urine and albumin in both groups were significant (P≤0.05. Differences of serum osmolarity in between- and within-groups were not significant in both groups. While, glucose decreased significantly, the levels of the protein decreased, and urea increased significantly only in non active fasting group. Conclusion: According to these results, regular exercise together with the Ramadan fasting result in change in some serum osmolarity index, electrolytes and water. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the athletics against the malnutrition in Ramadan fasting by using the diet schedule and enough water.

  7. Higher percent body fat in young women with lower physical activity level and greater proportion Pacific Islander ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nate; Nabokov, Vanessa; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-11-01

    Samoan women exhibit high rates of obesity, which can possibly be attenuated through diet and physical activity. Obesity, and body fatness in particular, is associated with increased risk for chronic diseases. Ancestry, physical activity, and dietary patterns have been associated with body composition. Using a cross-sectional design, the relative importance of proportion of Pacific Islander (PI) ancestry, level of physical activity, and macronutrients among healthy women in Honolulu, Hawai'i, ages 18 to 28 years was examined. All data were collected between January 2003 and December 2004. Percent body fat (%BF) was determined by whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Nutrient data were derived from a three-day food record. Means and standard deviations were computed for all variables of interest. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to determine correlates of %BF. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine relative contribution of variables significantly associated with %BF. Proportion of PI ancestry was significantly positively associated with %BF (P=0.0001). Physical activity level was significantly negatively associated with %BF (P=0.0006). Intervention to increase physical activity level of young Samoan women may be effective to decrease body fat and improve health. CRC-NIH grant: 0216.

  8. Synergistic activity of antibiotics combined with ivermectin to kill body lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Rolain, Jean Marc; Gaudart, Jean; Weber, Pascal; Raoult, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Ivermectin and doxycycline have been found to be independently effective in killing body lice. In this study, 450 body lice were artificially fed on a Parafilm™ membrane with human blood associated with antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, rifampicin and azithromycin) alone and in combination with ivermectin. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation and spectral deconvolution were performed to evaluate bacterial transcriptional activity following antibiotic intake by the lice. In the first series, a lethal effect of antibiotics on lice was observed compared with the control group at 18 days (log-rank test, P≤10(-3)), with a significant difference between groups in the production of nits (P=0.019, Kruskal-Wallis test). A high lethal effect of ivermectin alone (50ng/mL) was observed compared with the control group (log-rank test, P≤10(-3)). Fluorescence of bacteriocytes in lice treated with 20μg/mL doxycycline was lower than in untreated lice (PKruskal-Wallis test). In the second series with antibiotic-ivermectin combinations, a synergistic lethal effect on treated lice (log-rank test, PKruskal-Wallis test). Additionally, survival of lice in the combination treatment groups compared with ivermectin alone was significant (log-rank test, P=0.0008). These data demonstrate that the synergistic effect of combinations of antibiotics and ivermectin could be used to achieve complete eradication of lice and to avoid selection of a resistant louse population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Immune activity, body condition and human-associated environmental impacts in a wild marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Brock

    Full Text Available Within individuals, immunity may compete with other life history traits for resources, such as energy and protein, and the damage caused by immunopathology can sometimes outweigh the protective benefits that immune responses confer. However, our understanding of the costs of immunity in the wild and how they relate to the myriad energetic demands on free-ranging organisms is limited. The endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic animals and rapid changes in food availability driven by unpredictable environmental variation. We made use of this unique ecology to investigate the relationship between changes in immune activity and changes in body condition. We found that during the first three months of life, changes in antibody concentration were negatively correlated with changes in mass per unit length, skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentration, but only in a sea lion colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts. It has previously been shown that changes in antibody concentration during early Galapagos sea lion development were higher in a colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts than in a control colony. This study allows for the possibility that these relatively large changes in antibody concentration are associated with negative impacts on fitness through an effect on body condition. Our findings suggest that energy availability and the degree of plasticity in immune investment may influence disease risk in natural populations synergistically, through a trade-off between investment in immunity and resistance to starvation. The relative benefits of such investments may change quickly and unpredictably, which allows for the possibility that individuals fine-tune their investment strategies in response to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, our results suggest that anthropogenic environmental impacts may impose subtle energetic costs on

  10. Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricciardelli Lina A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in

  11. In vivo prompt gamma activation analysis facility for total body nitrogen and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munive, Marco; Solis, Jose; Revilla, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Prompt Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) is a technique that could have medical applications, like determination of body's contents of protein and heavy metals in vivo. The in vivo PGNAA facility, contains a neutron source (Cf-252) with safety device, a compartment for animal irradiation, and a gamma rays detecting system based on the NaI(Tl) detector with an analytical software. The prompt gamma rays were emitted after 10 -15 s of the interaction, so they don't produce radioactive waste, and have a characteristics energy for each element, i.e. a strong peak at 2.24 MeV is observed for H. The facility has been used with laboratory mice. Water-filled phantom placed in the neutron beam was used to system calibration. Three study groups of 5 mice each one were selected and were feed with a different diet and the total body nitrogen (TBN) of the mice was monitored with the facility. The diet produced a different TBN for each group. Some mice drunk diluted water with Cl 2 Cd, so the presence of Cd was detected in the mouse. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm. The total dose (neutron and gamma dose was measured from TLDs and simulated by MNCP-4B in the sample compartment during the irradiation time (5 minutes) is less than 2.5 mSv. This total dose is low than the dose from other analytical radiological techniques (25 a 50 mSv). (author)

  12. A computer algorithm for the differentiation between lung and gastrointestinal tract activities in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, R.A.; Harrington, C.L.; Bard, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed changes to 10CFR20 combining internal and external exposures will require accurate and precise in vivo bioassay data. One of the many uncertainties in the interpretation of in vivo bioassay data is the imprecise knowledge of the location of any observed radioactivity within the body of an individual. Attempts to minimize this uncertainty have been made by collimating the field of view of a single photon detector to each organ or body system of concern. In each of these cases, full removal of any potential gamma flux from organs other than the desired organ is not achieved. In certain commercially available systems this ''cross talk'' may range from 20 to 40 percent. A computerized algorithm has been developed which resolves this ''cross talk'' for all observed radionuclides in a system composed of two high purity germanium photon detectors separately viewing the lung and GI regions of a subject. The algorithm routinely applies cross talk correction factors and photopeak detection efficiencies to the net spectral photopeak areas determined by a peak search methodology. Separate lung and GI activities, corrected for cross talk, are calculated and reported. The logic utilized in the total software package, as well as the derivation of the cross talk correction factors, will be discussed. Any limitations of the computer algorithm when applied to various radioactivity levels will also be identified. An evaluation of the cross talk factors for potential use in differentiating surface contamination from true organ burdens will be presented. In addition, the capability to efficiently execute this software using a low cost, portable stand-alone computer system will be demonstrated

  13. [INFLUENCE OF IONIZING RADIATION ON THE LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY AND BODY WEIGHT OF RATS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimova, A; Chaizhunusоva, N; Kairkhanova, Y; Uzbеkоv, D; Hоshi, М

    2017-02-01

    The aim of our study was to study influence of ionizing radiation on the locomotor activity and body weight of rats, for this animals was irradiated by via inhalation. Beta- emitter 56Mn was obtained by neutron activation of powdered MnО2 by using nuclear reactor IVG.1M (experimental facility «Baikal-1», Kurchatov, Kazakhstan). Exposure of rats to radioactive powder had two way, the first experiment was contained only air filter for animal's breathing and the second with the system of forced ventilation. Also we developed the method for observation of the locomotor activity of rats, based on quantitative data. The experiment was conducted on 8 «Wistar» breed white laboratory rats. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric test. Based on our data, we can say that our method has the advantage over the others is that there is no need to move about the animal out of the box in the test field. So we reduce animal stress factor, as the transfer of an animal from one to second place creates additional stress for him. The initial activity of the pulverized powder in both experiments were 2,74х108Bq, but in the second experiment when we used the system of forced ventilation, internal radiation doses were 0.041±0.0075 Gy, this didn't have effect on locomotor activity of rats (Z= -0,841, р=0,4). In the first experiment where we used only air filter for animal's breathing internal radiation doses were 0.15±0.025 Gr, that showed a decrease in locomotor activity in rats (Z=-6,653, р=0,001). After exposure to ionizing radiation changes in the mammals' weight were not found. Thus, based on our data we have made conclusion, that even after a single irradiation at low dose 0.15±0.025 Gr changes occur in the nervous system.

  14. Activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Isabelle; Green, Sara M; Morgan, Drake; Carter, Christy S; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence indicate that melanotan II (MTII) reduces body mass independently of caloric reduction. Because MTII induces a transient hypophagia, caloric reduction is still considered a primary mechanism for MTII-mediated body mass loss. To examine the contribution of caloric reduction to long-term body mass loss in response to MTII, we centrally infused MTII or vehicle in ad libitum fed (MTII and Control) animals in comparison with a group of animals that were pair-fed (PF) to the MTII group. Food intake and body mass were recorded daily, and body composition was assessed biweekly. The present study demonstrates that central MTII-mediated body mass loss is only partially mediated by caloric restriction, and the long-term body mass loss is independent of the initial hypophagia. More importantly, central MTII administration induced a rapid but sustained fat mass loss, independently of caloric reduction. MTII-treated animals preserved their lean/fat mass ratio throughout the study, whereas PF animals underwent a transient reduction of lean/fat mass ratio that was only normalized when food intake returned to Control level. In summary, it can be concluded that activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

  15. Pole-zero adjustment of spectroscopy amplifiers using multichannel analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, K; Grigorov, T [Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The technique to eliminate the undesirable undershoot in the output signal of a spectroscopy amplifier is considered. The functional scheme of the pole-zero monitoring circuit is presented as well as its operation principles are considered. 3 refs.

  16. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  17. Engagement in activities revealing the body and psychosocial adjustment in adults with a trans-tibial prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan-Hall, M K; Yardley, L; Watts, R J

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the appearance of a prosthesis on social behaviour, social discomfort and psychological well-being in eleven amputees taking delivery of a prosthesis with a silicone cover. Two new scales were developed: the 'Engagement in everyday activities involving revealing the body' (EEARB); and the 'Discomfort-Engagement in everyday activities involving revealing the body' (Discomfort-EEARB) scales. The psychometric properties of these scales were determined using a sample of 101 able-bodied adults. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were also used to measure psychological well-being in the amputee sample. The EEARB and Discomfort-EEARB proved to have good reliability and validity. Comparison of amputees' scores prior to receiving the silicone cosmesis with those of the able-bodied adults revealed significant behavioural limitations and social discomfort, associated with low self-esteem, anxiety and depression. There was a significant increase in amputees' scores three months afier taking delivery of their prosthesis, indicating that amputees reported engaging in more activities which involved revealing their body, and that they would feel more comfortable in situations which involved revealing the body. As the amputee sample available was small and self-selected, it is not possible to generalise these findings to the amputee population as a whole. However, since there is little previous research investigating the effects of the appearance of the prosthesis, these findings demonstrate the need for further research in this area.

  18. Clinical measurements of part-body calcium using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothill, P.; Smith, M.A.; Simpson, J.D.; Chew, I.; MacPherson, J.N.; Winney, R.J.; Strong, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Californium-252 sources have been used in a clinical environment for neutron activation analysis studies for a period of 2 1/2 years. During this period, changes in bone calcium in response to different treatment regimes have been measured in patients suffering from primary or secondary bone disease. The first measurements were performed on peripheral bone, in particular the forearm, using two sources of 252 Cf, minimum total activity 56mCi, for bilateral irradiation and two 15cmx10cm NaI crystals for detection. Optimization of the irradiation geometry and the patient irradiation programme enabled measurements to be performed with a precision of 1.6% and a dose of 3 rem. The precision estimate was based on 64 sets of repeated patient measurements and included errors due to patient movement. Apparatus was also developed to measure changes of calcium in the lumbar spine, particular attention being devoted to obtaining uniformity of sensitivity in the vertebrae. Unilateral irradiation with two 252 Cf sources, activity 100mCi each, separated by 20cm, and detection in whole-body counter with four 15cmx10cm NaI detectors gave a precision of 2% based on repeated measurements of 10 patients, with a dose of 1.3 rem to the spine and 10 rem to the skin surface. The following studies were undertaken: the effect of 1 α-hydroxycholecalciferol on 19 patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis, the use of vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 in the treatment of 33 patients with potential anticonvulsant osteomalacia, the effect of lithium carbonate in 20 patients with manic depression and the efficacy of conventional treatments in combating thyrotoxic osteodystrophy. (author)

  19. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day) performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day). Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β=-4.798) and the combination TV+computer (β=-3.233) were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne B; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and chan......Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity...... and changes in CS activity is often assumed. However, this relationship and absolute values of CS and maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max) has never been assessed across different studies. A systematic PubMed search on literature published from 1983 to 2013 was performed. The search profile included: citrate...... and CS activity. 70 publications with 97 intervention groups were included. There was a positive (r = 0.45) correlation (P

  1. The Achievements of the GLAMOROUS Project on Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margulis, Walter; Myrén, N.; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    The GLAMOROUS project had as objective to demonstrate the feasibility of fibre and waveguide components with a second order nonlinearity induced by poling. The accomplishments of this nine-partners European Research Project are described.......The GLAMOROUS project had as objective to demonstrate the feasibility of fibre and waveguide components with a second order nonlinearity induced by poling. The accomplishments of this nine-partners European Research Project are described....

  2. Multijet final states: exact results and the leading pole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.; Owens, J.F.

    1984-09-01

    Exact results for the process gg → ggg are compared with those obtained using the leading pole approximation. Regions of phase space where the approximation breaks down are discussed. A specific example relevant for background estimates to W boson production is presented. It is concluded that in this instance the leading pole approximation may underestimate the standard QCD background by more than a factor of two in certain kinematic regions of physical interest

  3. Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Arentoft, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Second-harmonic scanning optical microscopy (SHSOM) is performed on electric-field poled silica-based waveguides. Two operation modes of SHSOM are considered. Oblique transmission reflection and normal reflection modes are used to image the spatial distribution of nonlinear susceptibilities...... and limitations of the two operation modes when used for SHSOM studies of poled silica-based waveguides are discussed. The influence of surface defects on the resulting second-harmonic images is also considered. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  4. High fat diet blunts the effects of leptin on ventilation and on carotid body activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maria J; Sacramento, Joana F; Gallego-Martin, Teresa; Olea, Elena; Melo, Bernardete F; Guarino, Maria P; Yubero, Sara; Obeso, Ana; Conde, Silvia V

    2017-12-22

    Leptin plays a role in the control of breathing, acting mainly on central nervous system; however, leptin receptors have been recently shown to be expressed in the carotid body (CB), and this finding suggests a physiological role for leptin in the regulation of CB function. Leptin increases minute ventilation in both basal and hypoxic conditions in rats. It increases the frequency of carotid sinus nerve discharge in basal conditions, as well as the release of adenosine from the CB. However, in a metabolic syndrome animal model, the effects of leptin in ventilatory control, carotid sinus nerve activity and adenosine release by the CB are blunted. Although leptin may be involved in triggering CB overactivation in initial stages of obesity and dysmetabolism, resistance to leptin signalling and blunting of responses develops in metabolic syndrome animal models. Leptin plays a role in the control of breathing, acting mainly on central nervous system structures. Leptin receptors are expressed in the carotid body (CB) and this finding has been associated with a putative physiological role of leptin in the regulation of CB function. Since, the CBs are implicated in energy metabolism, here we tested the effects of different concentrations of leptin administration on ventilatory parameters and on carotid sinus nerve (CSN) activity in control and high-fat (HF) diet fed rats, in order to clarify the role of leptin in ventilation control in metabolic disease states. We also investigated the expression of leptin receptors and the neurotransmitters involved in leptin signalling in the CBs. We found that in non-disease conditions, leptin increases minute ventilation in both basal and hypoxic conditions. However, in the HF model, the effect of leptin in ventilatory control is blunted. We also observed that HF rats display an increased frequency of CSN discharge in basal conditions that is not altered by leptin, in contrast to what is observed in control animals. Leptin did not

  5. [Study on diet, physical activities and body mass index in Chinese population in 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gong-huan; Ma, Jie-min; Liu, Na; Chen, Ai-ping

    2005-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of behavior on diet, physical activities and body mass index (BMI) in different populations related to factors as education, occupation and geographical distribution. Indicators including frequency of taking different foods, intake of cooking oil/fast foods, intensities of physical activities at work, proportion of taking physical exercises during the day, sedentary life style and BMI were calculated based on results from 17 questions of behavior risk factors surveillance (BRFS) questionnaire by weight on age structures from 2000 census. Seventy percentage of the people took vegetable and 40 percent took fruits 5-7 days per week, and over 50 percent of them ate pork/beef/mutton but few of them ate beans and eggs. 25 percent of the people ate chicken/duck/fish/and shrimps 5-7 times per week but another 40 percent ate them only less then once per week. 70% of the people almost never drank milk or milk-products. 15 percent of them consumed sweet and greasy foods 3-7 days per week and 30 percent of them ate smoked food 3-7 days per week in the past 30 days. The proportions of food intake were different under different geographical regions, education levels and occupations. 11.7% of the sample population cooked mainly with animal oil, and 33% of the students had ever been to McDonald's. 11.7%, 20.5%, 44.7% and 23.0% of the subjects engaged in sedentary, light, moderate or heavy physical activities respectively. 18.04% of the subjects took part in physical exercises with different proportions by gender, occupation, education and geographical settings. 8.3% people were slim which was defined as having BMI lower than 18.5 kg/m(2). 68.0% of the people had a BMI as 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2). 23.7% of the subjects were being overweight which was defined as having BMI greater than 24 kg/m(2), among which 8.5% people with a BMI of 24-24.9 kg/m(2). The prevalence of overweight and obesity will increase in the next 20-30 years, with the habits of taking more

  6. Pressure transmitter surveillance: the dominant real pole case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, J.; Ballestrin, J.

    1995-01-01

    There are about 500 pressure transmitters in a nuclear power plant. Due to Safety requirements, some of them must be specially surveilled. Sensor response time to a pressure ramp is the usual quantity to be measured. Response time, τ r , reflects the dynamics of the sensor and the sensing line. A real pole is due to the inner sensor structure, but the complex pole stands for the sensing line too. The real pole usually is the dominant in most sensors. On line monitoring noise analysis regards simultaneously both, the sensor and the sensing line, but the noise signal contains not only the sensor poles, but many others coming from the plant, so must be conditioned previously and the determination of τ r is not free of systematic errors. That is the price to be paid for non disturbing the plant. When the real pole is dominant, the sensing line contribution is negligible, so the on line noise monitoring methods are supported by the laboratory experiments and the real pole border in the PSD is properly identified. The mean square frequency results proportional to τ r -1 , so manual techniques are designed for response time surveillance made by non noise plant's maintenance technicians. (author)

  7. A poling study on lead zirconate titanate composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics produced by the conventional mixed oxide route are dual phased. Because the titania and zirconia are not perfectly homogenized, some parts of the ceramic are more tetragonal (titanium rich) and other parts more rhombohedral (zirconium rich). This inhomogeneity means that some domains can be more easily poled than others. Lastly, the density and porosity can affect the poling process if the flaw density becomes such that the breakdown voltage is exceeded by the required poling voltage. The phase boundary determined by most dielectric and piezoelectric measurements is significantly removed from the 44% titanium content determined by neutron diffraction. The indicators that are most consistent with this value are the minimum in the poling efficiency curve and the shape of the dissipative factor curve. The reason for the discrepancy appears to be related to the broad coexistence region of the two phases and the differing poling efficiencies of each phase. It has been established that different poling temperature profiles can substantially modify the observed properties. Such behaviour is again related to the inhomogeneity of the ceramic and the presence of the two phases. 4 refs., 5 figs

  8. Clear signals or mixed messages: inter-individual emotion congruency modulates brain activity underlying affective body perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, B.

    2016-01-01

    The neural basis of emotion perception has mostly been investigated with single face or body stimuli. However, in daily life one may also encounter affective expressions by groups, e.g. an angry mob or an exhilarated concert crowd. In what way is brain activity modulated when several individuals express similar rather than different emotions? We investigated this question using an experimental design in which we presented two stimuli simultaneously, with same or different emotional expressions. We hypothesized that, in the case of two same-emotion stimuli, brain activity would be enhanced, while in the case of two different emotions, one emotion would interfere with the effect of the other. The results showed that the simultaneous perception of different affective body expressions leads to a deactivation of the amygdala and a reduction of cortical activity. It was revealed that the processing of fearful bodies, compared with different-emotion bodies, relied more strongly on saliency and action triggering regions in inferior parietal lobe and insula, while happy bodies drove the occipito-temporal cortex more strongly. We showed that this design could be used to uncover important differences between brain networks underlying fearful and happy emotions. The enhancement of brain activity for unambiguous affective signals expressed by several people simultaneously supports adaptive behaviour in critical situations. PMID:27025242

  9. Effects of experimental insoles on body posture, mandibular kinematics and masticatory muscles activity. A pilot study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Ida; Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio; Bortolotti, Francesco; Bartolucci, Maria Lavinia; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Michelotti, Ambra

    2015-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that different plantar sensory inputs could influence the whole body posture and dental occlusion but there is a lack of evidence on this possible association. To investigate the effects of experimental insoles redistributing plantar pressure on body posture, mandibular kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles on healthy subjects. A pilot study was conducted on 19 healthy volunteers that wore custom-made insoles normalizing the plantar pressure distribution for 2 weeks. Body posture parameters were measured by means of an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis; mandibular kinematics was analyzed by means of gothic arch tracings; superficial EMG activity of head and neck muscles was performed. Measurements were carried out 10 days before the insertion of the insoles, immediately before the insertion, the day after, 7 and 14 days after, in four different exteroceptive conditions. The outcomes of the present study show that insoles do not modify significantly over time the parameters of body posture, SEMG activity of head and neck muscles and mandibular kinematics. In this pilot study the experimental insoles did not significantly influence the body posture, the mandibular kinematics and the activity of masticatory muscles during a 14-day follow up period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clear signals or mixed messages: inter-individual emotion congruency modulates brain activity underlying affective body perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borst, A W; de Gelder, B

    2016-08-01

    The neural basis of emotion perception has mostly been investigated with single face or body stimuli. However, in daily life one may also encounter affective expressions by groups, e.g. an angry mob or an exhilarated concert crowd. In what way is brain activity modulated when several individuals express similar rather than different emotions? We investigated this question using an experimental design in which we presented two stimuli simultaneously, with same or different emotional expressions. We hypothesized that, in the case of two same-emotion stimuli, brain activity would be enhanced, while in the case of two different emotions, one emotion would interfere with the effect of the other. The results showed that the simultaneous perception of different affective body expressions leads to a deactivation of the amygdala and a reduction of cortical activity. It was revealed that the processing of fearful bodies, compared with different-emotion bodies, relied more strongly on saliency and action triggering regions in inferior parietal lobe and insula, while happy bodies drove the occipito-temporal cortex more strongly. We showed that this design could be used to uncover important differences between brain networks underlying fearful and happy emotions. The enhancement of brain activity for unambiguous affective signals expressed by several people simultaneously supports adaptive behaviour in critical situations. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [The study on metabolic difference of human body affected by active stress and passive stress under special events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang-hong; Gu, Feng; Dong, Zhen-nan; Yuan, Xin-hong; Wang, Ling; Tian, Ya-ping

    2010-05-01

    To study the metabolic difference of body influenced by active stress and passive stress under special events. To detect serum multiple biochemistry index of 57 earthquake rescue medical team and 13 victims of a natural calamity in Wenchuan earthquake by using Hitachi 7600 automatic analyzer. Stress affected biochemistry index deeply. To compared with rescue medical team, the serum ADA, ALP and TG of victims increased obviously and TP, ALB, MAO, Cr, UA, K, Na, Cl, Ca, ApoA1 and HDL decreased obviously. Many biochemistry index have been changed under stress and it relate with stress extent. The human body function status was better in active stress than in passive stress.

  12. Cesium 137 body activity in a group of children coming from affected areas due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R.; Lopez, G.; Arado, O.; Jova, L.; Corripio, A.

    1994-01-01

    The implementation and calibration of two whole body counters for determination of Cs-137 body burden of children is describe. The results of measurements of 4506 children coming from affected areas due to Chernobyl accident of the Republics of Ukrainian, Russian and Belaruss, and who received medical attention in Cuba is presented. Installations, equipment and calibration phantoms used are described. The values of measured activity is relationed whit the place of origin groups of age and the form of feeding. The measured activity values range from 1,5 to 565 Bq/kg, and have a long-normal character for each region

  13. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three...... to that of wild-type mice. The use of telemetric devices to measure circadian locomotor activity, temperature, and heart rate, together with the classical determination of circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, raises questions about how representative wheel-running activity may be of other behavioral...

  14. Arginine-esterase activity of kallikrein in the sera of whole-body irradiated rats and guinea-pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouckova, P; Pospisil, J; Dienstbier, Z [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Biofyzikalni Ustav

    1977-09-01

    In whole-body irradiated rats (800 R=LDsub(50/30)) and guinea pigs (300 R=LDsub(50/30)) changes were investigated in the arginine esterase activity of kallikrein in native serum as well as in serum exposed to contact with a clay suspension. From the values obtained the activity of prekallikrein was calculated. While in the rat serum significant changes in the arginine esterase activity of kallikrein were found, in the guinea pig serum the kallikrein activity did not change markedly. The activity of prekallikrein immediately after irradiation assumes a similar course in both types of laboratory animals while during later intervals a reverse pattern was observed.

  15. Automated high-throughput measurement of body movements and cardiac activity of Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Eckelt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Xenopus tadpoles are an emerging model for developmental, genetic and behavioral studies. A small size, optical accessibility of most of their organs, together with a close genetic and structural relationship to humans make them a convenient experimental model. However, there is only a limited toolset available to measure behavior and organ function of these animals at medium or high-throughput. Herein, we describe an imaging-based platform to quantify body and autonomic movements of Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles of advanced developmental stages. Animals alternate periods of quiescence and locomotor movements and display buccal pumping for oxygen uptake from water and rhythmic cardiac movements. We imaged up to 24 animals in parallel and automatically tracked and quantified their movements by using image analysis software. Animal trajectories, moved distances, activity time, buccal pumping rates and heart beat rates were calculated and used to characterize the effects of test compounds. We evaluated the effects of propranolol and atropine, observing a dose-dependent bradycardia and tachycardia, respectively. This imaging and analysis platform is a simple, cost-effective high-throughput in vivo assay system for genetic, toxicological or pharmacological characterizations.

  16. Increase in vagal activity during hypotensive lower-body negative pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander-Jensen, K; Mehlsen, J; Stadeager, C

    1988-01-01

    Progressive central hypovolemia is characterized by a normotensive, tachycardic stage followed by a reversible, hypotensive stage with slowing of the heart rate (HR). We investigated circulatory changes and arterial hormone concentrations in response to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) in six...... volunteers before and after atropine administration. LBNP of 55 mmHg initially resulted in an increase in HR from 55 +/- 4 to 90 +/- 5 beats/min and decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 94 +/- 4 to 81 +/- 5 mmHg, in central venous pressure from 7 +/- 1 to -3 +/- 1 mmHg, and in cardiac output from 6.......1 +/- 0.5 to 3.7 +/- 0.11/min. Concomitantly, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels increased. After 8.2 +/- 2.3 min of LBNP, the MAP had decreased to 41 +/- 7 mmHg and HR had decreased to 57 +/- 3 beats/min. Vasopressin increased from 1.2 +/- 0.3 to 137 +/- 45 pg/ml and renin activity increased from 1...

  17. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Nutrition Are Associated with Bone Status in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, Gotzone; Ruiz-Litago, Fátima; Irazusta, Jon; Fernández-Atutxa, Ainhoa; Fraile-Bermúdez, Ana Belen; Zarrazquin, Idoia

    2018-01-10

    Understanding the modifiable factors that improve and maximize peak bone mass at an early age is necessary to design more effective intervention programs to prevent osteoporosis. To identify these modifiable factors, we analyzed the relationship of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, body composition, and dietary intake with bone stiffness index (SI), measured by quantitative ultrasonometry in young university students (18-21 years). Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was the strongest predictor of SI (β = 0.184; p = 0.035). SI was most closely related with very vigorous PA in males (β = 0.288; p = 0.040) and with the number of steps/day in females (β = 0.319; p = 0.002). An association between thigh muscle and SI was consistent in both sexes (β = 0.328; p < 0.001). Additionally, extension maximal force was a bone SI predictor factor in females (β = 0.263; p = 0.016) independent of thigh muscle perimeter. Calcium intake was the only nutrition parameter that had a positive relationship with SI ( R = 0.217; p = 0.022). However, it was not included as a predictor for SI in our regression models. This study identifies predictors of bone status in each sex and indicates that muscle and bone interrelate with PA and fitness in young adults.

  18. Relationship of Body Mass Index with Diet, Physical Activities, and Lifestyles of Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Syed R; Alghofaily, Sakhar; Alshamrani, Hussam; Alhammad, Abdullah; Awan, Kamran Habib

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight issues and obesity by recording the body mass index (BMI) and explore the dietary habits, physical activities (PAs), and lifestyles of male students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. A custom-designed self-administrative form and questionnaire were used in this study for data collection. The first part of the form was used to record the participants' height and weight for the BMI. The participants were grouped as underweight (BMI 30.0). The second part comprised questions related to the dietary habits, PAs, and lifestyles of the male dental students. Chi-squared test was used to generate the significance of each question at significance surfing per day (p = 0.012). The prevalence of overweight issues and obesity is high among the dental students compared with the general population of Saudi Arabia, and there is a need for intervention programs to combat obesity among the dental students. The awareness about PA, healthy diet/lifestyle, consequences of overweight and obesity on their health and profession must be increased among the dental students to avoid future complications. The impact of obesity on individuals' oral health and its influence on dental treatment protocols and postoperative procedures has been well documented. Dental students are more prone to obesity due to their lifestyle with less PA and disordered eating habits and, thereby, are prone to obesity-related health hazards.

  19. Structure characterization of a novel polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus fruiting bodies and its immunomodulatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fangfang; Zhou, Chunhui; Zhou, Dandan; Ou, Shiyi; Zhang, Xiaoai; Huang, Huihua

    2018-01-24

    A novel polysaccharide fraction (HEP-S) was extracted and isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus. Structural characterization revealed that HEP-S had an average molecular weight of 1.83 × 10 4 Da and consisted of rhamnose, fucose, mannose, glucose and galactose at a molar ratio of 1.47 : 0.93 : 1.36 : 8.68 : 4.08. Periodate oxidation-Smith degradation and NMR analysis showed that the main linkage types of HEP-S were composed of (1→)-α-d-Glc, (1→3,4)-α-d-Glc, (1→6)-α-d-Gal, (1→3,4)-β-d-Man, (1→3,6)-α-Rha and (1→2)-β-l-Fuc. The immunomodulatory assay indicated that HEP-S could significantly enhance the pinocytic and phagocytic capacity and promote the secretion of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines by activating the corresponding mRNA and protein expression in RAW 264.7 cells involving a toll-like receptor 2 membrane receptor. Besides, HEP-S was also found to improve the adaptive immune function by enhancing T and B lymphocyte proliferation and increasing the interleukin-2, interleukin-4 and interferon-γ secretion in spleen lymphocytes. These results suggested that HEP-S could be used as a potential immunoregulatory agent in functional foods.

  20. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos J

    2005-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  1. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  2. Systematic approach to training. Experiences from the training activities of regulatory body personnel in STUK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, I.

    1998-04-01

    The report describes the experiences obtained of a training programme for nuclear power plant inspectors arranged in the 90's by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK). In the implementation of the programme, a systematic method was used to analyse the training needs, to plan, develop and implement the training programme as well as to assess the programme's implementation and results. The method used, 'SAT Ae Systematic Approach to Training', is presented in 'Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation, A Guidebook', IAEA Technical Report Series No. 380, which is a publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is recommended that this method be applied in the planning and implementation of nuclear power plant personnel training. The application of the method as a tool for developing the qualifications of nuclear power plant inspectors shows that the method is well suited for use in Finland. Until the 90's, STUK had no systematic approach to training activities. Some training was arranged internally, but training in most respects meant participation in external training events and international seminars. A more systematic approach was adopted in the early 90's. The main goal was to define basic competence profiles for inspectors working in different fields and to provide an internal basic training programme not available externally. The development of the training activities called for a profound renewal of the training function to ensure a systematic approach and high quality. The experiences gained in STUK are useful in co-operation with Eastern and Central European regulatory bodies; they can be utilized when the qualifications of personnel who carry out inspections are developed. This will extensively contribute to the safety of nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  3. Systematic approach to training. Experiences from the training activities of regulatory body personnel in STUK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aro, I.

    1998-04-01

    The report describes the experiences obtained of a training programme for nuclear power plant inspectors arranged in the 90`s by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK). In the implementation of the programme, a systematic method was used to analyse the training needs, to plan, develop and implement the training programme as well as to assess the programme`s implementation and results. The method used, `SAT Ae Systematic Approach to Training`, is presented in `Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation, A Guidebook`, IAEA Technical Report Series No. 380, which is a publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is recommended that this method be applied in the planning and implementation of nuclear power plant personnel training. The application of the method as a tool for developing the qualifications of nuclear power plant inspectors shows that the method is well suited for use in Finland. Until the 90`s, STUK had no systematic approach to training activities. Some training was arranged internally, but training in most respects meant participation in external training events and international seminars. A more systematic approach was adopted in the early 90`s. The main goal was to define basic competence profiles for inspectors working in different fields and to provide an internal basic training programme not available externally. The development of the training activities called for a profound renewal of the training function to ensure a systematic approach and high quality. The experiences gained in STUK are useful in co-operation with Eastern and Central European regulatory bodies; they can be utilized when the qualifications of personnel who carry out inspections are developed. This will extensively contribute to the safety of nuclear power plants. (orig.). 2 refs.

  4. Alberta's Tomorrow Project: adherence to cancer prevention recommendations pertaining to diet, physical activity and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Heather K; Xu, Jian-Yi; Vaseghi, Sanaz; Lo Siou, Geraldine; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Robson, Paula J

    2017-05-01

    To explore cross-sectional adherence to cancer prevention recommendations by adults enrolled in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada. Questionnaire data were used to construct a composite cancer prevention adherence score for each participant, based on selected personal recommendations published by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Data were self-reported on health and lifestyle, past-year physical activity and past-year FFQ. The scores accounted for physical activity, dietary supplement use, body size, and intakes of alcohol, fruit, vegetables and red meat. Tobacco exposure was also included. Scores ranged from 0 (least adherent) to 7 (most adherent). Alberta's Tomorrow Project; a research platform based on a prospective cohort. Adult men and women (n 24 988) aged 35-69 years recruited by random digit dialling and enrolled in Alberta's Tomorrow Project between 2001 and 2009. Of the cohort, 14 % achieved adherence scores ≥5 and 60 % had scores ≤3. Overall adherence scores were higher in women (mean (sd): 3·4 (1·1)) than in men (3·0 (1·2)). The extent of overall adherence was also associated with level of education, employment status, annual household income, personal history of chronic disease, family history of chronic disease and age. Reported adherence to selected personal recommendations for cancer prevention was low in this cohort of adults. In the short to medium term, these results suggest that more work is required to identify behaviours to target with cancer prevention strategies at a population level. Future work will explore the associations between adherence scores and cancer risk in this cohort.

  5. Body mass index, new modes of TV viewing and active video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbe, J; Willett, W C; Rosner, B; Field, A E

    2017-10-01

    Recent technologies have changed screen time. TV can be viewed anywhere, anytime. Content can be collected via digital recorders and online streaming and viewed on smartphones. Video games are no longer strictly sedentary. We sought to assess the unknown relations between new modes of TV viewing - recorded, online, downloaded and on hand-held devices - and active video games with body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional analysis of the 2011 wave of the Growing Up Today Study 2 cohort. We used gender-specific generalized estimating equations to examine screen time and BMI among 3071 women and 2050 men aged 16-24 years. Among women, each hour/day of online TV (0.47; confidence interval [CI]: 0.12, 0.82) and total non-broadcast TV (0.37; CI: 0.14, 0.61) was associated with higher BMI, as was watching ≥ 1/2 h week -1 of TV on hand-held devices (1.04; CI: 0.32-1.77). Active video games were associated with BMI among women, but not after restricting to those not trying to lose/maintain weight. Broadcast TV was associated with higher BMI (kg m -2 ) among women and men (P < 0.05). Among women, online TV, TV viewed on hand-held devices and the sum of non-broadcast TV time were associated with higher BMI. Broadcast TV was also associated with BMI in women and men. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  6. Treatment of traumatised refugees with basic body awareness therapy versus mixed physical activity as add-on treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordbrandt, Maja Sticker; Carlsson, Jessica; Lindberg, Laura Glahder

    2015-01-01

    . In clinical studies, physical activity has shown a positive effect on psychiatric illnesses such as depression and anxiety and for patients with chronic pain. However, scientific knowledge about physical activity as part of the treatment for traumatised refugees is very limited and no guidelines exist......-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. The first group only receives treatment as usual while the second and the third groups receive either Basic-Body Awareness Therapy or mixed physical activity as add-on treatments. Each physical activity is provided for an individual 1-hour consultation per week...... as well as quality of life, functional capacity, coping with pain, body awareness and physical fitness. DISCUSSION: This study will examine the effect of physical activity for traumatised refugees. This has not yet been done in a randomised controlled setting on such a large scale before. Hereby the study...

  7. Cytoarchitecture, probability maps and functions of the human frontal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, S; Eickhoff, S B; Mohlberg, H; Caspers, S; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K; Amunts, K

    2014-06-01

    The frontal pole has more expanded than any other part in the human brain as compared to our ancestors. It plays an important role for specifically human behavior and cognitive abilities, e.g. action selection (Kovach et al., 2012). Evidence about divergent functions of its medial and lateral part has been provided, both in the healthy brain and in psychiatric disorders. The anatomical correlates of such functional segregation, however, are still unknown due to a lack of stereotaxic, microstructural maps obtained in a representative sample of brains. Here we show that the human frontopolar cortex consists of two cytoarchitectonically and functionally distinct areas: lateral frontopolar area 1 (Fp1) and medial frontopolar area 2 (Fp2). Based on observer-independent mapping in serial, cell-body stained sections of 10 brains, three-dimensional, probabilistic maps of areas Fp1 and Fp2 were created. They show, for each position of the reference space, the probability with which each area was found in a particular voxel. Applying these maps as seed regions for a meta-analysis revealed that Fp1 and Fp2 differentially contribute to functional networks: Fp1 was involved in cognition, working memory and perception, whereas Fp2 was part of brain networks underlying affective processing and social cognition. The present study thus disclosed cortical correlates of a functional segregation of the human frontopolar cortex. The probabilistic maps provide a sound anatomical basis for interpreting neuroimaging data in the living human brain, and open new perspectives for analyzing structure-function relationships in the prefrontal cortex. The new data will also serve as a starting point for further comparative studies between human and non-human primate brains. This allows finding similarities and differences in the organizational principles of the frontal lobe during evolution as neurobiological basis for our behavior and cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Exploring Muscle Activation during Nordic Walking: A Comparison between Conventional and Uphill Walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pellegrini

    Full Text Available Nordic Walking (NW owes much of its popularity to the benefits of greater energy expenditure and upper body engagement than found in conventional walking (W. Muscle activation during NW is still understudied, however. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in muscle activation and physiological responses between NW and W in level and uphill walking conditions. Nine expert Nordic Walkers (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; BMI 24.2±1.8 kg/m2 performed 5-minute treadmill trials of W and NW at 4 km/h on inclines of 0% and 15%. The electromyographic activity of seven upper body and five leg muscles and oxygen consumption (VO2 were recorded and pole force during NW was measured. VO2 during NW was 22.3% higher at 0% and only 6.9% higher at 15% than during W, while upper body muscle activation was 2- to 15-fold higher under both conditions. Lower body muscle activation was similarly increased during NW and W in the uphill condition, whereas the increase in erector spinae muscle activity was lower during NW than W. The lack of a significant increase in pole force during uphill walking may explain the lower extra energy expenditure of NW, indicating less upper body muscle activation to lift the body against gravity. NW seemed to reduce lower back muscle contraction in the uphill condition, suggesting that walking with poles may reduce effort to control trunk oscillations and could contribute to work production during NW. Although the difference in extra energy expenditure between NW and W was smaller in the uphill walking condition, the increased upper body muscle involvement during exercising with NW may confer additional benefit compared to conventional walking also on uphill terrains. Furthermore, people with low back pain may gain benefit from pole use when walking uphill.

  9. Exploring Muscle Activation during Nordic Walking: A Comparison between Conventional and Uphill Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Bacchi, Elisabetta; Figard-Fabre, Hélène; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Nordic Walking (NW) owes much of its popularity to the benefits of greater energy expenditure and upper body engagement than found in conventional walking (W). Muscle activation during NW is still understudied, however. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in muscle activation and physiological responses between NW and W in level and uphill walking conditions. Nine expert Nordic Walkers (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; BMI 24.2±1.8 kg/m2) performed 5-minute treadmill trials of W and NW at 4 km/h on inclines of 0% and 15%. The electromyographic activity of seven upper body and five leg muscles and oxygen consumption (VO2) were recorded and pole force during NW was measured. VO2 during NW was 22.3% higher at 0% and only 6.9% higher at 15% than during W, while upper body muscle activation was 2- to 15-fold higher under both conditions. Lower body muscle activation was similarly increased during NW and W in the uphill condition, whereas the increase in erector spinae muscle activity was lower during NW than W. The lack of a significant increase in pole force during uphill walking may explain the lower extra energy expenditure of NW, indicating less upper body muscle activation to lift the body against gravity. NW seemed to reduce lower back muscle contraction in the uphill condition, suggesting that walking with poles may reduce effort to control trunk oscillations and could contribute to work production during NW. Although the difference in extra energy expenditure between NW and W was smaller in the uphill walking condition, the increased upper body muscle involvement during exercising with NW may confer additional benefit compared to conventional walking also on uphill terrains. Furthermore, people with low back pain may gain benefit from pole use when walking uphill.

  10. Screening of the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection from Compounds Australia identifies a new chemical entity with anthelmintic activities against different developmental stages of the barber's pole worm and other parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Preston

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and development of novel anthelmintic classes is essential to sustain the control of socioeconomically important parasitic worms of humans and animals. With the aim of offering novel, lead-like scaffolds for drug discovery, Compounds Australia released the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection containing 33,999 compounds, with extensive information available on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals. In the present study, we screened 14,464 prioritised compounds from the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection against the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s of Haemonchus contortus using recently developed whole-organism screening assays. We identified a hit compound, called SN00797439, which was shown to reproducibly reduce xL3 motility by ≥ 70%; this compound induced a characteristic, “coiled” xL3 phenotype (IC50 = 3.46–5.93 μM, inhibited motility of fourth-stage larvae (L4s; IC50 = 0.31–12.5 μM and caused considerable cuticular damage to L4s in vitro. When tested on other parasitic nematodes in vitro, SN00797439 was shown to inhibit (IC50 = 3–50 μM adults of Ancylostoma ceylanicum (hookworm and first-stage larvae of Trichuris muris (whipworm and eventually kill (>90% these stages. Furthermore, this compound completely inhibited the motility of female and male adults of Brugia malayi (50–100 μM as well as microfilariae of both B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm. Overall, these results show that SN00797439 acts against genetically (evolutionarily distant parasitic nematodes i.e. H. contortus and A. ceylanicum [strongyloids] vs. B. malayi and D. immitis [filarioids] vs. T. muris [enoplid], and, thus, might offer a novel, lead-like scaffold for the development of a relatively broad-spectrum anthelmintic. Our future work will focus on assessing the activity of SN00797439 against other pathogens that cause neglected tropical diseases, optimising analogs with improved biological activities and

  11. Body image and self-esteem among adolescents undergoing an intervention targeting dietary and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeannie S; Norman, Gregory J; Zabinski, Marion F; Calfas, Karen; Patrick, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To determine the effect of a one-year intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and diet behaviors among adolescents on self-reported body image and self-esteem. Health promotion interventions can lead to awareness of health risk and subsequent adoption of beneficial changes in behavior. However, it is possible that interventions targeting behaviors associated with childhood obesity may also increase the likelihood of unhealthy eating and physical activity obsessions and behaviors. Body image and self-esteem were assessed for adolescents participating in the PACE+ study, a randomized controlled trial of a 1-year behavioral intervention targeting physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behaviors. The Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale were used to assess body image and self-esteem, respectively, and measurements were performed at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months. Demographic characteristics and weight status of participants were also ascertained. Analysis of responses was performed via both between-group and within-group repeated measure analyses. There were 657 adolescents who completed all measurements. Body image differences were found for age, gender, and weight status at baseline, whereas self-esteem differences were demonstrated for gender, ethnicity, and weight status. There were no intervention effects on body image or self-esteem for either girls or boys. Self-esteem and body satisfaction did not worsen as a result of participating in the PACE+ intervention for either boys or girls whether or not they lost or maintained their weight or gained weight. Girls assigned to the PACE intervention who experienced weight reduction or weight maintenance at either 6 or 12 months reported improvements in body image satisfaction (p = .02) over time compared with subjects who had experienced weight gain during the 12-month study period. Adverse effects on body satisfaction and self-esteem were not

  12. On your feet: protocol for a randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of pole walking and regular walking on physical and psychosocial health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Juliette O; Brown, Wendy J; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z

    2014-04-17

    Physical activity is associated with better physical and mental health in older adults. Pole walking is a form of walking which may have additional health benefits in older adults, because of the addition of hand held poles, and consequent upper limb involvement. However, few studies have examined the potential additional effects of pole walking on physical and psychosocial health in older adults compared with walking. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of a pole walking program with the effects of a walking program, on physical and psychosocial wellbeing, in older adults in assisted living facilities. Sixty men and women from assisted living communities over 65 years will be recruited from senior retirement facilities and randomized into a group based, pole walking program, or walking program. The pole walking group will use the Exerstrider method of pole walking. Total duration of the programs is 12 weeks, with three sessions per week, building from 20 minute to 30 minute sessions.The primary outcome is physical function, as measured by items from the Seniors Fitness Test and hand grip strength. Secondary outcomes include, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, joint pain, and quality of life. All outcomes will be assessed before and after the programs, using valid and reliable measures. The study will add to the evidence base for the effects of pole walking, compared with walking, on physical and psychosocial health and physical function, in healthy older adults. This will improve understanding about the feasibility of pole walking programs and its specific benefits in this population. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001127897.

  13. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

  14. Brain activation upon ideal-body media exposure followed by peer feedback in late adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, J.; van der Meulen, Mara; Braams, Barbara; Peters, Sabine; Konijn, E.A.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    Media content matters in social contexts, especially for adolescents who socialize largely with their peers in media(ted) environments. This is well-exemplified by body image development being influenced by media's thin body-ideal and peer influences. This study investigated peer feedback and media

  15. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Ali M.; Kassem, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. → Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. → The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. → The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. → The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  16. Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2013-06-01

    Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ≤15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ≤3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (≤15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy.

  17. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Ali M., E-mail: drali_yousef@yahoo.co [Electrical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University (Egypt); Kassem, Ahmed M., E-mail: kassem_ahmed53@hotmail.co [Control Technology Dep., Industrial Education College, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. {yields} Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. {yields} The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. {yields} The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. {yields} The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  18. Physical activity advertisements that feature daily well-being improve autonomy and body image in overweight women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Michelle L; Updegraff, John A; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Richardson, Caroline R

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40-60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.

  19. Associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity, and body weight among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the associations among self-perceived work and life stress, trouble sleeping, physical activity and body weight among Canadian adults, and tested whether trouble sleeping and physical activity moderated the relationship between work/life stress and body weight, and whether work/life stress and physical activity moderated the relationship between trouble sleeping and body weight. Data on 13,926 Canadian adults aged 20years and older were derived from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, household income, marital status and job insecurity, self-perceived work and life stress and trouble sleeping were associated with a higher BMI. The associations of work and life stress with higher BMI were independent of trouble sleeping and physical activity in addition to other covariates, while that of trouble sleeping and higher BMI was independent of work and life stress. Results further indicated that trouble sleeping among inactive participants was related to a higher BMI; however, this relationship was almost null for adults who self-reported being physically active for about 8h/week. These findings suggest that work and life stress are both associated with excess weight in adults, regardless of physical activity level, while the link of trouble sleeping with BMI varies by physical activity level. Future research is necessary to determine whether reducing work and life stress and improving sleep habits would benefit the prevention of weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fruit-body production and 137Cs-activity of Cantharellus cibarius after nitrogen and potassium fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    1994-01-01

    A study of the possible effect of fertilization with nitrogen and potassium on fruit-body production and 137 Cs-activity concentration of Cantharellus cibarius was carried out in a pine forest in the eastern part of central Sweden. Nitrogen, in the form of ammonium nitrate, was added twice, in 1984 and 1990, at a dose of 150 kg N ha -1 . Fruit-body production was measured during 1985-1991, and the 137 Cs-activity concentration during 1988-1991. Fruit-body production showed a pronounced variation between years. The ratio between the highest annual production and the lowest was about 20. No statistically significant effects of either the fertilization treatments on production were observed. However, nitrogen fertilization showed a tendency towards a decrease in production by about 30%. The field site is situated in an area substantially affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The fruit-bodies on the site had a clearly elevated activity concentration of 137 Cs, which averaged 15 Bq q -1 d.m. for all plots and years. On the 4.5 ha study site, the 137 Cs-activity concentration varied by a factor of 10 between individual plots. The year with the highest fruit-body production had the lowest 137 Cs-activity concentration. The fertilizations lacked statistically significant effect in 137 Cs-activity concentration, but a 50% reduction was indicated for potassium fertilization causing the concentration to fall below the Swedish health limit for human food. 31 refs, 3 figs