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  1. Endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach to the temporal pole and adjacent area: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Fuminari; Imai, Masaaki; Shigematsu, Hideaki; Aoki, Rie; Oda, Shinri; Shimoda, Masami; Matsumae, Mitsunori

    2017-08-25

    The authors' initial experience with the endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach to the temporal pole and adjacent area is reported. Fully endoscopic surgery using the extradural space via a supraorbital keyhole was performed for tumors in or around the temporal pole, including temporal pole cavernous angioma, sphenoid ridge meningioma, and cavernous sinus pituitary adenoma, mainly using 4-mm, 0° and 30° endoscopes and single-shaft instruments. After making a supraorbital keyhole, a 4-mm, 30° endoscope was advanced into the extradural space of the anterior cranial fossa during lifting of the dura mater. Following identification of the sphenoid ridge, orbital roof, and anterior clinoid process, the bone lateral to the orbital roof was drilled off until the dura mater of the anterior aspect of the temporal lobe was exposed. The dura mater of the temporal lobe was incised and opened, exposing the temporal pole under a 4-mm, 0° endoscope. Tumors in or around the temporal pole were safely removed under a superb view through the extradural corridor. The endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach was technically feasible and safe. The anterior trajectory to the temporal pole using the extradural space under endoscopy provided excellent visibility, allowing minimally invasive surgery. Further surgical experience and development of specialized instruments would promote this approach as an alternative surgical option.

  2. 75 FR 65650 - Notice of Closure to Motorized Vehicle Travel on Public Lands in the Big Pole Fire Area in Tooele...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Land Management (BLM), within the Big Pole Fire area in Tooele County, Utah. DATES: This temporary... of Closure to Motorized Vehicle Travel on Public Lands in the Big Pole Fire Area in Tooele County, UT... 65651

  3. Person perception involves functional integration between the extrastriate body area and temporal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Inez M; Ramsey, Richard

    2017-02-01

    The majority of human neuroscience research has focussed on understanding functional organisation within segregated patches of cortex. The ventral visual stream has been associated with the detection of physical features such as faces and body parts, whereas the theory-of-mind network has been associated with making inferences about mental states and underlying character, such as whether someone is friendly, selfish, or generous. To date, however, it is largely unknown how such distinct processing components integrate neural signals. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and connectivity analyses, we investigated the contribution of functional integration to social perception. During scanning, participants observed bodies that had previously been associated with trait-based or neutral information. Additionally, we independently localised the body perception and theory-of-mind networks. We demonstrate that when observing someone who cues the recall of stored social knowledge compared to non-social knowledge, a node in the ventral visual stream (extrastriate body area) shows greater coupling with part of the theory-of-mind network (temporal pole). These results show that functional connections provide an interface between perceptual and inferential processing components, thus providing neurobiological evidence that supports the view that understanding the visual environment involves interplay between conceptual knowledge and perceptual processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  5. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  6. O deslocamento da população brasileira para as metrópoles The displacement of the Brazilian population to the metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Brito

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O OBJETIVO deste artigo é analisar a urbanização no Brasil, na segunda metade do século XX, lembrando que somente o Censo de 1970 registrou uma população urbana que superou a rural. Essa recente e acelerada urbanização, em razão da intensa migração interna, fez coincidir a concentração da população urbana nas grandes cidades, assim como nas principais metrópoles brasileiras. Essas últimas, nas duas últimas décadas, têm reduzido as suas taxas de crescimento populacional, não só em razão do declínio generalizado das taxas de fecundidade, mas, principalmente, como conseqüência da redução do número dos seus imigrantes. O saldo migratório negativo do aglomerado metropolitano de São Paulo, entre 1995-2000, é um expressivo exemplo. Contudo, apesar de o país ter se distanciado de uma hipermetroplização, vale a pena sublinhar que, em 2000, mais de 40% da população urbana brasileira ainda residia nessas metrópoles.THE AIM of this article is the analysis of the Brazilian urbanization process during the second half of the 20th century. For this purpose it is important to take note that the 1970 Demographic Census indicated that the urban population had surpassed the rural population for the first time. The rapid contemporary urbanization due to intense internal migration concentrated the urban population in the larger Brazilian cities and metropolitan areas. During the last two decades, however, the growth rates of the larger cities has declined due to lower fertility rates and, more importantly, decreasing number of immigrants. Indeed, the metropolitan area of São Paulo, for example, presented negative net migration for the 1995-2000 period. Although internal migration trends do not point to a process of "hipermetropolitanization", it must be taken into account that as of 2000 40% of the country’s urban population still inhabited the larger metropolitan areas.

  7. Soils of northern spurs of the Cherskii Ridge in the area of the northern pole of cold: Morphology, properties, and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoneshnikova, M. V.; Desyatkin, R. V.

    2017-08-01

    The soils in the area of the northern pole of cold located on the interfluve between the Yana and Adycha rivers within the spurs of Kisilyakh Ridge included in the mountain system of Cherskii Ridge have been studied for the first time. The profile-genetic approach has been applied to describe the soils and determine their classification position. It is found that the major soil types in this region are the soils of the postlithogenic trunk belonging to the orders of lithozems (Cryic Leptosols), gley soils (Gleyic Skeletic Cryosols), and Al-Fe-humus soils (Spodic Skeletic Cryosols). The ecological ranges of altitudinal zones— the taiga zone with various types of lithozems below 630-700 m a.s.l. and the tundra zone with combinations of gley and nongley cryogenic soils above these heights—have been established. The development of gley or nongley soils is specified by the local orogenic and lithological conditions and slope aspect, which, in turn, control the degree of drainage and the presence and character of permafrost. In the profile of mountainous gley soils (gleyzems) with shallow ice-rich permafrost, cryogenic processes and features typical of the analogues of these soils on plains—cryogenic cracking, cryoturbation, solifluction, thixotropy, oxiaquic features above permafrost, saturation of the soil profile with mobile humus, etc.—are typical.

  8. Clouds Over the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 29 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. Like yesterday's image, the linear 'ripples' are water-ice clouds. As spring is deepening at the North Pole these clouds are becoming more prevalent. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.9, Longitude 135.5 East (224.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  9. A Comparative Analysis of the New Five-Pole and Three-Pole Active Magnet Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Vakili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more attention has been given to the active AMBs thanks to their low maintenance cost, suitability for clean environments, and high speed. One of the popular types of AMBs is the three-pole type with integrated and separate cores. Some deficiencies of this type of bearing are its high oscillation, low stability and low efficiency. This paper seeks to analyse the three-pole AMBs and describe their deficiencies and introduce and analyse a new five-pole AMB. The model thus proposed has lower oscillation as well as more stability and efficiency. The five-pole AMB has been simulated by a controller in the presence of disturbance. The results of simulation demonstrate lower vibration and oscillation in the five-pole AMB in comparison with the three-pole model.

  10. Bridging the Poles: Education Linked with Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S.; Bell, R. E.; Turrin, M.; Maru, P.

    2004-12-01

    An international group of 65 scientists, educators and media specialists gathered at the "Bridging the Poles" workshop in Washington, DC on June 23-25, to define strategies that will inspire the general public and engage the next generation of polar scientists, engineers and leaders. This NSF-sponsored workshop was the first effort to develop an integrated education and outreach program for the International Polar Year of 2007-2009. Through a series of plenary talks and roundtable discussions, workshop participants focused on: engaging diverse communities, opportunities and needs for different levels, possibilities for thematic areas, and programs to feature nationally and internationally over the next 5 years. To maximize the potential of the International Polar Year, we need to coordinate research, education and outreach efforts, at the international as well as national level, with the goal of building an integrated and exciting public presence during 2007-2009. Successful education and outreach programming requires leveraging existing resources, creating new programs, connecting communities, and developing partnerships between agencies, scientists, educators, and the public. We need to consider the rich heritage of indigenous Arctic peoples, build capacity within communities through targeted efforts, and focus on making the poles relevant to diverse communities by using interdisciplinary approaches, e.g. cultural as well as scientific. A series of education and outreach packages for large-scale science endeavors should be rolled out to the public as major media events. The media -- television, radio and print -- as well as educators, zoos and museums are eager to use timely, accessible, and meaningful content. An Interagency Working Group on IPY Education and Outreach, with a staff and a central office, must be created to coordinate and leverage programs. A sophisticated web portal should be developed to serve content and contacts for researchers, educators, the

  11. The potential of wood-based composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Cheng Piao; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Wood-based composite utility poles are receiving increasing attention in the North American pole market. This interest is being driven by many increasing factors such as increasing: (1) disposal costs of solid wood poles, (2) liability and environmental concerns with traditional means of disposal of solid wood poles, (3) cost and concerns of long-term...

  12. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, Alberto; Adumitroaie, V.

    2017-01-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars,...

  13. Fundamental pole parameters of the N(1470)

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, P S

    1973-01-01

    The position and residue of the S-matrix pole of the Delta (1236) have been shown to be unique and independent of the particular resonance formula used, thus resolving a discrepancy among phenomenological fits. Unlike the P/sub 33/ partial wave, the P/sub 11/ resonance is highly inelastic, very broad, and has a large background. This produces huge uncertainties in its mass and width, depending on the parametrization used. It is reported that the position of the N(1470) pole is uniquely determined, 1380-110i MeV, from fits to the CERN phase shifts. (10 refs).

  14. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. The Gattini South Pole UV experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Anna M.; Ahmed, Sara; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Croner, Ernest; Delacroix, Alex; Ebihara, Yusuke; Fucik, Jason; Martin, D. Christopher; Velur, Viswa; Weatherwax, Allan

    2012-09-01

    The Gattini South Pole UV experiment (Gattini SPUV) was deployed to the South Pole dark sector in February 2010 and has recently completed a highly successful first season of winter time observations. The experiment has, for the first time ever, measured and categorized the optical night sky brightness at the very blue wavelengths. The experiment consists of a remotely operated 6” aperture custom designed telescope. The telescope feeds a blue sensitive imager with 4 degree field of view that contains a bank of 3 filters: SDSS g’, Bessel U and a custom “super U” filter specifically designed to probe the sky emission at wavelengths approaching the atmospheric cut-off. The filters are continually cycled with exposure times ranging from 30 to 300 seconds throughout the winter period. The telescope, in addition, feeds a 2 degree long slit VPH grating spectrograph with R~1000. The bandwidth is 350-450nm. The spectra are recorded simultaneously with the imager exposures. The experiment is designed for low temperature Antarctic operation and resides on the roof of the MAPO building in the South Pole Antarctic sector. The primary science goals are to categorize the Antarctic winter-time sky background at the very bluest of wavelengths as a pathfinder for the Antarctic Cosmic Web Imager. We present a technical overview of the experiment and results from the first winter season.

  16. The octupoles take pole position

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first preseries octupole magnet was delivered to CERN in December 2001. Hooked up to a main quadrupole magnet, its function will be to correct imperfections in the beams. The LHC will be fitted with about 5000 corrector magnets, whose task it will be to provide maximum precision in beam collisions.

  17. Carbon isotopes and petrography of kerogens in ˜3.5-Ga hydrothermal silica dikes in the North Pole area, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Maruyama, Shigenori; Isozaki, Yukio

    2004-02-01

    More than 600 specimens of ˜3.5 Ga-old hydrothermal silica dikes from the North Pole area, Pilbara craton, Western Australia, have been studied petrographically. The kerogens in 44 samples have been analyzed isotopically (C and N) and chemically (C, N, and H). The silica dikes are composed mainly of fine-grained silica (modal abundance: >97%) and are classified into two types by minor mineral assemblages: B(black)-type and G(gray)-type. The B-type silica dikes contain kerogen (0.37 to 6.72 mgC/g; average 2.44 mgC/g, n = 21) and disseminated sulfides, dominantly pyrite and Fe-poor sphalerite. In some cases, carbonate and apatite are also present. Their silica-dominated and sulfide-poor mineral assemblages suggest precipitation from low-temperature reducing hydrothermal fluid (likely 100-200°C). On the other hand, the G-type silica dikes are sulfide-free and concentrations of kerogen are relatively low (0.05 to 0.41 mgC/g; average 0.17 mgC/g, n = 13). They typically contain Fe-oxide (mainly hematite) which commonly replaces cubic pyrite and rhombic carbonate. Some G-types occur along secondary quartz veins. These textures indicate that the G-type silica dikes were formed by postdepositional metasomatism (oxidation) of the B-types, and that the B-types probably possess premetasomatic signatures. The δ 13C values of kerogen in the B-types are -38.1 to -33.1‰ (average -35.9‰, n = 21), which are ˜4‰ lower than those of the G-types (-34.5 to -30.0‰; average -32.2‰, n = 19), and ˜6‰ lower than bedded chert (-31.2 to -29.4‰; average -30.5‰, n = 4). This indicates the preferential loss of 12C during the metasomatism (estimated fractionation factor: 0.9985). Considering the metasomatic effect on carbon isotopes with probably minor diagenetic and metamorphic overprints, we conclude that the original δ 13C values of the kerogen in the silica dikes would have been heterogeneous (˜5‰) and at least some material had initial δ 13C values of ≤ -38‰. The

  18. North pole, South pole the quest to understand Earth's magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Going all the way back to the Roman legend of a shepherd whose iron-studded boots stuck to the rocks, this book charts the history of the earth's magnetism, which intrigued and stumped scientists and ordinary people for centuries. Absorbing and accessible, it is a lively study of what exactly magnetic force is, what causes it, and what its place has been throughout scientific history, offering detailed insights into the inner workings of the planet and its magnetic shield.

  19. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRASOV GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida CATANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The demographic dynamics analysed in the context of the relationship between economic development and social inclusion presents an image of the sustainable development of a community as well as the manner how the financial resources have been used. With an allocation of 74.3 million euro in the programming period 2007-2013, the Brasov Growth Pole has pursued the contribution to the achievement of sustainable development since 2005 by the participation in the Agenda 21. The implementation of projects with European financing in areas such as transport, social and educational infrastructure or tourism have generated changes/demographic movements, which this paper proposes to present. The evolution of the stable population, its dynamics at the level of each locality that is part of the Brasov growth pole as well as the dynamics of the number of employees or the development of the unemployment rate are presented by the cluster analysis. The effects of the European financing obtained from Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 are thus reflected in the sustainable development of the Brasov growth pole from the point of view of the dynamics of the population

  20. Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed

  1. Determination of the crystallite orientation distribution from direct pole figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Gomes, P.A.M. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate the crystallite orientation distribution in polycrystalline material, from direct pole figures data of its crystallographic planes (Roe's Method). The programme was applied to (1010), (0002), (1011) and (1120) complete pole figures data for a commercial, thin sheet Zircaloy-4 tubing specimen. A semi-automatic Rigaku-Denki texture goniometer, which scans the reciprocal lattice sphere pointwise outputting the data in a punched tape, was used to obtain the pole figures. This is consistent with the results obtained through direct conclusion from the pole figures. (author)

  2. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, A.; Adumitroaie, V.; Allison, M.; Anderson, J.; Atreya, S.; Bloxham, J.; Brown, S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; DeJong, E.; Folkner, W.; Gautier, D.; Grassi, D.; Gulkis, S.; Guillot, T.; Hansen, C.; Hubbard, W. B.; Iess, L.; Ingersoll, A.; Janssen, M.; Jorgensen, J.; Kaspi, Y.; Levin, S. M.; Li, C.; Lunine, J.; Miguel, Y.; Mura, A.; Orton, G.; Owen, T.; Ravine, M.; Smith, E.; Steffes, P.; Stone, E.; Stevenson, D.; Thorne, R.; Waite, J.; Durante, D.; Ebert, R. W.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hue, V.; Parisi, M.; Szalay, J. R.; Wilson, R.

    2017-05-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars, dominated by an ammonia-rich, narrow low-latitude plume resembling a deeper, wider version of Earth's Hadley cell. Near-infrared mapping reveals the relative humidity within prominent downwelling regions. Juno's measured gravity field differs substantially from the last available estimate and is one order of magnitude more precise. This has implications for the distribution of heavy elements in the interior, including the existence and mass of Jupiter's core. The observed magnetic field exhibits smaller spatial variations than expected, indicative of a rich harmonic content.

  3. The North Celestial Pole Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R. M.; Castelaz, M.; Phillips, J.

    2005-05-01

    In the past ten years a renaissance has occurred in the study of transient phenomena using small, dedicated optical telescopes. This has largely been driven by the successful detection of planetary transits with small telescopes (Henry et al. 2000) and the successful recovery of optical afterglows of gamma ray bursts (e.g. Halpern et al. 1997). The telescopes involved are designed to slew at rapid rates accurately across the sky when a burst alert occurs, or to study a single patch of sky to detect transits. We have constructed a dedicated robotic instrument to monitor the region within 4 degrees of the north celestial pole continuously every clear night. Using a sequence of short and long exposures the telescope collects data to conduct searches for transient and variable objects and monitor the Cepheid variable Polaris. Previous authors (Kamper et al. 1984; Evans et al. 1998) have observed Polaris to nearly cease its pulsation, a unique behavior for a Cepheid variable. Monitoring Polaris with high secular coverage should help explain this behavior. We describe here the design of the observatory, its operation and control systems and give preliminary examples of the data products from this unique project.

  4. Study on Pole Arrangement of the CEDM Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Myoung Goo; Kim, Hyun Min; Cho, Yeon Ho; Choi, Taek Sang

    2013-01-01

    The coil stack assembly is important for reliable operation of the CEDM, there have been efforts to improve the design by optimizing the design parameters such as dimensions and winding turns. However, magnetic forces of the CEDM can also change by different pole arrangement even if their design parameters are the same. Since the latch coil and lift coil are installed connected to each other, they produce magnetically coupled field when they are energized at the same time. This coupling field can affect the magnetic force of the CEDM significantly. In this paper, coil pole arrangement effects are studied. Electro-magnetic analysis is performed for the different pole arrangements of the CEDM coils to calculate the magnetic forces. Pole arrangement effects on magnetic forces were studied by static analysis of the CEDM magnetic field. Magnetic forces were calculated and compared for the two different pole arrangements of the coils. The results show that the magnetic poles of the lift coil and latch coil shall be arranged to have the same magnetic pole direction to achieve higher magnetic force

  5. Pole preservatives in soils adjacent to in-service utility poles in the United States. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.B.; Ripp, J.A.; Ladwig, K.

    1997-12-01

    As a result of increasing concerns regarding the environmental fate of wood preservatives, EPRI carried out a study of soils in the vicinity of in-service wood pole sites. More than 8,000 soil samples adjacent to 180 PCP-treated and 22 creosote-treated wood poles were collected and analyzed for chemicals of interest. The results showed that concentrations of wood preservative chemicals tended to be highest in soils located in very close proximity to the poles with rapid decreases in concentrations observed with distance from the poles. Soil partitioning, biodegradation, and modeling studies on PCP were also completed to augment the soil data and to provide additional information on the release, migration, and fate of wood preservatives at in-service pole sites

  6. International Youth Conference on the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. K.; Kuhn, T. S.; Baeseman, J.; Garmulewicz, A.; Raymond, M.; Salmon, R.

    2006-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) is an international effort, involving more than 50 countries, to focus research in both the sciences and social sciences on the world's Polar Regions. In order to secure youth involvement in the IPY, the Youth Steering Committee (YSC) has been formed, aiming specifically to network young polar researchers from all backgrounds enabling collaboration and to involve this group in outreach focused towards other young people. A conference targeted directly at an audience of early career researchers and international youth will be central to fulfilling these aims. The YSC has therefore developed the concept of the International Youth Conference on the Poles (IYCP). Proposed for 2008, this conference will bring together youth from a diverse set of backgrounds and nationalities to discuss the issues affecting the Polar Regions, their effects on a global scale and ways of addressing these issues. The conference will also serve to highlight ongoing IPY research, especially research being undertaken by young researchers, and provide a perennial framework for youth involvement in polar research and policies. The IYCP will run for three days in May 2008, attracting an international youth audience, as well as representatives from polar organizations, teachers, politicians, policy makers, the general public and media. The IYCP will be divided into three sections. Youth Roundtable Discussions will bring youth together to discuss issues affecting the Polar Regions and potential solutions to these. A Young Researchers Conference will provide the opportunity for young researchers working in the Polar Regions to present their work to an interdisciplinary audience. The Polar Fair will provide an interactive environment for youth to learn about the Polar Regions. The IYCP will be of great importance to the IPY because it will serve as the principle venue during the Polar Year where youth from many different disciplines, backgrounds and countries will

  7. Micrometeorites from the South Pole Water Well, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micrometeorites dated between 1100 A.D. to 1500 A.D. were collected from the bottom of the South Pole Water Well in December 1995. Element analyses of 181 cosmic...

  8. PopZ identifies the new pole, and PodJ identifies the old pole during polar growth in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeon, Romain; Zupan, John R; Anderson-Furgeson, James; Zambryski, Patricia C

    2015-09-15

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens elongates by addition of peptidoglycan (PG) only at the pole created by cell division, the growth pole, whereas the opposite pole, the old pole, is inactive for PG synthesis. How Agrobacterium assigns and maintains pole asymmetry is not understood. Here, we investigated whether polar growth is correlated with novel pole-specific localization of proteins implicated in a variety of growth and cell division pathways. The cell cycle of A. tumefaciens was monitored by time-lapse and superresolution microscopy to image the localization of A. tumefaciens homologs of proteins involved in cell division, PG synthesis and pole identity. FtsZ and FtsA accumulate at the growth pole during elongation, and improved imaging reveals FtsZ disappears from the growth pole and accumulates at the midcell before FtsA. The L,D-transpeptidase Atu0845 was detected mainly at the growth pole. A. tumefaciens specific pole-organizing protein (Pop) PopZAt and polar organelle development (Pod) protein PodJAt exhibited dynamic yet distinct behavior. PopZAt was found exclusively at the growing pole and quickly switches to the new growth poles of both siblings immediately after septation. PodJAt is initially at the old pole but then also accumulates at the growth pole as the cell cycle progresses suggesting that PodJAt may mediate the transition of the growth pole to an old pole. Thus, PopZAt is a marker for growth pole identity, whereas PodJAt identifies the old pole.

  9. Multijet final states: exact results and the leading pole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.; Owens, J.F.

    1984-09-01

    Exact results for the process gg → ggg are compared with those obtained using the leading pole approximation. Regions of phase space where the approximation breaks down are discussed. A specific example relevant for background estimates to W boson production is presented. It is concluded that in this instance the leading pole approximation may underestimate the standard QCD background by more than a factor of two in certain kinematic regions of physical interest

  10. Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2013-06-01

    Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ≤15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ≤3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (≤15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy.

  11. Poles in the Dutch Cape Colony 1652-1814

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Mariusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Poles to the colonisation and development of the Dutch Cape Colony is not commonly known. Yet, Poles have been appearing in this colony since its very inception (1652. During the entire period considered here the presence of Poles was the result of the strong economic ties between Poland and the Netherlands. At the end of this period there was an increase in their share, in connection with the presence of numerous alien military units on the territory of the Colony, because of Poles having served in these units. Numerous newcomers from Poland settled in South Africa for good, established families, and their progeny made up part of the local society. The evidence of this phenomenon is provided by the present-day Afrikaner families of, for instance, Drotsky, Kitshoff, Kolesky, Latsky, Masuriek, Troskie, Zowitsky, and others. A quite superficial estimation implies that the settlers coming from Poland could make up a bit over 1% of the ancestors of the present-day Afrikaners. Poles would also participate in the pioneering undertakings within the far-off fringes of the Colony, including the robbery-and-trade expedition of 1702.

  12. The south pole region of the moon as seen by Clementine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Eliason, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Clementine mission has provided the first comprehensive set of high-resolution images of the south pole region of the moon. Within 5?? of latitude of the pole, an area of an estimated 30,000 square kilometers remained in shadow during a full lunar rotation and is a promising target for future exploration for ice deposits. The Schrodinger Basin (320 kilometers in diameter), centered at 75??S, is one of the two youngest, least modified, great multiring impact basins on the moon. A large maar-type volcano localized along a graben within the Schrodinger Basin probably erupted between 1 and 2 billion years ago.

  13. Traumatic amputation of the left lower renal pole in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waxman, J.; Belman, A.B.; Kass, E.J.

    1985-07-01

    Four children between 5 and 10 years old suffered traumatic amputation of the left lower renal pole following flank trauma. All patients were evaluated with excretory urography and isotope renography. The renal scan clearly demonstrated failure of perfusion of the lower renal pole and urinary extravasation, and was believed to be more valuable than the standard excretory urogram as a diagnostic tool. All children were managed similarly: delayed (72 to 96 hours) exploration, simple removal of the amputated segment and insertion of a Penrose drain. They all have done well. The patients were normotensive at followup and had excellent function of the remaining portion of the kidney.

  14. Challenges of Rover Navigation at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara; Deans, Matt; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Edwards, Larry; Dille, Michael; Fong, Terry; Colaprete, Tony; Miller, Scott; Vaughan, Ryan; Andrews, Dan; hide

    2015-01-01

    Observations from Lunar Prospector, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and other missions have contributed evidence that water and other volatiles exist at the lunar poles in permanently shadowed regions. Combining a surface rover and a volatile prospecting and analysis payload would enable the detection and characterization of volatiles in terms of nature, abundance, and distribution. This knowledge could have impact on planetary science, in-situ resource utilization, and human exploration of space. While Lunar equatorial regions of the Moon have been explored by manned (Apollo) and robotic missions (Lunokhod, Cheng'e), no surface mission has reached the lunar poles.

  15. CURRENT STATUS OF THE POLE-AND-LINE FISHERY IN EASTERN PART OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Anung Widodo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of pole-and-line fishery for a selective gear operating in the Indonesian tuna management area is considered as the proper policy in response to the increasing market demand with tuna eco-labeled. Appropriate information in addressing the current status of the pole-and-line fishery in Indonesia is an important step in order to support the promotion. Data used to describe the fishery were obtained through scientific port sampling program in collaboration between RCFMC and WCPFC in 2010 to 2014 and also scientific observer onboard program collaboration RCFMC and CRAC Co. Ltd. in 2013. The results show that presently the number of pole and line fleets was decreased significantly and remain about 232 fleetsin Sorong, Bitung and Kendari and Larantuka. The national annual total catch of pole-and line during 1980 – 2013 was recorded between 24,000 and 160,000 tons per year (average 98,117 tons per year. This value is estimated to contribute about 20% of Indonesia annual total catch of tuna in FMAs713-717. The pole-andline catch rates based at Bitung, Kendari and Sorong were fluctuated in each year with the range respective between 8.79 and 17.93 tons/trip/vessel, 4.78 and 5.36 ton/trip/vessel and about 7,99 ton ton/trip/vessel. Pole-and-line fishery operated in Indonesian FMAs 713-717 is considered as selective fishery, with > 80 % catches of skipjack in matured stage. The tuna-live bait fish ratio in Indonesian pole-and-line was 4.41 :1, then an improvement of live bait ratio as well as its management is required.

  16. Cytoarchitecture, probability maps and functions of the human frontal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, S; Eickhoff, S B; Mohlberg, H; Caspers, S; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K; Amunts, K

    2014-06-01

    The frontal pole has more expanded than any other part in the human brain as compared to our ancestors. It plays an important role for specifically human behavior and cognitive abilities, e.g. action selection (Kovach et al., 2012). Evidence about divergent functions of its medial and lateral part has been provided, both in the healthy brain and in psychiatric disorders. The anatomical correlates of such functional segregation, however, are still unknown due to a lack of stereotaxic, microstructural maps obtained in a representative sample of brains. Here we show that the human frontopolar cortex consists of two cytoarchitectonically and functionally distinct areas: lateral frontopolar area 1 (Fp1) and medial frontopolar area 2 (Fp2). Based on observer-independent mapping in serial, cell-body stained sections of 10 brains, three-dimensional, probabilistic maps of areas Fp1 and Fp2 were created. They show, for each position of the reference space, the probability with which each area was found in a particular voxel. Applying these maps as seed regions for a meta-analysis revealed that Fp1 and Fp2 differentially contribute to functional networks: Fp1 was involved in cognition, working memory and perception, whereas Fp2 was part of brain networks underlying affective processing and social cognition. The present study thus disclosed cortical correlates of a functional segregation of the human frontopolar cortex. The probabilistic maps provide a sound anatomical basis for interpreting neuroimaging data in the living human brain, and open new perspectives for analyzing structure-function relationships in the prefrontal cortex. The new data will also serve as a starting point for further comparative studies between human and non-human primate brains. This allows finding similarities and differences in the organizational principles of the frontal lobe during evolution as neurobiological basis for our behavior and cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhen; Ruiz, H.S.; Coombs, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  18. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhen, E-mail: zhen.huang@sjtu.edu.cn [Academy of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ruiz, H.S., E-mail: dr.harold.ruiz@le.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Coombs, T.A., E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Different compositions of the magnetic poles have been obtained depending on the relative orientation of the magnetizing coil and the surfaces of the columns of bulks that conform a magnetic pole. • Two bidimensional models accounting for the electromagnetic response of the top and lateral cross sections of three columns of HTS bulks subjected to multiple pulsed magnetic fields have been created. • An extended PFM strategy has been proposed by considering the magnetization of at least three successive columns of HTS bulks per pole. In the extended PFM strategy the area of each one of the poles can be seen increased by a factor of 200%-400% - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied

  19. Is it possible to reduce the knee joint compression force during level walking with hiking poles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S B; Henriksen, M; Aaboe, J

    2010-01-01

    Walking with hiking poles has become a popular way of exercising. Walking with poles is advocated as a physical activity that significantly reduces the loading of the hip, knee and ankle joints. We have previously observed that pole walking does not lead to a reduction of the load on the knee joint....... However, it is unclear whether an increased force transmitted through the poles can reduce the load on the knee joint. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if an increased load transmitted through the arms to the poles could reduce the knee joint compression force during level walking...... with poles. We hypothesized that an increased pole force would result in a reduction of the knee joint compression force. Gait analyses from 10 healthy subjects walking with poles were obtained. The pole force was measured simultaneously during the gait analyses. The knee joint compression forces were...

  20. Carrier Phase GPS Navigation to the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T.; Roberts, G. W.

    Over the last few years, on-the-fly integer ambiguity resolution for GPS has proven to be successful over short baselines (500 km. New techniques have been developed at the University of Nottingham to allow very long baseline integer ambiguity resolution, on-the-fly. A major problem with the use of carrier phase data is that posed by cycle slips. A technique for detecting and correcting cycle slips has been developed, and its use is discussed in this paper. The new technique has been proven through a series of trials, one of which included two flights to the North Pole, performing centimetric level positioning all the way to the pole. For many years, the GD Aero-Systems Course of the Air Warfare Centre based at RAF Cranwell executed a series of equipment flight trials to the North Pole, called the ARIES Flights. In May 1996, the authors were fortunate to take part in both flights, via Iceland and Greenland, to the North Pole. Based on reference stations at Thule Air Base, integer ambiguity resolution was accomplished, on-the-fly, and centimetric level navigation maintained throughout the flights. Earlier trials detailed in the paper demonstrate that the technique can resolve integer ambiguities on-the-fly within a few seconds over a baseline length of approximately 134 km, resulting in an accuracy of 12 cm. The majority of the residual error source for this being the ionosphere.

  1. An estimate on the purely imaginary poles of scattering matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhkov, Y.D.

    1988-12-01

    In this work we obtain two estimates (upper and lower) on the number of purely imaginary poles of the scattering matrix for the wave equation in the exterior of a compact smooth obstacle in R n , n ≥ 3 odd. The method of Lax and Phillips is used. (author). 5 refs

  2. Probability models of the x, y pole coordinates data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A.; Niedzielski, T.; Kosek, W.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most appropriate probabilistic model for the x, y pole coordinates time series. We have analyzed the IERS eopc04_05 data set covering the period 1962 - 2008. We have also considered the residual x, y pole coordinate time series, which is computed as the difference between the original data and the corresponding least-squares model of the Chandler circle and annual ellipse. Using the measures of skewness and kurtosis of the empirical distribution of the data, we find that the x, y pole coordinates and the corresponding residuals time series cannot be modeled by a normal (Gaussian) distribution. A normal distribution has zero skewness and a kurtosis value of 3. We have fitted several non- Gaussian distributions to the datasets. They include the Generalized Extreme Value distribution, 4-parameter Beta distribution, Johnson SB and SU distributions, Generalized Pareto distribution and Wakeby distribution. Suitability of these distributions as probabilistic models for the x, y pole coordinates and the corresponding residuals time series are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of magnetic field distribution of superconducting bulk magnets with the same pole arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, K.; Oka, T.; Noto, K.

    2008-01-01

    We study on the construction of superconducting permanent magnets by RE123 bulk materials and the investigation of these industrial applications such as a magnetic separation. The bulk magnets can generate strong magnetic field in comparison with common permanent magnets and iron-cored electromagnets. In order to propagate an industrial application of bulk magnet in the feature, it is necessary to form various shape of magnetic field, as well as its strength is enlarged. In this paper, the strong magnetic field in the radial direction has been constructed by a pair of bulk magnets. Two Gd123 bulk materials are magnetized by the IMRA method and these are arranged face-to-face with the same pole facing each other. When the radial component of magnetic fields, B x , is measured in the open space between the magnetic poles with a gap of 50 mm, the area of |B x | > 0.5 T increases to 148% compared with the single pole

  4. From 'third pole' to north pole: a Himalayan origin for the arctic fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Li, Qiang; Takeuchi, Gary T; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-07-22

    The 'third pole' of the world is a fitting metaphor for the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau, in allusion to its vast frozen terrain, rivalling the Arctic and Antarctic, at high altitude but low latitude. Living Tibetan and arctic mammals share adaptations to freezing temperatures such as long and thick winter fur in arctic muskox and Tibetan yak, and for carnivorans, a more predatory niche. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first evolutionary link between an Early Pliocene (3.60-5.08 Myr ago) fox, Vulpes qiuzhudingi new species, from the Himalaya (Zanda Basin) and Kunlun Mountain (Kunlun Pass Basin) and the modern arctic fox Vulpes lagopus in the polar region. A highly hypercarnivorous dentition of the new fox bears a striking resemblance to that of V. lagopus and substantially predates the previous oldest records of the arctic fox by 3-4 Myr. The low latitude, high-altitude Tibetan Plateau is separated from the nearest modern arctic fox geographical range by at least 2000 km. The apparent connection between an ancestral high-elevation species and its modern polar descendant is consistent with our 'Out-of-Tibet' hypothesis postulating that high-altitude Tibet was a training ground for cold-environment adaptations well before the start of the Ice Age. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Marquard, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2016-05-15

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  6. Analytical signal and reduction to pole in the interpretation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytical signal and reduction to pole in the interpretation of aeromagnetic data at low magnetic latitudes: a case study of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria. OK Likkason. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Geological Sciences Vol. 4(1) 2006: 29-38. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  7. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Ruiz, H. S.; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-03-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied under the same experimental conditions, what results in about three times larger magnetic pole areas but with an average drop on the peaks of trapped magnetic field of about 50%.

  8. Bycatch in the Maldivian pole-and-line tuna fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelsey I; Nadheeh, Ibrahim; Jauharee, A Riyaz; Anderson, R Charles; Adam, M Shiham

    2017-01-01

    Tropical tuna fisheries are among the largest worldwide, with some having significant bycatch issues. However, pole-and-line tuna fisheries are widely believed to have low bycatch rates, although these have rarely been quantified. The Maldives has an important pole-and-line fishery, targeting skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). In the Maldives, 106 pole-and-line tuna fishing days were observed between August 2014 and November 2015. During 161 fishing events, tuna catches amounted to 147 t: 72% by weight was skipjack, 25% yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and 3% other tunas. Bycatch (all non-tuna species caught plus all tuna discards) amounted to 951 kg (0.65% of total tuna catch). Most of the bycatch (95%) was utilized, and some bycatch was released alive, so dead discards were particularly low (0.02% of total tuna catch, or 22 kg per 100 t). Rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata) and dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) together constituted 93% of the bycatch. Live releases included small numbers of silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformis) and seabirds (noddies, Anous tenuirostris and A. stolidus). Pole-and-line tuna fishing was conducted on free schools and schools associated with various objects (Maldivian anchored fish aggregating devices [aFADs], drifting FADs from western Indian Ocean purse seine fisheries, other drifting objects and seamounts). Free school catches typically included a high proportion of large skipjack and significantly less bycatch. Associated schools produced more variable tuna catches and higher bycatch rates. Fishing trips in the south had significantly lower bycatch rates than those in the north. This study is the first to quantify bycatch rates in the Maldives pole-and-line tuna fishery and the influence of school association on catch composition. Ratio estimator methods suggest roughly 552.6 t of bycatch and 27.9 t of discards are caught annually in the fishery (based on 2015 national catch), much less than other Indian Ocean tuna

  9. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  10. [The splenic inferior pole of rats and hyperbaric oxygen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Isabel Cristina Andreatta Lemos; Paulo, Danilo Nagib Salomão; Ferrari, Thiago Antunes; Azeredo, Thiago Caetano Valadão de; Silva, Alcino Lázaro da

    2008-01-01

    To study the functional and morphological features of the lower pole of the spleen in rats submitted, or not, to postoperative hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Seventy-nine Wistar rats, weighing 248.7 +/- 27 g, divided into two groups [group A - simulation (n=40), group B - lower pole (n=39)] underwent surgery and were subdivided into two groups: 11 and 70 postoperative days. Each subgroup was subdivided into animals not treated (nt) (A11nt, n=10; B11nt, n=13; A70nt, n=10; B70nt, n=9) and treated with hyperbaric oxygen (t) (A11t, n=10; B11t, n=9; A70t, n=10; B70t, n=8). Blood was collected for measurement of lipids and immunoglobulins, platelet and Howell-Jolly body count before and after surgery. The spleen and lower pole were removed for histology. There was an increase of total cholesterol (p=0.002), VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides (p=0.003) and of LDL-cholesterol (p=0.013) in subgroup B11nt, and no alterations were observed in the other subgroups. IgM decreased in subgroups B11t (p=0.007), B11nt (p=0.0000), B70nt (p=0.0005), B70t (p=0.02), and no change was observed in the simulation group. The number of platelets increased in subgroups B11nt (p=0.002) and B11t (p=0.01) and remained unchanged in the other subgroups. Howell-Jolly bodies were less numerous in subgroup B70nt than in subgroup B11nt (p=0.019). Lower pole viability was better in subgroup B11t than in B11nt and in subgroup B70 than in B11, and did not differ between subgroups B70t and B70nt. Function and viability of the remaining lower pole improved during the late postoperative period. Viability and function of the lower pole were better during the early but not during the late postoperative period, in animals submitted to hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

  11. Decay resistance of out-of-service utility poles as related to the distribution of residual creosote content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Roliadi; Chung Y. Hse; Elvin T. Choong; Todd F. Shupe

    2000-01-01

    Decay resistance of out-of-service poles was investigated to evaluate their effectiveness against biodegradation for possible recycling of these poles for composite products. Decay resistance was related to creosote content and creosote distribution in poles with service durations of 5 and 25 years and also freshly treated poles. Weathering of the poles had caused...

  12. Wire inhomogeneity detector having a core with opposing pole pieces and guide pieces adjacent the opposing pole pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a wire inhomogeneity detector assembly for detecting changes in the conductive properties of a wire as the wire is passed therethrough. It comprises: a coil assembly through which a wire containing conductive material is adapted to be pressed in a direction substantially perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the coil assembly. The coil assembly comprising a single ferrite core having a pair of opposing pole pieces between which are an associated conductive wire to be tested is adapted to be passed, each of the pole pieces having a coil wound therearound. The coil assembly including a guide-block consisting of a pair of guide pieces mounted adjacent to ends of the opposing pole pieces for guiding an associated conductive wire between the pole pieces and for reducing stray magnetic field lines. The guide pieces being positioned closely adjacent an associated conductive wire passing therebetween; an impedance bridge adjusted to an null balance point operatively connected to the coil assembly which measures the impedance of the coil assembly and is unbalanced by changes in eddy currents generated in the coil assembly; and a filter detector alarm assembly operatively connected to an output of the impedance bridge. The filter detector alarm assembly including an input bandpass filter detector alarm assembly including an input bandpass filter operatively connected to a differential comparator, the output of which triggers an alarm

  13. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's Stratosphere Near the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bampasidis, G.; Nixon, C. A.; Lavvas, P.; Cottini, V.; Flasar, F. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this Letter, we report the monitoring of seasonal evolution near Titan’s poles. We find Titan’s south pole to exhibit since 2010 a strong temperature decrease and a dramatic enhancement of several trace species such as complex hydrocarbons and nitriles (HC3N and C6H6 in particular) previously only observed at high northern latitudes. This results from the seasonal change on Titan going from winter (2002) to summer (2017) in the north and, at the same time, the onset of winter in the south pole. During this transition period atmospheric components with longer chemical lifetimes linger in the north, undergoing slow photochemical destruction, while those with shorter lifetimes decrease and reappear in the south. An opposite effect was expected in the north, but not observed with certainty until now. We present here an analysis of high-resolution nadir spectra acquired by Cassini/Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer in the past years and describe the temperature and composition variations near Titan’s poles. From 2013 until 2016, the northern polar region has shown a temperature increase of 10 K, while the south has shown a more significant decrease (up to 25 K) in a similar period of time. While the south polar region has been continuously enhanced since about 2012, the chemical content in the north is finally showing a clear depletion for most molecules only since 2015. This is indicative of a non-symmetrical response to the seasons in Titan’s stratosphere that can set constraints on photochemical and GCM models.

  14. Effect of Materials and Manufacturing on the Bending Stiffness of Vaulting Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP)…

  15. Background Studies for Acoustic Neutrino Detection at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The detection of acoustic signals from ultra-high energy neutrino interactions is a promising method. to measure the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos expected on Earth. The energy threshold for this process depends strongly on the absolute noise level in the target material. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS). deployed in the upper part of four boreholes of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has monitored the noise in Antarctic ice at the geographic South Pole for more than two years down to 500 m depth. The noise is very stable and Gaussian distributed, Lacking an in situ calibration up to now, laboratory measurements have been used to estimate the absolute noise level in the 10-50 kHz frequency range to be smaller than 20 mPa. Using a threshold trigger. sensors of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup registered acoustic events in the IceCube detector volume and its vicinity. Acoustic signals from refreezing IceCube holes and from anthropogenic sources have been used to test the localization of acoustic events. An upper limit on the neutrino flux at energies E(sub v) > 10(exp 11) GeV is derived from acoustic data taken over eight months.

  16. Tent-Poles of the Blockbuster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa

    characters, creating the notion of housewife porn. In the article the authors take a look into how transmedia storytelling, in the form of fanfiction, inspired by a blockbuster, Twilight, becomes the basis of another blockbuster, Fifty Shades of Grey. The hypothesis of the article being transmedia......, and the like, and in the process expanding the possible tie-ins and spin-offs from the original story’s tentpole. The article will explain the intricacies of fanfiction and the special target group, women, as well as the impact of social media on changing customers into co-creators and stakeholders, leaving...

  17. Pole Shape Optimization of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using the Reduced Basis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jabbari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an integrated method of pole shape design optimization for reduction of torque pulsation components in permanent magnet synchronous motors is developed. A progressive design process is presented to find feasible optimal shapes. This method is applied on the pole shape optimization of two prototype permanent magnet synchronous motors, i.e., 4-poles/6-slots and 4-poles-12slots.

  18. Tent-Poles of the Bestseller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Vistisen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for understanding and analysing how the passive audience of a media event turns into active stakeholders. The starting point is the cross-media content quadrant (Jensen and Vistisen, 2012), which shows how the producer’s control is distributed on social media pla...

  19. Lunar Flashlight: Illuminating the Moon's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, P. O.; Cohen, B. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Sellar, R. G.; Reiter, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanently shadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth-Moon system.

  20. A Visit to the South Pole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    residence. He told me a lot about the horrors of working in Antarctica and said that before a man is finally selected for ... sea level being. 35 metres. The scientific work being done at the observatory Mirny included meteorology, .... In another accident, I fell down from a 200 metre ridge due to a helpless blind-walk in a violent ...

  1. A Visit to the South Pole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    medically and psychologically in order to determine his adaptability to the extreme climate of. Antarctica. After having passed all such tests, he is imparted a special training on how to survive in Antarctica in difficult times. He advised me that I should have also undergone all such tests and training in my own interest lest the ...

  2. The Neville-Aitken formula for rational interpolants with prescribed poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, C.; Mühlbach, G.

    1992-12-01

    Using a polynomial description of rational interpolation with prescribed poles a simple purely algebraic proof of a Neville-Aitken recurrence formula for rational interpolants with prescribed poles is presented. It is used to compute the general Cauchy-Vandermonde determinant explicitly in terms of the nodes and poles involved.

  3. Prevalence of pain on palpation of the inferior pole of the patella among patients with complaints of knee pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Addêo Ramos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patellar tendinopathy is a common condition in sports. It may occur at any location of the patellar tendon, but the most commonly affected area is the inferior pole of the patella. Among various diagnostic tests, the one most used is palpation of the inferior pole of the patella. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pain complaints among individuals with pathological knee conditions and to evaluate palpation of the inferior pole of the patella as a diagnostic test for patellar tendinopathy. METHODS: Palpation of the patellar tendon was performed on 318 individuals who presented with knee-related complaints. Palpation was performed with the individual in the supine position and the knee extended. The age, gender, physical activity and labor activity of each individual were recorded at the time the symptoms appeared; the diagnosis was also recorded. RESULTS: Of the total number of individuals evaluated, 124 (39% felt pain on palpation of the inferior pole of the patella. Of these, only 40 (32.3% received a diagnosis of patellar tendinopathy. We did not observe any difference with respect to gender and age distribution. When evaluating daily physical activity levels, however, we observed that individuals with pain on palpation of the inferior pole of the patella experienced more intense physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Palpation of the inferior pole of the patella is a diagnostic procedure with high sensitivity and moderate specificity for diagnosing patellar tendinopathy, especially among individuals who perform activities with high functional demands.

  4. Development of a neurofeedback protocol targeting the frontal pole using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Akihide; Takizawa, Ryu; Yahata, Noriaki; Homae, Fumitaka; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Sakakibara, Eisuke; Kawasaki, Shingo; Nishimura, Yukika; Koike, Shinsuke; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-11-01

    Neurofeedback has been studied with the aim of controlling cerebral activity. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used for measuring hemoglobin concentration changes in cortical surface areas with high temporal resolution. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful for neurofeedback, which requires real-time feedback of repeated brain activation measurements. However, no study has specifically targeted neurofeedback, using near-infrared spectroscopy, in the frontal pole cortex. We developed an original near-infrared spectroscopy neurofeedback system targeting the frontal pole cortex. Over a single day of testing, each healthy participant (n = 24) received either correct or incorrect (Sham) feedback from near-infrared spectroscopy signals, based on a crossover design. Under correct feedback conditions, significant activation was observed in the frontal pole cortex (P = 0.000073). Additionally, self-evaluation of control and metacognitive beliefs were associated with near-infrared spectroscopy signals (P = 0.006). The neurofeedback system developed in this study might be useful for developing control of frontal pole cortex activation. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. The efficacy of radiographic anatomical measurement methods in predicting success after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for lower pole kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpali, Emre; Altinel, Mert; Sargin, Semih Yasar

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of lower pole calyceal anatomy on clearace of lower pole stones after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) by means of a new and previously defined radiographic measurement method. Sixty-four patients with solitary radiopaque lower pole kidney stones were enrolled in the study. Infundibulopelvic angle (IPA), infundibulotransverse angle (ITA), infundibular lenght(IL), and infundibular width (IW) were measured on the intravenous urographies which were taken before the procedure. 48 of 64 patients (75%) were stone-free after a follow-up period of 3 months. The IPA,ITA,IL and IW were determined as statistically significant factors, while age,gender and stone area were found to have no impact on clearance. By the help of radiographic measurement methods related to lower pole kidney anatomy, appropriate patient selection and increment in success after ESWL may be achieved.

  6. THE ROLE OF THE CONCEPT OF GROWTH POLES FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAROVSKIY Viktor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses determinants of the concept of "points of growth" at regional level. The definition of the concept of growth points is considered in terms of economic development of the region, which integrates into the global world. As a basic model of local development is proposed to use the theory for Growth Poles of François Perroux, that later was supplemented by Albert Hirschman. To estimate the possible practical applications of the theory for Growth Poles in the development of local economic development programs and regional planning in the article it is considered the adaptive model of "growth points" with feedback. Using the proposed model allows us to develop an algorithm for the local public administration to identify the most prospective areas for attracting FDI.

  7. The effect of poling conditions on the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters fabricated by wet chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, Erika Maria-Anai

    2015-03-25

    The effect of poling conditions on the power output of piezoelectric energy harvesters using sol-gel based Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47)O3-Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3 piezoelectric thin-films has been investigated. A strong correlation was established between the poling efficiency and harvester output. A method based on simple capacitance-voltage measurements is shown to be an effective approach to estimate the power output of harvesters poled under different conditions. The poling process was found to be thermally activated with an activation energy of 0.12 eV, and the optimum poling conditions were identified (200 kV cm-1, 250 °C for 50 min). The voltage output and power density obtained under optimum poling conditions were measured to be 558 V cm-2 and 325 μW cm-2, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.2015.

  8. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  9. Analysis of the growth poles in esthetic dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dana Tudose

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth poles are considered dynamic elements of economic growth, responsible for economical technogical, ideological, spiritual and moral integration.Bioeconomy is currently an area of great and mighty power development. High complexity of this field is to combine the use of technologies that use biological resources in the range of human values involved. This study requires that objective SWOT analysis applied in dental esthetics with strict reference to the quality of work in relation to aesthetic and functional effectiveness of the treatment, the life, the method of reconstruction, working technique, the degree of invasiveness of treatment in relation to conservation dental tissues ,execution costs, costs of resources used in dental anterior segment reconstruction and economic analysis of the modalities of treatment techniques reported the need and level of understanding of patients on treatment aesthetic-functional complexity. As material and method took into account the interaction of four factors: Strenghts-Weaknesses-Opportunities -Hazards. In group “Strengths” we have included successful treatment aesthetic-functional execution moderate cost, short time working on the seat, which shows limited use of natural resources. In group “Weaknesses” I included invasiveness of biological treatment, increased during execution of the work, aesthetic-functional failure , lack of training practitioners in dental aesthetics, lack of existant cabinets to promote interest in aesthetic dental medicine. “Opportunities” referred to the minimally invasive treatment of dental tissue in existing clinical context with predictable results, as higher interest of patients for dental esthetics, raising the standard of care internationally. In group “Risks” (threats I listed: low resistance while works (weak predictability, decreasing purchasing power, changing customer preferences, increase service quality standards. In the second chapter we

  10. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-06

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  11. DISCOVERY OF FOG AT THE SOUTH POLE OF TITAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Smith, A. L.; Chen, C.; Adamkovics, M.

    2009-01-01

    While Saturn's moon Titan appears to support an active methane hydrological cycle, no direct evidence for surface-atmosphere exchange has yet appeared. The indirect evidence, while compelling, could be misleading. It is possible, for example, that the identified lake features could be filled with ethane, an involatile long-term residue of atmospheric photolysis; the apparent stream and channel features could be ancient remnants of a previous climate; and the tropospheric methane clouds, while frequent, could cause no rain to reach the surface. We report here the detection of fog at the south pole of Titan during late summer using observations from the VIMS instrument on board the Cassini spacecraft. While terrestrial fog can form from a variety of causes, most of these processes are inoperable on Titan. Fog on Titan can only be caused by evaporation of nearly pure liquid methane; the detection of fog provides the first direct link between surface and atmospheric methane. Based on the detections presented here, liquid methane appears widespread at the south pole of Titan in late southern summer, and the hydrological cycle on Titan is currently active.

  12. Magnet pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  13. North Pole, South Pole: the quest to understand the mystery of Earth's magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    The story of the quest to understand Earth’s magnetic field is one of the longest and richest in the history of science. It weaves together Greek philosophy, Chinese mysticism, the development of the compass and navigation, the physics of electromagnetism and the jig-saw like piecing together of the internal structure of the planet beneath our feet. The story begins with Magnes, an old shepherd, trudging up the mountainside after a violent thunder storm, astonished at how the iron studs in his boots stick to the rocks. It was Alexander von Humboldt who, three millennia on, pointed to lightning as the source of such magnetization. The first compass was made 2000 years ago in China - to divine the ways of feng shui - a guide to planting crops, planning streets, orienting buildings and more. It reached Europe as a navigational tool in the 12th century - no-one is quite sure how, but en route it changed from south-pointing to the north-pointing compasses of today. The earliest truly scientific experiments and writings concerned magnets and geomagnetism: Petrus Peregrinus’ Epistola of 1269, and William Gilbert’s De Magnete of1600, in which he declared Magnus magnes globus terrestris ipse est - the Earth itself is a great magnet. By then it was recognized that the compass didn’t point exactly north, and the discrepancy varied from place to place and changed over time - something of a problem for Gilbert’s idea of a geocentric axial dipole. However declination and secular variation were problems well known to Edmund Halley, who, in 1700, charted the angle of declination over the Atlantic Ocean, and in the process introduced the Halleyan line - the contour. Many of the world’s greatest scientists have turned their minds to the problem of magnetism and geomagnetism in particular - Coulomb, Gauss, Faraday, Maxwell - yet in 1905, Einstein described geomagnetism as “one of the great unsolved problems of physics”. In the mid-late nineteenth century new areas of

  14. Stellar population samples at the galactic poles. IV. Luminosity function for the M-type dwarfs at the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, O.J.

    1976-01-01

    The (UBVRI) photometry of all M dwarfs which are within 10degree of the South Galactic Pole and brighter than visual magnitude 15, and which have annual proper motions greater than 0/sup prime/./sub /096, are discussed. The observations themselves are listed and discussed in a recent Astrophysical Journal Supplement. The luminosity function is found to be very similar, in the overlapping sections, to that previously derived spectrophotometrically from the M stars near the Sun, and the extension to M/subV/ near +13 mag indicates that this luminosity is near the peak of that function. No support is found in these data for the recently suggested superabundance of low velocity M stars near the Sun

  15. The improbable metropolis: decentralization, local democracy and metropolitan areas in the western world A metrópole improvável: Descentralização, democracia local e áreas metropolitanas no mundo ocidental

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Lefèvre

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan areas have become the new spatial fix of globalised capitalism. However, their economic strength is not matched by their political strength because metropolitan areas remain politically weak. This article reflects upon the process of building metropolitan areas as political spaces. Considering this process as a conflicting one because it challenges the power of existing players, it seeks to expose the general failure of metropolitan institution building - including most of the so...

  16. Shadow poles in coupled-channel problems calculated with the Berggren basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Id Betan, R. M.; Kruppa, A. T.; Vertse, T.

    2018-02-01

    Background: In coupled-channels models the poles of the scattering S matrix are located on different Riemann sheets. Physical observables are affected mainly by poles closest to the physical region but sometimes shadow poles have considerable effect too. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show that in coupled-channels problems all poles of the S matrix can be located by an expansion in terms of a properly constructed complex-energy basis. Method: The Berggren basis is used for expanding the coupled-channels solutions. Results: The locations of the poles of the S matrix for the Cox potential, constructed for coupled-channels problems, were numerically calculated and compared with the exact ones. In a nuclear physics application the Jπ=3 /2+ resonant poles of 5He were calculated in a phenomenological two-channel model. The properties of both the normal and shadow resonances agree with previous findings. Conclusions: We have shown that, with an appropriately chosen Berggren basis, all poles of the S matrix including the shadow poles can be determined. We have found that the shadow pole of 5He migrates between Riemann sheets if the coupling strength is varied.

  17. Ruthenium therapy of choroidal melanomas of the posterior pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmann, G.; Faschinger, C.; Langmann, A.; Poier, E.

    1992-01-01

    The indications for conservative treatment of intraocular melanomas of the posterior pole with radioactive plaques are controversial. Melanomas located at the macula or adjacent to the fovea are regarded as relative contraindications for conservative treatment. Three melanomas of the macula have been treated at our department meanwhile. The tumor elevation ranged between 3.5 and 6 mm, the distance to the fovea between 0.5 and 2 dd. An average radiation dosage between 130 and 160 Gy was delivered to the apex of the tumors. The duration of observation was between 12 months to 4 years. The tumor regression was satisfactory in all 3 cases, additional photocoagulation was necessary in one case of incomplete tumor regression. Pretreatment visual acuity ranged between 0.8 and 0.1, posttreatment visual acuity between 0.8 and 0.25. In one case we observed a local radiation vasculopathy. General examination did not reveal any signs of metastases. (authors)

  18. A Visit to the South Pole-Adventures of the First Indian to Winter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 4. A Visit to the South Pole - Adventures of the First Indian to Winter-Over the South Pole and Explore Antarctica. Parmjit Singh Sehra. Reflections Volume 15 Issue 4 April 2010 pp 384-391 ...

  19. The North Galactic Pole Rift and the Local Hot Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, S. L.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lallement, R.; Puspitarini, L.

    2015-01-01

    The North Galactic Pole Rift (NGPR) is one of the few distinct neutral hydrogen clouds at high Galactic latitudes that have well-defined distances. It is located at the edge of the Local Cavity (LC) and provides an important test case for understanding the Local Hot Bubble (LHB), the presumed location for the hot diffuse plasma responsible for much of the observed 1/4 keV emission originating in the solar neighborhood. Using data from the ROSAT All- Sky Survey and the Planck reddening map, we find the path length within the LC (LHB plus Complex of Local Interstellar Clouds) to be 98 plus or minus 27 pc, in excellent agreement with the distance to the NGPR of 98 +/- 6 pc. In addition, we examine another 14 directions that are distributed over the sky where the LC wall is apparently optically thick at 1/4 keV. We find that the data in these directions are also consistent with the LHB model and a uniform emissivity plasma filling most of the LC.

  20. Atmospheric Fluctuations in the Millimeter Wavelength at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Holzapfel, W.; Kuo, C. L.

    2003-12-01

    We characterize atmospheric fluctuations by a Kolmogorov power law around the South pole at Millimeter wavelengths by calculating the correlation between signals coming from two separate channels in a detector array. We use data taken with the ACBAR instrument mounted on the Viper telescope over the winter period beginning in April 2002 and ending in August 2002 to generate a model of the atmospheric fluctuations. We use this model to obtain values for the amplitude of the atmospheric fluctuations as well as the angular windspeed causing the movement of the disturbances which are responsible for the emission we observe. The primary benefit of the correlation analysis is to significantly reduce contribution from instrument noise, which is uncorrelated between two channels. Thus we are able to perform a very reliable characterization of the atmosphere. ACBAR was supported by funds from the Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica, a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center. Operational support was provided by the United States Antarctic Program.

  1. Resource Prospector: Evaluating the ISRU Potential of the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R. C.; Andrews, D.; Bluethmann, W.; Quinn, J.; Chavers, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Resource Prospector (RP) is a lunar volatiles prospecting mission being developed for potential flight in CY2021-2022. The mission includes a rover-borne payload that (1) can locate surface and near-subsurface volatiles, (2) excavate and analyze samples of the volatile-bearing regolith, and (3) demonstrate the form, extractability and usefulness of the materials. The primary mission goal for RP is to evaluate the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) potential of the lunar poles. While it is now understood that lunar water and other volatiles have a much greater extent of distribution, possible forms, and concentrations than previously believed, to fully understand how viable these volatiles are as a resource to support human exploration of the solar system, the distribution and form needs to be understood at a "human" scale. That is, the "ore body" must be better understood at the scales it would be worked before it can be evaluated as a potential architectural element within any evolvable lunar or Mars campaign. This talk will provide an overview of the RP mission with an emphasis on mission goals and measurements, and will provide an update as to its current status.

  2. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  3. The practice of pole dance as a leisure activity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andorra Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the how pole dance is practiced as a form of leisure activity in Denmark. The methodical approach is qualitative and inspired by ethnography. I have conducted a field study where I have observed and participated in the pole dance culture in Copenhagen from May...

  4. Institutional Evaluation in Poles of the Open University System of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexciano de Sousa Martins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study wanted to know the institutional evaluation in poles of distance education, of the Open University of Brazil (UAB system, analyzing the poles of the State of Ceará. The UAB system of the Brazilian Ministry of Education makes it possible to offer courses of higher level agreements with public universities. Ceará counts on UAB poles, since 2006, that form teachers and other professionals, even in regions lacking public higher education. The objective of this study was to discuss the importance of the institutional evaluation in the poles of the Open University of Brazil program through an exploratory and descriptive field research, showing that the institutional evaluation at the poles is minimal and out of line with the legislation in force. Suggestions on how to develop the evaluative practice.

  5. Dynamics of radionuclide accumulation at amphibians and reptiles in the Poles'e state radioecological reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitskij, R.V.

    1998-01-01

    It was studied the peculiarity of the radionuclide intake to organism of amphibians and reptiles in the Poles'e radioecological reserve in 1997. The radioactive contamination level of investigated area was from 15 to 40 Ci/km 2 . It was measured 38 samples (26 for amphibians and 12 for reptiles) from points with background gamma-irradiation from 35 to 800 micro R/h. For the last eleven years of investigation it was revealed the total tendency to reduction of level of gamma-radioactive accumulation in 18,8-42,6 times for amphibians and in 2,8-52,5 times for reptiles

  6. Linking Atmospheric Pollution to Cryospheric Changes over the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Zhang, Q.; Ji, Z.; Li, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Cong, Z.; Chen, P.; Guo, J.; Huang, J.; Tripathee, L.; Rupakheti, D.; Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Panday, A. K.; Rupakheti, M.

    2016-12-01

    Known as "the Third Pole" (TP), the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountains hold the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the pole regions. Recent monitoring and projection indicated an accelerated glacier decline and increasing glacier runoff. The long-range transport of South Asian atmospheric pollutants, including light absorbing impurities (LAIs) such as black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD), can absorb the solar radiation in the atmosphere and reduce albedo after being deposited onto the cryosphere, thereby promoting glacier and snow melt. A coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network has been launched covering the TP with emphasis on trans-Himalayan transects since 2013. TSP were collected for 24h at an interval of 3-6 days. BC/OC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured. Results reveal a consistent decrease in almost all analyzed parameters from south to north across the Himalayas. Geochemical signatures of carbonaceous aerosols indicate dominant sources of biomass burning and vehicle exhaust, in line with results of PAHs. Integrated analysis of satellite images and air mass trajectories suggest that the trans-boundary air pollution occurred episodically and concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons via upper air circulation, through-valley wind, and local convection. Simulation results showed that carbonaceous aerosols produced positive/negative shortwave radiative forcing in the atmosphere/ground surface. Aerosols increased surface air temperatures by 0.1-0.5° over the TP and decreased temperatures in South Asia during the monsoon season. Surface snow/ice samples were collected from benchmark glaciers to estimate the impacts of LAIs on glacier melt with model assistance. BC (37%) and MD (32%) contribute to the summer melting of Laohugou Glacier in the northern TP. MD (38%) contributed more glacier melt than BC (11%) on Zhadang Glacier in the southern TP. In the southeastern TP, BC and MD contribute to 30% of the

  7. The improbable metropolis: decentralization, local democracy and metropolitan areas in the western world A metrópole improvável: Descentralização, democracia local e áreas metropolitanas no mundo ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lefèvre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metropolitan areas have become the new spatial fix of globalised capitalism. However, their economic strength is not matched by their political strength because metropolitan areas remain politically weak. This article reflects upon the process of building metropolitan areas as political spaces. Considering this process as a conflicting one because it challenges the power of existing players, it seeks to expose the general failure of metropolitan institution building - including most of the south European urban areas - focusing on two elements: on one hand, decentralisation as a process favouring other territorial scales than the metropolitan one, notably the regional and municipal levels; on the other hand, local democracy favouring the municipal and neighbourhood levels but forgetting the metropolitan scale.As áreas metropolitanas tornaram-se o novo padrão espacial do capitalismo globalizado. No entanto, as suas capacidades económicas não são acompanhadas por uma correspondente capacidade política, mantendo-se politicamente débeis. Neste artigo reflecte-se sobre o processo de construção das áreas metropolitanas como espaços políticos. Considerando tal processo como conflituoso - pois desafia o poder dos actuais agentes -, o texto procura expor a incapacidade global na consolidação de instituições metropolitanas - incluindo na maioria dos territórios urbanos do Sul da Europa - focando duas tendências: por um lado, a descentralização como um processo que tem favorecido outras escalas territoriais que não as metropolitanas, nomeadamente os níveis regional e municipal; e por outro a democracia local, que tem favorecido os níveis municipal e intra-municipal, mas tem igualmente menosprezado a escala metropolitana.

  8. EVOLUTION OF THE FAR-INFRARED CLOUD AT TITAN’S SOUTH POLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; Guandique, E.; Kaelberer, M. S.; Tingley, J. S.; Albright, S. A.; Segura, M. E. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kok, R. de [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Bampasidis, G. [Laboratoire d’Etudes Spatiales et d’Instrumentation en Astrophysique (LESIA), Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, 5, place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Teanby, N. A. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Calcutt, S., E-mail: donald.e.jennings@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm{sup −1} far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north, the cloud, which extends from 55 N to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the south pole is very different from that in the north. Mapping in 2013 December showed that the condensate emission was confined to a ring with a maximum at 80 S. The ring was centered 4° from Titan's pole. The pattern of emission from stratospheric trace gases like nitriles and complex hydrocarbons (mapped in 2014 January) was also offset by 4°, but had a central peak at the pole and a secondary maximum in a ring at about 70 S with a minimum at 80 S. The shape of the gas emission distribution can be explained by abundances that are high at the atmospheric pole and diminish toward the equator, combined with correspondingly increasing temperatures. We discuss possible causes for the condensate ring. The present rapid build up of the condensate cloud at the south pole is likely to transition to a gradual decline from 2015 to 2016.

  9. Subtotal splenectomy preserving the inferior splenic pole for the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Subtotal splenectomy is efficacious to preserve the splenic functions and to prevent adverse effects of a large spleen on the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma confined to superior pole and producing significant abdominal symptoms and hematological effects.

  10. Effect of PF impregnation and surface densification on the mechanical properties of small-scale wood laminated poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaqiang Yu; Chung Y. Hse; Zehui Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The wood poles in the United States are from high-valued trees that are becoming more expensive and less available. Wood laminated composite poles (LCP) are a kind of alternative to solid poles. Considerable interest has developed in last century in the resin impregnation and wood surface densification to improve its physical and mechanical properties. In this...

  11. Creating competitive polesthe sustainable model for obtaining the competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Mihaela MATEI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In a global economy that has as its own competitive advantage the transfer of information and goods around the world in real time, the annexes that surround the ecosystem are the centers for innovation founded on hedge & mutual funds, investment scenarios and the development of biotechnology (for developed countries or for the development of aircrafts or equipment used for the manufacturing of tangible goods (in emergent countries. For these to create synergy there is the idea of clusters, because they offer to the companies the possibility to change and to add dynamism to the microeconomic open system. Although globalization offers the power of global trading, clusters are found in developed countries with economies that can support multidisciplinary interactions, and their creation must be followed by the emergent countries that want to progress in this area. This paper represents a review and a research in progress on creating competitive poles (or clusters as a sustainable model for obtaining the competitive advantage.

  12. Spring Snow-Albedo Feedback Analysis Over the Third Pole: Results From Satellite Observation and CMIP5 Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Wang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Tao; Ma, Yaoming; Ryder, James; Zhang, Taotao; Liu, Dan; Ding, Jinzhi; Li, Yue; Piao, Shilong

    2018-01-01

    The snow-albedo feedback is a crucial component in high-altitude cryospheric change but is poorly quantified over the Third Pole, encompassing the Karakoram and Tibetan Plateau. Here we present an analysis of present-day and future spring snow-albedo feedback over the Third Pole, using a 28 year satellite-based albedo and the latest climate model simulations. We show that present-day spring snow-albedo feedback strength is primarily determined by the decrease in albedo due to snow metamorphosis, rather than that due to reduced snow cover in the Karakoram, but not found in Southeastern Tibet. We further demonstrate an emergent relationship between snow-albedo feedback from the seasonal cycle and that from climate change across models. Combined with contemporary satellite-based snow-albedo feedback from seasonal cycle, this relationship enables us to estimate that the feedback strength for the Karakoram with a relatively high glaciated area is -2.42 ± 0.48% K-1 under an unmitigated scenario, which is much stronger than that for Southeastern Tibet (-1.64 ± 0.48% K-1) and for the Third Pole (-0.89 ± 0.44% K-1), respectively. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the magnitude of the constrained strength is only half of the unconstrained model estimate for the Third Pole, suggesting that current climate models generally overestimate the feedback of spring snow change to temperature change based on the unmitigated scenario.

  13. Cassini Returns to Saturn's Poles: Seasonal Change in the Polar Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, G. S.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Sinclair, J. A.; Hesman, B. E.; Hurley, J.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    High inclination orbits during Cassini's solstice mission (2012) are providing us with our first observations of Saturn's high latitudes since the prime mission (2007). Since that time, the northern spring pole has emerged into sunlight and the southern autumn pole has disappeared into winter darkness, allowing us to study the seasonal changes occurring within the polar vortices in response to these dramatic insolation changes. Observations from the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer] have revealed (i) the continued presence of small, cyclonic polar hotspots at both spring and autumn poles; and (ii) the emergence of an infrared-bright polar vortex at the north pole, consistent with the historical record of Saturn observations from the 1980s (previous northern spring).

  14. Lowering the pump power requirement for squeezed light generation using a periodically poled crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchhave, Preben

    2003-01-01

    Observations of continuous wave bright squeezed light from an intra-cavity periodically poled KTP second harmonic generator are presented. The experiment includes characterization of the classical as well as the quantum properties of the system.......Observations of continuous wave bright squeezed light from an intra-cavity periodically poled KTP second harmonic generator are presented. The experiment includes characterization of the classical as well as the quantum properties of the system....

  15. Regge-pole description of potential scattering by means of the phase-integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaha, A.

    1992-01-01

    The application of Regge-pole theory to different atomic and molecular scattering has shown to have promising interpretational power in the differential cross sections. Differential cross sections can be analysed in terms of interference between the 'background' amplitude and a few Regge-pole positions of the scattering matrix (S matrix) representing surface waves around the interaction region. By the analytic continuation of the radial Schroedinger differential equation into the complex plane of angular momentum one can determine the analytic properties of the S matrix which contains the physical information in the scattering processes. For interaction potentials fulfilling certain properties, the study of the S matrix leads to the study of the F matrix introduced by Froeman and Froeman for the treatment of connection problems for phase-integral solutions of the differential equation. In this thesis the quantum mechanical scattering problem is analysed in the framework of Regge-pole theory with the use of the complex-angular-momentum formalism. To determine the S matrix, the relevant F matrix elements which give the stokes constants are derived and their properties are studied. The poles of the S matrix for particular complex values of the angular momentum quantum number are the Regge-poles. Using the Regge-pole positions and residues together with the background integral, the differential cross sections are calculated and compared with corresponding partial-wave representations

  16. Sample Return Mission to the South Pole Aitken Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Clark, B. C.; Gamber, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest and oldest observed feature on the Moon. Compositional and topographic data from Galileo, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector have demonstrated that SPA represents a distinctive major lunar terrane, which has not been sampled either by sample return missions (Apollo, Luna) or by lunar meteorites. The floor of SPA is characterized by mafic compositions enriched in Fe, Ti, and Th in comparison to its surroundings. This composition may represent melt rocks from the SPA event, which would be mixtures of the preexisting crust and mantle rocks. However, the Fe content is higher than expected, and the large Apollo basin, within SPA, exposes deeper material with lower iron content. Some of the Fe enrichment may represent mare and cryptomare deposits. No model adequately accounts for all of the characteristics of the SPA and disagreements are fundamental. Is mantle material exposed or contained as fragments in melt rock and breccias? If impact melt is present, did the vast sheet differentiate? Was the initial mantle and crust compositionally different from other regions of the Moon? Was the impact event somehow peculiar, (e.g., a low-velocity impact)? The precise time of formation of the SPA is unknown, being limited only by the initial differentiation of the Moon and the age of the Imbrium event, believed to be 3.9 b.y. The questions raised by the SPA can be addressed only with detailed sample analysis. Analysis of the melt rocks, fragments in breccias, and basalts of SPA can address several highly significant problems for the Moon and the history of the solar system. The time of formation of SPA, based on analysis of melt rocks formed in the event. would put limits on the period of intense bombardment of the Moon, which has been inferred by some to include a "terminal cataclysm." If close to 3.9 Ga, the presumed age of the Imbrium Basin, the SPA date would confirm the lunar cataclysm. This episode, if it occurred, would have

  17. Secondary electron emission yield on poled silica based thick films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, D.; Poumellec, B.; Cannas, V.

    2004-01-01

    injection, we pointed out an electric field 0.5 µm below the surface for our poling conditions and directed in the same direction as the external field applied during the poling process. Then, the dependence of on the injected dose of electrons allows us to deduce that the poling process disturbs the glass......Studies on the distribution of the electric field produced by a thermal poling process in a layer of Ge-doped silica on silicon substrate, by using secondary electron emission yield (SEEY) measurements () are presented. Comparing 0 between poled and unpoled areas, the SEEY at the origin of electron...... structure strongly enough for leading to a weak conductivity. It is then easy to display the poled areas. We have also pointed out an effect of the electric properties of the glass on the measurements obtained with the Electron Probe for MicroAnalysis....

  18. THEORIES REGARDING THE ROLE OF THE GROWTH POLES IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentia Georgeta Avram

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The specialized literature stressed very little or not at all the role of the growth poles in the economic integration, although the development of the national economies depend on connecting the major urban centers in the regional economic system, continental and global levels. Conversely, integration and globalization of the economic, socio-political, cultural and the transition to a knowledge economy seem to be major factors in the transformation and restructuring of the growth poles and the urban systems dependent on them.

  19. High-resolution Local Gravity Model of the South Pole of the Moon from GRAIL Extended Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Sander Johannes; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6deg by 1/6deg (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40deg. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models.

  20. Predicting Interactions between Common Dolphins and the Pole-and-Line Tuna Fishery in the Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Maria João; Menezes, Gui; Machete, Miguel; Silva, Mónica A

    2016-01-01

    Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are responsible for the large majority of interactions with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores but the underlying drivers remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate the influence of various environmental and fisheries-related factors in promoting the interaction of common dolphins with this fishery and estimate the resultant catch losses. We analysed 15 years of fishery and cetacean interaction data (1998-2012) collected by observers placed aboard tuna fishing vessels. Dolphins interacted in less than 3% of the fishing events observed during the study period. The probability of dolphin interaction varied significantly between years with no evident trend over time. Generalized additive modeling results suggest that fishing duration, sea surface temperature and prey abundance in the region were the most important factors explaining common dolphin interaction. Dolphin interaction had no impact on the catches of albacore, skipjack and yellowfin tuna but resulted in significantly lower catches of bigeye tuna, with a predicted median annual loss of 13.5% in the number of fish captured. However, impact on bigeye catches varied considerably both by year and fishing area. Our work shows that rates of common dolphin interaction with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores are low and showed no signs of increase over the study period. Although overall economic impact was low, the interaction may lead to significant losses in some years. These findings emphasize the need for continued monitoring and for further research into the consequences and economic viability of potential mitigation measures.

  1. Predicting Interactions between Common Dolphins and the Pole-and-Line Tuna Fishery in the Azores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Cruz

    Full Text Available Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis are responsible for the large majority of interactions with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores but the underlying drivers remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate the influence of various environmental and fisheries-related factors in promoting the interaction of common dolphins with this fishery and estimate the resultant catch losses. We analysed 15 years of fishery and cetacean interaction data (1998-2012 collected by observers placed aboard tuna fishing vessels. Dolphins interacted in less than 3% of the fishing events observed during the study period. The probability of dolphin interaction varied significantly between years with no evident trend over time. Generalized additive modeling results suggest that fishing duration, sea surface temperature and prey abundance in the region were the most important factors explaining common dolphin interaction. Dolphin interaction had no impact on the catches of albacore, skipjack and yellowfin tuna but resulted in significantly lower catches of bigeye tuna, with a predicted median annual loss of 13.5% in the number of fish captured. However, impact on bigeye catches varied considerably both by year and fishing area. Our work shows that rates of common dolphin interaction with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores are low and showed no signs of increase over the study period. Although overall economic impact was low, the interaction may lead to significant losses in some years. These findings emphasize the need for continued monitoring and for further research into the consequences and economic viability of potential mitigation measures.

  2. Predicting Interactions between Common Dolphins and the Pole-and-Line Tuna Fishery in the Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Maria João; Menezes, Gui; Machete, Miguel; Silva, Mónica A.

    2016-01-01

    Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are responsible for the large majority of interactions with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores but the underlying drivers remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate the influence of various environmental and fisheries-related factors in promoting the interaction of common dolphins with this fishery and estimate the resultant catch losses. We analysed 15 years of fishery and cetacean interaction data (1998–2012) collected by observers placed aboard tuna fishing vessels. Dolphins interacted in less than 3% of the fishing events observed during the study period. The probability of dolphin interaction varied significantly between years with no evident trend over time. Generalized additive modeling results suggest that fishing duration, sea surface temperature and prey abundance in the region were the most important factors explaining common dolphin interaction. Dolphin interaction had no impact on the catches of albacore, skipjack and yellowfin tuna but resulted in significantly lower catches of bigeye tuna, with a predicted median annual loss of 13.5% in the number of fish captured. However, impact on bigeye catches varied considerably both by year and fishing area. Our work shows that rates of common dolphin interaction with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores are low and showed no signs of increase over the study period. Although overall economic impact was low, the interaction may lead to significant losses in some years. These findings emphasize the need for continued monitoring and for further research into the consequences and economic viability of potential mitigation measures. PMID:27851763

  3. Observations of the PCB distribution within and in-between ice, snow, ice-rafted debris, ice-interstitial water, and seawater in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone and the North Pole area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, O; Andersson, P; Axelman, J; Bucheli, T D; Kömp, P; McLachlan, M S; Sobek, A; Thörngren, J-O

    2005-04-15

    To evaluate the two hypotheses of locally elevated exposure of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ice-associated microenvironments and ice as a key carrier for long-range transport of POPs to the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ), dissolved and particulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in ice, snow, ice-interstitial water (IIW), seawater in the melt layer underlying the ice, and in ice-rafted sediment (IRS) from the Barents Sea MIZ to the high Arctic in the summer of 2001. Ultra-clean sampling equipment and protocols were specially developed for this expedition, including construction of a permanent clean room facility and a stainless steel seawater intake system on the I/B ODEN as well as two mobile 370 l ice-melting systems. Similar concentrations were found in several ice-associated compartments. For instance, the concentration of one of the most abundant congeners, PCB 52, was typically on the order of 0.1-0.3 pg l(-1) in the dissolved (melted) phase of the ice, snow, IIW, and underlying seawater while its particulate organic-carbon (POC) normalized concentrations were around 1-3 ng gPOC(-1) in the ice, snow, IIW, and IRS. The solid-water distribution of PCBs in ice was well correlated with and predictable from K(ow) (ice log K(oc)-log K(ow) regressions: p<0.05, r2=0.78-0.98, n=9), indicating near-equilibrium partitioning of PCBs within each local ice system. These results do generally not evidence the existence of physical microenvironments with locally elevated POP exposures. However, there were some indications that the ice-associated system had harbored local environments with higher exposure levels earlier/before the melting/vegetative season, as a few samples had PCB concentrations elevated by factors of 5-10 relative to the typical values, and the elevated levels were predominantly found at the station where melting had putatively progressed the least. The very low PCB concentrations and absence of any significant concentration

  4. Observations of the PCB distribution within and in-between ice, snow, ice-rafted debris, ice-interstitial water, and seawater in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone and the North Pole area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Oe.; Andersson, P.; Axelman, J.; Bucheli, T.D.; Koemp, P.; McLachlan, M.S.; Sobek, A.; Thoerngren, J.-O.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the two hypotheses of locally elevated exposure of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ice-associated microenvironments and ice as a key carrier for long-range transport of POPs to the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ), dissolved and particulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in ice, snow, ice-interstitial water (IIW), seawater in the melt layer underlying the ice, and in ice-rafted sediment (IRS) from the Barents Sea MIZ to the high Arctic in the summer of 2001. Ultra-clean sampling equipment and protocols were specially developed for this expedition, including construction of a permanent clean room facility and a stainless steel seawater intake system on the I/B ODEN as well as two mobile 370 l ice-melting systems. Similar concentrations were found in several ice-associated compartments. For instance, the concentration of one of the most abundant congeners, PCB 52, was typically on the order of 0.1-0.3 pg l -1 in the dissolved (melted) phase of the ice, snow, IIW, and underlying seawater while its particulate organic-carbon (POC) normalized concentrations were around 1-3 ng gPOC -1 in the ice, snow, IIW, and IRS. The solid-water distribution of PCBs in ice was well correlated with and predictable from K ow (ice log K oc -log K ow regressions: p 2 =0.78-0.98, n=9), indicating near-equilibrium partitioning of PCBs within each local ice system. These results do generally not evidence the existence of physical microenvironments with locally elevated POP exposures. However, there were some indications that the ice-associated system had harbored local environments with higher exposure levels earlier/before the melting/vegetative season, as a few samples had PCB concentrations elevated by factors of 5-10 relative to the typical values, and the elevated levels were predominantly found at the station where melting had putatively progressed the least. The very low PCB concentrations and absence of any significant concentration gradients, both

  5. Determination of the dominant resonance pole of the three-neutron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, K.

    1981-03-01

    The resonance behaviour of a system of three neutrons interacting via s-wave separable Yamaguchi potential is considered. For the quantum numbers (T,S,Lsup(π)) = (3/2, 1/2, 1 - ) the dominating pole of the S-matrix is determined by applying contour deformation technique to solve the homogeneous Faddeev equation on the nonphysical sheets of the S-matrix. For the positions and the asymptotic normalization constant of the dominating pole pair the values z 3 = (-88.0 +- i 27.9) keV and Csub(p) 2 = -0.05 +- i 0.1 are obtained. Although the pole pair is close to the real axis in the complex energy plane it is not expected to cause an observable experimental effect due to the smallness of the asymptotic normalization constant. (author)

  6. Velocity Induced by a Plane Uniform Vortex Having the Schwarz Function of Its Boundary with Two Simple Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riccardi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The velocity induced by a plane, uniform vortex is investigated through the use of an integral relation between Schwarz function of the vortex boundary and conjugate of the velocity. The analysis is restricted to a certain class of vortices, the boundaries of which are described through conformal maps onto the unit circle and the corresponding Schwarz functions possess two poles in the plane of the circle. The dependence of the velocity field on the vortex shape is investigated by comparing velocity and streamfunction with the ones of the equivalent Rankine vortex (which has the same vorticity, area, and center of vorticity. By changing the parameters of the Schwarz function (poles and corresponding residues, rather complicated vortex shapes can be easily analyzed, some of them mimicing an incipient filamentation of the vortex boundary.

  7. THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF AMOSC FROM THE THEORIES OF EXPORT BASIS AND POLES OF GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Cezar Arend

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Development is very present in speeches, discussions and studies by different institutions and an area that is gaining ground is the regional development. From this observation, we sought to identify the presence of theoretical preconditions that influence the development of a region, taking as reference the theories of the export basis and growth poles. The chosen area was the Association of Municipalities of West Santa Catarina - AMOSC - that parts from West Santa Catarina, known by the presence of meat (poultry and pigs processing agribusiness. Its effective occupation occurred after the arrival of immigrants from Rio Grande do Sul and market-oriented economic activities began with the timber and, subsequently, with diversified agricultural production, carried out on small rural properties. The business capital was the basis for the implementation of refrigerators for the processing of meat and swine products and the expansion of agribusiness occurred from the integration with the farmers who supplied the raw material for the industry. Regarding the theories analyzed, it was found that the agribusiness of meat processing and meat products played the role of industry-driving; in other words, boosted the development of other activities and industries. Agribusiness also represents the export basis, which promoted the economic expansion of AMOSC.

  8. Investigation of a less rare-earth permanent-magnet machine with the consequent pole rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jingang; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Mingqiao; Zheng, Ping; Liu, Yong; Gao, Haibo; Xiao, Lijun

    2018-05-01

    Due to the rising price of rare-earth materials, permanent-magnet (PM) machines in different applications have a trend of reducing the use of rare-earth materials. Since iron-core poles replace half of PM poles in the consequent pole (CP) rotor, the PM machine with CP rotor can be a promising candidate for less rare-earth PM machine. Additionally, the investigation of CP rotor in special electrical machines, like hybrid excitation permanent-magnet PM machine, bearingless motor, etc., has verified the application feasibility of CP rotor. Therefore, this paper focuses on design and performance of PM machines when traditional PM machine uses the CP rotor. In the CP rotor, all the PMs are of the same polarity and they are inserted into the rotor core. Since the fundamental PM flux density depends on the ratio of PM pole to iron-core pole, the combination rule between them is investigated by analytical and finite-element methods. On this basis, to comprehensively analyze and evaluate PM machine with CP rotor, four typical schemes, i.e., integer-slot machines with CP rotor and surface-mounted PM (SPM) rotor, fractional-slot machines with CP rotor and SPM rotor, are designed to investigate the performance of PM machine with CP rotor, including electromagnetic performance, anti-demagnetization capacity and cost.

  9. The effects of poling on physiological, kinematic and kinetic responses in roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasaas, Erik; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effects of poling on physiological, kinematic and kinetic responses in the G4 skating technique where the poling movement is synchronized with the leg push-off on one side (strong side) followed by a forward arm swing during the leg push-off on the other side (weak side). G4 skating with (G4-P) and without (G4-NP) poling was compared in 17 elite male cross-country skiers during 4-min submaximal tests on a 2% inclined roller ski treadmill at 10, 15 and 20 km h(-1). G4-P demonstrated less ventilatory stress and higher gross efficiency compared to G4-NP at all velocities, and the blood lactate concentration was lower at the high velocity (all P ski forces, increased ski velocities and less angling and edging of the skis (all P ski forces on the strong side were lower than on the weak side with G4-P at all velocities (all P ski forces at a given work rate with G4-P demonstrate the effectiveness of poling in the G4 skating technique. Thus, poling provides possibilities to increase total propulsion, to reduce ski forces and to enhance skiing efficiency.

  10. Reanalysis of Clementine Bistatic Radar Data from the Lunar South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard A.; Tyler, G. Leonard

    1998-01-01

    On 9 April 1994 the Clementine spacecraft high-gain antenna was aimed toward the Moon's surface and the resulting 13-cm wavelength radio echoes were received on Earth. Using these data, we have found that the lunar surface generally follows a Lambertian bistatic scattering function sigma(sub 0) = K(sub D)cos(theta(sub i) with K(sub D) approx. 0.003 for the opposite (expected) sense of circular polarization and K(sub D) approx. 0.001 for the same (unexpected) sense. But there are important deviations-of up to 50% in some parts of the echo spectrum-from this simple form. Based on an earlier analysis of these same data, Nozette et al. claimed detection of an enhancement in echoes with right circular polarization from regions near the South Pole in a near-backscatter geometry. Such behavior would be consistent with presence of perhaps large quantities of water ice near the Pole. We have been unable to reproduce that result. Although we find weak suggestions of enhanced echoes at the time of South Pole backscatter, similar features are present at earlier and later times, adjacent frequencies, and in left circular polarization. If enhanced backscatter is present, it is not unique to the South Pole; if not unique to the Pole, then ice is less likely as an explanation for the enhancement.

  11. Different temperature and cooling patterns at the blunt and sharp egg poles reflect the arrangement of eggs in an avian clutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šálek, Miroslav E; Zárybnická, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is an energetically demanding process during which birds apply heat to their eggs to ensure embryonic development. Parent behaviours such as egg turning and exchanging the outer and central eggs in the nest cup affect the amount of heat lost to the environment from individual eggs. Little is known, however, about whether and how egg surface temperature and cooling rates vary among the different areas of an egg and how the arrangement of eggs within the clutch influences heat loss. We performed laboratory (using Japanese quail eggs) and field (with northern lapwing eggs) experiments using infrared imaging to assess the temperature and cooling patterns of heated eggs and clutches. We found that (i) the sharp poles of individual quail eggs warmed to a higher egg surface temperature than did the blunt poles, resulting in faster cooling at the sharp poles compared to the blunt poles; (ii) both quail and lapwing clutches with the sharp poles oriented towards the clutch centre (arranged clutches) maintained higher temperatures over the central part of the clutch than occurred in those clutches where most of the sharp egg poles were oriented towards the exterior (scattered clutches); and (iii) the arranged clutches of both quail and lapwing showed slower cooling rates at both the inner and outer clutch positions than did the respective parts of scattered clutches. Our results demonstrate that egg surface temperature and cooling rates differ between the sharp and blunt poles of the egg and that the orientation of individual eggs within the nest cup can significantly affect cooling of the clutch as a whole. We suggest that birds can arrange their eggs within the nest cup to optimise thermoregulation of the clutch.

  12. Influence of the density pole on the performances of its gamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we aim at highlighting the in uence of the density pole on the performances of its gamma-kernel estimator. To do this, we performed a comparative study for the performances of the gamma-kernel estimators with those provided by other bias effect correction techniques at the bounds, using the simulation ...

  13. Application of ring lasers to determine the directions to the poles of Earth's rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyaev, Yu D; Kolbas, Yu Yu

    2012-01-01

    Application of a ring laser to determine the directions to the poles of Earth's rotation is considered. The maximum accuracy of determining the directions is calculated, physical and technical mechanisms that limit the accuracy are analysed, and the instrumental errors are estimated by the example of ring He — Ne lasers with Zeeman biasing. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Improvement of the piezoelectric properties of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites by poling treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S M; Hwang, H Y

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a new non-destructive method has been proposed for damage monitoring of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials using the piezoelectric characteristics of a polymeric matrix. Several studies of the piezoelectric properties of unidirectional glass fiber epoxy composites and damage monitoring of double-cantilever beams have supported the claim that the piezoelectric method is feasible and powerful enough to monitor the damage of glass fiber epoxy composites. Generally, conventional piezoelectric materials have higher piezoelectric characteristics through poling treatment. In this work, we investigated the change of the piezoelectric properties of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites before and after poling treatment. The piezoelectric constants (d 33 ) of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites increased by more than 400%. Also, x-ray diffraction tests revealed that poling treatment changed the degree of crystallinity of the epoxy matrix, and this led to the improvement of the piezoelectric characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites. (paper)

  15. Pole-vaulting program of the energy sector: the Philippines: an energy exporter: a program for pole-vaulting into the 21-st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balce, Guillermo R.

    1997-01-01

    Focus on ocean, solar and wind energy resources is emphasized in the proposed program as the means to achieve the goal of converting the Philippines into an energy exporter in the future. A nationwide assessment of the availability of these renewable resources for large-scale energy generation is first in the series of activities proposed. Establishment of a renewable energy resource administration system expected to open up wide opportunities for private sector participation. A center for renewable energy development and application is envisioned to provide leadership and technical guidance. Short-term targets include: a) establishment of solar manufacturing plants in the country; b) extensive application of solar energy systems such as solar water heaters, solar pumps and solar refrigerators; c) piloting of one megawatt tidal current plant in an appropriate site such as in San Bernardino Strait, Hinatuan Passage and Basiao Channel; and d) design and packaging of power plants for specific areas identified through accurate resource assessment. Long-term targets include: a) establishment of an Asian power grid; b) establishment of an Asian power market centered in the Philippines; c) construction of large-scale ocean, solar and wind power plants; and d) establishment of manufacturing industries for various facets of ocean, solar and wind power systems. Development of ocean, solar and wind energy systems would provide the Philippines the technological and economic advantage to approach the goal of becoming an energy exporter in the future. If the pole-vaulting program is seriously pursued from now, the Philippines would have the superiority in energy technology and resource availability twenty years hence when neighboring countries would start feeling the problem of dwindling fossil fuels that they have in abundance at present. (author)

  16. Morpho-functional characterization of the systemic venous pole of the reptile heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Vesterskov, Signe; Boukens, Bastiaan J.; Nielsen, Jan M.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Wang, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Mammals evolved from reptile-like ancestors, and while the mammalian heart is driven by a distinct sinus node, a sinus node is not apparent in reptiles. We characterized the myocardial systemic venous pole, the sinus venosus, in reptiles to identify the dominant pacemaker and to assess whether the

  17. WDR62 is associated with the spindle pole and is mutated in human microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Adeline K; Khurshid, Maryam; Désir, Julie; Carvalho, Ofélia P; Cox, James J; Thornton, Gemma; Kausar, Rizwana; Ansar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Wasim; Verloes, Alain; Passemard, Sandrine; Misson, Jean-Paul; Lindsay, Susan; Gergely, Fanni; Dobyns, William B; Roberts, Emma; Abramowicz, Marc; Woods, C Geoffrey

    2010-11-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a disorder of neurodevelopment resulting in a small brain. We identified WDR62 as the second most common cause of MCPH after finding homozygous missense and frame-shifting mutations in seven MCPH families. In human cell lines, we found that WDR62 is a spindle pole protein, as are ASPM and STIL, the MCPH7 and MCHP7 proteins. Mutant WDR62 proteins failed to localize to the mitotic spindle pole. In human and mouse embryonic brain, we found that WDR62 expression was restricted to neural precursors undergoing mitosis. These data lend support to the hypothesis that the exquisite control of the cleavage furrow orientation in mammalian neural precursor cell mitosis, controlled in great part by the centrosomes and spindle poles, is critical both in causing MCPH when perturbed and, when modulated, generating the evolutionarily enlarged human brain.

  18. Effect of the upper limbs muscles activity on the mechanical energy gain in pole vaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-chollet, Claire

    2012-04-01

    The shoulder muscles are highly solicited in pole vaulting and may afford energy gain. The objective of this study was to determine the bilateral muscle activity of the upper-limbs to explain the actions performed by the vaulter to bend the pole and store elastic energy. Seven experienced athletes performed 5-10 vaults which were recorded using two video cameras (50Hz). The mechanical energy of the centre of gravity (CG) was computed, while surface electromyographic (EMG) profiles were recorded from 5 muscles bilateral: deltoideus, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, triceps, and latissimus dorsi muscles. The level of intensity from EMG profile was retained in four sub phases between take-off (TO1) and complete pole straightening (PS). The athletes had a mean mechanical energy gain of 22% throughout the pole vault, while the intensities of deltoideus, biceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi muscles were sub phases-dependent (pmuscle activation. The gain in mechanical energy of the vaulter could be linked to an increase in muscle activation, especially from latissimusdorsi muscles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling the starting performance of high power solid rotor salient pole synchronous motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.; Sadowski, N. [GRUCAD/Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Grander, L.O. [ELETROSUL Power Stations S.A., Florianopolis, SC 88040-901 (Brazil); Ruencos, F.; Ogawa, C.; Fo, F.J. Doubrawa [WEG Energy, Jaragua do Sul, SC 89256-900 (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    A computer model, including analytical and FEM formulations, was developed to calculate the starting performance of synchronous motors with solid rotor salient poles. Using quasi-steady state equations, the average and the envelope of the oscillating electromagnetic torque as well as the stator rms current are calculated. With the stator current, the rotor pole losses are evaluated by FEM. The complete simulation process is performed by self-contained software composed by several computational modules properly tiled to simplify the work of a design engineer. The calculated starting performance was compared to experimental results showing satisfactory consistency. (author)

  20. The new Permian-Triassic paleomagnetic pole for the East European Platform corrected for inclination shallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisova, A. M.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Scholze, F.; Balabanov, Yu. P.

    2018-01-01

    The results of detailed paleomagnetic studies in seven Upper Permian and Lower Triassic reference sections of East Europe (Middle Volga and Orenburg region) and Central Germany are presented. For each section, the coefficient of inclination shallowing f (King, 1955) is estimated by the Elongation-Inclination (E-I) method (Tauxe and Kent, 2004) and is found to vary from 0.4 to 0.9. The paleomagnetic directions, corrected for the inclination shallowing, are used to calculate the new Late Permian-Early Triassic paleomagnetic pole for the East European Platform (N = 7, PLat = 52.1°, PLong = 155.8°, A95 = 6.6°). Based on this pole, the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis close to the Paleozoic/Mesozoic boundary is tested by the single plate method. The absence of the statistically significant distinction between the obtained pole and the average Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) paleomagnetic pole of the Siberian Platform and the coeval pole of the North American Platform corrected for the opening of the Atlantic (Shatsillo et al., 2006) is interpreted by us as evidence that 250 Ma the configuration of the magnetic field of the Earth was predominantly dipolar; i.e., the contribution of nondipole components was at most 10% of the main magnetic field. In our opinion, the hypothesis of the nondipolity of the geomagnetic field at the P-Tr boundary, which has been repeatedly discussed in recent decades (Van der Voo and Torsvik, 2001; Bazhenov and Shatsillo, 2010; Veselovskiy and Pavlov, 2006), resulted from disregarding the effect of inclination shallowing in the paleomagnetic determinations from sedimentary rocks of "stable" Europe (the East European platform and West European plate).

  1. The effect of pole's height on the output performance of solar power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy is a renewable (non-conventional) source of energy supply that has been used as a reliable energy source in view of its economic importance and its wide range of applications. In this study the effect of pole's height on the output performance of solar power system has been investigated. A solar panel of 45 ...

  2. High-mast light poles anchor nut loosening in Alaska : an investigation of field monitoring and finite-element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    High mast lighting poles (HMLPs) are tall, roadside structures effective for lighting large areas of highways and intersections. The Alaska Department of Transportation : and Public Facilities (AKDOT&PF) maintains 118 such poles in the greater Anchor...

  3. A magnetostatic calculation of fringing field for the Rogowski pole boundary with floating snake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Chen; Fan Ming-Wu

    1984-01-01

    A boundary integral method has been used to calculate the fringing field distribution of Rogowski pole boundary with floating snake for QMG2 type of QDDD magnetic spectrograph and the experimental EFB is nearly reproduced from BIM calculation. As a further criteria, a calculation for clamped Rogowski pole but without snake is also performed and the calculated EFB shows perfect identity with the experiment. For evaluating the effect of snake quantitatively, this work also predicts the EFB values for two different positions of snake

  4. Scientific Goals of the IceCube Neutrino Detector at the South Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Goldschmidt, A

    2002-01-01

    IceCube is a proposed ice-Cherenkov kilometer scale neutrino telescope, to be located at the South Pole. Its science potential covers a wide range of topics from Active Galatic Nuclei and Gamma Ray Bursters neutrino emission to WIMP annihilation into neutrinos.

  5. LRO-LAMP Observations of Illumination Conditions in the Lunar South Pole: Multi-Dataset and Model Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, Kathleen; Mazarico, Erwan; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Byron, Ben; Retherford, Kurt D.; Gladstone, Randy; Liu, Yang; Hendrix, Amanda R.; Hurley, Dana; Stickle, Angela; Wes Patterson, G.; Cahill, Joshua; Williams, Jean-Pierre

    2017-10-01

    The south pole of the Moon is an area of great interest for exploration and scientific research because many low-lying regions are permanently shaded and are likely to trap volatiles for extended periods of time, while adjacent topographic highs can experience extended periods of sunlight. One of the goals of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is to characterize the temporal variability of illumination of the lunar polar regions for the benefit of future exploration efforts. We use far ultraviolet (FUV) observations made by the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) to evaluate illumination at the lunar south pole (within 5° of the pole).LAMP observations are made through passive remote sensing in the FUV wavelength range of 57-196 nm using reflected sunlight during daytime observations and reflected light from the IPM and UV-bright stars during nighttime observations. In this study we focused on the region within 5° of the pole, and produced maps using nighttime data taken between September 2009 and February 2014. Summing over long time periods is necessary to obtain sufficient signal to noise. Many of the maps produced for this study show excess brightness in the “Off Band”, or 155-190 nm, because sunlight scattered into the PSRs is most evident in this wavelength range.LAMP observes the highest rate of scattered sunlight in two large PSRs during nighttime observations: Haworth and Shoemaker. We focus on these craters for comparisons with an illumination model and other LRO datasets. We find that the observations of scattered sunlight do not agree with model predictions. However, preliminary results comparing LAMP maps with other LRO datasets show a correlation between LAMP observations of scattered sunlight and Diviner measurements for maximum temperature.

  6. WDR62 is associated with the spindle pole and is mutated in human microcephaly

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas, Adeline K; Khurshid, Maryam; Désir, Julie; Carvalho, Ofélia P; Cox, James J; Thornton, Gemma; Kausar, Rizwana; Ansar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Wasim; Verloes, Alain; Passemard, Sandrine; Misson, Jean-Paul; Lindsay, Susan; Gergely, Fanni; Dobyns, William B

    2010-01-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a disorder of neurodevelopment resulting in a small brain1,2. We identified WDR62 as the second most common cause of MCPH after finding homozygous missense and frame-shifting mutations in seven MCPH families. In human cell lines, we found that WDR62 is a spindle pole protein, as are ASPM and STIL, the MCPH7 and MCHP7 proteins3–5. Mutant WDR62 proteins failed to localize to the mitotic spindle pole. In human and mouse embryonic brain, we found...

  7. Lower pole stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Millan, Felix

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess efficacy and safety of prone- and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of lower pole kidney stones. METHODS: Data from patients affected by lower pole kidney stones and treated with PCNL between December 2005 and August 2010 were collected retrospectively...... by seven referral centres. Variables analysed included patient demographics, clinical and surgical characteristics, stone-free rates (SFR) and complications. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the differences for SFRs and complication rates between prone- and supine PCNL. RESULTS: One hundred...... seventeen patients underwent PCNL (mean stone size: 19.5 mm) for stones harboured only in the lower renal pole (single stone: 53.6 %; multiple stones: 46.4 %). A higher proportion of patients with ASA score ≥ 3 and harbouring multiple lower pole stones were treated with supine PCNL (5.8 vs. 23.1 %; p = 0...

  8. Centered On The Pole: NCEI Interdisciplinary Arctic Data Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweng, M.

    2016-02-01

    In 2014, NOAA's data centers (National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanographic Data Center, National Geophysical Data Center and its affiliated program within the National Snow and Ice Data Center, and the National Coastal Data Development Center) merged to form NCEI, the National Centers for Environmental Information- the largest repository of publicly accessible earth system science data in the world. The merger has forced a reconciling of different workflows, data types, and cultures. However, the Arctic has emerged as a common area where the different centers can integrate their expertise, data assets, and services, and use this information to better align the entire organization. The centers face a unique challenge as they move forward: how to archive, steward and provide access to environmental data to fulfil their mission of providing the best information to help protect life and property. A pressing national need for information that supports policy decisions drives our work.

  9. Volume of Impact Melt Generated by the Formation of the South Pole-Aitken Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Noah E.

    2011-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest, deepest, and oldest identified basin on the Moon and as such contains surfaces that are unique due to their age, composition, and depth of origin in the lunar crust [1-5] (Figure 1). SPA has been a target of intense interest as an area for robotic sample return in order to determine the age of the basin and the composition and origin of its interior [6-8]. In response to this interest there have been several efforts to estimate the likely provenance of regolith material within central SPA [9-12]. These model estimates suggest that, despite the formation of basins and craters following SPA, the regolith within SPA is dominated by locally derived material. An assumption of these models has been that the locally derived material is primarily SPA impact-melt as opposed to local basement material (e.g. unmelted lower crust). However, the definitive identification of SPA derived impact melt on the basin floor, either by remote sensing [5, 13] or via photogeology [2, 14] is extremely difficult due to the number of subsequent impacts and volcanic activity [4].

  10. Mythos of the North Pole: The Top of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi K. Frank

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Not a few early twentieth-century cultural histories conceive of the development of humanity in modern times as a northward shift of the civilizational centre. In this thinking, they transform into narrative and geography the static image of a cosmos constructed along one axis of the globe, based on the Christian story of salvation. In this notion of the cosmos, with its upward-oriented vertical axis understood as a sign of hierarchical order, these histories refer back to a global symbolic legacy with origins in the cosmologies of very different cultures: the idea of the world as a mountain, the world with a mountain and a summit at its centre. In my article I trace the history of this image and its visualization from European antiquity onto the peak of heroic modernism in the first half of the twentieth century. In conclusion I ask what kind of transformation this image underwent to survive in our (still post-heroic times.

  11. Mythos of the North Pole: The Top of the World

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Susi K.

    2015-01-01

    Not a few early twentieth-century cultural histories conceive of the development of humanity in modern times as a northward shift of the civilizational centre. In this thinking, they transform into narrative and geography the static image of a cosmos constructed along one axis of the globe, based on the Christian story of salvation. In this notion of the cosmos, with its upward-oriented vertical axis understood as a sign of hierarchical order, these histories refer back to a global symbolic l...

  12. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Dawson, Richard Nils [Voorheesville, NY; Qu, Ronghai [Clifton Park, NY; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich [Moscow, RU

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  13. Effect of changing the pole profile in a gradient septum magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.G.A.M.

    1977-05-01

    A tapered-pole gradient septum magnet was fitted with wedge-shaped shims to make the gap parallel. The resulting field was measured and compared with the predicted field from the GFUN magnetostatic computer program. A method of estimating the beam loss due to kick non-uniformity is presented. (author)

  14. Lower pole caliceal stone clearance after ESWL: the effect of infundibulopelvic angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojanapiwat, B; Soonthornpun, S; Wudhikarn, S

    1999-09-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) represents the first choice therapy for renoureteral stone disease. Clinical controversy exists concerning the efficacy of ESWL for lower pole kidney stones. Nowadays, the factors that hinder the spontaneous passage of stone debris that results from ESWL of lower caliceal stone are the gravity-dependent position of the lower pole calices and particular features of the inferior-pole collecting system anatomy. We studied the influence of the lower infundibulo-pelvic in the success of ESWL of lower caliceal stones 10-20 millimeters in size in 50 patients with STORZ MODULITH SL-20 machine. At the mean follow-up of 6 months, only 44 per cent of the patients presenting with an infundibulo-pelvic angle of les than 90 degrees became stone free. On the other hand, 86 per cent of the patients presenting with an infundibulo-pelvic angle of greater than 90 degrees became stone free. Our data suggest that acute infundibulo-pelvic angle of the lower pole hinders the spontaneous passage of fragments after ESWL.

  15. Monitoring with a modified Robel pole on meadows in the central Black Hills of South Dakaota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Ted A. Benzon

    2007-01-01

    This study using a modified Robel pole was conducted in the central Black Hills, South Dakota. The objectives were to test the relationship between visual obstruction readings and standing herbage, develop guidelines for monitoring, and estimate sample size. The relationship between visual obstruction and standing herbage was linear with 2 segments in a piecewise model...

  16. Transient eastward-propagating long-period waves observed over the South Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Palo

    Full Text Available Observations of the horizontal wind field over the South Pole were made during 1995 using a meteor radar. These data have revealed the presence of a rich spectrum of waves over the South Pole with a distinct annual occurrence. Included in this spectrum are long-period waves, whose periods are greater than one solar day, which are propagating eastward. These waves exhibit a distinct seasonal occurrence where the envelope of wave periods decreases from a period of 10 days near the fall equinox to a minimum of 2 days near the winter solstice and then progresses towards a period near 10 days at the spring equinox. Computation of the meridional gradient of quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity has revealed a region in the high-latitude upper mesosphere which could support an instability and serve as a source for these waves. Estimation of the wave periods which would be generated from an instability in this region closely resembles the observed seasonal variation in wave periods over the South Pole. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the observed eastward propagating long-period waves over the South Pole are generated by an instability in the polar upper mesosphere. However, given our limited data set we cannot rule out a stratospheric source. Embedded in this spectrum of eastward propagating waves during the austral winter are a number of distinct wave events. Eight such wave events have been identified and localized using a constant-Q filter bank. The periods of these wave events ranges from 1.7 to 9.8 days and all exist for at least 3 wave periods. Least squares analysis has revealed that a number of these events are inconsistent with a wave propagating zonally around the geographic pole and could be related to waves propagating around a dynamical pole which is offset from the geographic pole. Additionally, one event which was observed appears to be a standing oscillation.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric

  17. Subtotal splenectomy preserving the lower pole in rats: technical, morphological and functional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Danilo Nagib Salomão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the possibility of preserving the lower pole of the spleen, supplied by the inferior lobar vessels and segmental vessels, or by vessels of the gastrosplenic ligament, in subtotal splenectomy; to study the viability and function of the lower pole of the spleen. METHODS: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were used in this study. Said animals weighed 273-390 g ( 355.2 ? 30.5 g , and were randomly distributed into three groups. Group 1 comprised ten animals which were submitted to exploratory laparotomy with spleen manipulation (sham operation. Group 2 comprised 16 animals which were submitted to total splenectomy. Group 3 comprised ten animals which were submitted to subtotal splenectomy, preserving the lower pole of the spleen. Blood was collected from all animals before and 90 days after surgery to measure the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. The animals were sacrificed 90 days after surgery. Spleens and remaining spleens were removed for macroscopic and microscopic examination. RESULTS: Surgery was performed with no complications in all groups. Six animals died in group 2. Spleens of groups 1 and 2, and lower poles of group 3 were macroscopically viable. Apparent white pulp hyperplasia was observed in group 1. In group 3, slight inflammation and capsular fibrosis were observed at the incision site, as well as diffuse hemosiderosis in the red pulp. Average mass of remaining spleen was 35.84% ? 4.31%. No significant difference was observed between preoperative and late postoperative lipid levels in groups 1 and 3 (p > 0.05. Late postoperative lipid levels significantly increased in group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Preservation of the lower pole of the spleen (supplied by gastrosplenic vessels or inferior lobar vessels and segmental vessels was possible with subtotal splenectomy. The lower pole was macroscopically and microscopically viable in all cases. Subtotal splenectomy preserving the lower pole prevented changes in lipid levels

  18. Application of the Matrix Pencil Method for Estimating the SEM (Singularity Expansion Method) Poles of Source Free Transient Responses From Multiple Look Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2000-01-01

    .... The SEM poles are independent of the angle at which the transient response is recorded. The only difference between the various waveforms are that the residues at the various poles are of different magnitudes...

  19. Phloem unloading in Arabidopsis roots is convective and regulated by the phloem-pole pericycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Elliott, Timothy J.; Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Haaning, Katrine S.

    2017-01-01

    by a unique class of 'funnel plasmodesmata'. While solutes are unloaded without restriction, large proteins are released through funnel plasmodesmata in discrete pulses, a phenomenon we refer to as 'batch unloading'. Unlike solutes, these proteins remain restricted to the phloem-pole pericycle. Our data...

  20. On the factorization of universal poles in a theory of gravitating point particles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1988-01-01

    A theory is considered in which point-like particles scatter only gravitationally and electromagnetically but no other exchanges are taken into account. The two-particle amplitude at high s, low t, as computed before, has universal poles at s values whose imaginary parts are integer positive numbers

  1. Genetic reporter system for positioning of proteins at the bacterial pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixen, Kathryn R; Janakiraman, Anuradha; Garrity, Sean; Slade, Daniel J; Gray, Andrew N; Karahan, Nilay; Hochschild, Ann; Goldberg, Marcia B

    2012-01-01

    Spatial organization within bacteria is fundamental to many cellular processes, although the basic mechanisms underlying localization of proteins to specific sites within bacteria are poorly understood. The study of protein positioning has been limited by a paucity of methods that allow rapid large-scale screening for mutants in which protein positioning is altered. We developed a genetic reporter system for protein localization to the pole within the bacterial cytoplasm that allows saturation screening for mutants in Escherichia coli in which protein localization is altered. Utilizing this system, we identify proteins required for proper positioning of the Shigella autotransporter IcsA. Autotransporters, widely distributed bacterial virulence proteins, are secreted at the bacterial pole. We show that the conserved cell division protein FtsQ is required for localization of IcsA and other autotransporters to the pole. We demonstrate further that this system can be applied to the study of proteins other than autotransporters that display polar positioning within bacterial cells. Many proteins localize to specific sites within bacterial cells, and localization to these sites is frequently critical to proper protein function. The mechanisms that underlie protein localization are incompletely understood, in part because of the paucity of methods that allow saturation screening for mutants in which protein localization is altered. We developed a genetic reporter assay that enables screening of bacterial populations for changes in localization of proteins to the bacterial pole, and we demonstrate the utility of the system in identifying factors required for proper localization of the polar Shigella autotransporter protein IcsA. Using this method, we identify the conserved cell division protein FtsQ as being required for positioning of IcsA to the bacterial pole. We demonstrate further that the requirement for FtsQ for polar positioning applies to other autotransporters

  2. Analysis of the state of poling of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) particles in a Zn-ionomer composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.; Comyn, T.; Hall, D.; Daniel, L.; Kleppe, A.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    The poling behaviour of tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic particles in a weakly conductive ionomer polymer matrix is investigated using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis. The poling efficiency, crystallographic texture and lattice strain of the PZT

  3. The LASP Climate Change Compendium: Looking at Climate Change at the Poles for IPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E.; Marks, N.; Cobabe-Ammann, E.; Harvey, L.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding our climate, how it's changing, and how it is impacting the poles is an important gateway to understanding global warming. The International Polar Year (2007-2008) allows us an opportunity to focus on climate change at the poles and look at how it may impact the rest of the globe. The Climate Change Compendium compiles 40 outstanding inquiry-based lessons and activities from a number of sources for grades 3-12. Students learn about the greenhouse effect, natural and human climate records, albedos, feedback loops, and how these factors are affecting the Earth's polar regions. Teachers using the compendium are provided with background, image banks, extension exercises, and evaluation tools. The Climate Change Compendium is the third in the LASP compendium series, which includes Space Weather and Outer Planets.

  4. IceCube - the next generation neutrino telescope at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karle, A.; Ahrens, J.; Bahcall, J.N.; Bai, X.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Besson, D.Z.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Boeser, S.; Bohm, C.; Botner, O.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, Th.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Dingus, B.; Ellsworth, R.; Evenson, P.A.; Fazely, A.R.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultgvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G.S.; Koepke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madson, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Seckel, D.; Solarz, M.; Sparke, L.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Stanev, T.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sudhoff, P.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G.W.; Sumners, T.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, Ch.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yoshida, Sh

    2003-04-01

    IceCube is a large neutrino telescope of the next generation to be constructed in the Antarctic Ice Sheet near theSouth Pole. We present the conceptual design and the sensitivity of the IceCube detector to predicted fluxes of neutrinos, both atmospheric and extra-terrestrial. A complete simulation of the detector design has been used to study the detector's capability to search for neutrinos from sources such as active galaxies, and gamma-ray bursts.

  5. TRACKING THE SOLAR CYCLE THROUGH IBEX OBSERVATIONS OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM FLUX VARIATIONS AT THE HELIOSPHERIC POLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Janzen, P. H. [University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States); Bzowski, M., E-mail: dan.reisenfeld@umontana.edu, E-mail: paul.janzen@umontana.edu, E-mail: bzowski@cbk.waw.pl [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, (CBK PAN), Bartycka 18A, 00-716, Warsaw (Poland); and others

    2016-12-20

    With seven years of Interstellar Boundary Explorer ( IBEX ) observations, from 2009 to 2015, we can now trace the time evolution of heliospheric energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) through over half a solar cycle. At the north and south ecliptic poles, the spacecraft attitude allows for continuous coverage of the ENA flux; thus, signal from these regions has much higher statistical accuracy and time resolution than anywhere else in the sky. By comparing the solar wind dynamic pressure measured at 1 au with the heliosheath plasma pressure derived from the observed ENA fluxes, we show that the heliosheath pressure measured at the poles correlates well with the solar cycle. The analysis requires time-shifting the ENA measurements to account for the travel time out and back from the heliosheath, which allows us to estimate the scale size of the heliosphere in the polar directions. We arrive at an estimated distance to the center of the ENA source region in the north of 220 au and in the south a distance of 190 au. We also find a good correlation between the solar cycle and the ENA energy spectra at the poles. In particular, the ENA flux for the highest IBEX energy channel (4.3 keV) is quite closely correlated with the areas of the polar coronal holes, in both the north and south, consistent with the notion that polar ENAs at this energy originate from pickup ions of the very high speed wind (∼700 km s{sup −1}) that emanates from polar coronal holes.

  6. Poles apart. The liberalization of the Dutch energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, N.

    2003-01-01

    An overview is given of the political and decision making process of the energy market liberalization in the Netherlands, based on interviews with and opinions of former ministers, representatives of the Dutch parliament, administrators, and other highplaced representatives of local governments, associations and energy companies [nl

  7. Osteochondrosis of the Superior Pole of the Patella: Two Cases with Histologic Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Wakenda; McCarthy, Edward F

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of osteochondrosis of the superior pole of the patella are reported with histologic findings. Both patients were young girls; one had mild cerebral palsy. Sixteen cases of this disorder have been documented but without histologic study. The histologic features of these two cases showed osteonecrosis with reparative changes. These findings support that this entity is similar to other osteochondroses of the quadriceps mechanism: Osgood-Schlatter disease and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease. PMID:12180619

  8. Extreme Environments: The Ghetto and the South Pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Chester M.

    Extreme environments, such as polar regions or space crafts, provide an analogue for speculations concerning the needs of, educational provisions for, and environmental impacts on ghetto youth in kindergarten through the third grade. This discussion first centers on the common qualities of an extreme environment (whether exotic or mundane): forced…

  9. Seminar | "Managing Italian research stations at the Poles" by Roberto Sparapani | 19 February

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Polar areas are an ideal place to study climate change and other research fields. However, living and working at the Poles is a challenge for all the researchers involved. This presentation by Roberto Sparapani, who led the Italian research station Dirigibile Italia at Ny-Ålesund from 1997 to 2014, will take a short trip through the research and history of polar science - with a focus on the human factor, which makes a difference in a natural environment that leaves no room for improvisation.   The seminar will be held on 19 February at 4.30 p.m. in the Main Auditorium. It will be followed by a screening of Paola Catapano’s documentary for RAIWORLD “A Nord di Capo nord” (North of Cape North), in Italian with English subtitles. The documentary was given the "Artistic Direction Special Award" at the Rome Scientific Documentary Festival in December 2014. Ny-Ålesund is a small international research village located in the northwest ...

  10. Building on IPY Data, Collaborations and Infrastructure to Understand the Changing Poles (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Krupnik, I.; Hik, D.; Alverson, K. D.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    In contrast to previous IPY programs that were driven by a central organizing group, the 2007-9 IPY emerged from more than 1000 ideas provided by the global science community. This global IPY planning process produced six major themes that framed the IPY programs. Three themes focused on change at the poles, one focused on probing the frontiers of the polar science, one targeted on using the polar regions as vantage points to look beyond into space and a sixth theme targeted integrated studies of polar cultural, historical and social processes. The results of the IPY 2007-9 are just beginning to emerge. Benchmark data sets were acquired such as coordinated imaging of the poles from space, systematic ocean measurements and a census of marine life. IPY programs have documented how ongoing polar change from permafrost to ecosystems varies regionally depending on local conditions. Analysis of past change in ecosystems, sediment cores and numeric models indicate that during periods with elevated temperatures and atmospheric CO2, the West Antarctic ice sheet can collapse repeatedly. Studies of the polar oceans have confirmed a strong connection between the mid-latitudes and polar processes. The efforts to explore the poles have revealed explosive volcanism beneath the Arctic Ocean, strong genetic similarities between microbes at the two poles and dynamic processes at the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet. IPY programs looking beyond the poles imaged new galaxies and identified new linkages between solar output and weather. The early insights from IPY 2007-9 are remarkable. Building on these will be a challenge for the science community and science agencies over the next decade. The IPY data must be archived and made available to the broad science community to ensure it is preserved as a vital benchmark. The collaborations between scientists, agencies, Arctic residents and institutions initiated by the IPY structure must be fostered and continued. Successful scientific

  11. EFFECTS OF RUN-UP VELOCITY ON PERFORMANCE, KINEMATICS, AND ENERGY EXCHANGES IN THE POLE VAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Linthorne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of run-up velocity on the peak height achieved by the athlete in the pole vault and on the corresponding changes in the athlete's kinematics and energy exchanges. Seventeen jumps by an experienced male pole vaulter were video recorded in the sagittal plane and a wide range of run-up velocities (4.5-8.5 m/s was obtained by setting the length of the athlete's run-up (2-16 steps. A selection of performance variables, kinematic variables, energy variables, and pole variables were calculated from the digitized video data. We found that the athlete's peak height increased linearly at a rate of 0.54 m per 1 m/s increase in run-up velocity and this increase was achieved through a combination of a greater grip height and a greater push height. At the athlete's competition run-up velocity (8.4 m/s about one third of the rate of increase in peak height arose from an increase in grip height and about two thirds arose from an increase in push height. Across the range of run-up velocities examined here the athlete always performed the basic actions of running, planting, jumping, and inverting on the pole. However, he made minor systematic changes to his jumping kinematics, vaulting kinematics, and selection of pole characteristics as the run-up velocity increased. The increase in run-up velocity and changes in the athlete's vaulting kinematics resulted in substantial changes to the magnitudes of the energy exchanges during the vault. A faster run-up produced a greater loss of energy during the take-off, but this loss was not sufficient to negate the increase in run-up velocity and the increase in work done by the athlete during the pole support phase. The athlete therefore always had a net energy gain during the vault. However, the magnitude of this gain decreased slightly as run-up velocity increased

  12. The role of the temporal pole in modulating primitive auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiliang; Wang, Qian; You, Yu; Yin, Peng; Ding, Hu; Bao, Xiaohan; Yang, Pengcheng; Lu, Hao; Gao, Yayue; Li, Liang

    2016-04-21

    Primitive auditory memory (PAM), which is recognized as the early point in the chain of the transient auditory memory system, faithfully maintains raw acoustic fine-structure signals for up to 20-30 milliseconds. The neural mechanisms underlying PAM have not been reported in the literature. Previous anatomical, brain-imaging, and neurophysiological studies have suggested that the temporal pole (TP), part of the parahippocampal region in the transitional area between perirhinal cortex and superior/inferior temporal gyri, is involved in auditory memories. This study investigated whether the TP plays a role in mediating/modulating PAM. The longest interaural interval (the interaural-delay threshold) for detecting a break in interaural correlation (BIC) embedded in interaurally correlated wideband noises was used to indicate the temporal preservation of PAM and examined in both healthy listeners and patients receiving unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL, centered on the TP) for treating their temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The results showed that patients with ATL were still able to detect the BIC even when an interaural interval was introduced, regardless of which ear was the leading one. However, in patient participants, the group-mean interaural-delay threshold for detecting the BIC under the contralateral-ear-leading (relative to the side of ATL) condition was significantly shorter than that under the ipsilateral-ear-leading condition. The results suggest that although the TP is not essential for integrating binaural signals and mediating the PAM, it plays a role in top-down modulating the PAM of raw acoustic fine-structure signals from the contralateral ear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of Cavities Using Pole-Dipole Resistivity Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Elawadi, Eslam; El-Qady, Gad; Salem, Ahmed; Ushijima, Keisuke

    2001-01-01

    Using pole-dipole array, electrical resistivity survey was conducted to investigate the subsurface under a subsiding building located in Kita Kyushu area, Japan. The resistivity measurements were acquired along two traverse lines and interpreted using a g

  14. Separate vertical wiring for the fixation of comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung Keun; Yoo, Je Hyun; Byun, Young Soo; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2014-05-01

    Among patients over 50 years of age, separate vertical wiring alone may be insufficient for fixation of fractures of the inferior pole of the patella. Therefore, mechanical and clinical studies were performed in patients over the age of 50 to test the strength of augmentation of separate vertical wiring with cerclage wire (i.e., combined technique). Multiple osteotomies were performed to create four-part fractures in the inferior poles of eight pairs of cadaveric patellae. One patella from each pair was fixed with the separate wiring technique, while the other patella was fixed with a combined technique. The ultimate load to failure and stiffness of the fixation were subsequently measured. In a clinical study of 21 patients (average age of 64 years), comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patellae were treated using the combined technique. Operative parameters were recorded from which post-operative outcomes were evaluated. For cadaveric patellae, whose mean age was 69 years, the mean ultimate loads to failure for the separate vertical wiring technique and the combined technique were 216.4±72.4 N and 324.9±50.6 N, respectively (p=0.012). The mean stiffness for the separate vertical wiring technique and the combined technique was 241.1±68.5 N/mm and 340.8±45.3 N/mm, respectively (p=0.012). In the clinical study, the mean clinical score at final follow-up was 28.1 points. Augmentation of separate vertical wiring with cerclage wire provides enough strength for protected early exercise of the knee joint and uneventful healing.

  15. Forward-Backward Charge Asymmetry of Electron Pairs Above the Z0 Pole at CDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    CDF Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    We present a measurement of the forward-backward charge asymmetry of the process pbar p arrow Z0 / γ+X, Z0 / γ arrow e+e- at Q2 > MZ2, using pbar p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV. The results are from 110 pb-1 of data collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab during the 1992-1993 and 1994-1995 runs of the Fermilab Tevatron. We measure the asymmetry in a region above the Z0 pole for which Mee > 105 GeV/c2 and in a region near the Z0 pole for which 75 GeV/c2 Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; and the A. P. Sloan Foundation. Supported by U.S. NSF PHY-9406402.

  16. On the Distribution of Zeros and Poles of Rational Approximants on Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Andrievskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of zeros and poles of best rational approximants is well understood for the functions (=||, >0. If ∈[−1,1] is not holomorphic on [−1,1], the distribution of the zeros of best rational approximants is governed by the equilibrium measure of [−1,1] under the additional assumption that the rational approximants are restricted to a bounded degree of the denominator. This phenomenon was discovered first for polynomial approximation. In this paper, we investigate the asymptotic distribution of zeros, respectively, -values, and poles of best real rational approximants of degree at most to a function ∈[−1,1] that is real-valued, but not holomorphic on [−1,1]. Generalizations to the lower half of the Walsh table are indicated.

  17. The Effects of Walking or Walking-with-Poles Training on Tissue Oxygenation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen G. Collins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This randomized trial proposed to determine if there were differences in calf muscle StO2 parameters in patients before and after 12 weeks of a traditional walking or walking-with-poles exercise program. Data were collected on 85 patients who were randomized to a traditional walking program ( or walking-with-poles program ( of exercise training. Patients walked for 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Seventy-one patients completed both the baseline and the 12-week follow-up progressive treadmill tests ( traditional walking and walking-with-poles. Using the near-infrared spectroscopy measures, StO2 was measured prior to, during, and after exercise. At baseline, calf muscle oxygenation decreased from % prior to the treadmill test to % at peak exercise. The time elapsed prior to reaching nadir StO2 values increased more in the traditional walking group when compared to the walking-with-poles group. Likewise, absolute walking time increased more in the traditional walking group than in the walking-with-poles group. Tissue oxygenation decline during treadmill testing was less for patients assigned to a 12-week traditional walking program when compared to those assigned to a 12-week walking-with-poles program. In conclusion, the 12-week traditional walking program was superior to walking-with-poles in improving tissue deoxygenation in patients with PAD.

  18. Intrarenal Surgery vs Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in the Management of Lower Pole Stones Greater than 2 cm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Hakan; Yencilek, Faruk; Kalkan, Mehmet; Bastug, Yavuz; Yencilek, Esin; Ozdemir, Ahmet Tunc

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of RIRS and PNL in lower pole stones ≥ 2 cm. Materials and and Methods: A total of 109 patients who underwent PNL or RIRS for solitary lower pole stone between April 2009 and December 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. Lower pole stone was diagnosed with CT scan. Stone size was assessed as the longest axis of the stone. All patients were informed about the advantages, disadvantages and probable complications of both PNL and RIRS before the selection of the procedure. Patients decided the surgery type by themselves without being under any influences and written informed consent was obtained from all patients prior to the surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the patients' preference of surgery type. Group 1 consisted of 77 patients who underwent PNL and Group 2 consisted of 32 patients treated with RIRS. Stone free statuses, postoperative complications, operative time and hospitalization time were compared in both groups. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in mean age, stone size, stone laterality, mean follow-up periods and mean operative times. In PNL group, stone-free rate was 96.1% at first session and 100% after the additional procedure. In Group 2, stone-free rate was 90.6% at the first procedure and 100% after the additional procedure. The final stone-free rates and operative times were similar in both groups. RIRS should be an effective treatment alternative to PNL in lower pole stones larger than 2 cm, especially in selected patients.

  19. Intrarenal Surgery vs Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in the Management of Lower Pole Stones Greater than 2 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Koyuncu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To compare the efficacy of RIRS and PNL in lower pole stones ≥2 cm. Materials and and Methods: A total of 109 patients who underwent PNL or RIRS for solitary lower pole stone between April 2009 and December 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. Lower pole stone was diagnosed with CT scan. Stone size was assessed as the longest axis of the stone. All patients were informed about the advantages, disadvantages and probable complications of both PNL and RIRS before the selection of the procedure. Patients decided the surgery type by themselves without being under any influences and written informed consent was obtained from all patients prior to the surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the patients’ preference of surgery type. Group 1 consisted of 77 patients who underwent PNL and Group 2 consisted of 32 patients treated with RIRS. Stone free statuses, postoperative complications, operative time and hospitalization time were compared in both groups. Results There was no statistical significance between the two groups in mean age, stone size, stone laterality, mean follow-up periods and mean operative times. In PNL group, stone-free rate was 96.1% at first session and 100% after the additional procedure. In Group 2, stone-free rate was 90.6% at the first procedure and 100% after the additional procedure. The final stone-free rates and operative times were similar in both groups. Conclusions RIRS should be an effective treatment alternative to PNL in lower pole stones larger than 2 cm, especially in selected patients.

  20. Neural correlates of auditory recognition memory in the primate dorsal temporal pole

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Chi-Wing; Plakke, Bethany; Poremba, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Temporal pole (TP) cortex is associated with higher-order sensory perception and/or recognition memory, as human patients with damage in this region show impaired performance during some tasks requiring recognition memory (Olson et al. 2007). The underlying mechanisms of TP processing are largely based on examination of the visual nervous system in humans and monkeys, while little is known about neuronal activity patterns in the auditory portion of this region, dorsal TP (dTP; Poremba et al. ...

  1. Development Mode of Mid-small Cities in Northern Jiangsu Based on the Growth Pole Theory

    OpenAIRE

    He, Wei; Tang, Bu-long

    2012-01-01

    The development mode of mid-small cities in northern Jiangsu is analyzed on the Growth Pole theory. Depending on scales, endowment of resources, geographical positions, and industrial advantages of mil-small cities, we can divide the development mode of those mid-small cities within this context into five types: development through integration into big cities; independent development; resource-dependent development; single industry development; and mixed industry development.

  2. AMANDA and IceCube: neutrino astronomy at the south pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    AMANDA is a high energy neutrino telescope consisting of 677 optical modules at 1.5-2 km depth in glacial ice at the south pole. We summarize AMANDA results for observation of atmospheric neutrinos and searches of extraterrestrial neutrinos from point sources, gamma ray bursts and diffuse fluxes. Upper limits at 90%CL are presented. The status of IceCube, the 1 km 3 successor to AMANDA currently under construction is presented

  3. AMANDA and IceCube: neutrino astronomy at the south pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taboada, Ignacio [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 19720 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    AMANDA is a high energy neutrino telescope consisting of 677 optical modules at 1.5-2 km depth in glacial ice at the south pole. We summarize AMANDA results for observation of atmospheric neutrinos and searches of extraterrestrial neutrinos from point sources, gamma ray bursts and diffuse fluxes. Upper limits at 90%CL are presented. The status of IceCube, the 1 km{sup 3} successor to AMANDA currently under construction is presented.

  4. Magnetic measurements of the wedge-pole prototype undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasserman, I.; Pflueger, J.; Gluskin, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a 7-GeV positron storage ring, will have as many as 34 straight sections available for installation of multiple insertion devices (IDs). The size and the taper of the gap of the IDs will be able to be varied to tune the energy of the emitted radiation to the experiments. The IDs must not affect the particle beam motion. Therefore, the disturbances should be kept within tight boundaries to assure that the ring performance parameters are maintained and that the emitted radiation shows little degradation from an ideal device. These requirements are derived from the stability criteria of the beam to be stable within 10% of the emittance: The requirements cannot be met without using closed loop orbit compensation. With such a system installed, it is reasonable to relax the requirements on the ID magnetic field performance

  5. Ulysses above the sun's south pole: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Page, D E

    1995-05-19

    Ulysses has explored the field and particle environment of the sun's polar region. The solar wind speed was fast and nearly constant above -50 degrees latitude. Compositional differences were observed in slow (low-latitude) solar wind and in fast (high-latitude) solar wind. The radial magnetic field did not change with latitude, implying that polar cap magnetic fields are transported toward the equator. The intensity of galactic cosmic rays was nearly independent of latitude. Their access to the polar region is opposed by outward-traveling, large amplitude waves in the magnetic field.

  6. Dynamical, thermodynamical and hydrological effects of the third pole (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau (HTP) can be described as a mechanical barrier and a thermodynamical heat source or combinations of both affects, during both the summer and the winter, and, particularly during transitions seasons. The upper troposphere above the HTP is anomalously moister and warmer than any other tropical and subtropical land mass. The HTP is the source of almost all major Asian rivers and snow-melt is a major component of fresh water for a large percentage of the world's population. We examine the exceptional physics of thermal and mechanical forcing associated with the HTP and compare them with forcing occurring at similar latitudes in other locations especially Africa and Australia. We also examine how the forcing from the HTP may change in a warming world especially with respect to the vigor of the South Asian monsoon and fresh water availability. Noting that other monsoon regions were more vigorous during the hypsithermal of the Holocene, we attempt to determine changes that may occur in a warmer world.

  7. Diplodia natalensis Pole Evans, the causal agent of citrus gummosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation media used were 1.5 per cent water agar, 1.5 per cent water agar + nystatin, and 1.5 per cent water agar + benomyl. ... When the isolates were tested for pathogenicity, only D. natalensis induced the disease symptoms in the inoculated 18-month-old rough lemon seedlings which were incubated after ...

  8. Using deflation in the pole assignment problem with output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miminis, George

    1989-01-01

    A direct algorithm is suggested for the computation of a linear output feedback for a multi input, multi output system such that the resultant closed-loop matrix has eigenvalues that include a specified set of eigenvalues. The algorithm uses deflation based on unitary similarity transformations. Thus researchers hope the algorithm is numerically stable; however, this has not been proven as yet.

  9. Fundamental processes governing operation and degradation in state of the art P-OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew; Asada, Kohei; Cass, Michael; Coward, Chris; King, Simon; Lee, Andrew; Pintani, Martina; Ramon, Miguel; Foden, Clare

    2010-05-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of operation and degradation of model fluorescent blue bilayer polymer organic light emitting diodes (P-OLED). Optical and electrical simulations of bilayer P-OLEDs are used to highlight the key material and device parameters required for efficient recombination and outcoupling of excitons. Mobility data for a model interlayer material poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene-N-(4-(2-butyl)phenyl)-diphenylamine) (TFB) and a model fluorescent blue light emitting material poly-(9,9'- dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N, N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'- phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (95:5 mol%) (F8-PFB random copoloymer), is shown to satisfy the key charge transport characteristics required to ensure exciton formation at the optimum location for efficient extraction of the light where μh (LEP) 90%) of the quenching sites produced. This highlights the importance of understanding these reversible phenomena in improving P-OLED lifetime and commercial adoption of the technology.

  10. Spectroscopic Binaries near the North Galactic Pole Paper 24: HD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    Abstract. The four stars treated in this paper have been under observation with photoelectric radial-velocity spectrometers for many years. They have proved to be binaries with periods of 30, 1828, 1514 and 822 days respec- tively; the orbits are of modest eccentricity apart from that of HD 110743 which is indistinguishable ...

  11. Topography of the Lunar Poles and Application to Geodesy with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Rowlands, David D.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) [1] onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) [2] has been operating continuously since July 2009 [3], accumulating approx.5.4 billion measurements from 2 billion on-orbit laser shots. LRO s near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, which are each sampled every 2h. With more than 10,000 orbits, high-resolution maps can be constructed [4] and studied [5]. However, this requires careful processing of the raw data, as subtle errors in the spacecraft position and pointing can lead to visible artifacts in the final map. In other locations on the Moon, ground tracks are subparallel and longitudinal separations are typically a few hundred meters. Near the poles, the track intersection angles can be large and the inter-track spacing is small (above 80 latitude, the effective resolution is better than 50m). Precision Orbit Determination (POD) of the LRO spacecraft [6] was performed to satisfy the LOLA and LRO mission requirements, which lead to a significant improvement in the orbit position knowledge over the short-release navigation products. However, with pixel resolutions of 10 to 25 meters, artifacts due to orbit reconstruction still exist. Here, we show how the complete LOLA dataset at both poles can be adjusted geometrically to produce a high-accuracy, high-resolution maps with minimal track artifacts. We also describe how those maps can then feedback to the POD work, by providing topographic base maps with which individual LOLA altimetric measurements can be contributing to orbit changes. These direct altimetry constraints improve accuracy and can be used more simply than the altimetric crossovers [6].

  12. The forward-backward asymmetry for charm quarks at the Z pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; X., Huang; J., Lin; Ouyang, Q.; T., Wang; Y., Xie; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bonvicini, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Engelhardt, A.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Oest, T.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Morton, W. T.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moneta, L.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Wanke, R.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Thulasidas, M.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Abt, I.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Gotzhein, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Courault, F.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Ganis, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Bellantoni, L.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; H., Hu; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I. J.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Sau, Lan Wu; X, Wu; Yamartino, J. M.; M., Zheng; Zobernig, G.

    1995-02-01

    From 1.4 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP, an enriched sample of Z → cc¯ events is extracted by requiring the presence of a high momentum D ∗±. The charm quark forward-backward charge asymmetry at the Z pole is measured to be AFB0. c = (8.0 ± 2.4) % corresponding to an effective electroweak mixing angle of sin 2θWeff = 0.2302 ± 0.0054.

  13. New paleomagnetic pole from Precambrian magmatic bodies of the Kotuy river basin (northwestern part of the Siberian platform)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovskiy, R.; Pavlov, V.

    2009-04-01

    Apparent polar wander paths are powerful means for deciphering of tectonic history of the Earth lithosphere and its structural elements. At the same time APWP's can be used as a tool for dating of different geological events and objects. Importance of APWP's especially increases when dealing with Precambrian where possibilities of many other methods of dating become limited. Whereas Proterozoic APWP's of North American, East European and Australian ancient platforms are more or less developed, Siberian Apparent Polar Wander Path is at the first stage of its elaboration. Proterozoic and, especially, Meso- and Paleoproterozoic paleomagnetic poles are scarce and for long time intervals are practically absent. Thus every new reliable Siberian paleomagnetic pole of Proterozoic age is of paramount importance for elaboration of Proterozoic APWP of the Siberian platform. To obtain such the pole we have carried out paleomagnetic investigation of Late Precambrian magmatic complex of northwestern part of the Anabar Uplift (Siberian platform). In total, six dolerite subvolcanic intrusions (dykes and sills) exposed along the Kotuy, Kotuykan and Djogdjo rivers have been studied. Clear paleomagnetic record was found in 5 intrusions. Thermal demagnetization isolates two magnetic components. The first of them is parallel to the recent geomagnetic field at the site and is removed in the low to middle temperature range. The second one (HTC) is isolated at higher temperatures (up to 600°C) and has dual magnetic polarities. Intrusions means form relatively tight cluster, which average direction corresponds to paleomagnetic poles with coordinates: Plat=-23.4°N, Plong=70.0°E, dp/dm = 3.4°/6.7°. Two polarity distribution of HTC vectors, no resemblance to paleomagnetic poles of younger age, and relative proximity to poles of close age (Ernst et al., 2000; Veselovskiy et al., 2006, 2009) - all these allow us to consider the paleomagnetic pole as reflecting the direction of geomagnetic

  14. Public science for a global empire: The British quest for the South Magnetic Pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Edward J

    2011-03-01

    It is well known to historians of science that, early in the nineteenth century, terrestrial magnetism became both a popular science and a significant research enterprise in Europe. For Britain, as a maritime power, it offered benefits for navigation. Theoretical physicists claimed that, with enough observations of magnetic variation, intensity, and dip taken throughout the world over time, they could deduce regular mathematical laws to explain the phenomena. Because of the lack of data from the region, particular attention focused on field research in deep southern latitudes. Finding the precise location of the South Magnetic Pole became a prime goal for some enthusiasts. With burgeoning colonies in Africa and the Antipodes, Britain assumed a leading role in this effort. British scientists looked to their government for funding and called on the Admiralty to dispatch expeditions. It is less well known that both popular and scientific interest in terrestrial magnetism continued throughout the nineteenth century and into the early twentieth century. The H.M.S. Erebus and H.M.S. Terror (1839-1843), H.M.S. Challenger (1872-1876), and R.Y. Discovery (1901-1904) sailed to the Antarctic as part of Britain's extended "Magnetic Crusade," which culminated with Royal Society geologist T. W. Edgeworth David of the Nimrod expedition reaching the South Magnetic Pole in 1909.

  15. The alkylation response protein AidB is localized at the new poles and constriction sites in Brucella abortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotreppe Delphine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella abortus is the etiological agent of a worldwide zoonosis called brucellosis. This alpha-proteobacterium is dividing asymmetrically, and PdhS, an essential histidine kinase, was reported to be an old pole marker. Results We were interested to identify functions that could be recruited to bacterial poles. The Brucella ORFeome, a collection of cloned predicted coding sequences, was placed in fusion with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP coding sequence and screened for polar localizations in B. abortus. We report that AidB-YFP was systematically localized to the new poles and at constrictions sites in B. abortus, either in culture or inside infected HeLa cells or RAW264.7 macrophages. AidB is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD homolog, similar to E. coli AidB, an enzyme putatively involved in destroying alkylating agents. Accordingly, a B. abortus aidB mutant is more sensitive than the wild-type strain to the lethality induced by methanesulphonic acid ethyl ester (EMS. The exposure to EMS led to a very low frequency of constriction events, suggesting that cell cycle is blocked during alkylation damage. The localization of AidB-YFP at the new poles and at constriction sites seems to be specific for this ACAD homolog since two other ACAD homologs fused to YFP did not show specific localization. The overexpression of aidB, but not the two other ACAD coding sequences, leads to multiple morphological defects. Conclusions Data reported here suggest that AidB is a marker of new poles and constriction sites, that could be considered as sites of preparation of new poles in the sibling cells originating from cell division. The possible role of AidB in the generation or the function of new poles needs further investigation.

  16. Cranial pole nephrectomy in the pig model: anatomic analysis of arterial injuries in tridimensional endocasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Henry, Robert W; Favorito, Luciano A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2012-06-01

    To assess the intrarenal arteries injuries after cranial pole nephrectomy in a pig model to compare these findings with those in humans. Polyester resin was injected through the ureter and the renal artery to make three-dimensional casts of 61 pig kidneys. The cranial pole of the kidneys was sectioned at four different sites before the solidification of the resin, and the casts were examined for arterial damage. Section performed through the hilus (15 kidneys): The cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in two (13.33%) cases, the ventral branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 13 (86.7%) cases, and the dorsal branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 11 (73.34%) cases. Section at 0.5 cm cranial to the hilus (16 kidneys): The cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 1 (6.25%) case, the ventral branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 14 (87.5%) cases, and the dorsal branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 13 (81.25%) cases. Section at 1.0 cm cranial to the hilus (15 kidneys): The ventral branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in five (33.33%) cases, and the dorsal branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was injured in five (33.33%) cases. Section at 1.5 cm cranial to the hilus (15 kidneys): No lesions were found in the main arteries, only in the interlobular branches. As previously demonstrated in humans, sections at 1.0 cm or more cranially to the hilus in pigs also showed a significant decrease in damage to the major intrarenal arteries. Therefore, as regards arterial damage, the pig kidney is a useful model for partial nephrectomy in the cranial (upper) pole.

  17. Car park by the flag poles closed at Gate B end

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the work for the new tramline, the car park by the flag poles is being reorganised, partly with a view to improving safety for pedestrians and motorists. As a consequence, it will no longer be possible to enter and leave the car park at the Gate B end (except in the case of TPG buses, which will continue to use the same route as before). Motorists will therefore be able to enter or leave the car park at the Gate A end only, and those heading in the Saint-Genis-Pouilly direction will be able to use the new roundabout near Gate A.

  18. Regge trajectory of the f0(500) resonance from a dispersive connection to its pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebreda, J. [Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan; Londergan, J. Timothy [Indiana University , Bloomington, IN; Pelaez, Jose R. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Spain; Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana University , Bloomington, IN

    2014-11-01

    We report here our results on how to obtain the Regge trajectory of a resonance from its pole in a scattering process by imposing analytic constraints in the complex angular momentum plane. The method, suited for resonances that dominate an elastic scattering amplitude, has been applied to the ρ (770) and the f0(500) resonances. Whereas for the former we obtain a linear Regge trajectory, characteristic of ordinary quark-antiquark states, for the latter we find a non-linear trajectory with a much smaller slope at the resonance mass. This provides a strong indication of the non-ordinary nature of the sigma meson.

  19. Interim report on the fate of wood preservatives in soils adjacent to in-service utility poles in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.B.; Ripp, J.; Sims, R.C.

    1995-06-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is studying the environmental impact of preservatives associated with in-service utility poles. As part of this endeavor, two EPRI contractors, META Environmental, Inc. (META) and Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc. (Atlantic), have collected soil samples from around wood utility poles nationwide, for various chemical and physical analyses. This report covers the results for 107 pole sites in the US. These pole sites included a range of preservative types, soil types, wood types, pole sizes, and in-service ages. The poles in this study were preserved with one of two types of preservative: pentachlorophenol (PCP) or creosote. Approximately 40 to 50 soil samples were collected from each wood pole site in this study. The soil samples collected from the pole sites were analyzed for chlorinated phenols and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) if the pole was preserved with PCP, or for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) if the pole was preserved with creosote. The soil samples were also analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC), and cationic exchange capacity (CEC). Additional samples were used in studies to determine biological degradation rates, and soil-water distribution and retardation coefficients of PCP in site soils. Methods of analysis followed standard EPA and ASTM methods, with some modifications in the chemical analyses to enable the efficient processing of many samples with sufficiently low detection limits for this study. All chemical, physical, and site-specific data were stored in a relational computer database

  20. ASTEP South: An Antarctic Search for Transiting ExoPlanets around the celestial South pole

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzet , Nicolas; Guillot , Tristan; Agabi , Karim; Rivet , Jean-Pierre; Bondoux , Erick; Challita , Zalpha; Fanteï-Caujolle , Yan; Fressin , François; Mékarnia , Djamel; Schmider , François-Xavier; Valbousquet , Franck; Blazit , Alain; Bonhomme , Serge; Abe , Lyu; Daban , Jean-Baptiste

    2009-01-01

    ASTEP South is the first phase of the ASTEP project (Antarctic Search for Transiting ExoPlanets). The instrument is a fixed 10 cm refractor with a 4kx4k CCD camera in a thermalized box, pointing continuously a 3.88 degree x 3.88 degree field of view centered on the celestial South pole. ASTEP South became fully functional in June 2008 and obtained 1592 hours of data during the 2008 Antarctic winter. The data are of good quality but the analysis has to account for changes in the point spread f...

  1. Elimination of threshold singularities in the relation between on-shell and pole widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Palisoc, C.P.; Sirlin, A.

    2002-05-01

    In a previous communication by two of us, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1373 (1998), the gauge-dependent deviations of the on-shell mass and total decay width from their gauge-independent pole counterparts were investigated at leading order for the Higgs boson of the Standard Model. In the case of the widths, the deviation was found to diverge at unphysical thresholds, m H =2√(ξ V )m V (V=W,Z), in the R ξ gauge. In this Brief Report, we demonstrate that these unphysical threshold singularities are properly eliminated if a recently proposed definition of wave-function renormalization for unstable particles is invoked. (orig.)

  2. Control System of the Superconducting 63-Pole 2-Tesla Wiggler for Canadian Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuper, E.A.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Miginsky, E.G.; Repkov, V.V.; Tsukanov, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    A control system of the superconducting 63-pole wiggler fabricated at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk (BINP) for Synchrotron Radiation Center in Canada (CLS) is described. Specific electronics and software which provide continuos monitoring of all the superconducting wiggler parameters as well as full control and monitoring of power suppliers and cryogenics machines, have been designed. The control system is VME-based. A client/server architecture of the software allowed us to integrate easily this system into the CLS distributed control system

  3. Analyses of the Short Periodical Part of the Spectrum of Pole Coordinate Variations Determined by the Astrometric and Laser Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaczek, B.; Kosek, W.; Galas, R.

    Series of BIH astrometric (BIH-ASTR) pole coordinates and of CSR LAGEOS laser ranging (CSR-LALAR) pole coordinates determined in the MERIT Campaign in the years 1972 - 1986, 1983 - 1986, respectively, have been filtered by different band pass filters consisting of the law pass Gauss filter and of the high pass Butterworth filter. Filtered residuals were analysed by the MESA-Maximum Entropy Spectra Analysis and by the Ormsby narrow band pass filters in order to find numerically modeled signals approximating these residuals in the best way.

  4. Second-order infinitesimal bendings of surfaces of revolution with flattening at the poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabitov, I Kh

    2014-01-01

    We study infinitesimal bendings of surfaces of revolution with flattening at the poles. We begin by considering the minimal possible smoothness class C 1 both for surfaces and for deformation fields. Conditions are formulated for a given harmonic of a first-order infinitesimal bending to be extendable into a second order infinitesimal bending. We finish by stating a criterion for nonrigidity of second order for closed surfaces of revolution in the analytic class. We also give the first concrete example of such a nonrigid surface. Bibliography: 15 entries

  5. Measurements of Secondary Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies with the South Pole Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueker, Martin

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10m millimeter-wavelength telescope for finding galaxy clusters via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. This thesis is divided into two parts. The first part describes the development of the kilopixel SPT-SZ receiver and the frequency-domain multiplexor (fMUX). The second part describes the first SPT power spectrum measurement and the first detection of the tSZ power spectrum. The SPT-SZ focal plane consists of 960 spiderweb coupled transition-edge sensors. Due to strong electro-thermal feedback, these devices have good sensitivity and linearity, though risk spontaneous oscillations. Adding heat capacity to these devices can ensure stability, so long as the loopgain, L , is less than Gint/G 0, the ratio between the thermal conductances linking the TES to the heat capacity and linking the heat capacity to the bath. I describe as experimental technique for measuring the internal thermal structure of these devices, allowing for rapid sensor evaluation. The fMUX readout system reduces wiring complexity in this receiver by AC-biasing each sensor at a unique frequency and sending signals from multiple bolometers along one pair of wires. The Series SQUID Arrays (SSAs) used to read changes in bolometer current are notably non-linear and extremely sensitive to ambient magnetic fields. The SSAs are housed in compact magnetic shielding modules which reduces their effective area to 80 mphi0/gauss. The SSA are fedback with a flux-locked loop to improve their linearity and dynamic range, and decrease their input reactance. The FLL is bandwidth of 1 MHz with a measured loopgain of 10. In the current implementation, this bandwidth is limited between the SQUID input coil and other reactances, which I study in Chapter 4. In the second part of the thesis I present power spectrum measurements for the first 100 deg2 field observed by the SPT. On angular scales where the primary CMB anisotropy is dominant, ℓ ≲ 3000, the SPT power spectrum is

  6. Contributions to the deployment of furniture in pole central region Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge D’ Ambros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed in the central region of Tocantins, for the identification and analysis of positive factors, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with the furniture supply chain in order to continue the formation of the regional furniture pole. To achieve this objective the methodology used was to listen to local actors and experts in the furniture segment. Seventy-five local actors among industry officials, academic institutions and university representatives were interviewed. They pointed out and analyzed the main points related to the economic, social, political and environmental contributions stemming from the creation of a pole in the region. The tool used was the SWOT Analysis associated with the Method of Judges, and then the variables were subjected to Principal Component Analysis - PCA. The SWOT Matrix proved to be adequate and effective to be used as diagnostic tool along with local actors. The examination of all the factors associated with local furniture production chain helped to understand the activity and indicate actions that affect this arrangement and that will bring economic, social and environmental benefits. According to the experts, the establishment of a furniture industry in the region will favor the employment and income creation, local and regional sustainable development, improvements in business management, raise the standard of quality and productivity of the local furniture industry and improve the quality of population standard of living.

  7. A cylindrical current sheet over the South solar pole observed by Ulysses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Kislov, Roman; Malova, Helmi; Obridko, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    We provide the first evidence for the existence of a quasi-stable cylindrical current sheet over the South solar pole as observed by Ulysses in 2006, near the solar minimum, when it reached maximal heliolatitude of 79.7 degrees at 2.4 AU. It took place inside a fast speed stream from the coronal hole, and the tube was presumably crossed rather far from the center within two degrees of heliolatitude and ~10 degrees of heliolongitude. During the spacecraft passage throughout the structure, the solar wind velocity was approximately twice as little, the solar wind density was 20 times lower than the surrounded plasma values, but the temperature was twice as large in the point closest to the pole. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strongly decreased due to sharp variations in the IMF radial component (RTN) that changed its sign twice, but other components did not show changes out of usual stochastic behavior. Both the behavior of the IMF, rotation of the plasma flow direction and other features indicate the occurrence of cylindrical current sheet. We discuss its solar origin and present modeling that can explain the observations.

  8. The sea urchin animal pole domain is a Six3-dependent neurogenic patterning center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Yaguchi, Junko; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Angerer, Robert C; Angerer, Lynne M

    2009-04-01

    Two major signaling centers have been shown to control patterning of sea urchin embryos. Canonical Wnt signaling in vegetal blastomeres and Nodal signaling in presumptive oral ectoderm are necessary and sufficient to initiate patterning along the primary and secondary axes, respectively. Here we define and characterize a third patterning center, the animal pole domain (APD), which contains neurogenic ectoderm, and can oppose Wnt and Nodal signaling. The regulatory influence of the APD is normally restricted to the animal pole region, but can operate in most cells of the embryo because, in the absence of Wnt and Nodal, the APD expands throughout the embryo. We have identified many constituent APD regulatory genes expressed in the early blastula and have shown that expression of most of them requires Six3 function. Furthermore, Six3 is necessary for the differentiation of diverse cell types in the APD, including the neurogenic animal plate and immediately flanking ectoderm, indicating that it functions at or near the top of several APD gene regulatory networks. Remarkably, it is also sufficient to respecify the fates of cells in the rest of the embryo, generating an embryo consisting of a greatly expanded, but correctly patterned, APD. A fraction of the large group of Six3-dependent regulatory proteins are orthologous to those expressed in the vertebrate forebrain, suggesting that they controlled formation of the early neurogenic domain in the common deuterostome ancestor of echinoderms and vertebrates.

  9. Tree-loop duality relation beyond single poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierenbaum, Isabella; Buchta, Sebastian; Draggiotis, Petros; Malamos, Ioannis; Rodrigo, German

    2012-11-01

    We develop the Tree-Loop Duality Relation for two- and three-loop integrals with multiple identical propagators (multiple poles). This is the extension of the Duality Relation for single poles and multi-loop integrals derived in previous publications. We prove a generalization of the formula for single poles to multiple poles and we develop a strategy for dealing with higher-order pole integrals by reducing them to single pole integrals using Integration By Parts.

  10. Shielding Design for the South Pole nToF Diagnostic at the NIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater Hesham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron time of flight (nToF detectors are fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF to measure neutron yield, ion temperature, and downscattering in the cold fuel for D-T implosions. Anisotropically assembled cold fuel may generate different nToF data when measured by detectors located at the Target Chamber equator and poles. A collimated nToF line of sight has been fielded near the Target Chamber South Pole (SP to examine any possible anisotropy in the cold fuel. The SP nToF detector is located in the lowest floor level of the NIF’s Target Bay and at a distance of ~ 18 m from the Target Chamber Center. The detector utilizes a solid bibenzyl scintillator and four photomultiplier tubes. The line of sight includes a port collimator that is attached to the Target Chamber and a bore hole collimator in the concrete floor above the detector. In addition, a beam line get lost hole is constructed in the Target Bay floor to minimize the backscattered radiation at the detector location. Initial measurements indicated the need for installation of additional shielding to eliminate gamma background during the period before arrival of the 14.1 MeV neutrons to the detector. A set of MCNP Monte Carlo simulations with the full Target Bay model were conducted to provide an estimate of the expected neutron and gamma backgrounds during D-T shots. A new shielding scheme is designed to reduce the gamma background by an order of magnitude.

  11. First Results from the South Pole Bang Time (SPBT) Diagnostic on the NIF*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Magoon, J.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J., III; Stoeckl, C.; Macphee, A.; Bradley, D. K.; Burns, S.; Celeste, J.; Eckart, M. J.; Jones, O. S.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kimbrough, J. R.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Parker, J.; Thomas, T.

    2011-10-01

    The south pole bang time (SPBT) x-ray diagnostic has been successfully fielded on the NIF. SPBT consists of chemical-vapor-deposition diamond detectors, with different filtrations, located 3 m directly below target chamber center, viewing the implosion through the hohlraum laser entrance hole. The diamond detectors are sensitive to both x rays and neutrons. HOPG crystal mirror monochromators increase the x-ray signal to background ratio. SPBT is designed to measure the x-ray bang time with an accuracy of a few tens of picoseconds. SPBT x-ray and neutron results from NIF implosions are presented along with timing and error analysis. *This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  12. Everybody Wins: How the IceCube Collaboration Capitalizes Teacher Deployments to the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last fifteen years, the IceCube Collaboration and its predecessor AMANDA have hosted eight teachers at South Pole with the ninth scheduled to deploy in the upcoming 2017-18 season. These deployments have been organized in conjunction with NSF funded programs that pair polar researchers with teachers. Teachers Experiencing the Arctic and Antarctica in the early years, and now PolarTREC, provide valuable structure, general training, build community among polar researchers and teachers, and archive resources developed by participants. The IceCube Collaboration has developed a successful team building approach for newly selected teachers that utilizes past polar teachers. For about a decade, we have provided a two week summer residential science course for a diverse group of ninth to twelve grade students in the University of Wisconsin-River Falls Upward Bound program. An authentic research experience is delivered by focusing on the process of science using a different accessible and meaningful project each year. For example, this summer students learned about design and construction by creating their own LED-embedded clothing. They programmed a microcontroller so the LEDs responded to an external input such as motion or sound. This panel presentation in the K-12 Education/Outreach: Effective Partnerships between Scientists and K-12 Teachers/Informal Educators including Authentic Student Research session will describe how this is a win for all involved. It gives the new teacher extensive opportunities to learn about living and working at the South Pole from past teachers, experience integrating into to an established team as they will do when they deploy, and lets them see creative ways to incorporate IceCube research into the classroom. It also provides a rich active learning experience for the UWRF Upward Bound students, and a way to keep engaged with teachers who have deployed in the past.

  13. Patellar Shape-Memory Fixator for the Treatment of Comminuted Fractures of the Inferior Pole of the Patella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Shang, Hui-Juan; Xu, Shuo-Gui; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Chun-Cai; Fu, Qing-Ge

    2011-07-01

    Comminuted and displaced fractures of the inferior pole of the patella are not easy to reduce and it is difficult to fix the fragments soundly enough to allow early movement of the knee. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the internal fixation technique with Patellar Shape-Memory Fixator (PSMF) in acute comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patella. We retrospectively studied 25 patients with comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patella who were treated with PSMF and followed up for a mean period of 26 months (14 to 60). All the fractures healed at a mean of 6 weeks (5 to 7). The mean grading at the final follow-up was 29.5 points (27 to 30) using the Bostman score, with no observable restriction of movement. No breakage of the PSMF or infection occurred. No delayed union, nonunion, and infection were seen. This technique preserved the length of the patella, reduced the comminuted fragments of the inferior pole and avoided long-term immobilization of the knee.

  14. On the difference between the pole and the MS masses of the top quark at the electroweak scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-12-15

    We argue that for a Higgs boson mass M{sub H} {proportional_to} 125 GeV, as estimated from recent Higgs searches at the LHC, the inclusion of the electroweak radiative corrections in the relationship between the pole and MS masses of the top quark reduces the difference to about 1 GeV. This fact is relevant for the scheme dependence of electroweak observables as well as for the extraction of the top quark mass from experimental data.

  15. Third Pole Environment (TPE) -Latest Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yao, T.; Zhang, F.; Yang, X.; Wang, W.; Ping, F.

    2014-12-01

    Centered on the Tibetan Plateau, the Third Pole region is a unique geographical unit, which represents one of the largest ice masses on the Earth. The region has great impacts on environmental changes in China, the Northern Hemisphere and the globe.It also demonstrates sensitive feedbacks to global changes and the impacts of anthropogenic activities in surrounding regions. Like the Arctic and Antarctica, the Third Pole region is an especially sensitive area that draws great attention from the scientific community. In 2009, with support from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and international organizations, the Third Pole Environment (TPE) program, led by Chinese scientists, was officially launched. The program focuses on the theme of "water-ice-air-ecosystem-human" interactions, with the aim to address the following scientific questions, such as the spatial and temporal characteristics of past environmental changes in the Third pole, the interactions between hydrosphere and cryosphere and hazard processes, the ecological systems' impacts on and response to environmental changes, and the impacts of anthropogenic activities on environmental changes in the region and adaptation strategies. The goal of the program is to reveal environmental change processes and mechanisms on the Third Pole and their influences on and responses to global changes, and thus to serve for enhancement of human adaptation to the changing environment and realization of human-nature harmony. Under the leadership of the co-chairs, and relying on Scientific Committee and the TPE office, the program has accomplished a number of scientific tasks since its inauguration. TPE has made tremendous progress in the research of glacier changes, interactions between the westerlies and monsoon, establishment of field stations, data sharing and education.

  16. The Dimensions and Pole of Asteroid (21) Lutetia from Adaptive Optics Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Conrad, A.; Merline, W.; Carry, B.

    2009-09-01

    In a campaign to study the Rosetta mission target, asteroid (21) Lutetia, we obtained 81 images on December 2, 2008, at 2.12 microns with adaptive optics (AO) on the Keck-II 10 m telescope. From these nearly consecutive images obtained over a quarter of rotation, we have determined the asteroid's triaxial ellipsoid diameters to be 132x101x76 km, with formal uncertainties of 1 km for the equatorial dimensions, and 31 km for the shortest axis. This latter uncertainty occurs because the observations were made at the relatively high sub-Earth latitude of -69 degrees. From these observations we determine that Lutetia's pole lies at 2000.0 coordinates of RA=48, Dec=+9, or Ecliptic coordinates of [49;-8], with a formal uncertainty radius of 3 deg. (The other possible pole is eliminated by considering its lightcurve history.) The rotational pole derived for the lightcurve inversion model (available at http://astro.troja.mff.cuni.cz/ projects/asteroids3D/web.php), is only 5 deg from ours, but comparing our images to the lightcurve inversion model we find that Lutetia is more pointed than the model. Our technique of deriving the dimensions of asteroids from AO images has been calibrated against Pluto and 4 satellites of Saturn with precise diameters, and we find that any systematic errors can be no more than 1-3%. We acknowledge the assistance of other team members Christophe Dumas (ESO), Peter Tamblyn (SwRI), and Clark Chapman (SwRI). We also thank Hal Weaver (JHU/APL) as the lead for our collaboration with the Rosetta mission. We are grateful for telescope time made available to us by S. Kulkarni and M. Busch (Cal Tech) for a portion of our overall Lutetia effort. We also thank our collaborators on Team Keck, the Keck science staff, for making possible some of the Lutetia observations and for their participation. Additional Lutetia observations were acquired at Gemini North under NOAO time allocation.

  17. Contributions to the defocusing effect on pole figure measurements by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios G, J.; Salat F, R. S.; Jimenez J, A.; Kryshtab, T., E-mail: palacios@esfm.ipn.mx [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    A simple method, considering a parallel beam approximation has been made to reproduce the main features of the defocusing effect, observed when pole figures are measured with the Schulz reflection technique using X-ray diffraction. A Lorentzian curve was used to approximate the primary beam profile. This method applied to low index reflections of copper and silver shows qualitatively and partially quantitatively, the extent the elongation of the ellipse resulting from the intersection of the beam with the tilted sample causes the defocusing effect. Differences observed experimentally are attributed mainly to the divergence of the beam, but also partially to the particular primary beam profile. Additionally, measurements with two different vertical heights of the receiving slit, i. e. the measured arch length of the Debye-Scherrer ring, indicate that this parameter plays no role in defocusing. (Author)

  18. An attempt to estimate the minimal number of Poles infected and treated for malaria in Poland and abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Nahorski, Wacław L; Stępień, Małgorzata; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Stańczak, Joanna; Myjak, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is one of the three most dangerous infectious diseases in the world. According to official statistics, there are a few dozen cases in Poland annually while the number of Poles treated abroad or self-treating remains unknown. Poland has been declared to be malaria-free since 1963 and nowadays all cases are imported. The aim of the study is to determine the minimal number of malaria cases in Poles at home and abroad in the last decade. The medical records of 4,710 patients tested for malaria in the Department of Tropical Parasitology in the years 2003-2012 were analysed. Two spreadsheets were created, which only included people with a history of malaria diagnosed in the reference centre where indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA) for Plasmodium falciparum antigen proved positive. The minimum number of Poles who have had malaria at home and abroad was calculated on the basis of positive IFA results; the rate of all treated malaria patients in Poland in relation to those treated in the reference centre and the actual number of Poles with malaria diagnosed at home was calculated. A group of 376 people with positive serologic tests results in indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay with titre ≥ 1:20 were received, including 227 patients with positive serologic results with titre ≥ 1:80. The rate of the overall number of malaria cases in Poland compared to the number of malaria cases in the University Centre for Maritime and Tropical Medicine Hospital was determined as 3.47:1. It was demonstrated that every year at least 174 to 211 Poles staying abroad may suffer from malaria. This is the first attempt to estimate the minimal number of Poles infected and treated for malaria in Poland and abroad. The estimated number is 8-10 times greater than the number of registered cases in Poland.

  19. Optimization of Transition Edge Sensor Arrays for Cosmic Microwave Background Observations With the South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Junjia; Ade, P. A. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Avva, J.; Ahmed, Z.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J. E.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Byrum, K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carter, F. W.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Cliche, J. F.; Cukierman, A.; Czaplewski, D.; Divan, R.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dutcher, D.; Everett, W.; Gilbert, A.; Gannon, R.; Guyser, R.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Hattori, K.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hubmayr, J.; Huang, N.; Irwin, K. D.; Jeong, O.; Khaire, T.; Kubik, D.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, C. S.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nguyen, H.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pan, Z.; Pearson, J.; Posada, C. M.; Rahlin, A.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Shariff, J. A.; Shirley, I.; Shirokoff, E.; Smecher, G.; Sobrin, J.; Stan, L.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Suzuki, A.; Tang, Q. Y.; Thakur, R. B.; Thompson, K. L.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the optimization of transition-edge-sensor (TES) detector arrays for the third-generation camera for the South PoleTelescope. The camera, which contains similar to 16 000 detectors, will make high-angular-resolution maps of the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background. Our key results are scatter in the transition temperature of Ti/Au TESs is reduced by fabricating the TESs on a thin Ti(5 nm)/Au(5 nm) buffer layer and the thermal conductivity of the legs that support our detector islands is dominated by the SiOx dielectric in the microstrip transmission lines that run along the legs.

  20. The controlled ecological life support system Antarctic analog project: Analysis of wastewater from the South Pole Station, Antarctica, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Bubenheim, David L.; Straight, Christian L.; Belisle, Warren

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support system (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and NASA project for the development, deployment and operation of CELSS technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. NASA goals are operational testing of CELSS technologies and the conduct of scientific studies to facilitate technology selection and system design. The NSF goals are that the food production, water purification, and waste treatment capabilities which will be provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. This report presents an analysis of wastewater samples taken from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. The purpose of the work is to develop a quantitative understanding of the characteristics of domestic sewage streams at the South Pole Station. This information will contribute to the design of a proposed plant growth/waste treatment system which is part of the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP).

  1. Evaluating the Quality of Reinforced Concrete Electric Railway Poles by Thermal Nondestructive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Valeryevich Sannikov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal nondestructive testing can be used to inspect reinforced concrete supports that are widely used in various industries. Corrosion damage is a typical defect found in these supports. Corrosion usually starts as a separation between the concrete and the steel rebar. Damage is exacerbated by pressure that is caused by the formation of corrosion products. The most logical method for using IR to detect corrosion or a disbond would be to heat up the rebar by resistive or inductive heating. In both cases, monitoring the dynamic temperature distributions on the pole allows for the evaluation of reinforcement quality. The thermal properties of steel, concrete, air, and corrosion products differ greatly. The magnitude of temperature anomalies and their behavior over time depend on the presence of corrosion products, air gaps, and the quality of contact between rebar and concrete.

  2. Foucault pendulum at the south pole: Proposal for an experiment to detect the earth's general relativistic gravitomagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginsky, V.B.; Polnarev, A.G.; Thorne, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment is proposed for measuring the earth's gravitomagnetic field by monitoring its effect on the plane of swing of a Foucault pendulum at the south pole (''dragging of inertial frames by earth's rotation''). With great effort a 10% experiment in a measurement time of several months might be achieved

  3. Real-Time Teleguidance of a Non-Surgeon Crew Medical Officer Performing Orthopedic Surgery at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station During Winter-Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Research station located at the geographic South Pole, is the most isolated, permanently inhabited human outpost on Earth. Medical care is provided to station personnel by a non-surgeon crew medical officer (CMO). During the winter-over period from February to October, the station is isolated, with no incoming or outgoing flights due to severe weather conditions. In late June, four months after the station had closed for the austral winter, a 31 year old meteorologist suffered a complete rupture of his patellar tendon while sliding done an embankment. An evacuation was deemed to be too risky to aircrews due to the extreme cold and darkness. A panel of physicians from Massachusetts General Hospital, Johns Hopkins University and the University of Texas Medical Branch were able to assess the patient remotely via telemedicine and agreed that surgery was the only means to restore mobility and prevent long term disability. The lack of a surgical facility and a trained surgical team were overcome by conversion of the clinic treatment area, and intensive preparation of medical laypersons as surgical assistants. The non-surgeon CMO and CMO assistant at South Pole, were guided through the administration of spinal anesthetic, and the two-hour operative repair by medical consultants at Massachusetts General Hospital. Real-time video of the operative field, directions from the remote consultants and audio communication were provided by videoconferencing equipment, operative cameras, and high bandwidth satellite communications. In real-time, opening incision/exposure, tendon relocation, hemostatsis, and operative closure by the CMO was closely monitored and guided and by the remote consultants. The patient s subsequent physical rehabilitation over the ensuing months of isolation was also monitored remotely via telemedicine. This was the first time in South Pole s history that remote teleguidance had been used for surgery and represents a model for

  4. Ergonomic analysis of workplaces in the iron casting industrial pole in Claudio, Minas Gerais--Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottin, Artur Caron; de Miranda, Carlos A Silva; Pagnan, Caroline Salvan; Monken, Olavo Pena

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is currently recognized as the 10th largest producer of castings, and the city of Cláudio, MG is known worldwide as the "Greatest foundry and metallurgical pole in Latin America", with more than 80 companies. However, this large number of enterprises and increasing investments in product development has demanded an increase in manpower and working hours of workers in the sector, proportionally increasing the incidence of occupational related health problems like RSI (repetitive strain injury), WMSDs (work-related musculoskeletal disorders) and industrial accidents. This article aims to characterize the industry from previously conducted case studies to relate the main causes of occupational diseases and outline possible interventions through design, showing how this tool can contribute to improve the working environment, workplace, tools and equipment through ergonomics adjustments.

  5. Elimination of threshold singularities in the relation between on-shell and pole widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Palisoc, Caesar P.; Sirlin, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    In a previous communication by two of us [B. A. Kniehl and A. Sirlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1373 (1998)], the gauge-dependent deviations of the on-shell mass and total decay width from their gauge-independent pole counterparts were investigated at leading order for the Higgs boson of the standard model. In the case of the widths, the deviation was found to diverge at unphysical thresholds, m H =2√(ξ V )m V (V=W,Z), in the R ξ gauge. In this Brief Report, we demonstrate that these unphysical threshold singularities are properly eliminated if a recently proposed definition of wave-function renormalization for unstable particles is invoked

  6. Elimination of Threshold Singularities in the Relation Between On-Shell and Pole Widths

    CERN Document Server

    Kniehl, Bernd A; Sirlin, A; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Palisoc, Caesar P.; Sirlin, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    In a previous communication by two of us, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1373 (1998), the gauge-dependent deviations of the on-shell mass and total decay width from their gauge-independent pole counterparts were investigated at leading order for the Higgs boson of the Standard Model. In the case of the widths, the deviation was found to diverge at unphysical thresholds, m_H = 2 root{xi_V} m_V (V = W,Z), in the R_xi gauge. In this Brief Report, we demonstrate that these unphysical threshold singularities are properly eliminated if a recently proposed definition of wave-function renormalization for unstable particles is invoked.

  7. Inconsistent Regolith Thermal Control of Hydrogen Distributions at the Moons South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Litvak, M.; Livengood, Tim; Sanin, A.; Starr, R. D.; Su, Jian; Hamara, D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: For over fifty years, intense interest has focused on determining if, where, and how much hydrogen (H) may be found near the Moons poles [1]. Driving the ongoing interest has been the critical role that H volatiles must play as a resource for human missions [2]. Now, with several lines of evidence consistently indicating that H concentrations are enhanced in some permanently shadowed regions (PSRs), plus the possibility of diurnally-dependent volatile H concentrations [3-8], investigations are shifting towards understanding the sources of H and factors that govern concentrations. For the last seven-plus years, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has collected an unparalleled temporal and spatial record of geophysical factors that may govern the Moons H distribution [9]. XXXX

  8. The change of electric field and of some other insulating properties during isochronal annealing in thermally poled Ge-doped silica films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Q.M.; Poumellec, B.; Braga, D.

    2005-01-01

    The secondary electron emission contrast between poled and unpoled regions in thermally poled Ge-doped silica films were measured according to different annealing temperatures and electron doses with electron acceleration energy of 5 keV. It is used for measuring the change on annealing of poling...... induced electric field and other insulating properties like electron traps population and conductivity in high field. Concerning the change of the contrast at low dose arising from the poling electric field, we show that this field begins to disappear at around 450 degrees C and is erased completely...

  9. Thirty years of evolution of oral health behaviors in the working-age Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszyńska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In an average Polish person aged 35–44, more than 16 teeth have or had been affected by dental caries. Of that number, almost half of the teeth have already been extracted. Oral health behaviours contribute to this civilization disease in 50%. Such poor oral health status limits the ability of the affected people to take many social and professional roles. Objectives: To evaluate current oral health behaviours and their trends among 35–44 year old Polish people during the period of recent 30 years. Material and Methods: The data were obtained from the International Collaborative Studies conducted in 1978 and 1988 at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland, under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO as well as from 3 stages of the study on Nationwide Monitoring of Oral Health Status and Its Conditioning performed in 1998, 2002 and 2010. The researchers evaluated oral health behaviours and oral health condition of 5425 subjects. Results: Despite a noticeable improvement, poor oral health behaviours are observed in 30%–40% of the adults. In the analysed period, the number of people brushing their teeth at least twice a day increased by more than 10% and the number of people using dental floss increased by 38%. Only 60% of the adults visited a dentist at least once a year. Reduced accessibility of state-run, free-of-charge dental care has caused that over 58% of Poles paid for their dental services. Every 3rd person of working age has not visited a dentist for longer than 2.5 half years, primarily due to behavioural and financial reasons. Oral health behaviours of Polish people are among the poorest in Europe. Conclusions: Despite a noticeable improvement of the behaviours, gap between the Poles and citizens of other highly developed countries is around 20 years. A health promotion programme including oral health issues, if implemented in workplaces, might considerably reduce this gap.

  10. Thirty years of evolution of oral health behaviors in the working-age Poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Wierzbicka, Maria; Kaleta, Dorota; Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek

    2014-10-01

    In an average Polish person aged 35-44, more than 16 teeth have or had been affected by dental caries. Of that number, almost half of the teeth have already been extracted. Oral health behaviours contribute to this civilization disease in 50%. Such poor oral health status limits the ability of the affected people to take many social and professional roles. To evaluate current oral health behaviours and their trends among 35-44 year old Polish people during the period of recent 30 years. The data were obtained from the International Collaborative Studies conducted in 1978 and 1988 at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland, under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as from 3 stages of the study on Nationwide Monitoring of Oral Health Status and Its Conditioning performed in 1998, 2002 and 2010. The researchers evaluated oral health behaviours and oral health condition of 5425 subjects. Despite a noticeable improvement, poor oral health behaviours are observed in 30%-40% of the adults. In the analysed period, the number of people brushing their teeth at least twice a day increased by more than 10% and the number of people using dental floss increased by 38%. Only 60% of the adults visited a dentist at least once a year. Reduced accessibility of state-run, free-of-charge dental care has caused that over 58% of Poles paid for their dental services. Every 3rd person of working age has not visited a dentist for longer than 2.5 half years, primarily due to behavioural and financial reasons. Oral health behaviours of Polish people are among the poorest in Europe. Despite a noticeable improvement of the behaviours, gap between the Poles and citizens of other highly developed countries is around 20 years. A health promotion programme including oral health issues, if implemented in workplaces, might considerably reduce this gap.

  11. Lower pole stones: prone PCNL versus supine PCNL in the International Cooperation in Endourology (ICE) group experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Millan, Felix; Brehmer, Marianne; Knoll, Thomas; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Osther, Palle; Traxer, Olivier; Scoffone, Cesare

    2013-12-01

    To assess efficacy and safety of prone- and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of lower pole kidney stones. Data from patients affected by lower pole kidney stones and treated with PCNL between December 2005 and August 2010 were collected retrospectively by seven referral centres. Variables analysed included patient demographics, clinical and surgical characteristics, stone-free rates (SFR) and complications. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the differences for SFRs and complication rates between prone- and supine PCNL. One hundred seventeen patients underwent PCNL (mean stone size: 19.5 mm) for stones harboured only in the lower renal pole (single stone: 53.6%; multiple stones: 46.4%). A higher proportion of patients with ASA score ≥ 3 and harbouring multiple lower pole stones were treated with supine PCNL (5.8 vs. 23.1%; p = 0.0001, and 25 vs. 81.5%; p = 0.0001, respectively, for prone- and supine PCNL). One-month SFR was 88.9%; an auxiliary procedure was needed in 6 patients; the 3-month SFR was 90.2%. There were 9 post-operative major complications (7.7%). No differences were observed in terms of 1- and 3-month SFRs (90.4 vs. 87.7%; p = 0.64; 92.3 vs. 89.2%; p = 0.4) and complication rates (7.6 vs. 7.7%; p = 0.83) when comparing prone- versus supine PCNL, respectively. The results confirm the high success rate and relatively low morbidity of modern PCNL for lower pole stones, regardless the position used. Supine PCNL was more frequently offered in case of patients at higher ASA score and in case of multiple lower pole stones.

  12. Diffusion Entropy: A Potential Neuroimaging Biomarker of Bipolar Disorder in the Temporal Pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuhler, Karl; Bartlett, Elizabeth; Ding, Jie; DeLorenzo, Christine; Parsey, Ramin; Huang, Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Despite much research, bipolar depression remains poorly understood, with no clinically useful biomarkers for its diagnosis. The paralimbic system has become a target for biomarker research, with paralimbic structural connectivity commonly reported to distinguish bipolar patients from controls in tractography-based diffusion MRI studies, despite inconsistent findings in voxel-based studies. The purpose of this analysis was to validate existing findings with traditional diffusion MRI metrics and investigate the utility of a novel diffusion MRI metric, entropy of diffusion, in the search for bipolar depression biomarkers. We performed group-level analysis on 9 un-medicated (6 medication-naïve; 3 medication-free for at least 33 days) bipolar patients in a major depressive episode and 9 matched healthy controls to compare: (1) average mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) and; (2) MD and FA histogram entropy-a statistical measure of distribution homogeneity-in the amygdala, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole. We also conducted classification analyses with leave-one-out and separate testing dataset (N = 11) approaches. We did not observe statistically significant differences in average MD or FA between the groups in any region. However, in the temporal pole, we observed significantly lower MD entropy in bipolar patients; this finding suggests a regional difference in MD distributions in the absence of an average difference. This metric allowed us to accurately characterize bipolar patients from controls in leave-one-out (accuracy = 83%) and prediction (accuracy = 73%) analyses. This novel application of diffusion MRI yielded not only an interesting separation between bipolar patients and healthy controls, but also accurately classified bipolar patients from controls. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. An area for para-petroleum development in Western France; Un pole parapetrolier a l'Ouest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-08-01

    The Brest Offshore Industrie and Brest Offshore Developpement groups sited in Brest (Brittany, France) belong to a general interest pool with advanced competences in offshore technologies. In order to celebrate the construction of the Sedco Energy semi-submersible platform, built by the direction of naval constructions (DCN) of Brest for Transocean Sedco Forex company, an information day was organized on May 11, 2000 by Brest-Iroise Technopole to show the R and D capabilities of the local companies in offshore technology. (J.S.)

  14. Demonstration of Advanced Geophysics and Classification Technologies on Munitions Response Sites, Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Characteristic RTK Real Time Kinematic SARA Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act SERDP Strategic Environmental Research and Development...and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 ( SARA ); the National Oil and Hazardous...electromagnetic anomalies were selected from the channel 2 gridded data utilizing a peak-picking algorithm ( Blakely test). 2. A grid value cutoff level

  15. Surface mineralogy and stratigraphy of the lunar South Pole-Aitken basin from Clementine UV/VIS and NIR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A.M.; Foing, B.H.; Davies, G.R.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, located on the lunar far side, is one of the oldest and largest recognised impact structures in the solar system. The basin is a proposed site for future sample return missions and human bases due to the unique geological environment and its potential for

  16. Solar Open Flux Migration from Pole to Pole: Magnetic Field Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G-H; Lin, C-H; Lee, L C

    2017-08-25

    Coronal holes are solar regions with low soft X-ray or low extreme ultraviolet intensities. The magnetic fields from coronal holes extend far away from the Sun, and thus they are identified as regions with open magnetic field lines. Coronal holes are concentrated in the polar regions during the sunspot minimum phase, and spread to lower latitude during the rising phase of solar activity. In this work, we identify coronal holes with outward and inward open magnetic fluxes being in the opposite poles during solar quiet period. We find that during the sunspot rising phase, the outward and inward open fluxes perform pole-to-pole trans-equatorial migrations in opposite directions. The migration of the open fluxes consists of three parts: open flux areas migrating across the equator, new open flux areas generated in the low latitude and migrating poleward, and new open flux areas locally generated in the polar region. All three components contribute to the reversal of magnetic polarity. The percentage of contribution from each component is different for different solar cycle. Our results also show that the sunspot number is positively correlated with the lower-latitude open magnetic flux area, but negatively correlated with the total open flux area.

  17. Latitudinal trends in shell production cost from the tropics to the poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sue-Ann; Morley, Simon A; Peck, Lloyd S

    2017-09-01

    The proportion of body mass devoted to skeleton in marine invertebrates decreases along latitudinal gradients from large proportions in the tropics to small proportions in polar regions. A historical hypothesis-that latitudinal differences in shell production costs explain these trends-remains untested. Using field-collected specimens spanning a 79°N to 68°S latitudinal gradient (16,300 km), we conducted a taxonomically controlled evaluation of energetic costs of shell production as a proportion of the total energy budget in mollusks. Shell production cost was fairly low across latitudes at shell cost tended to be lower in tropical species and increased slightly toward the poles. However, shell cost also varied with life stage, with the greatest costs found in young tropical gastropods. Low shell production costs on the energy budget suggest that shell cost may play only a small role in influencing proportional skeleton size gradients across latitudes relative to other ecological factors, such as predation in present-day oceans. However, any increase in the cost of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) deposition, including from ocean acidification, may lead to a projected ~50 to 70% increase in the proportion of the total energy budget required for shell production for a doubling of the CaCO 3 deposition cost. Changes in energy budget allocation to shell cost would likely alter ecological trade-offs between calcification and other drivers, such as predation, in marine ecosystems.

  18. Bone graft in the treatment of nonunion of the scaphoid with necrosis of the proximal pole: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lourenço Severo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Scaphoid fractures are the most common fractures of the carpal bones, corresponding to 60%. Of these, 10% progress to nonunion; moreover, 3% can present necrosis of the proximal pole. There are various methods of treatment using vascularized and non-vascularized bone grafts. To evaluate and compare the rate of scaphoid consolidation with necrosis of the proximal pole using different surgical techniques. The authors conducted a review of the literature using the following databases: PubMed and BIREME/LILACS, where 13 case series were selected (ten with use of vascularized bone grafts and three of non-vascularized bone grafts, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. In most cases VBGs were used, especially those based on the 1,2 intercompartmental supraretinacular artery, due to greater reproducibility in performing the surgical technique.

  19. Bone graft in the treatment of nonunion of the scaphoid with necrosis of the proximal pole: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Lech, Osvandré Luiz Canfield; Barreto Filho, Danilo; Strack, Daniel Paulo; Candido, Larissa Knapp

    2017-01-01

    Scaphoid fractures are the most common fractures of the carpal bones, corresponding to 60%. Of these, 10% progress to nonunion; moreover, 3% can present necrosis of the proximal pole. There are various methods of treatment using vascularized and non-vascularized bone grafts. To evaluate and compare the rate of scaphoid consolidation with necrosis of the proximal pole using different surgical techniques. The authors conducted a review of the literature using the following databases: PubMed and BIREME/LILACS, where 13 case series were selected (ten with use of vascularized bone grafts and three of non-vascularized bone grafts), according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. In most cases VBGs were used, especially those based on the 1,2 intercompartmental supraretinacular artery, due to greater reproducibility in performing the surgical technique.

  20. A review of the practices and results of the UTMB to South Pole teledermatology program over the past six years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Angel; Lanier, Russell; Diven, Dayna

    2010-01-15

    There is no place on earth more remote and inaccessible than Antarctica. In 2002, Raytheon Polar Services Co. (RPS) awarded The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston the contract to provide specialty medical services via telemedicine to the approximately 3,500 National Science Foundation (NSF) researchers and support personnel who rotate through Antarctica in a given year. We present the practices and results of the UTMB to the South Pole teledermatology program over the past six years, from 2003 to 2008. Issues encountered include logistics of sending out biopsies for pathologic diagnosis, limited bandwidth, and satellite availability for data transmission. The UTMB to the South Pole teledermatology program demonstrates the clinical practicality of telemedicine in providing dermatologic care to remote populations in extreme climate conditions.

  1. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  2. Mechanical properties of small-scale wood laminated composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2004-01-01

    Power companies in the United States consume millions of solid wood poles every year. These poles are from high-valued trees that are becoming more expensive and less available. wood laminated composite poles (LCP) are a novel alternative to solid wood poles. LCP consists of trapezoid wood strips that are bonded by a synthetic resin. The wood strips can be made from...

  3. Isolated upper pole access in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a large-scale analysis from the CROES percutaneous nephrolithotomy global study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tefekli, Ahmet; Esen, Tarik; Olbert, Peter J.; Tolley, David; Nadler, Robert B.; Sun, Ying-Hao; Duvdevani, Mordechai; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the indications for and outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy using upper pole access. Between 2007 and 2009 prospective data were collected by the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) from consecutive patients at 96 centers globally. Data on 4,494 patients

  4. A forkhead transcription factor is wound-induced at the planarian midline and required for anterior pole regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lucila Scimone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Planarian regeneration requires positional information to specify the identity of tissues to be replaced as well as pluripotent neoblasts capable of differentiating into new cell types. We found that wounding elicits rapid expression of a gene encoding a Forkhead-family transcription factor, FoxD. Wound-induced FoxD expression is specific to the ventral midline, is regulated by Hedgehog signaling, and is neoblast-independent. FoxD is subsequently expressed within a medial subpopulation of neoblasts at wounds involving head regeneration. Ultimately, FoxD is co-expressed with multiple anterior markers at the anterior pole. Inhibition of FoxD with RNA interference (RNAi results in the failure to specify neoblasts expressing anterior markers (notum and prep and in anterior pole formation defects. FoxD(RNAi animals fail to regenerate a new midline and to properly pattern the anterior blastema, consistent with a role for the anterior pole in organizing pattern of the regenerating head. Our results suggest that wound signaling activates a forkhead transcription factor at the midline and, if the head is absent, FoxD promotes specification of neoblasts at the prior midline for anterior pole regeneration.

  5. Solar irradiance at the earth's surface: long-term behavior observed at the South Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research examines a 17-year database of UV-A (320–400 nm and visible (400–600 nm solar irradiance obtained by a scanning spectroradiometer located at the South Pole. The goal is to define the variability in solar irradiance reaching the polar surface, with emphasis on the influence of cloudiness and on identifying systematic trends and possible links to the solar cycle. To eliminate changes associated with the varying solar elevation, the analysis focuses on data averaged over 30–35 day periods centered on each year's austral summer solstice. The long-term average effect of South Polar clouds is a small attenuation, with the mean measured irradiances being about 5–6% less than the clear-sky values, although at any specific time clouds may reduce or enhance the signal that reaches the sensor. The instantaneous fractional attenuation or enhancement is wavelength dependent, where the percent deviation from the clear-sky irradiance at 400–600 nm is typically 2.5 times that at 320–340 nm. When averaged over the period near each year's summer solstice, significant correlations appear between irradiances at all wavelengths and the solar cycle as measured by the 10.7 cm solar radio flux. An approximate 1.8 ± 1.0% decrease in ground-level irradiance occurs from solar maximum to solar minimum for the wavelength band 320–400 nm. The corresponding decrease for 400–600 nm is 2.4 ± 1.9%. The best-estimate declines appear too large to originate in the sun. If the correlations have a geophysical origin, they suggest a small variation in atmospheric attenuation with the solar cycle over the period of observation, with the greatest attenuation occurring at solar minimum.

  6. The QED coupling at the Z pole and jet studies of small x dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outhwaite, J.

    2000-12-01

    In the first half of this thesis, motivated by significant progress in both theoretical and empirical studies of e + e - annihilation into hadrons, we perform a reevaluation of the running of the QED coupling to the Z-pole, paying particular attention to the hadronic contribution to vacuum polarization. We use a comprehensive collection of the presently available data and perturbative QCD expressions. This new determination of the running of the coupling is then used as input into a global fit to electroweak data to estimate a preferred value of the Standard Model Higgs boson. An estimate is obtained of M H = 110 GeV, marginally above the zone excluded by direct searches at LEP2. We then investigate the potential for further constraining the hadronic contribution to the vacuum polarization function through mechanisms incorporating analytic continuation from the timelike domain of s > 0 around a large semicircle into the spacelike domain of s c = 1.4. In the latter half of the thesis, we examine forward jet and pion production in electron - proton deep inelastic scattering in the small x region of the HERA collider at DESY. We demonstrate the imposition of physically motivated dominant subleading corrections to all orders on the leading logarithmic BFKL equation, and that this leads to stable phenomenological predictions. We compare the calculations of differential cross-section distributions incorporating the higher order effects with the experimental profiles for a single jet, an identified π 0 and dijets in the very forward region and investigate the sensitivity of the calculation to residual parametric freedom. (author)

  7. Stone-Free-Rate After Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy in the Management of Pediatric Renal Stones in Lower Pole and Other Locations - A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nadeem; Muhammad, Shujah; Zafar, Warda; Tashfeen, Ravale; Faiz, Javaria; Hasan, Aisha; Hussain, Ijaz; Akhter, Saeed

    2016-11-01

    To determine a difference in the stone-free-rate among different renal locations in children after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). A descriptive study. Urology Department, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from January 2007 to June 2015. The study included children who underwent ESWL, divided into three groups based on location of stones in kidney as group A (lower pole stones), group B (upper and mid pole stones) and group C (renal pelvis stone), respectively. ESWL was done by standard technique using Storz Modulith SLX lithotripter 3rd generation. Data was collected by chart review. SPSS version 16 was used for data analysis. Among 76 children with mean age of 7.55 ±4.16 years, 55 (72.4%) were males whereas 21 (27.6%) were females. Mean stone size was 1.08 ±0.59 cm. There were 34, 17 and 25 cases in groups A, B and C, respectively. Post- ESWL stone-free-rate was 47% in lower pole stones, 70.58% in upper and mid pole stones, and 68% in renal pelvis stones. Hematuria was seen in one patient from each group, sepsis in two patients from each of the mid pole/upper pole and lower pole group, while Steinstrasse in one patient from each group. ESWL is a safe and effective way of treating renal stones in all poles in pediatric population.

  8. The molecular architecture of the yeast spindle pole body core determined by Bayesian integrative modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Shruthi; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Kim, Seung Joong; Klenchin, Vadim A; Taylor, Keenan C; Yabut, King C; Umbreit, Neil T; Van Epps, Heather A; Meehl, Janet; Jones, Michele H; Russel, Daniel; Velazquez-Muriel, Javier A; Winey, Mark; Rayment, Ivan; Davis, Trisha N; Sali, Andrej; Muller, Eric G

    2017-11-07

    Microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) form, anchor, and stabilize the polarized network of microtubules in a cell. The central MTOC is the centrosome that duplicates during the cell cycle and assembles a bipolar spindle during mitosis to capture and segregate sister chromatids. Yet, despite their importance in cell biology, the physical structure of MTOCs is poorly understood. Here we determine the molecular architecture of the core of the yeast spindle pole body (SPB) by Bayesian integrative structure modeling based on in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), x-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and two-hybrid analysis. The model is validated by several methods that include a genetic analysis of the conserved PACT domain that recruits Spc110, a protein related to pericentrin, to the SPB. The model suggests that calmodulin can act as a protein cross-linker and Spc29 is an extended, flexible protein. The model led to the identification of a single, essential heptad in the coiled-coil of Spc110 and a minimal PACT domain. It also led to a proposed pathway for the integration of Spc110 into the SPB. © 2017 Viswanath, Bonomi, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. The usefulness of descriptive statistics in the interpretation of data on occupational physical activity of Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to assess whether basic descriptive statistics is sufficient to interpret the data on physical activity of Poles within occupational domain of life. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 964 randomly selected Polish working professionals. The long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was used. Descriptive statistics included characteristics of variables using: mean (M, median (Me, maximal and minimal values (max–min., standard deviation (SD and percentile values. Statistical inference was based on the comparison of variables with the significance level of 0.05 (Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson’s Chi2 tests. Results: Occupational physical activity (OPA was declared by 46.4% of respondents (vigorous – 23.5%, moderate – 30.2%, walking – 39.5%. The total OPA amounted to 2751.1 MET-min/week (Metabolic Equivalent of Task with very high standard deviation (SD = 5302.8 and max = 35 511 MET-min/week. It concerned different types of activities. Approximately 10% (90th percentile overstated the average. However, there was no significant difference depended on the character of the profession, or the type of activity. The average time of sitting was 256 min/day. As many as 39% of the respondents met the World Health Organization standards only due to OPA (42.5% of white-collar workers, 38% of administrative and technical employees and only 37.9% of physical workers. Conclusions: In the data analysis it is necessary to define quantiles to provide a fuller picture of the distributions of OPA in MET-min/week. It is also crucial to update the guidelines for data processing and analysis of long version of IPAQ. It seems that 16 h of activity/day is not a sufficient criterion for excluding the results from further analysis. Med Pr 2014;65(6:743–753

  10. The influence of preferred orientation and poling temperature on the polarization switching current in PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Ping [Tianjin University, School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin (China); Lan, Kuibo [Tianjin University, School of Microelectronics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-07-15

    In this paper, Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films with different preferred orientation were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by a modified sol-gel method. Our results indicate that the polarization switching current in PZT thin films is dependent on preferred orientation and poling temperature. In our measurements, (111)-oriented PZT has a larger polarization switching current than randomly oriented PZT, and with the increase of the degree of (111) preferred orientation and the poling temperature, the polarization switching current gradually increase. Considering the contact of PZT thin film with electrodes, the space-charged limited conduction (SCLC) combined with domain switching mechanism may be responsible for such phenomena. By analyzing the conduction data, we found the interface-limited Schottky emission (ES) and bulk-limited Poole-Frenkel hopping (PF) are not suitable for our samples. (orig.)

  11. [The usefulness of descriptive statistics in the interpretation of data on occupational physical activity of Poles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elżbieta; Piątkowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess whether basic descriptive statistics is sufficient to interpret the data on physical activity of Poles within occupational domain of life. lhe study group consisted of 964 randomly selected Polish working professionals. The long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used. Descriptive statistics included characteristics of variables using: mean (M), median (Me), maximal and minimal values (max-min.), standard deviation (SD) and percentile values. Statistical inference was based on the comparison of variables with the significance level of 0.05 (Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's Chi2 tests). Occupational physical activity (OPA) was declared by 46.4% of respondents (vigorous - 23.5%, moderate - 30.2%, walking - 39.5%). the total OPA amounted to 2751.1 MET-min/week (Metabolic Equivalent of Task) with very high standard deviation (SD) = 5302.8 and max = 35 511 MET-min/week. It concerned different types of activities. Approximately 10% (90th percentile) overstated the average. However, there was no significant difference depended on the character of the profession, or the type of activity. The average time of sitting was 256 min/day. As many as 39% of the respondents met the World Health Organization standards only due to OPA (42.5% of white-collar workers, 38% of administrative and technical employees and only 37.9% of physical workers). In the data analysis it is necessary to define quantiles to provide a fuller picture of the distributions of OPA in MET-min/week. It is also crucial to update the guidelines for data processing and analysis of long version of IPAQ. It seems that 16 h of activity/day is not a sufficient criterion for excluding the results from further analysis.

  12. The Resolved Asteroid Program - Size, shape, and pole of (52) Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merline, W. J.; Drummond, J. D.; Carry, B.; Conrad, A.; Tamblyn, P. M.; Dumas, C.; Kaasalainen, M.; Erikson, A.; Mottola, S.; Ďurech, J.; Rousseau, G.; Behrend, R.; Casalnuovo, G. B.; Chinaglia, B.; Christou, J. C.; Chapman, C. R.; Neyman, C.

    2013-07-01

    With the adaptive optics (AO) system on the 10 m Keck-II telescope, we acquired a high quality set of 84 images at 14 epochs of asteroid (52) Europa on 2005 January 20, when it was near opposition. The epochs covered its 5.63 h rotation period and, by following its changing shape and orientation on the plane of sky, we obtained its triaxial ellipsoid dimensions and spin pole location. An independent determination from images at three epochs obtained in 2007 is in good agreement with these results. By combining these two data sets, along with a single epoch data set obtained in 2003, we have derived a global fit for (52) Europa of diameters a × b × c = (379 × 330 × 249) ± (16 × 8 × 10) km, yielding a volume-equivalent spherical-diameter of √abc3 =315±7km, and a prograde rotational pole within 7° of [RA; Dec] = [257°; +12°] in an Equatorial J2000 reference frame (Ecliptic: 255°; +35°). Using the average of all mass determinations available for (52) Europa, we derive a density of 1.5 ± 0.4 g cm-3, typical of C-type asteroids. Comparing our images with the shape model of Michalowski et al. (2004, Astron. Astrophys. 416, 353), derived from optical lightcurves, illustrates excellent agreement, although several edge features visible in the images are not rendered by the model. We therefore derived a complete 3-D description of (52) Europa's shape using the KOALA algorithm by combining our 18 AO imaging epochs with 4 stellar occultations and 49 lightcurves. We use this 3-D shape model to assess these departures from ellipsoidal shape. Flat facets (possible giant craters) appear to be less distinct on (52) Europa than on other C-types that have been imaged in detail, (253) Mathilde and (511) Davida. We show that fewer giant craters, or smaller largest-sized craters, is consistent with its expected impact history. Overall, asteroid (52) Europa is still well modeled as a smooth triaxial ellipsoid with dimensions constrained by observations obtained over

  13. Pole-weapons in the Sagas of Icelanders: a comparison of literary and archaeological sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkisz Jan H.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic sagas are a major source of information on the Vikings and their fighting prowess. In these stories, several mysterious pole-weapons appear, which are often called “halberds”, for lack of a better word. In order to better identify what these weapons could have been, and to provide a better understanding of how the sagas relate to the Viking-age events they describe, we confront textual and archaeological evidence for several of these weapons (the höggspjót, the atgeirr, the kesja, the krókspjót, the bryntroll and the fleinn, keeping in mind the contextualisation of their appearances in sagas. The description of the use of each weapon allows to pick several candidates likely to correspond to the studied word. Without a perfect knowledge of what context the authors of the sagas wanted to describe, it appears to be impossible to give a final answer. However, we show that some specific types of spears are good candidates for some of the studied weapons.

  14. Rotor Pole Shape Optimization of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motors Using the Reduced Basis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHOLAMIAN, A. S.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a magnet shape optimization method for reduction of cogging torque and torque ripple in Permanent Magnet (PM brushless DC motors is presented by using the reduced basis technique coupled by finite element and design of experiments methods. The primary objective of the method is to reduce the enormous number of design variables required to define the magnet shape. The reduced basis technique is a weighted combination of several basis shapes. The aim of the method is to find the best combination using the weights for each shape as the design variables. A multi-level design process is developed to find suitable basis shapes or trial shapes at each level that can be used in the reduced basis technique. Each level is treated as a separated optimization problem until the required objective is achieved. The experimental design of Taguchi method is used to build the approximation model and to perform optimization. This method is demonstrated on the magnet shape optimization of a 6-poles/18-slots PM BLDC motor.

  15. The Formation of Charon's Red Poles from Seasonally Cold-Trapped Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, W. M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Gladstone, D. R.; Howett, C. J. A.; Lauer, T. R.; Spencer, J. R.; Summers, M. E.; Buie, M. W.; Earle, A. M.; Ennico, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A unique feature of Plutos large satellite Charon is its dark red northern polar cap. Similar colours on Plutos surface have been attributed to tholin-like organic macromolecules produced by energetic radiation processing of hydrocarbons. The polar location on Charon implicates the temperature extremes that result from Charons high obliquity and long seasons in the production of this material. The escape of Pluto's atmosphere provides a potential feedstock for a complex chemistry. Gas from Pluto that is transiently cold-trapped and processed at Charon's winter pole was proposed as an explanation for the dark coloration on the basis of an image of Charon's northern hemisphere, but not modelled quantitatively. Here we report images of the southern hemisphere illuminated by Pluto-shine and also images taken during the approach phase that show the northern polar cap over a range of longitudes. We model the surface thermal environment on Charon and the supply and temporary cold-trapping of material escaping from Pluto, as well as the photolytic processing of this material into more complex and less volatile molecules while cold-trapped. The model results are consistent with the proposed mechanism for producing the observed colour pattern on Charon.

  16. Analysis of the 3D magnetic field and its errors for undulators with iron poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingold, G.; Bahrdt, J.; Gaupp, A. [BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The attainable field strength and field quality, such as the optical phase error, the electron beam displacement within the undulator and higher order multipoles of the magnetic field, are discussed. These issues are critical to the design and construction of short period undulators for use in short wavelength FEL or for operation in third generation light sources. We discuss two approaches: (i) For superferric undulators the construction of a full length device would rely on the optimum sorting of precision machined undulator segments. Magnetic data on segments with 20 periods (period length 8.80mm) will be presented. (ii) For hybrid undulators the sorting has to be done on individual poles and magnets. For this approach typical error sources such as machining tolerances, magnetization errors of the permanent magnet material and assembly errors are modeled in 3D and compared to induced errors on an existing hybrid undulator segment. In case of undulators having a full length of hundred periods at least five times as many individual parts have to be characterized. This should be done automatically where both the mechanical and magnetic data before and after the assembly of the magnetic structure are recorded in one step. A CNC programmable measuring device suitable for this task will shortly be presented.

  17. Mapping the temporal pole with a specialized electrode array: technique and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Taylor J; Rhone, Ariane E; Nourski, Kirill V; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Howard, Matthew A III; Granner, Mark A; Tranel, Daniel T; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Temporopolar cortex plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy and subserves important cognitive functions. Because of its shape and position in the middle cranial fossa, complete electrode coverage of the temporal pole (TP) is difficult to achieve using existing devices. We designed a novel TP electrode array that conforms to the surface of temporopolar cortex and achieves dense electrode coverage of this important brain region. A multi-pronged electrode array was designed that can be placed over the surface of the TP using a straightforward insertion technique. Twelve patients with medically intractable epilepsy were implanted with the TP electrode array for purposes of seizure localization. Select patients underwent cognitive mapping by electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording from the TP during a naming task. Use of the array resulted in excellent TP electrode coverage in all patients. High quality ECoG data were consistently obtained for purposes of delineating seizure activity and functional mapping. During a naming task, significant increases in ECoG power were observed within localized subregions of the TP. One patient developed a transient neurological deficit thought to be related to the mass effect of multiple intracranial recording arrays, including the TP array. This deficit resolved following removal of all electrodes. The TP electrode array overcomes limitations of existing devices and enables clinicians and researchers to obtain optimal multi-site recordings from this important brain region. (paper)

  18. New paleomagnetic poles from Arctic Siberia support Indian Ocean option for the Neoproterozoic APWP of the Siberian craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasenko, A.; Malyshev, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    Quantity and quality of paleomagnetic poles obtained so far for Neoproterozoic of Siberia are still insufficient even to outline the general trend of APWP of Siberia for this huge and very interesting time interval. Meanwhile, the solution of this problem is crucial for choice of polarity option for Siberian proterozoic paleomagnetic directions, for construction and testing of world paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions. For example, whether or not the Siberian craton could be connected with Laurentia within the supercontinent Rodinia depends directly on paleomagnetic polarity option choice, which , in its turn, is determined by either we choose for neoproterozoic drift of Siberian paleomagnetic poles Pacific ocean trend [Smethurst et al., 1998] or Indian ocean [Pavlov et al., 2015] trend. To advance in solution of this problem we have carried out the paleomagnetic investigations of several sedimentary sections and sills of Arctic Siberia considered to be meso-neoproterozoic in age. In particular we have studied the terrigenous Udza and Unguohtah Formations and basic sills of the Udzha Uplift; the carbonate Khaipakh Formation of the Olenek Uplift; the carbonate Burovaya Formation of the Turukhansk Uplift; basic sills of the Kparaulakh Mountains.In this report we present the paleomagnetic poles obtained, discuss their bearing on construction of the adequate Siberian neoproterozoic APWP and show that our new data rather support the Indian ocean option.This research were supported by Grant from RF President #MK-739.2017.5

  19. The peculiarity of dynamic of helminth community of wild ungulate animals in the condition of Poles'e reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsova, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    It was analysed the dynamic of helminth community of wild animals in the condition of Poles'e reserve and it was shown that radiation contamination had great influence at the settled community of parasite worms resulting in disappearance or sharp diminution of species quantity that were common for wild ungulate animals and domestics cattle. It was concluded that stabilisation of helminth community of wild ungulate animals had not yet achieved

  20. Analysis of Stationary, Photovoltaic-based Surface Power System Designs at the Lunar South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeh, Joshua E.

    2009-01-01

    Combinations of solar arrays and either batteries or regenerative fuel cells are analyzed for a surface power system module at the lunar south pole. The systems are required to produce 5 kW of net electrical power in sunlight and 2 kW of net electrical power during lunar night periods for a 10-year period between 2020 and 2030. Systems-level models for energy conservation, performance, degradation, and mass are used to compare to various systems. The sensitivities of important and/or uncertain variables including battery specific energy, fuel cell operating voltage, and DC-DC converter efficiency are compared to better understand the system. Switching unit efficiency, battery specific energy, and fuel cell operating voltage appear to be important system-level variables for this system. With reasonably sized solar arrays, the regenerative fuel cell system has significantly lower mass than the battery system based on the requirements and assumptions made herein. The total operational time is estimated at about 10,000 hours in battery discharge/fuel cell mode and about 4,000 and 8,000 hours for the battery charge and electrolyzer modes, respectively. The estimated number of significant depth-of-discharge cycles for either energy storage system is less than 100 for the 10-year period.

  1. Emotional intelligence moderates the relationship between regional gray matter volume in the bilateral temporal pole and critical thinking disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaonan; Yuan, Shuge; Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Qunlin; Wei, Dongtao; Hou, Yuling; Zhang, Lijie; Qiu, Jiang; Yang, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Critical thinking enables people to form sound beliefs and provides a basis for emotional life. Research has indicated that individuals with better critical thinking disposition can better recognize and regulate their emotions, though the neuroanatomical mechanisms involved in this process remain to be elucidated. Further, the influence of emotional intelligence on the relationship between brain structure and critical thinking disposition has not been examined. The present study utilized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the neural structures underlying critical thinking disposition in a large sample of college students (N = 296). Regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the bilateral temporal pole, which reflects an individual's ability to process social and emotional information, was negatively correlated with critical thinking disposition. In addition, rGMV in bilateral para hippocampal regions -regions involved in contextual association/emotional regulation-exhibited negative correlation with critical thinking disposition. Further analysis revealed that emotional intelligence moderated the relationship between rGMV of the temporal pole and critical thinking disposition. Specifically, critical thinking disposition was associated with decreased GMV of the temporal pole for individuals who have relatively higher emotional intelligence rather than lower emotional intelligence. The results of the present study indicate that people who have higher emotional intelligence exhibit more effective and automatic processing of emotional information and tend to be strong critical thinkers.

  2. Stone clearance in lower pole nephrolithiasis after extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy – the controversy continues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Sobia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine factors influencing the clearance of fragments after extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL for lower pole calyceal (LPC stones. Methods In the period between July 1998 and Oct 2001, 100 patients with isolated lower polar calyceal calculi ≤ 20 mm, in patients aged ≥ 14 years, were included in the study. Intravenous urograms (IVU were reviewed to define the LPC anatomy (width of the infundibulum and pelvicalyceal angle. Study end points i.e. stone free status; number of shock waves used and number of sessions were correlated with variables like LPC anatomy, body mass index and stone size. Results At three months follow up the clearance for stone size ≤ 10 mm, 11–15 mm and 16–20 mm were 95, 96 and 90% respectively. Patients with acute LPC (90° had stone clearance of 94 and 100% respectively. For the infundibular width of 4 mm, it was 100%. For body mass index (BMI less than and > 30 kg/m2, the stone clearance was 92 and 95% respectively. Conclusions There is a trend towards more ESWL sessions and shock wave requirement in patients with acute pelvi-calyceal angle and narrow infundibulum but it is not statistically significant. Size (≤ 20 mm and BMI has no relation with stone clearance. With modern lithotripter, stones up to 20 mm could primarily be treated by ESWL, irrespective of an un-favorable lower polar calyceal anatomy and body habitus.

  3. Does Weak Turbulence Impact PMSEs' Strengths Closer To The Northern Pole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnalingam, N.; Hocking, W. K.; Janches, D.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Existing 51.0 MHz VHF radar at Eureka (80N, 86W) in northern Canada is located closer to both the northern magnetic and geomagnetic poles. A recent calibrated study of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) using this radar supports the previous results by other radars that the absolute signal strength of PMSE in this region is relatively weak compared with the radar observations located at high latitudes. Although very cold temperature and existence of charged ice particles are the most important ingredient required for PMSE to appear, several other factors could potentially influence the absolute signal strengths of these echoes. One of them is neutral air turbulence. Previous studies indicate that upper mesospheric turbulence's strength decreases with latitudes, especially in the very high latitudes [Becker, 2004; Lubken et. al., 2009]. In this study, we investigate long-term mesospheric turbulence strengths at Eureka and study how they could be associated with the weak PMSE signal strengths compared with other high latitude conditions, where PMSE are strong.

  4. Characterization of a cold-active bacterium isolated from the South Pole “Ice Tunnel”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madigan, Michael T.; Kempher, Megan L.; Bender, Kelly S.; Sullivan, Paul; Matthew Sattley, W.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Joye, Samantha B.

    2017-07-05

    Abstract Extremely cold microbial habitats on Earth (those below -30 °C) are rare and have not been surveyed for microbes as extensively as environments in the 0 to -20 °C range. Using cryoprotected growth media incubated at -5 °C, we enriched a cold-active Pseudomonas species from -50 °C ice collected from a utility tunnel for wastewater pipes under Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. The isolate, strain UC-1, is related to other cold-active Pseudomonas species, most notably P. psychrophila, and grew at -5 °C to +34–37 °C; growth of UC-1 at +3 °C was significantly faster than at +34 °C. Strain UC-1 synthesized a surface exopolymer and high levels of unsaturated fatty acids under cold growth conditions. A 16S rRNA gene diversity screen of the ice sample that yielded strain UC-1 revealed over 1200 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) distributed across eight major classes of Bacteria. Many of the OTUs were Clostridia and Bacteriodia and some of these were probably of wastewater origin. However, a significant fraction of the OTUs were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria of likely environmental origin. Our results shed light on the lower temperature limits to life and the possible existence of functional microbial communities in ultra-cold environments.

  5. Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  6. Detection of Street Light Poles in Road Scenes from Mobile LIDAR Mapping Data for its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Nahr, S.; Saadatseresht, M.; Talebi, J.

    2017-09-01

    Identification of street light poles is very significant and crucial for intelligent transportation systems. Automatic detection and extraction of street light poles are a challenging task in road scenes. This is mainly because of complex road scenes. Nowadays mobile laser scanners have been used to acquire three-dimensional geospatial data of roadways over a large area at a normal driving speed. With respect to the high density of such data, new and beneficial algorithms are needed to extract objects from these data. In this article, our proposed algorithm for extraction of street light poles consists of five main steps: 1. Preprocessing, 2. Ground removal, 3. 3D connected components analysis, 4. Local geometric feature generation, 5. Extraction of street light poles using Bhattacharya distance metric. The proposed algorithm is tested on two rural roadways, called Area1 and Area2. Evaluation results for Area1 report 0.80, 0.72 and 0.62 for completeness, correctness and quality, respectively.

  7. Radiometric evaluation of the 210Pb in the estuary of the SUAPE Pole in the State of Pernambuco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Paula Frassinetti P.; Antonio Filho, Joao; Mendonca, Keyla Mary C.; Carvalho, Wellington S.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest in the study of natural radioactivity levels, mainly of radionuclide 210 Pb present in the environment. The environmental radioactivity control is of extreme importance for attainment of information on the exposition of humans and vegetables the potential sources in natural radioactive occurrences. Industrial processes involving mining and extraction and production of oil foster concentration of radionuclides, contributing to the occurrence of what is known as TENORM Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. This work aims to assess the environmental radiological impact on the Estuarine Region of the SUAPE Industrial Pole, due to the installation of an oil refinery and the consequent introduction on the environment of natural radioactive materials from other regions. For this, were determined the concentrations of 210 Pb in samples de soil, sediments, roots and levels of fen and fishes in the region above reported, these data will serve of parameters of reference for a radiometric evaluation on future radioecology impacts caused by the functioning of the refinery of SUAPE oil. To determine the concentration of 210 Pb was used the Ionic Resin Exchange method, for in such a way, the detector was used alpha-beta. Concentrations of 210 Pb in the soils, sediments, roots and levels of fen samples vary respectively from 27 ± 2 to 60 ± 5, from 18 ± 5 to 60 ± 6, from 65 ± 2 to 117 ± 3, from 217 ± 6 to 239 ± 7 Bq.kg-1. Concentrations of the 210 Pb in samples of some species of fish found in the studied region, such as Mullet, Salema, Catfish and Carapitinga, was also determined varying from 26 ± 11 to 62 ± 6 Bq.kg-1. The results obtained in the samples of soils, sediments, roots of fen e fishes showed that the concentrations of 210 Pb in the environment are normal for the patterns of the area and are in accordance with data the found ones in literature for regions not impacted. As can be observed the

  8. LOFAR/H-ATLAS: a deep low-frequency survey of the Herschel-ATLAS North Galactic Pole field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, M. J.; Gürkan, G.; van Weeren, R. J.; Williams, W. L.; Best, P. N.; de Gasperin, F.; Rafferty, D. A.; Read, S. C.; Sabater, J.; Shimwell, T. W.; Smith, D. J. B.; Tasse, C.; Bourne, N.; Brienza, M.; Brüggen, M.; Brunetti, G.; Chyży, K. T.; Conway, J.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S. A.; Maddox, S. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Mahony, E. K.; Morganti, R.; Prandoni, I.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Valiante, E.; White, G. J.

    2016-10-01

    We present Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) High-Band Array observations of the Herschel-ATLAS North Galactic Pole survey area. The survey we have carried out, consisting of four pointings covering around 142 deg2 of sky in the frequency range 126-173 MHz, does not provide uniform noise coverage but otherwise is representative of the quality of data to be expected in the planned LOFAR wide-area surveys, and has been reduced using recently developed `facet calibration' methods at a resolution approaching the full resolution of the data sets (˜10 × 6 arcsec) and an rms off-source noise that ranges from 100 μJy beam-1 in the centre of the best fields to around 2 mJy beam-1 at the furthest extent of our imaging. We describe the imaging, cataloguing and source identification processes, and present some initial science results based on a 5σ source catalogue. These include (I) an initial look at the radio/far-infrared correlation at 150 MHz, showing that many Herschel sources are not yet detected by LOFAR; (II) number counts at 150 MHz, including, for the first time, observational constraints on the numbers of star-forming galaxies; (III) the 150-MHz luminosity functions for active and star-forming galaxies, which agree well with determinations at higher frequencies at low redshift, and show strong redshift evolution of the star-forming population; and (IV) some discussion of the implications of our observations for studies of radio galaxy life cycles.

  9. Infinitesimal and global rigidity and inflexibility of surfaces of revolution with flattening at the poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabitov, I Kh

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this article is one of the most important questions of classical geometry: the theory of bendings and infinitesimal bendings of surfaces. These questions are studied for surfaces of revolution and, unlike previous well-known works, we make only minimal smoothness assumptions (the class C 1 ) in the initial part of our study. In this class we prove local existence and uniqueness theorems for infinitesimal bendings. We then consider the analytic class and establish simple criteria for rigidity and inflexibility of compact surfaces. These criteria depend on the values of certain integer characteristics related to the order of flattening of the surface at its poles. We also show that in the nonanalytic situation there exist nonrigid surfaces with any given order of flattening at the poles. Bibliography: 22 titles

  10. MAPS OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM COMBINED SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE AND PLANCK DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T. M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crites, A. T.; Hou, Z.; Keisler, R. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chown, R.; Holder, G. P.; Haan, T. de; Dobbs, M. A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Aird, K. A.; Hrubes, J. D. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cho, H-M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); George, E. M.; Harrington, N. L.; Holzapfel, W. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Halverson, N. W. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Knox, L., E-mail: tcrawfor@kicp.uchicago.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    We present maps of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from combined South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck data. The Planck satellite observes in nine bands, while the SPT data used in this work were taken with the three-band SPT-SZ camera, The SPT-SZ bands correspond closely to three of the nine Planck bands, namely those centered at 1.4, 2.1, and 3.0 mm. The angular resolution of the Planck data ranges from 5 to 10 arcmin, while the SPT resolution ranges from 1.0 to 1.7 arcmin. The combined maps take advantage of the high resolution of the SPT data and the long-timescale stability of the space-based Planck observations to deliver robust brightness measurements on scales from the size of the maps down to ∼1 arcmin. In each band, we first calibrate and color-correct the SPT data to match the Planck data, then we use noise estimates from each instrument and knowledge of each instrument’s beam to make the inverse-variance-weighted combination of the two instruments’ data as a function of angular scale. We create maps assuming a range of underlying emission spectra and at a range of final resolutions. We perform several consistency tests on the combined maps and estimate the expected noise in measurements of features in them. We compare maps from this work to those from the Herschel HERITAGE survey, finding general consistency between the data sets. All data products described in this paper are available for download from the NASA Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis server.

  11. Bring the Poles to Your Classroom & Community Through Linked Hands-on Learning & IPY Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Bell, R. E.; Kastens, K. A.; Pfirman, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    Two major legacies of the 4th International Polar Year (IPY 2007-9) are a newly galvanized educational community and an immense volume of polar data collected by the global science community. The tremendous new polar datasets represent a unique opportunity to communicate the nature of the changing poles to student and public audiences through this polar savvy educational community if effective approaches to link data and understanding are employed. We have developed a strategy for polar education that leverages the IPY data resources, linked with the polar education hands-on ‘manipulatives’ (materials that students can manipulate in a dynamic manner). This linked approach leverages the fundamental inquiry based learning but recognizes that particularly in the polar sciences the size of the earth, the remoteness of the poles and the scale of its processes make it difficult for students to explore in a hands-on manner. The linking of polar hands-on ‘manipulatives’ with IPY data provides a bridge between the tangible and the global. Alone manipulative activities can be beneficial in their ability to help students visualize a process or behavior, but without a strong link back to the Earth through data or evidence the understanding of the process is not transferred from the classroom model to the full scale Earth. The use of activities or models is beneficial in connecting the learner to the polar process(es), while the IPY data provides a unique opportunity to ground the polar manipulative experiments in real data. This linked strategy emerged from a series of NSF sponsored IPY Polar Fairs at major science museums that reached in excess of 12,000 people. The design of the fairs was that polar scientists developed activities linking low cost hands-on manipulatives to scientific evidence/data that was displayed in posters, images, and video clips. The participating scientists walked the ‘audience’ through the hands-on manipulative, then discussed their

  12. Dynamics of Sr-90 content in environmental objects of Ukrainian-Byelorussian Poles'e after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.A.; Kajro, I.A.; Shandala, N.K.; Los', I.N.; Repin, V.S.; Gul'ko, G.M.; Chepurnoj, N.I.; Berkovskij, V.B.; Tsygankov, N.Ya.; Pozhivalova, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Ecological, dosemetric and radiation-sanitary aspects of the problem of Sr-90 contamination of environmental objects and food in Ukrainian-Byelorussian Poles'e in three-year period after the Chernobyl' NPP accident are discussed. Analysis of the materials collected shows that efficient equivalent radiation doses from Sr-90 being intaken into the region of Urkainian-Byelorussian Poles'e after the Chernobyl' NPP accident expected to be gained during 70 years of critical population group life are not exceed 1 mSv; this value is by the factor of 10-100 smaller than the dose values connected with radioactive cesium. The problem of environment contamination with Sr-90 transforms from hot radiation-sanitary situation into more quiet radioecological one

  13. Chiasmata promote monopolar attachment of sister chromatids and their co-segregation toward the proper pole during meiosis I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinobu Hirose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chiasma is a structure that forms between a pair of homologous chromosomes by crossover recombination and physically links the homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Chiasmata are essential for the attachment of the homologous chromosomes to opposite spindle poles (bipolar attachment and their subsequent segregation to the opposite poles during meiosis I. However, the overall function of chiasmata during meiosis is not fully understood. Here, we show that chiasmata also play a crucial role in the attachment of sister chromatids to the same spindle pole and in their co-segregation during meiosis I in fission yeast. Analysis of cells lacking chiasmata and the cohesin protector Sgo1 showed that loss of chiasmata causes frequent bipolar attachment of sister chromatids during anaphase. Furthermore, high time-resolution analysis of centromere dynamics in various types of chiasmate and achiasmate cells, including those lacking the DNA replication checkpoint factor Mrc1 or the meiotic centromere protein Moa1, showed the following three outcomes: (i during the pre-anaphase stage, the bipolar attachment of sister chromatids occurs irrespective of chiasma formation; (ii the chiasma contributes to the elimination of the pre-anaphase bipolar attachment; and (iii when the bipolar attachment remains during anaphase, the chiasmata generate a bias toward the proper pole during poleward chromosome pulling that results in appropriate chromosome segregation. Based on these results, we propose that chiasmata play a pivotal role in the selection of proper attachments and provide a backup mechanism that promotes correct chromosome segregation when improper attachments remain during anaphase I.

  14. A search for ultra-high-energy gamma rays at the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantz, M.A.; Perrett, J.; Watson, A.A.; Ogden, P.; Smith, N.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it has been discovered that some X-ray binary systems (such as Cygnus X-3 and Vela X-1) emit gamma rays with energies greater than 100 terraelectronvolts. The gamma rays arise from the decay of neutral π-mesons which in turn are produced by the interaction of energetic protons with gas in the region around the X-ray binary. These protons--the grandparents of the gamma rays--are accelerated in the complex electric and magnetic fields associated with the neutron star and accretion disc of the binary system. Only a fraction of the protons interact, and those which escape are injected into the interstellar medium to become cosmic rays. It is more fruitful to study the gamma rays as a clue to cosmic ray origin, rather than to look at the incoming proton beam itself: Unlike the charged protons which random walk as they are scattered by magnetic fields in the galaxy, the gamma rays travel in straight lines. This makes it possible to identify point sources, provided the exceedingly small gamma-ray signal can be picked out from the more abundant and isotropic cosmic-ray background. Detection of high-energy cosmic and gamma rays is rather complicated. The South Pole provides a unique location for studying X-ray binary systems which are candidate sources of ultra-high-energy gamma rays: Many more are visible than from northern latitudes and, most importantly, every source remains at constant elevation. This latter feature is particularly crucial because most of the sources detected so far appear to be sporadic emitters of radiations

  15. Correcting intensity loss errors in the absence of texture-free reference samples during pole figure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Ahmed A.; Vu, Viet Q.; Gazder, Azdiar A.

    2016-01-01

    Even with the use of X-ray polycapillary lenses, sample tilting during pole figure measurement results in a decrease in the recorded X-ray intensity. The magnitude of this error is affected by the sample size and/or the finite detector size. These errors can be typically corrected by measuring the intensity loss as a function of the tilt angle using a texture-free reference sample (ideally made of the same alloy as the investigated material). Since texture-free reference samples are not readily available for all alloys, the present study employs an empirical procedure to estimate the correction curve for a particular experimental configuration. It involves the use of real texture-free reference samples that pre-exist in any X-ray diffraction laboratory to first establish the empirical correlations between X-ray intensity, sample tilt and their Bragg angles and thereafter generate correction curves for any Bragg angle. It will be shown that the empirically corrected textures are in very good agreement with the experimentally corrected ones. - Highlights: •Sample tilting during X-ray pole figure measurement leads to intensity loss errors. •Texture-free reference samples are typically used to correct the pole figures. •An empirical correction procedure is proposed in the absence of reference samples. •The procedure relies on reference samples that pre-exist in any texture laboratory. •Experimentally and empirically corrected textures are in very good agreement.

  16. On your feet: protocol for a randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of pole walking and regular walking on physical and psychosocial health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Juliette O; Brown, Wendy J; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z

    2014-04-17

    Physical activity is associated with better physical and mental health in older adults. Pole walking is a form of walking which may have additional health benefits in older adults, because of the addition of hand held poles, and consequent upper limb involvement. However, few studies have examined the potential additional effects of pole walking on physical and psychosocial health in older adults compared with walking. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of a pole walking program with the effects of a walking program, on physical and psychosocial wellbeing, in older adults in assisted living facilities. Sixty men and women from assisted living communities over 65 years will be recruited from senior retirement facilities and randomized into a group based, pole walking program, or walking program. The pole walking group will use the Exerstrider method of pole walking. Total duration of the programs is 12 weeks, with three sessions per week, building from 20 minute to 30 minute sessions.The primary outcome is physical function, as measured by items from the Seniors Fitness Test and hand grip strength. Secondary outcomes include, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, joint pain, and quality of life. All outcomes will be assessed before and after the programs, using valid and reliable measures. The study will add to the evidence base for the effects of pole walking, compared with walking, on physical and psychosocial health and physical function, in healthy older adults. This will improve understanding about the feasibility of pole walking programs and its specific benefits in this population. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001127897.

  17. Measurement of Galaxy Cluster Integrated Comptonization and Mass Scaling Relations with the South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; et al.

    2015-01-22

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y (SZ)) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y (SZ) within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y (SZ) for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y (SZ) is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y (SZ) and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y (SZ) at a fixed mass. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y (SZ) measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  18. MEASUREMENT OF GALAXY CLUSTER INTEGRATED COMPTONIZATION AND MASS SCALING RELATIONS WITH THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; Montroy, T. E. [Physics Department, Center for Education and Research in Cosmology and Astrophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bayliss, M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bocquet, S.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway, Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R., E-mail: benjamin.saliwanchik@case.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y {sub SZ}) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y {sub SZ} within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y {sub SZ} for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y {sub SZ} is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y {sub SZ} and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y {sub SZ} within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y {sub SZ} at a fixed mass. Measuring Y {sub SZ} within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y {sub SZ} measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  19. A conserved gene regulatory network subcircuit drives different developmental fates in the vegetal pole of highly divergent echinoderm embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Brenna S; Weideman, Erin P; Hinman, Veronica F

    2010-04-15

    Comparisons of orthologous developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from different organisms explain how transcriptional regulation can, or cannot, change over time to cause morphological evolution and stasis. Here, we examine a subset of the GRN connections in the central vegetal pole mesoderm of the late sea star blastula and compare them to the GRN for the same embryonic territory of sea urchins. In modern sea urchins, this territory gives rise to skeletogenic mesoderm; in sea stars, it develops into other mesodermal derivatives. Orthologs of many transcription factors that function in the sea urchin skeletogenic mesoderm are co-expressed in the sea star vegetal pole, although this territory does not form a larval skeleton. Systematic perturbation of erg, hex, tbr, and tgif gene function was used to construct a snapshot of the sea star mesoderm GRN. A comparison of this network to the sea urchin skeletogenic mesoderm GRN revealed a conserved, recursively wired subcircuit operating in both organisms. We propose that, while these territories have evolved different functions in sea urchins and sea stars, this subcircuit is part of an ancestral GRN governing echinoderm vegetal pole mesoderm development. The positive regulatory feedback between these transcription factors may explain the conservation of this subcircuit. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Electrical description of a magnetic pole enhanced inductively coupled plasma source: Refinement of the transformer model by reverse electromagnetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meziani, T.; Colpo, P.; Rossi, F.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic pole enhanced inductively coupled source (MaPE-ICP) is an innovative low-pressure plasma source that allows for high plasma density and high plasma uniformity, as well as large-area plasma generation. This article presents an electrical characterization of this source, and the experimental measurements are compared to the results obtained after modeling the source by the equivalent circuit of the transformer. In particular, the method applied consists in performing a reverse electromagnetic modeling of the source by providing the measured plasma parameters such as plasma density and electron temperature as an input, and computing the total impedance seen at the primary of the transformer. The impedance results given by the model are compared to the experimental results. This approach allows for a more comprehensive refinement of the electrical model in order to obtain a better fitting of the results. The electrical characteristics of the system, and in particular the total impedance, were measured at the inductive coil antenna (primary of the transformer). The source was modeled electrically by a finite element method, treating the plasma as a conductive load and taking into account the complex plasma conductivity, the value of which was calculated from the electron density and electron temperature measurements carried out previously. The electrical characterization of the inductive excitation source itself versus frequency showed that the source cannot be treated as purely inductive and that the effect of parasitic capacitances must be taken into account in the model. Finally, considerations on the effect of the magnetic core addition on the capacitive component of the coupling are made

  1. Neural correlates of auditory recognition memory in the primate dorsal temporal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chi-Wing; Plakke, Bethany; Poremba, Amy

    2014-02-01

    Temporal pole (TP) cortex is associated with higher-order sensory perception and/or recognition memory, as human patients with damage in this region show impaired performance during some tasks requiring recognition memory (Olson et al. 2007). The underlying mechanisms of TP processing are largely based on examination of the visual nervous system in humans and monkeys, while little is known about neuronal activity patterns in the auditory portion of this region, dorsal TP (dTP; Poremba et al. 2003). The present study examines single-unit activity of dTP in rhesus monkeys performing a delayed matching-to-sample task utilizing auditory stimuli, wherein two sounds are determined to be the same or different. Neurons of dTP encode several task-relevant events during the delayed matching-to-sample task, and encoding of auditory cues in this region is associated with accurate recognition performance. Population activity in dTP shows a match suppression mechanism to identical, repeated sound stimuli similar to that observed in the visual object identification pathway located ventral to dTP (Desimone 1996; Nakamura and Kubota 1996). However, in contrast to sustained visual delay-related activity in nearby analogous regions, auditory delay-related activity in dTP is transient and limited. Neurons in dTP respond selectively to different sound stimuli and often change their sound response preferences between experimental contexts. Current findings suggest a significant role for dTP in auditory recognition memory similar in many respects to the visual nervous system, while delay memory firing patterns are not prominent, which may relate to monkeys' shorter forgetting thresholds for auditory vs. visual objects.

  2. Neural correlates of auditory recognition memory in the primate dorsal temporal pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chi-Wing; Plakke, Bethany

    2013-01-01

    Temporal pole (TP) cortex is associated with higher-order sensory perception and/or recognition memory, as human patients with damage in this region show impaired performance during some tasks requiring recognition memory (Olson et al. 2007). The underlying mechanisms of TP processing are largely based on examination of the visual nervous system in humans and monkeys, while little is known about neuronal activity patterns in the auditory portion of this region, dorsal TP (dTP; Poremba et al. 2003). The present study examines single-unit activity of dTP in rhesus monkeys performing a delayed matching-to-sample task utilizing auditory stimuli, wherein two sounds are determined to be the same or different. Neurons of dTP encode several task-relevant events during the delayed matching-to-sample task, and encoding of auditory cues in this region is associated with accurate recognition performance. Population activity in dTP shows a match suppression mechanism to identical, repeated sound stimuli similar to that observed in the visual object identification pathway located ventral to dTP (Desimone 1996; Nakamura and Kubota 1996). However, in contrast to sustained visual delay-related activity in nearby analogous regions, auditory delay-related activity in dTP is transient and limited. Neurons in dTP respond selectively to different sound stimuli and often change their sound response preferences between experimental contexts. Current findings suggest a significant role for dTP in auditory recognition memory similar in many respects to the visual nervous system, while delay memory firing patterns are not prominent, which may relate to monkeys' shorter forgetting thresholds for auditory vs. visual objects. PMID:24198324

  3. Internal fixation of displaced inferior pole of the patella fractures using vertical wiring augmented with Krachow suturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyoung-Keun; Choo, Suk-Kyu; Kim, Ji-Wan; Lee, Mark

    2015-12-01

    We present the surgical technique of separate vertical wiring for displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella combined with Krachow suture and report the surgical outcomes. Between September 2007 to May 2012, 11 consecutive patients (mean age, 54.6 years) with inferior pole fractures of the patella (AO/OTA 34-A1) were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Through longitudinal incision, all patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation by separate vertical wiring combined with Krackow suture. The range of motion, loss of fixation, and Bostman score were primary outcome measures. The union time was 10 weeks after surgery on average (range: 8-12). No patient had nonunion, loss of reduction and wire breakage. There was no case of wound problem and irritation from the implant. At final follow-up, the average range of motion arc was 129.4° (range: 120-140). The mean Bostman score at last follow-up was 29.6 points (range: 28-30) and graded excellent in all cases. Separate vertical wiring combined with Krackow suture for inferior pole fractures of the patella is a useful technique that is easy to perform and can provide stable fixation with excellent results in knee function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fission yeast Sec3 and Exo70 are transported on actin cables and localize the exocyst complex to cell poles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe O Bendezú

    Full Text Available The exocyst complex is essential for many exocytic events, by tethering vesicles at the plasma membrane for fusion. In fission yeast, polarized exocytosis for growth relies on the combined action of the exocyst at cell poles and myosin-driven transport along actin cables. We report here the identification of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sec3 protein, which we identified through sequence homology of its PH-like domain. Like other exocyst subunits, sec3 is required for secretion and cell division. Cells deleted for sec3 are only conditionally lethal and can proliferate when osmotically stabilized. Sec3 is redundant with Exo70 for viability and for the localization of other exocyst subunits, suggesting these components act as exocyst tethers at the plasma membrane. Consistently, Sec3 localizes to zones of growth independently of other exocyst subunits but depends on PIP(2 and functional Cdc42. FRAP analysis shows that Sec3, like all other exocyst subunits, localizes to cell poles largely independently of the actin cytoskeleton. However, we show that Sec3, Exo70 and Sec5 are transported by the myosin V Myo52 along actin cables. These data suggest that the exocyst holocomplex, including Sec3 and Exo70, is present on exocytic vesicles, which can reach cell poles by either myosin-driven transport or random walk.

  5. Rotor pole refurbishment for hydrogenerators: insulation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.R.; Rux, L.

    2005-01-01

    Rotor poles for Unit 1 at Lower Granite Powerhouse were removed from the rotor and shipped to a repair facility for refurbishment. Upon inspection, it was found that all of the pole bodies exhibited a distinct bow, center to end, on the pole mounting surface. In some cases, the deflection was as much as 0.106 inch. Concerns were raised about how this condition might affect the ability to properly insulate and/or re-seat the poles. This paper presents details of the rotor pole and field winding evaluation, the problems encountered, and the solutions implemented to successfully refurbish the rotor poles and field winding. (author)

  6. TOURISM IN THE TOURIST AREA "IRON GATES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINU LOREDANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper wants to highlight the trends of tourist demanding from the touristic area Iron Gates. We will see that the future of tourism include new forms such as those caused by the increased interest in areas with agritourism attractions or areas and portions of parks and nature reserves, which will raise the attractiveness of Danube, putting in a new pole of attraction area. Thus, we conducted a research based on survey among visitors on the tourist area "Iron Gates". The main endpoint based on survey was highlighting the motivation that determined the choice of the tourist area "Iron Gates", but also knowledge of consumer satisfaction for the tourists to the visited area (tourist product studied. The main objectives were, of course, linked with socio - economic and demographic characteristics of tourists to form a clearer picture of the motivational factors involved.

  7. South Pole-Aitken Sample Return Mission: Collecting Mare Basalts from the Far Side of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lucey, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the probability that a sample mission to a site within the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) would return basaltic material. A sample mission to the SPA would be the first opportunity to sample basalts from the far side of the Moon. The near side basalts are more abundant in terms of volume and area than their far-side counterparts (16:1), and the basalt deposits within SPA represent approx. 28% of the total basalt surface area on the far side. Sampling far-side basalts is of particular importance because as partial melts of the mantle, they could have derived from a mantle that is mineralogically and chemically different than determined for the nearside, as would be expected if the magma ocean solidified earlier on the far side. For example, evidence to support the existence of high-Th basalts like those that appear to be common on the nearside in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane has been found. Although SPA is the deepest basin on the Moon, it is not extensively filled with mare basalt, as might be expected if similar amounts of partial melting occurred in the mantle below SPA as for basins on the near side. These observations may mean that mantle beneath the far-side crust is lower in Th and other heat producing elements than the nearside. One proposed location for a sample-return landing site is 60 S, 160 W. This site was suggested to maximize the science return with respect to sampling crustal material and SPA impact melt, however, basaltic samples would undoubtedly occur there. On the basis of Apollo samples, we should expect that basaltic materials would be found in the vicinity of any landing site within SPA, even if located away from mare deposits. For example, the Apollo 16 mission landed in an ancient highlands region 250-300 km away from the nearest mare-highlands boundary yet it still contains a small component of basaltic samples (20 lithic fragments ranging is size from <1 to .01 cm). A soil sample from the floor of SPA will likely contain an

  8. The spectral and chemical measurement of pollutants on snow near South Pole, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, K. A.; Kaspari, S. D.; Skiles, S. M.; Kreutz, K.; Handley, M. J.

    2017-06-01

    Remote sensing of light-absorbing particles (LAPs), or dark colored impurities, such as black carbon (BC) and dust on snow, is a key remaining challenge in cryospheric surface characterization and application to snow, ice, and climate models. We present a quantitative data set of in situ snow reflectance, measured and modeled albedo, and BC and trace element concentrations from clean to heavily fossil fuel emission contaminated snow near South Pole, Antarctica. Over 380 snow reflectance spectra (350-2500 nm) and 28 surface snow samples were collected at seven distinct sites in the austral summer season of 2014-2015. Snow samples were analyzed for BC concentration via a single particle soot photometer and for trace element concentration via an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Snow impurity concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 7000 part per billion (ppb) BC, 9.5 to 1200 ppb sulfur, 0.19 to 660 ppb iron, 0.013 to 1.9 ppb chromium, 0.13 to 120 ppb copper, 0.63 to 6.3 ppb zinc, 0.45 to 82 parts per trillion (ppt) arsenic, 0.0028 to 6.1 ppb cadmium, 0.062 to 22 ppb barium, and 0.0044 to 6.2 ppb lead. Broadband visible to shortwave infrared albedo ranged from 0.85 in pristine snow to 0.62 in contaminated snow. LAP radiative forcing, the enhanced surface absorption due to BC and trace elements, spanned from snow to 70 W m-2 for snow with high BC and trace element content. Measured snow reflectance differed from modeled snow albedo due to specific impurity-dependent absorption features, which we recommend be further studied and improved in snow albedo models.

  9. Macro Fiber Piezocomposite Actuator Poling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy J.; Bryant, Robert G.; Manos, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    The performance and advantages of Piezocomposite Actuators are to provide a low cost, in-situ actuator/sensor that is flexible, low profile and high strain per volt performance in the same plane of poled voltage. This paper extends reported data for the performance of these Macrofiber Composite (MFC) Actuators to include 4 progressively narrower Intedigitized electrode configurations with several line widths and spacing ratios. Data is reported for max free strain, average strain per applied volt, poling (alignment of the electric dipoles of the PZT ceramic) voltage vs. strain and capacitance, time to poling voltage 95% saturation. The output strain per volt progressively increases as electrode spacing decreases, with saturation occurring at lower poling voltages. The narrowest spacing ratio becomes prone to voltage breakdown or short circuits limiting the spacing width with current fabrication methods. The capacitance generally increases with increasing poling voltage level but has high sensitivity to factors such as temperature, moisture and time from poling which limit its usefulness as a simple indicator. The total time of applied poling voltage to saturate or fully line up the dipoles in the piezoceramic was generally on the order of 5-20 seconds. Less sensitivity to poling due to the applied rate of voltage increase over a 25 to 500 volt/second rate range was observed.

  10. Relation between the pole and the minimally subtracted mass in dimensional regularization and dimensional reduction to three-loop order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquard, P.; Mihaila, L.; Piclum, J. H.; Steinhauser, M.

    2007-06-01

    We compute the relation between the pole quark mass and the minimally subtracted quark mass in the framework of QCD applying dimensional reduction as a regularization scheme. Special emphasis is put on the evanescent couplings and the renormalization of the ɛ-scalar mass. As a by-product we obtain the three-loop on-shell renormalization constants ZmOS and Z2OS in dimensional regularization and thus provide the first independent check of the analytical results computed several years ago.

  11. Strength of single-pole utility structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    This section presents three basic methods for deriving and documenting Rn as an LTL value along with the coefficient of variation (COVR) for single-pole structures. These include the following: 1. An empirical analysis based primarily on tests of full-sized poles. 2. A theoretical analysis of mechanics-based models used in...

  12. Moonrise: Sampling the South Pole-Aitken Basin to Address Problems of Solar System Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Shearer, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    A mission to land in the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin on the Moon's southern farside and return a sample to Earth for analysis is a high priority for Solar System Science. Such a sample would be used to determine the age of the SPA impact; the chronology of the basin, including the ages of basins and large impacts within SPA, with implications for early Solar System dynamics and the magmatic history of the Moon; the age and composition of volcanic rocks within SPA; the origin of the thorium signature of SPA with implications for the origin of exposed materials and thermal evolution of the Moon; and possibly the magnetization that forms a strong anomaly especially evident in the northern parts of the SPA basin. It is well known from studies of the Apollo regolith that rock fragments found in the regolith form a representative collection of many different rock types delivered to the site by the impact process (Fig. 1). Such samples are well documented to contain a broad suite of materials that reflect both the local major rock formations, as well as some exotic materials from far distant sources. Within the SPA basin, modeling of the impact ejection process indicates that regolith would be dominated by SPA substrate, formed at the time of the SPA basin-forming impact and for the most part moved around by subsequent impacts. Consistent with GRAIL data, the SPA impact likely formed a vast melt body tens of km thick that took perhaps several million years to cool, but that nonetheless represents barely an instant in geologic time that should be readily apparent through integrated geochronologic studies involving multiple chronometers. It is anticipated that a statistically significant number of age determinations would yield not only the age of SPA but also the age of several prominent nearby basins and large craters within SPA. This chronology would provide a contrast to the Imbrium-dominated chronology of the nearside Apollo samples and an independent test of

  13. Aerosols at the poles: an AeroCom Phase II multi-model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Maria; Samset, Bjørn H.; Balkanski, Yves; Bauer, Susanne; Bellouin, Nicolas; Berntsen, Terje K.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevåg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-François; Lin, Guangxing; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Gan; Myhre, Gunnar; van Noije, Twan; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, Michael; Seland, Øyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Yu, Fangqun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Hua

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic and natural sources reach the polar regions through long-range transport and affect the local radiation balance. Such transport is, however, poorly constrained in present-day global climate models, and few multi-model evaluations of polar anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing exist. Here we compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm from simulations with 16 global aerosol models from the AeroCom Phase II model intercomparison project with available observations at both poles. We show that the annual mean multi-model median is representative of the observations in Arctic, but that the intermodel spread is large. We also document the geographical distribution and seasonal cycle of the AOD for the individual aerosol species: black carbon (BC) from fossil fuel and biomass burning, sulfate, organic aerosols (OAs), dust, and sea-salt. For a subset of models that represent nitrate and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), we document the role of these aerosols at high latitudes.The seasonal dependence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols differs with natural aerosols peaking in winter (sea-salt) and spring (dust), whereas AOD from anthropogenic aerosols peaks in late spring and summer. The models produce a median annual mean AOD of 0.07 in the Arctic (defined here as north of 60° N). The models also predict a noteworthy aerosol transport to the Antarctic (south of 70° S) with a resulting AOD varying between 0.01 and 0.02. The models have estimated the shortwave anthropogenic radiative forcing contributions to the direct aerosol effect (DAE) associated with BC and OA from fossil fuel and biofuel (FF), sulfate, SOAs, nitrate, and biomass burning from BC and OA emissions combined. The Arctic modelled annual mean DAE is slightly negative (-0.12 W m-2), dominated by a positive BC FF DAE in spring and a negative sulfate DAE in summer. The Antarctic DAE is governed by BC FF. We perform sensitivity experiments with one of the Aero

  14. Aerosols at the poles: an AeroCom Phase II multi-model evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic and natural sources reach the polar regions through long-range transport and affect the local radiation balance. Such transport is, however, poorly constrained in present-day global climate models, and few multi-model evaluations of polar anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing exist. Here we compare the aerosol optical depth (AOD at 550 nm from simulations with 16 global aerosol models from the AeroCom Phase II model intercomparison project with available observations at both poles. We show that the annual mean multi-model median is representative of the observations in Arctic, but that the intermodel spread is large. We also document the geographical distribution and seasonal cycle of the AOD for the individual aerosol species: black carbon (BC from fossil fuel and biomass burning, sulfate, organic aerosols (OAs, dust, and sea-salt. For a subset of models that represent nitrate and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs, we document the role of these aerosols at high latitudes.The seasonal dependence of natural and anthropogenic aerosols differs with natural aerosols peaking in winter (sea-salt and spring (dust, whereas AOD from anthropogenic aerosols peaks in late spring and summer. The models produce a median annual mean AOD of 0.07 in the Arctic (defined here as north of 60° N. The models also predict a noteworthy aerosol transport to the Antarctic (south of 70° S with a resulting AOD varying between 0.01 and 0.02. The models have estimated the shortwave anthropogenic radiative forcing contributions to the direct aerosol effect (DAE associated with BC and OA from fossil fuel and biofuel (FF, sulfate, SOAs, nitrate, and biomass burning from BC and OA emissions combined. The Arctic modelled annual mean DAE is slightly negative (−0.12 W m−2, dominated by a positive BC FF DAE in spring and a negative sulfate DAE in summer. The Antarctic DAE is governed by BC FF. We perform sensitivity

  15. Planar glass devices for efficient periodic poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that frequency-converting devices of high quality can be realised with glass poling. The devices, made with silica-on-silicon technology, are poled with periodic, embedded electrodes, and used for second-harmonic generation. We obtain precise control of the quasi phase-matching wav......We demonstrate that frequency-converting devices of high quality can be realised with glass poling. The devices, made with silica-on-silicon technology, are poled with periodic, embedded electrodes, and used for second-harmonic generation. We obtain precise control of the quasi phase......-matching wavelength and bandwidth, and a normalised conversion efficiency of 1.4×10-3 %/W/cm2 which, to our knowledge, is the highest obtained so far with periodic glass poling....

  16. Annually resolved Holocene record of dust deposition and size distribution from the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesler, A.; Koffman, B. G.; Kreutz, K. J.; Osterberg, E. C.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Cole-Dai, J.; Wells, M. L.; Handley, M.

    2017-12-01

    Ice cores offer insights into past changes in atmospheric composition and circulation at high temporal resolution. Dust particles preserved in ice cores provide information regarding the atmospheric burden of dust and associated trace elements, changes in atmospheric circulation, and variations in the climates of dust-producing regions. Well resolved ice core dust records, therefore, can be used to gain a better understanding of the dynamics affecting ocean overturning circulation, to constrain atmospheric nutrient deposition to ocean ecosystems, and to assess atmospheric albedo variations. Existing Antarctic ice core dust records are generally either low-resolution and long-duration (glacial/interglacial timescale), or high-resolution and short-duration (past 2400 years), but high-resolution and long-duration records are rare. Here we present a continuous high-resolution record of dust deposition, including particle size distribution (PSD) and concentration, from the South Pole Ice (SPICE) Core, the first Holocene dust record from this location. The SPICE core was drilled during 2014-2016, reaching a depth of 1751 m. Cores were melted and analyzed for particles (1.0-12 µm diameter) using a continuous-flow Abakus laser particle sensor at Dartmouth College. The current SPICE Core chronology is based on: 1) visual stratigraphy from 0-10.2 ka and 2) correlations to the IceCube dust log calibration beyond 10.2 ka. Annual layer counts of Mg, dust (1.0 µm and 2.4 µm), Na, and SO4 demonstrate that the dust record is annually resolved through most of the Holocene ( 10.3 ka), allowing us to assess dust/climate relationships at high temporal resolution. We use meteorological and reanalysis data to understand modern drivers of observed variability in particle concentration and size distribution, and compare the new SPICE dust record to available Antarctic dust records including from EPICA Dome C, WAIS Divide, Taylor Dome, Taylor Glacier, Talos Dome, Siple Dome, and EPICA

  17. Fatigue failure and cracking in high mast poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive research project to investigate the fatigue : cracking and failure of galvanized high mast illumination poles (HMIP). Ultrasonic inspection of : poles throughout the state has revealed the presence...

  18. The JWST North Ecliptic Pole Survey Field for Time-domain Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rolf A.; Webb Medium Deep Fields IDS GTO Team, the NEPTDS-VLA/VLBA Team, and the NEPTDS-Chandra Team

    2017-06-01

    The JWST North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) Survey field is located within JWST's northern Continuous Viewing Zone, will span ~14‧ in diameter (~10‧ with NIRISS coverage) and will be roughly circular in shape (initially sampled during Cycle 1 at 4 distinct orientations with JWST/NIRCam's 4.4‧×2.2‧ FoV —the JWST "windmill") and will have NIRISS slitless grism spectroscopy taken in parallel, overlapping an alternate NIRCam orientation. This is the only region in the sky where JWST can observe a clean extragalactic deep survey field (free of bright foreground stars and with low Galactic foreground extinction AV) at arbitrary cadence or at arbitrary orientation. This will crucially enable a wide range of new and exciting time-domain science, including high redshift transient searches and monitoring (e.g., SNe), variability studies from Active Galactic Nuclei to brown dwarf atmospheres, as well as proper motions of extreme scattered Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Objects, and of nearby Galactic brown dwarfs, low-mass stars, and ultracool white dwarfs. We therefore welcome and encourage follow-up through GO programs of the initial GTO observations to realize its potential as a JWST time-domain community field. The JWST NEP Survey field was selected from an analysis of WISE 3.4+4.6 μm, 2MASS JHKs, and SDSS ugriz source counts and of Galactic foreground extinction, and is one of very few such ~10‧ fields that are devoid of sources brighter than mAB = 16 mag. We have secured deep (mAB ~ 26 mag) wide-field (~23‧×25‧) Ugrz images of this field and its surroundings with LBT/LBC. We also expect that deep MMT/MMIRS YJHK images, deep 3-4.5 GHz VLA and VLBA radio observations, and possibly HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS ultraviolet-visible (pending) and Chandra/ACIS X-ray (pending) images will be available before JWST launches in Oct 2018.

  19. Thermophysical modeling of asteroids from WISE thermal infrared data - Significance of the shape model and the pole orientation uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Delbo', M.; Ďurech, J.; Alí-Lagoa, V.

    2015-08-01

    In the analysis of thermal infrared data of asteroids by means of thermophysical models (TPMs) it is a common practice to neglect the uncertainty of the shape model and the rotational state, which are taken as an input for the model. Here, we present a novel method of investigating the importance of the shape model and the pole orientation uncertainties in the thermophysical modeling - the varied shape TPM (VS-TPM). Our method uses optical photometric data to generate various shape models that map the uncertainty in the shape and the rotational state. The TPM procedure is then run for all these shape models. We apply the implementation of the classical TPM as well as our VS-TPM to the convex shape models of several asteroids together with their thermal infrared data acquired by the NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and compare the results. These show that the uncertainties of the shape model and the pole orientation can be very important (e.g., for the determination of the thermal inertia) and should be considered in the thermophysical analyses. We present thermophysical properties for six asteroids - (624) Hektor, (771) Libera, (1036) Ganymed, (1472) Muonio, (1627) Ivar, and (2606) Odessa.

  20. Difference planted season and creeper-pole on both growth and yield of the two cultivars of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPRIYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to know the effect of different cultivars, planted seasons and creeper poles at velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. growth, yield and their interactions. This research was conducted on litosol soil in Tancep, Ngawen, Gunungkidul on 170 m up sea level and 9-10° elevation. The depth of soil tillage was 5-17 cm. Design utilization was Randomized Completed Block Design (RCBD with factorial 3 factors. The treatment was (i cultivars: rase and putih Gunungkidul (ii planted seasons: dry and rainy seasons and (iii creeper-poles: control, corn 0 weeks old, corn 2 weeks old, corn 4 weeks old and bambu. There is replicated 3 times. The result of this research was the 1st velvet bean growth on rainy season was rapidly but they have long time planted. The 2nd, by splited rase cultivars, rainy season and creeper-pole utilization was yield increased. The 3rd, on the rainy season, the high yield was come by rase cultivar and creeper-pole utilization. The 4th, with the 2 times velvet bean density and without calculated corn yield, rase cultivar planted on rainy season and bamboo creeper-pole coused the highest velvet bean yield but no significant different with 4 weeks corn creeper-pole.

  1. The value of three-dimensional helical computed tomography for the retrograde flexible ureteronephroscopy in the treatment of lower pole calyx stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Lyu, Jian-Lin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study was to determine if there is any advantage of three-dimensional helical computed tomography (3D-HCT) over intravenous urogram (IVU) for the retrograde flexible ureteronephroscopy in the treatment of lower pole calyx stones. From June 2012 to January 2014, a total of 52 cases of lower pole renal stones underwent retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in our center. All patients underwent a preoperative IVU and three-dimensional helical computed tomography urography (3D-CTU) program to define the collecting system anatomy, manly concerning the following lower pole features; infundibu-lopelvic angle (IPA), infundibular length (IL), and infundibular width (IW). The examinations were performed in the same center of reference with a standardized method and with 3D-HCT Siemens Somaton Plus equipment. The measurements were performed by the same researcher, using a ruler and a square. Based on clinical threshold difference of the anatomic factors on an IVU image to compare the difference between an IVU image and a 3D-CT image of 52 patients, the IPA was IVU when analyzing the morphometric and the morphological features of kidney lower pole spatial anatomy for the retrograde flexible ureteronephroscopy in the treatment of lower pole calyx stones.

  2. Aberrant functional connectivity between the amygdala and the temporal pole in drug-free generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC play important roles in emotion dysregulation, which has a profound impact on etiologic research of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. The present study analyzed both eyes-open and eyes-closed resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI of 43 subjects (21 GAD patients with medicine free and 22 matched healthy controls. The amygdala and the DLPFC were defined as regions of interest (ROI to analyze functional connectivity (FC in GAD patients compared with healthy controls. The main findings revealed GAD patients had increased FC between the amygdala and the temporal pole compared to healthy controls, which was found in both eyes-open and eyes-closed rs-fMRI. And altered FC between the ROIs and brain regions that mainly belonged to the default mode network (DMN were found. These findings suggest that the abnormal FC between the amygdala and the temporal pole may contribute to the pathophysiology of GAD, and provide insights into the current understanding of the emotion dysregulation of anxiety disorders.

  3. Search for PeVatrons at the Galactic Center using a radio air-shower array at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal V., A.; Haungs, A.; Huege, T.; Schröder, F. G.

    2018-02-01

    The South Pole, which hosts the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has a complete and around-the-clock exposure to the Galactic Center. Hence, it is an ideal location to search for gamma rays of PeV energy coming from the Galactic Center. However, it is hard to detect air showers initiated by these gamma rays using cosmic-ray particle detectors due to the low elevation of the Galactic Center. The use of antennas to measure the radio footprint of these air showers will help in this case, and would allow for a 24/7 operation time. So far, only air showers with energies well above 10^{16} eV have been detected with the radio technique. Thus, the energy threshold has to be lowered for the detection of gamma-ray showers of PeV energy. This can be achieved by optimizing the frequency band in order to obtain a higher level of signal-to-noise ratio. With such an approach, PeV gamma-ray showers with high inclination can be measured at the South Pole.

  4. An intergalactic absorbing cloud in the neighbourhood of the North galactic pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murawski, W.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the possibility that the lack of galaxies in the area between the Virgo and Coma clusters, to which OKROY (1965) drew attention, is due to an intergalactic cloud. Using Zwicky's Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies, it is shown that there is a shortage of galaxies in the suspected area for all magnitude classes. The absorption of the cloud is calculated to be 0.45+-05 mag. A quantity called the areal colour index (ACI) is introduced and defined as ACI=a sub(b) b sub(b)/(a sub(r) b sub(r)) where a and b are the lengths of the major and minor axes of a galaxy, respectively, and the subscripts b and r respectively refer to measurements on the blue and red prints of the Palomar survey, given in the Uppsala Catalogue of Galaxies. The average ACI is found to be 1.25 for the control area, and 1.04 for the area covered by Okroy's alleged obscuring cloud. On the basis of this colour data an approximate map showing the shape of the cloud is given. The effect of the alleged cloud on the shape frequency of types of galaxies is discussed. It is found that the cloud significantly increases the ratio of elliptical and dwarf galaxies to SO's. The determination of the distance to the cloud and its density is discussed. (author)

  5. On the two-loop corrections to the pole mass of the B quark in the gaugeless limit of the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyakov, A.V.; Kazakov, D.I.; )

    2007-01-01

    The result for the two-loop corrections to the pole mass of the b quark in the gaugeless limit of the MSSM is presented. In this limit it is assumed that the contribution from the electroweak gauge interactions is small. The result presented here differs from one obtained earlier, especially in some particular regions of the MSSM parameter space [ru

  6. PI controller design of a wind turbine: evaluation of the pole-placement method and tuning using constrained optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Tibaldi, Carlo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2016-01-01

    PI/PID controllers are the most common wind turbine controllers. Normally a first tuning is obtained using methods such as pole-placement or Ziegler-Nichols and then extensive aeroelastic simulations are used to obtain the best tuning in terms of regulation of the outputs and reduction of the loads...... to automatically tune the wind turbine controller subject to robustness constraints. The properties of the system such as the maximum sensitivity and complementary sensitivity functions (Ms and Mt), along with some of the responses of the system, are used to investigate the controller performance and formulate...

  7. Testing Orbital Parameters as a Hypothesis for the Presence of CO2 Deposits on Mars's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Z. M.; Bierson, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Observational data of Mars's polar caps shows large deposits of buried CO2 ice in the south polar cap and only seasonal CO2 ice in the north [1]. The lower elevation of Mars's north pole leads to higher surface pressures and therefore more favorable conditions for CO2 ice deposition. There are a few plausible reasons why the CO2 deposits are observed at the southern cap. The first is that during a past epochs of atmospheric collapse, CO2was deposited at both poles and only preserved in the south. Another is that the deposits represent a period where ice was preferentially deposited at the south polar cap. The latter could occur if the orbital parameters were such that the southern cap experienced colder summers (less insolation) than the north. The model of Bierson et. al. 2016 [2] used the observed difference in albedo between the north and the south polar caps and found several periods in the last one million years where deposition was favored at the south polar cap. Here we test if deposition is still favored in the south using the same albedo for both caps. For this work we are using the seasonally resolved KRC model [3]. We varied obliquity, longitude of perihelion, and eccentricity to match their expected values over the last one million years [4]. We modeled the annual CO2 deposition rate in 1,000 year increments. We tested both constant and insolation dependent albedo that was the same at both poles. While we did find periods of deposition on the south pole, this was always in conjunction with deposition in the north in much greater amounts. This finding favors the hypothesis that the deposits are only observed in the southern cap due to the deep pre-existing troughs that allowed the CO2 to be preserved to the modern day. These results also highlight the importance of understanding the observed difference in albedo between the polar caps. [1] Phillips et al. (2011) AAAS, Vol.332 Is.6031 pp.838-841 [2] Bierson et al. (2016) GRL, Vol.43 Is.9 pp.4172-4179 [3

  8. Geometric Modelling of Octagonal Lamp Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. O.; Lichti, D. D.

    2014-06-01

    Lamp poles are one of the most abundant highway and community components in modern cities. Their supporting parts are primarily tapered octagonal cones specifically designed for wind resistance. The geometry and the positions of the lamp poles are important information for various applications. For example, they are important to monitoring deformation of aged lamp poles, maintaining an efficient highway GIS system, and also facilitating possible feature-based calibration of mobile LiDAR systems. In this paper, we present a novel geometric model for octagonal lamp poles. The model consists of seven parameters in which a rotation about the z-axis is included, and points are constrained by the trigonometric property of 2D octagons after applying the rotations. For the geometric fitting of the lamp pole point cloud captured by a terrestrial LiDAR, accurate initial parameter values are essential. They can be estimated by first fitting the points to a circular cone model and this is followed by some basic point cloud processing techniques. The model was verified by fitting both simulated and real data. The real data includes several lamp pole point clouds captured by: (1) Faro Focus 3D and (2) Velodyne HDL-32E. The fitting results using the proposed model are promising, and up to 2.9 mm improvement in fitting accuracy was realized for the real lamp pole point clouds compared to using the conventional circular cone model. The overall result suggests that the proposed model is appropriate and rigorous.

  9. A note on linking electrical current, magnetic fields, charges and the pole in a barn paradox in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlynn, Enda; Van Kampen, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We point out the connection between the 'pole in a barn paradox' and the phenomenon of alterations in charge in a segment of a current-carrying conductor as perceived by observers in different inertial reference frames. This connection appears to offer a useful pedagogical strategy helping students to appreciate that the issues which underlie the explanation of the paradox can be important and significant in everyday phenomena such as magnetic forces on moving charges and at the very modest speeds associated with electron drift in conductors. (note)

  10. Second-harmonic imaging of poled silica waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2000-01-01

    Electric-field poled silica-based waveguides are characterized by measurements of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and of the linear electro-optic effect (LEO). A SHG scanning technique allowing for high-resolution imaging of poled devices is demonstrated. Scans along the direction of the poling...

  11. The value of three-dimensional helical computed tomography for the retrograde flexible ureteronephroscopy in the treatment of lower pole calyx stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to determine if there is any advantage of three-dimensional helical computed tomography (3D-HCT over intravenous urogram (IVU for the retrograde flexible ureteronephroscopy in the treatment of lower pole calyx stones. Methods: From June 2012 to January 2014, a total of 52 cases of lower pole renal stones underwent retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS in our center. All patients underwent a preoperative IVU and three-dimensional helical computed tomography urography (3D-CTU program to define the collecting system anatomy, manly concerning the following lower pole features; infundibu-lopelvic angle (IPA, infundibular length (IL, and infundibular width (IW. The examinations were performed in the same center of reference with a standardized method and with 3D-HCT Siemens Somaton Plus equipment. The measurements were performed by the same researcher, using a ruler and a square. Results: Based on clinical threshold difference of the anatomic factors on an IVU image to compare the difference between an IVU image and a 3D-CT image of 52 patients, the IPA was <30° when measured on intravenous pyelography (IVP for 21 patients. We found that with the IPA of <30° measured with IVP only 19% (4/21 were correctly classified in the same size category using 3D-HCT, whereas 81% (17/21 were upgraded to 40–50° on 3D-CT. This difference was significant between IVP and 3D-HCT. Conclusions: 3D-HCT has advantages over IVU when analyzing the morphometric and the morphological features of kidney lower pole spatial anatomy for the retrograde flexible ureteronephroscopy in the treatment of lower pole calyx stones. Keywords: Intravenous urogram, Computed tomography urography, Flexible ureterorenoscopy, Lower pole, Renal stones

  12. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  13. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Using analytic signal method, interpretation of pole-pole secondary electric potentials due to 2D conductive/resistive prisms is presented. The estimated parameters are the location, lateral extent or width and depth to top surface of the prism. Forward modelling is attempted by 2D-Finite. Difference method. The proposed ...

  14. Isl1 expression at the venous pole identifies a novel role for the second heart field in cardiac development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarr, Brian S; O'Neal, Jessica L; Chintalapudi, Mastan R; Wirrig, Elaine E; Phelps, Aimee L; Kubalak, Steven W; Wessels, Andy

    2007-11-09

    The right ventricle and outflow tract of the developing heart are derived from mesodermal progenitor cells from the second heart field (SHF). SHF cells have been characterized by expression of the transcription factor Islet-1 (Isl1). Although Isl1 expression has also been reported in the venous pole, the specific contribution of the SHF to this part of the heart is unknown. Here we show that Isl1 is strongly expressed in the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion (DMP), a non-endocardially-derived mesenchymal structure involved in atrioventricular septation. We further demonstrate that abnormal development of the SHF-derived DMP is associated with the pathogenesis of atrioventricular septal defects. These results identify a novel role for the SHF.

  15. Pole counting and resonance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.

    1992-01-01

    S-wave resonances occurring close to an inelastic threshold can be classified according to the number of nearby poles they possess. One then has a useful possibility of distinguishing dynamical alternatives by objective appeal to data. Making this quantitative entails developing suitable effective range expansions for various realizations of potential scattering. A key application is deciding the make-up of f 0 (976) (S*). (author)

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of the Dynamic Behavior of a Salient-Pole Synchronous Machine Considering the Static Rotor Eccentricity Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Román Messina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the sensitivity analysis of the behavior of a synchronous machine using the winding functiontheory considering the effect of static air-gap eccentricity. The winding function theory as a method to calculate theinductances of synchronous machines from the geometry and the actual arranging of the windings is presented. Then,detailed numerical simulations are carried out to examine the impact of eccentricity on the steady state regimes. Theimportant role of static eccentricity and its links with various symmetrical and asymmetrical operating conditions arediscussed as well as its influence on the machine parameters and performance are investigated. Experimental andanalytical parameter results are presented for a 60 Hz, six-pole laboratory synchronous machine connected to aninfinite bus under various static eccentricity conditions.

  17. 100 years since Scott reached the pole: a century of learning about the physiological demands of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G; Stroud, Mike A

    2012-04-01

    The 1910-1913 Terra Nova Expedition to the Antarctic, led by Captain Robert Falcon Scott, was a venture of science and discovery. It is also a well-known story of heroism and tragedy since his quest to reach the South Pole and conduct research en route, while successful was also fateful. Although Scott and his four companions hauled their sledges to the Pole, they died on their return journey either directly or indirectly from the extreme physiological stresses they experienced. One hundred years on, our understanding of such stresses caused by Antarctic extremes and how the body reacts to severe exercise, malnutrition, hypothermia, high altitude, and sleep deprivation has greatly advanced. On the centenary of Scott's expedition to the bottom of the Earth, there is still controversy surrounding whether the deaths of those five men could have, or should have, been avoided. This paper reviews present-day knowledge related to the physiology of sustained man-hauling in Antarctica and contrasts this with the comparative ignorance about these issues around the turn of the 20th century. It closes by considering whether, with modern understanding about the effects of such a scenario on the human condition, Scott could have prepared and managed his team differently and so survived the epic 1,600-mile journey. The conclusion is that by carrying rations with a different composition of macromolecules, enabling greater calorific intake at similar overall weight, Scott might have secured the lives of some of the party, and it is also possible that enhanced levels of vitamin C in his rations, albeit difficult to achieve in 1911, could have significantly improved their survival chances. Nevertheless, even with today's knowledge, a repeat attempt at his expedition would by no means be bound to succeed.

  18. From the Sun’s south to the north pole – Ulysses COSPIN/LET composition measurements at solar maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Hofer

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on elemental abundance ratios derived from the Ulysses COSPIN/LET measurements, we classified the energetic particle populations during and after the socalled Fast Latitude Scan – the time period during which the Ulysses spacecraft traveled from the highest heliolatitude south to maximum northern latitude, i.e. 27 November 2000 to 13 October 2001 – as being mixed between solar energetic particles (major component and particles accelerated at stream interaction regions. During the fast latitude scan, the Ulysses spacecraft made the first transit in heliolatitude from pole to pole during solar activity maximum conditions, providing a unique opportunity to acquire energetic particle composition data over a maximum range of heliolatitudes in the inner heliosphere. At low latitudes, based on our elemental abundance analysis, we found that while solar energetic particles dominated, there were indications for particle acceleration at single compression regions in a few instances. In the high heliolatitude range the observed elemental particle compositions are mainly of the solar energetic particle type. Within the statistical errors, the observed abundance ratios were independent of latitude, and were characteristic of solar energetic particles. These observations raise an important question for the theories of particle propagation in the inner heliosphere. The daily elemental abundance ratios of S/O, Mg/O and Si/O shown here are the first measured ratios at high heliolatitudes in the energy range from 13.0 to 30.0 MeV/n.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; interplanetary shocks – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (flares and mass ejections

  19. The use of a position sensitive detector or of a multidetector for the measurement of pole figures by neutron time-of-flight technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, K.

    1990-01-01

    The neutron flux of even high flux reactors is weak in comparison with the quantum flux of X-ray tubes and therefore in order to decrease the expense on measuring time more and more neutron diffractometers are equipped with position sensitive detectors or multidetectors. In this paper the peculiarities of the use of such detecting devices are discussed for the measurement of pole figures. A special arrangement of a multidetector is proposed which will allow one to scan the whole pole figure by rotating the sample about only one axis and considerably will save measuring time. 4 refs.; 5 figs

  20. Poles apart: the "bipolar" pteropod species Limacina helicina is genetically distinct between the Arctic and Antarctic oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian; Strugnell, Jan; Bednarsek, Nina; Linse, Katrin; Nelson, R John; Pakhomov, Evgeny; Seibel, Brad; Steinke, Dirk; Würzberg, Laura

    2010-03-23

    The shelled pteropod (sea butterfly) Limacina helicina is currently recognised as a species complex comprising two sub-species and at least five "forma". However, at the species level it is considered to be bipolar, occurring in both the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. Due to its aragonite shell and polar distribution L. helicina is particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. As a key indicator of the acidification process, and a major component of polar ecosystems, L. helicina has become a focus for acidification research. New observations that taxonomic groups may respond quite differently to acidification prompted us to reassess the taxonomic status of this important species. We found a 33.56% (+/-0.09) difference in cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences between L. helicina collected from the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. This degree of separation is sufficient for ordinal level taxonomic separation in other organisms and provides strong evidence for the Arctic and Antarctic populations of L. helicina differing at least at the species level. Recent research has highlighted substantial physiological differences between the poles for another supposedly bipolar pteropod species, Clione limacina. Given the large genetic divergence between Arctic and Antarctic L. helicina populations shown here, similarly large physiological differences may exist between the poles for the L. helicina species group. Therefore, in addition to indicating that L. helicina is in fact not bipolar, our study demonstrates the need for acidification research to take into account the possibility that the L. helicina species group may not respond in the same way to ocean acidification in Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems.

  1. Compatibility study of the different pole figures in one and the same specimen. Comparison between the results obtained by neutron and by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernot, M.; Penelle, R.; Dervin, P.

    1981-01-01

    Development of a calculation to show directly the compatibility of the different pole figures in the same specimen is exposed. A review of the method by serial development is given. Experimental methods are described. The position of the anisotropy axes is determined. Compatibilities resulting from X-ray and from neutron diffraction is analysed [fr

  2. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Using analytic signal method, interpretation of pole-pole secondary electric potentials due to 2D conductive/resistive prisms is presented. ... residual separation to separate out residual anom- alies, which are interpreted for geological .... terms, which are used for the semi-quantitative interpretation. 6.1 Computation of ...

  3. An unusual complication of ischemic injury to upper pole ureter during lower pole heminephroureterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Victoria Hurst

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower pole heminephroureterectomy is a common paediatric urology procedure with few reported complications. We report a case of possible vascular ischemic injury to the normal remaining ureter following a lower pole heminephroureterectomy, probably due to both ureters sharing a common blood supply. Extra caution in such procedures is therefore warranted.

  4. Inhibiting Crm1 causes the formation of excess acentriolar spindle poles containing NuMA and B23, but does not affect centrosome numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselet, Annie

    2009-09-14

    B23/nucleophosmin is present on spindle poles at metaphase. Migration of B23 to the poles is under the control of exportin Crm1. B23 at the centrosome plays a role in the control centrosome duplication. h-Tert-RPE1 cells blocked in prometaphase with low doses of Nocodazol showed a progression to mitosis if Crm1 exportin was inhibited. Under these conditions, the formation of accessory poles containing gamma-tubulin, NuMA (nuclear-mitotic-apparatus) and B23 was induced at metaphase. No effect on centrosome number was observed. In quiescent h-Tert-RPE1 cells, when Crm1 was active, B23 was not detected at the centrosome as well as B23-mutants reported to block centrosome duplication. In addition, the modification of B23 nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling showed no effect on centrosome duplication. Inhibition of Crm1 in early metaphase favours the formation of supplementary acentriolar spindle poles. B23 and NuMA are present at these poles that ultimately focus around the centrosome. Inhibition of Crm1 at metaphase has no effect on the control of centrosome numbers.

  5. Ulysses COSPIN observations of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles from the South Pole to the North Pole of the Sun during solar maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. McKibben

    Full Text Available In 2000–2001 Ulysses passed from the south to the north polar regions of the Sun in the inner heliosphere, providing a snapshot of the latitudinal structure of cosmic ray modulation and solar energetic particle populations during a period near solar maximum.  Observations from the COSPIN suite of energetic charged particle telescopes show that latitude variations in the cosmic ray intensity in the inner heliosphere are nearly non-existent near solar maximum, whereas small but clear latitude gradients were observed during the similar phase of Ulysses’ orbit near the 1994–95 solar minimum. At proton energies above ~10 MeV and extending up to >70 MeV, the intensities are often dominated by Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs accelerated near the Sun in association with intense solar flares and large Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs. At lower energies the particle intensities are almost constantly enhanced above background, most likely as a result of a mix of SEPs and particles accelerated by interplanetary shocks. Simultaneous high-latitude Ulysses and near-Earth observations show that most events that produce large flux increases near Earth also produce flux increases at Ulysses, even at the highest latitudes attained. Particle anisotropies during particle onsets at Ulysses are typically directed outwards from the Sun, suggesting either acceleration extending to high latitudes or efficient cross-field propagation somewhere inside the orbit of Ulysses. Both cosmic ray and SEP observations are consistent with highly efficient transport of energetic charged particles between the equatorial and polar regions and across the mean interplanetary magnetic fields in the inner heliosphere.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (energetic particles; flares and mass ejections

  6. Analyzing SO2 concentrations and wind directions during a short monitoring campaign at a site far from the industrial pole of La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Gustavo; Videla, Fabian; Maronna, Ricardo

    2009-02-01

    This article presents and discusses SO2 air quality concentrations (ppbv) together with wind velocities and directions measurements carried out between September 1st and December 21st 2005 at a site located 8.5 km away from the Industrial Pole of La Plata area. As the city and its surroundings have no official monitoring network, the current work enlarges the air quality information available from the zone and sets some initial considerations to the future siting of monitoring stations. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using techniques of tests for outliers and trends, dissimilarity measures and robust regression. In relation to SO2 concentrations, low values were found during this short campaign considering daily averages (with a maximum of 8.5 ppbv) and hourly averages (with a maximum of 25.9 ppbv); World Health Organization guidelines were never surpassed. Nevertheless, a strong dependence between wind directions carrying air pollutants from the Industrial Pole and hourly concentration peaks were found. Due to low monthly SO2 concentrations and because a decreasing time trend was found, the authors propose, as an example, the implementation of an alternative discontinuous method to the continuous analyzer used in the current campaign. Our results state that sampling every 7 days at 13:00-13:59 hours (local time) would be enough to get representative values of the air quality. As a general remark it is possible to highlight that longer and systematic studies should be encouraged to confirm the seasonal wind pattern and to evaluate the air quality.

  7. Performance study of quadrupole with broken line profile pole tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Mingwu; Zhang Tianjue; Chu Chengjie

    1997-01-01

    Most of quadrupole used for beam focusing possess hyperbola profile tip. To simplify machining processes and ensure the assembling accuracy, a broken line profile pole tip is adapted instead of hyperbola. The results of the magnetic field simulation codes and the tests show the good quality field generated by such configuration: not only more uniform field gradient, but also field more concentrated at useful area. These types of quadrupole are used at CYCIAE-30 cyclotron and HI-13 tandem transportation lines

  8. THE COLLABORATIVE POLES NETWORK AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN EFFICIENT ENTREPRENEURIAL ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana VOICU-DOROBANŢU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the past decades has shown that the key features that foster innovation and entrepreneurship are: a dense concentration of human talent, a competitive spirit, easy access to capital, and a supportive environment. It also notes that, to some extent, these can be replicated in and adapted to a wide variety of contexts, even in countries and regions with economies, politics and cultures sharply divergent from the Silicon Valley California generic model. In all these cases, innovative business accelerators are functional and located in areas with critical masses of talent and competitive spirit. In this theoretical paper we show that a network accelerator could be a solution for fostering innovation and entrepreneurship in less developed regions and for attracting further venture-capital investors. This work has been supported by SNF and UEFISCDI within the Romanian-Swiss Joint Research Project IZERZ0 142306 / 1.

  9. Influence of the radiation (Co60) in pre-implants rabbit embryos: effect on atypic mitotic index and embryo pole development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approbato, Mario S.; Oliveira Moura, Katia K.V. de; Souza Florencio, Rodopiano de; Garcia, Ricardo; Faria, Renato S.; Benedetti, Leonardo N.; Goulart, Flamarion B.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), at three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses: five c Gy and ten c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. the matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after (± 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. the embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryo parameters were studied: embryo pole development; percentage of abnormal mitotic figures. irradiation time was associated with lower scores of embryo pole development, but not with irradiation dose. There were no gross abnormalities of embryo pole. The abnormal mitotic cells was affected both by the time and dose of irradiation. (author)

  10. A bipolaridade do trabalho feminino no Brasil contemporâneo The two poles of women's work in contemporary Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bruschini

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa, com base em múltiplas fontes de dados secundários, a participação das mulheres no mercado de trabalho em dois pólos opostos de atividade. Do primeiro, que abriga as ocupações de má qualidade quanto aos níveis de rendimento, formalização das relações e proteção no trabalho, foi selecionado como objeto de estudo o emprego doméstico. Nos anos 90, esse segmento manteve algumas das marcas de precariedade que sempre o caracterizaram, como as longas jornadas de trabalho, os baixíssimos níveis de rendimento e de formalização, embora em relação a esses dois últimos aspectos haja alguns sinais promissores de mudanças. Do segundo pólo, composto por "boas" ocupações, caracterizadas por níveis mais elevados de formalização, de rendimentos e de proteção, selecionamos algumas carreiras universitárias, quais sejam, a engenharia, a arquitetura, a medicina e o direito. Os dados revelaram que as mulheres que ingressaram nessas profissões são mais jovens do que seus colegas. No mais, seu perfil de inserção ocupacional é muito assemelhado ao dos homens, exceção feita aos rendimentos. Seguindo um padrão de gênero encontrado no mercado de trabalho, os ganhos femininos são sempre inferiores aos masculinos.Based in multiple sources of secondary data, the article analyzes women's participation in the labor market at two opposite poles of activity. From the first pole, which includes poor quality jobs in terms of income, formalization of relations and protection of work, we selected the position of domestic employees. In the 90s, this segment maintained some of the precarious conditions that have always characterized it, such as a long work day and low levels of income and formalization. There are some promising signs of change with regard to the last two aspects. At the second pole, composed of "good" jobs, characterized by higher levels of formalization, of income and protections, we selected some university

  11. Local Two-Photon Couplings and the J=0 Fixed Pole in Real and Virtual Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2008-12-05

    The local coupling of two photons to the fundamental quark currents of a hadron gives an energy-independent contribution to the Compton amplitude proportional to the charge squared of the struck quark, a contribution which has no analog in hadron scattering reactions. We show that this local contribution has a real phase and is universal, giving the same contribution for real or virtual Compton scattering for any photon virtuality and skewness at fixed momentum transfer squared t. The t-dependence of this J = 0 fixed Regge pole is parameterized by a yet unmeasured even charge-conjugation form factor of the target nucleon. The t = 0 limit gives an important constraint on the dependence of the nucleon mass on the quark mass through the Weisberger relation. We discuss how this 1=x form factor can be extracted from high energy deeply virtual Compton scattering and examine predictions given by models of the H generalized parton distribution.

  12. The Accuracy of Praziquantel Dose Poles for Mass Treatment of Schistosomiasis in School Girls in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baan, Marije; Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Gagai, Silindile

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 260 million people live with schistosomiasis and regular mass-treatment should be implemented to prevent morbidity. Praziquantel, dosed at 40 milligrams per kilogram bodyweight, is the drug of choice. During the last decades the WHO Tablet Pole-which estimates tablet need...... Pole were used to indicate the amount of praziquantel according to height and the dose in milligrams per kilogram bodyweight was calculated. The BMI correction was performed by adding 600 milligrams (1 tablet) to the indicated dose if a person was overweight/obese. Principal Findings 3157 female...

  13. Posterior Pole Sparing Laser Photocoagulation Combined with Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection in Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the results of the posterior pole sparing laser photocoagulation combined with intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVB in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Methods. A retrospective chart review of premature babies with ROP, all of whom received laser photocoagulation with IVB. Eleven eyes of 6 infants with advanced zone I ROP underwent laser ablation sparing posterior pole with concurrent IVB. The results were compared with those of full-laser treatment combined with IVB to 8 eyes of 5 infants with advanced ROP without involvement of the posterior pole. Results. The posterior pole sparing laser with IVB was performed with zone I, stage 3+ ROP at the mean postmenstrual age of 36 weeks and 5 days. The plus sign decreased significantly at postoperative day 1, the neovascular proliferation regressed by postoperative week 1, and the normal vascularization started at postoperative day 32 on the average. Two months after treatment, vascularization of the spared avascular area was completed. There was no macular dragging, tractional retinal detachment, foveal destruction by laser scars, or any other adverse event. No significant anatomical differences were identified from those of full-laser ablation combined with IVB. Conclusions. Posterior pole sparing laser with IVB can give favorable results without destruction of posterior pole retina.

  14. Determination of the top-quark pole mass using tt+1-jet events with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073548; Fuster, Juan

    The most commonly used technique to determine the top quark mass consists in direct measurements of the invariant mass of its decay products. The interpretation of this measurement within a renormalization scheme (the pole mass) has an unknown uncertainty which might be of the order ∼ 1 GeV [5, 6]. The achieved experimental precision obtained so far is however better than 1 GeV (∼ 0.5%) (see, for example, Ref. [7]). Therefore, alternative methods with similar experimental precision and in which the mass is theoretically unambiguously defined become very relevant and important. The most well known alternative top-quark mass measurement is based on its extraction from inclusive top-quark pair cross section measurements. The mass extracted using this method is well defined in terms of the mass couplings that appear in the SM Lagrangian, but the uncertainties are larger than for the direct measurement since the sensitivity of the cross section on the top quark mass is limited. The first part of this PhD descr...

  15. Pole-to-pole sea surface temperatures from the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum using organic and inorganic paleothermometers: the ultimate test case for climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Zachos, J. C.; Bijl, P. K.; Reichart, G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Huber, M.; Pearson, P. N.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2007-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum was a short-lived (about 170 kyr) episode of globally elevated temperatures, superimposed on already warm late Paleocene - early Eocene greenhouse climates. Recent application of the relatively new organic paleothermometer TEX86 as well as oxygen isotope analyses on well-preserved foraminifera on marginal marine PETM sections has allowed direct comparison of absolute sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions by independent proxies. These records show relatively good correspondence, suggesting they are both suitable to reconstruct late Paleocene and early Eocene absolute SSTs. Both low- and high-latitude temperatures were (much) warmer than at present, consistent with biogeographical patterns, but the difference between high- and low latitude temperatures was extremely low. Current generation fully coupled climate models fed with early Paleogene boundary conditions indeed predict warming on a global scale with higher CO2 concentrations. However, meridional temperature gradients remain structurally overestimated in the models, implying that important feedbacks during greenhouse climates are not (correctly) implemented in the climate models. Moreover, temperatures during the PETM, rose by 5 to 8 ° C on a global scale (in the absence of ice-albedo feedbacks), thus not showing significant polar amplification. This suggests that the mechanism that caused the reduced meridional temperature gradient was not amplified during the PETM.

  16. Determination of the top-quark pole mass using $t \\bar{t}+1$-jet events collected with the ATLAS experiment in 7 TeV $pp$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; 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Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; 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Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; 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Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; 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Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; 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Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; 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Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; 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Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-10-19

    The normalized differential cross section for top-quark pair production in association with at least one jet is studied as a function of the inverse of the invariant mass of the $t \\bar{t}+1$-jet system. This distribution can be used for a precise determination of the top-quark mass since gluon radiation depends on the mass of the quarks. The experimental analysis is based on proton--proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb$^{-1}$. The selected events were identified using the lepton+jets top-quark-pair decay channel, where lepton refers to either an electron or a muon. The observed distribution is compared to a theoretical prediction at next-to-leading-order accuracy in quantum chromodynamics using the pole-mass scheme. With this method, the measured value of the top-quark pole mass, $m_t^{\\rm pole}$, is: $m_t^{\\rm pole}$ =173.7 $\\pm$ 1.5 (stat.) $\\pm$ 1.4 (syst.) $^{+ 1.0}_{-0.5}$ (theory) GeV. ...

  17. A new way of utilizing pole face windings and magnetic field corrections for independent tuning of betatron wave numbers and chromaticities in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Gouiran, R

    1978-01-01

    Precise control of the quadrupole and sextupole components of the magnetic fields in focusing and defocusing sectors respectively was achieved by the combined use of pole-face and yoke windings with three separate power supplies synchronously programmed by a computer. Experience of this technique led to a new philosophy in the design of pole-face windings, in which they become an integral and active part of the magnet. With the arrangement described, focusing and guiding functions are partially separated and an old combined-function accelerator can be transformed effectively into a more flexible separate-function machine without any decrease in available straight- section space. (5 refs).

  18. Direct measurement of A$_{b}$ and A$_{c}$ at the Z$^{0}$ pole using a lepton tag

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Adam, I; Akagi, T; Allen, N J; Arodzero, A; Ash, William W; Aston, D; Baird, K G; Baltay, C; Band, H R; Barakat, M B; Bardon, O; Barklow, Timothy L; Bashindzhagian, G L; Bauer, J M; Bellodi, G; Ben-David, R; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Blaylock, G; Bogart, J R; Bolen, B D; Bower, G R; Brau, J E; Breidenbach, M; Bugg, W M; Burke, D; Burnett, T H; Burrows, P N; Byrne, R M; Calcaterra, A; Calloway, D H; Camanzi, B; Carpinelli, M; Cassell, R; Castaldi, R; Castro, A; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Chou, A; Church, E; Cohn, H O; Coller, J A; Covery, M R; Cook, V; Cotton, R; Cowan, R F; Coyne, D G; Crawford, G; Damerell, C J S; Danielson, M N; Daoudi, M; De Groot, N; Dell'Orso, R; Dervan, P J; De Sangro, R; Dima, M; de Oliveira, A; Dong, D N; Doser, Michael; Dubois, R; Eisenstein, B I; Eschenburg, V; Etzion, E; Fahey, S; Falciai, D; Fan, C; Fernández, J P; Fero, M J; Flood, K; Frey, R; Gillman, T; Gladding, G; González, S; Goodman, E R; Hart, E L; Harton, J L; Hasan, A; Hasuko, K; Hedges, S J; Hertzbach, S S; Hildreth, M D; Huber, J; Huffer, M E; Hughes, E W; Huynh, X; Hwang, H; Iwasaki, M; Jackson, D J; Jacques, P; Jaros, J A; Jiang, Z Y; Johnson, A S; Johnson, J R; Johnson, R A; Junk, T R; Kajikawa, R; Kalelkar, M S; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kang, H J; Karliner, I; Kawahara, H; Kim, Y D; King, R; King, M E; Kofler, R R; Krishna, N M; Kroeger, R S; Langston, M; Lath, A; Leith, D W G S; Lia, V; Lin, C J S; Liu, X; Liu, M X; Loreti, M; Lu, A; Lynch, H L; Ma, J; Mahjouri, M; Mancinelli, G; Manly, S L; Mantovani, G C; Markiewicz, T W; Maruyama, T; Masuda, H; Mazzucato, E; McKemey, A K; Meadows, B T; Menegatti, G; Messner, R; Mockett, P M; Moffeit, K C; Moore, T B; Morii, M; Müller, D; Murzin, V S; Nagamine, T; Narita, S; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Nussbaum, M; Oishi, N; Onoprienko, D V; Osborne, L S; Panvini, R S; Park, H; Park, C H; Pavel, T J; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pieroni, E; Pitts, K T; Plano, R J; Prepost, R; Prescott, C Y; Punkar, G D; Quigley, J; Ratcliff, B N; Reeves, T W; Reidy, J; Reinertsen, P L; Rensing, P E; Rochester, L S; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Saxton, O H; Schalk, T L; Schindler, R H; Schumm, B A; Schwiening, J; Sen, S; Serbo, V V; Shaevitz, M H; Shank, J T; Shapiro, G; Sherden, D J; Shmakov, K D; Simopoulos, C; Sinev, N B; Smith, S R; Smy, M B; Snyder, J A; Stängle, H; Stahl, A; Stamer, P E; Steiner, R; Steiner, H; Strauss, M G; Su, D; Suekane, F; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Swartz, M; Szumilo, A; Takahashi, T; Taylor, F E; Thom, J; Torrence, E; Toumbas, N K; Usher, T; Vannini, C; Vagvra, J; Vella, E N; Venuti, J P; Verdier, R; Verdini, P G; Wagner, S R; Wagner, D L; Waite, A P; Walston, S; Wang, J; Ward, C P; Watts, S J; Weidemann, A W; Weiss, E R; Whitaker, J S; White, S L; Wickens, F J; Williams, B; Williams, D C; Williams, S H; Willocq, S; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Wittlin, J L; Woods, M; Word, G B; Wright, T R; Wyss, J; Yamamoto, R K; Yamartino, J M; Yang, X; Yashima, J; Yellin, S J; Young, C C; Yuta, H; Zapalac, G H; Zdarko, R W; Zhou, J

    1999-01-01

    The parity violation parameters A/sub b/ and A/sub c/ of the Zbb and Zcc couplings have been measured directly, using the polar angle dependence of the Z/sup 0/-pole polarized cross sections. Bottom and charmed hadrons were tagged via semileptonic decays. Both the muon and electron identification algorithms take advantage of new multivariate techniques, incorporating for the first time information from the SLD Cerenkov ring imaging detector. Based on the 1993-1995 SLD sample of 150000 Z/sup 0/ decays produced with highly polarized electron beams, we measure A/sub b/=0.910+or-0.068(stat)+or- 0.037(syst), A/sub c /=0.642+or-0.110(stat)+or-0.063(syst). (20 refs).

  19. Pole-Shaped Object Detection Using Mobile LIDAR Data in Rural Road Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, M.; Husain, A.; Singh, A. K.; Lohani, B.

    2015-08-01

    Pole-shaped objects (PSOs) located along a road play key role in road safety and planning. Automation is required for calculating the numbers of trees need to be removed and utility poles need to be relocated during rural road widening. Road-side poles are among the most frequently struck road-side objects during road-side accidents. An automatic method is therefore proposed for detecting PSOs using LiDAR point cloud captured along the roadway using Mobile LiDAR system. The proposed method is tested on the point cloud data of rural road environment in India. Dataset of study area having text file size of 1.22 GB is processed in 13 minutes resulting in completeness of 88.63 % and correctness of 95.12 % in identifying PSOs within 10m of the road boundary. In data of across road coverage of 5m of the road boundary, the completeness of 93.10 % and correctness of 100% are achieved. Poles attached with other objects, tilted poles and the poles occluded by tree branches and shrubs are detected by the proposed method.

  20. The Association Between Dental Status and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction Among Poles: Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Bartłomiej; Nargiełło, Ewa; Grabowska, Ewa; Opolski, Grzegorz; Górska, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Results of scientific research on the effects of periodontitis on the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) are ambiguous. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the severity and extent of periodontitis with acute MI in Poles. This case-control study included 134 cases hospitalized with acute MI under the age of 70 years and 155 controls drawn from the general population with no MI history. Sociodemographic, cardiologic and periodontal variables were assessed. Three periodontal indicators were evaluated: (1) the severity of periodontitis classified in accordance with Page and Eke definition, (2) the extent of periodontitis determined on the basis of the percentage of sites with CAL ≥ 3 mm (Arbes Index) and (3) tooth loss (> 10 teeth). In a logistic regression model, the association of periodontal parameters with MI occurrence was evaluated after adjusting for well-known cardiovascular risk factors. The extent of periodontitis was significantly associated with the risk of acute MI even after adjusting for age, sex, tobacco smoking, hypertension, diabetes, BMI, education and income (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 5.2; p = 0.0203). However, the severity of periodontitis was associated with MI after adjusting for age and sex (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.2-3.5; p = 0.0109), but not after adjusting for the other above-mentioned risk factors. The association between the number of lost teeth and acute MI was significant after adjusting for age, sex, tobacco smoking, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2-5.9; p = 0.0151). This study proves the positive association between periodontitis and acute MI in Poles. This association seems to be stronger with regard to the extent rather than to the severity of periodontitis.

  1. Machine learning techniques to select Be star candidates. An application in the OGLE-IV Gaia south ecliptic pole field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ortiz, M. F.; García-Varela, A.; Quiroz, A. J.; Sabogal, B. E.; Hernández, J.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Optical and infrared variability surveys produce a large number of high quality light curves. Statistical pattern recognition methods have provided competitive solutions for variable star classification at a relatively low computational cost. In order to perform supervised classification, a set of features is proposed and used to train an automatic classification system. Quantities related to the magnitude density of the light curves and their Fourier coefficients have been chosen as features in previous studies. However, some of these features are not robust to the presence of outliers and the calculation of Fourier coefficients is computationally expensive for large data sets. Aims: We propose and evaluate the performance of a new robust set of features using supervised classifiers in order to look for new Be star candidates in the OGLE-IV Gaia south ecliptic pole field. Methods: We calculated the proposed set of features on six types of variable stars and also on a set of Be star candidates reported in the literature. We evaluated the performance of these features using classification trees and random forests along with the K-nearest neighbours, support vector machines, and gradient boosted trees methods. We tuned the classifiers with a 10-fold cross-validation and grid search. We then validated the performance of the best classifier on a set of OGLE-IV light curves and applied this to find new Be star candidates. Results: The random forest classifier outperformed the others. By using the random forest classifier and colours criteria we found 50 Be star candidates in the direction of the Gaia south ecliptic pole field, four of which have infrared colours that are consistent with Herbig Ae/Be stars. Conclusions: Supervised methods are very useful in order to obtain preliminary samples of variable stars extracted from large databases. As usual, the stars classified as Be stars candidates must be checked for the colours and spectroscopic characteristics

  2. Coherence between geophysical excitations and celestial pole offsets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ron, Cyril; Vondrák, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 243-247 ISSN 1214-9705. [Czech-Polish Workshop on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudeten and Adjacent Areas. Třešť, 04.11.2010-06.11. 2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : geophysical excitations * celestial pole offsets * coherence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011

  3. Analysis of Barber-Pole Color and Speckle Noises Recorded 6 and a Half Hours before the Kobe Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Ikeya, Motoji; Yamanaka, Chihiro

    1998-11-01

    Barber-pole color shift and speckle noise in the images on the videotape of a TV program recorded six and a half hours before the Kobe earthquake havebeen analyzed and are considered to be due to electromagnetic (EM) noise of a few tens of mV/maround 217 MHz and pulsed noise with a width of about µs,respectively. Such images were reproduced by artificial means using amicrowave synthesizer and from air-gap discharges using a Van de Graaff generator. An EM model of a fault with piezo-compensating freecharges around quartz in granitic rocks gave pulsed EM waves having apulse width of 0.5 µs and height of 0.5 V/m at a point 50 kmfrom the fault.

  4. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  5. Ghost poles in the nucleon propagator in the linear σ model approach and its role in πN low-energy theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rocha, C.A.; Wilets, L.

    1997-01-01

    Complex mass poles, or ghost poles, are present in the Hartree-Fock solution of the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the nucleon propagator in renormalizable models with Yukawa-type meson-nucleon couplings, as shown many years ago by Brown, Puff and Wilets (BPW). These ghosts violate basic theorems of quantum field theory and their origin is related to the ultraviolet behavior of the model interactions. Recently, Krein et.al, proved that the ghosts disappear when vertex corrections are included in a self-consistent way, softening the interaction sufficiently in the ultraviolet region. In previous studies of πN scattering using ''dressed'' nucleon propagator and bare vertices, did by Nutt and Wilets in the 70's (NW), it was found that if these poles are explicitly included, the value of the isospin-even amplitude A (+) is satisfied within 20% at threshold. The absence of a theoretical explanation for the ghosts and the lack of chiral symmetry in these previous studies led us to re-investigate the subject using the approach of the linear σ-model and study the interplay of low-energy theorems for πN scattering and ghost poles. For bare interaction vertices we find that ghosts are present in this model as well and that the A (+) value is badly described. As a first approach to remove these complex poles, we dress the vertices with phenomenological form factors and a reasonable agreement with experiment is achieved. In order to fix the two cutoff parameters, we use the A (+) value for the chiral limit (m π →0) and the experimental value of the isoscalar scattering length. Finally, we test our model by calculating the phase shifts for the S waves and we find a good agreement at threshold. (orig.)

  6. Ecological physiological characteristic of some species of natural vegetation in the Poles'e State Radiation Ecological Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, V.A.; Gaponenko, V.I.; Matsko, V.P.; Grushevskaya, O.M.; Bondar', Yu.I.; Evsievich, K.M.; Akadehmiya Navuk Belarusi, Minsk

    1996-01-01

    Influence of radiation on important ecological and physiological characteristics of Pinus silvestris L., Phleum pratense L. and Dactylis glomerata L. growing on territory of the Poles'e State Radiation Ecological Reservation has been investigated in 1992-1994. Significant changes in species and quantitative formation of natural vegetation growing on territory contaminated by the Chernobyl accident release were not observed. Positive correlation between the content of protein in needles of Pinus silvestris L., leaves of Agropyron repens L. and specific radioactivity of photosystem was established. Positive correlation between specific radioactivity of overground photosystem and quantity of nucleic acids (DNA+RNA) is leaves of Dactylis glomerata was found. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Submillimeter spectroscopy of the Carina Nebula: Observations, operations and upgrades of the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, Thomas Edward

    2009-06-01

    We present the results of a ~ 250 arcmin 2 mapping of the 205 μm [NII] fine- structure line emission over the northern Carina Nebula, including the Car I and Car II HII regions. Spectra were obtained using the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI) at the Antarctic Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO) at South Pole. New upgrades and modifications to the SPIFI instrument are discussed, and full details of SPIFI-AST/RO integration and calibration are provided. At the time of these observations, SPIFI had a spectral resolving power of ~ 4250, a FWHM beam size of ~ 54'', and a noise equivalent power (NEP) referred to the front end of the receiver of ~ 2.5 × 10 -15 W Hz -1/2 (~ 1.4 times the background limit). These data constitute the first ground-based detection of the 205 μm [NII] line, and only the third detection overall since those of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) and the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) in the early 1990s. We supplement the 205 μm data with new reductions of far-infrared fine- structure spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) in 63 μm [OI], 122 m [NII], 146 μm [OI], and 158 μm [CII]; the 146 μm [OI] data include 90 raster positions which have not been previously published. Morphological comparisons are made with optical, radio continuum and CO maps. The 122/205 [NII] line ratio is used to probe the density of the low-ionization gas, and the 158/205 [CII]/[NII] line ratio is used to probe the fraction of C + arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs). The [OI] and [CII] lines are used to construct a PDR model of Carina following Kaufman et al. (1999). When the PDR properties are compared with other sources, Carina is found to be more akin to 30 Doradus than galactic star-forming regions such as Orion, M17, or W49. This is consistent with the view of Carina as a more evolved region, where much of the parent molecular cloud has been ionized or swept

  8. The G-protein regulatory (GPR) motif-containing Leu-Gly-Asn-enriched protein (LGN) and Gialpha3 influence cortical positioning of the mitotic spindle poles at metaphase in symmetrically dividing mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Joe B; Kuriyama, Ryoko; Gettys, Thomas W; Lanier, Stephen M

    2006-12-01

    We addressed the role of the G-protein regulatory (GPR) motif-containing Leu-Gly-Asn-enriched protein (LGN) and G-proteins (Gialpha3) in the positioning of the spindle pole during mammalian cell division. Immunocytochemistry indicated that both LGN and Gialpha3 co-localized at the spindle pole and at the midbody and the cell cortex during the different phases of mitosis. In marked contrast to the positioning of the spindle pole at metaphase midway between the cell cortex and the metaphase plate, the spindle pole was juxtaposed with the cell cortex at metaphase following increased expression of Gialpha3 and LGN. This repositioning of the spindle pole required the interaction of LGN with Gialpha. The influence of LGN and Gialpha3 on the cortical positioning of the spindle pole likely reflects either stronger pulling forces on the spindle pole exerted from the cell cortex or increased pushing forces exerted on the spindle pole from the mitotic spindle indicating that these events are regulated by GPR motif-containing proteins and G-proteins independent of asymmetry.

  9. Stellar population samples at the galactic poles. III. UBVRI observations of proper motion stars near the south pole and the luminosity laws for the halo and old disk populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, O.J.

    1976-01-01

    Some 1200 UBV and 650 R, I observations of 1050 stars, mostly with annual proper motion greater than 0.096'', brighter than visual magnitude 15, and within 10 0 of the south galactic pole, are presented and discussed. The M-type stars (B -- V greater than + 1.15 mag) in the sample are discussed in a current article in The Astrophysical Journal, Part I. The bluer stars indicate that the slopes of the luminosity laws for old disk and halo stars are fairly similar to M/sub v/ near +6 mag, the old-disk-population law has an inflection point near M/sub v/ = +7 mag, the halo-population law may peak near M/sub v/ = +9 mag on a broad plateau that continues to beyond +10 mag and drops to zero near +13 mag, and the upper limit for the mass density of the halo population near the Sun is near 9 x 10 -4 M/sub mass/ pc -3 . Many stars of particular interest in the sample are briefly discussed. These include several possible red subluminous stars, one of which may be a very close solar neighbor; some halo-population giants; and one unique flare star with an amplitude near 0.5 mag in R

  10. Notice of Intent to Prepare a Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation (CEE) for the Construction and Operation of a High-Energy Neutrino Telescope (Project Ice Cube) at the South Pole

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Request for comments from the NSF for a proposed project to construct and operate a high-energy neutrino telescope at the South Pole. The proposed telescope would be a second-generation instrument based on the successful evolution of a smaller neutrino telescope at the South Pole (1 page).

  11. Effects of exercise training experience on hand grip strength, body composition and postural stability in fitness pole dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Mynarski, Arkadiusz; Powerska, Aneta; Rozpara, Michał; Garbaciak, Wiesław

    2017-09-01

    Although the growing popularity of pole dance as a leisure-time activity of people of all ages, the problem of physical effects of exercise on the pole is not considered in the scientific literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the hand grip strength, body composition and postural stability of fitness pole dancers with different training experience. The inclusion criteria for this study were met by 52 female pole dancers. The research program included assessment of body composition (using BC-418 Segmental Body Composition Analyzer, Tanita, Tokyo, Japan), hand grip strength by hydraulic dynamometer JAMAR, and postural stability using ALFA stabilometric platform. Significant differences depending on the pole dance advancement level were found in postural stability and hand-grip strength. The average values of the surface area and the length sway indicated by feet center of pressure were significantly decreasing with the increasing group experience (PStrength level was increasing with the consecutive advancement level (right hand χ2=9.595, P=0.008, left hand χ2=8.936, P=0.011). Regular practice of pole dance fitness can contribute to a significant increase of strength and improvement of the postural stability, which is important for the entire musculoskeletal system. However, further studies on the beneficial and negative (e.g. injuries) impact of exercises on the pole on the musculoskeletal system are required, including larger group of respondents, their diverse age and, above all, longitudinal studies.

  12. Values About Ancient Magnetic Poles, Declination, Inclination, and Intensity, That Can Be Used to Track the Magnetic Pole and Continent Movements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The study of magnetism is one of the oldest of the geophysical sciences. It is unique among the sciences in that ancient records of the geomagnetic field are...

  13. Ideal gas contribution to the isobaric heat capacity of refrigerants: Poling et al.’s polynomial correlation vs DIPPR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulero, Angel; Cachadiña, Isidro; Tian, Jianxiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ideal gas contribution to the isobaric heat capacity of 58 refrigerants is calculated. ► Poling et al.’s polynomial correlation on temperature is used. ► Results are compared with DIPPR data and the correlation extended to higher temperatures. ► New coefficients for the correlation are given. ► Mean average percentage deviations with these new coefficients are lower than 1% for 49 refrigerants. -- Abstract: The ideal gas contribution to the isobaric heat capacity of fluids is a temperature dependent property which is commonly modelled as a polynomial expression. In this work, the performance and accuracy of the polynomial correlation proposed by Poling et al. in their well-known book is checked. To this end, the data accepted in the DIPPR database for 58 refrigerants were used. The mean average percentage deviations (MAPDs) obtained in the temperature range considered by Poling et al., usually up to 1000 K, are greater than 1.5% only for six refrigerants. We extended our study to the temperature range in which accepted DIPPR data are available (usually up to 1500 K), finding that only for four refrigerants can the Poling et al. correlation be used in this extended range. New coefficients for the correlation are given for the 58 refrigerants studied which reproduce the accepted DIPPR data. The new MAPD values are then below 1% for 49 refrigerants

  14. A measurement of gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by galaxy clusters using data from the south pole telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, E. J.; Keisler, R.; Dodelson, S.; Aird, K. A.; Allen, S. W.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H-M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Hennig, C.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Millea, M.; Mocanu, L. M.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; van Engelen, A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2015-06-20

    Clusters of galaxies are expected to gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby generate a distinct signal in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurements of this effect can be used to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters with CMB data alone. Here we present a measurement of lensing of the CMB by galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We develop a maximum likelihood approach to extract the CMB cluster lensing signal and validate the method on mock data. We quantify the effects on our analysis of several potential sources of systematic error and find that they generally act to reduce the best-fit cluster mass. It is estimated that this bias to lower cluster mass is roughly 0.85σ in units of the statistical error bar, although this estimate should be viewed as an upper limit. We apply our maximum likelihood technique to 513 clusters selected via their Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) signatures in SPT data, and rule out the null hypothesis of no lensing at 3.1σ. The lensing-derived mass estimate for the full cluster sample is consistent with that inferred from the SZ flux: ${M}_{200,\\mathrm{lens}}={0.83}_{-0.37}^{+0.38}\\;{M}_{200,\\mathrm{SZ}}$ (68% C.L., statistical error only).

  15. A comparative study of floristic composition, structure and pole diversity in two ecosystems at the 50k CPO-09 oil field in the Orinoco region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Andrés Cárdenas-Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A structure and composition study of poles in two wooded areas of Colombian Orinoquia totalling 10 465 hectares is presented. A 1: 10 000 scale map was made for mapping gallery forest and high dense forest from tierra firma, in order to implement a field stratified sampling, in which each sample unit is selected randomly. Data from 16 sampling units of 0.1 ha each from both ecosystems (for each of them were collected, and included information about individuals with diameter at breast height(DBH more than 10 cm and taking data of species, circumference at breast height (CBH, total height and height to crown base . Higher species richness was found in gallery forest with 81 species whereas tierra firma had 76. The latter however, had greater heterogeneity and a better vertical structure. Both ecosystems included the presence of 12 endangered species in different categories according to the Colombia red data book, Resolution 0192 of 2014 of Colombia, IUCN and CITES.

  16. Germline PMS2 and somatic POLE exonuclease mutations cause hypermutability of the leading DNA strand in biallelic mismatch repair deficiency syndrome brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianova, Maria A; Chetan, Ghati Kasturirangan; Sibin, Madathan Kandi; Mckee, Thomas; Merkler, Doron; Narasinga, Rao Kvl; Ribaux, Pascale; Blouin, Jean-Louis; Makrythanasis, Periklis; Seplyarskiy, Vladimir B; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Nikolaev, Sergey I

    2017-11-01

    Biallelic mismatch repair deficiency (bMMRD) in tumours is frequently associated with somatic mutations in the exonuclease domains of DNA polymerases POLE or POLD1, and results in a characteristic mutational profile. In this article, we describe the genetic basis of ultramutated high-grade brain tumours in the context of bMMRD. We performed exome sequencing of two second-cousin patients from a large consanguineous family of Indian origin with early onset of high-grade glioblastoma and astrocytoma. We identified a germline homozygous nonsense variant, p.R802*, in the PMS2 gene. Additionally, by genome sequencing of these tumours, we found extremely high somatic mutation rates (237/Mb and 123/Mb), as well as somatic mutations in the proofreading domain of POLE polymerase (p.P436H and p.L424V), which replicates the leading DNA strand. Most interestingly, we found, in both cancers, that the vast majority of mutations were consistent with the signature of POLE exo - , i.e. an abundance of C>A and C>T mutations, particularly in special contexts, on the leading strand. We showed that the fraction of mutations under positive selection among mutations in tumour suppressor genes is more than two-fold lower in ultramutated tumours than in other glioblastomas. Genetic analyses enabled the diagnosis of the two consanguineous childhood brain tumours as being due to a combination of PMS2 germline and POLE somatic variants, and confirmed them as bMMRD/POLE exo - disorders. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The polarization of the G-protein activated potassium channel GIRK5 to the vegetal pole of Xenopus laevis oocytes is driven by a di-leucine motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Bello, Beatriz; Rangel-García, Claudia I; Salvador, Carolina; Carrisoza-Gaytán, Rolando; Escobar, Laura I

    2013-01-01

    The G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (known as GIRK or Kir3) form functional heterotetramers gated by G-βγ subunits. GIRK channels participate in heart rate modulation and neuronal postsynaptic inhibition in mammals. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, GIRK5 is a functional homomultimer. Previously, we found that phosphorylation of a tyrosine (Y16) at its N-terminus downregulates the surface expression of GIRK5. In this work, we elucidated the subcellular localization and trafficking of GIRK5 in oocytes. Several EGFP-GIRK5 chimeras were produced and an ECFP construct was used to identify the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Whereas GIRK5-WT was retained in the ER at the animal pole, the phospho-null GIRK5-Y16A was localized to the vegetal pole. Interestingly, a construct with an N-terminal Δ25 deletion produced an even distribution of the channel in the whole oocyte. Through an alanine-scan, we identified an acidic cluster/di-leucine sorting-signal recognition motif between E17 and I22. We quantified the effect of each amino acid residue within this di-leucine motif in determining the distribution of GIRK5 to the animal and vegetal poles. We found that Y16 and I22 contributed to functional expression and were dominant in the polarization of GIRK5. We thus conclude that the N-terminal acidic di-leucine motif of GIRK5 determines its retention and polarized trafficking within Xl oocytes.

  18. Alteraciones del polo posterior en la miopía degenerativa Alterations of the posterior pole in degenerative myopia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzel Ivón Lapido Polanco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La miopía degenerativa constituye una de las causas fundamentales de pérdida de la visión. Esto está relacionado con las alteraciones del polo posterior, que afectan la retina neurosensorial, el epitelio pigmentario de la retina y las capas más internas de la coroides. Su curso lento y progresivo demanda una exploración integral, con seguimiento en el tiempo y constituye un reto para el oftalmólogo. Se realizó una revisión de artículos publicados e indexados en la base de datos de PubMed que se refirieran a las características clínicas del fondo de ojo en pacientes con miopía degenerativa, para describir las principales alteraciones del polo posterior del globo ocular en esta entidad. Se encontró entre las lesiones típicas de la alta miopía, al estafiloma posterior como un signo patognomónico de la enfermedad, asociado a la atrofia coriorretiniana en parches o difusa, así como las estrías de laca y las hemorragias maculares secundarias a ellas o provenientes de membranas neovasculares coroideas. La tomografía de coherencia óptica ha permitido un diagnóstico más preciso de otras lesiones maculares como la foveosquisis, el agujero macular y, más recientemente, la mácula en domo. Los cambios degenerativos del polo posterior parecen guardar relación unos con otros pero la patogenia no ha sido bien esclarecida a pesar de los avances tecnológicos.Degenerative myopia is one of the main causes of visual impairment. This is related to disorders in the posterior pole, affecting the neurosensorial retina, the retinal pigmented epithelium and the inner choroidal layers. The slow and progressive course of this condition demands comprehensive assessment and long follow-up, which is a challenging task for ophthalmologists. A review of the articles indexed in PubMed regarding the clinical characteristics of the fundus in patients with degenerative myopia was made to describe the main disorders of the posterior pole of the eyeball

  19. Chemical characteristics and source analysis on ionic composition of rainwater collected in the Carpathians "Cold Pole," Ciuc basin, Eastern Carpathians, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szép, Róbert; Mateescu, Elena; Nechifor, Aurelia Cristina; Keresztesi, Ágnes

    2017-12-01

    A study of precipitation chemistry was conducted for 11 years (01 January 2006-31 December 2016) in the Ciuc basin, Eastern Carpathians, Romania. The studied area is an enclosed basin, also called "the Carpathians cold pole." All collected samples were analyzed for major cations and anions. HCO 3 - concentrations were calculated based on the empirical relationship between pH and HCO 3 - . The multiannual arithmetic mean of pH values was found to be 6.57. The lowest and highest pH values were measured in 2009 and 2013, being 6.57% lower, respectively, 7.57% higher than the multiannual mean. Only 3.31% of the studied rainwater samples indicate acidic character. In descending order, the majority of the samples are as follows: NH 4 + >Ca 2+ >SO 4 2- >Cl - >HCO 3 - >NO 3 - >Na + >K + >Mg 2+ >NO 2 - >H + . Principal component analysis (PCA) showed the NH 4 + , Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ contribution to the neutralization process and their sources. The anthropogenic origin of SO 4 2- was supported by the high non-sea-salt fraction (NSSF) (~ 91%). The results of this study suggest that rainwater chemistry is strongly influenced by local natural and anthropogenic sources (agricultural activities) rather than marine sources. The pollutants in rainwater samples were mainly derived from calcareous and dolomitic soil dust and specific local climatic conditions, long-range transport, local industry, and traffic sources.

  20. The growth poles and the lagging regions of Romania – a county level approach for 2015 –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strat Vasile Alecsandru

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays European context the challenges started from the severe disparities among countries, regions and socio-economic groups are increasing the pressure on both national and EU level authorities, leading to the conclusion that the current socio-economic systems have reached their limits. Thus, the social market economy (SME, “third path” which mixes the purely liberal market economy with the social economic model might be one viable solution. Historically, the model corresponds to the real economic policy of the German Federal Republic after the 1950s, thus it is sometimes called Rhine capitalism. Such a model might be both the solution for national-level European economies and for the entire Union and thus, for a successful implementation a two-step approach should be considered appropriate. Thereby, in the first stage an SME might be implemented at national level in as many as possible EU member states and in the second phase a SME might be created at the level of EU by aggregating the smaller national SMEs. Due to the fact that in a SME the weaker geographical regions and industries are encouraged so that “fair” distribution of wellbeing is reached, it is highly probable that such a socio-economic model might be the appropriate alternative to fuel a sustainable growth of the Romanian economy. Using county level data, from the National Institute of Statistics and from the National Office of the Trade Register, for the year 2015, and an aggregated index, we show that the Romanian economy is highly polarized with a few growth poles (islands and a large number of underdeveloped units. Thus, it becomes obvious that these important disparities will hinder a future sustainable development and by consequence a clear “road-map” represented by the SME model might prove to be a viable solution for the Romanian economy.

  1. Radiative and semi-leptonic B-meson decay spectra: Sudakov resummation beyond logarithmic accuracy and the pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardi, Einan

    2004-04-01

    The inclusive spectra of radiative and semi-leptonic B-meson decays near the endpoint is computed taking into account renormalons in the Sudakov exponent (Dressed Gluon Exponentiation). In this framework we demonstrate the factorization of decay spectra into hard, jet and soft functions and discuss the universality of the latter two. Going beyond perturbation theory the soft function, which we identify as the longitudinal momentum distribution in an on-shell b quark, is replaced by the b-quark distribution in the B meson. The two differ by power corrections. We show how the resummation of running-coupling effects can be used to perform consistent separation to power accuracy between perturbative and non-perturbative contributions. In particular, we prove that the leading infrared renormalon ambiguity in the Sudakov exponent cancels against the one associated with the definition of the pole mass. This cancellation allows us to identify the non-perturbative parameter that controls the shift of the perturbative spectrum in the heavy-quark limit as the mass difference between the meson and the quark.

  2. NLO QCD corrections to B c( B*c) production around the Z pole at an e + e - collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, XuChang; Chang, ChaoHsi; Feng, TaiFu; Pan, Zan

    2018-03-01

    The production of B c and B*c mesons at a Z-factory (an e + e - collider operating at energies around the Z pole) is calculated up to the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD accuracy. The results show that the dependence of the total cross sections on the renormalization scale μ is suppressed by the corrections, and the NLO corrections enhance the total cross sections of B c by 52% and of B*c by 33% when the renormalization scale is taken at μ = 2 m b . To observe the various behaviors of the production of the mesons B c and B*c, such as the differential cross section vs. the out-going angle, the forward-backward asymmetry, and the distribution vs. the energy fraction z up to NLO QCD accuracy as well as the relevant K-factor (NLO to LO) for the production, are calculated, and it is pointed out that some of the observables obtained in the present work may be used as a specific precision test of the standard model.

  3. New magnet pole shape for isochronous cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, C.E.; Chasman, C.; Baltz, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new design has been developed for shaping pole tips to produce the radially increasing fields required for isochronous cyclotrons. The conventional solid hill poles are replaced by poles mounted over a small secondary gap which tapers radially from maximum at the magnet edge to zero near the center. Field measurements with a model magnet and calculations with the code TRIM show an increase in field at the edge of the magnet without the usual corresponding large increase in fringing, and a radial field shape more nearly field independent than for conventional hills. The flying hills have several advantages for variable energy multiparticle cyclotrons: (1) a large reduction in the power dissipated by isochronizing trim coils; (2) a more constant shape and magnitude flutter factor, eliminating flutter coils and increasing the operating range; and (3) a sharper fall-off of the fringe field, simplifying beam extraction

  4. Basin and Crater Ejecta Contributions to the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) Regolith; Positive Implications for Robotic Surface Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Noah E.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of impacts of all sizes to laterally transport ejected material across the lunar surface is well-documented both in lunar samples [1-4] and in remote sensing data [5-7]. The need to quantify the amount of lateral transport has lead to several models to estimate the scale of this effect. Such models have been used to assess the origin of components at the Apollo sites [8-10] or to predict what might be sampled by robotic landers [11-13]. Here we continue to examine the regolith inside the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) and specifically assess the contribution to the SPA regolith by smaller craters within the basin. Specifically we asses the effects of four larger craters within SPA, Bose, Bhabha, Stoney, and Bellinsgauzen all located within the mafic enhancement in the center of SPA (Figure 1). The region around these craters is of interest as it is a possible landing and sample return site for the proposed Moon-Rise mission [14-17]. Additionally, understanding the provenance of components in the SPA regolith is important for interpreting remotely sensed data of the basin interior [18-20].

  5. Thermal poling of multi-wire array optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lin; An, Honglin; Hayashi, Juliano G.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate in this paper thermal poling of multi-wire array fibers, which extends poling of fibers with two anodes to similar to 50 and similar to 500 wire array anodes. The second harmonic microscopy observations show that second order nonlinearity (SON) layers are developed surrounding all...... the rings of wires in the similar to 50 anode array fiber with poling of 1.8kV, 250 degrees C and 30min duration, and the outer rings of the similar to 500 anode array fiber at lower poling temperature. Our simulations based on a two-dimensional charge dynamics model confirm this can be explained...

  6. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Innovative Science Education from the Poles to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Breen, K.; Wiggins, H. V.; Larson, A.; Behr, S.

    2006-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program celebrating the International Polar Year (IPY) that will advance polar science education by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. PolarTREC builds on the strengths of the existing TREC program in the Arctic, an NSF supported program managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS), to embrace a wide range of activities occurring at both poles during and after IPY. PolarTREC will foster the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science and IPY. PolarTREC will enable thirty-six teachers to spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers investigating a wide range of IPY science themed topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web-based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and teacher peer groups. For further information on PolarTREC, contact Wendy Warnick, ARCUS Executive Director at warnick@arcus.org or 907-474-1600 or visit www.arcus.org/trec/

  7. Study of the photon's pole structure in the noncommutative Schwinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemkhani, M. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, P.O.Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The photon self-energy of the noncommutative Schwinger model at two- and three-loop order is analyzed. It is shown that the mass spectrum of the model does not receive any correction from the noncommutativity parameter (θ) at these orders. Also it remains unchanged to all orders. The exact one-loop effective action for the photon is also calculated. (orig.)

  8. Study of the photon's pole structure in the noncommutative Schwinger model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemkhani, M

    The photon self-energy of the noncommutative Schwinger model at two- and three-loop order is analyzed. It is shown that the mass spectrum of the model does not receive any correction from the noncommutativity parameter ([Formula: see text]) at these orders. Also it remains unchanged to all orders. The exact one-loop effective action for the photon is also calculated.

  9. Asymmetries at the Z pole: The Quark and Lepton Quantum Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Tenchini, R

    2016-01-01

    The impressive progress on the knowledge of lepton and quark electroweak couplings over the LEP and SLC decade is reviewed. The experimental methods for measuring the forward-backward asymmetry of charged-fermion pair-production are described, for different fermion species. The precise measurements of the left–right asymmetry and of tau polarisation at the Z resonance are also reminded. After discussing the determination of the Weinberg electroweak mixing angle, lepton and quark couplings are extracted by combining asymmetry and polarisation measurements with measurements of partial decay widths of the Z boson, performed at LEP in the same years.

  10. Adapting transport modes to supply chains classified by the uncertainty supply chain model: A case study at Manaus Industrial Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lucena Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses transport modes supporting Uncertainty Supply Chain Model (USCM in the case of Manaus Industrial Pole (PIM, an industrial cluster in the Brazilian Amazon that hosts six hundred factories with diverse logistics and supply chain managerial strategies. USCM (Lee, 2002; Fisher, 1997develops a dot matrix classification of the supply chains considering several attributes (e.g., agility, cost, security, responsiveness and argues that emergent economies industrial clusters, in the effort to keep attractiveness for technological frontier firms, need to adapt supply chain strategies according to USCM attributes. The paper takes a further step, discussing which transport modes are suitable to each supply chain classified at the USCM in PIM´s case. The research´s methods covered the use of PIM´s statistical official database (secondary data, interviews with the main logistical services providers of PIM and phone survey with a sample of firms (primary data. Findings confirm the theoretical argument that different supply chains will demand different transport modes running at the same time in the same industrial cluster (Oliveira, 2009. In the case of PIM, this implies investments on port and airport infrastructure and a strategic focus on air transport mode, due to (1 short life cycle of products, (2 distance from suppliers, (3 quick response to demand and (4 the fact that even PIM´s standard products use, in average, forty per cent of air transport at inbound logistics.

  11. The Ceres gravity field, spin pole, rotation period and orbit from the Dawn radiometric tracking and optical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Vaughan, A. T.; Bills, B. G.; Asmar, S. W.; Ermakov, A. I.; Rambaux, N.; Raymond, C. A.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Russell, C. T.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    Ceres' gravity field and rotational parameters have been precisely measured using 1.5 years of radiometric Doppler and range data and optical landmark tracking from the Dawn spacecraft in orbit about the dwarf planet. As was the case with Dawn at Vesta, the gravity field, orientation parameters, landmark locations, and Ceres' orbit are jointly estimated in a global solution. Even though Dawn's radio science investigation at Ceres was complicated by additional thrusting for attitude control, the resulting spherical harmonic gravity field has a half-wavelength resolution of up to 82 km (degree 18) near the equator, which is similar harmonic resolution to that of Vesta. The gravity field is consistent with Airy isostatic compensation, and this model assumption limits Ceres' crustal density to be between 1200 and 1600 kg/m3 for two-layer and three-layer models with mean crustal thickness between 27 and 43 km. The compensation depth is determined using admittance between gravity and gravity from topography and is superior to admittance between gravity and topography. The gravitational mass of Ceres is determined to better than 0.002% (GMCeres = 62.62736 ± 0.00040 km3/s2), the spin pole location is improved by 10× over previous results with right ascension (α = 291.427°) and declination (δ = 66.760°) uncertainty less than 0.001°, and the rotation rate is improved by ∼100× over previous determinations from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Ceres' heliocentric orbit has also been improved, with about 17 months of precision range measurements reducing ephemeris uncertainties to about 10 m during the Dawn timeframe.

  12. Studies of the strong and electroweak interactions at the Z0 pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildreth, M.D.

    1995-03-01

    This thesis presents studies of the strong and electroweak forces, two of the fundamental interactions that govern the behavior of matter at high energies. The authors have used the hadronic decays of Z 0 bosons produced with the unique experimental apparatus of the e + e - Linear Collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) for these measurements. Employing the precision tracking capabilities of the SLD, they isolated samples of Z 0 events containing primarily the decays of the Z 0 to a chosen quark type. With an inclusive selection technique, they have tested the flavor independence of the strong coupling, α s by measuring the rates of multi-jet production in isolated samples of light (uds), c, and b quark events. They find: α s uds /α s all 0.987 ± 0.027(stat) ± 0.022(syst) ± 0.022(theory), α s c /α s all = 1.012 ± 0.104(stat) ± 0.102(syst) ± 0.096(theory), α s b /α s all = 1.026 ± 0.041(stat) ± 0.030(theory), which implies that the strong interaction is independent of quark flavor within the present experimental sensitivity. They have also measured the extent of parity-violation in the Z 0 c bar c coupling, given by the parameter A c 0 , using a sample of fully and partially reconstructed D* and D + meson decays and the longitudinal polarization of the SLC electron beam. This sample of charm quark events was derived with selection techniques based on their kinematic properties and decay topologies. They find A c 0 = 0.73 ± 0.22(stat) ± 0.10(syst). This value is consistent with that expected in the electroweak standard model of particle interactions

  13. Studies of the strong and electroweak interactions at the Z0 pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildreth, Michael Douglas [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This thesis presents studies of the strong and electroweak forces, two of the fundamental interactions that govern the behavior of matter at high energies. The authors have used the hadronic decays of Z0 bosons produced with the unique experimental apparatus of the e+e- Linear Collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the SLAC Large Detector (SLD) for these measurements. Employing the precision tracking capabilities of the SLD, they isolated samples of Z0 events containing primarily the decays of the Z0 to a chosen quark type. With an inclusive selection technique, they have tested the flavor independence of the strong coupling, αs by measuring the rates of multi-jet production in isolated samples of light (uds), c, and b quark events. They find: α$s\\atop{uds}$/α$s\\atop{all}$ 0.987 ± 0.027(stat) ± 0.022(syst) ± 0.022(theory), α$c\\atop{s}$/α$all\\atop{s}$ = 1.012 ± 0.104(stat) ± 0.102(syst) ± 0.096(theory), α$b\\atop{s}$/α$all\\atop{s}$ = 1.026 {+-} 0.041(stat) ± 0.030(theory), which implies that the strong interaction is independent of quark flavor within the present experimental sensitivity. They have also measured the extent of parity-violation in the Z0 c$\\bar{c}$ coupling, given by the parameter A $0\\atop{c}$, using a sample of fully and partially reconstructed D* and D+ meson decays and the longitudinal polarization of the SLC electron beam. This sample of charm quark events was derived with selection techniques based on their kinematic properties and decay topologies. They find A$0\\atop{c}$ = 0.73 ± 0.22(stat) ± 0.10(syst). This value is consistent with that expected in the electroweak standard model of particle interactions.

  14. "We are like the Poles": On the ambiguous labour market position of young Icelanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margrét Einarsdóttir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paid work is quite common amongst young people under the age of 18 in the Western world, although most undertake flexible part-time work. Nevertheless, studies on their labour market position are rare. The aim of this article is to examine the labour market position of young people in Iceland, a high-income Nordic country. We ask about: (i young people’s general labour market rights regarding payslips and formal work contracts; (ii their special labour market rights, safeguarded by child labour laws, in relation to rest periods, working hours, the prevalence of injuries and the consequent absence from work, and; (iii the young persons’ own perceptions of their labour market position. The study is based on mixed methods: a survey (N = 952 and group interviews (N = 42 with 13-17-year-olds. The research reveals that the labour market position of young people is characterised by ambiguity. While their general rights to employment and decent pay are recognised to some extent, their work often violates child labour laws and accidents do occur. Young people commonly perceive their labour market position as weak. Their position in society, on the other hand, allows them to quit when confronted with an adverse work environment or if the work interferes with other duties. To conclude, education on occupational health and safety (OHS and additional research on their labour market position are needed.

  15. Screening of the ‘Pathogen Box’ identifies an approved pesticide with major anthelmintic activity against the barber's pole worm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Preston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial need to develop new medicines against parasitic diseases via public-private partnerships. Based on high throughput phenotypic screens of largely protozoal pathogens and bacteria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV has recently assembled an open-access ‘Pathogen Box’ containing 400 well-curated chemical compounds. In the present study, we tested these compounds for activity against parasitic stages of the nematode Haemonchus contortus (barber's pole worm. In an optimised, whole-organism screening assay, using exsheathed third-stage (xL3 and fourth-stage (L4 larvae, we measured the inhibition of larval motility, growth and development of H. contortus. We also studied the effect of the ‘hit’ compound on mitochondrial function by measuring oxygen consumption. Among the 400 Pathogen Box compounds, we identified one chemical, called tolfenpyrad (compound identification code: MMV688934 that reproducibly inhibits xL3 motility as well as L4 motility, growth and development, with IC50 values ranging between 0.02 and 3 μM. An assessment of mitochondrial function showed that xL3s treated with tolfenpyrad consumed significantly less oxygen than untreated xL3s, which was consistent with specific inhibition of complex I of the respiratory electron transport chain in arthropods. Given that tolfenpyrad was developed as a pesticide and has already been tested for absorption, distribution, excretion, biotransformation, toxicity and metabolism, it shows considerable promise for hit-to-lead optimisation and/or repurposing for use against H. contortus and other parasitic nematodes. Future work should assess its activity against hookworms and other pathogens that cause neglected tropical diseases.

  16. The Triaxial Ellipsoid Diameters and Rotational Pole of Asteroid (9) Metis from AO at Gemini and Keck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Merline, W. J.; Conrad, A.; Dumas, C.; Tamblyn, P.; Christou, J.; Carry, B.; Chapman, C.

    2012-10-01

    From Adaptive Optics (AO) images of (9) Metis at 14 epochs over 2008 December 8 and 9 at Gemini North, triaxial ellipsoid diameters of 218x175x112 km are derived with fitting uncertainties of 3x3x47 km. However, by including just two more AO images from Keck-II in June and August of 2003 in a global fit, the fitting uncertainty of the small axis drops by more than a third because of the lower sub-Earth latitude afforded in 2003 (-28°) compared to 2008 (+47°), and the triaxial ellipsoid diameters become 218x175x129 km with fitting uncertainties of 3x3x14 km. We have estimated the systematic uncertainty of our method to be 4.1, 2.7, and 3.8%, respectively, for the three diameters. These values were recently derived (Drummond et al., in prep) from a comparison of KOALA (Carry et al, Planetary and Space Science 66, 200-212) and our triaxial ellipsoid analysis of four asteroids. Quadratically adding this systematic error with the fitting error, the total uncertainty for Metis becomes 9x5x15 km. Concurrently, we find an EQJ2000 rotational pole at [RA; Dec]=[185° +19°] or in ecliptic coordinates, [λ ; β ]=[176° +20°] (ECJ2000).

  17. Ecology shapes moral judgments towards food-wasting behavior: Evidence from the Yali of West Papua, the Ngorongoro Maasai, and Poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Michał; Butovskaya, Marina; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2018-06-01

    People judge food wasting as an immoral behavior. Although moral concerns vary widely across cultures, to this date, food wasting moral judgments were investigated only among rich and industrialized ones. This study reports first evidence of cultural variability on moral judgments of food wasting between modern and traditional cultures. We conducted our study among the Maasai - pastoralists of Ngorongoro, Yali - horticulturalists of West Papua, and among citizens of Poland. According to the results, Maasai judge food wasting as more immoral compared to Yali and Poles. What's more, Yali judge food wasting harsher than Poles. These results suggest that there are cultural differences in moral judgments of food wasting. These differences might reflect the impact of unstable ecology on food economy of a given society. We hypothesize that harsh moral judgment concerning food waste may serve as a cultural adaptation for food insecurity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  19. A Comparison of Cosmological Parameters Determined from CMB Temperature Power Spectra from the South Pole Telescope and the Planck Satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylor, K.; Hou, Z.; Knox, L.; Story, K. T.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H-M.; Chown, R.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Haan, T. de; Dobbs, M. A.; Everett, W. B.; George, E. M.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Keisler, R.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Luong-Van, D.; Marrone, D. P.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Millea, M.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Natoli, T.; Omori, Y.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Williamson, R.

    2017-11-20

    The Planck cosmic microwave background temperature data are best fit with a Lambda CDM model that mildly contradicts constraints from other cosmological probes. The South Pole Telescope (SPT) 2540 deg(2) SPT-SZ survey offers measurements on sub-degree angular scales (multipoles 650 <= l <= 2500) with sufficient precision to use as an independent check of the Planck data. Here we build on the recent joint analysis of the SPT-SZ and Planck data in Hou et al. by comparing Lambda CDM parameter estimates using the temperature power spectrum from both data sets in the SPT-SZ survey region. We also restrict the multipole range used in parameter fitting to focus on modes measured well by both SPT and Planck, thereby greatly reducing sample variance as a driver of parameter differences and creating a stringent test for systematic errors. We find no evidence of systematic errors from these tests. When we expand the maximum multipole of SPT data used, we see low-significance shifts in the angular scale of the sound horizon and the physical baryon and cold dark matter densities, with a resulting trend to higher Hubble constant. When we compare SPT and Planck data on the SPT-SZ sky patch to Planck full-sky data but keep the multipole range restricted, we find differences in the parameters n(s) and A(s)e(-2 tau). We perform further checks, investigating instrumental effects and modeling assumptions, and we find no evidence that the effects investigated are responsible for any of the parameter shifts. Taken together, these tests reveal no evidence for systematic errors in SPT or Planck data in the overlapping sky coverage and multipole range and at most weak evidence for a breakdown of Lambda CDM or systematic errors influencing either the Planck data outside the SPT-SZ survey area or the SPT data at l > 2000.

  20. The design of multi-lead-compensators for stabilization and pole placement in double-integrator networks under saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Yan; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2009-01-01

    We study decentralized controller design for stabilization and pole-placement, in a network of autonomous agents with double-integrator internal dynamics and arbitrary observation topology. We show that a simple multi-lead-compensator architecture, in particular one in which each agent uses a

  1. The design of multi-lead-compensators for stabilization and pole placement in double-integrator networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Yan; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2010-01-01

    We study decentralized controller design for stabilization and pole-placement, in a network of autonomous agents with double-integrator internal dynamics and arbitrary observation topology. We show that a simple multi-lead-compensator architecture, in particular one in which each agent uses a

  2. Pole masses of quarks in dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, L.V.; Kalmykov, M.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Pole masses of quarks in quantum chromodynamics are calculated to the two-loop order in the framework of the regularization by dimensional reduction. For the diagram with a light quark loop, the non-Euclidean asymptotic expansion is constructed with the external momentum on the mass shell of a heavy quark

  3. The meteorology and chemistry of high nitrogen oxide concentrations in the stable boundary layer at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, William; Crawford, Jim; Buhr, Marty; Nicovich, John; Chen, Gao; Davis, Douglas

    2018-03-01

    Four summer seasons of nitrogen oxide (NO) concentrations were obtained at the South Pole (SP) during the Sulfur Chemistry in the Antarctic Troposphere (ISCAT) program (1998 and 2000) and the Antarctic Tropospheric Chemistry Investigation (ANTCI) in (2003, 2005, 2006-2007). Together, analyses of the data collected from these studies provide insight into the large- to small-scale meteorology that sets the stage for extremes in NO and the significant variability that occurs day to day, within seasons, and year to year. In addition, these observations reveal the interplay between physical and chemical processes at work in the stable boundary layer of the high Antarctic plateau. We found a systematic evolution of the large-scale wind system over the ice sheet from winter to summer that controls the surface boundary layer and its effect on NO: initially in early spring (Days 280-310) the transport of warm air and clouds over West Antarctica dominates the environment over the SP; in late spring (Days 310-340), the winds at 300 hPa exhibit a bimodal behavior alternating between northwest and southeast quadrants, which is of significance to NO; in early summer (Days 340-375), the flow aloft is dominated by winds from the Weddell Sea; and finally, during late spring, winds aloft from the southeast are strongly associated with clear skies, shallow stable boundary layers, and light surface winds from the east - it is under these conditions that the highest NO occurs. Examination of the winds at 300 hPa from 1961 to 2013 shows that this seasonal pattern has not changed significantly, although the last twenty years have seen an increasing trend in easterly surface winds at the SP. What has also changed is the persistence of the ozone hole, often into early summer. With lower total ozone column density and higher sun elevation, the highest actinic flux responsible for the photolysis of snow nitrate now occurs in late spring under the shallow boundary layer conditions optimum for

  4. Three Phase Soft Commutation Auxilary Resonant Pole Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Vaclav Sladecek

    2006-01-01

    This paper covers the circuit modification of the power part of the inverter with auxiliary resonant poles utilising configuration of switches realised with routinely produced IGBT modules. Covered is also the control optimisation which goal is the minimisation of switching of the auxiliary resonant pole. Presented results were gained on a prototype of an inverter laboratory sample.

  5. A Scapholunate Ligament-Sparing Technique Utilizing the Medial Femoral Condyle Corticocancellous Free Flap to Reconstruct Scaphoid Nonunions With Proximal Pole Avascular Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmers, Nikolas H; Thibaudeau, Stephanie; Levin, L Scott

    2016-09-01

    This article demonstrates a technique for the treatment of scaphoid fracture waist and proximal pole nonunions with avascular necrosis using a free vascularized medial femoral condyle flap. We present our surgical technique and representative case examples in which the scapholunate ligament, a key structure required to preserve carpal kinematics, is spared. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plotter of pole figure using data from x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    Any polycrystalline aggregate normally has a preferred crystallographic orientation, or texture which depends on its thermal and or mechanical history. Preferred orientation is best described by means of a pole figure. A pole figure is a stereographic projection which shows the variation in pole density with pole orientation, for a selected set of crystal planes. In this work, computer programs was developed to plot pole figures. The corrected intensities are calculated and directly transmitted to the plotter. The different intensities levels are represented by different colors in the pole figure. (author)

  7. Derivation of nominal strength for wood utility poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Jozsef Bodig; Patricia Lebow

    2001-01-01

    The designated fiber stress values published in the American National Standards Institute Standard for Poles, ANSI 05.1, no longer reflect the state of the knowledge. These values are based on a combination of test data from small clear wood samples and small poles (

  8. Asymptotic form factor of non-Abelian gauge theories, planar diagrammatics and complex poles as resonances in the analytic s-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    Reasons are given for studying the form factor and a method for constructing all believed-to-be leading form factor diagrams in a certain class of non-Abelian gauge theories (NAGT's) in typical kinematic limits. The possibility that the form factor ''exponentiates'' in NAGT's (as it does in QED) is discussed. A method is given for constructing all 1CI planar diagrams (this is, all 1PI diagrams except those which separate upon cutting at a vertex) directly from one's heat--that is, without the need to refer to tables, et cetera. It is noted that the material is believed to be essentially completely original, that is, the technique for constructing all 1CI planar diagrams in an iterative fashion is completely new. Of course, one can construct them in an essentially random fashion, but this technique is slow and extremely error prone compared with the iterative technique given. The idea of associating an elastic resonance with a complex pole in the analytic scattering amplitude, T(E), is discussed. Calculations of the pole position and the residue of the Δ 33 resonance are given, along with an analysis of experimentally induced error in the pole position

  9. Coordinates of a New Romanian Regional Policy - Identifying the Development Poles. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana DAVIDESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable regional development is a crucial topic at the level of the EU nowadays. Therefore, the regional policies of the member states should be constructed in such a fashion, that they comply with the general European framework and maximize the potential of reaching the European goals. Following the general trend, Romania finds itself today in a complex project of rethinking its regional approach. The approach proposed in this paper will try, using statistical methods and aggregate data available in the Tempo database, to identify those counties that have the necessary characteristics in order to be taken in consideration when choosing the core county of each new region.

  10. Spectral analysis of gluonic pole matrix elements for fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamberg, L. P.; Mukherjee, A.B.; Mulders, P.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    The nonvanishing of gluonic pole matrix elements can explain the appearance of single spin asymmetries in high-energy scattering processes. We use a spectator framework approach to investigate the spectral properties of quark-quark-gluon correlators and use this to study gluonic pole matrix

  11. Finite element analyses of wood laminated composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Finite element analyses using ANSYS were conducted on orthotropic, polygonal, wood laminated composite poles subjected to a body force and a concentrated load at the free end. Deflections and stress distributions of small-scale and full-size composite poles were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in an experimental study. The predicted deflection for both...

  12. Quasiparticle pole strength in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that single-particle-like behavior in nuclear matter is much less probable than Brueckner theory suggests. In particular, the quasiparticle pole strength is evaluated for nuclear matter and it is shown that, contrary to the spirit of Brueckner theory, low momentum states play a crucial role in determining the magnitude of z/sub k/sub F/. (auth)

  13. 10 years anniversary of the Poles'e state radioecological reserve (collected articles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The results of long time investigations of radionuclide contamination dynamics of soils, flora and fauna conducted by research workers of the reserve and National Academy of Sciences of Belarus on the territory of the reserve are offered. The different aspects of plant growth and animal behaviour in new ecological conditions are estimated

  14. The Impact of Obajana Cement Company as a Growth Pole in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data sourced for the work included primary data, through personal observation, oral interview, questionnaire administration and application of check list in a Focus Group Discussion while the secondary data was sourced from related journals, text books, the internet, news reports and encyclopaedia. The analysis of ...

  15. Production and marketing of wood piling and poles in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander

    1953-01-01

    Since the earliest colonial settlements along the northeastern seaboard, wood piling has been used for wharves and piers and other waterfront structures. As waterside industries and waterborne commerce grew, the demand for wood piling grew.

  16. The pion pole term in electroproduction of off-mass-shell pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, B.H.; Ellis, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The dependence of the invariant amplitudes for electroproduction of off-mass-shell pions on the pion Born term is investigated when current algebra Ward identities and PCAC are used to determine pion electroproduction invariant amplitudes. The authors show that an amplitude satisfying the Ward identities can be constructed starting from the usual Born terms which do not satisfy them and that this same amplitude will be obtained for a large class of input Born terms

  17. The information Barber Pole: integrating white information and red intelligence in emerging conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, John M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Militaries operate increasingly in social terrain and must focus on civilian populations as much they do the belligerents that take refuge among them. Current intelligence and planning doctrine fails to meet the needs of the emerging information environments. Secret intelligence information and open source information must find a means of merging to generate a holistic view of the environment. The failure of the existing system leads ...

  18. The polarization of the G-protein activated potassium channel GIRK5 to the vegetal pole of Xenopus laevis oocytes is driven by a di-leucine motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Díaz-Bello

    Full Text Available The G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (known as GIRK or Kir3 form functional heterotetramers gated by G-βγ subunits. GIRK channels participate in heart rate modulation and neuronal postsynaptic inhibition in mammals. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, GIRK5 is a functional homomultimer. Previously, we found that phosphorylation of a tyrosine (Y16 at its N-terminus downregulates the surface expression of GIRK5. In this work, we elucidated the subcellular localization and trafficking of GIRK5 in oocytes. Several EGFP-GIRK5 chimeras were produced and an ECFP construct was used to identify the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Whereas GIRK5-WT was retained in the ER at the animal pole, the phospho-null GIRK5-Y16A was localized to the vegetal pole. Interestingly, a construct with an N-terminal Δ25 deletion produced an even distribution of the channel in the whole oocyte. Through an alanine-scan, we identified an acidic cluster/di-leucine sorting-signal recognition motif between E17 and I22. We quantified the effect of each amino acid residue within this di-leucine motif in determining the distribution of GIRK5 to the animal and vegetal poles. We found that Y16 and I22 contributed to functional expression and were dominant in the polarization of GIRK5. We thus conclude that the N-terminal acidic di-leucine motif of GIRK5 determines its retention and polarized trafficking within Xl oocytes.

  19. Reasoning by analogy requires the left frontal pole: lesion-deficit mapping and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Marika; Bréchemier, Marie-Laure; Garcin, Béatrice; Bendetowicz, David; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Foulon, Chris; Rosso, Charlotte; Clarençon, Frédéric; Dupont, Sophie; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Labeyrie, Marc-Antoine; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    SEE BURGESS DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW092 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE  : Analogical reasoning is at the core of the generalization and abstraction processes that enable concept formation and creativity. The impact of neurological diseases on analogical reasoning is poorly known, despite its importance in everyday life and in society. Neuroimaging studies of healthy subjects and the few studies that have been performed on patients have highlighted the importance of the prefrontal cortex in analogical reasoning. However, the critical cerebral bases for analogical reasoning deficits remain elusive. In the current study, we examined analogical reasoning abilities in 27 patients with focal damage in the frontal lobes and performed voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping and tractography analyses to investigate the structures critical for analogical reasoning. The findings revealed that damage to the left rostrolateral prefrontal region (or some of its long-range connections) specifically impaired the ability to reason by analogies. A short version of the analogy task predicted the existence of a left rostrolateral prefrontal lesion with good accuracy. Experimental manipulations of the analogy tasks suggested that this region plays a role in relational matching or integration. The current lesion approach demonstrated that the left rostrolateral prefrontal region is a critical node in the analogy network. Our results also suggested that analogy tasks should be translated to clinical practice to refine the neuropsychological assessment of patients with frontal lobe lesions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Climate Change at the Poles: Research Immersion Experience at Bellingshausen, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Repina, I. A.; Baeseman, J. L.; Fernandoy, F.; Bart, S.

    2010-12-01

    We brought a party of 15 scientists, graduate students, and educators to King George Island, the largest of the South Shetland Islands, just off the Antarctic Peninsula, for an international workshop on Antarctica and global climate change in January 2010. Participants included professors, young scientists and graduate students from the Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, the University of Maryland, the University of Wisconsin, and the Michigan Technological University. Lindsay Bartholomew, an education and outreach specialist at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago connected the workshop via video and Internet with an audience of museum visitors. Scientists living and working at Bellingshausen, including Hans-Ulrich Peter, an eminent ecologist from Jena University (Germany), and Bulat Movlyudov (Institute of Geography, Moscow), a distinguished glaciologist, participated in the workshop. Field trips led by Peter and Movlyudov and others were made by day and lectures were held by night. Professors and graduate students made cutting-edge presentations on such subjects as permafrost, glaciology, and global climate models. Three workshop teams conducted field research projects at the foot of the Bellingshausen Dome icecap - two on carbon cycling and one on permafrost. Major funding sources for the workshop included the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russia), Wilderness Research Foundation (USA), NSF, University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point, Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany) and Museum for Science and Industry (Chicago). INACH, the Chilean Antarctic Institute, and IAU, the Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, provided air charter services. On King George Island, our group was billeted at Russia’s Bellingshausen science station.

  1. A search for long-lived velocity fields at the solar poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durney, B. R.; Lytle, D. M.; Cram, L. E.; Guenther, D. B.; Keil, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    A search has been made in the polar regions of the sun for large-scale (50-200 Mm) velocity fields with lifetimes of the order of the solar rotation period (approximately equal to or greater than 30 days). The observations show that any such large-scale, long-lived velocity patterns in the polar regions must have an amplitude less than 5 m/s. Marginally significant detections (at the 2-3 sigma level) were made of two kinds of structures with amplitudes of order 3 m/s. One has a rotation period approximately 38 days (close to the polar rotation period at the sun's surface), and a scale approximately 150 Mm; the other has a period approximately 24 days and a scale approximately 100 Mm. Tentatively, the first structure is interpreted as being of supergranular origin. The second structure is interpreted as the overshooting of the dominant convective mode of the lower solar convection zone - the giant granulation.

  2. A Capacitance-Based Methodology for the Estimation of Piezoelectric Coefficients of Poled Piezoelectric Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2010-10-04

    A methodology is proposed to estimate the piezoelectric coefficients of bulk piezoelectric materials using simple capacitance measurements. The extracted values of d33 and d31 from the capacitance measurements were 506 pC/N and 247 pC/N, respectively. The d33 value is in agreement with that obtained from the Berlincourt method, which gave a d33 value of 500 pC/N. In addition, the d31 value is in agreement with the value obtained from the optical method, which gave a d 31 value of 223 pC/V. These results suggest that the proposed method is a viable way to quickly estimate piezoelectric coefficients of bulk unclamped samples. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  3. The pion pole term in electroproduction of off-mass-shell pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.G.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The dependence of the invariant amplitudes for electroproduction of off-mass-shell pions on the pion Born term is investigated when Current Algebra Ward identities and PCAC are used to determine pion electroproduction invariant amplitudes. It is shown that an amplitude satisfying the Ward identities can be constructed starting from the usual Born terms which do not satisfy them and that this same amplitude will be obtained for a large class of input Born terms

  4. Site response investigation at the seismological station Ostrava-Krásné Pole (OKC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rušajová

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Seismic waves generated by earthquakes, quarry blasts, ocean waves and various technological sources cause vibrations that spread through underlying strata into the broad vicinity of these sources. The aim of our experiments was to identify and characterize possible sources of seismic noise generated primarily by technical sources in the Ostrava-Karviná urban agglomeration, which is part of north-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic. The solution of this issue was initiated upon the demand for new knowledge of particle velocity amplitudes and spectral content of disturbing effects, using a newly developed data acquisition method and a system of digitized data processing. A detailed investigation of the influence of different seismogeological conditions at the two sites of observation was performed. While the seismic cellar (OKC A: φ = 49.8375o N, λ = 18.1472o E and h = +272 m is underlain by glaciofluvial sediments (clay loams, sands and gravels, the thickness of which is approximately up to 22 m, the underlying beds in the nearby experimental gallery (OKC B: φ = 49.8353o N, λ = 18.1423o E, and h = +250 m are represented by compact Culm-facies schists (Lower Carboniferous. The thickness of these Culm-facies that represent the underlying bed of the coal-bearing Upper Carboniferous (Namurian A is about 1,200 m. The experimental gallery is situated at a distance of approximately 450 m from the original seismic cellar and about 22 m below its bottom. Different physical-mechanical properties of sub-surface layers at both sites result in different values of acoustic impedance, which naturally influences the particle velocity values, while the shape of calculated amplitude spectra displays a noticeable similarity. On the basis of experimental measurements, some results related to particle velocities and corresponding amplitude spectra of seismic noise are briefly discussed.

  5. Charcoal and siderurgy in Brazilian Amazonia: what environmental improvement paths? Example of the Carajas pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle; Fonseca Morello, Thiago; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Behling, Maurel; Caldeira Pires, Armando; Oliveira Rodrigues, Thiago; Rousset, Patrick; Dufour, Thomas; Durieux, Laurent; Sist, Plinio; Vieira, Paulo; Lemenager, Tiphaine; Ernst, Guillaume

    2011-05-01

    The pig iron sector of Carajas, in the Brazilian Amazon, uses charcoal which is strongly criticized because of the charcoal production direct and indirect impacts on deforestation and forests degradation. This publication identifies and analyzes some alternatives to decrease the charcoal production environmental negative externalities and the main technical, economic and institutional factors that may limit their adoption. Several alternatives are possible, based on more efficient carbonization technologies, reforestation or afforestation of degraded lands, and, to a lesser extent, the use of reduced impact logging residues. Some of the alternatives are cost-efficient in the long term and financing support is available to promote their adoption. Land tenure and environmental regularization is a necessary pre-requisite for their expansion. (authors)

  6. Spectroscopic Binaries near the North Galactic Pole Paper 12A: 6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... About 25 years ago, in Paper 12 of this series, the author presented a spectroscopic orbit for 6 Boo. The velocity amplitude of little more than 1 km s-1 was much smaller than for any star whose orbit had been determined up till that time. Although it was objectively demonstrated that the orbit was very secure, ...

  7. Gluability of out-of-service utility poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Roliadi; Chung Y. Hse; Elvin T. Choong; Todd F. Shupe

    2000-01-01

    This investigation determined the gluability of weathered, out-of-service southern yellow pine (SYP) (Pinus spp.) utility poles. Three types of adhesives were used: resorcinol-phenol formaldehyde (RPF), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and casein. The poles consisted of two service duration groups: 5 and 25 years. Longer weathering caused greater reduction in creosote content...

  8. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained.......Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  9. The volt-ampere characteristic and pole-Frenkel effect of TIS crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahramanova, S.M.; Mammadova, G.E.; Abdullayeva, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    As known, some features were observed at the Volt-Ampere Character while current severity deviation from voltage and liner dependence, which means that all happen at Volt-Ampere Character of upper oblasts than ohmic oblast. At this time, in many cases electric properties can not be provide one conductivity mechanism in the powerful electric field and it is explained by different mechanisms at different quantity oblast of electric field intensity. It was determined that, current in the non-liner part of Volt-Ampere Character of the TIS crystal conditioned with weak field effect and is explained in the context of Pul-Frenkel thermal field theory.

  10. The Scarless Latissimus Dorsi Flap Provides Effective Lower Pole Prosthetic Coverage in Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Lee, MBBS, FRACS

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Breast reconstruction using the scarless latissimus dorsi flap is time effective, requires no patient repositioning, and uses standard breast instrumentation. It is safe and versatile while reducing the risk of exposed prosthesis if native skin necrosis occurs. It is a vascularized alternative to acellular dermal matrices.

  11. Poles apart: The processing and consequences of mixed media stereotypes of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, A.C.; van Selm, M.; ter Hoeven, C.L.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the Stereotype Content Model to examine how mixed-media stereotypes about older workers affect the implicit activation and application of competence and warmth stereotypes among employees. By means of a 2 × 2 experiment, we show that a newspaper article portraying older workers in a

  12. The Information Barber Pole: Integrating White Information and Red Intelligence in Emerging Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Preparation of the Environment OSINT open source intelligence PNP SAF Philippines National Police Special Action Force SFA Security Force Assistance...equally decentralized in construct and implementation.14 This matches the horizontally distributed intelligence and information framework ...intelligence functions which include (but are not limited to) human intelligence (HUMINT), open source intelligence ( OSINT ), and signals intelligence (SIGINT

  13. Modification of pi pi Amplitudes and Position of the sigma Pole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nazari, V.; Bydžovský, Petr; Kaminski, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 7 (2014), s. 1549-1558 ISSN 0587-4254. [Cracow Epiphany Conference on the Physics at the LHC. Krakow, 8.1.2014-10.1.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP203/12/2126 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : pion-pion scattering * coupled channels * dispersion relations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2014

  14. Simplified Analytic Approach of Pole-to-Pole Faults in MMC-HVDC for AC System Backup Protection Setting Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongkun Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AC (alternating current system backup protection setting calculation is an important basis for ensuring the safe operation of power grids. With the increasing integration of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC into power grids, it has been a big challenge for the AC system backup protection setting calculation, as the MMC-HVDC lacks the fault self-clearance capability under pole-to-pole faults. This paper focused on the pole-to-pole faults analysis for the AC system backup protection setting calculation. The principles of pole-to-pole faults analysis were discussed first according to the standard of the AC system protection setting calculation. Then, the influence of fault resistance on the fault process was investigated. A simplified analytic approach of pole-to-pole faults in MMC-HVDC for the AC system backup protection setting calculation was proposed. In the proposed approach, the derived expressions of fundamental frequency current are applicable under arbitrary fault resistance. The accuracy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC simulations.

  15. pbx is required for pole and eye regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh G; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Planarian regeneration involves regionalized gene expression that specifies the body plan. After amputation, planarians are capable of regenerating new anterior and posterior poles, as well as tissues polarized along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes. Wnt and several Hox genes are expressed at the posterior pole, whereas Wnt inhibitory genes, Fgf inhibitory genes, and prep, which encodes a TALE-family homeodomain protein, are expressed at the anterior pole. We found that Smed-pbx (pbx for short), which encodes a second planarian TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, is required for restored expression of these genes at anterior and posterior poles during regeneration. Moreover, pbx(RNAi) animals gradually lose pole gene expression during homeostasis. By contrast, pbx was not required for initial anterior-posterior polarized responses to wounds, indicating that pbx is required after wound responses for development and maintenance of poles during regeneration and homeostatic tissue turnover. Independently of the requirement for pbx in pole regeneration, pbx is required for eye precursor formation and, consequently, eye regeneration and eye replacement in homeostasis. Together, these data indicate that pbx promotes pole formation of body axes and formation of regenerative progenitors for eyes.

  16. Spectroscopic Binaries near the North Galactic Pole Paper 12A: 6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-01

    Mar 1, 2017 ... of 6 Boo but also, with almost astonishing fidelity, the elements already given for it. Key words. ... extra-solar planets. Although it had been developed as an experimental instrument, it remained in actual research use for 25 years, during which time, of course, it became substantially outmoded.

  17. CATACLYSMIC POLARITY SHIFT IS U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY PREPARED FOR THE NEXT GEOMAGNETIC POLE REVERSAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    computer driven GIS solutions power the modern farmer and his equipment.83 A simultaneous blackout of GPS signals and loss of electrical energy...Space Weather Event .......................................................................................14 Communications Systems...46 Recommendation #5: Improve Space Weather Forecasting Capabilities ..............46 Recommendation #6: Develop National Electrical

  18. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  19. Study of the effects of wind power and vortex-induced vibrations to establish fatigue design criteria for high-mast poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Traffic signal and high-mast poles are used by transportation agencies to control and illuminate intersections; their structural design is governed by national specifications. High-mast poles are luminaire supports located near highway interchanges t...

  20. Pole Dancing Auto-ethnography – Practice, Pedagogy, Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Patricia Cadwallader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the author addresses the following four questions: 1 What are the implications of bringing pole dancing into concert dance, not as a caricature or theatrical version of what is performed in strip clubs, but as its own, free-standing art form? 2 In what ways will years of ballet and modern dance training influence the type of dancing that emerges from dancers when poles and other apparatuses are introduced? 3 How can the author create an original pole dancing style and pedagogical methods for teaching it? 4 Who participates in pole fitness classes and how does the demographic change based on location? What about when pole fitness classes are offered in an academic setting? The author shares first-hand experiences of investigating pole dancing in fitness classes, attending performances, engaging in a rehearsal process with highly trained dancers, and teaching pole dancing to movers with a wide range of abilities. The author addresses how research plans changed as she encountered limitations of budget and time constraints. The author also elaborates on the creative process that she engaged in with her thesis cast, collaborators, and supporting designers in the making of Super-beneath, a theatrical dance work that uses five, free-standing poles. She outline the vignettes, overall structure, and narrative of the work. The author then discusses where this research fits into the larger field of pole dancing, and the even larger field of dance. In the final sections of this paper, the author describes her pedagogical practices relating to pole classes, what “practice as research” means to her, and how she would like to continue on this research trajectory in the future.

  1. Heavy Cratering near Callisto's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft provide new insights into this region near Callisto's south pole. This two frame mosaic shows a heavily cratered surface with smooth plains in the areas between craters. North is to the top of the image. The smoothness of the plains appears to increase toward the south pole, approximately 480 kilometers (293 miles) south of the bottom of the image. This smoothness of Callisto's surface was not evident in images taken during the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft because the resolution was insufficient to show the effect. This smooth surface, and the process(es) that cause it, are among the most intriguing aspects of Callisto. Although not fully understood, the process(es) responsible for this smoothing could include erosion by tiny meteorites and energetic ions. Some craters, such as Keelut, the 47 kilometer (29 mile) crater in the lower right corner, have sharp, well defined rims. Keelut contains an inner ring surrounding a central depression about 17 kilometers (11 miles) in diameter. Keelut, and the more irregularly shaped, degraded Reginleif, the 32 kilometer (19.5 mile) crater in the top center of the image, are very shallow and have flat floors. Crater forms can be seen down to less than 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter in the image. Each picture element (pixel) in this image is approximately 0.68 kilometers (0.41 miles) across.This image which was taken by the Galileo spacecraft's solid state imaging (CCD) system during its eighth orbit around Jupiter, on May 6th, 1997. The center of the image is located at 71.3 degrees south latitude, 97.6 degrees west longitude, and was taken when the spacecraft was approximately 35,470 kilometers (21,637 miles) from Callisto.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  2. GALAXY CLUSTERS DISCOVERED VIA THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT IN THE FIRST 720 SQUARE DEGREES OF THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichardt, C. L.; Stalder, B.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bleem, L. E.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Montroy, T. E.; Aird, K. A.; Andersson, K.; Bazin, G.; Armstrong, R.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Brodwin, M.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; De Haan, T.

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of galaxy cluster candidates, selected through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature in the first 720 deg 2 of the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey. This area was mapped with the SPT in the 2008 and 2009 austral winters to a depth of ∼18 μK CMB -arcmin at 150 GHz; 550 deg 2 of it was also mapped to ∼44 μK CMB -arcmin at 95 GHz. Based on optical imaging of all 224 candidates and near-infrared imaging of the majority of candidates, we have found optical and/or infrared counterparts for 158, which we then classify as confirmed galaxy clusters. Of these 158 clusters, 135 were first identified as clusters in SPT data, including 117 new discoveries reported in this work. This catalog triples the number of confirmed galaxy clusters discovered through the SZ effect. We report photometrically derived (and in some cases spectroscopic) redshifts for confirmed clusters and redshift lower limits for the remaining candidates. The catalog extends to high redshift with a median redshift of z = 0.55 and maximum confirmed redshift of z = 1.37. Forty-five of the clusters have counterparts in the ROSAT bright or faint source catalogs from which we estimate X-ray fluxes. Based on simulations, we expect the catalog to be nearly 100% complete above M 500 ≈ 5 × 10 14 M ☉ h –1 70 at z ∼> 0.6. There are 121 candidates detected at signal-to-noise ratio greater than five, at which the catalog purity is measured to be 95%. From this high-purity subsample, we exclude the z 0 data leads to a preference for non-zero neutrino masses while only slightly reducing the upper limit on the sum of neutrino masses to Σm ν 0 + SNe results yields σ 8 = 0.807 ± 0.027 and w = –1.010 ± 0.058, improving the constraints on these parameters by a factor of 1.4 and 1.3, respectively. The larger cluster catalog presented in this work leads to slight improvements in cosmological constraints from those presented by Benson et al. These cosmological constraints are

  3. Nonlinear optical properties of poled organic thin films: determination of the chromatic dispersion of their electrooptic coefficients by modulated reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadret, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    In this dissertation we describe studies on linear and nonlinear optical properties (Pockels and Kerr effects) of Corona Poled organic thin films for integrated electrooptic modulation. These materials are composed of an amorphous and transparent (in the range of 0.4 to 3 μm) polymeric matrix, in which are included charge transfer chromophores possessing large quadratic (β) and cubic (γ) optical susceptibilities and in addition an important dipolar permanent moment. We take opportunity of this dipole to orientate the chromophores with a strong electric field in the direction perpendicular to the film plane. This process leads to break of centro-symmetry, allowing to get electrooptic properties. Different kind of materials have been studied: the chromophores are simply dissolved, or chemically grafted on the polymer backbone, using different chemical bonding. Temporal stability of oriented structure is mainly connected with the nature of the chemical bond. In fact, dipolar interaction leads to partial disordering of the structure. We have studied wave-dispersed complex refractive index, and propagation losses. Quadratic nonlinear properties are studied by second harmonic generation. A relation is established between linear and nonlinear optical properties on one hand, and the variations of the linear absorption spectrum due to the polarisation on the other hand. The electrooptic coefficients are measured directly using a new technique based on the electrically induced modulation of the reflection in a multilayers sample, one of them being the optically active material. It is easy to make out experimental results out of the absorption band, but the elaboration of a rigorous theory, based on light reflection on a stratified anisotropic structure, is necessary as soon as absorption becomes important. The great advantage lies in the possibility of measuring electrooptic coefficients inside the absorption band, which is generally impossible using the previous existing

  4. Subtotal laparoscopic splenectomy in rats with preservation of the inferior pole Esplenectomia subtotal laparoscópica com preservação do polo inferior em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jorge da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of subtotal splenectomy by laparoscopy with inferior pole preservation and to determine the viability of the splenic remnant. Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats weighing between 365 g and 474 g (mean 417.92 ± 36.15g SD were operated and randomly assigned to two groups : Group 1 rats were killed on postoperative day 10 (n = 10, and Group 2 on the postoperative day 80 (n = 10. Both the inferior splenic pole and the superior part of the spleen, which was used as a control to measure inferior pole viability, were weighed and morphologically examined. Results: The technique was feasible in all cases. There were two postoperative deaths on immediate postoperative and one not well defined. The average weight percentage of the inferior pole, measured indirectly on the 10th day, was 53.67% ± 11.59% and on the 80th day was 62.69% ± 6.89%. The inferior pole was necrotic, with abscess formation in one case (5.9% and appeared normal in all other cases. Microscopy showed features that were compatible with normality. Conclusions: Subtotal splenectomy with preservation of the inferior pole by laparoscopy was feasible and safety. The lower splenic pole was viable in 94.1% of animals.Objetivo: Avaliar a exequibilidade e a segurança da esplenectomia subtotal com preservação do polo inferior do baço por videolaparoscopia, e a viabilidade do referido polo. Métodos: 20 ratos Wistar, machos, pesando entre 365g e 474g (MA 417,92 ± 36,15g foram operados e distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com a época da retirada do polo inferior para estudo: grupo 1 do 10º dia, (n= 10, grupo 2, do 80º dia (n=10. A porção superior do baço que serviu de controle da viabilidade do pólo inferior e esse remanescente, retirados no término do experimento, foram medidos, pesados e enviados para exame morfológico. Resultados: A técnica foi exeqüível em todos os casos. O peso médio percentual do polo inferior avaliado de

  5. [Separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in the treatment of displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jiang, X Y; Huang, X W

    2016-06-18

    To investigate the clinical efficacy and outcomes of two separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in the treatment of displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella. From January 2013 to January 2015, 15 consecutive patients (mean age 54.5 years) with inferior pole fractures of the patella were retrospectively included in this study. All the patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation by separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire through longitudinal incision, 4.5 d (range: 3.1-5.9 d) after initial injury. A safety check for early knee range of motion was performed before wound closure. The complications including infection, nonunion, loss of fixation and any wire breakage or irritation from implant were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral views of the knee joint obtained during the follow-up were used to assess bony union based on the time when the fracture line disappeared. At the time of the final outpatient follow up, functional evaluation of the knee joint was conducted by Bostman system. The follow-up time was 13.1 months (range: 12-19 months) after surgery on average, immediate motion without immobilization in all the cases was allowed and there was no case of reduction loss of the fracture and wire breakage. There was no case of irritation from the implant. At the final follow-up, the average range of motion (ROM) arc was 126.7° (range: 115°-140°), the average ROM lag versus contralateral healthy leg was 10.3° (range: 0°-35°). The mean Bostman score at the last follow-up was 28.9 (range: 27-30), and graded excellent in most cases. Two separate vertical wiring is an easy and effective method to reduce the displaced inferior pole fracture of patella. Augmentation of separate vertical wiring with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in these patients provides enough strength to protected the early exercise of the knee joint and

  6. Estimation of the error made in Pole-Dipole Electrical Resistivity Tomography depending on the location of the remote electrode: Modeling and field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindratsima, Stephen; Lataste, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Then, the influence of the remote electrode location was studied considering PsPD (Pseudo-Pole-Dipole i.e. when the exact location of the remote electrode is used even when finite) in comparison to PDbias (Pole-Dipole bias i.e. remote electrode is considered at infinity even when finite). Anomaly Effect (AE) with new consideration of the averaged mean resistivity value was used for the illustration, results with L1 and L2-norms were compared and Forward/Reverse measurements were considered. Angle α around 30° was identified as giving homogeneous spread error between PsPD and PDbias data treatments. For α ~ 140°, the error made when the true coordinates of the remote electrode is not informed is higher near layer's interface if L1-norm is used. Whereas this error is more visible in deep level if L2-norm is used. Finally, experimental results showed the influence of the location of the remote electrode when “Forward” measurements are completed by “Reverse” ones.

  7. Energy pole system in the new building of the PAGO AG, Grabs (CH); Energiepfahlsystem im Neubau der PAGO AG, Grabs (CH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuss, U. [NDS-HTL, Ingenieurbuero Lippuner und Partner AG, Grabs (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    With 570 concrete poles and 80 km of tubes, 100,000 m{sup 3} of ground serve as a cold and heat storage resservoir for a building. The building houses a printing shop, which needs cooling in summer and heating in winter. The energy pole system can be used as a dual system for heating and cooling in both seasons. The project is a pilot project of the BWE (Swiss General Office for Utilities and Power Supply), who also started an extensive accompanying measurig campaign. The results during the first year of operation were very positive, and the performance of the energy pole system was up to expectations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mittelpunkt der PAGO-Energietechnik ist das Energiepfahlsystem. Mittels 570 Betonpfaehlen und 80 km Rohrschlangen wird das Erdreich unter dem Gebaeude als ueber 100.000 m{sup 3} grosser Waerme- und Kaeltespeicher genutzt. Ueber dieses Energiepfahlsystem wird dieser Druckereibetrieb mit hohen Anforderungen an das Raumklima und viel Maschinenabwaerme sehr umweltschonend im Winter behizt und im Sommer gekuehlt. Das Besondere an diesem System ist diese ganzjaehrige Doppelnutzung zu Heiz- und Kuehlzwecken. Aus diesem Grunde wurde dieses Projekt vom Bundesamt fuer Energiewirtschaft (BEW) als Pilot- und Demonstrationsprojekt anerkannt. Zur Ueberpruefung von dessen Ausbeute und der Wirksamkeit der gesamten Energietechnik wurde vom BEW ein umfangreiches Messprojekt gestartet. Der Innovationswert der PAGO -Energietechnik liegt allerdings nicht allein im Einsatz der alternativen Komponenten. Mindestens so wichtig ist die Konzeption und die Feinabstimmung der gesamten Energietechnik. Der Betrieb lief im ersten Betriebsjahr sehr positiv und von Anfang an ohne groessere Probleme. Das Energiepfahlsystem konnte im wesentlichen die Erwartungen erfuellen. (orig.)

  8. Spontaneous Temporal Pole Encephalocele Presenting with Epilepsy: Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Seijiro; Kunii, Naoto; Kawai, Kensuke; Usami, Kenichi; Matsuo, Takeshi; Uno, Takeshi; Koizumi, Tomoyuki; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-09-01

    Refractory temporal lobe epilepsy due to spontaneous temporal pole encephalocele is a rare but increasingly recognized condition. Optimal surgical management is complicated by the lack of knowledge regarding both the extent of the epileptogenic area and the need for repair of the encephalocele. We report two cases that add significant information to these issues. In Case 1, with a 5-year history of refractory seizures, implantation of diagnostic subdural electrodes into the anterior temporal base happened to abolish the seizures completely. No structural changes were evident on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. In Case 2, with a large encephalocele and a 5-year history of refractory seizures, surgical disconnection of the temporal pole successfully abolished seizures without any need for encephalocele repair. These two cases support the view that the epileptogenic area is confined to within the temporal pole for spontaneous temporal pole encephalocele. Temporopolar disconnection represents one surgical option for this entity that achieves seizure cessation without requiring extra repair procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metrópoles desgovernadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Maricato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de sua importância econômica, política, social, demográfica, cultural, territorial e ambiental, há, nas metrópoles brasileiras, uma significativa falta de governo, evidenciada pelas incipientes iniciativas de cooperação administrativa intermunicipal e federativa. Este artigo aborda as mudanças estruturais - no processo de urbanização/ metropolização - devidas à reestruturação produtiva do capitalismo global, e, na escala nacional, trata da mudança no marco institucional - jurídico/político - que passou de concentrador e centralizador, durante o regime militar, para descentralizador e esvaziado, após a Constituição de 1988. O recuo verificado nas políticas sociais durante os anos 1980 e 1990, notadamente em transporte, habitação e saneamento, além do desmonte dos organismos metropolitanos, conduziu nossas metrópoles a um destino de banalização das tragédias urbanas. Em que pese sua urgência, a questão metropolitana não sensibiliza nenhuma força política ou instituição que lhe atribua lugar de destaque na agenda nacional.Despite its economic, political, social, demographic, cultural, territorial and environmental importance, there is a significant lack of government in the brazilian metropolises, evidenced by the incipient initiatives of intermunicipal and federative administrative cooperation. This article analyses the structural changes - in the process of urbanization/metropolization - due to the productive restructuring of global capitalism, and, in a national scale, analyses the change in the institutional mark - legal/political - which passed from concentrator and centralizer, during the Military Regimen, to decentralized and emptied, after 1988 Constitution. The downturn verified in social policies during the years 1980 and 1990, notably in transport, housing and sanitation, besides the dismantling of the metropolitan agencies, has led our cities to the trivialization of urban tragedies. Despite

  10. Repair of impact damaged utility poles with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), phase II : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The aluminum and steel utility poles which support traffic signals, lighting, or mast-arm signs : are vulnerable to collisions from vehicles because of proximity to roadways. Removing these : poles for repair is costly and time-consuming, and removal...

  11. Mechanical properties of small-scale laminated wood composite poles: effects of taper and webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2006-01-01

    Laminated hollow wood composite poles represent an efficient utilization of the timber resource and a promising alternative for solid poles that are commonly used in the power transmission and telecommunication lines. The objective of this study was to improve the performance of composite poles by introducing the bio-mimicry concept into the design of hollow wood...

  12. Study of the National Science Foundation's South Pole Station as an analogous data base for the logistical support of a Moon laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, H. H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The day will come when the United States will want to return to the Earth's Moon. When that occurs, NASA may look to the Apollo program for technical and inspirational guidance. The Apollo program, however, was designed to be an end to itself--the landing of a man on the Moon and his return safely within the decade of the 1960's. When that was accomplished, the program folded because it was not self-sustaining. The next time we return to the Moon, we should base our planning on a program that is designed to be a sustained effort for an indefinite period. It is the thrust of this report that the South Pole Station of the National Science Foundation can be used to develop analogs for the construction, funding, and logistical support of a lunar base. Other analogs include transportation and national efforts versus international cooperation. A recommended lunar base using the South Pole Station as inspiration is provided, as well as details concerning economical construction of the base over a 22-year period.

  13. Determination of the top-quark pole mass using tt+1-jet events collected with the ATLAS experiment in 7 TeV pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The normalized differential cross section of top-quark pair production in association with jets in the semileptonic ($e,\\mu+$jets) top-quark pair decay channel has been investigated as a function of the nverse of the invariant mass of the $t\\bar{t}+1-$jet system. This process is sensitive to the top-quark mass since gluon radiation depends on the mass of the quarks. The analysis is based on proton-proton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 $fb^{-1}$. The result is compared to a theoretical prediction at next-to-leading order accuracy in quantum chromodynamics, allowing to uniquely define the mass scheme. In this novel method the extracted top-quark pole mass is: \\[ m^{pole}_{t}=173.7 \\pm 1.5 ~({\\rm stat.}) \\pm 1.4 ~({\\rm syst.})~ ^{+ 1.0}_{-0.5} ~({\\rm theo.})~{\\rm GeV}. \\] The statistical uncertainty (stat.) is the largest error in this analysis. The experimental uncertainty (syst.) accounts for ...

  14. Holography with a Landau pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d = 4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N f quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale ΛLP. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E ≪ ΛLP no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E ≲ ΛLP the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T ≲ ΛLP the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ > d - 1.

  15. Holography with a Landau pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faedo, Antón F. [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Mateos, David [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys 23, ES-08010, Barcelona (Spain); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Física Quántica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain); Tarrío, Javier [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), and International Solvay Institutes, Campus de la Plaine CP 231, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is d=4, N=4 super Yang-Mills coupled to N{sub f} quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale Λ{sub LP}. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies E≪Λ{sub LP} no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales E≲Λ{sub LP} the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures T≲Λ{sub LP} the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on N=4 super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singularity is a hyper-scaling violating metric with exponent θ>d−1.

  16. Radiocarbon dating and wiggle matching of wooden poles forming circular structures in the 1st Millennium BC at the Mawaki archaeological site, central Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi, E-mail: momo@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Noto-Town Board of Education, Mawaki Noto-cho, Ishikawa 927-0562 (Japan); Takada, Hideki [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Wooden circular structures, presumed archaeologically as a structure related with ritual of ancient people in the Final Jomon period, are specific to archaeological sites excavated mainly in the coastal region around Noto peninsula, central Japan. So far, only few attempts have been made at chronological studies on these wooden structures. {sup 14}C dating has been attempted to wooden poles forming the structures, which had been excavated at the Mawaki archaeological site, Ishikawa prefecture, central Japan, to examine construction period of the structures. It was revealed that these structures were constructed in the Final Jomon period, most probably within 900-400 cal BC. In addition, we have tried wiggle matching of {sup 14}C ages for several annual rings separated from three and two poles that were constituting two circular structures, the oldest and the newest ones. {sup 14}C dates of annual rings measured with AMS were wiggle-matched to IntCal04 data sets by Bayesian statistics. The results indicated that the construction period of these wooden structures can be placed within ca. 820-680 cal BC, being narrowed by about 350 calendar years successfully.

  17. Radiocarbon dating and wiggle matching of wooden poles forming circular structures in the 1st Millennium BC at the Mawaki archaeological site, central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshio; Takada, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    Wooden circular structures, presumed archaeologically as a structure related with ritual of ancient people in the Final Jomon period, are specific to archaeological sites excavated mainly in the coastal region around Noto peninsula, central Japan. So far, only few attempts have been made at chronological studies on these wooden structures. 14 C dating has been attempted to wooden poles forming the structures, which had been excavated at the Mawaki archaeological site, Ishikawa prefecture, central Japan, to examine construction period of the structures. It was revealed that these structures were constructed in the Final Jomon period, most probably within 900-400 cal BC. In addition, we have tried wiggle matching of 14 C ages for several annual rings separated from three and two poles that were constituting two circular structures, the oldest and the newest ones. 14 C dates of annual rings measured with AMS were wiggle-matched to IntCal04 data sets by Bayesian statistics. The results indicated that the construction period of these wooden structures can be placed within ca. 820-680 cal BC, being narrowed by about 350 calendar years successfully.

  18. Evidence of Space-Charge Effects in Thermal Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, X.; Arentoft, Jesper; Wong, D.

    1999-01-01

    The in situ thermal poling processes in germanosilicate fibers for positive and negative poling voltages are significantly different. Thermal poling of silica fibers consists of two processes: the faster linear process of charge migration and the subsequent single exponential process of charge...... ionization. Both the shielding electrical field due to charge migration and the ionization electrical field due to charge ionization are able to be frozen-in at room temperature acid lead to the residual linear electrooptic effects, The observations support that the mechanism of the induced electrooptic...... effects is based on space charge electrical fields instead of dipole/bond orientation....

  19. Finite element modeling of small-scale tapered wood-laminated composite poles with biomimicry features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2008-01-01

    Tapered composite poles with biomimicry features as in bamboo are a new generation of wood laminated composite poles that may some day be considered as an alternative to solid wood poles that are widely used in the transmission and telecommunication fields. Five finite element models were developed with ANSYS to predict and assess the performance of five types of...

  20. Data processing of natural and induced events recorded at the seismic station Ostrava-Kr¨¢sn¨¦ Pole (OKC)

    OpenAIRE

    Nov¨¢k Josef; Rušajov¨¢ Jana; Holub Karel; Kejzl¨ªk Jarom¨ªr

    2001-01-01

    The operation of the seismic station Ostrava-Kr¨¢sn¨¦ Pole (OKC) (¦Õ = 49.8352¡ãN; ¦Ë = 18.1422¡ãE) which is situated at present in an experimental gallery nearby the Ostrava planetarium started in the year 1983 being equiped initially by analogue instrumentation. Modernization of instrumentation at the station was aimed at the installation of a new digital data acquisition system and the respective software packages for data interpretation and transmission.Data acquisition system VISTEC is b...

  1. Comparison between retrograde intrarenal surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of lower pole kidney stones up to 15 mm. Prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, R M; Aliaga, A; Reyes, D; Sepulveda, F; Mercado, A; Moya, F; Ledezma, R; Hidalgo, J P; Olmedo, T; Marchant, F

    2015-05-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is currently the recommended treatment for intra-renal calculi smaller than 2 cm. However the low Stone Free Rate (SFR) in lower pole calculi gives rise to new techniques, such us retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), for improve the surgery outcomes. To compare the efficacy of a treatment with ESWL with RIRS, in terms of SFR after surgery, in patients with kidney stones up to 15 mm in the lower pole. A prospective study was carried out in order to assess the results of ESWL and RIRS in patients with lower pole stones less than 15 mm. Among a total of 55 patients, 31 were underwent to ESWL (Group 1) and the remaining 24 to RIRS (Group 2). Clinical data recorded, including general characteristics of each patient, were: calculi size, side, operative time, complications according to Clavien scale, SFR and the presence of residual fragments at 2 months post-treatment assessed by a CT scan. STATA 11 was used to perform the statistical analysis. There were no differences for general descriptors among groups with the exception of a significantly longer operative time for RIRS. The rates of SFR and residual fragments lesser than 3 mm. were lower in the RIRS group than in ESWL ones. RIRS also showed a lower rate of clinically significant fragments (0% vs 42.3%. P stones between 10/15 mm RIRS showed higher SFR (75% vs. 41.2%) and a lower rate of stones>3 mm (0% vs. 58.8%), being statistically significant (P stone RIRS has the same results than ESWL in terms of SFR. Regarding absence of a clinically significant residual fragment, RIRS was superior to ESWL. A bigger sample size is required in order to confirm this results. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Clusters of cyclones encircling Jupiter's poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, A; Mura, A; Orton, G; Hansen, C; Altieri, F; Moriconi, M L; Rogers, J; Eichstädt, G; Momary, T; Ingersoll, A P; Filacchione, G; Sindoni, G; Tabataba-Vakili, F; Dinelli, B M; Fabiano, F; Bolton, S J; Connerney, J E P; Atreya, S K; Lunine, J I; Tosi, F; Migliorini, A; Grassi, D; Piccioni, G; Noschese, R; Cicchetti, A; Plainaki, C; Olivieri, A; O'Neill, M E; Turrini, D; Stefani, S; Sordini, R; Amoroso, M

    2018-03-07

    The familiar axisymmetric zones and belts that characterize Jupiter's weather system at lower latitudes give way to pervasive cyclonic activity at higher latitudes. Two-dimensional turbulence in combination with the Coriolis β-effect (that is, the large meridionally varying Coriolis force on the giant planets of the Solar System) produces alternating zonal flows. The zonal flows weaken with rising latitude so that a transition between equatorial jets and polar turbulence on Jupiter can occur. Simulations with shallow-water models of giant planets support this transition by producing both alternating flows near the equator and circumpolar cyclones near the poles. Jovian polar regions are not visible from Earth owing to Jupiter's low axial tilt, and were poorly characterized by previous missions because the trajectories of these missions did not venture far from Jupiter's equatorial plane. Here we report that visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole by the Juno spacecraft during its first five orbits reveal persistent polygonal patterns of large cyclones. In the north, eight circumpolar cyclones are observed about a single polar cyclone; in the south, one polar cyclone is encircled by five circumpolar cyclones. Cyclonic circulation is established via time-lapse imagery obtained over intervals ranging from 20 minutes to 4 hours. Although migration of cyclones towards the pole might be expected as a consequence of the Coriolis β-effect, by which cyclonic vortices naturally drift towards the rotational pole, the configuration of the cyclones is without precedent on other planets (including Saturn's polar hexagonal features). The manner in which the cyclones persist without merging and the process by which they evolve to their current configuration are unknown.

  3. ["Point by point" approach to structure-function correlation of glaucoma on the ganglion cell complex in the posterior pole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, M

    2017-01-01

    To try to establish a "point by point" relationship between the local thickness of the retinal ganglion cell complex and its sensitivity. In total, 104 glaucomatous eyes of 89 patients with a confirmed 24-2 visual field, were measured by superimposing the visual field, using imaging software, with the Wide 40° by 30° measurements of retinal ganglion cell complex obtained from the Topcon © 3D 2000 OCT, after upward adjustment, inversion and scaling. Visual fields were classified into two groups according to the extent of the disease: 58 mild to moderate (MD up to -12dB), and 46 severe (MD beyond -12dB). The 6mm by 6mm central region, equipped with a normative database, was studied, corresponding to 16 points in the visual field. These points were individually matched one by one to the local ganglion cell complex, which was classified into 2 groups depending on whether it was greater or less than 70 microns. The normative database confirmed the pathological nature of the thin areas, with a significance of 95 to 99%. Displacement of central retinal ganglion cells was compensated for. Of 1664 points (16 central points for 104 eyes), 283 points were found to be "borderline" and excluded. Of the 1381 analyzed points, 727 points were classified as "over 70 microns" and 654 points "under 70 microns". (1) For all stages combined, 85.8% of the 727 points which were greater than 70 microns had a deviation between -3 and +3dB: areas above 70 microns had no observable loss of light sensitivity. (2) In total, 92.5% of the 428 points having a gap ranging from -6 to -35dB were located on ganglion cell complex areas below 70 microns: functional visual loss was identified in thin areas, which were less than 70 microns. (3) Areas which were less than 70 microns, that is 654 points, had quite variable sensitivity and can be divided into three groups: the first with preserved sensitivity, another with obliterated sensitivity, and an intermediate group connecting

  4. Lunar Pole Illumination and Communications Maps Computed from GSSR Elevation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Scott

    2009-01-01

    A Digital Elevation Model of the lunar south pole was produced using Goldstone Solar System RADAR (GSSR) data obtained in 2006.12 This model has 40-meter horizontal resolution and about 5-meter relative vertical accuracy. This Digital Elevation Model was used to compute average solar illumination and Earth visibility with 100 kilometers of the lunar south pole. The elevation data were converted into local terrain horizon masks, then converted into lunar-centric latitude and longitude coordinates. The horizon masks were compared to latitude, longitude regions bounding the maximum Sun and Earth motions relative to the moon. Estimates of Earth visibility were computed by integrating the area of the region bounding the Earth's motion that was below the horizon mask. Solar illumination and other metrics were computed similarly. Proposed lunar south pole base sites were examined in detail, with the best site showing yearly solar power availability of 92 percent and Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication availability of about 50 percent. Similar analysis of the lunar south pole used an older GSSR Digital Elevation Model with 600-meter horizontal resolution. The paper also explores using a heliostat to reduce the photovoltaic power system mass and complexity.

  5. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  6. STRATEGIES FOR BUSINESS COOPERATION IN THE FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY IN SÃO PAULO (BRAZIL: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE INDUSTRIAL POLES OF FRANCA AND BIRIGUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnaldo Sousa Barbosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate how, in the context of the restructuring process, under way since the early 1990’s, business strategies, guided by building corporation networks inside and outside the chain of production and the establishment of a system of shared governance between the links of that same chain, resulted in a dynamic, economic and social development significantly more robust in the productive territory where they were tried. For the discussion of this problem, it is relied on the study of the two major poles of shoes manufacturing in the State of São Paulo: Franca, specialized in men’s footwear, and Birigui, specialized in children’s shoes.

  7. Development of the cryo-rotary joint for a HTS synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, M; Felder, B; Tsuzuki, K; Izumi, M [Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Hayakawa, H, E-mail: d082025@kaiyodai.ac.j [Kitano Seiki Co. Ltd., 7-17-3, Chuo, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0024 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    We have studied a prototype of an axial-gap type synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets since 2001. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, these bulks have trapped over 1 T inside the motor after being applied the pulsed field magnetization method. Increasing the flux of the field poles is the most straightforward way of improving the output power of the motor. Cooling down the bulk HTS magnets below the liquid nitrogen temperature provides an effective alternative to increase the magnetic flux trapping. In 2007, we exchanged the cryogen from liquid nitrogen to condensed neon. The key technology of this challenge is a rotary joint, introducing a fluid cryogen into the rotating body in the motor from the static reservoir. We have successfully developed a compact rotary joint wh