WorldWideScience

Sample records for polder helicopter-mounted measurements

  1. Comparison of POLDER Cloud Phase Retrievals to Active Remote Sensors Measurements at the ARM SGP Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedi, J.; Goloub, P.; Marchand, Roger T.

    2001-01-01

    In our present study, cloud boundaries derived from a combination of active remote sensors at the ARM SGP site are compared to POLDER cloud top phase index which is derived from polarimetric measurements using an innovative method. This approach shows the viability of the POLDER phase retrieval algorithm, and also leads to interesting results. In particular, the analysis demonstrates the sensitivity of polarization measurements to ice crystal shape and indicates that occurrence of polycrystalline ice clouds has to be taken into account in order to improve the POLDER phase retrieval algorithm accuracy. Secondly, the results show that a temperature threshold of 240 K could serve for cloud top particle phase classification. Considering the limitations of the analysis, the temperature threshold could be biased high, but not by more than about 5 degrees

  2. Estimation of Instantaneous TOA Albedo at 670 nm over Ice Clouds from POLDER Multidirectional Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm that determines the 670-nm top-of-atmosphere (TOA) albedo of ice clouds over ocean using Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance ( POLDER) multidirectional measurements is developed. A plane-parallel layer of ice cloud with various optical thicknesses and light scattering phase functions is assumed. For simplicity, we use a double Henyey-Greenstein phase function to approximate the volume-averaged phase function of the ice clouds. A multidirectional reflectance best-fit match between theoretical and POLDER reflectances is used to infer effective cloud optical thickness, phase function and TOA albedo. Sensitivity tests show that while the method does not provide accurate independent retrievals of effective cloud optical depth and phase function, TOA albedo retrievals are accurate to within similar to 3% for both a single layer of ice clouds or a multilayer system of ice clouds and water clouds. When the method is applied to POLDER measurements and retrieved albedos are compared with albedos based on empirical angular distribution models (ADMs), zonal albedo differences are generally smaller than similar to 3%. When albedos are compared with those on the POLDER-I ERB and Cloud product, the differences can reach similar to 15% at small solar zenith angles.

  3. Retrieval of aerosol microphysical and optical properties above liquid clouds from POLDER/PARASOL polarization measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Waquet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current aerosol retrievals from passive sensors are restricted to cloud-free scenes, which strongly reduces our ability to monitor the aerosol properties at a global scale and to estimate their radiative forcing. The presence of aerosol above clouds (AAC affects the polarized light reflected by the cloud layer, as shown by the spaceborne measurements provided by the POlarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER instrument on the PARASOL satellite. In a previous work, a first retrieval method was developed for AAC scenes and evaluated for biomass-burning aerosols transported over stratocumulus clouds. The method was restricted to the use of observations acquired at forward scattering angles (90–120° where polarized measurements are highly sensitive to fine-mode particle scattering. Non-spherical particles in the coarse mode, such as mineral dust particles, do not much polarize light and cannot be handled with this method. In this paper, we present new developments that allow retrieving also the properties of mineral dust particles above clouds. These particles do not much polarize light but strongly reduce the polarized cloud bow generated by the liquid cloud layer beneath and observed for scattering angles around 140°. The spectral attenuation can be used to qualitatively identify the nature of the particles (i.e. accumulation mode versus coarse mode, i.e. mineral dust particles versus biomass-burning aerosols, whereas the magnitude of the attenuation is related to the optical thickness of the aerosol layer. We also use the polarized measurements acquired in the cloud bow to improve the retrieval of both the biomass-burning aerosol properties and the cloud microphysical properties. We provide accurate polarized radiance calculations for AAC scenes and evaluate the contribution of the POLDER polarization measurements for the simultaneous retrieval of the aerosol and cloud properties. We investigate various scenes

  4. Aerosol variability over the Mediterranean basin from 2005-2012 POLDER-3/PARASOL and AERONET/PHOTONS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapello, Isabelle; Ducos, Fabrice; Dulac, François; Léon, Jean-François; Mallet, Marc; Tanré, Didier; Goloub, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    POLDER-3 (Polarization and Directionnality of the Earth's Reflectances) has been launched on board the PARASOL microsatellite in December 2004. Although the PARASOL orbit has been lowered twice (in September 2009 and in November 2011) compared to the other platforms of the A-Train constellation, POLDER observations continue, providing now more than seven years of innovative retrievals of aerosol properties from space. In this study we focus on analyzing POLDER-3 capabilities to derive both aerosol loads (Total Aerosol Optical Thickness) and size properties (fine and coarse spherical/non-spherical Aerosol Optical Thickness, Angström coefficients) over oceanic surfaces. This analysis, as part of the ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) program, focus on the Mediterranean basin, a region under the influence of a complex mixture of aerosols from different sources. Especially we aim to investigate the respective contributions of (i) pollution aerosols (emitted by industry and urban environments of some European regions or megacities surrounding the basin), (ii) carbonaceous particles (from biomass burning events), (iii) mineral dust exported from arid and semi-arid regions of North Africa. In a first step, our study consists in an analysis of aerosol variability retrieved from AERONET/PHOTONS photometer records from selected sites located in Western part of the Mediterranean basin (i.e., Soust-East of France, Spain, Corsica/Sardinia), as well as central part (i.e., Italia and Lampedusa), and Eastern part (i.e.,Greece and Turkey). These measurements provide a unique characterization of both aerosol load (aerosol optical depth) and properties (size distribution and absorption though single scattering albedo) and their temporal variability over each part of the Mediterranean basin. The second step focus on a regional validation of the PARASOL monthly aerosol products by comparison with these equivalent and selected ground-based AERONET

  5. Oil palm pest infestation monitoring and evaluation by helicopter-mounted, low altitude remote sensing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samseemoung, Grianggai; Jayasuriya, Hemantha P. W.; Soni, Peeyush

    2011-01-01

    Timely detection of pest or disease infections is extremely important for controlling the spread of disease and preventing crop productivity losses. A specifically designed radio-controlled helicopter mounted low altitude remote sensing (LARS) platform can offer near-real-time results upon user demand. The acquired LARS images were processed to estimate vegetative-indices and thereby detecting upper stem rot (Phellinus Noxius) disease in both young and mature oil palm plants. The indices helped discriminate healthy and infested plants by visualization, analysis and presentation of digital imagery software, which were validated with ground truth data. Good correlations and clear data clusters were obtained in characteristic plots of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)LARS and green normalized difference vegetation indexLARS against NDVISpectro and chlorophyll content, by which infested plants were discriminated from healthy plants in both young and mature crops. The chlorophyll content values (μmol m-2) showed notable differences among clusters for healthy young (972 to 1100), for infested young (253 to 400), for healthy mature (1210 to 1500), and for infested mature (440 to 550) oil palm. The correlation coefficients (R2) were in a reasonably acceptable range (0.62 to 0.88). The vegetation indices based on LARS images, provided satisfactory results when compared to other approaches. The developed technology showed promising scope for medium and large plantations.

  6. Inferences about pressures and vertical extension of cloud layers from POLDER3/PARASOL measurements in the oxygen A-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmons, Marine; Ferlay, Nicolas; Parol, Frédéric; Vanbauce, Claudine; Mcharek, Linda

    2013-05-01

    We present new inferences about cloud vertical structures from multidirectionnal measurements in the oxygen A-band. The analysis of collocated data provided by instruments onboard satellite platforms within the A-Train, as well as simulations have shown that for monolayered clouds, the cloud oxygen pressure PO2 derived from the POLDER3 instrument was sensitive to the cloud vertical structure in two ways: First, PO2 is actually close to the pressure of the geometrical middle of cloud and we propose a method to correct it to get the cloud top pressure (CTP), and then to obtain the cloud geometrical extent. Second, for the liquid water clouds, the angular standard deviation σPO2 of PO2 is correlated with the geometrical extent of cloud layers, which makes possible a second estimation of the cloud geometrical thickness. The determination of the vertical location of cloud layers from passive measurements, eventually completed from other observations, would be useful in many applications for which cloud macrophysical properties are needed.

  7. On the retrieval of ice cloud particle shapes from POLDER measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenbo; Loeb, Norman G.; Yang Ping

    2006-01-01

    Shapes of ice crystals can significantly affect the radiative transfer in ice clouds. The angular distribution of the polarized reflectance over ice clouds strongly depends on ice crystal shapes. Although the angular-distribution features of the total or polarized reflectance over ice clouds imply a possibility of retrieving ice cloud particle shapes by use of remote sensing data, the accuracy of the retrieval must be evaluated. In this study, a technique that applies single ice crystal habit and multidirectional polarized radiance to retrieve ice cloud particle shapes is assessed. Our sensitivity studies show that the retrieved particle shapes from this algorithm can be considered good approximations to those in actual clouds in calculation of the phase matrix elements. However, this algorithm can only work well under the following conditions: (1) the retrievable must be overcast and thick ice cloud pixels, (2) the particles in the cloud must be randomly oriented, (3) the particle shapes and size distributions used in the lookup tables must be representative, and (4) the multi-angle polarized measurements must be accurate and sufficient to identify ice cloud pixels of randomly oriented particles. In practice, these conditions will exclude most of the measured cloud pixels. Additionally, because the polarized measurements are only sensitive to the upper cloud part not deeper than an optical thickness of 4, the retrieved particle shapes with the polarized radiance may only approximate those in the upper parts of the clouds. In other words, for thicker clouds with vertical inhomogeneity in particle shapes, these retrieved particle shapes cannot represent those of whole clouds. More robust algorithm is needed in accurate retrieval of ice cloud particle shapes

  8. Hydrobiologie van de Polder Westzaan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coosen, Jon; Erwteman, Lion

    1976-01-01

    HYDROBIOLOGIE OF THE “POLDER WESTZAAN”. Investigations into the macrofauna and water quality of a brackish water area in the Dutch province North-Holland. Part I. Water quality of the “Polder Westzaan”. From February till June 1974 macrofauna samples were taken with monthly intervalls at 9 Stations

  9. BOREAS RSS-03 Atmospheric Conditions from a Helicopter-Mounted Sunphotometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains Helicopter-based measurements of atmospheric conditions acquired during the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) processed to estimates of aerosol...

  10. BOREAS RSS-03 Atmospheric Conditions from a Helicopter-Mounted Sunphotometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains Helicopter-based measurements of atmospheric conditions acquired during the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) processed to estimates of...

  11. Geweld in de polder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. de Rooy

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence in the poldersThere is a staunch Whig tradition in Dutch historiography coupled with a strong inclination to emphasize moderation and tolerance as key features in Dutch history. The explanation for the relatively low level of violence, however, is rather weak or missing altogether. This article presents a case that links the low level of violence to three positive factors: the Netherlands was situated, geopolitically speaking, in the eye of the storm; there were relatively few cases of famine; and, it had no iron and coal basins that could easily be exploited. Violence, therefore, tended to manifest itself in the form of strict social control: specifically developed through the process of keeping tight control of religious differences, which culminated in the system of pillarization in the nineteenth century and continued as a means of suppressing the class war. This throws some light on one specific aspect of modern Dutch history, namely that far from being weak (as maintained in the Whig tradition, the state and societal organizations strengthened each other, as a result of which they were able to dispel all manner of unrest and discontent.

  12. Characterization of aerosol pollution events in France using ground-based and POLDER-2 satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kacenelenbogen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the relationship between daily fine particle mass concentration (PM2.5 and columnar aerosol optical thickness derived from the Polarization and Directionality of Earth's Reflectances (POLDER satellite sensor. The study is focused over France during the POLDER-2 lifetime between April and October 2003. We have first compared the POLDER derived aerosol optical thickness (AOT with integrated volume size distribution derived from ground-based Sun Photometer observations. The good correlation (R=0.72 with sub-micron volume fraction indicates that POLDER derived AOT is sensitive to the fine aerosol mass concentration. Considering 1974 match-up data points over 28 fine particle monitoring sites, the POLDER-2 derived AOT is fairly well correlated with collocated PM2.5 measurements, with a correlation coefficient of 0.55. The correlation coefficient reaches a maximum of 0.80 for particular sites. We have analyzed the probability to find an appropriate air quality category (AQC as defined by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA from POLDER-2 AOT measurements. The probability can be up to 88.8% (±3.7% for the "Good" AQC and 89.1% (±3.6% for the "Moderate" AQC.

  13. Gravitational Casimir–Polder effect

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    Jiawei Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction due to quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations between a gravitationally polarizable object modelled as a two-level system and a gravitational boundary is investigated. This quantum gravitational interaction is found to be position-dependent, which induces a force in close analogy to the Casimir–Polder force in the electromagnetic case. For a Dirichlet boundary, the quantum gravitational potential for the polarizable object in its ground-state is shown to behave like z−5 in the near zone, and z−6 in the far zone, where z is the distance to the boundary. For a concrete example, where a Bose–Einstein condensate is taken as a gravitationally polarizable object, the relative correction to the radius of the BEC caused by fluctuating quantum gravitational waves in vacuum is found to be of order 10−21. Although the correction is far too small to observe in comparison with its electromagnetic counterpart, it is nevertheless of the order of the gravitational strain caused by a recently detected black hole merger on the arms of the LIGO.

  14. Gravitational Casimir-Polder effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei

    2017-04-01

    The interaction due to quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations between a gravitationally polarizable object modelled as a two-level system and a gravitational boundary is investigated. This quantum gravitational interaction is found to be position-dependent, which induces a force in close analogy to the Casimir-Polder force in the electromagnetic case. For a Dirichlet boundary, the quantum gravitational potential for the polarizable object in its ground-state is shown to behave like z-5 in the near zone, and z-6 in the far zone, where z is the distance to the boundary. For a concrete example, where a Bose-Einstein condensate is taken as a gravitationally polarizable object, the relative correction to the radius of the BEC caused by fluctuating quantum gravitational waves in vacuum is found to be of order 10-21. Although the correction is far too small to observe in comparison with its electromagnetic counterpart, it is nevertheless of the order of the gravitational strain caused by a recently detected black hole merger on the arms of the LIGO.

  15. Hydrology and phosphorus transport simulation in a lowland polder by a coupled modeling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Renhua; Huang, Jiacong; Li, Lingling; Gao, Junfeng

    2017-08-01

    Modeling the rain-runoff processes and phosphorus transport processes in lowland polders is critical in finding reasonable measures to alleviate the eutrophication problem of downstream rivers and lakes. This study develops a lowland Polder Hydrology and Phosphorus modeling System (PHPS) by coupling the WALRUS-paddy model and an improved phosphorus module of a Phosphorus Dynamic model for lowland Polder systems (PDP). It considers some important hydrological characteristics, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, groundwater-surface water feedback, human-controlled irrigation and discharge, and detailed physical and biochemical cycles of phosphorus in surface water. The application of the model in the Jianwei polder shows that the simulated phosphorus matches well with the measured values. The high precision of this model combined with its low input data requirement and efficient computation make it practical and easy to the water resources management of Chinese polders. Parameter sensitivity analysis demonstrates that K uptake , c Q2 , c W1 , and c Q1 exert a significant effect on the modeled results, whereas K resuspensionMax , K settling , and K mineralization have little effect on the modeled total phosphorus. Among the three types of uncertainties (i.e., parameter, initial condition, and forcing uncertainties), forcing uncertainty produces the strongest effect on the simulated phosphorus. Based on the analysis result of annual phosphorus balance when considering the high import from irrigation and fertilization, lowland polder is capable of retaining phosphorus and reducing phosphorus export to surrounding aquatic ecosystems because of their special hydrological regulation regime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tailoring optical metamaterials to tune the atom-surface Casimir-Polder interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eng Aik; Aljunid, Syed Abdullah; Adamo, Giorgio; Laliotis, Athanasios; Ducloy, Martial; Wilkowski, David

    2018-02-01

    Metamaterials are fascinating tools that can structure not only surface plasmons and electromagnetic waves but also electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations. The possibility of shaping the quantum vacuum is a powerful concept that ultimately allows engineering the interaction between macroscopic surfaces and quantum emitters such as atoms, molecules, or quantum dots. The long-range atom-surface interaction, known as Casimir-Polder interaction, is of fundamental importance in quantum electrodynamics but also attracts a significant interest for platforms that interface atoms with nanophotonic devices. We perform a spectroscopic selective reflection measurement of the Casimir-Polder interaction between a Cs(6P 3/2 ) atom and a nanostructured metallic planar metamaterial. We show that by engineering the near-field plasmonic resonances of the metamaterial, we can successfully tune the Casimir-Polder interaction, demonstrating both a strong enhancement and reduction with respect to its nonresonant value. We also show an enhancement of the atomic spontaneous emission rate due to its coupling with the evanescent modes of the nanostructure. Probing excited-state atoms next to nontrivial tailored surfaces is a rigorous test of quantum electrodynamics. Engineering Casimir-Polder interactions represents a significant step toward atom trapping in the extreme near field, possibly without the use of external fields.

  17. The Hachirogata Polder : Site Visit Report February/March 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2017-01-01

    This is a report on the visit of the Hachirogata polder of the author from 28 February 2017 to 2 March 2017. The land reclamation is located in the prefecture of Akita in Japan. The visit consisted of a field trip to the polder accompanied by Prof. Yasunori Kitao (Kyoto Women’s University) with

  18. De Landschapsarchitectuur van het Polder-boezemsysteem

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    Inge Bobbink

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch lowlands is an artificial landscape, created as a result of the wish to regulate the water that dominated the topography in the Delta. This ‘confined’ lowland water, the polder-boezem system12, features an enormously diverse range of water structures and forms, which largely dictates the spatial planning of the lower Netherlands. This dissertation concerns the polder-boezem system, a water system that was created by trial-anderror, has been adapted continually and now needs to be expanded to cope with the effects of climate change. The research focuses on answering the following question: What potential does the current polder-boezem system have, with the help of landscape architectonic design, to define (or redefine the spatial identity of the lowlands? So that the lowland water can be discovered (or rediscovered and reinforced as the spatial and compositional power of the (urbanlandscape (chapter 1. The research into the landscape and landscape-architectonic quality and the potential contained within the polder-boezem system was carried out by reviewing drawings of both existing and self-produced charts (the overlay technique. The 4-form layer analysis method was used for the landscape-architectonic research. This research method, which was developed by the Chair of Landscape Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment at TU Delft, reveals the design tools for a design. The research showed that it can also be used to analyse a man-made (cultural landscape (chapter 2. The water vocabulary that has been illustrated and described introduces, as the basic premise for the research, the water-technical role and position of all the water elements that combine to make up the water system (chapter 3. The boezem water as a cohesive network was illustrated on the basis of this inventory, and the polder water was analysed using a cut-out of the area under study (chapters 4 and 6. The boezem network map, drawn on the

  19. Polders as active element of flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilavy, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with use of the polders as active element of flood control on the example Kysuca River and Podluzianka River (Slovakia). It was concluded that it is necessary: - dense network of rain gauge stations; - network of water level recorders; revision of design process for hydraulic objects - degree of safety; changes in legislation - permission for construction in flood-plains; maintenance of channel capacity; early flood forecasting - forecasting and warning service; river training works and maintenance; design of retention areas; preparation of retention areas prior to flood propagation

  20. Repulsive Casimir and Casimir–Polder forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, Kimball A; Abalo, E K; Parashar, Prachi; Pourtolami, Nima; Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen Å

    2012-01-01

    Casimir and Casimir–Polder repulsions have been known for more than 50 years. The general ‘Lifshitz’ configuration of parallel semi-infinite dielectric slabs permits repulsion if they are separated by a dielectric fluid that has a value of permittivity that is intermediate between those of the dielectric slabs. This was indirectly confirmed in the 1970s, and more directly by Capasso’s group recently. It has also been known for many years that electrically and magnetically polarizable bodies can experience a repulsive quantum vacuum force. More amenable to practical application are situations where repulsion could be achieved between ordinary conducting and dielectric bodies in vacuum. The status of the field of Casimir repulsion with emphasis on some recent developments will be surveyed. Here, stress will be placed on analytic developments, especially on Casimir–Polder (CP) interactions between anisotropically polarizable atoms, and CP interactions between anisotropic atoms and bodies that also exhibit anisotropy, either because of anisotropic constituents, or because of geometry. Repulsion occurs for wedge-shaped and cylindrical conductors, provided the geometry is sufficiently asymmetric, that is, either the wedge is sufficiently sharp or the atom is sufficiently far from the cylinder. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker’s 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’. (review)

  1. Casimir-Polder interaction in second quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefele, Juergen

    2011-03-21

    The Casimir-Polder interaction between a single neutral atom and a nearby surface, arising from the (quantum and thermal) fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, is a cornerstone of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED), and theoretically well established. Recently, Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of ultracold atoms have been used to test the predictions of cQED. The purpose of the present thesis is to upgrade single-atom cQED with the many-body theory needed to describe trapped atomic BECs. Tools and methods are developed in a second-quantized picture that treats atom and photon fields on the same footing. We formulate a diagrammatic expansion using correlation functions for both the electromagnetic field and the atomic system. The formalism is applied to investigate, for BECs trapped near surfaces, dispersion interactions of the van der Waals-Casimir-Polder type, and the Bosonic stimulation in spontaneous decay of excited atomic states. We also discuss a phononic Casimir effect, which arises from the quantum fluctuations in an interacting BEC. (orig.)

  2. Casimir-Polder interaction in second quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiefele, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    The Casimir-Polder interaction between a single neutral atom and a nearby surface, arising from the (quantum and thermal) fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, is a cornerstone of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED), and theoretically well established. Recently, Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of ultracold atoms have been used to test the predictions of cQED. The purpose of the present thesis is to upgrade single-atom cQED with the many-body theory needed to describe trapped atomic BECs. Tools and methods are developed in a second-quantized picture that treats atom and photon fields on the same footing. We formulate a diagrammatic expansion using correlation functions for both the electromagnetic field and the atomic system. The formalism is applied to investigate, for BECs trapped near surfaces, dispersion interactions of the van der Waals-Casimir-Polder type, and the Bosonic stimulation in spontaneous decay of excited atomic states. We also discuss a phononic Casimir effect, which arises from the quantum fluctuations in an interacting BEC. (orig.)

  3. Kajian Kinerja Sistem Polder sebagai Model Pengembangan Drainase Kota Semarang Bagian Bawah dengan Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Nugroho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the technological flood control and rob in the big cities is the polder system that include drainage systems , retention ponds, levees that surround the area, as well as the pump and / floodgates, as the area of integrated water management system. Likewise, as the coastal city of Semarang in Indonesia has built some of the polder which has been in operation or under construction. To assess the success of the polder management, necessary for a study to determine the performance of the system in controlling the flood in Semarang. Assessment of performance of the system as a whole polder in this study used the concept of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC. The results of this study demonstrate the performance of the polder in Semarang is an ideal: Polder Tanah Mas (73.81 / 100, then Polder Banger (67.21 / 100, Polder Kali Semarang (58.70/100 and the Polder Tawang (58.65/100. The performance of the Polder system above can not be separated from the existence of an independent governing body and had been prepared much earlier. So the presence of the governing body needs to be prepared in the polder system development. To improve performance, the polder-existing polder in Semarang needs to be improved its performance by improving the performance indicators is still less based on this research primarily on indicators: financial, management agencies and learning and development.

  4. Introduction of Ophiobolus graminis into new polders and its decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, M.

    1968-01-01

    After a short introductory chapter on the occurrence of Ophiobolus graminis (take-all disease) in the polders, in chapter 2 the course of the disease and the biology of the fungus are described. The third chapter deals with materials and methods. The following chapters deal with

  5. Integration through compartmentalization? Pitfalls of 'poldering' in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The article sketches the history of the Flood Action Plan 20 (FAP-20), an experiment with polder compartmentalization, seeking to integrate flood management, drainage, and irrigation, and make it more democratic in response to the destructive 1987 and 1988 floods in Bangladesh. As a transferred

  6. Annual sulfate budgets for Dutch lowland peat polders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaat, Jan E.; Harmsen, Joop; Hellmann, Fritz A.; Geest, van der Harm G.; Klein, de Jeroen J.M.; Kosten, Sarian; Smolders, Alfons J.P.; Verhoeven, Jos T.A.; Mes, Ron G.; Ouboter, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Annual sulfate mass balances have been constructed for four low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands, to resolve the origin of high sulfate concentrations in surface water, which is considered a water quality problem, as indicated amongst others by the absence of sensitive water plant species.

  7. STRATEGI KEBIJAKAN PENGELOLAAN POLDER TAWANG SEBAGAI PENGENDALI BANJIR DENGAN PENDEKATAN ANALYSIS HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deky Aji Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to seek factors causing ineffectiveness of Polder Tawang; the loss due to rob, the need, and the priority scale program in optimizing the polder. Its locus was Semarang city, especially areas located nearby the polder affected by rob such as Johar, Jurnatan, and Tawan station. Data was gathered by conducting interview, observation, and documentation. To analyze the data, description and Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP were employed. The result revealed that there were barriers in the management of Tawang Polder. The internal barriers were the broken water pump, leaking pump, unwaterproof polder, and polder which has less capacity over the water, and area which has less capacity to obsorb the water. The external factors were conflict areas, unwell managed infrastructure and rubbish, and inappropiate drainage system. These conditions led to some losses. They were the two working hours loss, and 11-15% downfall of turnover. Hence, there is a need to manage Tawang Polder either internally or externally. The internal ones are draining pump, waterproof pond, and absorption area determination. The external ones are independent polder management enabling the focus of the work, the involvement of consultant, monitoring , and better participation to optimize the polder. The priority programs resulted from AHP analysis were found to be government policy, infrastructure aspect, social and technical management aspect. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui faktor-faktor penyebab belum efektifnya Polder Tawang meliputi bentuk dan nilai kerugian yang diderita akibat rob,kebutuhan yang diperlukan, skala prioritas optimalisasi. Lokasi penelitian ini adalah Kota Semarang, khusus di daerah – daerah sekitar Polder Tawang yang terkena rob seperti kawasan Johar, Jurnatan, dan Stasiun Tawang. Pengumpulan data dengan wawancara, observasi, dan dokumentasi. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dan Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP. Hasil

  8. Distribution of ice particle surface roughness inferred from the multi-angle polarimetry by the POLDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, S.; Yang, P.; King, M. D.; Riedi, J.

    2017-12-01

    While ice clouds are ubiquitous, the maximum cloudiness is observed in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the mid-latitude storm tracks. The updraft speed in clouds and the growth process of ice particles in these two regions are known to be different. Although in-situ measurements show distinct differences of crystal morphology between tropical and mid-latitude ice clouds, passive spaceborne measurements for quantifying the aforementioned differences at the global scale are scarce. In this presentation, we will illustrate an EOF-based method to quantify the particle overall shape and the degree of roughness with several independent variables. We also demonstrate the retrievals of these variables based on multi-angle polarimetric measurements (specifically, observations made by the Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance (POLDER) instrument) in conjunction with radiative transfer simulations. In addition, data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) are collocated to the POLDER data for identifying the cloud types and vertical structures. We show significant differences between tropical and extratropical ice clouds in the present retrievals. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of solar direction, satellite measurement angle, and cloud inhomogeneity on the retrieval differences.

  9. Evolution of aerosol optical thickness over Europe during the August 2003 heat wave as seen from CHIMERE model simulations and POLDER data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodzic, A; Vautard, R; Chepfer, H; Goloub, P; Menut, L; Chazette, P; Deuzé, J L; Apituley, A; Couvert, P

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the atmospheric aerosol load encountered during the large-scale pollution episode that occurred in August 2003, by means of the aerosol optical thicknesses (AOTs) measured at 865 nm by the Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER) sensor and the

  10. Evolution of aerosol optical thickness over Europe during the August 2003 heat wave as seen from CHIMERE model simulations and POLDER data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the atmospheric aerosol load encountered during the large-scale pollution episode that occurred in August 2003, by means of the aerosol optical thicknesses (AOTs measured at 865 nm by the Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER sensor and the simulation by the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model. During this period many processes (stagnation, photochemistry, forest fires led to unusually high particle concentrations and optical thicknesses. The observed/simulated AOT comparison helps understanding the ability of the model to reproduce most of the gross AOT features observed in satellite data, with a general agreement within a factor 2 and correlations in the 0.4–0.6 range. However some important aerosol features are missed when using regular anthropogenic sources. Additional simulations including emissions and high-altitude transport of smoke from wildfires that occurred in Portugal indicate that these processes could dominate the AOT signal in some areas. Our results also highlight the difficulties of comparing simulated and POLDER-derived AOTs due to large uncertainties in both cases. Observed AOT values are significantly lower than the simulated ones (30–50%. Their comparison with the ground-based Sun photometer Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET measurements suggests, for the European sites considered here, an underestimation of POLDER-derived aerosol levels with a factor between 1 and 2. AERONET AOTs compare better with simulations (no particular bias than POLDER AOTs.

  11. The dynamics of dissolved oxygen concentration for water quality monitoring and assessment in polder ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeningen, R.

    1983-01-01

    This study deals with the use of the dynamics of dissolved oxygen concentration for water quality assessment in polder ditches. The dynamics of the dissolved oxygen concentration, i.e. the temporal and spatial variations in a few polder ditches under a range of natural, pollution and management

  12. Climate adaptive urban planning and design with water in Dutch polders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, T; Chelleri, L

    2011-01-01

    The existing water management in Dutch polders is based on independent water systems for each polder. These are featuring artificial stabilized ground and surface water levels. As a result of the local climate the water levels in the polders are not continuously at a constant level. To maintain a stable water table in the polders, the surplus of relatively clean rainwater has to be pumped away during the cold seasons into canals or rivers, which are located on a higher level. During the summer relatively polluted water from these waterways is led into the polders to top up the declining water levels. This procedure leads to various problems regarding water quantity and water quality. The described existing system is not adaptable to climate change and includes the risk of flooding, particularly from torrential rain. Therefore it is crucial to develop, preferably self-sufficient, rainwater management systems in the polders. They should allow the fluctuation of the water levels inside the polders for seasonal storage and flood control. The described concept is adopted in the present water policy in the Netherlands as well as in research and recent urban development projects in Dutch polders.

  13. Water inSight : An exploration into landscape architectonic transformations of polder water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbink, I.; Loen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Water inSight provides insight into the ‘water machine’ that forms the basis of the Dutch polder landscape. Authors Inge Bobbink and Suzanne Loen approach the polder landscape from a landscape-architectonic point of view, using technical and spatial analysis drawings, images, plans and experiments

  14. De bodemgesteldheid van enkele Zuidbevelandse polders en hun geschiktheid voor de fruitteelt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, de G.

    1950-01-01

    The geomorphology and soil conditions of some polders were studied, mainly consisting of sandy creek-ridge soils and marshy clay soils on peat (Old Land). Also a few New Land polders (Young sea clay) were surveyed.

    Important soil characteristics were granular composition at different depths and

  15. Lateral Casimir-Polder forces by breaking time-reversal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Weernink, Ricardo R. Q. P. T.; Barcellona, Pablo; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2018-03-01

    We examine the lateral Casimir-Polder force acting on a circular rotating emitter near a dielectric plane surface. As the circular motion breaks time-reversal symmetry, the spontaneous emission in a direction parallel to the surface is in general anisotropic. We show that a lateral force arises which can be interpreted as a recoil force because of this asymmetric emission. The force is an oscillating function of the distance between the emitter and the surface, and the lossy character of the dielectric strongly influences the results in the near-field regime. The force exhibits also a population-induced dynamics, decaying exponentially with respect to time on time scales of the inverse of the spontaneous decay rate. We propose that this effect could be detected measuring the velocity acquired by the emitter, following different cycles of excitation and spontaneous decay. Our results are expressed in terms of the Green's tensor and can therefore easily be applied to more complex geometries.

  16. Effects of polders on the course of floods in the watershed of the Tichá Orlice river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pavlík

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Polders show an important water-management function in the flood-control protection of watersheds. The course of actual floods in recent decades and effects of the water works on flood flows have proved the suitability of the construction within integrated flood-control measures in particular watersheds of the Czech Republic. To determine the transformation effect of flood-control measures in watersheds mathematical modelling is an important method, which is used not only in the preparation and design of retention areas but also in dealing with the flood protection of towns and villages. Easy verification of other measures in watersheds is also useful. Their implementation can be thus prepared for the future or it is possible to back off the intentions. In our case, a fact is advantageous that the model is ope­ra­ted in the workplace of the Elbe Basin water-management dispatching centre, which is compatible with assessed polders in the partial Elbe watershed, namely in the Tichá Orlice watershed and its partial Třebovka watershed. The polders assessed are situated on the Třebovka stream, which is the lar­gest tributary of the Tichá Orlice river. These dry reservoirs and the increased protective function of the Hvězda pond affect runoff from about 80 km2. Within research activities, possibilities were studied to obtain necessary retention areas in existing small water reservoirs. It became evident that the only rea­lis­tic solution was to increase protective functions of the pond Hvězda. Its present total retention space of 1.4 million m3 can be increased only by 0.35 million m3, however, in combination with the sophisticated lay-out of a new emergency spillway and outlet the whole retention space can be used much more effectively. To obtain other retention areas localities were found out in the whole upper watershed of the Třebovka stream, which fulfilled requirements for placing the adequate capacity of polders. Subsequent

  17. Shifts in the gammarid (Amphipoda) fauna of brackish polder waters in Flanders (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Boets, P.; Lock, K.; Goethals, P.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    The macrocrustacean community of brackish polder waters in Flanders was investigated based on a twenty year survey comprising 430 biological samples taken at 218 different locations. A clear shift in the gammarid community could be observed. After its introduction, the alien Gammarus tigrinus, originating from North America, reached high abundances and became widely spread in the polder waters within a few years. Simultaneously, a decrease in the prevalence of the indigenous brackish water ga...

  18. Chloride transport in a recently reclaimed Dutch polder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, J. A.; Raats, P. A. C.; Feddes, R. A.

    2002-02-01

    Knowledge about the origin of solutes is required to define reasonable limits for surface water quality. The origin of the high chloride (Cl) concentrations in the drainage water of a recently reclaimed Dutch polder is analysed. Historical data on soil formation are used to understand the layering of the soil profile and its hydraulic properties. The salinisation process of the lake bottom in the period 1600-1932 explains the Cl profiles in the soil. After reclamation in 1942, the average application rate of Cl from fertiliser was 118 kg ha-1 yr-1. Natural Cl deposition was 37 kg ha-1 yr-1 and average Cl crop uptake was 10 kg ha-1 yr-1. Upward diffusion from the subsoil (>120 cm depth) of about 220 kg ha-1 yr-1 is the major term in the Cl mass balance. Annual Cl drain discharge is estimated at 365 kg ha-1 yr-1. A field monitoring study in the winter leaching period 1991-1992 showed that the Cl drain discharge was only 180 kg ha-1 yr-1, probably, due to the relatively small precipitation excess in that period. The dynamics of water flow and solute transport in a two-dimensional flow domain are well described by the HYDRUS-2D model based on the Richards and Laplace equations for movement of water and the convection-dispersion equation for solute transport. The large lateral flow component towards the drain in the topsoil (0-120 cm depth) in the zone just above and below the phreatic surface explains the peaks in Cl and nitrate concentrations in the drainage water. The combination of historical data, field experiments and a simulation model was fruitful in explaining the origin and dynamics of Cl concentrations in the drainage water. The high Cl concentrations in the drainage and surface water are natural background concentrations originating mainly from the subsoil of the reclaimed polder.

  19. Effects of ecological flooding on the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae and springtails (Collembola in a polder habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Lessel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the Integrated Rhine Program an ecological flood gate and channel was inserted into the polder “Ingelheim” to enhance animal and plant diversity. In 2008, carabid beetles and springtails were collected, using pitfall traps, to measure the effects of ecological flooding and a strong precipitation event at a flood-disturbed and a dry location in this area. At both localities, xerophilic and mesophilic carabid beetle species were dominant throughout the study period. The total number of individuals of hygrophilic species was comparatively constant, while species number increased, partly due to the changed moisture conditions caused by ecological flooding and strong precipitation. Carabid beetle diversity and evenness decreased marginally when ecological flooding was absent. Springtails represent a less mobile arthropod order, and as such the impact of ecological flooding was stronger. An increase in both numbers of species and individuals of hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species occurred in the flood-disturbed location after ecological flooding. After the sites at both locations had dried, the number of individuals belonging to these species declined rapidly. In contrast to carabid species, the strong precipitation event showed no influence on hygrophilic springtail species. Thus, collembolan diversity and evenness decreased markedly in the absence of flooding. We showed that ecological flooding has an influence on the spatial and temporal dynamics of different arthropod groups that inhabit the polder “Ingelheim”. These findings demonstrate the importance of using different arthropod groups as bioindicators in determining the ecological value of a particular polder design.

  20. De ontwikkelingen in de polder Breebaart resultaten van de monitoring in 2003 en 2004 en een vergelijking met 2001 en 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Tydeman, P.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2001 a reduced tidal regime was introduced in Polder Breebaart, a polder located in the northern-east part of the Province of Groningen (The Netherlands). This reduced tidal regime was achieved by building a culvert in the seawall, connecting the polder with the seawater from the Dollard,

  1. Examining the effects of urban agglomeration polders on flood events in Qinhuai River basin, China with HEC-HMS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuqin; Yuan, Yu; Wang, Huaizhi; Schmidt, Arthur R; Wang, Kexuan; Ye, Liu

    2017-05-01

    The urban agglomeration polders type of flood control pattern is a general flood control pattern in the eastern plain area and some of the secondary river basins in China. A HEC-HMS model of Qinhuai River basin based on the flood control pattern was established for simulating basin runoff, examining the impact of urban agglomeration polders on flood events, and estimating the effects of urbanization on hydrological processes of the urban agglomeration polders in Qinhuai River basin. The results indicate that the urban agglomeration polders could increase the peak flow and flood volume. The smaller the scale of the flood, the more significant the influence of the polder was to the flood volume. The distribution of the city circle polder has no obvious impact on the flood volume, but has effect on the peak flow. The closer the polder is to basin output, the smaller the influence it has on peak flows. As the level of urbanization gradually improving of city circle polder, flood volumes and peak flows gradually increase compared to those with the current level of urbanization (the impervious rate was 20%). The potential change in flood volume and peak flow with increasing impervious rate shows a linear relationship.

  2. Groundwater impact on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, L.; Rozemeijer, J.; Breukelen, B.M. van; Ouboter, M.; Vlugt, C. van der; Broers, H.P.

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and

  3. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments : Monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, B.M.; Ouboter, Maarten; Van Der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage,

  4. Retrieval of cloud properties from POLDER-3 data using the neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, A.; Hasekamp, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite multi-angle spectroplarimetry is a useful technique for observing the microphysical properties of clouds and aerosols. Most of the algorithms for the retrieval of cloud and aerosol properties from satellite measurements require multiple calls to radiative transfer models, which make the retrieval computationally expensive. A traditional alternative to these schemes is represented by lookup-tables (LUTs), where the retrieval is performed by choosing, within a predefined database of combinations of clouds or aerosol properties, the combination that best fits the measurements. LUT retrievals are quicker than full-physics, iterative retrievals, but their accuracy is limited by the number of entries stored in the LUT. Another retrieval method capable of producing very quick retrievals without a big sacrifice in accuracy is the neural network method. Neural network methods are routinely applied to several types of satellite measurements, but their application to multi-angle spectropolarimetric data is still in its early stage, because of the difficulty of accounting for the angular variability of the measurements in the training process. We have recently developed a neural network scheme for the retrieval of cloud properties from POLDER-3 data. The neural network retrieval is trained using synthetic measurements performed for realistic combinations of cloud properties and measurement angles, and is able to process an entire orbit in about 20 seconds. Comparisons of the retrieved cloud properties with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) gridded products during one year show encouraging retrieval performance for cloud optical thickness and effective radius. A discussion of the setup of the neural network and of the validation results will be the main topic of our presentation.

  5. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rozemeijer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain a spatial image of the diverted river water propagation into a hydrologically complex polder area, the polder Quarles van Ufford in The Netherlands. We used anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd-anomaly as a tracer for river water that was diverted into the polder. A clear reduction in the river water contribution was found between very dry conditions on 5 August 2010 and very wet conditions on 22 October. Despite the large river water impact on 5 August, the diverted river water did not propagate up into the small agricultural headwater ditches. Gadolinium proved to be an effective tracer for diverted river water in a polder system. We applied our results to upgrade the interpretation of water quality monitoring data and to validate an integrated nutrient transport model.

  6. Characterizing Temporal and Spatial Trends in Soil Geochemistry on Polder 32, Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, J. C.; Fry, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Soil samples were collected during three field campaigns to determine seasonal and spatial trends of soil salinity, soil acidity and arsenic concentrations on Polder 32 in coastal Bangladesh. Many farmers on Polder 32 use a crop rotation of rice cultivation in the wet season and shrimp farming in the dry season, and studies have shown that this rotation can increase soil salinity and acidity. Soil samples were collected in May 2013, October 2013 and May 2014 from rice paddies and shrimp ponds on the polder, from adjacent tidal channels, and from the Sunderbans mangrove forest to the SE of the polder, and analyzed for both geochemical and physical parameters and then subjected to statistical tests and mapped using geographic information system software to find correlations. Results support the belief that soil salinity, acidity and arsenic concentration exhibit spatial variation, and soil salinity and acidity show seasonal variation with salinity elevated in the dry season (May) and acidity elevated in the wet season (October). Results suggest that Hydrous Ferric Oxyhydroxides (HFOs) are present in October and sulfides are present in May, so that reducing conditions that lead to reduction of HFOs and precipitation of sulfides must occur between October and May. Rice grown in paddies should be unaffected by salt concentrations in the wet season, while arsenic concentrations in soil may be high enough to cause unsafe As levels in produced rice. No evidence of soil acidification was found, most likely due to the presence of soil carbonate.

  7. Introductie en vestiging van planteparasitaire aaltjes in nieuwe polders, in het bijzonder van Trichodorus teres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, K.

    1977-01-01

    The soil of the newly reclaimed polders of the former Zuiderzee was initially found to be free from plant parasitic nematodes. This meant that the practice of crop rotation, as used with 'old' land, did not need to be applied for a number of years.
    After several years however, nematode

  8. The Netherlands and the Polder Model: A Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Prak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to the contributions by Davids-’t Hart, De Vries, and De Munck we emphasise that our book Nederland en het poldermodel [The Netherlands and the Polder Model] has been written for a general audience and therefore does not provide a detailed theoretical framework, nor a large number of graphs and tables. We have focused on the territory of the Netherlands, fully aware that this was not a (politically or economically coherent territory before the sixteenth century, but any other choice would have been equally arbitrary. In the Middle Ages the region developed much like other, neighbouring parts of Western Europe, but whereas elsewhere the rise of centralised states and absolutist monarchs endedthe development path based on bottom-up institutions, the successful Dutch Revolt and the formation of the decentralised Dutch Republic ensured much more continuity. We share the assessment of our critics that the transformation from this institutional structure via the mid-nineteenth century phase of ‘liberalisation’ into the new corporatism of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries is still incompletely understood.Nederland en het poldermodel. Een repliekIn reactie op de bijdragen van Davids-’t Hart, De Vries en De Munck benadrukken we dat het boek Nederland en het poldermodel geschreven is voor een breder publiek en daardoor niet het uitgewerkte theoretische kader noch een overdaad aan tabellen en grafieken bevat. We hebben ons daarbij gericht op het grondgebied van het huidige Nederland, hoewel dat tot in de zestiende eeuw geen duidelijke eenheid bezat – in economische noch in politieke zin. Tot ver in de middeleeuwen kendedit gebied een ontwikkelingsgang die sterke parallellen vertoonde met de rest van West-Europa. Maar daar waar elders de middeleeuwse erfenis van institutievorming van onderop met de opkomst van gecentraliseerde staten en absolutistische ambities afgesloten wordt, zet deze ontwikkelingslijn zich in de Republiek

  9. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Ouboter, Maarten; van der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type) for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban-agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs) in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate from the decomposition of

  10. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban–agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88 between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate

  11. Supplementary investigation of radium on two built-on harbour sludge polders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoop, P.; Hiemstra, Y.S.; Lembrechts, J.F.M.M.

    1995-02-01

    An increasing concern for the risks from radon ( 222 Rn in particular) has caused the Ministry of VROM to ask for an investigation of the relation between the radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings and the radium content of the soil on which they have been built. The investigation should include not only natural soil types but also some artificial ones. The soils that were formed after polders were filled with sludge from the Rotterdam harbours (harbour sludge polders) are examples of a non-natural soil type with a radium content that is in some instances significantly higher than that of most natural soils in the Netherlands. In a definition study, the investigation of the radium contents of harbour sludge polders was divided into four phases, the first two of which have been concluded. Before the decision to commence the third phase can be made, a supplementary investigation was necessary. This report contains the results of this supplementary investigation of radium contents that was carried out at the locations Steendijkpolder-zuid, Maassluis (STPZ) and Woudhoek-noord, Schiedam (WH) as proposed as a result of phase two. The aim of this supplementary investigation is to determine whether the variation of the radium content within a harbour sludge polder with no topsoil (STPZ) is sufficient to enable quantification of the relation between the radium content of the soil and the radon concentration in dwellings. The second goal is to determine whether it is possible to determine the reduction factor of a topsoil (WH) for radon infiltration. The results show that in the STPZ the variation of the radium content within the polder is large enough to justify the expectation that corresponding variations in radon concentrations will be found. In WH the 'within'-variations are too small for this purpose. To assess the effect of the topsoil, WH should be compared to another location

  12. Research regarding the reforestation with native forestry species of polders from the Lower Danube Valley and the Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREAVU Manole

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Euro - American poplar and willow plantations have declined recently in the polders of Danube Delta due to the lessened level of underground water. This research was conducted in five precincts during 2005 -2009. Its aim was to observe the development of several native forestry species, such as the White Poplar, Black Poplar, Ash tree, Elm and Oak tree. These species are recommended for future cultivation in the polders of Danube Delta.

  13. Analisis Geoteknik Perencanaan Sistem Polder Tambak Lorok Semarang Utara Provinsi Jawa Tengah

    OpenAIRE

    Diwani, Jodan Panretta; Anggraini, Galih; Hardiyati, Siti; Wikan S, Kresno

    2017-01-01

    Rob merupakan problem yang sering terjadi di Kota Semarang, salah satu penangananya berupa Sistem Polder dengan Kolam Retensi. Salah satu kolam retensi yang dibangun berada di kali Banger. Kolam retensi kali Banger berupa kolam Retensi sedalam 4 meter dan struktur Rumah Pompa berupa galian sedalam 6 meter. Berdasarkan data bor, NSPT dan pengujian triaxial, tanah pada lokasi tersebut berupa very soft soil sehingga kegagalan galian dapat terjadi. Untuk mengatasi digunakan beberapa alternaif pe...

  14. ‘The Netherlands and the Polder Model’ - ‘Nederland en het poldermodel’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Jonker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the new textbook Nederland en het poldermodel [The Netherlands and the Polder Model] by Utrecht History Professors Maarten Prak and Jan Luiten van Zanden the polder model may be said to have achieved full academic respectability. Asked to compress 1,000 years of Dutch economic and social history into a single 300-page volume targeted at a popular audience, the authors chose to do so by analysing the country’s ups-anddowns entirely in terms of its peculiar type of organisation, the polder model’s presumed strengths and weaknesses. The BMGN - Low Countries Historical Review editors asked four experts in the social and economic history of the Low Countries, Karel Davids and Marjolein ’t Hart (vu Amsterdam/Huygens ing, Jan de Vries (Berkeley, and Bert De Munck (University of Antwerp to review it, paying particular attention to what the conceptual approach adds to our understanding of the country’s marked economic fluctuations during the pastmillennium.

  15. The influence of environmental factors and dredging on chironomid larval diversity in urban drainage systems in polders strongly influenced by seepage from large rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Jacobsen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    , in urban waters strongly influenced by seepage of large rivers. Chironomid assemblages were studied in urban surface-water systems (man-made drainage ditches) in polder areas along lowland reaches of the rivers Rhine-Meuse in The Netherlands. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the key environmental...... factors. Taxon richness, Shannon index (H'), rareness of species, and life-history strategies at urban locations were compared with available data from similar man-made water bodies in rural areas, and the effectiveness of dredging for restoring chironomid diversity in urban waters was tested. Three......, chironomid taxon richness was negatively related to sludge layer and %% cover of lemnids. Dredging changed chironomid species composition, and increased taxon richness and life-history strategies indicative of good O2 conditions. Therefore, dredging can be regarded as an effective measure to restore...

  16. A microscopic approach to Casimir and Casimir-Polder forces between metallic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellona, Pablo; Passante, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    We consider the Casimir-Polder interaction energy between a metallic nanoparticle and a metallic plate, as well as the Casimir interaction energy between two macroscopic metal plates, in terms of the many-body dispersion interactions between their constituents. Expressions for two- and three-body dispersion interactions between the microscopic parts of a real metal are first obtained, both in the retarded and non-retarded limits. These expressions are then used to evaluate the overall two- and three-body contributions to the macroscopic Casimir-Polder and Casimir force, and to compare them with each other, for the two following geometries: metal nanoparticle/half-space and half-space/half-space, where all the materials are assumed perfect conductors. The above evaluation is obtained by summing up the contributions from the microscopic constituents of the bodies (metal nanoparticles). In the case of nanoparticle/half-space, our results fully agree with those that can be extracted from the corresponding macroscopic results, and explicitly show the non-applicability of the pairwise approximation for the geometry considered. In both cases, we find that, while the overall two-body contribution yields an attractive force, the overall three-body contribution is repulsive. Also, they turn out to be of the same order, consistently with the known non applicability of the pairwise approximation. The issue of the rapidity of convergence of the many-body expansion is also briefly discussed.

  17. Boer en bedrijfsresultaat : analyse van de uiteenlopende rentabiliteit van vergelijkbare akkerbouwbedrijven in de Noord-Oost-Polder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachariasse, L.C.

    1974-01-01

    Differences in farm returns were analysed technically and economically. The study was of 29 arable farms of about 33 ha in the North-East-Polder in the area Lake IJssel. The farms there are very similar in size, soil, field layout and original farm building. The remarkable difference was in the

  18. Remote sensing of tropospheric total column water vapor: Intercomparison of POLDER, AMSR-E and MODIS retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedi, J.; Mcharek, L.; Dubuisson, P.; Parol, F.; Thieuleux, F.

    2013-05-01

    Since December 2004, the CNES Parasol (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Science coupled with Observations from a Lidar) mission has been flying in the A-train with Aqua (NASA) providing more than 5 years of temporally and spatially coincident observations from POLDER, MODIS and AMSRE which enable total column water vapor amount retrievals. We are providing here a temporal and statistical analysis of water vapor near-infrared retrievals from POLDER against MODIS and AMSR-E products derived from nearinfrared, thermal infrared and microwave observations over ocean. A temporal analysis of POLDER official product is conducted in view of AMSR-E and MODIS coincident retrievals over ocean. In a second step, an alternative approach based on the use of simple multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) is developed to improve the mathematical parameterization used to retrieve water vapor amount from near-infrared observation. The retrievals are further improved when an estimate of the 910 nm surface reflectance is obtained through interpolation between PARASOL 865 nm and 1020 nm channels. This last improvement now allows for a unified land/ocean retrieval algorithm for PARASOL/POLDER.

  19. Boer en bedrijfsresultaat : analyse van de uiteenlopende rentabiliteit van vergelijkbare akkerbouwbedrijven in de Noord-Oost-Polder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachariasse, L.C.

    1974-01-01

    Differences in farm returns were analysed technically and economically. The study was of 29 arable farms of about 33 ha in the North-East-Polder in the area Lake IJssel. The farms there are very similar in size, soil, field layout and original farm building. The remarkable difference was in the

  20. Supplementary investigation of radium on two built-on harbour sludge polders; Aanvullend radiumonderzoek op twee met woningen bebouwde havenspeciepolders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoop, P.; Hiemstra, Y.S.; Lembrechts, J.F.M.M.

    1995-02-01

    An increasing concern for the risks from radon ({sup 222}Rn in particular) has caused the Ministry of VROM to ask for an investigation of the relation between the radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings and the radium content of the soil on which they have been built. The investigation should include not only natural soil types but also some artificial ones. The soils that were formed after polders were filled with sludge from the Rotterdam harbours (harbour sludge polders) are examples of a non-natural soil type with a radium content that is in some instances significantly higher than that of most natural soils in the Netherlands. In a definition study, the investigation of the radium contents of harbour sludge polders was divided into four phases, the first two of which have been concluded. Before the decision to commence the third phase can be made, a supplementary investigation was necessary. This report contains the results of this supplementary investigation of radium contents that was carried out at the locations Steendijkpolder-zuid, Maassluis (STPZ) and Woudhoek-noord, Schiedam (WH) as proposed as a result of phase two. The aim of this supplementary investigation is to determine whether the variation of the radium content within a harbour sludge polder with no topsoil (STPZ) is sufficient to enable quantification of the relation between the radium content of the soil and the radon concentration in dwellings. The second goal is to determine whether it is possible to determine the reduction factor of a topsoil (WH) for radon infiltration. The results show that in the STPZ the variation of the radium content within the polder is large enough to justify the expectation that corresponding variations in radon concentrations will be found. In WH the `within`-variations are too small for this purpose. To assess the effect of the topsoil, WH should be compared to another location.

  1. POLDER/Parasol L2 Radiation Budget subset along CloudSat track V001 (PARASOLRB_CPR) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the POLDER/Parasol Level-2 Radiation Budget Subset, collocated with the CloudSat track. The subset is processed at the A-Train Data Depot of the GES DISC,...

  2. Influence of the chemical potential on the Casimir-Polder interaction between an atom and gapped graphene or a graphene-coated substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, C.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a formalism based on first principles of quantum electrodynamics at nonzero temperature which permits us to calculate the Casimir-Polder interaction between an atom and a graphene sheet with arbitrary mass gap and chemical potential, including graphene-coated substrates. The free energy and force of the Casimir-Polder interaction are expressed via the polarization tensor of graphene in (2 +1 ) -dimensional space-time in the framework of the Dirac model. The obtained expressions are used to investigate the influence of the chemical potential of graphene on the Casimir-Polder interaction. Computations are performed for an atom of metastable helium interacting with either a freestanding graphene sheet or a graphene-coated substrate made of amorphous silica. It is shown that the impacts of the nonzero chemical potential and the mass gap on the Casimir-Polder interaction are in opposite directions, by increasing and decreasing the magnitudes of the free energy and force, respectively. It turns out, however, that the temperature-dependent part of the Casimir-Polder interaction is decreased by a nonzero chemical potential, whereas the mass gap increases it compared to the case of undoped, gapless graphene. The physical explanation for these effects is provided. Numerical computations of the Casimir-Polder interaction are performed at various temperatures and atom-graphene separations.

  3. Using Support Vector Machines to Automatically Extract Open Water Signatures from POLDER Multi-Angle Data Over Boreal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J.; Diaz-Barrios, M.; Pinzon, J.; Ustin, S. L.; Shih, P.; Tournois, S.; Zarco-Tejada, P. J.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Perry, G. L.; Brass, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study used Support Vector Machines to classify multiangle POLDER data. Boreal wetland ecosystems cover an estimated 90 x 10(exp 6) ha, about 36% of global wetlands, and are a major source of trace gases emissions to the atmosphere. Four to 20 percent of the global emission of methane to the atmosphere comes from wetlands north of 4 degrees N latitude. Large uncertainties in emissions exist because of large spatial and temporal variation in the production and consumption of methane. Accurate knowledge of the areal extent of open water and inundated vegetation is critical to estimating magnitudes of trace gas emissions. Improvements in land cover mapping have been sought using physical-modeling approaches, neural networks, and active microwave, examples that demonstrate the difficulties of separating open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation. Here we examine the feasibility of using a support vector machine to classify POLDER data representing open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation.

  4. Digues et polders littoraux : réflexions après la tempête Xynthia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernand Verger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Les digues de polders littoraux comprennent plusieurs catégories : digues de mer, digues de rebras, digues dormantes et digues ruinées. Dans le marais Poitevin, la tempête Xynthia, pendant laquelle la mer a atteint un niveau exceptionnel, a submergé l'ensemble du réseau des digues. Elle a permis de prendre conscience de l'état du réseau des digues et de l'absence d'une ligne continue de digues dormantes d'un niveau suffisant pour limiter l'extension de l'inondation.Des solutions adoptées ailleurs en Europe, comme la transformation des polders en polders d'été ou la dépoldérisation n'ont pas été envisagées. La réparation à l'identique, avec un renforcement a été adoptée. D'une façon plus générale, des indices sont proposés pour aider à la gestion des polders littoraux. Ces indices doivent tenir compte de la valeur écosystémique des schorres dont la biodiversité et la productivité sont exceptionnelles. La nécessité de quantifier les enjeux – ce qui est certes difficile – apparaît d'autant plus nécessaire que la montée du niveau de la mer risque de contraindre une politique de maintien rigide du trait de côte à des investissements disproportionnés à long terme.Polder dikes coasts include several categories: sea dikes, sleeper dikes and devastated levees. In Marais Poitevin, during the storm Xynthia, the entire network of dikes has been flooded due to the exceptional level of the sea at that time. This situation has raised awareness of the status network of the current network of levees and of the lack of a continuous line of sleeper levees at a sufficient level to limit the extent of the flooding.Solutions adopted elsewhere in Europe, such as processing of the polders in summer polders or depolderization have not been considered. The decision has been taken to repair at the same and to reinforce the previous defences. In a more general way, the elaboration of indexes has been done to improve the

  5. MODIS Collection 6 Shortwave-Derived Cloud Phase Discrimination Algorithm and comparisons with CALIOP and POLDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, B.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, T.; Meyer, K.; Riedi, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud thermodynamic phase (ice or liquid) discrimination is an important first step for cloud retrievals from passive sensors such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Because ice and liquid phase clouds have very different scattering and absorbing properties, an incorrect cloud phase decision can lead to substantial uncertainties in the cloud optical and microphysical property products such as cloud optical thickness or effective particle radius. Furthermore, it is well-established that ice and liquid clouds have different impacts on the Earth's energy budget and hydrological cycle, thus accurately monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of these clouds is of continued importance. For MODIS Collection 6 (C6), the shortwave-derived cloud thermodynamic phase algorithm used by the optical and microphysical property retrievals has been completely rewritten to improve the phase discrimination skill for a variety of cloudy scenes (e.g., thin/thick clouds, over ocean/land/desert/snow/ice surface, etc). To evaluate the performance of the C6 cloud phase algorithm, extensive granule-level and global comparisons have been conducted against the heritage C5 algorithm, CALIOP, and POLDER. A wholesale improvement is seen for C6 compared to C5. We will present an overview of the MODIS C6 cloud phase algorithm updates and their impacts on cloud retrieval statistics, as well as ongoing efforts to continue algorithm improvement.

  6. Analysis of Factors Influencing Soil Salinity, Acidity, and Arsenic Concentration in a Polder in Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, J. C.; Patton, B.; Fry, D. C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Soil samples were collected on Polder 32 in the coastal zone of SW Bangladesh in wet (October) and dry (May) seasons from 2013-2017 and analyzed to characterize the problems of soil salinization and arsenic contamination and identify their causes. Soils are entisols formed from recently deposited, predominantly silt-sized sediments with low carbon concentrations typical of the local mangrove forests. Soluble (DI extract) arsenic concentrations were below the Government of Bangladesh limit of 50 ppb for drinking water. Soil acidity and extract arsenic concentrations exhibit spatial variation but no consistent trends. In October soil extract As is higher and S and pH are lower than in May. These observations suggest that wet season rainwater oxidizes pyrite, reducing soil S and releasing H+, causing pH to decrease. Released iron is oxidized to form Hydrous Ferric Oxyhydroxides (HFOs), which sorb As and increase extractable As in wet season soils. Changes in pH are small due to pH buffering by soil carbonates. Soil and rice paddy water salinities are consistently higher in May than October, reaching levels in May that reduce rice yields. Rice grown in paddies should be unaffected by salt concentrations in the wet season, while arsenic concentrations in soil may be high enough to cause unsafe As levels in produced rice.

  7. On the Retrieval of Ice Cloud Particle Shapes from POLDER Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Loeb, N. G.; Yang, P.

    2004-01-01

    Shapes of ice crystals can significantly affect the radiative transfer in ice clouds. The angular distribution of the polarized reflectance over ice clouds strongly depends on ice crystal shapes. Although the angular-distribution features of the total or polarized reflectance over ice clouds implies a possibility of retrieving ice cloud particle shapes by use of remote sensing data, the accuracy of the retrieval must be evaluated. In this study, a technique, which applies single ice crystal habit and multidirectional polarized radiance to retrieve ice cloud particle shapes, is assessed. Our sensitivity studies show that the retrieved particle shapes &om this algorithm can be considered good approximations to those in actual clouds in calculation of the phase matrix elements. Although a fractal poly-crystal shape or an inhomogeneous hexagonal column may also produce this type of phase functions, more representative single-scattering properties from combinations of natural particle shapes and size distributions may still be necessary in accurate retrieval of other cloud properties such as optical thickness and particle size.

  8. Thermal Casimir-Polder forces on a V-type three-level atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen-Ran; Xu, Jing-Ping; Al-amri, M.; Zhu, Cheng-Jie; Xie, Shuang-Yuan; Yang, Ya-Ping

    2017-09-01

    We study the thermal Casimir-Polder (CP) forces on a V-type three-level atom. The competition between the thermal effect and the quantum interference of the two transition dipoles on the force is investigated. To shed light onto the role of the quantum interference, we analyze two kinds of initial states of the atom, i.e., the superradiant state and the subradiant state. Considering the atom being in the thermal reservoir, the resonant CP force arising from the real photon emission dominates in the evolution of the CP force. Under the zero-temperature condition, the quantum interference can effectively modify the amplitude and the evolution of the force, leading to a long-time force or even the cancellation of the force. Our results reveal that in the finite-temperature case, the thermal photons can enhance the amplitude of all force elements, but have no influence on the net resonant CP force in the steady state, which means that the second law of thermodynamics still works. For the ideal degenerate V-type atom with parallel dipoles under the initial subradiant state, the robust destructive quantum interference overrides the thermal fluctuations, leading to the trapping of the atom in the subradiant state and the disappearance of the CP force. However, in terms of a realistic Zeeman atom, the thermal photons play a significant role during the evolution of the CP force. The thermal fluctuations can enhance the amplitude of the initial CP force by increasing the temperature, and weaken the influence of the quantum interference on the evolution of the CP force from the initial superradiant (subradiant) state to the steady state.

  9. Dependence of the Casimir-Polder interaction between an atom and a cavity wall on atomic and material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostepanenko, V M; Babb, J F; Caride, A O; Klimchitskaya, G L; Zanette, S I

    2006-01-01

    The Casimir-Polder and van der Waals interactions between an atom and a flat cavity wall are investigated under the influence of real conditions including the dynamic polarizability of the atom, actual conductivity of the wall material and nonzero temperature of the wall. The cases of different atoms near metal and dielectric walls are considered. It is shown that to obtain accurate results for the atom-wall interaction at short separations, one should use the complete tabulated optical data for the complex refractive index of the wall material and the accurate dynamic polarizability of an atom. At relatively large separations in the case of a metal wall, one may use the plasma model dielectric function to describe the dielectric properties of the wall material. The obtained results are important for the theoretical interpretation of experiments on quantum reflection and Bose-Einstein condensation

  10. Mutations to the Polder Model: Critical Reflections on ‘Exceptionalism’ and Continuity in the Low Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert De Munck

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review of the book Nederland en het poldermodel [The Netherlands and the Polder Model], the idea that the ‘polder model’ dates from the medieval principalities in the Low Countries is qualified. It is argued that the coupling of the plea for continuity and the focus on one area causes problems. First, the exact differences between the Netherlands and other regions with a strong civil society and tradition of negotiation and power sharing appear hard to pinpoint. The endeavours to do so are often artificial and ignore broader developments of which Dutch history is a part. Secondly, the continuity thesis is not made credible (especially with respect with the transition to the nineteenth century and injustice is done to the contingency and unpredictability of historical developments. The result is a teleological narrative and a missed opportunity for a critical reflection onnationalistic ideas.Veranderingen in het poldermodel. Kritische reflecties op ‘exceptionalisme’ en continuïteit in de Lage LandenIn deze review van het boek Nederland en het poldermodel wordt de idee dat het poldermodel stamt uit de middeleeuwse vorstendommen in de Lage Landen kritisch tegen het licht gehouden. Er wordt geargumenteerd dat de koppeling van het pleidooi voor continuïteit aan de focus op één regio voor problemen zorgt. Enerzijds blijkt het heel erg moeilijk om de vinger te leggen op de precieze verschillen tussen (het huidige Nederland en andere regio’s met een sterke civiele maatschappij en onderhandelingstraditie; dit gaat gepaard met kunstgrepen en het negeren van bredere ontwikkelingen waarvan de Nederlandse geschiedenis deel uitmaakt. Anderzijds wordt de continuïteit (voornamelijk in de overgang naar de negentiende eeuw helemaal niet hard gemaakt en wordt onrecht gedaan aan de contingentie en onvoorspelbaarheid van historische ontwikkelingen. Het resultaat is een teleologisch beeld en een gemiste kans voor een kritische reflectie op

  11. BOREAS RSS-03 Imagery and Snapshots from a Helicopter-Mounted Video Camera

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides images of boreal forests in central Canada collected over numerous tower and auxiliary sites during the BOREAS Intensive Field Campaigns...

  12. Is the Polder Model Good for the Economy?: A New Interpretation of Dutch Economic and Social History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Davids

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The book Nederland en het poldermodel [The Netherlands and the Polder Model] is a commendable effort to present a new, theory-informed interpretation of the economic and social history of the Netherlands of the last thousand years. However, this review questions the supposed causal relationship between civil society (‘polder model’ and economic growth. The authors assume that economic growth emanates from a vibrant civil society and that likewise economic decline coincides with a weakening of civil society. Upon closer inspection however, their concepts seem to be imperfectly related to the theories they claim to use as inspiration. Thesupposed waning of civil society after 1670 and after 1815 is not substantiated by historical facts either. Their thesis would have benefited greatly from a comparative analysis, both spatially and in time. The rather haphazard use of the term ‘civil society’ precludes convincing conclusions over time, while an international perspective is lacking altogether – a sadly missed opportunity.Is het poldermodel goed voor de economie? Een nieuwe interpretatie van de Nederlandse economische en sociale geschiedenisHet boek Nederland en het poldermodel is een lovenswaardige poging om een nieuwe, op theoretische basis geschoeide interpretatie van de sociale en economische geschiedenis van Nederland van de laatste duizend jaar te presenteren. Deze bijdrage stelt echter vragen bij het veronderstelde causale verband tussen ‘civil society’ (het poldermodel en economische groei. De auteurs nemen aan dat economische groei optreedt als een civil society sterk is en dat omgekeerd economisch verval zich voordoet als een civil society verzwakt. Bij nader inzien blijken hun concepten niet goed te sporen met de theorieën die hen tot inspiratie dienen. De veronderstelde kwijnende civil society na 1670 en na 1815 is ook niet op historische feiten gebaseerd. Hun stelling zou aan kracht hebben gewonnen indien zij een

  13. Assimilation of Polder aerosol optical thickness into LMD2-Inca model in order to study aerosol-climate interactions; Etude des interactions entre aerosols et climat: assimilation des observations spatiales de Polder dans LMDz-Inca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, S.

    2004-12-15

    Aerosols influence the Earth radiative budget both through their direct (scattering and absorption of solar radiation) and indirect (impacts on cloud microphysics) effects. The anthropogenic perturbation due to aerosol emissions is of the same order of magnitude than the one due to greenhouse gases, but less well known. To improve our knowledge, we need to better know aerosol spatial and temporal distributions. Indeed, aerosol modeling still suffers from large uncertainties in sources and transport, while satellite observations are incomplete (no detection in the presence of clouds, no information on the vertical distribution or on the chemical nature). Moreover, field campaigns are localized in space and time. This study aims to reduce uncertainties in aerosol distributions, developing assimilation of satellite data into a chemical transport model. The basic idea is to combine information obtained from spatial observation (optical thickness) and modeling studies (aerosol types, vertical distribution). In this study, we assimilate data from the POLDER space-borne instrument into the LMDz-INCA model. The results show the advantage of merging information from different sources. In many regions, the method reduces uncertainties on aerosol distribution (reduction of RMS error). An application of the method to the study of aerosol impact on cloud microphysics is shown. (author)

  14. Insights in nutrient sources and transport from high-frequency monitoring at the outlet pumping station of an agricultural lowland polder catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Van der Grift, B.; Broers, H. P.; Berendrecht, W.; Oste, L.; Griffioen, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present new insights in nutrient sources and transport processes in an agricultural-dominated lowland water system based on high-frequency monitoring technology. Starting in October 2014, we have collected semi-continuous measurements of the TP and NO3 concentrations, conductivity and water temperature at a large scale pumping station at the outlet of a 576 km2 polder catchment. The semi-continuous measurements complement a water quality monitoring program at six locations within the drainage area based on conventional monthly or biweekly grab sampling. The NO3 and TP concentrations at the pumping station varied between 0.5 and 10 mgN/L and 0.1 and 0.5 mgP/L. The seasonal trends and short scale concentration dynamics clearly indicated that most of the NO3 loads at the pumping station originated from subsurface drain tubes that were active after intensive rainfall events during the winter months. A transfer function-noise model of hourly NO3 concentrations reveals that a large part of the dynamics in NO3 concentrations during the winter months can be predicted using rainfall data. In February however, NO3 concentrations were higher than predicted due to direct losses after the first manure application. The TP concentration almost doubled during operation of the pumping station. This highlights resuspension of particulate P from channel bed sediments induced by the higher flow velocities during pumping. Rainfall events that caused peaks in NO3 concentrations did not result in TP concentration peaks. Direct effects of run-off, with an association increase in the TP concentration and decrease of the NO3concentration, was only observed during rainfall event at the end of a freeze-thaw cycle. The high-frequency monitoring at the outlet of an agricultural-dominated lowland water system in combination with low-frequency monitoring within the area provided insight in nutrient sources and transport processes that are highly relevant for water quality

  15. Dispersion forces in micromechanics: Casimir and Casimir-Polder forces affected by geometry and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingsen, Simen Andreas Aadnoey

    2011-01-15

    The present thesis focuses on several topics within three separate but related branches of the overall field of dispersion forces. The three branches are: temperature corrections to the Casimir force between real materials (Part 1), explicit calculation of Casimir energy in wedge geometries (Part 2), and Casimir-Polder forces on particles out of thermal equilibrium (Part 3). Part 1 deals primarily with analysis of a previously purported thermodynamic inconsistency in the Casimir-Lifshitz free energy of the interaction of two plane mirrors - violation of the third law of thermodynamics - when the latter's dielectric response is described with dissipative models. It is shown analytically and numerically that the Casimir entropy of the interaction between two metallic mirrors described by the Drude model does tend to zero at zero temperature, provided electronic relaxation does not vanish. The leading order terms at low temperature are found. A similar calculation is carried out for the interaction of semiconductors with small but non-zero DC conductivity. In a generalisation, it is shown that a violation of the third law can only occur for permittivities whose low-frequency behaviour is temperature dependent near zero temperature. A calculation using path integral methods shows that the low temperature behaviour of the interaction of fluctuating Foucault currents in two mirrors of Drude metal is identical to that of the full Casimir-Lifshitz free energy, reasserting a previous finding by Intravaia and Henkel that such fluctuating bulk currents are the physical reason for the anomalous entropy behaviour. In a related effort, an analysis of the frequency dependence of the Casimir force by Ford is generalised to imperfectly reflecting mirrors. A paradox is pointed out, in that the effects of a perturbation of the reflecting properties of the mirrors in a finite frequency window can be calculated in two ways giving different results. It is concluded that optimistic

  16. Fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane and classical Casimir-Polder force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Partha

    2016-05-01

    We start with the well-known expression for the vacuum polarization and suitably modify it for 2+1-dimensional spin-orbit coupled (SOC) fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane described by the low-energy Liu-Yao-Feng-Ezawa (LYFE) model Hamiltonian involving the Dirac matrices in the chiral representation obeying the Clifford algebra. The silicene and germanene fit this description suitably. They have the Dirac cones similar to those of graphene and SOC is much stronger. The system could be normal or ferromagnetic in nature. The silicene turns into the latter type if there is exchange field arising due to the proximity coupling to a ferromagnet (FM) such as depositing Fe atoms to the silicene surface. For the silicene, we find that the many-body effects considerably change the bare Coulomb potential by way of the dependence of the Coulomb propagator on the real-spin, iso-spin and the potential due to an electric field applied perpendicular to the silicene plane. The computation aspect of the Casimir-Polder force (CPF) needs to be investigated in this paper. An important quantity in this process is the dielectric response function (DRF) of the material. The plasmon branch was obtained by finding the zeros of DRF in the long-wavelength limit. This leads to the plasmon frequencies. We find that the collective charge excitations at zero doping, i.e., intrinsic plasmons, in this system, are absent in the Dirac limit. The valley-spin-split intrinsic plasmons, however, come into being in the case of the massive Dirac particles with characteristic frequency close to 10 THz. Our scheme to calculate the Casimir-Polder interaction (CPI) of a micro-particle with a sheet involves replacing the dielectric constant of the sample in the CPI expression obtained on the basis of the Lifshitz theory by the static DRF obtained using the expressions for the polarization function we started with. Though the approach replaces a macroscopic constant by a microscopic

  17. Quantum electrodynamics based on self-energy, without second quantization: The Lamb shift and long-range Casimir-Polder van der Waals forces near boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Dowling, J.P.

    1986-12-01

    Using a previously formulated theory of quantum electrodynamics based on self-energy, we give a general method for computing the Lamb shift and related Casimir-Polder energies for a quantum system in the vicinity of perfectly conducting boundaries. Our results are exact and easily extendable to a full covariant relativistic form. As a particular example we apply the method to an atom near an infinite conducting plane, and we recover the standard QED results (which are known only in the dipole approximation) in a simple and straightforward manner. This is accomplished in the context of the new theory which is not second quantized and contains no vacuum fluctuations. (author)

  18. PATRONES ESPECTRALES MULTI-ANGULARES DE CLASES GLOBALES DE COBERTURAS DEL SUELO USANDO, EL SENSOR REMOTO POLDER-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Paz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El uso de información espectral multi-angular de sensores remotos en plataformas espaciales tiene el potencial de discriminar clases de coberturas del suelo y otras aplicaciones. En este trabajo se explora el uso de la base del sensor POLDER-1(fuera de operación en la plataforma ADEOS, el cual permitió obtener hasta 14 mediciones multi-angulares de un mismo pixel. La base de datos fue analizada ajustando un modelo de la función de distribución bidireccional de las reflectancias (BRDF en las bandas centradas en 443, 565, 670, 765 y 865 micrómetros, para diferentes clases de cobertura del suelo del sistema GLC2000 y así analizar el potencial de usar información multi-angular para discriminar clases de cobertura. Los resultados mostraron los mejores ajustes en las bandas 765 y 865, seguidos por las bandas 565 y 670 y, finalmente, los peores ajustes se dieron en la banda 443. Los errores de ajuste pueden ser interpretados por problemas en la corrección atmosférica asociada a los aerosoles troposféricos (mayores efectos en las bandas del visible. Con el modelo de la BRDF ajustado, que usa un solo parámetro (G, se analizó su uso para discriminar clases de cobertura, resultando que la banda 670, seguida por la 443, mostraron un mayor potencial, con una precisión aceptable, de realizar una clasificación de coberturas del suelo.

  19. Flood risk, uncertainty and changing river protection policy in the Netherlands: the case of 'calamity polders'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Warner, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Extreme river discharges, floods and debates about climate change triggered a shift in flood protection policy in the Netherlands from infrastructural to spatial measures. The new policy directive of `Room for the River¿, details of which were introduced in 2000, should prepare the country for

  20. Closed polderized housing developments in the lower basin of the Río Luján: Approaches to this phenomenon's dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper springs up from reflecting upon the connection between global capitalism and urbanization, specifically of the transformations produced in the metropolitan territories during the past two decades. What can be particularly observed is the spreading of closed polderized housing developments (CPHD, the new forms of production in residential areas on the borders of the metropolitan conglomerate of Buenos Aires, whose development implies an extensive demand of the soil in areas of great patrimonial value and environmental fragility, like the wetlands in the lower basin of the Río Luján. From such a perspective, this work contributes elements which allow for a characterization and dimensioning of the phenomenon, based on a thorough surveying of the variables deemed essential by the study, by comparing databases from public institutions, journalistic information and real estate developers' web sites from the area.

  1. The effect of Sphagnum farming on the greenhouse gas balance of donor and propagation areas, irrigation polders and commercial cultivation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestmann, Jan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel

    2017-04-01

    Drainage of peatlands for agriculture, forestry and peat extraction turned these landscapes into hotspots of greenhouse gas emissions. Climate protection now fosters rewetting projects to restore the natural peatland function as a sink of atmospheric carbon. One possible way to combine ecological and economical goals is Sphagnum farming, i.e. the cultivation of Sphagnum mosses as high-quality substrates for horticulture. This project scientifically evaluates the attempt of commercial Sphagnum farming on former peat extraction sites in north-western Germany. The exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) of the whole peatland-based production chain comprising a donor mire, a propagation area, an irrigation polder and a cultivation site will be determined in a high temporal resolution for two years using manual chambers. This will allow evaluating the greenhouse gas balance of Sphagnum farming sites in comparison to near-natural sites and the potential of Sphagnum farming for restoring drained peatlands to sinks of atmospheric carbon. The influence of different irrigation techniques will also be tested. Additionally, selected plots will be equipped with open top chambers in order to examine the greenhouse gas exchange under potential future climate change conditions. Finally, a 13C pulse labeling experiment will make it possible to trace the newly sequestered CO2 in biomass, soil, respiration and dissolved organic carbon.

  2. Discriminación de coberturas del suelo usando datos espectrales multi-angulares del sensor polder-1: alcances y limitaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Paz Pellat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La información espectral multi-angular (visión de un píxel desde diferentes ángulos de visión y con ángulos de iluminación solar diferentes obtenida de sensores remotos tiene potencial para una discriminación adecuada de clases de coberturas del suelo. De acuerdo con varios esfuerzos realizados para poder analizar la capacidad de discriminación de las clases de cobertura del suelo, se introduce un marco teórico-conceptual para el análisis de la información espectral, angular y temporal (tamaño de píxel fijo. En este trabajo se explora el uso del sensor POLDER-1. La base de datos fue analizada ajustando un modelo de la función de distribución bidireccional de las reflectancias (BRDF en las bandas espectrales disponibles, para diferentes clases de cobertura del suelo del sistema GLC2000. Los resultados experimentales muestran adecuados ajustes a nivel de píxeles y datos diarios. Con los parámetros ajustados del modelo de la BRDF se analizó el potencial de discriminación usando espacios espectrales de las bandas de la región del rojo e infrarrojo cercano, utilizando diferentes resoluciones temporales y espaciales (agrupación de píxeles. Los resultados mostraron alta confusión (traslapes de posición en espacios espectrales, detectándose limitaciones de dichos enfoques para el caso de confusiones debidas a mezclas de clases o causadas por la dinámica temporal de las mismas. Al final se define un esquema para aproximar la clasificación de la vegetación al acoplar la información disponible en los sensores ópticos y las clases que pueden ser discriminadas.

  3. Consistency of aerosols above clouds characterization from A-Train active and passive measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaconu, Lucia T.; Waquet, Fabien; Josset, Damien; Ferlay, Nicolas; Peers, Fanny; Thieuleux, François; Ducos, Fabrice; Pascal, Nicolas; Tanré, Didier; Pelon, Jacques; Goloub, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    This study presents a comparison between the retrieval of optical properties of aerosol above clouds (AAC) from different techniques developed for the A-Train sensors CALIOP/CALIPSO and POLDER/PARASOL. The main objective is to analyse the consistency between the results derived from the active and the passive measurements. We compare the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) above optically thick clouds (cloud optical thickness (COT) larger than 3) and their Ångström exponent (AE). These parameters are retrieved with the CALIOP operational method, the POLDER operational polarization method and the CALIOP-based depolarization ratio method (DRM) - for which we also propose a calibrated version (denominated DRMSODA, where SODA is the Synergized Optical Depth of Aerosols). We analyse 6 months of data over three distinctive regions characterized by different types of aerosols and clouds. Additionally, for these regions, we select three case studies: a biomass-burning event over the South Atlantic Ocean, a Saharan dust case over the North Atlantic Ocean and a Siberian biomass-burning event over the North Pacific Ocean. Four and a half years of data are studied over the entire globe for distinct situations where aerosol and cloud layers are in contact or vertically separated. Overall, the regional analysis shows a good correlation between the POLDER and the DRMSODA AOTs when the microphysics of aerosols is dominated by fine-mode particles of biomass-burning aerosols from southern Africa (correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.83) or coarse-mode aerosols of Saharan dust (R2 of 0.82). A good correlation between these methods (R2 of 0.68) is also observed in the global treatment, when the aerosol and cloud layers are separated well. The analysis of detached layers also shows a mean difference in AOT of 0.07 at 532 nm between POLDER and DRMSODA at a global scale. The correlation between the retrievals decreases when a complex mixture of aerosols is expected (R2 of 0.37) - as in the

  4. Geoarchaeological prospection of a Medieval manor in the Dutch polders using an electromagnetic induction sensor in combination with soil augerings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, D.; Lehouck, A.; Meirvenne, M.; Bourgeois, J.; Thoen, E.; Vervloet, J.

    2008-01-01

    In archaeological prospection, geophysical sensors are increasingly being used to locate buried remains within their natural context. To cover a large area in sufficient detail, an electromagnetic induction sensor can be very useful, measuring simultaneously the electrical conductivity and the

  5. Top-of-Atmosphere Albedo Estimation from POLDER Multi-Angle Measurements: Evaluation of Water and Ice Cloud Radiative Transfer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Norman G.

    2005-01-01

    This final grant report lists accomplishments from the reporting period, and includes citations and abstracts for published or submitted papers produced under the grant in which a co-investigator is the lead author.

  6. The Earth as a Polder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    enrich the soil; why volcanic soils are less resilient than glacial soils; how controlling forest fires can worsen them; the unforseen consequences of introducing new species of plants and animals into a terrain; depletion of soil quality; changing air quality; what pre- cautions need to be taken when drilling for oil; the different ...

  7. The Earth as a Polder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pens if you live in Greenland and refuse to eat fish; culturally-conditioned responses to change that may be completely inappropriate; overpopulation; correlation between political and environmental hotspots; how different groups can respond differently to the same circumstances, one surviving and the other dying out; how ...

  8. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  9. Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tanré

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Instruments dedicated to aerosol monitoring are recently available and the POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances instrument on board the PARASOL (Polarization & Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar mission is one of them. By measuring the spectral, angular and polarization properties of the radiance at the top of the atmosphere, in coordination with the other A-Train instruments, PARASOL provides the aerosol optical depths (AOD as well as several optical and microphysical aerosol properties. The instrument, the inversion schemes and the list of aerosol parameters are described. Examples of retrieved aerosol parameters are provided as well as innovative approaches and further inversion techniques.

  10. Coherent Uncertainty Analysis of Aerosol Measurements from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow / ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which is the only one of the sensors capable of measuring polarized aerosols, outperforms other sensors in

  11. Coherent uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from multiple satellite sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua, MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS – altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products – were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/. The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT retrievals during 2006–2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 7%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2 values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.8 for many of the analyzed products, while root mean square error (RMSE values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.07 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different land cover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the land cover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow/ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface closed shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which is the only one of the sensors capable of measuring polarized aerosols, outperforms other sensors in certain

  12. A Precise Measurement of the Deuteron Elastic Structure Function A(Q2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honegger, Andrian [Univ. of Basel (Switzerland)

    1999-12-07

    During summer 1997 experiment 394-018 measured the deuteron tensor polarization in D(e,e'$vec\\{d}$) scattering in Hall C at Jefferson Laboratory. In a momentum transfer range between 0.66 and 1.8 (GeV=c)2, with slight changes in the experimental setup, the collaboration performed six precision measurements of the deuteron structure function A(Q2) in elastic D(e,e'd) scattering . Scattered electrons and recoil deuterons were detected in coincidence in the High Momentum Spectrometer and the recoil polarimeter POLDER, respectively. At every kinematics H(e,e') data were taken to study systematic effects of the measurement. These new precise measurements resolve discrepancies between older data sets and put significant constraints on existing models of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the Commissariat 'a l'Energie Atomique, the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation and the K.C. Wong Foundation.

  13. Mobility assessment: sensitivity and specificity of measurement sets in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Victoria P; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Hall, Charles B; Wolfson, Leslie I

    2011-06-01

    To identify quantitative measurement variables that characterize mobility in older adults, meet reliability and validity criteria, distinguish fall risk, and predict future falls. Observational study with 1-year weekly falls follow-up. Mobility laboratory. Community-dwelling volunteers (N=74; age, 65-94y) categorized at entry as 27 nonfallers or 47 fallers by using Medicare criteria (1 injury fall or >1 noninjury fall in the previous year). None. Test-retest and within-subject reliability, criterion and concurrent validity; predictive ability indicated by observed sensitivity and specificity to entry fall-risk group (falls status), Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), computerized dynamic posturography Sensory Organization Test (SOT), and subsequent falls reported weekly. Measurement variables were selected that met reliability (intraclass coefficient of correlation >.6) and/or discrimination (Polder adults with different functional activity levels, and composite scores were calculated. Scores identified entry falls status and concurred with POMA and SOT scores. The full clinical set (5 measurement variables) produced sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 74% to falls status. Composite scores were more sensitive and specific overall in predicting subsequent injury falls and multiple falls compared with falls status and POMA or SOT score. Sets of quantitative measurement variables obtained with this mobility battery provided sensitive prediction of future injury falls and screening for multiple subsequent falls by using tasks that should be appropriate to diverse participants. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio derived from passive satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-M. Bréon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne reflectance measurements from the POLDER instrument are used to study the specific directional signature close to the backscatter direction. The data analysis makes it possible to derive the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (EBR, which is related to the inverse of the scattering phase function for an angle of 180° and is needed for a quantitative interpretation of lidar observations (active measurements. In addition, the multidirectional measurements are used to quantify the scattering phase function variations close to backscatter, which also provide some indication of the aerosol particle size and shape. The spatial distributions of both parameters show consistent patterns that are consistent with the aerosol type distributions. Pollution aerosols have an EBR close to 70, desert dust values are on the order of 50 and EBR of marine aerosols is close to 25. The scattering phase function shows an increase with the scattering angle close to backscatter. The relative increase ∂lnP/∂γ is close to 0.01 for dust and pollution type aerosols and 0.06 for marine type aerosols. These values are consistent with those retrieved from Mie simulations.

  15. Retrieval of Cloud Properties from the Multi-spectral, Multi-viewing and Polarized Measurements of the Airborne Polarimeter OSIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, C.; Cornet, C.; Parol, F.; C-Labonnote, L.; Auriol, F.; Nicolas, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds are recognized as a major source of uncertainty in forecasting the evolution of climate change. One way to improve our knowledge is to obtain accurate cloud properties and variabilities at high spatial resolution. Airborne remote sensing measurements are very suitable to achieve these targets with a tens of meters resolution. In this context, we exploit multi-viewing measurements of the new airborne radiometer OSIRIS (Observing System Including Polarization in the Solar Infrared Spectrum), developed in the Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique (LOA). It is based on POLDER concept as a prototype of the future spacecraft 3MI (Multi-Viewing Multi-Channel Multi-Polarisation Imaging Mission) that will be part of the EPS-SG Eumetsat-ESA mission. Currently, most operational remote sensing algorithms used to retrieve cloud properties from passive measurements, are based on the construction of pre-calculated Look-Up Tables (LUT) under the hypothesis of a single plane-parallel cloud layer. This assumption leads to certain limitations and possible large errors.We developed an optimal estimation method to retrieve cloud optical thickness and effective radius of cloud droplets. This inversion method is more flexible than the LUT method and allows to take into account uncertainties on both observations and the physical model leading to a direct estimation of the retrievals uncertainties in a well-established formalism. For example, we include uncertainties on retrieved cloud parameters due to an incorrect estimation of the ocean surface winds speed, the cloud vertical profiles and the 3D radiative transfer effects.OSIRIS has two separate optical sensors, one for the visible and near infrared range and the other one for the shortwave infrared (SWIR). Consequently, the developed algorithms are based on two different types of information: (1) the total and polarized multi-viewing reflectances from the visible range and (2) the multi-viewing total reflectances from two SWIR

  16. Lessons from the Polder. Is Dutch CO2-Taxation Optimal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates energy tax reform in the Netherlands between 1988 and 2002 from a climate change perspective. A tax on fuels and the so-called regulatory energy tax since 1996 are examples of indirect and non-uniform taxation of emissions. The overall tax base and rate structure corroborates recent theoretical findings that heterogeneity in production processes and transaction costs may justify optimal departures from the Pigovian corrective tax rule. Surprisingly, the Dutch revenue-raising tax matches the (modified) Pigovian policy prescription rather well, whereas the regulatory energy tax mainly follows the revenue raising Ramsey logic. Further improvements of the energy tax structure are also discussed, such as targeting the energy tax base and linking the tax rate more precisely to fuel characteristics

  17. Polder saab Natura-alaks / Mati Määrits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Määrits, Mati, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    Brüsselis toimunud Elupaikade Komitee kokkusaamisel kiideti heaks 83 LIFE-Nature projekti taotlust. Eesti kaheksast projektist jäid sõelale Silma looduskaitseala ja Räpina poldri linnukaitseprojektid

  18. Retrieval of Saharan desert dust optical depth from thermal infrared measurements by IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, S.; Kochenova, S.; Vandaele, A.-C.; Kumps, N.; De Mazière, M.

    2012-04-01

    Aerosols are a major actor in the climate system. They are responsible for climate forcing by both direct (by emission, absorption and scattering) and indirect effects (for example, by altering cloud microphysics). A better knowledge of aerosol optical properties, of the atmospheric aerosol load and of aerosol sources and sinks may therefore significantly improve the modeling of climate changes. Aerosol optical depth and other properties are retrieved on an operational basis from daytime measurements in the visible and near infrared spectral range by a number of instruments, like the satellite instruments MODIS, CALIOP, POLDER, MISR and ground-based sunphotometers. Aerosol retrievals from day and night measurements at thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths (for example, from SEVIRI, AIRS and IASI satellite instruments) are less common, but they receive growing interest in more recent years. Among those TIR measuring instruments, IASI on METOP has one major advantage for aerosol retrievals: its large continuous spectral coverage, allowing to better capture the broadband signature of aerosols. Furthermore, IASI has a high spectral resolution (0.5cm-1 after apodization) which allows retrieving a large number of trace gases at the same time, it will nominally be in orbit for 15 years and offers a quasi global Earth coverage twice a day. Here we will show recently obtained results of desert aerosol properties (concentration, altitude, optical depth) retrieved from IASI TIR measurements, using the ASIMUT software (BIRA-IASB, Belgium) linked to (V)LIDORT (R. Spurr, RTsolutions Inc, US) and to SPHER (M. Mishchenko, NASA GISS, USA). In particular, we will address the case of Saharan desert dust storms, which are a major source of desert dust particles in the atmosphere. Those storms frequently transport sand to Europe, Western Asia or even South America. We will show some test-case comparisons between our retrievals and measurements from other instruments like those listed

  19. From optical lattice clocks to the measurement of forces in the Casimir regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Peter; Lemonde, Pierre; Bize, Sebastien; Landragin, Arnaud; Clairon, Andre; Lambrecht, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    We describe an experiment based on atoms trapped close to a macroscopic surface, to study the interactions between the atoms and the surface at very small separations (0.6-10 μm). In this range the dominant potential is the QED interaction (Casimir-Polder and van der Waals) between the surface and the atom. Additionally, several theoretical models suggest the possibility of Yukawa-type potentials with sub-millimeter range, arising from new physics related to gravity. The proposed setup is very similar to neutral atom optical lattice clocks, but with the atoms trapped in lattice sites close to the reflecting mirror. A sequence of pulses of the probe laser at different frequencies is then used to create an interferometer with a coherent superposition between atomic states at different distances from the mirror (in different lattice sites). Assuming atom interferometry state-of-the-art measurement of the phase difference and a duration of the superposition of about 0.1 s, we expect to be able to measure the potential difference between separated states with an uncertainty of ≅10 -4 Hz. An analysis of systematic effects for different atoms and surfaces indicates no fundamentally limiting effect at the same level of uncertainty, but does influence the choice of atom and surface material. Based on those estimates, we expect that such an experiment would improve the best existing measurements of the atom-wall QED interaction by ≥ 2 orders of magnitude, while gaining up to four orders of magnitude on the best present limits on new interactions in the range between 100 nm and 100 μm

  20. Measures for Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; A.D., Jackson; Lautrup, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    Are some ways of measuring scientific quality better than others? Sune Lehmann, Andrew D. Jackson and Benny E. Lautrup analyse the reliability of commonly used methods for comparing citation records.......Are some ways of measuring scientific quality better than others? Sune Lehmann, Andrew D. Jackson and Benny E. Lautrup analyse the reliability of commonly used methods for comparing citation records....

  1. Measurement Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jun Hui; Kim, Hyeong Cheol

    2001-08-15

    This book deals with conception of measurement such as measuring and test, instrument for measurement, and types and methods of measuring, general things for precision measurement like indicator, gauge standard and Abbe's principle, measuring instrument such as vernier calipers, micrometer calipers, each gage, an optical instrument, and 3D instrument, choice and using of measuring instrument on length measurement, angle measurement, and side measurement, application and calculation for measuring using trigonometrical function, sin law, and the Pythagorean Theorem.

  2. Measure for measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The present system of measures for length, weight and capacity (volume) originates from scientific ideas expressed during the French Revolution in 1789. The history of a compatible unit of length, however, turns out to be less of a scientific but rather of a political character. Here reports to the Philosophical Magazine made in the first quarter of the nineteenth century are used to trace the cultural split between meters and inches, and between kilograms and pounds, that can be experienced in many parts of the world.

  3. Temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003400.htm Temperature measurement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. It can also monitor ...

  4. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  5. Measurement evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, A

    1990-01-01

    The information obtained about a measured object is called ``crude'' measurement information and must be related to the conditions under which the measurement took place. Using ``crude'' measurement information as a starting point, evaluation produces physically correctly interpreted data with their estimated (or corrected) error. Although a number of works deal with the evaluation of measurements, they either appeared a long time ago or serve essentially different aims. This book gives a comprehensive and current overview on the basic principles, aids, devices, and methods in the eval

  6. Planning of technical flood retention measures in large river basins under consideration of imprecise probabilities of multivariate hydrological loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nijssen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the severe floods in Europe at the turn of the millennium, the ongoing shift from safety oriented flood control towards flood risk management was accelerated. With regard to technical flood control measures it became evident that the effectiveness of flood control measures depends on many different factors, which cannot be considered with single events used as design floods for planning. The multivariate characteristics of the hydrological loads have to be considered to evaluate complex flood control measures. The effectiveness of spatially distributed flood control systems differs for varying flood events. Event-based characteristics such as the spatial distribution of precipitation, the shape and volume of the resulting flood waves or the interactions of flood waves with the technical elements, e.g. reservoirs and flood polders, result in varying efficiency of these systems. Considering these aspects a flood control system should be evaluated with a broad range of hydrological loads to get a realistic assessment of its performance under different conditions. The consideration of this variety in flood control planning design was one particular aim of this study. Hydrological loads were described by multiple criteria. A statistical characterization of these criteria is difficult, since the data base is often not sufficient to analyze the variety of possible events. Hydrological simulations were used to solve this problem. Here a deterministic-stochastic flood generator was developed and applied to produce a large quantity of flood events which can be used as scenarios of possible hydrological loads. However, these simulations imply many uncertainties. The results will be biased by the basic assumptions of the modeling tools. In flood control planning probabilities are applied to characterize uncertainties. The probabilities of the simulated flood scenarios differ from probabilities which would be derived from long time series

  7. Quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....

  8. Measuring competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    J. Peter Neary

    2005-01-01

    An earlier version was presented at the Conference on Macroeconomic Perspectives in Honour of Brendan M. Walsh, held at University College Dublin on 7 October, 2005 This paper reviews alternative approaches to measuring an economy?s cost competitiveness and proposes some new measures inspired by the economic theory of index numbers. The indices provide a theoretical benchmark for estimated real effective exchange rates, but differ from standard measures in that they are based on marginal r...

  9. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G

    2011-01-01

    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  10. Mechanical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Venkateshan, S P

    2015-01-01

    The first edition of this book was co-published by Ane Books India, and CRC Press in 2008. This second edition is an enlarged version of the web course developed by the author at IIT Madras, and also a modified and augmented version of the earlier book.  Major additions/modifications presented are in the treatment of errors in measurement, temperature measurement, measurement of thermo-physical properties, and data manipulation. Many new worked examples have been introduced in this new and updated second edition. 

  11. Lessons from the polder. Energy tax design in The Netherlands from a climate change perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates energy tax reform in The Netherlands between 1988 and 2002 from a climate change perspective. In particular, the introduction of two (indirect) taxes on energy products is now responsible for a considerable amount of tax revenue from a green tax base. The paper discusses the energy tax base and rate structure from a modern Pigovian tax perspective and illustrates the practical difficulties involved in the indirect and non-uniform taxation of emissions. Also further improvements of the energy tax structure are discussed, such as a better targeting of the energy tax base and tax rate to fuel characteristics. (author)

  12. Casimir-Polder forces on atoms in the presence of magnetoelectronic bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhmann, S.Y.

    2007-07-05

    In this work, the CP force between a single neutral atom or molecule and neutral magnetoelectric bodies is studied. The focus lies on the pure vacuum CP force, i.e., the electromagnetic field is in general understood to be in its ground state. Furthermore, we assume that the atom-body separation is sufficiently large to ensure that the atom is adequately characterised as an electric dipole, while the body can be described by its macroscopic magnetoelectric properties; and that repulsive exchange forces due to the overlap between the electronic wave functions of the atom and the bodies can be neglected. Interactions due to non-vanishing net charges, permanent electric dipole moments, magnetisability, quadrupole (or higher multipole) polarisabilities of the atom and those resulting from non-local or anisotropic magnetoelectric properties of the bodies are ignored. (orig.)

  13. Risk based design of land reclamation and the feasibility of the polder terminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.; Jonkman, S.N.; Peters, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    New ports are mostly constructed on low lying coastal areas or in shallow coastal waters. The quay wall and terminal yard are raised to a level well above mean sea level to assure flood safety. The resulting ‘conventional terminal’ requires large volumes of good quality fill material often dredged

  14. Aspects related to evolution of some soil salts in southern part of Pardina polder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIERLĂ Marian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects related to evolution of soil salts in the 1976 – 2006 period. In the present workl are shown two different situations of salts concentration, due the fact that in the target area there were two kinds of land cover. The first was represented by wetlands and the second (recent one is representedby arable land and permanent crops. Due the numerous changes there are two main tendencies in salt evolution: one is the second salinization process and the second is the salts wash away process.

  15. Earthworms (Aporrectodea spp.; Lumbricidae) cause soil structure problems in young Dutch polders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Rozen, van K.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of earthworms in relation to clay soil structure problems in arable fields in the Flevopolders (the Netherlands) was studied. Recently, farmers in this area have had difficulty in harvesting potatoes in predominantly wet years. After a dry period, soil particles in the top layer of the

  16. Japanese business in the Dutch polder: the experience of cultural differences in asymmetrical power relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byun, H.H.; Ybema, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    The article investigates the interrelation between organizational context and human agency in intercultural interactions. Arguing against the dominant approach in cross-cultural research that relies heavily on 'objective' dimension scores and therewith dissociates culture from actual intercultural

  17. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Siderius, C.; Verheul, M.; Pomarius, H.

    2012-01-01

    Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain

  18. Hydrological controls on salinity exposure and the effects on plants in lowland polders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stofberg, Sija F.

    2017-01-01

    The Dutch lowlands may be subject to salinization, through saline upward seepage and increased salt concentrations in the surface water, which may affect agriculture and nature areas with floating fens. A simple approach was proposed to estimate root zone salinization in areas with fresh water

  19. Landscape assessment method at a European level; a case study of polder landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, J.A.; Bethe, F.; Wijermans, M.; Ypma, K.W.

    1999-01-01

    International and national policies relating to landscape values rely on an adequate assessment method. The SWOT method (strength, weakness, opportunities and threats) proposed here combines geographical data, valuation procedures, insight into trendsin land use, and identification of threats and

  20. Measuring colour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, R. W. G; Pointer, Michael, Ph. D

    2011-01-01

    ... industries.Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of [start italics]Measuring Colour[end italics] has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources...

  1. Environmental Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  2. Horizon measures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Eugene

    2016-11-28

    In this paper we seek to answer the following question: where do contour lines and visible contour lines (silhouette) tend to occur in a 3D surface. Our study leads to two novel shape descriptors, the horizon measure and the visible horizon measure, which we apply to the visualization of 3D shapes including archeological artifacts. In addition to introducing the shape descriptors, we also provide a closed-form formula for the horizon measure based on classical spherical geometry. To compute the visible horizon measure, which depends on the exact computation of the surface visibility function, we instead of provide an image-based approach which can process a model with high complexity within a few minutes.

  3. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossan, D.B.; Warburton, E.K.

    1974-01-01

    Lifetime measurements are discussed, concentrating on the electronic technique, the recoil distance method (RDM), and the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). A brief review of several indirect timing techniques is given, and their specific advantages and applicability are considered. The relationship between lifetimes of nuclear states and the nuclear structure information obtained from them is examined. A short discussion of channeling and microwave methods of lifetime measurement is presented. (23 figures, 171 references) (U.S.)

  4. Anthropomorphic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    1998-01-01

    Based on decisions taken during the Research Coordination Meetings in Mito City 1988 and Bombay 1991, the participants were requested to provide data on physical measurement parameters of body height, body weight, sitting height, head circumference, neck circumference, chest circumference, chest width and chest depth which represented the age groups as newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years and adult 20-50 years. Accordingly, physical measurement data was obtained by participants from 9 countries

  5. Measuring needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Murianni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in measuring the health of populations, through measuring the demand and offers of health care, is deeply rooted in history. Population health indicators in use today are built upon from mortality measures from the 1500s; regular census information starting from the 1800s; civil registration records of vital statistics commencing in the 1850s; regular national surveys, which were first initiated in the 1950s; and health system and other administrative databases used widely since the 1960s. The ancient Greeks believed that the God of medicine had two daughters: Hygeia and Panacea, the first was the goddess of prevention and wellness, while the second was the goddess of treatment. Thus suggesting that people have long believed that there is more to health than health care. Today the actual concept of population health recognizes many interconnected aspects of society, the environment, and individuals all contributing to health. To increase opportunities for comparability, more valid, comprehensive and standardized ways of measuring and reporting on population health indicators are needed. The use of health indicators contributes to overall population health goals, namely improving the health populations, reducing health inequalities and measuring the performance of health care system. The objective of performance assessment is to provide governments and populations with information about the state of their health care system.

  6. Against 'measurement'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, John

    1990-01-01

    This author of this article rails against the term ''measurement'' as it is commonly used in quantum mechanics. Many terms such as this are full of common place, everyday associations which are entirely inappropriate to the quantum world and lead to misunderstanding even amongst physicists. Measurement implies, at least for laboratory experiments, that the complexities of the real world have been simplified to the minimum number of variables. This can never be so for quantum mechanics where the act of measurement is intrinsic to the result, where even the mind of the observer plays a part. Three books on quantum mechanics are reviewed in an attempt to present a more precise comprehension of the meaning inside quantum mechanics. (UK)

  7. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  8. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  9. SAFETY MEASURES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; Tel. 75152

    2001-01-01

    Following the recent terrorist attacks, the French authorities have introduced increased-vigilance measures («Vigipirate renforcé») as part of their prevention of terrorism campaign and have expressed the wish to extend these measures to the French part of the CERN site. The Organization has acceded to this request with the understanding that its international status will be respectd and has granted the French Gendarmerie right of access to the Prévessin site and to the LEP/LHC sites on French territory.

  10. AMS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) ia an ultrasensitive analysis technique using a system based on a nuclear particle accelerator and its beam transport system to detect and measure individual 14 C ions.. In AMS a 14 C abundance is obtained by comparing the measurement rates of 14 C and 13 C ions. This is not as simple as it sounds. The enormous difference in the numbers of the two isotopes makes it very hard to uniquely detect 14 C ions. For modern samples, those with the most 14 C, some 10 10 13 C ions leave the source for every 14 C ion. However, the use of an accelerator and various high energy techniques makes it possible to the detect the 14 C and to reject the 13 C. in order to achieve this high rejection efficiency the injection magnet is set to transmit only one isotope, namely 14 C. However, a subsequent measurement of 13 C must be made. The number and the rate of arrival of 13 C ions is such that individual ions cannot be measured, instead a 13 C current is measured in a Faraday cup. It is possible to alternate the injection magnet field between that to transmit 14 C and that to transmit 13 C. This method is known as slow cycling but suffers from significant dead (not useful) periods while the magnet field is changed and stabilises. Furthermore and more significantly, during this dead time changes in ion source output may occur distorting the 14 C/ 13 C ratio. We instead employ a method known as fast cycling which involves rapidly increasing the energy of the 13 C ions as they enter the injection magnet. This is achieved by the use of a high voltage (6.7 kV) pulser. We can also inject 12 C by this method although a 14.7 kV pulse is required. The switching time from one carbon isotope to another is only a fraction of a millisecond in this fast cycling method. Hence one has quasi-simultaneous measurement of 14 C and 13 C. Measurements of the 14 C/ 13 C ratio from a sample are always compared to the same ratio from an internationally accepted standard

  11. Measuring phase with Stokes measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements Angela Dudley1, Giovanni Milione2, Robert Alfano2 and Andrew Forbes1. 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa. 2 Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Physics Department, City College of New York,160 Convent Ave., New... polarimetry I45° IR I135° IL S2 S3 tan-1 S2 S3 * : Control the phase between & Stokes polarimetry involves four separate measurements * Independently control the phase between & Requirements for a digital adaptation of Stokes polarimetery: 45° I45° U...

  12. Measuring Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Volij; David Frankel

    2004-01-01

    We propose a set of axioms for the measurement of multigroup school segregation. They are motivated by two criteria: do ethnic groups have similar distributions across schools? And are schools ethnically representative of their district? Our axioms are satisfied by a unique ordering. It is represented by the Mutual Information index. This index, originally proposed by Henri Theil, has a more intuitive decomposition than other indices. As an application, we find that segregation between distri...

  13. When Measurement Benefits the Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-23

    TSP Mentor Coach and a certified Scrum Master. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...groups than they have today. Capers Jones InfoQ Interview March 30, 2014 http://www.infoq.com/articles/Jones-measuring- agile -adoption Can

  14. Measuring memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A

    1988-01-01

    Three broad approaches to the measurement of memory functioning will be described. The first of these involves using memory as a general indicator of any dysfunction in the central nervous system. This approach will be illustrated using Sternberg's short-term memory scanning paradigm. Its strengths are that such tests are often very sensitive, but they are often very difficult to interpret both theoretically and in practical terms. A second approach is to use a range of tasks selected so as to tap different aspects of human memory. Such an approach is of considerably more theoretical interest, and is discussed in more detail by Eysenck (this volume). Its weaknesses are that theories of memory are still changing relatively quickly, and that mapping such results onto memory outside the laboratory is often complex. A third approach is to attempt a more direct measure of everyday memory. The use of questionnaires for this purpose will be critically discussed, and a new test of everyday memory will be described. This test, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, correlates well with observations of memory lapses in patients, and appears to offer a promising new line of development.

  15. Measuring Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    The Danish Day Care Facilities Act (2015), which provides the curriculum on which day care education is based, does not stipulate very clearly what children should learn and therefore how educational processes in preschools should be organised. This means that we must accept that there are large...... local differences in the quality of day care facilities in Denmark (Nordahl et al, 2012; Hansen et al, 2016) and also that we in fact have little knowledge of whether the desired politically determined targets are being met or not and what the quality is really like. In order to measure the quality...... of preschool in Denmark a new research project using the ECERS 3 instrument has been launched. This could capture quality from a global quality standard’s perspective, building the basis for a further investigation of practice in Danish early childhood provisions and centers in a more narrow approach...

  16. MEASURING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohman, T.P.; Weissbourd, B.W.

    1959-02-17

    An ion chamber assembly is presented for measuring neutron emission of a relatively slow rate from a radioactive sample. The detecting apparatus comprises a container filled with neutron slowing material and having a cavity where a neutron source may be located centrally in the container. A plurality of ion chamber units are disposed equidistantly from the source and from each other for detecting the neutron radiation. Each of the ion chamber units has an ion chamber and a second chamber of substantially the same diameter as the ion chamber and in end-to-end relationship therewith. The second chamber contains paraffin and an axially disposed lead-in conductor for the ion chamber central electrode. The preamplifier circuit whose input is connected to the lead-in conductor is housed in a third container arranged in end-to-end relationship with the second chamber.

  17. Electricity electron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Sung, Rak Jin

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with measurement of electricity and electron. It is divided into fourteen chapters, which depicts basic of electricity measurement, unit and standard, important electron circuit for measurement, instrument of electricity, impedance measurement, power and power amount measurement, frequency and time measurement, waveform measurement, record instrument and direct viewing instrument, super high frequency measurement, digital measurement on analog-digital convert, magnetic measurement on classification by principle of measurement, measurement of electricity application with principle sensors and systematization of measurement.

  18. 2005 United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Post-Hurricane Katrina Levee Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These topographic data were collected for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers by a helicopter-mounted LiDAR sensor over the New Orleans Hurricane Protection Levee...

  19. Emergency river storage in the Ooij polder - A bridge too far? Forms of participation in flood preparedness policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Disaster policy tends to be in the domain of top-down security governance. However, international organizations are calling for more 'horizontal', participatory forms of planning for flood preparedness together with local stakeholders. But what modality of public involvement do they mean? A case

  20. Silicon Valley in the Polder? Entrepreneurial dynamics, virtuous clusters and vicious firms in the Netherlands and Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsink, W.; Bouwman, H.; Elfring, T.

    2007-01-01

    High technology starters do not operate in a vacuum, and innovation is not a solitary activity. The activities of technology based companies take place within a social-economic framework, composed of other companies, investors, universities, vocational institutions and others. The geographical

  1. PPS in de polder : De betekenis van publiekprivate samenwerking voor de borging van duurzame ruimtelijke kwaliteit op Vinex-locaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, G.J.J. van den

    2006-01-01

    In the Fourth National Spatial Policy Plan Extra (1990) the development areas were pointed out (the so-called "Vinex-areas"). This encouraged project developers to buy large and strategic situated properties. The key question is how to assure that also next generations of inhabitants, politicians

  2. Sustainable solutions to improve road safety in The Netherlands : a `polder model' for a considerably safer road traffic system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Elsenaar, P.M.W.

    1997-01-01

    A new vision, called `sustainable road safety', has been introduced recently in The Netherlands, hopefully leading to roads and streets with risk rates which are considerably lower than today. The vision forms an essential part of the Dutch road safety policy today. The principles of this approach

  3. Polder effects on sediment-to-soil conversion: water table, residual available water capacity, and salt stress interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radimy, Raymond Tojo; Dudoignon, Patrick; Hillaireau, Jean Michel; Deboute, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields.

  4. Dykes of standards supporting polders of data : The practices used in the Netherlands for making archaeological data available and accessible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the archiving and publication of archaeological research data has led to the establishment of EDNA, the e-Depot for Dutch Archaeology http://www.edna.nl/, accommodated at DANS (Data Archiving and Networked Services) http://dans.knaw.nl/en. EDNA is a collaboration between DANS and

  5. Polder Effects on Sediment-to-Soil Conversion: Water Table, Residual Available Water Capacity, and Salt Stress Interdependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Tojo Radimy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields.

  6. Verkeersveiligheid in plattelandsgebieden II : berekening van verkeersinfrastructurele varianten. Het advies voor verkeersveiligheidsmaatregelen in de Beemster. (Verkorte versie)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    1980-01-01

    A shortened version of B 17557 (IRRD 251252) The lack of traffic safety of the beemster-polder is primarily caused by high traffic densities and additionally is caused by a combination of the living and traffic function of the roads. One of the main structural measures for increasing traffic safety

  7. Verkeersveiligheid in plattelandsgebieden II : berekening van verkeersinfrastructurele varianten. Het advies voor verkeersveiligheidsmaatregelen in de Beemster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.T.MC.

    1979-01-01

    The lack of traffic safety of the beemster-polder is primarily caused by high traffic densities and additionally is caused by a combination of the living and traffic function of the roads. One of the main structural measures for increasing traffic safety is the construction of new roads. In part i

  8. The organizational measurement manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wealleans, David

    2001-01-01

    ... Relationship of process to strategic measurements Summary 37 36Contents 19/10/2000 1:23 pm Page vi vi THE ORGANIZATIONAL MEASUREMENT MANUAL 4 PART 2 ESTABLISHING A PROCESS MEASUREMENT PROGRAMME...

  9. Measurements on Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Background material for measurements of hearing for grammar school pupils. The note gives the necessary background for the exercise 'Measurement on Hearing'. The topics comprise sound and decibel, the ear, basic psychoacoustics, hearing threshold, audiometric measurement methods, speech and speech...

  10. Measuring Test Measurement Error: A General Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Test-based accountability as well as value-added asessments and much experimental and quasi-experimental research in education rely on achievement tests to measure student skills and knowledge. Yet, we know little regarding fundamental properties of these tests, an important example being the extent of measurement error and its implications for…

  11. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  12. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, Richard K

    2006-01-01

    .... Currently, however, there is no formal foundation for formulating effectiveness measures. This research presents a new framework for effectiveness measurement from both a theoretical and practical view...

  13. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  14. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  15. Completely random signed measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmund, Gunnar

    Completely random signed measures are defined, characterized and related to Lévy random measures and Lévy bases.......Completely random signed measures are defined, characterized and related to Lévy random measures and Lévy bases....

  16. αs Measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The strong coupling constant, s, has been determined from many pure inclusive and semi-inclusive measurements. All these measurements, measured at different scales, are consistent among each other and the measurements can be combined to give s()=0.118 ± 0.003.

  17. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Georgieva Yankova, Ginka

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to a draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2.......The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to a draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2....

  18. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  19. Radioactive measurements in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, S.

    1979-01-01

    The book reviews the industrial applications of radioactive isotopes. The introduction refreshes the reader's knowledge of radioactive decay, radioactive radiations and measuring techniques. Then the special problems of threshold detection, level indication, thickness measurements, measurements of layer thickness applying beta-reflexion, density measurements, humidity measurements, and the determination of the composition of different materials are detailed. In each chapter the principle of a given technique, the available equipment, the possibilities of controlling systems and results of concrete measurements are discussed. The last chapter deals with the practical aspects of the industrial installation of radioactive measuring systems. (L.E.)

  20. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate that the agricul......Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  1. Measurement of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book is one of series of information communication, which deals with measurement of communication. It is divided into six chapters. The contents are foundation of measurement with classification and principle, Basic measurement on current, voltage, electric resistance, power and impedance, measurement of communication line with way by L3 tester, BW tester and pulse tester, measurement of optical fiber cable of equipment and method, Test and measurement of information communication equipment about test of modulator and use, measurement of cable broadcasting equipment on transmission level and main transmission equipment.

  2. Equipment for temperature measurements

    OpenAIRE

    HORELICA, Josef

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with theoretical description, practical connection of temperature measuring instruments and how they function while measuring the temperature. This document explaines basic concepts of temperature, temperature scales and temperature measuring. Further there are introduced standard types of sensors used in these measuring intruments. This document includes a picture presentation in PowerPoint, where an aggregate table of sensors and an application of these sensors in measuring ...

  3. Measuring worker productivity: frameworks and measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Dorcas; Bombardier, Claire; Escorpizo, Reuben; Zhang, Wei; Lacaille, Diane; Boonen, Annelies; Osborne, Richard H; Anis, Aslam H; Strand, C Vibeke; Tugwell, Peter S

    2009-09-01

    Worker productivity is a combination of time off work (absenteeism) due to an illness and time at work but with reduced levels of productivity while at work (also known as presenteeism). Both can be gathered with a focus on application as a cost indicator and/or as an outcome state for intervention studies. We review the OMERACT worker productivity groups' progress in evaluating measures of worker productivity for use in arthritis using the OMERACT filter. Attendees at OMERACT 9 strongly endorsed the importance of work as an outcome in arthritis. Consensus was reached (94% endorsement) for fielding a broader array of indicators of absenteeism. Twenty-one measures of at-work productivity loss, ranging from single item indicators to multidimensional scales, were reviewed for measurement properties. No set of at-work productivity measures was endorsed because of variability in the concepts captured, and the need for a better framework for the measurement of worker productivity that also incorporates contextual issues such as job demands and other paid and unpaid life responsibilities. Progress has been made in this area, revealing an ambivalent set of results that directed us back to the need to further define and then contextualize the measurement of worker productivity.

  4. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  5. MDS Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the quality measures displayed on Nursing Home Compare, excluding Measures of Rehospitalization, Emergency Room Visit, and Community Discharge. Each row...

  6. In praise of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermin, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum computer provides a toy universe in which to reexamine many aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum metaphysics. In particular measurement, against which John Bell unleashed one of his most elegant polemics, plays a transparent role. Since all measurements can be constructed out of identical 1-Qbit measurement gates, such obscurity as there is in the notion of measurement reduces to the obscurity, if any, of the elementary 1-Qbit gate. The 1-Qbit measurement gate is insufficiently celebrated. Without it the quantum computer has, in Abner Shimony's admirable words, 'no foreign policy'. Without it no computation has been done. without it no computation can begin. Without it there can be no error correction. Measurement takes coherence away but measurement also gives coherence. Praised be measurement. (author)

  7. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos Here are some ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and ... The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. In general, if you're doing ...

  9. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  10. Structural Measures - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals and the availability of structural measures at that hospital. A structural measure reflects the environment in which hospitals care for patients....

  11. Estimation of measurement variances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The estimation of measurement error parameters in safeguards systems is discussed. Both systematic and random errors are considered. A simple analysis of variances to characterize the measurement error structure with biases varying over time is presented

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  13. Implementing Safety Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Required risk mitigation measures for soil fumigants protect handlers, applicators, and bystanders from pesticide exposure. Measures include buffer zones, sign posting, good agricultural practices, restricted use pesticide classification, and FMPs.

  14. Software engineering measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Munson, PhD, John C

    2003-01-01

    By demonstrating how to develop simple experiments for the empirical validation of theoretical research and showing how to convert measurement data into meaningful and valuable information, this text fosters more precise use of software measurement in the computer science and software engineering literature. Software Engineering Measurement shows you how to convert your measurement data to valuable information that can be used immediately for software process improvement.

  15. Foundations of measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Foundations of Measurement offers the most coherently organized treatment of the topics and issues central to measurement. Much of the research involved has been scattered over several decades and a multitude of journals--available in many instances only to specialties. With the publication of Volumes two and three of this important work, Foundations of Measurement is the most comprehensive presentation in the area of measurement.

  16. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  17. Efficient magnetic field measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Iwan; Moonen, Niek; Buesink, Frits; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Measuring magnetic fields of equipment under test at low frequencies which is received by loop antennas using an EMI receiver with small bandwidths takes much time and can even reach a week for a standard measurement. This waste in time could be avoided by applying time domain measurements.

  18. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.

    2002-01-01

    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for

  19. Top quark measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of top quarks from Run-I and Run-II of the LHC are presented. Results on dif- ferential and inclusive top quark production cross sections, measured by the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments, and measurements of top quark properties and mass are reported.

  20. Measurement System & Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A major part of the sensors has been installed by others (see [1]) the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report...

  1. Measurement System & Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A part of the sensors has been installed by others, the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report, are only valid...

  2. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  4. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  5. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  6. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  7. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere...

  8. Measurement System & Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A part of the sensors has been installed by others, the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report, are only val...

  9. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present anal...

  10. Measurement Science for Engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Korsten, Maarten J.; Olthuis, Wouter

    2004-01-01

    This volume, from an international authority on the subject, deals with the physical and instrumentation aspects of measurement science, the availability of major measurement tools, and how to use them. This book not only lays out basic concepts of electronic measurement systems, but also provides

  11. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  12. Manometer Measures Gas Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Simple apparatus measures time required for gas to displace known volume of water. Apparatus determines amount of gas generated in lead/acid cell during charging by measuring time required for gas to displace measured volume of water between markes in slanted manometer.

  13. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  14. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    , the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  15. Power Curve Measurements, REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    , the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  16. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  17. Measure free martingales and martingale measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    assumes values both less than and greater than ftk (q). The following theorem is a consequence of our considerations in this paper. Theorem. Let ,ft,t ∈ T, be a measure free martingale where T is countable and each ft is bounded. Assume that the functions ft,t ∈ T, separate points of . Then there is a compact metric space.

  18. Precision electroweak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro e + e - and p anti p colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct m t measurements. Using the world's electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs' mass are discussed

  19. Performance Measurement und Environmental Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Die Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Dissertationsschrift besteht in der Entwicklung einer systematisierten Vorgehensweise, eines Controllingmodells, zur unternehmensinternen Umweltleistungsmessung. Das entwickelte Environmental Performance Measurement (EPM)-Modell umfaßt die fünf Stufen Festlegung der Ziele der Umweltleistungsmessung (1. Stufe), Erfassung der Umwelteinflüsse nach der ökologischen Erfolgsspaltung (2. Stufe), Bewertung der Umwelteinflüsse auf der Grundlage des qualitätszielbezogen...

  20. Evaluation of accountability measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacic, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) is programmatically responsible to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) for providing independent review and evaluation of accountability measurement technology in DOE nuclear facilities. This function is addressed in part through the NBL Safegaurds Measurement Evaluation (SME) Program. The SME Program utilizes both on-site review of measurement methods along with material-specific measurement evaluation studies to provide information concerning the adequacy of subject accountability measurements. This paper reviews SME Program activities for the 1986-87 time period, with emphasis on noted improvements in measurement capabilities. Continued evolution of the SME Program to respond to changing safeguards concerns is discussed

  1. Reliability of goniometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, D C; Azen, S P; Lin, C M; Spence, C; Baron, C; Lee, L

    1978-11-01

    This study determined the intratester and intertester variability and reliability of goniometric measurements taken by four physical therapists on upper and lower extremity motions of normal male subjects. The same subjects were measured once weekly for four weeks by testers with varied experience in goniometry. Data were analyzed by analyses of variance with repeated measures. Intratester variation for all measurements was less than intertester variation. Further, intertester variation was less for the three upper extremity motions than for those of the lower extremity. These findings indicate the necessity for using the same tester when effects of treatment are evaluated. When the same tester measures the same movement, increases in joint motion of at least three to four degrees determine improvement for either the upper or lower extremity. When more than one tester, however, measures the same movement, increases in joint motion should exceed five degrees for the upper extremity and six degrees for the lower extremity to determine improvement.

  2. Decoherence and quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Namiki, Mikio; Pascazio, Saverio

    1997-01-01

    The quantum measurement problem is one of the most fascinating and challenging topics in physics both theoretically and experimentally. It involves deep questions and the use of very sophisticated and elegant techniques. After analyzing the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics and of the Copenhagen interpretation, this book reviews the most important approaches to the measurement problem and rigorously reformulates the "collapse of the wave function" by measurement, as a dephasing process quantitatively characterized by an order parameter (called the decoherence parameter), according to

  3. Betatron tune measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the comparative review of the methods for the betatron tune measurement in cyclic accelerators of synchrotrons type, the research of these methods is carried out from the point of view of their applicability to Nuclotron. Both methods using measurement of the statistical fluctuations of the beam current (Schottky noise) and methods using coherent beam excitation have been discussed. The emphasis is on the final results of importance for the tune measurement practice. Signal processing is briefly discussed too

  4. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  5. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  6. Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critically important inertia measurements are complex and expensive to obtain due to the extensive fixturing and custom instrumentation of conventional techniques....

  7. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  8. Magnetic field measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shigemitsu; Abe, Mitsushi.

    1996-01-01

    If signal voltages are integrated with lapse of time in a thermonuclear device, erroneous voltages are also integrated with lapse of time thereby resulting in occurrence of measuring errors increased with lapse of time, and continuous measurement for magnetic fields at high accuracy for a long period of time has been difficult. Then, a movable coil is disposed in the magnetic fields to be measured in order to directly measure the magnetic fields at the periphery of the plasmas, and electric current is supplied to the coil and resulted electromagnetic force is measured to obtain a magnetic field. If electric current is supplied to the coil in the magnetic fields, electromagnetic force (rotational torque) directly in proportion to the magnetic fields is generated. If the electromagnetic force is measured, magnetic fields can be determined directly without using an integrator. If a resistor wire is disposed on one end of the coil so that the resistor wire extends/shrinks by the electromagnetic force and changes the resistance value, the electromagnetic force can be determined from the magnetic fields based on the change of the resistance values. Since the measurement using magnetic fields does not require semiconductor devices which are sensitive to radiation, and the magnetic fields can be measured directly, the measurement can be conducted at a constant accuracy even for a long period of time. (N.H.)

  9. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  10. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G P; Cooksey, C C; Yoon, H W; Hanssen, L M; Podobedov, V B; Vest, R E; Arp, U; Miller, C C

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  11. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  12. Luminosity measurement at AMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A precise measurement of a luminosity is required by experiments with high statistics. The largest sources of a systematic error of a luminosity measurement are an alignment of the tube chambers which measure a polar angle of Bhabha events and a higher order correction for the Bhabha cross section calculation. We describe a resent study for these uncertainties and how to reduce the systematic errors from these sources. The total systematic error of the luminosity measurement of 1.8% can be reduced to 1.0% by this study. (author)

  13. Young Measures and Compactness in Measure Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Florescu, Liviu C

    2012-01-01

    Many problems in science can be formulated in the language of optimization theory, in which case an optimal solution or the best response to a particular situation is required. In situations of interest, such classical optimal solutions are lacking, or at least, the existence of such solutions is far from easy to prove. So, non-convex optimization problems may not possess a classical solution because approximate solutions typically show rapid oscillations. This phenomenon requires the extension of such problems' solution often constructed by means of Young measures. This book is written to int

  14. Measure free martingales and martingale measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G Nadkarni and B Rajeev with respect to which ft ,t ∈ T, is a martingale, i.e., for any finite subset t1 < t2 < ··· < tk of T,. Eμ(ftk |ft1 ,ft2 ,...,ftk−1. ) = ftk−1 a.e.. Let M denote the set of probability measures μ on such that ft ,t ∈ T, is a martingale with respect toμ. Note that we have not assumed any continuity properties forft(ω), ...

  15. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  16. Measuring regional authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, G.W.; Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Schakel, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out a conceptual basis for measuring regional authority and engages basic measurement issues. Regional authority is disaggregated into two domains (self-rule and shared rule) and these are operationalised in eight dimensions. The article concludes by examining the robustness of

  17. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...

  18. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...

  19. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  20. Measure free martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    E-mail: rlk@isid.ac.in; nadkarni@math.mu.ac.in. MS received 19 October 2004. Abstract. We give a necessary and sufficient condition on a sequence of functions on a set under which there is a measure on which renders the given sequence of functions a martingale. Further such a measure is unique if we impose a natural ...

  1. Measure free martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We give a necessary and sufficient condition on a sequence of functions on a set under which there is a measure on which renders the given sequence of functions a martingale. Further such a measure is unique if we impose a natural maximum entropy condition on the conditional probabilities.

  2. Measuring News Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  3. Regularities of multifractal measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal. Hausdorff measure and packing measure in Rd . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next ...

  4. Regularities of multifractal measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  5. Measuring irradiation creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelah, I.

    1981-03-01

    Simulation of fusion-neutron induced damage by beams of light ions is discussed. It is suggested that accelerated creep measurements to determine ''end of life'' of materials may be done by the application of thermal treatment and thermal creep measurements. (author)

  6. Measuring Mobile Phone Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boase, Jeff; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine how well two types of self-report measures adequately operationalize frequency of mobile phone use by comparing them to server log data. Our self-report measures of voice and SMS text messaging activity are drawn from a nationally representative survey of adults living...

  7. Measuring Authoritative Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertesvag, Sigrun K.

    2011-01-01

    High quality measurements are important to evaluate interventions. The study reports on the development of a measurement to investigate authoritative teaching understood as a two-dimensional construct of warmth and control. Through the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) the factor structure…

  8. Low Absorbance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Williams, A. M.

    1983-10-01

    The application of low absorption measurements to dilute solute determination requires specific instrumental characteristics. The use of laser intracavity absorption and thermal lens calorimetry to measure concentration is shown. The specific operating parameters that determine sensitivity are delineated along with the limits different measurement strategies impose. Finally areas of improvement in components that would result in improve sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability are discussed. During the past decade, a large number of methods have been developed for measuring the light absorbed by transparent materials. These include measurements on gases, liquids, and solids. The activity has been prompted by a variety of applications and a similar variety of disciplines. In Table 1 some representative examples of these methods is shown along with their published detection limits.1 It is clear that extraordinarily small absorbances can be measured. Most of the methods can be conveniently divided into two groups. These groups are those that measure the transmission of the sample and those that measure the light absorbed by the sample. The light absorbed methods are calorimetric in character. The advantages and disadvantages of each method varies depending on the principal application for which they were developed. The most prevalent motivation has been to characterize the bulk optical properties of transparent materials. Two examples are the development of extremely transparent glasses for use as fiber optic materials and the development of substrates for high power laser operation.

  9. Auditing measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, F.P.; Brouns, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Requirements and a general procedure for auditing measurement control programs used in special nuclear material accounting are discussed. The areas of measurement control that need to be examined are discussed and a suggested checklist is included to assist in the preparation and performance of the audit

  10. Viscosity measuring using microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Patrick Ian

    2001-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the viscosity of a fluid uses a micromachined cantilever mounted on a moveable base. As the base is rastered while in contact with the fluid, the deflection of the cantilever is measured and the viscosity determined by comparison with standards.

  11. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  12. Higgs Measurement from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Using run-I data record by ATLAS detector, many searches on the higgs decay modes have been done. Also some properties measurement of the Higgs Boson has been done. This talk will summarise the recent result of Higgs search and measurement from ATLAS.

  13. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  14. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  15. Magnetic field measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shigemitsu; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Jun-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    In order to directly measure the magnetic fields in the vicinity of plasmas in a thermonuclear device, electric current is supplied to a conductor intersecting magnetic fields, and the position of the conductor is changed by generated electromagnetic forces, and the positional change of the conductor is measured to determine the magnetic fields. Namely, if electric current is supplied to the conductor crossing the magnetic fields, electromagnetic forces directly in proportion to the magnetic fields exert on the object. If the forces are measured, magnetic fields can be determined directly without using an integrator. If springs are attached to the conductor undergoing electromagnetic forces, as a method of measuring electromagnetic forces, since the distortion is in proportion to the electromagnetic forces, magnetic fields can be determined, for example, by changing the position of a contact of a variable resistor interlocking with the positional change of the spring. Since a semiconductor device which is sensitive to radiation is not necessary and the magnetic fields can be measured directly in this method for the measurement of the magnetic fields, the measurement can be conducted at a constant accuracy even in a long period of time. The device of the present invention can measure magnetic fields with no drift components of the integrator, has excellent radiation-resistance and can improve the plant safety. (N.H.)

  16. Dynamics via measurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Generators f for σ -algebras can be used to view the dynamics of an invertible measurable transformation T in terms of the range values of f ∘ T . Such generators are the norm rather than the exception. Related measurable and quantitative methods of estimating a function from the behavior of ergodic averages are also discussed.

  17. Informational aesthetics measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigau, Jaume; Feixas, Miquel; Sbert, Mateu

    2008-01-01

    The Birkhoff aesthetic measure of an object is the ratio between order and complexity. Informational aesthetics describes the interpretation of this measure from an information-theoretic perspective. From these ideas, the authors define a set of ratios based on information theory and Kolmogorov complexity that can help to quantify the aesthetic experience.

  18. Measuring Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2007-01-01

    How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...

  19. Measures of Pleasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasuring culture originated in cultural anthropology, but all social sciences contributed to comparative cultural studies. Tracing critical approaches towards a measurement of cultural values one is bound to strip the biases and stereotypes bare and to invade numerous academic fiefs.

  20. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Operations Research Society, January 2003. Hill, Raymond , Gregory A. McIntyre, Thomas R. Tighe, and Richard K. Bullock, “Some Experiments with Agent...Measurement, Physica-Verlag, Wurzburg, 1971. Pinker, Aron , Aryeh H. Samuel, and Robert Batcher, “On Measures of Effectiveness,” PHALANX, pp 8-12

  1. Mechanical Measurements Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The CERN mechanical measurements team check the sensors on one of the ATLAS inner detector end-caps using high precision measurement equipment. Remote checks like this must be made on these sensitive detector components before they can be transported to make sure that all systems are working correctly.

  2. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  3. Measuring static complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Goertzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “pattern” is introduced, formally defined, and used to analyze various measures of the complexity of finite binary sequences and other objects. The standard Kolmogoroff-Chaitin-Solomonoff complexity measure is considered, along with Bennett's ‘logical depth’, Koppel's ‘sophistication'’, and Chaitin's analysis of the complexity of geometric objects. The pattern-theoretic point of view illuminates the shortcomings of these measures and leads to specific improvements, it gives rise to two novel mathematical concepts--“orders” of complexity and “levels” of pattern, and it yields a new measure of complexity, the “structural complexity”, which measures the total amount of structure an entity possesses.

  4. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire.

  5. Measurement uncertainty and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Willink, Robin

    2013-01-01

    A measurement result is incomplete without a statement of its 'uncertainty' or 'margin of error'. But what does this statement actually tell us? By examining the practical meaning of probability, this book discusses what is meant by a '95 percent interval of measurement uncertainty', and how such an interval can be calculated. The book argues that the concept of an unknown 'target value' is essential if probability is to be used as a tool for evaluating measurement uncertainty. It uses statistical concepts, such as a conditional confidence interval, to present 'extended' classical methods for evaluating measurement uncertainty. The use of the Monte Carlo principle for the simulation of experiments is described. Useful for researchers and graduate students, the book also discusses other philosophies relating to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. It employs clear notation and language to avoid the confusion that exists in this controversial field of science.

  6. W mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Andari, Nansi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A first measurement of the W-boson mass at the LHC is presented based on about 4.6 fb^-1 of proton–proton collision data recorded in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector. The measured value is 80370±19 MeV, consistent with the Standard Model prediction, with the combined values measured at the LEP and Tevatron colliders, and with the world average. The ATLAS result equals in precision the previous best measurement of the W mass, performed by the CDF collaboration. The CMS results for the W-like measurement of the Z boson mass using dimuon events are also shown. An overview of the analyses is shown with a special emphasis on the evaluation of the experimental systematic uncertainties, as well as on the uncertainties due to the modelling of the vector boson production and decay.

  7. Monitoring Coastal Embankment Subsidence and Relative Sea Level Rise in Coastal Bangladesh Using Satellite Geodetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q.; Shum, C. K.; Jia, Y.; Yi, Y.; Zhu, K.; Kuo, C. Y.; Liibusk, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Bangladesh Delta is located at the confluence of the mega Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghan Rivers in the Bay of Bengal. It is home to over 160 million people and is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is prone to seasonal transboundary monsoonal flooding, potentially aggravated by more frequent and intensified cyclones resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Sea level rise, along with tectonic, sediment compaction/load and groundwater extraction induced land uplift/subsidence, have significantly exacerbated these risks and Bangladesh's coastal vulnerability. Bangladesh has built 123 coastal embankments or polders since the 1960's, to protect the coastal regions from cyclone/tidal flooding and to reduce salinity incursions. Since then, many coastal polders have suffered severe erosion and anthropogenic damage, and require repairs or rebuilding. However, the physical and anthropogenic processes governing the historic relative sea level rise and its future projection towards its quantification remain poorly understood or known, and at present not accurate enough or with an adequately fine local spatial scale for practical mitigation of coastal vulnerability or coastal resilience studies. This study reports on our work in progress to use satellite geodetic and remote sensing observations, including satellite radar altimetry/backscatter measurements over land and in coastal oceans, optical/infrared imageries, and SAR backscatter/InSAR data, to study the feasibility of coastal embankment/polder erosion monitoring, quantify seasonal polder water intrusions, observing polder subsidence, and finally, towards the goal of improving the relative sea level rise hazards assessment at the local scale in coastal Bangladesh.

  8. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed.

  9. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  10. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  11. Measures with symmetry properties

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, Werner

    2003-01-01

    Symmetries and invariance principles play an important role in various branches of mathematics. This book deals with measures having weak symmetry properties. Even mild conditions ensure that all invariant Borel measures on a second countable locally compact space can be expressed as images of specific product measures under a fixed mapping. The results derived in this book are interesting for their own and, moreover, a number of carefully investigated examples underline and illustrate their usefulness and applicability for integration problems, stochastic simulations and statistical applications.

  12. Genus four superstring measures

    OpenAIRE

    Cacciatori, Sergio L.; Piazza, Francesco Dalla; van Geemen, Bert

    2008-01-01

    A main issue in superstring theory are the superstring measures. D'Hoker and Phong showed that for genus two these reduce to measures on the moduli space of curves which are determined by modular forms of weight eight and the bosonic measure. They also suggested a generalisation to higher genus. We showed that their approach works, with a minor modification, in genus three and we announced a positive result also in genus four. Here we give the modular form in genus four explicitly. Recently S...

  13. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  14. Measuring autocratic regime stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers measure regime stability in autocratic contexts using a variety of data sources that capture distinct concepts. Often this research uses concepts developed for the study of democratic politics, such as leadership change or institutionalized authority, to construct measures of regime breakdown in non-democratic contexts. This article assesses whether the measure a researcher chooses influences the results they obtain by examining data on executive leadership, political authority, and autocratic regimes. We illustrate the conceptual differences between these variables by extending recent studies in the literature on the political consequences of non-tax revenue and unearned foreign income.

  15. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  16. Dynamic Rod Worth Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.A.; Chapman, D.M.; Hill, D.J.; Grobmyer, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic rod worth measurement (DRWM) technique is a method of quickly validating the predicted bank worth of control rods and shutdown rods. The DRWM analytic method is based on three-dimensional, space-time kinetic simulations of the rapid rod movements. Its measurement data is processed with an advanced digital reactivity computer. DRWM has been used as the method of bank worth validation at numerous plant startups with excellent results. The process and methodology of DRWM are described, and the measurement results of using DRWM are presented

  17. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  18. RF impedance measurement calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references

  19. Measurement theory for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya

    2003-01-01

    The emphasis of this textbook is on industrial applications of Statistical Measurement Theory. It deals with the principal issues of measurement theory, is concise and intelligibly written, and to a wide extent self-contained. Difficult theoretical issues are separated from the mainstream presentation. Each topic starts with an informal introduction followed by an example, the rigorous problem formulation, solution method, and a detailed numerical solution. Each chapter concludes with a set of exercises of increasing difficulty, mostly with solutions. The book is meant as a text for graduate students and a reference for researchers and industrial experts specializing in measurement and measurement data analysis for quality control, quality engineering and industrial process improvement using statistical methods. Knowledge of calculus and fundamental probability and statistics is required for the understanding of its contents.

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  1. Gas flowrate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, Madeleine.

    1978-05-01

    The main types of gas flowmeters, especially those which are used for laboratory measurements are reviewed. Modeling, design recommendations, calibration methods and expected accuracy are discussed for each flowmeter. Different types and trademarks are given in two tables [fr

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  3. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, Richard K

    2006-01-01

    Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy...

  4. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust...

  5. Measuring Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Chester A.; Barrett, Kristin Burrows

    1992-01-01

    Describes four experiments that enable students to explore the phenomena of evaporation and condensation and determine the relative humidity by measuring air temperature and dew point on warm September days. Provides tables to calculate saturation points and relative humidity. (MDH)

  6. Environmental Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  7. Measure Evaluation Dataverse

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The MEASURE Evaluation Dataverse is a collection of innovative evaluation data sets assembled in order to increase the evidence-base on program impact and evaluate...

  8. Dilepton Measurements with CERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin,A.; Rehak, P. et al.

    2007-07-09

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the {rho} spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the {phi} meson measured simultaneously both in the K{sup +}K{sup -} and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured transverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the {phi} yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  10. Measuring soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Marcus; Doyle, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a form of land degradation in which salts accumulate in the soil profile to an extent that plant growth or infrastructure are negatively affected. A range of both field and laboratory procedures exist for measuring soil salinity. In the field, soil salinity is usually inferred from apparent electrical conductivity (EC(a)) using a range of devices, depending on the required depth of analysis, or size of the survey area. Field measurements of EC(a) require calibration to the actual salt content by laboratory analysis. In the laboratory, soil salinity is usually assessed by determining either the total soluble salts by evaporation of a soil water extract (TSS), or by determining the electrical conductivity (EC) of either a 1:5 distilled water:soil dilution, or a saturated paste extract. Although procedures for measuring soil salinity appear relatively straightforward, differences in methodology have considerable influence on measured values and interpretation of results.

  11. Measure, integral and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Capiński, Marek

    2004-01-01

    Measure, Integral and Probability is a gentle introduction that makes measure and integration theory accessible to the average third-year undergraduate student. The ideas are developed at an easy pace in a form that is suitable for self-study, with an emphasis on clear explanations and concrete examples rather than abstract theory. For this second edition, the text has been thoroughly revised and expanded. New features include: · a substantial new chapter, featuring a constructive proof of the Radon-Nikodym theorem, an analysis of the structure of Lebesgue-Stieltjes measures, the Hahn-Jordan decomposition, and a brief introduction to martingales · key aspects of financial modelling, including the Black-Scholes formula, discussed briefly from a measure-theoretical perspective to help the reader understand the underlying mathematical framework. In addition, further exercises and examples are provided to encourage the reader to become directly involved with the material.

  12. Dilepton measurements with CERES

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, A; Agakichiev, G; Andronic, A; Antonczyk, D; Appelshäuser, H; Bielcíkováe, V; Biel, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Busch, O; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kalisky, M; Kniege, S; Kushpil, V; Ludolphs, W; Maas, A; Milosevic, J; Miskowiec, D; Ortega, R; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O; Petracek, V; Ploskon, M; Radomski, S; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schuchmann, S; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Soualah, R; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsiledakis, G; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2008-01-01

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the $\\rho$ spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the $\\phi$ meson measured simultaneously both in the $K^+K^-$ and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured tranverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the $\\phi$ yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  13. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  14. In situ measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, D.E.

    1980-11-24

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  15. JSSG - SPACED RECEIVER MEASUREMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The height of ionospheric irregularities was measured by several laboratories belonging to the Joint Satellite Studies Group, using spaced receiver techniques. The method of analysis and results obtained are presented. (Author)

  16. Measuring multifactor productivity growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana

    -, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor productivity growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf

  17. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  19. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  20. Statistical Measures of Marksmanship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... This report describes objective statistical procedures to measure both rifle marksmanship accuracy, the proximity of an array of shots to the center of mass of a target, and marksmanship precision...

  1. Wake field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the concept of Wakefields and Machine Impedance are introduced. Several measurements technique of these quantities either in the laboratory before installation or from beam observation are presented

  2. Uncertainty and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores how the quantum mechanics uncertainty relation can be considered to result from measurements. A distinction is drawn between the uncertainties obtained by scrutinising experiments and the standard deviation type of uncertainty definition used in quantum formalism. (UK)

  3. Essentials of measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kubrusly, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    Classical in its approach, this textbook is thoughtfully designed and composed in two parts. Part I is meant for a one-semester beginning graduate course in measure theory, proposing an “abstract” approach to measure and integration, where the classical concrete cases of Lebesgue measure and Lebesgue integral are presented as an important particular case of general theory. Part II of the text is more advanced and is addressed to a more experienced reader. The material is designed to cover another one-semester graduate course subsequent to a first course, dealing with measure and integration in topological spaces. The final section of each chapter in Part I presents problems that are integral to each chapter, the majority of which consist of auxiliary results, extensions of the theory, examples, and counterexamples. Problems which are highly theoretical have accompanying hints. The last section of each chapter of Part II consists of Additional Propositions containing auxiliary and complementary results. Th...

  4. Littoral Measurements Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Barny units measure ocean currents and sea surface heights on continental shelves and in ocean straits. SEPTR units are similar to Barnys but also record...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  6. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test measures the strength and endurance of your abdominal muscles. Here's how to do the test: Lie on ... and Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  8. Performance Measurement at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes empirical approaches to testing the reliability, validity, and organizational effectiveness of student evaluations of teaching (SET) as a performance measurement instrument in knowledge management at the institutional level of universities. Departing from Weber’s concept...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  10. Quality Measurement Impact Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services is required to assess the impact of consensus-endorsed quality and efficiency measures used in federal...

  11. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sætre, C.; Johansen, G.A.; Tjugum, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: ► Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. ► High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow pattern and gas fraction. ► Dual modality

  12. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  13. Rc measurements at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudot, J.

    1996-08-01

    The partial width R c is a basic observable in Z physics. Within the Standard Model its value is accurately predicted and other experimental measurements at LEP involve its knowledge. The DELPHI and OPAL collaborations have presented several R c measurements. All methods are based on charmed hadron reconstruction and b/c separation. The LEP average, computed by the LEP Electroweak Heavy Flavor Working Group, is presented. (author)

  14. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanovei, V G; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A

    2008-01-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P subset or equal [0,1], then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  15. Noise-Measuring Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test.......A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....

  16. Simulation with complex measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.; Griffin, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of statistical and quantum systems suffers from the sign problem when the generating function measures are indefinite or are complex, such as lattice quantum chromodynamics with finite temperature and density and chiral gauge theory. A new approach is proposed which yields statistical errors smaller than the crude Monte Carlo using absolute values of the original measures. The one-dimensional complex-coupling Ising model is employed as an illustration. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  17. Safeguards and physics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'

  18. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  19. Measurement of optical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1978-11-01

    The possibilities of measurement of the optical glasses parameters needed in building optical devices especially in lasers devices are presented. In the first chapter the general features of the main optical glasses as well as the modalities of obtaining them are given. Chapter two defines the optical glass parameters, and the third chapter describes the measuring methods of the optical glass parameters. Finally, the conclusions which point out the utilization of this paper are presented. (author)

  20. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoveĭ, V. G.; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A.

    2008-12-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P\\subseteq \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack , then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  1. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  2. Critique of protective measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Dass, N.D.; Qureshi, T.

    1999-01-01

    The recently proposed idea of open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurement of a quantum state is critically examined, and generalized. Earlier criticisms of the idea are discussed, and their relevance to the proposal assessed. Several constraints on measuring apparatus required by open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements are discussed, with emphasis on how they may restrict their experimental feasibility. Though open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements result in an unchanged system state and a shift of the pointer proportional to the expectation value of the measured observable in the system state, the actual reading of the pointer position gives rise to several subtleties. We propose several schemes for reading the pointer position, both when the apparatus is treated as a classical system as well as when its quantum aspects are taken into account, that address these issues. The tiny entanglement which is always present due to deviation from extreme adiabaticity in realistic situations is argued to be the weakest aspect of the proposal. Because of this, one can never perform a protective measurement on a single quantum system with absolute certainty. This clearly precludes an ontological status for the wave function. Several other conceptual issues are also discussed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  3. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  4. Measurement quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The quality of a radiation protection program can be no better than the quality of the measurements made to support it. In many cases, that quality is unknown and is merely implied on the basis of a calibration of a measuring instrument. If that calibration is inappropriate or is performed improperly, the measurement result will be inaccurate and misleading. Assurance of measurement quality can be achieved if appropriate procedures are followed, including periodic quality control actions that demonstrate adequate performance. Several national measurement quality assurance (MQA) programs are operational or under development in specific areas. They employ secondary standards laboratories that provide a high-quality link between the National Bureau of Standards and measurements made at the field use level. The procedures followed by these secondary laboratories to achieve MQA will be described, as well as plans for similar future programs. A growing general national interest in quality assurance, combined with strong specific motivations for MQA in the area of ionizing radiation, will provide continued demand for appropriate national programs. Such programs must, however, employ procedures that are cost effective and must be developed with participation by all affected parties

  5. Statistical measures of unsustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert U.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical measures are needed to reveal at a glance how far (or near) various countries are to meeting the conditions of long-run sustainability, and how conditions are changing on a year-to-year basis (i.e., whether sustainability is being approached or not). The scheme proposed in this paper presents numerical comparisons of energy and materials use in the real world vis a vis an ideal case where all of the identifiable criteria for sustainability are satisfied. Apart from population stabilization, five general but quantifiable criteria for sustainability are suggested, including (1) stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, (2) stabilization of acidity (pH) in rainfall, (3) reduction of dissipative uses, and wastes, of heavy metals to natural mobilization rates, or lower, (4) elimination of agriculture based on pumping 'fossil' water from non-renewable aquifers and (5) elimination of loss of arable land because of salination or erosion. Other criteria, such as preservation of biodiversity and socio-economic equity between countries and generations might be added to the list. They introduce more difficult measurement problems, however, which are not considered further in the paper. Having fixed the list of criteria, the next step is to identify measures that either go to zero or unity, as the system approaches more and more closely to sustainability, at least in the limited sense defined above. Various types of measures of sustainability/unsustainability can be developed, viz. (1) measures of relative dependence of the economy on non-renewable sources of energy and materials, (2) measures of the productivity of energy and materials consumed by the economic system and (3) measures of dissipative loss, especially of toxic and hazardous substances. Specific examples of each type are discussed

  6. Thermal Testing Measurements Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wagner

    2002-09-26

    The purpose of the Thermal Testing Measurements Report (Scientific Analysis Report) is to document, in one report, the comprehensive set of measurements taken within the Yucca Mountain Project Thermal Testing Program since its inception in 1996. Currently, the testing performed and measurements collected are either scattered in many level 3 and level 4 milestone reports or, in the case of the ongoing Drift Scale Test, mostly documented in eight informal progress reports. Documentation in existing reports is uneven in level of detail and quality. Furthermore, while all the data collected within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Thermal Testing Program have been submitted periodically to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS), the data structure--several incremental submittals, and documentation formats--are such that the data are often not user-friendly except to those who acquired and processed the data. The documentation in this report is intended to make data collected within the YMP Thermal Testing Program readily usable to end users, such as those representing the Performance Assessment Project, Repository Design Project, and Engineered Systems Sub-Project. Since either detailed level 3 and level 4 reports exist or the measurements are straightforward, only brief discussions are provided for each data set. These brief discussions for different data sets are intended to impart a clear sense of applicability of data, so that they will be used properly within the context of measurement uncertainty. This approach also keeps this report to a manageable size, an important consideration because the report encompasses nearly all measurements for three long-term thermal tests. As appropriate, thermal testing data currently residing in the TDMS have been reorganized and reformatted from cumbersome, user-unfriendly Input-Data Tracking Numbers (DTNs) into a new set of Output-DTNs. These Output-DTNs provide a readily usable data structure

  7. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichige, Masayuki; Ishige, Takanori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring a power such as of a nuclear fission reactor or a thermonuclear reactor by utilizing a light emitting phenomenon by radiation rays of gases. Namely, a measuring vessel sealed with a gas scintillator is inserted to the inside of a reactor. The measuring vessel is optically connected to a photoelectric convertor. The photoelectric convertor is electrically connected with a signal processing device. With such a constitution, gases sealed in the measuring vessel are ionized by radiation rays released in proportion to the power of the reactor to cause scintillation emission. The light is converted into electric signals by the photoelectric convertor. Reactor power can be monitored by the signal processing device having the electric signals as an input. According to the present invention, since the gas scintillation detector is used, the device is simplified and time responsiveness can be improved. As a result, the function of the reactor power measuring device can be improved. (I.S.)

  8. Measurements of fireball onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Barnat, Edward V.; Baalrud, Scott D.; Hopkins, Matthew M.; Yee, Benjamin T.

    2018-04-01

    Laser-based measurements of the characteristic features of fireball onset and stabilization in response to a stepped voltage applied to an anode immersed in a low pressure (100 mTorr) helium afterglow are reported. These include spatial and temporal evolution of metastable species, electron density, and electric field magnitude as measured by planar laser induced fluorescence, laser-collision induced fluorescence, and laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy, respectively. These measurements are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models [Scheiner et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 113520 (2017)]. The measurements validate the simulations and models in which fireball onset was predicted to follow from the trapping of electrons born from electron impact ionization within a potential well created by a buildup of ions in the sheath. The experimental measurements also demonstrate transient features following the onset that were not present in previous simulations. New simulation results are presented which demonstrate that these features are associated with the abruptness of the voltage step used to initiate fireball onset. An abrupt step in the anode bias causes rapid displacement of ions and an associated plasma potential response following the sheath and fireball expansion.

  9. Geophysical borehole measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, K.-Aa.; Duran, O.

    1978-01-01

    A well logging program has been carried out in Sweden in order to investigate the rock properties at depth. The perpose of the investigation is to find out if radioactive waste can be disposed in Sweden. The walls of the borehole have been inspected with a TV-camera. This method has a very high resolution and can detect very small fractures (less than 1 mm). It can also be used to evaluate the orientation of the fractures. The borehole's deviation has been measured with an inclinometer. Natural gamma and induced polarisation measurements have been used to characterize the variation in bedrock composition. The results show that changes in composition are often connected with changes in rock qualities, such as fracture frequency. The resistivity of the borehole fluid has been measured in order to get information about the variation in fluid salinity. Abrupt changes in salinity are connected with major fracture zones. This borehole fluid leaks into the hole from the fractures. In the first 100 m of the borehole measurable permeabilit ies can be obtained of very small fractures (less than 1 mm) are situated between the packers. At depths about 300 m and below, measurable permeabilities are connected with large open fracture zones

  10. Fast-scintillator measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, W.R.; Slaughter, D.R.; Lerche, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors are investigating scintillators because their fast timing properties may be applied to the development of neutron diagnostics. Measuring the history of a target burn by direct observation of DT neutrons requires a time resolution of 20 ps. An instrument designed to measure the plasma ion temperature by neutron time of flight, when the flight path is less than or equal to 1m, requires a detector system with resolution of 60 to 100 ps. Fast plastic scintillators like NE111, BC-422, and SG180 typically have decay constants of about 1400 ps. With quenching, the decay constant can be decreased to about 700 ps - still to slow for the instruments that they would like to build. One yet-unexploited property of fast scintillators is their rise time. In 1984, they began experiments designed to measure scintillator rise times. For our application - the measurement of target burn histories - they are especially concerned with the temporal width of the sample excitation pulse, the temporal resolution of our measurement system, and the need to characterize the excitation pulse and the scintillator output simultaneously. Application of plastic scintillators to a neutron streak camera is described

  11. Measuring past a micron...

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Infinity: That is the name of the new ultra-precision machine used by CERN's Metrology Service to measure the copper components for the CLIC accelerating structures. This project is the result of a collaboration between CLIC and the EN Department. Curious to find out more? Read on because there’ll be an opportunity for you to get a very close look at Infinity!    Infinity, the new, ultra-precise, measuring machine, is currently in operation at the CERN Metrology Service. The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) radiofrequency structures will operate under very high electric fields (100 MV/m). They should be manufactured within minimal mechanical tolerances. To validate the quality of these components, they have to be measured with a precision that far exceeds the machining tolerances, i.e. 0.3 microns. No “ordinary” measuring machine can achieve this precision, but Infinity, the newly developed high-precision three-dimensional measuring machine i...

  12. Inmate punishments: Disciplinary measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Ivan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the verdict has become formal and enforceable, and the defendant a convict, sentence execution procedure follows. If the defendant is sentenced to prison, the next step to be taken is the referral institution for execution of sentence of imprisonment. Rules of conduct in the institutions for execution of imprisonment are strictly regulated by legislation governing the rights and obligations of prisoners. Conducts that are prohibited in institutions shall be prescribed as a disciplinary offense, and appropriate disciplinary measures are to be imposed. The subject of this paper are disciplinary measures stipulated by the Law on Execution of Criminal Sanctions of the Republic of Serbia. The paper gives an overview of five disciplinary measures that can be imposed for serious or minor disciplinary offenses. In particular, author focuses his attention to indicating that the imposition and execution of disciplinary measures, are not regulated by Law in the best possible way, so that, in practice, certain problems arise in the application of these measures.

  13. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  14. Measuring reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Gary S

    2013-09-20

    Despite significant changes in the treatment of common eye conditions like cataract and age-related macular degeneration, reading difficulty remains the most common complaint of patients referred for low vision services. Clinical reading tests have been widely used since Jaeger introduced his test types in 1854. A brief review of the major developments in clinical reading tests is provided, followed by a discussion of some of the main controversies in clinical reading assessment. Data for the Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) study demonstrate that standardised clinical reading tests are highly predictive of reading performance under natural, real world conditions, and that discrepancies between self-reported reading ability and measured reading performance may be indicative of people who are at a pre-clinical stage of disability, but are at risk for progression to clinical disability. If measured reading performance is to continue to increase in importance as a clinical outcome measure, there must be agreement on what should be measured (e.g. speed or comprehension) and how it should be measured (e.g. reading silently or aloud). Perhaps most important, the methods for assessing reading performance and the algorithms for scoring reading tests need to be optimised so that the reliability and responsiveness of reading tests can be improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  16. Production measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The $\\text{LHC}b$ detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring heavy quark and quarkonia production properties. In addition, the new system of forward shower counters installed upstream and downstream has begun to be used, therefore the experiment is being suited to measure central exclusive production. The $\\text{LHC}b$ measurements of inclusive and differential cross-sections of the production of $J/\\psi$ resonance and $J/\\psi$ pairs, as well bottom quarks and $Z^0$ boson, based on Run 2 datasets are summarized. Finally, results on the prompt production of open charm hadrons and the exclusive production of charmonium are discussed.

  17. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  18. MEASURES OF OCCUPATIONAL MISMATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Mihaela MAER MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research developed in this paper is based on micro data available in Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC. The research aimed to estimate the size of both forms of labour market mismatch: education mismatch and skill mismatch. The first measure of job mismatch is based on workers’ self-assessment. The second one uses the PIAAC assessment regarding the proficiency for each skill dimension (literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology rich environments. The labor market mismatch was measured for Spain and Italy datasets for the higher education graduates whose occupations are included in Major Group two Professionals, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. The estimation results showed that the two measures of labour market mismatch are not correlated.

  19. Measuring efficiency in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Milovan Andrejić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic market and environmental changes greatly affect operating of logistics systems. Logistics systems have to realize their activities and processes in an efficient way. The main objective of this paper is to analyze different aspects of efficiency measurement in logistics and to propose appropriate models of measurement. Measuring efficiency in logistics is a complex process that requires consideration of all subsystems, processes and activities as well as the impact of various financial, operational, environmental, quality and other factors. The proposed models have a basis in the Data Envelopment Analysis method. They could help managers in decision making and corrective actions processes. The tests and results of the model show the importance of input and output variables selection.

  20. Magnet measurement workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-01

    This report covers the deliberations of the participants the workshop and some subsequent contributions. Section III, the report of the rotating coil group, includes a summary table of the major measuring systems in use today, with separate sections on each. Section IV is the summary report of the group that addressed other measuring techniques. Because one of the limits of all the techniques being considered is electronic data acquisition, Section V addresses this topic. A set of issues relevant to magnetic field measurements of SSC dipoles was raised and addressed during the workshop. These are included as Section VI. Section VII includes a complete list of attendees with their addresses and a separate list of the members of the two working groups.

  1. B meson lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, M.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetime of hadrons containing b-quark has been the subject of extensive experimental work and theoretical speculation; its importance is due to implications on some of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model, such as the top quark mass and the mixing angles. Since the pioneer measurements of the MAC and MARK II collaborations at PEP in 1983 the progress has been impressive; but many issues still remain open and await further study. In this paper the field's present status is discussed. An overview of the theoretical motivations for this measurements in the Standard Model framework is done. Then the experimental techniques used are reviewed, emphasizing the most recent measurements. A comparison of the results obtained is done and systematic errors are discussed. In conclusion there are some remarks on the further developments foreseen in the near future

  2. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, Jon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hurley, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gofryk, Krzysztof [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fielding, Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knight, Collin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Mitch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  3. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR

  4. Enhanced Microfluidic Electromagnetic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovangrandi, Laurent (Inventor); Ricco, Antonio J. (Inventor); Kovacs, Gregory (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for enhanced microfluidic impedance spectroscopy include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. Flow in the channel is laminar. A dielectric constant of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than a dielectric constant of the core fluid. Electrical impedance is measured in the channel between at least a first pair of electrodes. In some embodiments, enhanced optical measurements include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. An optical index of refraction of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than an optical index of refraction of the core fluid. An optical property is measured in the channel.

  5. Enterprise performance measurement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milija Bogavac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement systems are an extremely important part of the control and management actions, because in this way a company can determine its business potential, its market power, potential and current level of business efficiency. The significance of measurement consists in influencing the relationship between the results of reproduction (total volume of production, value of production, total revenue and profit and investments to achieve these results (factors of production spending and hiring capital in order to achieve the highest possible quality of the economy. (The relationship between the results of reproduction and investment to achieve them quantitatively determines economic success as the quality of the economy. Measuring performance allows the identification of the economic resources the company has, so looking at the key factors that affect its performance can help to determine the appropriate course of action.

  6. The measurement of sparkle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A.; Bayón, S.

    2015-04-01

    Sparkle is a non-uniform texture effect consisting of very bright spots distributed on a dark surround. To date the only commercially-available instrument able to quantify sparkle is BYK-mac. This instrument allows sparkle parameters to be obtained, which should correlate with the visual experience. However, the measurands corresponding to these parameters are not clearly defined and they cannot be measured by any other instruments. In this article, we describe a procedure to measure quantities of well-defined sparkle measurands. We present experimental results at a combination of well-distributed illumination/viewing geometries within the incident plane. From this study, four descriptors are derived which may be correlated with visual attributes of sparkle. Finally, the procedure to estimate the perceived sparkle at any given surround luminance from the measured sparkle quantities is explained.

  7. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  8. Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    -Nürnberg, Chair for Quality Management and Manufacturing-Oriented Metrology (Germany). 'Metro-E-Learn' project proposes to develop and implement a coherent learning and competence chain that leads from introductory and foundation e-courses in initial manufacturing engineering studies towards higher....... Machine tool testing 9. The role of manufacturing metrology for QM 10. Inspection planning 11. Quality management of measurements incl. Documentation 12. Advanced manufacturing measurement technology The present report (which represents the section 2 - Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty – of the e-learning......This report is made as a part of the project ‘Metro-E-Learn: European e-Learning in Manufacturing Metrology’, an EU project under the program SOCRATES MINERVA (ODL and ICT in Education), Contract No: 101434-CP-1-2002-1-DE-MINERVA, coordinated by Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen...

  9. Measuring ambivalence to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, P. L.

    Ambivalence is a psychological state in which a person holds mixed feelings (positive and negative) towards some psychological object. Standard methods of attitude measurement, such as Likert and semantic differential scales, ignore the possibility of ambivalence; ambivalent responses cannot be distinguished from neutral ones. This neglect arises out of an assumption that positive and negative affects towards a particular psychological object are bipolar, i.e., unidimensional in opposite directions. This assumption is frequently untenable. Conventional item statistics and measures of test internal consistency are ineffective as checks on this assumption; it is possible for a scale to be multidimensional and still display apparent internal consistency. Factor analysis is a more effective procedure. Methods of measuring ambivalence are suggested, and implications for research are discussed.

  10. TRUNCATED RANDOM MEASURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    tV e −u/γ ] = ( 1 + te−u/γ )−1 and ∫ J(u, t)du = γ log ( eu/γ + t ) . Using the antiderivative to evaluate the integrals in the formula for BK... Journal of Statistics, 26(2):283–297, 1998. J. F. C. Kingman. Completely random measures. Pacific Journal of Mathematics, 21(1):59–78, 1967. T S Ferguson...Random discrete distributions. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B, 37(1): 1–22, 1975. Anders Brix. Generalized gamma measures and shot-noise cox

  11. Three measures of longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the trend over time in the measures of "typical" longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy...... at birth increased from a level of 44 years in Sweden in 1840 to 82 years in Japan in 2005. The record median age at death shows increasing patterns similar to those observed in life expectancy at birth. However, the record modal age at death changes very little until the second half of the twentieth...

  12. Intercalibration of transuranic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.

    1982-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the coordinated research programme on Transuranic Cycling Behaviour in the Marine Environment has been to achieve the comparability of the measurement results among the laboratories from different countries participating in the programme. In order to fulfil this objective, the intercalibration exercises of transuranic measurements using sea water and sediment samples were organized by the Monaco Laboratory within the duration of the programme in 1979-1981. The sediment and sea water samples were collected respectively by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre of India and the Hydrographic Institute of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the present report the results of these intercalibration exercises are surveyed

  13. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  14. Fission gas measuring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok.

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Fission gas measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Strain and temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, P.A.E.; Fowler, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    A method of non-invasively measuring strain and temperature of an object, substantially simultaneously, using neutrons of selected energy levels is described. A pulsed neutron source is made to emit thermal and epithermal neutrons in a collimated beam directed at the object. Temperature is monitored by observing the thermal Doppler broadening of resonances in the neutron transmission characteristic for the epithermal neutrons and strain is measured from observations made of changes to the thermal neutron diffraction pattern. The object may be a gas turbine blade or a thrust bearing. (author)

  17. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  18. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltman, B.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material is exposed to a known amount of radiation and then exposed to the environment where temperature measurements are to be taken. After a predetermined time period, the TLD material is read in a known manner to determine the amount of radiation energy remaining in the TLD material. The difference between the energy originally stored by irradiation and that remaining after exposure to the temperature ofthe environment is a measure of the average temperature of the environment during the exposure. (U.S.)

  19. Probability and Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Billingsley, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition "It is, as far as I'm concerned, among the best books in math ever written....if you are a mathematician and want to have the top reference in probability, this is it." (Amazon.com, January 2006) A complete and comprehensive classic in probability and measure theory Probability and Measure, Anniversary Edition by Patrick Billingsley celebrates the achievements and advancements that have made this book a classic in its field for the past 35 years. Now re-issued in a new style and format, but with the reliable content that the third edition was revered for, this

  20. Simulations with complex measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, J.K.; Kieu, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is proposed to handle the sign problem in the simulation of systems having indefinite or complex-valued measures. In general, this new approach, which is based on renormalisation blocking, is shown to yield statistical errors smaller that the crude Monte Carlo method using absolute values of the original measures. The improved method is applied to the 2D Ising model with temperature generalised to take on complex values. It is also adapted to implement Monte Carlo Renormalisation Group calculations of the magnetic and thermal critical exponents. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  1. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  2. Measurement Science and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, C. Victor

    The need for training and retraining is a central element in current discussions about the economy of the United States. This paper is designed to introduce training practitioners to some new concepts about how measurement science can provide a new framework for assessing progress and can add new discipline to the development, implementation, and…

  3. Standard Weights and Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 8. Standard Weights and Measures. Vasant Natarajan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 8 August 2001 pp 44-59. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/08/0044-0059. Author Affiliations.

  4. Graphs Generated by Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Assari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a graph is assigned to any probability measure on the σ-algebra of Borel sets of a topological space. Using this construction, it is proved that given any number n (finite or infinite there exists a nonregular graph such that its clique, chromatic, and dominating number equals n.

  5. Investigations on freeform measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; Costacurta, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This report is made as a part of the project Easytrac, an EU project under the programme: Competitive and Sustainable Growth: Contract No: G6RD-CT-2000-00188, coordinated by UNIMETRIK S.A. (Spain). The project is concerned with low uncertainty calibrations on coordinate measuring machines...

  6. Measuring the chargino parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After the supersymmetric particles have been discovered, the priority will be to determine independently the fundamental parameters to reveal the structure of the underlying supersymmetric theory. In my talk I discuss how the chargino sector can be reconstructed completely by measuring the cross-sections with polarized ...

  7. Measurement of Humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The project COMET provides a multimedia training package for metrology and measurement. The package is developed by a consortium of 10 institutes from 7 European countries. It consists of 31 modules, each dealing with a particular aspect of metrology, and is available in English, German, French and

  8. Measuring Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Christopher; Bensimon, Estela Mara; Dowd, Alicia C.; Kleiman, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Student success is at the heart of both institutional effectiveness and the community college mission, yet measuring such success at community colleges is problematic. This article highlights three efforts to grapple with this problem--a multistate work group of system- and state-level policymakers to create an improved set of student success…

  9. New measurements techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni

    uncertainties to the measurement process. Optical techniques may help overcoming this problem because the sensing element is not a bulky instrument, but a beam of light that does not change the properties of sound. Optical methods are thus non-invasive and can thereby enhance the current state of the art...

  10. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  11. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  12. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  13. Fuzzy measures and integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mesiar, Radko

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 156 (2005), s. 365-370 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fuzzy measures * fuzzy integral * regular fuzzy integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.039, year: 2005

  14. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Johnathan Lee [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  15. Measurement of Electric Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the measurement of electric potentials by means of a flame probe. This method is used extensively in the new Nuffield Advanced Level Physics course, and provides a means of taking reliable quantitative results in an area of most school courses where the majority of the work is qualitative. (JR)

  16. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  17. Measuring Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Gillen, David

    2014-01-01

    Set in the airport industry, this paper measures firm performance using both desirable and bad outputs (i.e. airport delays). We first estimate a model that does not include the bad outputs and then a model that includes bad outputs. The results show important differences in the efficiency...

  18. Measurement and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2018-01-02

    This is a chapter for a book called the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. Though it is not obvious from the title, the book deals mainly with power engineering. The first chapter (not mine) is about the fundamental quantities used in measurement. This chapter is about the process and the instrumentation.

  19. Dialogue scanning measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software

  20. Standard Weights and Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mass standard, represented by the proto- type kilogram, is the only remaining artifact, but there are promising proposals to replace that in the near future. Ever since humans started living in community settle- ments, day to day activities have required the adoption of a set of standards for weights and measures. For ex-.

  1. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather

  2. Measuring Educational Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvanathan, Rani G.

    2013-01-01

    There are many definitions that are attributable to the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability can be viewed as long-lasting, effective result of a project, venture, action, or investment without consuming additional future resources. Because of the wide nature of its applicability, a universal measure of sustainability is hard to come by. This…

  3. The Measurable Me

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöklint, Mimmi

    2014-01-01

    and mobile apps. On the other hand, the user may actively and knowingly be gathering quantified data through ubiquitous sensory devices, such as wearable technology, e.g. the Jawbone UP and Fitbit. In both instances, the user is exposed to versions of self-quantified measures, namely the aggregation...

  4. Measuring Reading Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, William E., Ed.; And Others

    Designed to provide solutions to some of the problems related to measuring reading behavior, this publication explores some of the problems of test selection and usage which confront educators. Contents include "Reading Testing for Reading Evaluation" by Walter R. Hill, "Reading Tests and the Disadvantaged" by Thomas J. Fitzgibbon, "What Is…

  5. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  6. Temperature measurements by thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liermann, J.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of a temperature (whatever the type of transducer used) raises three problems: the choice of transducer; where it should be placed; how it should be fixed and protected. These are the three main points examined, after a brief description of the most commonly used thermocouples [fr

  7. The measurement of photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R; Edwards, C

    1992-09-01

    The use of non-invasive and invasive techniques for the assessment of human photodamaged skin is reviewed. Physical changes during photodamage and its treatment are best scored using a visual analogue scale rather than a short, non-equal interval scale. Epidermal thickness can be measured by histometric methods but dermal thickness can be measured non-invasively using pulsed A-scan and B-scan ultrasound techniques. These approaches are not effective in detecting any changes due to photodamage. Mechanical properties of the dermis can be determined using either a static or a dynamic test mode. The authors have used extensometry to provide a measure of the laxity of skin. Replicas of the crow's foot areas have been taken before and after tretinoin treatment, and the replicas have been inspected by optical profilometry. Reductions of blood flow in photodamaged skin have been established using laser Doppler measurements, the effect being reversed by topical tretinoin. Invasive biochemical techniques have the disadvantage that they generally require large amounts of tissue. Cytochemical techniques, however, have shown increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the granular cell layer of patients with non-melanoma skin cancer, premalignant epidermal lesions, sun-damaged epidermis and artificially irradiated skin. This technique may provide an important model for the study of photodamage. It is concluded that there is no single method available to quantify the degenerative changes associated with photodamage and the effects of tretinoin.

  8. First Measurement of $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomino Gallo, Jose Luis [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    Understanding of the $\\pi^0$ production via anti-neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of 1-10 GeV is essential for neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a measurement of charged current $\\pi^0$ production from anti-muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene scintillator (CH) target in the MINER$\

  9. Measuring Latent Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Roderick P.

    2011-01-01

    A distinction is proposed between measures and predictors of latent variables. The discussion addresses the consequences of the distinction for the true-score model, the linear factor model, Structural Equation Models, longitudinal and multilevel models, and item-response models. A distribution-free treatment of calibration and…

  10. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  11. Standard Weights and Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and measures from olden days to their modern .... 1 second per day. John Harrison, a carpenter and self-taught clock-maker, refined temperature compensation techniques and added new methods of reducing friction ... slave pendulum gave the master pendulum gentle pushes needed to maintain its motion, and also drove.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  13. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  14. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  15. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short...

  16. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  17. Measurement Decision Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    This paper describes and evaluates the use of decision theory as a tool for classifying examinees based on their item response patterns. Decision theory, developed by A. Wald (1947) and now widely used in engineering, agriculture, and computing, provides a simple model for the analysis of categorical data. Measurement decision theory requires only…

  18. Customer satisfaction measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction is important in business management as a basis for long-term profitability of a single line of products and services and the company as a whole. Customer satisfaction in modern market conditions is characterized by a large number of alternatives that can satisfy the same need or desire of consumers, and are a prerequisite for the retention, loyalty, and positive verbal communication between companies and vendors on one hand and consumers on the other. Companies are investing more and more investment and management efforts in improving customer satisfaction. Improving customer satisfaction and its measurement involves the taking of appropriate marketing strategies and tactics, as well as corrective measures. This paper presents the well-known attempts to measure customers' satisfaction at the macro and micro level of marketing analysis. The index of consumer satisfaction is an important indicator of achieved quality and market performance of companies and can be measured on a micro and macro level. National customer satisfaction indexes are useful framework for analyzing the competitiveness of national economies, industries and individual companies and are used for a variety of other aspects of observation and analysis. Standardization of consumer satisfaction indexes in different countries allows comparability of the data, giving a new quality of analysis in the era of globalization and internationalization of business.

  19. Connectivity measures: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Burel, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2008), s. 879-890 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Conservation biology * Habitat fragmentation * Landscape connectivity * Measures * Species extinction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2008

  20. Environmental radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, M.; Izumo, Koichi; Kumagaya, Hidekazu; Kodama, Masahiro

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes on the continuous observation of cosmic-ray components by balloon flights on September 4, 1976, and on August 25, 1977. The purposes of the measurements are to obtain the informations of cosmic-ray measured with G-M counters and scintillation counters, to analyze both data, and to compare the results of both measurements. Observation with a BF 3 counter was also made. The system of observation consists of a detection part and a signal analyzing part. The detection part is composed of G-M counters, a 3 inch spherical NaI scintillation counter and a 95 mm spherical plastic scintillation counter. A BF 3 counter was also used. Informations from the detectors were transmitted as digital signals. The NaI counter detects the gamma-ray components, and the plastic counter detects the charged particle components. The G-M counters measure the altitude dependence and the directional distribution of cosmic ray intensity. The data obtained by scintillation counters were also analyzed to obtain the directional distribution. The obtained results are shown in tables and figures. (Kato, T.)

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  2. Measuring Growth in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Paul B.

    The monograph is a complete outline for a program designed to help English departments institute logical and fair procedures for grading student essays. The contents in this monograph include "Factors in Judgments of Writing Ability,""The Effect of Bias,""Measuring Improvement in Writing,""Personal vs Staff Grading,""Standard Scores for Test…

  3. Reliability measurement without limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Carletta, J.

    In computational linguistics, a reliability measurement of 0.8 on some statistic such as $\\kappa$ is widely thought to guarantee that hand-coded data is fit for purpose, with lower values suspect. We demonstrate that the main use of such data, machine learning, can tolerate data with a low

  4. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  5. Measurements of Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2004-03-01

    The many sensational claims of vast quantities of hydrogen (H) stored in carbon materials reported since 1996 have resulted in the H storage and carbon scientific literature now being cluttered with misinformation and some genuinely bad science. H storage experiments are not trivial, and they are prone to error and misinterpretation. For example, volumetric experiments use equilibrium gas pressures (P) and temperatures (T) measured in calibrated volumes to determine the number of moles of gas, and changes in P without changes in T (or leakage) are then interpreted as sorption. A typical mistake is measuring P vs. time after pressurizing a sample chamber and interpreting a drop in P as sorption. This is difficult to interpret as real absorption because all confounding effects (leaks, T drifts, thermal inhomogeneities, etc.) are nearly impossible to eliminate. Moreover, the basic thermodynamic properties of gas flow systems tell us that high-P gases filling evacuated chambers experience non-negligible rises in T. Another example of misinterpretation arises in gravimetric experiments that use weight (W) measurements corrected for large T-dependent buoyancy effects to determine gas sorption. Here a typical mistake is interpreting the actual sorption of heavy residual impurity gases as H sorption. These and other techniques for measuring H sorption must be performed and interpreted with great care due to difficulties associated with small sample sizes, high gas pressures, very reactive materials, contamination, low signal-to-noise, poor experimental design, and, in some cases, bad science. Good science respects the difference between measurement precision (the number of significant digits of P or W measurements) and experimental accuracy (the degree of certainty that P or W changes really represent H sorption). At General Motors, we endeavor to understand, conduct, and promote reliable H storage measurements on new materials and routinely use both volumetric

  6. Verification of Minimum Detectable Activity for Radiological Threat Source Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Hannah; Myjak, Mitchell; Baciak, James; Detwiler, Rebecca; Seifert, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office is working to develop advanced technologies that will improve the ability to detect, localize, and identify radiological and nuclear sources from airborne platforms. The Airborne Radiological Enhanced-sensor System (ARES) program is developing advanced data fusion algorithms for analyzing data from a helicopter-mounted radiation detector. This detector platform provides a rapid, wide-area assessment of radiological conditions at ground level. The NSCRAD (Nuisance-rejection Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection) algorithm was developed to distinguish low-count sources of interest from benign naturally occurring radiation and irrelevant nuisance sources. It uses a number of broad, overlapping regions of interest to statistically compare each newly measured spectrum with the current estimate for the background to identify anomalies. We recently developed a method to estimate the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of NSCRAD in real time. We present this method here and report on the MDA verification using both laboratory measurements and simulated injects on measured backgrounds at or near the detection limits. This work is supported by the US Department of Homeland Security, Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, under competitively awarded contract/IAA HSHQDC-12-X-00376. This support does not constitute an express or implied endorsement on the part of the Gov't.

  7. Measurement by phase severance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors

  8. Aerial measuring systems program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    EG and G, Inc., has developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) an Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) program dedicated to environmental research at facilities of interest to DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other federal agencies. The AMS was orginally created to measure nuclear radiation; the program scope has been broadened dramatically to include a wide variety of remote sensors: multispectral and mapping cameras, optical and infrared multispectral scanners, air-sampling systems, and meteorological sensors. The AMS maintains seven aircraft as survey platforms, both fixed-wind aircraft and helicopters. Photography, scanner imagery, and radiation data are processed in dedicated, modern laboratories and used for a broad range of environmental impact studies. A graphic overview system has been developed for effective presentation of all types of remotely sensed data obtained at a facility of interest

  9. Improvements in measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, W.

    1976-01-01

    Measuring apparatus is described that is suitable for gauging the wall profiles of downwardly extending channels in nuclear reactors, but which is equally applicable to channels such as pipe bores and conduits in other types of plant. The apparatus comprises a probe carrying a measuring transducer giving an electrical output. The probe support may be moved stepwise along the channel along a track between end members. An electrical conductor is provided for transmitting the electrical output of the transducer to an indicator located remote from the probe. The probe support may consist of a cable attached at one end to a winding drum, and incorporating an electrical conductor connected to the transducer. Channel engaging means are provided on the probe that permits free upward movement of the probe when the latter is suspended by the cable and moves into gripping engagement with the channel wall when the tension in the cable is relaxed. (U.K.)

  10. Emittance measurements at PITZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vashchenko, Grygorii; Asova, Galina; Baehr, Juergen; Grabosch, Hans Juergen; Hakobyan, Levon; Haenel, Marc; Ivanisenko, Yevgeniy; Khojoyan, Martin; Krasilnikov, Mikhail; Mahgoub, Mahmoud; Nozdrin, Mikhail; O' Shea, Brendon; Otevrel, Marek; Petrosyan, Bagrat; Richter, Dieter; Riemann, Sabine; Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Roensch, Juliane; Shapovalov, Andrey; Spesyvtsev, Roman; Staykov, Lazar; Stephan, Frank [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Floettmann, Klaus; Lederer, Sven; Schreiber, Siegfried [DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Klemz, Guido; Will, Ingo [Max-Born-Institute, Berlin(Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site, (PITZ) has an aim to develop and optimize high brightness electron sources for Free Electron Lasers like FLASH and the European XFEL. The new laser system allows to produce trains of laser pulses with flat-top temporal profiles of about 20 ps FWHM and rise/fall time of about 2 ps had been commissioned at PITZ in late autumn 2008. Photo electrons emitted from the Cs{sub 2}Te cathode are accelerated by a 1.6-cell L band RF gun cavity operated at 60 MV/m maximum accelerating gradient at the cathode. For measuring of transverse projected emittance the so called single slit scan technique is used at PITZ. This procedure is discussed. Recent results on measured emittance of electron beam are presented.

  11. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid.......The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...

  12. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  13. Measuring integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    differences were found in the perception of clinical integration in the two settings. More primary care clinicians in the Northern California region of Kaiser Permanente reported being part of a clinical integrated environment than did Danish general practitioners. By measuring the level of clinical...... respond to these needs, patients and providers face the multiple challenges of today's healthcare environment. Decision makers, planners and managers need evidence based policy options and information on the scope of the integrated care challenges they are facing. The US managed care organization Kaiser...... Permanente has been put forward as an example for European healthcare systems to follow, although the evidence base is far from conclusive. The thesis has five objectives: 1) To contribute to the understanding of the concept of integration in healthcare systems and to identify measurement methods to capture...

  14. Radiation measurement instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements and characteristics of radiation measurement instruments vary according to the circumstances under which they are used (field, area, laboratory conditions) and according to their purpose (radiation survey, personal monitoring, use in emergencies, or alpha, beta or gamma counting). In fact, radiation measurement instruments are so varied that only an overview has been presented here. Groups of instruments for these and other conditions or uses are presented in tabular form together with their operational characteristics and requirements. While examples of calibrations, efficiencies and variability of all the listed instruments are not given in this chapter, these parameters are illustrated for the most important types of gamma and beta survey instruments, in some cases with a specific instrument used as an example. Some of the important parameters that need to be considered for laboratory counting of alpha and beta particles are presented. Charts for determination of optimum sample and background counting times, errors and statistics are given

  15. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  16. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  17. Material damping measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewsbury, Peter

    Consideration is given to ways of measuring vibration damping, the experimental and analytical problems encountered, and definitions of attenuation coefficients. A versatile PC-based apparatus built for measuring the damping of forced flexural vibrations in a beam subjected to static loading within a controlled environment chamber is described. The fixed end provides an inertial reference point and the other end is subjected to static and dynamic forces. This allows the dependences of the attenuation on temperature, humidity, dynamic stress, static stress, aging, fatiguing, etc. to be assessed. The equipment can be operated in real time to give response functions and phase lags as a function of frequency or in a delayed processing mode which samples data at one frequency only and after a delayed analysis directly calculates an attenuation coefficient. Ways of handling and processing the data to minimize errors and avoid unnecessary assumptions relating to the linearity of the response or the nature of the attenuation are highlighted.

  18. High temperature measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  19. Which Firms Use Measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Pedersen, Esben; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline the anatomy of firms which adopt comprehensive performance measurement (PM) systems in order to gain an understanding of how internal (organisational capabilities) and external (perceived environmental uncertainties) factors shape performance...... – This paper concludes that a limited number of internal and external factors have a significant influence on the adoption of PM systems. There is no consistent pattern, however, between the different sub-categories of organisational capabilities/perceived environmental uncertainties and PM adoption....... Originality/value – Much has been said about how changes in the environment and business structure require firms to develop new ways to measure performance. Less has been done to study whether firms adopting comprehensive PM systems actually match the characteristics of the “new economy”. The findings from...

  20. Measuring mandibular ridge reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, W.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)

  1. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  2. Measuring green jobs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Martinsen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    the initiatives. An alternative framework is suggested, as it appears fundamentally impossible to make consistent frameworks for a division of the economy into “green” and “non-green” activities. The analysis has been carried out during the period September 2011 – March 2012 by Vista Analysis AS, Gaia Consulting......The report reviews the different initiatives aiming to measure aspects of “green” sectors, jobs and technologies. The report discusses whether the statistics collected under the present initiatives aimed at measuring these aspects increase insights into the fundamental questions motivating...... Oy and University of Aarhus. The project was commissioned by the Working Group on Environment and Economy under the Nordic Council of Ministers....

  3. Traceability of measurement results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumantakis, George

    2008-08-01

    * Trueness must be independent of analytical platform and measurements comparable regardless of the analytical procedure used. * Traceability requirements for the clinical laboratory are via National Metrology Institutes, Reference (Calibration) laboratories and finally the routine laboratory. * Traceability information required by today's clinical laboratory may be requested from the manufacturer of the analytical kits and the internet. * Traceable laboratory results will greatly enhance the role of the laboratory in patient management.

  4. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  5. Measuring our changing Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lee

    2014-01-01

    We live on an ever-changing planet. Volcanoes emerge from the oceans; land is torn apart by earthquakes; tsunamis and floods destroy vast areas of land; landslides transport millions of tonnes of material down hills and mountains causing billions of pounds of damage; coastlines and glaciers retreat at almost visible rates. But can we do anything to measure the changes these geological hazards are making to the earth? Lee Jones says we can.

  6. A power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, R. van.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the klystron test facility of the Dutch NIKHEF-K accelerator, a sensitive power measuring device has been built. The high-frequency power of a klystron is stored in a water-cooled dummy load. Using a microcomputer, the increase of the water temperature and the water flow rate are transformed to a digital indication of the klystron power. (Auth.)

  7. On convex complexity measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, P.; Jukna, S.; Kulikov, A.; Pudlák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 16-18 (2010), s. 1842-1854 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : boolean formula * complexity measure * combinatorial rectangle * convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510000885

  8. Measuring Value in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A statistical description and model of individual healthcare expenditures in the US has been developed for measuring value in healthcare. We find evidence that healthcare expenditures are quantifiable as an infusion-diffusion process, which can be thought of intuitively as a steady change in the intensity of treatment superimposed on a random process reflecting variations in the efficiency and effectiveness of treatment. The arithmetic mean represents the net average annual cost of healthcare...

  9. Operational Risk Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela ANGHELACHE; Ana-Cornelia OLTEANU (PUIU); Alina-Nicoleta RADU

    2010-01-01

    Beginning with the fact that performant strategies of the financial institutions have programmes and management procedures for the banking risks, which have as main objective to minimize the probability of risk generation and the bank’s potential exposure, this paper wants to present the operational risk measurement. Therefore, the first part presents the conceptual approach of the operational risks through the point of view of the financial institutions exposed to this type of risk. The seco...

  10. Can We Measure Memes?

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Memes are the fundamental unit of cultural evolution and have been left upon the periphery of cognitive neuroscience due to their inexact definition and the consequent presumption that they are impossible to measure. Here it is argued that although a precise definition of memes is rather difficult it does not preclude highly controlled experiments studying the neural substrates of their initiation and replication. In this paper, memes are termed as either internally or externally represented ...

  11. Measuring child marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Cong Nguyen; Quentin Wodon

    2012-01-01

    Child or early marriage is recognized as an important development and human rights issue that affects girls especially in many developing countries. The practice has been linked to psychological, health, and education risks. These negative impacts explain why in many countries child marriage has been prohibited by law but often with little effect. While child marriage has been recognized as a major issue, its measurement has remained unsophisticated. Existing studies tend to simply report the...

  12. Geometric measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Waerden, B

    1996-01-01

    From the reviews: "... Federer's timely and beautiful book indeed fills the need for a comprehensive treatise on geometric measure theory, and his detailed exposition leads from the foundations of the theory to the most recent discoveries. ... The author writes with a distinctive style which is both natural and powerfully economical in treating a complicated subject. This book is a major treatise in mathematics and is essential in the working library of the modern analyst." Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society.

  13. Measurement device for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, M.

    1982-02-01

    A measurement device for a reactor is described. It consists of closed end guide tubes positioned vertically beneath each of the fuel assemblies; the ends of these tubes are immersed in the core coolant fluid. A ''free space'' in-pile detector and a detection device are enclosed in each of the guide tubes. The state of the core is characterized by output signals delivered by the in-pile detectors. These detectors are of the acoustic type [fr

  14. Measuring Voter Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We present an automated data collection technique called white boxes-or simply wb-technique, which is designed to analyze the voter behavior in polling stations including the measurement of arrival and waiting times and the determination of arrival frequency, to assist the management of polling...... places to make decisions regarding the distribution of resources and to identify areas for future improvement, and to provide hard data to guide the political decision making process with respect to the choice of voting technologies....

  15. Planetary heat flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagermann, Axel

    2005-12-15

    The year 2005 marks the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 13 mission, probably the most successful failure in the history of manned spaceflight. Naturally, Apollo 13's scientific payload is far less known than the spectacular accident and subsequent rescue of its crew. Among other instruments, it carried the first instrument designed to measure the flux of heat on a planetary body other than Earth. The year 2005 also should have marked the launch of the Japanese LUNAR-A mission, and ESA's Rosetta mission is slowly approaching comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Both missions carry penetrators to study the heat flow from their target bodies. What is so interesting about planetary heat flow? What can we learn from it and how do we measure it?Not only the Sun, but all planets in the Solar System are essentially heat engines. Various heat sources or heat reservoirs drive intrinsic and surface processes, causing 'dead balls of rock, ice or gas' to evolve dynamically over time, driving convection that powers tectonic processes and spawns magnetic fields. The heat flow constrains models of the thermal evolution of a planet and also its composition because it provides an upper limit for the bulk abundance of radioactive elements. On Earth, the global variation of heat flow also reflects the tectonic activity: heat flow increases towards the young ocean ridges, whereas it is rather low on the old continental shields. It is not surprising that surface heat flow measurements, or even estimates, where performed, contributed greatly to our understanding of what happens inside the planets. In this article, I will review the results and the methods used in past heat flow measurements and speculate on the targets and design of future experiments.

  16. Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    International Journal of Production Economics 85 (2): 199-215. Dumond, E. J. 1994. Making best use of... International Journal of Production Economics 87 (3) (2/18): 333-47. Gunasekaran, A., H. J. Williams, and R. E. McGaughey. 2005. Performance measurement...supply chain quality management and its relevance to academic and industrial practice. International Journal of Production Economics 96 : 315-37.

  17. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  18. Measuring Tax Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    , thereby, the degree of efficiency of a taxsystem. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show howthe basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivalentuniform tax, which measures the size of the public sector. A numericalexample is used to illustrate the method developed.......JEL Code: H21, H41.Keywords: Tax optimality index, excess burden, distance function.Authors Affiliations: Raimondos-Møller: Copenhagen Business School, CEPR,CESifo, and EPRU. Woodland: University of Sydney....

  19. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  20. Centrifugal Contactor Efficiency Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tillotson, Richard Dean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The contactor efficiency of a 2-cm acrylic centrifugal contactor, fabricated by ANL using 3D printer technology was measured by comparing a contactor test run to 5-min batch contacts. The aqueous phase was ~ 3 ppm depleted uranium in 3 M HNO3, and the organic phase was 1 M DAAP/dodecane. Sampling during the contactor run showed that equilibrium was achieved within < 3 minutes. The contactor efficiency at equilibrium was 95% to 100 %, depending on flowrate.

  1. AC resistance measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  2. Cerebral haematocrit measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutfi, Issa.

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral haematocrit was measured in a group of sixteen subjects by the single-photon emission computerized tomography method. This group included three normal subjects as controls and thirteen patients affected with ischaemic cerebral disease presenting clinically with transient ischaemic attacks-six patients - or recent cerebral stroke - seven patients. Two intravenous radioactive tracers - technetium-99m labelled autologous red blood cells and Tc-99m human serum albumin were used. Cerebral tomographic imaging was performed using a rotating scintillation camera. The values of cerebral haematocrit obtained, taken as a ratio to venous haematocrit, range between 0.65-0.88 in the subjects studied. As a general finding in normal subjects and in patients with transient ischaemic attacks, no significant difference between right and left hemispheric haematocrit value was noted. However, in the group of patients affected with stroke, a significant difference in the right versus left hemispheric Hct was observed in 3 patients, the higher Hct value corresponding to the affected side. The clinical implication is on the emphasis of cerebral Hct measurement when the measurement of cerebral blood flow or volume is sought. Also the variation in regional Hct value observed in patients with stroke, above mentioned, points to a regulation mechanism of the blood composition for optimal oxygen delivery to the brain that is impaired in these patients. 14 refs. (Author)

  3. Radon and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Silvia

    2006-03-01

    The work reviews the topics concerning the problem of the indoor radon and its measurement. The initial stage deals with the general features of radon, from the historical remarks about its discovery to the formation mechanisms in the soil, then passing to describe the transport processes that lead the radon to enter into the buildings. The mean radon concentration distribution among the Italian regions is reported and compared with the situation in the other countries of the world. A particular importance is given to present the national law concerning the radioprotection from the natural sources of ionizing radiations; a paragraph is completely devoted to this argument and to discuss the differences between the Italian approach and the regulations applied in the Test of Europe for both workplaces and dwellings. Chapter 3 describes the different detectors and methods to measure the radon and its short mean live decay products concentrations, together with the operative procedures and guides provided by the Italian law and by the international bodies. As an example of typical radon passive measurement device. the new ENEA detector developed at the Institute of Radioprotection is presented and discussed. Appendix 1 is entirely devoted to discuss the main remedial actions for decreasing the radon indoor concentration both for old and new buildings; appendix 2 reports the main quantities related to radon and radioprotection [it

  4. Burnup degree measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, Tatsuo.

    1994-01-01

    A fixing stand on which a nuclear fuel support and a detector guide support stand are disposed is placed at a predetermined position in a fuel storage pool. Spent nuclear fuels stored in the pool are set in the nuclear fuel support. A closed end of a detector guide tube is secured to the detector guide support stand. The radiation detector is inserted to the detector guide tube, and it is disposed at a predetermined position near the nuclear fuel support. Radiation detection signals detected by the radiation detector are sent to a measuring device for measuring a burnup degree of spent nuclear fuels disposed to the outside of the pool by way of cables. Since the radiation detector is placed near the spent nuclear fuels only upon measurement of the burnup degree, radiation injuries of the radiation detector and the cables are reduced. Further, since the radiation detector and the cables are kept from contact with pool water, radiation decontamination upon maintenance and inspection is not necessary, to facilitate a calibration operation. (I.N.)

  5. Environmental 90Sr measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Cecil, L.D.; Feldstein, H.; Hershkowitz, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Vogt, S.

    1997-01-01

    90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 years) is a long-lived radionuclide produced in nuclear fission. Fast radiochemical detection of 90Sr in environmental samples is not feasible using current analytical methods. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 90Sr were made with the Rehovot 14UD Pelletron accelerator at a terminal voltage of 11 or 12 MV using our standard detection system. Injection of hydride ions (SrH3-) was chosen owing to high beam intensity and low Coulomb explosion effects. 90Sr ions were identified and discriminated from isobaric 90Zr by measuring time of flight, total energy and three independent energy-loss signals in an ionization chamber. A reference sample and a ground-water sample were successfully measured. The detection limit determined for a laboratory blank by the residual counts in the 90Sr region is 90Sr/Sr = 3 ?? 10-13, corresponding in practice to (2-4) ?? 10790Sr atoms or about 0.5-1 pCi/L in environmental water samples.

  6. Measuring visibility using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Jan; Bialon, Raphael; Claßen, Christoph; Graffi, Kalman

    2017-04-01

    Spatial information on fog density is an important parameter for ecohydrological studies in cloud forests. The Dhofar cloud forest in Southern Oman exhibits a close interaction between the fog, trees, and rainfall. During the three month monsoon season the trees capture substantial amounts of horizontal precipitation from fog which increases net precipitation below the tree canopy. As fog density measurements are scarce, a smartphone app was designed to measure visibility. Different smartphone units use a variety of different parts. It is therefore important to assess the developed visibility measurement across a suite of different smartphones. In this study we tested five smartphones/ tablets (Google/ LG Nexus 5X, Huawei P8 lite, Huawei Y3, HTC Nexus 9, and Samsung Galaxy S4 mini) against digital camera (Sony DLSR-A900) and visual visibility observations. Visibility was assessed from photos using image entropy, from the number of visible targets, and from WiFi signal strength using RSSI. Results show clear relationships between object distance and fog density, yet a considerable spread across the different smartphone/ tablet units is evident.

  7. MEASURING PATH DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm

  8. Ultrasonic measurements and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kočiš, Štefan

    1996-01-01

    An impulse for writing this book has originated from the effort to sum­ marize and publicise the acquired results of a research team at the De­ partment of Automation of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and In­ formatics, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. The research team has been involved for a long time with control problems for machine production mechanisms and, in recent (approximately 15) years, its effort was aimed mostly at the control of electrical servosystems of robots. Within this scope, the members of the authors' staff solved the State Re­ search Task Ultrasonic sensing of the position of a robot hand, which was coordinated by the Institute of Technical Cybernetics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava. The problem was solved in a complex way, i.e. from a conceptual de­ sign of the measurement, through the measurement and evaluation sys­ tem, up to connection to the control system of a robot. Compensation of the atmospheric influence on the precision of measurement,...

  9. Handbook of mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Frank E

    2002-01-01

    "How much does it weigh?" seems a simple question. To scientists and engineers, however, the answer is far from simple, and determining the answer demands consideration of an almost overwhelming number of factors.With an intriguing blend of history, fundamentals, and technical details, the Handbook of Mass Measurement sets forth the details of achieving the highest precision in mass measurements. It covers the whole field, from the development, calibration, and maintenance of mass standards to detailed accounts of weighing designs, balances, and uncertainty. It addresses the entire measurement process and provides in-depth examinations of the various factors that introduce error.Much of the material is the authors'' own work and some of it is published here for the first time. Jones and Schoonover are both highly regarded veterans of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. With this handbook, they have provided a service and resource vital to anyone involved not only in the determination of m...

  10. Tritium sampling and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.J.; McElroy, R.G.; Surette, R.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Current methods for sampling and measuring tritium are described. Although the basic techniques have not changed significantly over the last 10 y, there have been several notable improvements in tritium measurement instrumentation. The design and quality of commercial ion-chamber-based and gas-flow-proportional-counter-based tritium monitors for tritium-in-air have improved, an indirect result of fusion-related research in the 1980s. For tritium-in-water analysis, commercial low-level liquid scintillation spectrometers capable of detecting tritium-in-water concentrations as low as 0.65 Bq L-1 for counting times of 500 min are available. The most sensitive method for tritium-in-water analysis is still 3He mass spectrometry. Concentrations as low as 0.35 mBq L-1 can be detected with current equipment. Passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers are now being used for workplace monitoring and even in some environmental sampling applications. The reliability, convenience, and low cost of passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers make them attractive options for many monitoring applications. Airflow proportional counters currently under development look promising for measuring tritium-in-air in the presence of high gamma and/or noble gas backgrounds. However, these detectors are currently limited by their poor performance in humidities over 30%. 133 refs

  11. Measuring Cluster Relaxedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, Blythe; /Michigan U. /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    When is a dark matter halo 'relaxed'? In our efforts to understand the structure of the universe, dark matter simulations have provided essential grounds for theoretical predictions. These simulations provide a wealth of ways of parameterizing and measuring the features of astronomical objects. It is these measurements on which we base comparisons of our world and our attempts to re-create it. One of the essential questions dark matter simulations help address is how dark matter halos evolve. How does one characterize different states of that evolution? The focus of this project is identifying cluster relaxedness and how it relates to the internal structure of the halo. A dark matter simulation consists of an N-body simulation which takes an initial set of positions and velocities of the dark matter particles and evolves them under the influence of gravity [6]. Though scientists have so far not been able to detect dark matter particles, the information from these simulations is still valuable especially given the relationship between dark matter halos and galaxy clusters. Galaxies sit within dark matter halos and recent evidence points to filaments of dark matter forming the framework on which galaxy clusters grow [7]. A dark matter halo is a collapsed group of gravitationally bound dark matter particles. Subsets of bound particles form subhalos or substructures. The dark matter simulation is carried out over time - with decreasing redshift (z) or increasing scale factor (a = 1/1+z ). (Thus, z = 0 or a = 1.0 is present-day.) The merger history of a halo can be represented pictorally by a merger tree. A major merger event occurs when a structure joins the main halo with the mass ratio between it and the main halo being above a certain threshold. These events mark important points in the halo's evolution. And it is at these events that one hopes, and perhaps is more likely, to relate measures of relaxedness to this mass accretion. Cluster relaxedness

  12. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Ewa; Motyka, Barbara; Motyka, Zbigniew; Pierzchała, Łukasz; Szade, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV). The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  13. Measuring return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiak, Radoslaw; Young, Amanda E; Roessler, Richard T; McPherson, Kathryn M; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Anema, Johannes R

    2007-12-01

    It is argued that one of the factors limiting the understanding of return to work (RTW) following work disability is the use of measurement tools that do not capture a complete picture of workers' RTW experiences. To facilitate the investigation of RTW, the current authors proposed a developmental conceptualization of RTW, which argues for an expanded awareness that encompasses four phases: off work, work reintegration, work maintenance and advancement. This paper reports on work undertaken with the aim of operationalizing the conceptualization. A review of the RTW and related literature, with databases searched including PubMed, EconLit, and PsycInfo. We began by extracting details of RTW instruments used by previous researchers. We then interpreted these within the context of the phases of RTW. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) to inform our thinking and coding structure, we conceptualized phase-based RTW outcomes and categorized them as 'tasks and actions', 'contextual' or 'process driven'. Iteratively, we reviewed existing instruments for their use as measures of RTW. Where gaps in instrumentation were found, the wider vocational and career assessment literature was searched for instruments that could be adapted for use in RTW research. Results indicate that, although numerous research instruments have been used to assess RTW, within the scientific literature some important dimensions of RTW lack instrumentation. In particular, we found that outcomes such as goal setting, motivation, expectation, job seeking, work maintenance, and career advancement require operationalization. Amongst the outcomes had been operationalized, we found considerable variation in conceptual development and application. The lack of consistency and comprehensiveness of RTW measurement is one of the factors compromising the advancement of the field of RTW research. It is suggested that a more complete and psychometrically sound array of

  14. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  15. Customer Lifetime Value Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Borle; Siddharth S. Singh; Dipak C. Jain

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of customer lifetime value is important because it is used as a metric in evaluating decisions in the context of customer relationship management. For a firm, it is important to form some expectations as to the lifetime value of each customer at the time a customer starts doing business with the firm, and at each purchase by the customer. In this paper, we use a hierarchical Bayes approach to estimate the lifetime value of each customer at each purchase occasion by jointly mod...

  16. Measuring user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2014-01-01

    User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online

  17. Principles of electromigration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, F.

    1988-01-01

    Basing on experimental applications of a modified version of on line electromigration measurements of γ-emitting radionuclides in homogeneous aqueous electrolytes free of supporting materials conceptions on calculation of stoichiometric and thermodynamic stability constants are carried out. Normalized ion mobilities were discussed, reflecting changes of the overall ion mobility of the radioelement in its equilibrium reaction in respect to the individual ion mobilities of the central ion at identic electrolyte parameters (temperature, overall ionic strength). With model reactions as well as with complex formations of Tl(I) with bromide and sulfate, respectively, examples of practical realizations of the conceptions are shown. (author)

  18. Measuring site occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Williamson, James

    2014-01-01

    because there are very few analytical tools that allow such measurements. Here we present a new strategy, which provides quantitative analysis of cysteine S-nitrosylation (SNO) and S-sulfenylation (SOH) simultaneously at the resolution of single cysteine and allows for determination of relative oxidation...... spectrometry. The method relies on differential reduction of "total" cysteines, SNO cysteines and SOH cysteines with TCEP, sodium ascorbate and sodium arsenite respectively followed by iodoTMT(TM) alkylation. Enrichment of iodoTMT(TM)-containing peptides is performed using anti-TMT antibody. In vivo model...

  19. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution’s leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system’s loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are “taxed” based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular...

  20. Measuring Idiosyncratic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    and Latin American countries, but the idiosyncratic risk factor also represents a larger share than in other developing countries. As a final contribution, we search the empirical literature on foreign direct investment and risk in order to determine which of the suggested risk measures provide the best...... for the systematic components due to the global and regional interdependence between alternative investment locations. The decomposition of conditional risk into its systematic and idiosyncratic components reveals that not only are African countries on average characterised by a larger conditional risk than Asian...

  1. Calorimetric measuring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Andrew Ewen; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    the system cooling requirement. A common problem is that high-frequency phenomena like proximity effect, skin effect, hysteresis losses, and eddy current losses appear in the systems. These losses are very difficult to treat both theoretically and in practice. It is often difficult to measure the effect...... in the system. If the switching speed can be increased, improvements may be possible (e.g., current ripple in an electrical machine or physical size of passive components may be reduced). On the other hand, increased switching speed may cause additional losses in a power electronic system and increase...

  2. Measurably evolving populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drummond, Alexei James; Pybus, Oliver George; Rambaut, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    processes through time. Populations for which such studies are possible � measurably evolving populations (MEPs) � are characterized by sufficiently long or numerous sampled sequences and a fast mutation rate relative to the available range of sequence sampling times. The impact of sequences sampled through...... time has been most apparent in the disciplines of RNA viral evolution and ancient DNA, where they enable us to estimate divergence times without paleontological calibrations, and to analyze temporal changes in population size, population structure and substitution rates. Thus, MEPs could increase our...

  3. Human performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines several theoretical and practical issues that must be resolved if credible human performance assessment systems for nuclear power generating stations are to be achieved. Theoretical issues involve mechanisms of human behavior, performance indicators, performance measures and logic models. Practical issues involve objective safety criteria, objective performance data, sampling and validation. Each issue is defined and its present state of resolution is discussed. New initiatives of the U.S. regulatory authority to address some of the issues are introduced. Issues not yet addressed by means of those initiatives are also identified

  4. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  5. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of

  6. Radiometric temperature measurements fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhuomin M; Machin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.

  7. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  8. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution's contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution's leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system's loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are ‘taxed’ based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular...

  9. Radiation Calibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omondi, C.

    2017-01-01

    KEBS Radiation Dosimetry mandate are: Custodian of Kenya Standards on Ionizing radiation, Ensure traceability to International System (SI ) and Calibration radiation equipment. RAF 8/040 on Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial process established Radiotracer Laboratory objective is to introduce and implement radiotracer technique for problem solving of industrial challenges. Gamma ray scanning technique applied is to Locate blockages, Locate liquid in vapor lines, Locate areas of lost refractory or lining in a pipe and Measure flowing densities. Equipment used for diagnostic and radiation protection must be calibrated to ensure Accuracy and Traceability

  10. Tritium measurement and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, L.; Miller, J.M.; Yin, D.

    1993-05-01

    The Jesse effect - the effect of impurities and intentionally added components on ionization in noble gases - is briefly described. Experiments to measure this effect in a specially constructed system with a 63 Ni beta-particle source are described. Results show that ionization chamber calibrations with helium carrier gas change rapidly with gaseous additions or impurities at low concentrations, and reach a plateau (approximately 50% calibration change) at 4000 ppm addition. Only small changes are seen with argon carrier gas. Implications of this effect in fusion blanket sweep-gas experiments are discussed. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  11. Immigration measures, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Government of Norway undertook the following immigration measures: 1) it merged the Office of Immigration, which deals with asylum matters, and the Government Refugee Agency, which handles reception and settlement, into a new Directorate for Immigration under the Ministry of Local Government and Labour; 2) it instituted visa requirements for Chileans; and 3) it established a new reception program, under which five regional reception centers are to be created accommodating 200 to 300 people each, where asylum seekers will be placed until they have completed their police interview and a municipality has agreed to accept them. full text

  12. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  13. [Harmonization of TSH Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Keiko; Hidaka, Yoh; Hishinuma, Akira; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Okubo, Shigeo; Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Furuta, Koh; Hotta, Taeko; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masami; Maekawa, Masato

    2016-05-01

    The measured concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) differs depending on the reagents used. Harmonization of TSH is crucial because the decision limits are described in current clinical practice guide- lines as absolute values, e.g. 2.5 mIU/L in early pregnancy. In this study, we tried to harmonize the report- ed concentrations of TSH using the all-procedure trimmed mean. TSH was measured in 146 serum samples, with values ranging from 0.01 to 18.8 mIU/L, using 4 immunoassays. The concentration of TSH was highest with E test TOSOH and lowest with LUMIPULSE. The concentrations with each reagent were recalculated with the following formulas: E test TOSOH 0.855x-0.014; ECLusys 0.993x+0.079; ARCHITECT 1.041x- 0.010; and LUMIPULSE 1.096x-0.015. Recalculation eliminated the between-assay discrepancy. These formulas may be used until harmonization of TSH is achieved by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC).

  14. Measuring and modelling concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This article explores three critical topics discussed in the recent debate over concurrency (overlapping sexual partnerships): measurement of the prevalence of concurrency, mathematical modelling of concurrency and HIV epidemic dynamics, and measuring the correlation between HIV and concurrency. The focus of the article is the concurrency hypothesis – the proposition that presumed high prevalence of concurrency explains sub-Saharan Africa's exceptionally high HIV prevalence. Recent surveys using improved questionnaire design show reported concurrency ranging from 0.8% to 7.6% in the region. Even after adjusting for plausible levels of reporting errors, appropriately parameterized sexual network models of HIV epidemics do not generate sustainable epidemic trajectories (avoid epidemic extinction) at levels of concurrency found in recent surveys in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts to support the concurrency hypothesis with a statistical correlation between HIV incidence and concurrency prevalence are not yet successful. Two decades of efforts to find evidence in support of the concurrency hypothesis have failed to build a convincing case. PMID:23406964

  15. Environmental radioactivity intercomparison measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the North Cotentin radioecological group set up in 1997 by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of the Secretariat d'Etat a la Sante, the Swiss Federal Office of Public health, a national organization of independent status with respect to nuclear energy, conducted a series of measurements in the north Cotentin in 1998. Some sites proposed by local association 'Angry mothers' were examined in particular. This association has now taken the initiative to organize a large scale international intercomparison, ' North Cotentin 2000', in the vicinity of local nuclear installations. Besides the scientific aspect of the intercomparison, a specific aim of this intercomparison consists in providing to the local population with a real opportunity for direct exchange with participating international teams. The primary concern of the workshop is the determination, by in situ gamma spectrometry, of both natural and artificial concentrations and resulting ambient dose rates at selected marine ( beach) and terrestrial sites. A particular aim of the workshop also is to test the capacity of mobile teams to produce reliable results in the field of low level measurements on trace of special radionuclides (I 129 , Sr 90 , H 3 , C 14 , and alpha emitters) from environmental samples, using both direct ( in situ) and differed ( laboratory methods). an overview of the results obtained will be prepared for the benefit of the public. (N.C.)

  16. Dispersion and current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boelskifte, S.

    1986-04-01

    A model for the simulation of particle movements in water should incorporate the mutual distance dependent correlation. As long as reliable data are given accessible a model can be created of the dispersion in a given area from a statistical description of turbulence. Current measurements have been performed in an area north of the Swedish nuclear power plant Barsebaeck, and statistical time series analysis have made it possible to estimate multivariate autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) models for these data using the Box-Jenkins method. The correlation structure for the area has been investigated in detail. Transport and dispersion models for the marine environment are used in estimating doses to the population from the aquatic food chain. Some of these models are described with special emphasis on the time and length scales they cover. Furthermore, to illustrate the background of the simulation model, short introductuions are given to health physics, time series analysis, and turbulence theory. Analysis of the simulation model shows the relative importance of the different parameters. The model can be expanded to conditional simulation, where the current measurements are used directly to simulate the movement of one of the particles. Results from the model are also compared to results from a sampling of bioindicators (Fucus vesiculosus) along the Danish coast. The reliability of bioindicators in this kind of experiment is discussed. (author)

  17. Blade Vibration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  18. Measurement of radiofrequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowich, J.A.

    1992-05-01

    We are literally surrounded by radiofrequency (RFR) and microwave radiation, from both natural and man-made sources. The identification and control of man-made sources of RFR has become a high priority of radiation safety professionals in recent years. For the purposes of this paper, we will consider RFR to cover the frequencies from 3 kHz to 300 MHz, and microwaves from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, and will use the term RFR interchangeably to describe both. Electromagnetic radiation and field below 3 kHz is considered Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and will not be discussed in this paper. Unlike x- and gamma radiation, RFR is non-ionizing. The energy of any RFR photon is insufficient to produce ionizations in matter. The measurement and control of RFR hazards is therefore fundamentally different from ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with the fundamental issues involved in measuring and safely using RFR fields. 23 refs

  19. Top quark mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Tuula [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-03-18

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parametrized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector.

  20. Measurement of thermal conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1977-01-01

    The 6-m long, 45-kG, warm-iron superconducting magnets envisioned for the Energy Doubler stage of the Fermilab accelerator require stiff supports with minimized thermal conductances in order to keep the refrigeration power reasonable. The large number of supports involved in the system required a careful study of their heat conduction from the room temperature wall to the intercepting refrigeration at 20 0 K and to the liquid helium. For this purpose the thermal conductance of this support was measured by comparing it with the thermal conductance of a copper strap of known geometry. An association of steady-state thermal analysis and experimental thermal conductivity techniques forms the basis of this method. An important advantage is the automatic simulation of the 20 0 K refrigeration intercept by the copper strap, which simplifies the apparatus considerably. This relative resistance technique, which uses electrical analogy as a guideline, is applicable with no restrictions for materials with temperature-independent thermal conductivity. For other materials the results obtained are functions of the specific temperature interval involved in the measurements. A comprehensive review of the literature on thermal conductivity indicates that this approach has not been used before. A demonstration of its self-consistency is stressed here rather than results obtained for different supports

  1. Measuring information integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sporns Olaf

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the functioning of distributed networks such as the brain, it is important to characterize their ability to integrate information. The paper considers a measure based on effective information, a quantity capturing all causal interactions that can occur between two parts of a system. Results The capacity to integrate information, or Φ, is given by the minimum amount of effective information that can be exchanged between two complementary parts of a subset. It is shown that this measure can be used to identify the subsets of a system that can integrate information, or complexes. The analysis is applied to idealized neural systems that differ in the organization of their connections. The results indicate that Φ is maximized by having each element develop a different connection pattern with the rest of the complex (functional specialization while ensuring that a large amount of information can be exchanged across any bipartition of the network (functional integration. Conclusion Based on this analysis, the connectional organization of certain neural architectures, such as the thalamocortical system, are well suited to information integration, while that of others, such as the cerebellum, are not, with significant functional consequences. The proposed analysis of information integration should be applicable to other systems and networks.

  2. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  3. Organ mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass

  4. Wavefront Measurement in Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molebny, Vasyl

    Wavefront sensing or aberration measurement in the eye is a key problem in refractive surgery and vision correction with laser. The accuracy of these measurements is critical for the outcome of the surgery. Practically all clinical methods use laser as a source of light. To better understand the background, we analyze the pre-laser techniques developed over centuries. They allowed new discoveries of the nature of the optical system of the eye, and many served as prototypes for laser-based wavefront sensing technologies. Hartmann's test was strengthened by Platt's lenslet matrix and the CCD two-dimensional photodetector acquired a new life as a Hartmann-Shack sensor in Heidelberg. Tscherning's aberroscope, invented in France, was transformed into a laser device known as a Dresden aberrometer, having seen its reincarnation in Germany with Seiler's help. The clinical ray tracing technique was brought to life by Molebny in Ukraine, and skiascopy was created by Fujieda in Japan. With the maturation of these technologies, new demands now arise for their wider implementation in optometry and vision correction with customized contact and intraocular lenses.

  5. Measuring the User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry B. Santoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to develop an adapted version of User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ and evaluate a learning management system. Although there is a growing interest on User Experience, there are still limited resources (i.e. measurement tools or questionnaires available to measure user experience of any products, especially learning management systems. Two hundreds and thirteen computer science students participated and completed the adapted version of UEQ. In the study, the researchers used a learning management system named Student Centered e-Learning Environment (SCELE. Several types of learning materials are posted in SCELE such as audio files, simulations, PowerPoint slides, multimedia contents, and webpage links. Most of the lecturers use discussion forums in their courses to encourage students to participate in active learning setting. Staff and lecturers sometimes post academic-related announcements on the SCELE homepage. Two hundred thirteen students enrolled in Computer Science program were invited to evaluate the SCELE. This study will benefit UX practitioners, HCI educators, program and center of learning resources administrators, and learning management system developers. Findings of the present study may also be valuable for universities and high schools which are using computer-based learning environments.

  6. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-19

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  7. Measurement of enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Keshwani, M M

    2009-01-01

    To study and understand the nature of living cells, scientists have continually employed traditional biochemical techniques aimed to fractionate and characterize a designated network of macromolecular components required to carry out a particular cellular function. At the most rudimentary level, cellular functions ultimately entail rapid chemical transformations that otherwise would not occur in the physiological environment of the cell. The term enzyme is used to singularly designate a macromolecular gene product that specifically and greatly enhances the rate of a chemical transformation. Purification and characterization of individual and collective groups of enzymes has been and will remain essential toward advancement of the molecular biological sciences; and developing and utilizing enzyme reaction assays is central to this mission. First, basic kinetic principles are described for understanding chemical reaction rates and the catalytic effects of enzymes on such rates. Then, a number of methods are described for measuring enzyme-catalyzed reaction rates, which mainly differ with regard to techniques used to detect and quantify concentration changes of given reactants or products. Finally, short commentary is given toward formulation of reaction mixtures used to measure enzyme activity. Whereas a comprehensive treatment of enzymatic reaction assays is not within the scope of this chapter, the very core principles that are presented should enable new researchers to better understand the logic and utility of any given enzymatic assay that becomes of interest.

  8. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacheban, Olena

    2017-10-15

    Luminosity is a key quantity of any collider, since it allows for the determination of the absolute cross sections from the observed rates in a detector. Since the Higgs boson discovery in 2012, the highest priority at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been given to an accurate understanding of the electroweak scale and a search for new physics. Precise luminosity measurements in such conditions are of crucial importance, as they determine the precision of any physics cross section measurement. To increase the production of particles of interest, usually of low cross section, the LHC is running at the highest possible luminosity. After the first Long Shutdown (LS1) the original performance goal for the luminosity of 1 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} was reached with 10{sup 11} protons per bunch and a bunch spacing of 25 ns. In such conditions radiation hard detectors with extremely fast response time are required, especially for instrumentation near the beam. The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is equipped with three online luminometers, which fulfill the listed requirements: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), the Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) and the Forward Hadron calorimeter (HF). The BCM1F was upgraded during LS1 from 8 to 24 diamond sensors and is read out by a dedicated fast ASIC. The back-end comprises a deadtime-less histogramming unit, with 6.25 ns bin width and analog-to-digital converters with 2 ns sampling time in the VME standard. A microTCA system with better time resolution is in development. Particles originating from collisions and machine induced background arrive with 12 ns time difference. Because of its excellent time resolution BCM1F measures separately both luminosity and machine induced background particles. The performance of the detector in the first running period and radiation damage monitoring of the sensors and electronics chain form the first part of this thesis. Calibration of the luminometers at the LHC is done using

  9. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karacheban, Olena

    2017-10-01

    Luminosity is a key quantity of any collider, since it allows for the determination of the absolute cross sections from the observed rates in a detector. Since the Higgs boson discovery in 2012, the highest priority at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been given to an accurate understanding of the electroweak scale and a search for new physics. Precise luminosity measurements in such conditions are of crucial importance, as they determine the precision of any physics cross section measurement. To increase the production of particles of interest, usually of low cross section, the LHC is running at the highest possible luminosity. After the first Long Shutdown (LS1) the original performance goal for the luminosity of 1 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 was reached with 10 11 protons per bunch and a bunch spacing of 25 ns. In such conditions radiation hard detectors with extremely fast response time are required, especially for instrumentation near the beam. The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is equipped with three online luminometers, which fulfill the listed requirements: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), the Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) and the Forward Hadron calorimeter (HF). The BCM1F was upgraded during LS1 from 8 to 24 diamond sensors and is read out by a dedicated fast ASIC. The back-end comprises a deadtime-less histogramming unit, with 6.25 ns bin width and analog-to-digital converters with 2 ns sampling time in the VME standard. A microTCA system with better time resolution is in development. Particles originating from collisions and machine induced background arrive with 12 ns time difference. Because of its excellent time resolution BCM1F measures separately both luminosity and machine induced background particles. The performance of the detector in the first running period and radiation damage monitoring of the sensors and electronics chain form the first part of this thesis. Calibration of the luminometers at the LHC is done using van der Meer (Vd

  10. A measure of the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilenkin, Alexander [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2007-06-22

    I review recent progress in defining a probability measure in the inflationary multiverse. General requirements for a satisfactory measure are formulated and recent proposals for the measure are clarified and discussed.

  11. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution’s leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system’s loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are “taxed” based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular......, (i) the outcome of stress tests performed by regulators; (ii) the decline in equity valuations of large financial firms in the crisis; and, (iii) the widening of their credit default swap spreads....

  12. Measuring Innovation in Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahroum, S.

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been growing interest in supporting innovation in the public sector as a means of increasing the efficiency and quality of government services. Generally speaking, innovation in government could be defined as “The creation and implementation of new processes, products, services and methods of delivery which result in significant improvements in outcome efficiency, effectiveness or quality’’ [3]. A ‘Process Innovation’ is an activity oriented mainly towards enhancing ‘efficiency’. A ‘Product or Service Innovation’ is an activity oriented mainly towards enhancing the ‘effectiveness’ of government. A ‘Policy Innovation’ is mainly oriented at enhancing outcomes. These categorisations are important for identifying and selecting the metrics of measurement and to make distinctions between inputs, outputs, and outcomes. (Author)

  13. Personnel monitoring measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1976-01-01

    A personnel monitoring program must include a well integrated combination of dose determination methods, and should not depend on a single dosimetry system. Many of the necessary techniques have become well developed and dependable, such as the personnel gamma dosimeters in use today. However, other monitoring methods are still not adequate. The two most important personnel monitoring problems remaining are development of personnel neutron dosimeter and in-vivo measurement of plutonium at sublung burden levels. Although there are a few techniques under development to attack these problems, satisfactory long-term solutions will require much more work. As the developments in nuclear power and medicine continue, the need for solutions to these problems will intensify

  14. Luminosity measurement at ILC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073074; Milutinovic Dumbelovic, G; Pandurovic, M; Smiljanic,I

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method of luminosity measurement at the future linear collider ILC that estimates and corrects for the impact of the dominant sources of systematic uncertainty originating from the beam-induced effects and the background from physics processes. Based on the relativistic kinematics of the collision frame of the Bhabha process, the beam-beam related uncertainty is reduced to a permille independently of the precision with which the beam parameters are known. With the specific event selection, different from the isolation cuts based on topology of the signal used at LEP, combined with the corrective methods we introduce, the overall systematic uncertainty in the peak region above 80% of the nominal center-of-mass energy meets the physics requirements to be at the few permille level at all ILC energies.

  15. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present an economic model of systemic risk in which undercapitalization of the financial sector as a whole is assumed to harm the real economy, leading to a systemic risk externality. Each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall...... (SES), that is, its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases in the institution’s leverage and its marginal expected shortfall (MES), that is, its losses in the tail of the system’s loss distribution. We demonstrate empirically the ability...... of components of SES to predict emerging systemic risk during the financial crisis of 2007–2009....

  16. Microprocessorized NMR measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    An MC68000 CAMAC microprocessor system for fast and accurate NMR signal measurement will be presented. A stand-alone CAMAC microprocessor system (MC68000 STAC) with a special purpose interface sweeps a digital frequency synthesizer and digitizes the NMR signal with a 16-bit ADC of 17 μs conversion time. It averages the NMR signal data over many sweeps and then transfers it through CAMAC to a computer for calculation of the signal parameters. The computer has full software control over the timing and sweep settings of this signal averager, and thus allows optimization of noise suppression. Several of these processor systems can be installed in the same crate for parallel processing, and the flexibility of the STAC also allows easy adaptation to other applications such as transient recording or phase-sensitive detection. (orig.)

  17. Measures for removing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baukal, W.; Koehling, A.; Langer, G.; Poeschel, E.

    1984-01-01

    Basis for the investigation is a 1300-MW-PWR. The evolution of hydrogen was studied in design-basis and three hypothetical accident scenarios, the loss-of-coolant accident, the failure of emergency cooling system and core meltdown. It was shown that in the case of release rates of 4m 3 H 2 /h, the known post-accident hydrogen removal systems can be used and at medium rates up to 80 m 3 H 2 /h recombines of nuclear and non-nuclear industries are suitable under certain conditions. In the case of larger release rates it appears useful to apply a small recombiner of the type of the post-accident hydrogen removal system combined with an other hydrogen countermeasures. Recommendations are being made for the installation of an accident-proof hydrogen measuring system. (DG) [de

  18. Imaginative Practices and Measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Haeren, Kristen Danielle

    for self-promotion and an output of universal desire. What is depicted though the various archival material documenting their designs, portrays a scenario of a closed and stabilized world immune to the temporalities of reality embedded in experience. The projects are masked by a representational order...... was originally derived from modern measure (archival material) with a newly situated and relational reading of the landscape. Though re-presenting landscape as a constructed milieu, derived equally from material and contingent immaterial experiences of the being-in-the-world, the ambition is to construct...... a common ground for future acts of collective re-imagining. By exploring landscape as a medium, both permanently present yet always transient, the hope is to establish the Welfare Estates as part of a poetic process of continual becoming, promoting future possibilities built upon dynamics, openness...

  19. Thoron measurements in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, several Hungarian dwellings and working places were surveyed using passive radon- and thoron-measuring devices (Radopot R and Raduet R from 2003 to 2008. The detectors were placed 15-30 cm from the wall throughout the 1-to 3-month period. In dwellings, the presence of thoron, ∼100 Bq m -3 , was detected almost in all cases; however, in the cellars of these buildings, a value ∼200 Bq m -3 was typical. In the cases of manganese and bauxite mines, the concentration of thoron was mainly 200 and 500 Bq m -3 , respectively. In caves, it was 1000 Bq m -3 , whereas in the radon bath it was ∼100 Bq m -3 . As in many cases, the ratio between thoron and radon concentrations was > 0.25 and the dose contribution from thoron and its progeny was not negligible. Therefore, further investigation on the thoron progeny will be necessary for an accurate dose estimation. (authors)

  20. submitter LEP W measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Saeki, Takayuki

    2001-01-01

    of pair-production of W bosons, and LEP2 experiments started. ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, and OPAL experiments observed the pair-production of W bosons for the first time in $e^{+}e^{-}$ collisions. Since then, the four experiments had been collecting data successfully at the energies of 161 - 209 GeV, and the data acquisition of LEP experiments was finished on 2nd November 2001. The total integrated luminosities amounted to about 710 pb$^{-1}$ per each experiment and about 46 k W-pair events were produced in total. In this article, the results on W physics in LEP2 are presented, which cover the total cross section of the W boson pair-production, the W decay branching fractions, the triple gauge-boson couplings and the mass of the W boson. All the results are consistent with the Standard Model expectations within the measurement errors.

  1. Measuring myocardial perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, A A; Kastrup, J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, focus has changed from anatomical assessment of coronary arteries towards functional testing to evaluate the effect of stenosis on the myocardium before intervention. Besides positron-emission tomography (PET), cardiac MRI (CMR), and cardiac CT are able to measure myocardial perfusion......-known and is used in routine clinical practice. However, PET uses radioactive tracers and has a lower spatial resolution compared to CMR and CT. CMR and CT are emerging techniques in the field of myocardial perfusion imaging. CMR uses magnetic resonance to obtain images, whereas CT uses x-rays during first....... Myocardial perfusion abnormalities are the first sign of the ischaemic cascade in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). PET is considered the non-invasive clinical reference standard for absolute quantification of myocardial perfusion. The diagnostic and prognostic value of PET is well...

  2. Measuring integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    and performance of the Danish healthcare system and the managed care organization Kaiser Permanente, California, US. 5) To compare primary care clinicians' perception of clinical integration in two healthcare systems: Kaiser Permanente, Northern California and the Danish healthcare system. Further to examine....... When comparing Kaiser Permanente, California with the Danish healthcare system, our study suggest that Kaiser Permanente has a population with more documented disease and higher operating costs, and performs better than the Danish healthcare system on the observed quality measures. Substantial...... integration in Kaiser Permanente using the Danish healthcare system as a point of reference our findings support the literature that points to the importance of integrated healthcare delivery as a driver for the performance results of Kaiser Permanente. However caution must be advised before making concrete...

  3. Measuring integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    respond to these needs, patients and providers face the multiple challenges of today's healthcare environment. Decision makers, planners and managers need evidence based policy options and information on the scope of the integrated care challenges they are facing. The US managed care organization Kaiser...... Permanente has been put forward as an example for European healthcare systems to follow, although the evidence base is far from conclusive. The thesis has five objectives: 1) To contribute to the understanding of the concept of integration in healthcare systems and to identify measurement methods to capture...... the multi-dimensional aspects of integrated healthcare delivery. 2) To assess the level of integration of the Danish healthcare system. 3) To assess the use of joint health plans as a tool for coordination between the regional and local level in the Danish healthcare system. 4) To compare the inputs...

  4. Economic measures of performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Cogeneration systems can reduce the total cost of utility service, and, in some instances where power is sold to an electric utility, can even produce a positive net revenue stream. This is, the total cogeneration revenue is greater than the cogeneration system's operating cost plus the cost of supplemental fuel and power. Whether it is sited at an existing facility or new construction, cogeneration systems do require an incremental investment over and above that which would be required if the end user were to utilize more conventional utility services. While the decision as to whether or not one should invest in cogeneration may consider such intangibles as predictability of future utility costs, reliability of electrical supply and the quality of that supply, the decision ultimately becomes one of basic economics. This chapter briefly reviews several economic measures with regard to ease of use, accuracy and financial objective

  5. Measuring the Invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gagliardini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The term "metrotomography" is the result of the combination of metrology and tomography. Unlike traditional computer tomography, metrotomography goes beyond pure visual checks, offering the opportunity to accurately measure internal and external geometries of complex objects, using non-destructive procedures. The 3D model of the object is obtained by composing a sequence of images obtained through electromagnetic radiation during a 360° rotation of the object. The accurate and complete description of the micro scale detail of the object allows to perform analysis and tests that, in some cases, significantly reduce the timeframes in respect to traditional methods and in other cases allow investigations that couldn’t be completed until today.

  6. Measurements of the Q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.L. Anthony; R.Greg Arnold; Todd Averett; H.R. Band; M.C. Berisso; H. Borel; Peter Bosted; S.L. Bultmann; M. Buenerd; T. Chupp; Steve Churchwell; G.R. Court; Donald Crabb; Donal Day; P. Decowski; P. DePietro; R. Erbacher; R. Erickson; A. Feltham; Helene Fonvieille; Emil Frlez; R. Gearhart; V. Ghazikhanian; Javier Gomez; Keith Griffioen; Chris Harris; M.A. Houlden; E.W. Hughes; Charles Hyde-Wright; G. Igo; Sebastian Incerti; John Jensen; J.R. Johnson; P.M. King; Yu.G. Kolomensky; Sebastian E. Kuhn; Richard Lindgren; R.M. Lombard-Nelsen; Jacques Marroncle; James McCarthy; Paul McKee; W. Meyer; G.S. Mitchell; Joseph Mitchell; M. Olson; S. Penttila; Gerald Peterson; Gerassimos G. Petratos; R. Pitthan; Dinko Pocanic; R. Prepost; Charles Y. Prescott; Liming Qin; Brian Raue; D. Reyna; L.S. Rochester; Stephen Rock; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Franck Sabatie; Ingo Sick; Timothy Smith; Lee Sorrell; F. Staley; S. St. Lorant; L.M. Stuart; Z. Szalata; Y. Terrien; Al Tobias; Luminita Todor; T. Toole; S. Trentalange; D. Walz; Robert Welsh; Frank Wesselmann; T.R. Wright; C.C. Young; Marko Zeier; Hongguo Zhu; Beni Zihlmann

    1999-11-01

    The structure functions g1p and g1n have been measured over the range 0.014 < x < 0.9 and 1 < Q2 < 40 GeV2 using deep-inelastic scattering of 48 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized protons and deuterons. We find that the Q2 dependence of g1p (g1n) at fixed x is very similar to that of the spin-averaged structure function F1p (F1n). From a NLO QCD fit to all available data we find Gamma{sub 1}{sup p} Gamma{sub 1}{sup n}=0.176 {+-} 0.003 {+-} 0.007$ at Q2=5 GeV2, in agreement with the Bjorken sum rule prediction of 0.182 {+-} 0.005.

  7. Polar motions measurement study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanse, J.; Egli, W. H.; Ignagni, M.

    1984-09-01

    In this report we analyze the feasibility of subarc-second measurement of Earth crust warp and/or Earth spin axis deviation, in less than one day, using ring laser gyroscopes and accelerometers and/or tiltmeters. It is marginally feasible, using laser gyros equivalent to the Honeywell GG1389, either unidirectionally carouseled or with enhancement equivalent to the Honeywell closed-loop lockin correction (CLIC). Experimental results on the GG1389 show that input axis stability is more than adequate, and that its carouseled or CLIC-enhanced random drift and output resolution suffice marginally. Design and build of a one-axis feasibility demonstrator is recommended, using one CLIC-enhanced GG1389 ring laser gyro, two state-of-the-art tiltmeters, an Ultradex indexer, and a Hewlett-Packard micro-computer.

  8. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  9. Radon measurements indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1983-02-01

    Measurements of Radon concentrations have been made using photographic film detectors in the communities of Uppsala, Soedertaelje and Tyresoe. The result from 6700 filmexposures in both one-family and apartment houses are reported. The fraction of dwellings with radon daughter concentrations exceeding 200 Bq/m 3 is between 3 and 14 percent for one-family houses and 0 to 5 percent for apartment buildings. 8 to 68 percent of the one-family houses and 57 to 83 percent of the apartment buildings had concentrations lower than 70 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal variations were recorded in one-family houses in Uppsala. In houses with low concentrations, the winter values were higher than the summer values. For houses with high concentrations the reversed variation was recorded. (Author)

  10. Wave grouping measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansard, E.; Sand, S.E.; Klinting, P.

    1989-02-01

    There are recent indications that distinct wave groupings can be found even in deep water. The main objective has been to give a statistical description suitable for the design of coastal and offshore structures and it is undertaken to make further investigations in this field by analyzing some prototype records using the concepts of run length of high waves and spectrum of squared elevation, the limitations and performances of which in nonlinear waves will be highlighted in this study. An attempt has been made to relate this wave grouping to the surge motion of a floating structure with a simple mooring arrangement and thereby to propose a motion-based grouping measure. It appears that the observed run length statistics can be suitably described by Kimura's predictions if the records are sufficiently long. Records whose duration are equal to, or less than, 0.6 h reflect a large statistical variability in the various wave grouping measures. The filter cut-off proposed in the concept of SIWEH for the estimation of Groupiness Factor appears to be too high to give meaningful contrasts with respect to prototype values of the peakedness factors. It is therefore proposed to use the Hilbert Transform of the time series and a cut-off which is relevant to the natural period of the test structure. In the absence of information about this natural period a cut-off fc less than or equal to f/sub p//15 may work better. The motion equivalent groupiness factor concept could be used effectively to determine the critical sea state conditions to be used for testing of floating structures. The directional resolution of the sea state and theoretical formulations defining statistical variabilities caused by finite record lengths could be useful in evaluating whether the wave grouping is a linear process. (AB) 49 refs.

  11. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  12. Precipitation Measurement Missions Data Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data products are currently available from 1998 to the present. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission data...

  13. Electrical measurement, signal processing, and displays

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, John G

    2003-01-01

    ELECTROMAGNETIC VARIABLES MEASUREMENTVoltage MeasurementCurrent Measurement Power Measurement Power Factor Measurement Phase Measurement Energy Measurement Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity Charge Measurement Capacitance and Capacitance Measurements Permittivity Measurement Electric Field Strength Magnetic Field Measurement Permeability and Hysteresis MeasurementInductance Measurement Immittance MeasurementQ Factor Measurement Distortion Measurement Noise Measurement.Microwave Measurement SIGNAL PROCESSINGAmplifiers and Signal ConditionersModulation Filters Spectrum Analysis and Correlat

  14. Calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Bruce W.

    Various papers on the calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation are presented. Individual topics addressed include: on-board calibration device for a wide field-of-view instrument, calibration for the medium-resolution imaging spectrometer, cryogenic radiometers and intensity-stabilized lasers for EOS radiometric calibrations, radiometric stability of the Shuttle-borne solar backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer, ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser, requirements of a solar diffuser and measurements of some candidate materials, reflectance stability analysis of Spectralon diffuse calibration panels, stray light effects on calibrations using a solar diffuser, radiometric calibration of SPOT 23 HRVs, surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. Also addressed are: calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration, radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner, in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner, technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources, remote colorimetry and its applications, spatial sampling errors for a satellite-borne scanning radiometer, calibration of EOS multispectral imaging sensors and solar irradiance variability. (For individual items see A93-23576 to A93-23603)

  15. Measuring online social bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Nikolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social media have become a prevalent channel to access information, spread ideas, and influence opinions. However, it has been suggested that social and algorithmic filtering may cause exposure to less diverse points of view. Here we quantitatively measure this kind of social bias at the collective level by mining a massive datasets of web clicks. Our analysis shows that collectively, people access information from a significantly narrower spectrum of sources through social media and email, compared to a search baseline. The significance of this finding for individual exposure is revealed by investigating the relationship between the diversity of information sources experienced by users at both the collective and individual levels in two datasets where individual users can be analyzed—Twitter posts and search logs. There is a strong correlation between collective and individual diversity, supporting the notion that when we use social media we find ourselves inside “social bubbles.” Our results could lead to a deeper understanding of how technology biases our exposure to new information.

  16. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Yuji; Seki, Eiji; Yoshida, Toshifumi; Ito, Toshiaki.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a self-powered long detector having a sensitivity over the entire length of a reactor core as an entire control rod withdrawal range of a BWR type reactor, and a reactor power measuring device using a gamma ray thermometer which scarcely causes sensitivity degradation. That is, a hollow protection pipe is disposed passing through the reactor core from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel. The self-powered long detectors and the gamma ray thermometers are inserted and installed in the protection pipe. An average reactor power in an axial direction of the reactor relative to a certain position in the horizontal cross section of the reactor core is determined based on the power of the self-powered long detector over the entire length of the reactor core. Since the response of the self-powered detector relative to a local power change is rapid, the output is used as an input signal to a safety protection device of the reactor core. Further, a gamma ray thermometer secured in the reactor and having scarce sensitivity degradation is used instead of an incore travelling neutron monitor used for relative calibration of an existent neutron monitor secured in the reactor. (I.S.)

  17. Radiation measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiIanni, E.J.; Cooley, H.J.; Fujita, M.; Noback, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring radiation field strength comprising in combination, (a) biased potential radiation detector having an output circuit, the detector being of the type that is effective when biased to respond to impingement of radiation by generating an output pulse at its output circuit, and when not biased being ineffective to generate an output pulse when impinged by radiation, (b) biasing means operatively coupled to the radiation detector for selectively biasing the radiation detector to generate an output pulse in response to impingement by radiation, (c) time counting means including timing control means operable to start and terminate time counting, the radiation detector output circuit being operatively coupled to the time counting means and being effective upon generation of an output pulse to cause the time counting means to terminate time counting, (d) master control means operatively coupled to (1) the biasing means to selectively cause the biasing means to bias the radiation detector to respond to impingement by radiation, (2) the time counting means and effective to cause the time counting means to start time counting simultaneously with the operative biasing of the radiation detector, the master control means receiving a signal when the radiation detector generates an output pulse

  18. RF Measurement Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2014-01-01

    For the characterization of components, systems and signals in the radiofrequency (RF) and microwave ranges, several dedicated instruments are in use. In this article the fundamentals of the RF signal techniques are discussed. The key element in these front ends is the Schottky diode which can be used either as a RF mixer or as a single sampler. The spectrum analyser has become an absolutely indispensable tool for RF signal analysis. Here the front end is the RF mixer as the RF section of modern spectrum analyses has a ra ther complex architecture. The reasons for this complexity and certain working principles as well as limitations are discussed. In addition, an overview of the development of scalar and vector signal analysers is given. For the determination of the noise temperature of a one-port and the noise figure of a two-port, basic concepts and relations are shown as well as a brief discussion of commonly used noise-measurement techniques. In a further part of this article the operating principles of n...

  19. Radiation measurements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, H.C.; Rogers, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    This 1990 symposium was the seventh in a series of meetings which began in 1964. The 300 participants from 23 countries and the 65 oral and 77 poster presentations were more than double the size of the 1985 symposium. Some of this increase derived from the broadened scope of the program. Previous meetings emphasized X-rays and gamma-rays, but it has been increasingly clear that distinction from other forms of radiation (i.e., electrons, alpha-particles and neutrons) was contrived. This broadening led to papers in fields such as ''airport'' monitors and arms control. However, most of the increase in size of the symposium is simply a reflection of the vigorous activity, both academic and industrial in radiation measurements and their many applications. The papers in these Proceedings are arranged by major topic without regard to whether the paper was invited or contributed, oral or poster. Discussion, although an important part of the meeting, was not recorded and therefore is not included in the Proceedings

  20. Instruments for meteorological measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This present rule has for objective to determine the means for meteorological measurement near a site of nuclear facility in which there is not a PWR power plant [fr