WorldWideScience

Sample records for polartrec ensures up-to-date

  1. PolarTREC: Successful Methods and Tools for Attaining Broad Educational Impacts with Interdisciplinary Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K. M.; Warburton, J.; Owens, R.; Warnick, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded International Polar Year (IPY) project in which K-12 educators participate in hands-on field experiences in the polar regions, working closely with IPY scientists as a pathway to improving science education. Developing long-term teacher- researcher collaborations through PolarTREC ensures up-to-date climate change science content will permeate the K-12 education system long after the IPY. By infusing education with the cutting edge science from the polar regions, PolarTREC has already shown an increase in student and public knowledge of and interest in the polar regions and global climate change. Preliminary evaluations have shown that PolarTREC's program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes regarding the importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today's world. Researchers have been overwhelmingly satisfied with PolarTREC and cited several specific strengths, including the program's crucial link between the teachers' field research experiences and their classroom and the extensive training provided to teachers prior to their expedition. This presentation will focus on other successful components of the PolarTREC program and how researchers and organizations might use these tools to reach out to the public for long-term impacts. Best practices include strategies for working with educators and the development of an internet-based platform for teachers and researchers to interact with the public, combining several communication tools such as online journals and forums, real-time Internet seminars, lesson plans, activities, audio, and other educational resources that address a broad range of scientific

  2. AGAR PENULISAN RESEP TETAP UP TO DATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatini Rahmatini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakResep adalah suatu permintaan tertulis dari dokter, dokter gigi atau dokter hewan kepada apoteker untuk membuatkan obat dalam bentuk sediaan tertentu dan menyerahkannya kepada pasien. Resep merupakan perwujudan akhir dari kompetensi, pengetahuan dan keahlian dokter dalam menerapkan pengetahuannya dalam bidang farmakologi dan terapi.Penulisan resep harus ditulis dengan jelas sehingga dapat dibaca oleh petugas di apotek. Resep yang ditulis dengan tidak jelas akan menimbulkan terjadinya kesalahan saat peracikan / penyiapan obat dan penggunaan obat yang diresepkan.Ilmu pengetahuan tentang obat selalu berubah, obat – obat baru selalu muncul di pasaran.Secara umum, seorang dokter harus mengikuti perkembangan dalam terapi obat. Bila muncul efek samping akibat obat yang seharusnya diketahui dan dapat dicegah oleh dokter, maka dokter akan berhadapan dengan hukum.Agar penulisan resep tetap up to date, seorang dokter harus mengumpulkan berbagai informasi yang tersedia. Sumber informasi yang dapat digunakan adalah : Buku acuan, Kompendium obat, Daftar Obat Esensial Nasional (DOEN dan Pedoman terapi, Buletin obat, Jurnal Kedokteran, Pusat informasi obat,Informasi melalui komputer, Sumber informasi dari industri farmasi, dan informasi lisan.Bandingkan kelebihan dan kekurangan berbagai sumber informasi. Tugas seorang dokter adalah melakukan cara terbaik untuk tetap up to date dengan mendaftar sumber informasi yang dapat dimanfaatkan. Carilah sedikitnya satu dari yang berikut ini : (1 jurnal kedokteran: (2 buletin obat; (3 buku acuan farmakologi atau acuan klinis; (4 komisi terapi maupun konsultan, atau lulusan pasca sarjana farmakologi. Dengan bekal pengetahuan dan kemampuan untuk melakukan penilaian secara kritis setiap bentuk informasi, diharapkan dokter tetap up to date dalam menulis resepKata kunci : Resep – up to- date.Abstract Prescription is a written request from a doctor, dentist or veterinarian to the pharmacist to make a particular drug

  3. Transparent Conducting Oxides—An Up-To-Date Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stadler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs are electrical conductive materials with comparably low absorption of electromagnetic waves within the visible region of the spectrum. They are usually prepared with thin film technologies and used in opto-electrical apparatus such as solar cells, displays, opto-electrical interfaces and circuitries. Here, based on a modern database-system, aspects of up-to-date material selections and applications for transparent conducting oxides are sketched, and references for detailed information are given. As n-type TCOs are of special importance for thin film solar cell production, indium-tin oxide (ITO and the reasonably priced aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al, are discussed with view on preparation, characterization and special occurrences. For completion, the recently frequently mentioned typical p-type delafossite TCOs are described as well, providing a variety of references, as a detailed discussion is not reasonable within an overview publication.

  4. Up-to-date Probabilistic Earthquake Hazard Maps for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Hanan; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Badawy, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    An up-to-date earthquake hazard analysis has been performed in Egypt using a probabilistic seismic hazard approach. Through the current study, we use a complete and homogenous earthquake catalog covering the time period between 2200 BC and 2015 AD. Three seismotectonic models representing the seismic activity in and around Egypt are used. A logic-tree framework is applied to allow for the epistemic uncertainty in the declustering parameters, minimum magnitude, seismotectonic setting and ground-motion prediction equations. The hazard analysis is performed for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° in terms of types of rock site for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration at 0.2-, 0.5-, 1.0- and 2.0-s periods. The hazard is estimated for three return periods (72, 475 and 2475 years) corresponding to 50, 10 and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The uniform hazard spectra for the cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Aswan and Nuwbia are constructed. The hazard maps show that the highest ground acceleration values are expected in the northeastern part of Egypt around the Gulf of Aqaba (PGA up to 0.4 g for return period 475 years) and in south Egypt around the city of Aswan (PGA up to 0.2 g for return period 475 years). The Western Desert of Egypt is characterized by the lowest level of hazard (PGA lower than 0.1 g for return period 475 years).

  5. Up-to-date status of food irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    1993-07-01

    The last decade has witnessed significant advancement of the acceptance of food irradiation processing. At present 37 countries have approved one or more food items for human consumption and 25 countries have commercialized this process. More developing countries are showing keen interest to introduce irradiation processing in order to reduce post-harvest food losses, to increase export potentials and to ensure safety of food to their people. Although progress towards acceptance of food irradiation by the industry is slow, actual market trials have shown that once consumers have understood this technology, they are willing to buy irradiated foods. This paper deals with the latest developments in the field of food irradiation with particular reference to legislation, consumer acceptance, commercialization and potential application in developing countries. This paper also deals with the role played by the International Organizations, aimed at facilitating the acceptance of food irradiation.

  6. How residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant and UpToDate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Tow

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this era of evidence-based medicine, doctors are increasingly using information technology to acquire medical knowledge. This study evaluates how residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant (PDA and the online resource UpToDate. Methods This is a questionnaire survey of all residents and interns in a tertiary teaching hospital. Results Out of 168 doctors, 134 (79.8% responded to the questionnaire. Only 54 doctors (40.3% owned a PDA. Although these owners perceived that the PDA was most useful for providing drug information, followed by medical references, scheduling and medical calculators, the majority of them did not actually have medical software applications downloaded on their PDAs. The greatest concerns highlighted for the PDA were the fear of loss and breakage, and the preference for working with desktop computers and paper. Meanwhile, only 76 doctors (56.7% used UpToDate, even though the hospital had an institutional subscription for it. Although 93.4% of these users would recommend UpToDate to a colleague, only 57.9% stated that the use of UpToDate had led to a change in their management of patients. Conclusion Although UpToDate and various PDA software applications were deemed useful by some of the residents and interns in our study, both digital tools were under-utilised. More should be done to facilitate the use of medical software applications on PDAs, to promote awareness of tools for evidence-based medicine such as UpToDate, and to facilitate the application of evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice.

  7. Meeting up-to-date safety requirements in the Russian NPP projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepkyan, G. O.; Yashkin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Safety features in Russian NPP designs are implemented by the combination of active and passive safety systems • Russian NPP designs are in compliance with up-to-date international and European safety requirements and refer to Generation III+ • Russian state-of-the-art designs have already implemented some design solutions, which take into account “post-Fukushima” requirements. Russian NPP design principles have been approved during the European discussions in spring 2012, including the IAEA extraordinary session addressed to Fukushima NPP accident

  8. Physics Problems Based on Up-to-Date Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folan, Lorcan M.; Tsifrinovich, Vladimir I.

    2007-03-01

    We observe a huge chasm between up-to-date science and undergraduate education. The result of this chasm is that current student interest in undergraduate science is low. Consequently, students who are graduating from college are often unable to take advantage of the many opportunities offered by science and technology. Cutting edge science and technology frequently use the methods learned in undergraduate courses, but up-to-date applications are not normally used as examples or for problems in undergraduate courses. There are many physics problems which contain information about the latest achievements in science and technology. But typically, the level of these problems is too advanced for undergraduates. We created physics problems for undergraduate science and engineering students, which are based on the latest achievements in science and technology. These problems have been successfully used in our courses at the Polytechnic University in New York. We believe that university faculty may suggest such problems in order to provide information about the frontiers of science and technological, demonstrate the importance of undergraduate physics in solving contemporary problems and raise the interest of talented students in science. From the other side, our approach may be considered an indirect way for advertising advanced technologies, which undergraduate students and, even more important, future college graduates could use in their working lives.

  9. Some perspectives of up-to-date technologies use in oil-gas industry of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltygin, O.V.; Logachev, Yu.V.; Olejnikov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the actively developing branches, which play great role in economics of Kazakhstan, is oil-and-gas one. In the paper there are presented some materials illustrating the possibility of oil-and-gas industry branch enterprises and the Institute of Atomic Energy effective cooperation in the field of state-of-the-art technologies introduction. Report materials include sections on technique of pipelines inner surface cleaning of deposits, on the technique of high temperature carbide coatings deposition on graphite materials and also sections on prospects of production organization of modernized elements of X-ray facilities for non-destructive control of complex constructions components and medical aims with usage of up-to-date computer technologies and production of drill holes filters used in various fields of economy. In the paper there are described techniques used in the given above technologies and systems, results received at the stage of their developing and also possible fields of their application. (author)

  10. Employment and Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Children's Up-to-Date Vaccination Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Hill, Holly A; Yankey, David

    2017-04-01

    This study examined whether additional information on parents' employment and household characteristics would help explain the differences in children's up-to-date (UTD) vaccination status using the 2008 National Immunization Survey and its associated Socioeconomic Status Module. After controlling for basic sociodemographic factors in multivariable analyses, parent's work schedules and ease of taking time off from work were not associated with UTD vaccination status among 19- to 35-month-old children. We also conducted a stratified analysis to test the heterogeneous effects of the factors among children at 3 age-restricted maternal education levels and found the benefit of paid sick leave had a significant association only among families where the mother had a college degree. Families who had moved since the child's birth, especially if the mother had high school or lower education, were less likely to have children UTD on the vaccine series.

  11. Up-to-date, real-time localized ITS services provided on a mobile platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Kloch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    and connection to the mobile platform, the smart phone provides the technologies and power to become the platform to provide and access up-to-date, real time infor-mation as requested by the drivers and becomes a central point for networking and coordinated actions. The purpose of this paper is to provide......-to-date infrastructure technology and is carried by lay-mans, like the smart-phones (with GPS receiver, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, high speed cellular data connection and a large touch screen). With an 18 month replacement rate [1], and possibilities of combining navigational system, one-to-one communication, broadcast receiver...... in order to avoid local based solutions and to avoid proprietary solutions, a support that also shall be supported by political willingness above local level in order to realize the benefit of ITS....

  12. Up to date cross sections library for Thermos and Record codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Lopez, H.

    1993-01-01

    Reactor cell analysis is the first step in determining reactor core behavior and is required in the reload licensing process. For best results, reactor cell analysis should be carried out with libraries of up to date, accurate cross sections produced with well described methods from standard evaluated nuclear data. At first step in this work were determined the library structure for RECORD and THERMOS and were prepared the cross sections libraries using the NJOY nuclear data processing system and the ENDF-B/IV evaluated nuclear data. These libraries were used by the codes and some samples were perform, the result show some differences against the results obtained using the previous libraries. By other hand the libraries contain various adjustments to correct for deficiencies in nuclear data or analytical methods. These adjustments doesn't have any documentation, although some of them were identified in this work. (Author). 25 refs, 78 figs, 55 tabs

  13. Hepsoft - an approach for up to date multi-platform deployment of HEP specific software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roiser, S

    2011-01-01

    LHC experiments are depending on a rich palette of software components to build their specific applications. These underlying software components include the ROOT analysis framework, the Geant4 simulation toolkit, Monte Carlo generators, grid middle-ware, graphics libraries, scripting languages, databases, tools, etc. which are provided centrally in up to date versions on multiple platforms (Linux, Mac, Windows). Until recently this set of packages has been tested and released in a tree like structure as a consistent set of versions across operating systems, architectures and compilers for LHC experiments only. Because of the tree like deployment these releases were only usable in connection with a configuration management tool which provided the proper build and run-time environments and was hindering other parties outside LHC from easily using this palette of packages. In a new approach the releases will be grouped in 'flat structure' such that interested parties can start using it without configuration management, retaining all the above mentioned advantages. In addition to an increased usability the software shall also be distributed via system provided package deployment systems (rpm, apt, etc.). The approach of software deployment is following the ideas of providing a wide range of HEP specific software packages and tools in a coherent, up to date and modular way on multiple platforms. The target audience for such software deployments are individual developers or smaller development groups / experiments who don't have the resources to maintain this kind of infrastructure. This new software deployment strategy has already been successfully implemented for groups at CERN.

  14. Improving Geoscience Education through the PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Model (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Larson, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    in today’s world, as well as increased self-reported knowledge and interest in numerous science content areas. PolarTREC provides a tested approach and a clear route for varying levels of researcher participation in the education community, therefore facilitating the types of positive benefits and understanding that ensure increased educator, student, and community understanding of science and the polar regions during times of interrelated global change.

  15. Towards a Comprehensive and Up-To-Date Institutional Repository: Development of a Publications Tracking Process

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed

    2016-06-15

    As our repository matured we found that a concerted effort was needed to establish it as a resource that institutional stakeholders knew they could turn to for reliable information about the research outputs produced by researchers affiliated with or funded by our institution. The initial impetus for this project was the adoption of an institutional open access policy, which necessitated a process to track the publications of institutional authors, deposit items with applicable open access licenses, and notify authors when an accepted manuscript was needed. To support this process we developed a local publications tracking system independent of our hosted DSpace repository that regularly queries publisher and indexer APIs for new publications, checks for relevant permissions policies, identifies institutional authors and helps us send manuscript request emails. We also harvested records for past items and modified our repository to accommodate metadata-only records. The success of these tracking and harvesting services in making our repository comprehensive and up-to-date has allowed us to rely on our repository as the key source of publications information for additional integrations that update ORCID records with publication information, populate a PlumX metrics dashboard and, most recently, support the implementation of a current research information system (CRIS).

  16. Towards a Comprehensive and Up-To-Date Institutional Repository: Development of a Publications Tracking Process

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.; Grenz, Daryl M.; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    As our repository matured we found that a concerted effort was needed to establish it as a resource that institutional stakeholders knew they could turn to for reliable information about the research outputs produced by researchers affiliated with or funded by our institution. The initial impetus for this project was the adoption of an institutional open access policy, which necessitated a process to track the publications of institutional authors, deposit items with applicable open access licenses, and notify authors when an accepted manuscript was needed. To support this process we developed a local publications tracking system independent of our hosted DSpace repository that regularly queries publisher and indexer APIs for new publications, checks for relevant permissions policies, identifies institutional authors and helps us send manuscript request emails. We also harvested records for past items and modified our repository to accommodate metadata-only records. The success of these tracking and harvesting services in making our repository comprehensive and up-to-date has allowed us to rely on our repository as the key source of publications information for additional integrations that update ORCID records with publication information, populate a PlumX metrics dashboard and, most recently, support the implementation of a current research information system (CRIS).

  17. Up-to-date approach to manage keloids and hypertrophic scars: a useful guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-11-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars occur anywhere from 30 to 90% of patients, and are characterized by pathologically excessive dermal fibrosis and aberrant wound healing. Both entities have different clinical and histochemical characteristics, and unfortunately still represent a great challenge for clinicians due to lack of efficacious treatments. Current advances in molecular biology and genetics reveal new preventive and therapeutical options which represent a hope to manage this highly prevalent, chronic and disabling problem, with long-term beneficial outcomes and improvement of quality of life. While we wait for these translational clinical products to be marketed, however, it is imperative to know the basics of the currently existing wide array of strategies to deal with excessive scars: from the classical corticotherapy, to the most recent botulinum toxin and lasers. The main aim of this review paper is to offer a useful up-to-date guideline to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Socio-political structure of Turkey in general elections since 1980 military intervention up to date (last 23 years)

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ali Arslan; Mustafa Çağlayandereli

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyze socio-political structure of Turkish society at the basis of the results of Turkish General elections since 1983 up to date. Documentary and historical research techniques will be employed during the study.

  19. Of creation of up-to-date system for liquid radwaste management at Ukraine's NPPs. Problem statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronov, O.B.

    2015-01-01

    The main aspects are addressed of problems in the field of liquid radwaste (LRW) management for Ukrainian NPPs; approaches for its decision, and offers of NNEGC Energoatom SE STC specialists concerning the above issue. Conceptual principle of creation of up-to-date hi-tech complex for LRW management is considered

  20. Trends and Determinants of Up-to-date Status with Colorectal Cancer Screening in Tennessee, 2002-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas P Veeranki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: TN adults who are up-to-date status with CRC screening are increasing, but not across all socio-demographic subgroups. The results identified specific subgroups to be targeted by screening programs, along with continued efforts to educate public and providers about the importance of CRC screening.

  1. Prevalence of psychopathology in children of parents with mental illness and/or addiction: An up to date narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdesdorff, S.M.J.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Popma, A.; Klaassen, R.M.C.; Amelsvoort, T.A.M.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: Children of parents with a mental illness and/or addiction are at high risk for developing a mental illness themselves. Parental mental illness is highly prevalent leading to a serious number of children at high risk. The aim of this review is to give an up-to-date overview of

  2. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  3. Calculation and Designing of Up-to-Date Gas-Flame Plants for Metal Heating and Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Тimoshpolsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of development trends in the CIS machine-building industry and current status of the heating and heat treatment furnaces of main machine-building enterprises of the Republic of Belarus as of the 1st quarter of 2008 is given in the paper.The paper presents the most efficient engineering solutions from technological and economic point of view that concern calculation and designing of up-to-date gas-flame plants which are to be applied for modernization of the current heating and heat treatment furnaces of the machine-building enterprises in the Republic of Belarus.A thermo-technical calculation of main indices of the up-to-date gas-flame plant has been carried out in the paper.

  4. Up-to-Date on Preventive Care Services Under Affordable Care Act: A Trend Analysis From MEPS 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young-Rock; Jo, Ara; Mainous, Arch G

    2017-08-01

    The utilization of preventive care services has been less than optimal. As part of an effort to address this, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandated that private health insurance plans cover evidence-based preventive services. To evaluate whether the provisions of ACA have increased being up-to-date on recommended preventive care services among privately insured individuals aged 18-64. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine trends in prevalence of being up-to-date on selected preventive services, diagnosis of health conditions, and health expenditures between pre-ACA (2007-2010) and post-ACA (2011-2014). Adjusted difference-in-difference analyses were used to estimate changes in those outcomes in the privately insured that differed from changes in the uninsured (control group). After the passage of ACA, up-to-date rates of routine checkup (2.7%; 95% confidence interval, 0.8%-4.7%; P=0.007) and flu vaccination (5.9%; 95% confidence interval, 4.2%-7.6%; Ppreventive care services. Additional efforts may be required to take full advantage of the elimination of cost-sharing under the ACA.

  5. Answers to questions posed during daily patient care are more likely to be answered by UpToDate than PubMed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Vries Robbe, P.F. de; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: UpToDate and PubMed are popular sources for medical information. Data regarding the efficiency of PubMed and UpToDate in daily medical care are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this observational study was to describe the percentage of answers retrieved by these information sources,

  6. Tc Generator Development: Up-to-Date Tc Recovery Technologies for Increasing the Effectiveness of Mo Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the Mo sources available today and on the Tc generators developed up to date for increasing the effectiveness of Mo utilisation is performed in the format of detailed description of the features and technical performance of the technological groups of the Mo production and Tc recovery. The latest results of the endeavour in this field are also surveyed in regard of the technical solution for overcoming the shortage of Mo supply. The technological topics are grouped and discussed in a way to reflect the similarity in the technological process of each group. The following groups are included in this review which are high specific activity Mo: the current issues of production, the efforts of more effective utilisation, and the high specific activity Mo-based Tc generator and Tc concentration units; low specific activity Mo: the Mo production based on neutron capture and accelerators and the direct production of Tc and the methods of increasing the specific activity of Mo using Szilard-Chalmers reaction and high electric power isotopic separator; up-to-date technologies of Tc recovery from low specific activity Mo: the solvent extraction-based Tc generator, the sublimation methods for Mo/Tc separation, the electrochemical method for Tc recovery, and the column chromatographic methods for Tc recovery. Besides the traditional Tc-generator systems, the integrated Tc generator systems (Tc generator column combined with postelution purification/concentration unit are discussed with the format of process diagram and picture of real generator systems. These systems are the technetium selective sorbent column-based generators, the high Mo-loading capacity column-based integrated Tc generator systems which include the saline-eluted generator systems, and the nonsaline aqueous and organic solvent eluent-eluted generator systems using high Mo-loading capacity molybdategel and recently developed sorbent columns. Tc concentration methods used in the

  7. Prevalence of psychopathology in children of parents with mental illness and/or addiction: an up to date narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijdesdorff, Sophie; van Doesum, Karin; Popma, Arne; Klaassen, Rianne; van Amelsvoort, Therese

    2017-07-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness and/or addiction are at high risk for developing a mental illness themselves. Parental mental illness is highly prevalent leading to a serious number of children at high risk. The aim of this review is to give an up-to-date overview of psychopathology in children of parents with various mental illnesses and/or addiction, based on recent literature. Worldwide, 15-23% of children live with a parent with a mental illness. These children have up to 50% chance of developing a mental illness. Parental anxiety disorder sets children at a more specific risk for developing anxiety disorder themselves, where children of parents with other mental illnesses are at high risk of a large variety of mental illnesses. Although preventive interventions in children of mentally ill parents may decrease the risk of problem development by 40%; currently, these children are not automatically identified and offered help. This knowledge should encourage mental health services to address the needs of these children which requires strong collaboration between Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and Adult Mental Health Services. Directions for further research would be to include both parents, allow for comorbidity and to look deeper into a broader variety of mental illnesses such as autism and personality disorder other than borderline.

  8. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: An Up-to-Date on Genetic Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Parmeggiani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over 50 years of age, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of legal blindness in Western countries. Although the aging represents the main determinant of AMD, it must be considered a multifaceted disease caused by interactions among environmental risk factors and genetic backgrounds. Mounting evidence and/or arguments document the crucial role of inflammation and immune-mediated processes in the pathogenesis of AMD. Proinflammatory effects secondary to chronic inflammation (e.g., alternative complement activation and heterogeneous types of oxidative stress (e.g., impaired cholesterol homeostasis can result in degenerative damages at the level of crucial macular structures, that is photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch’s membrane. In the most recent years, the association of AMD with genes, directly or indirectly, involved in immunoinflammatory pathways is increasingly becoming an essential core for AMD knowledge. Starting from the key basic-research notions detectable at the root of AMD pathogenesis, the present up-to-date paper reviews the best-known and/or the most attractive genetic findings linked to the mechanisms of inflammation of this complex disease.

  9. Methodical Support of Using of Up-to-Date Recruiting Methods at the Machine-Building Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zhilyaeva Irina Y.

    2013-01-01

    The methodical approach for assessment of recruiting state using the integral index of recruiting quality, and methodical approach for choice of recruiting methods using factor analysis are proposed in the article. The methodical approach for using up-to-date recruiting methods is proposed.В статье предложены методические подходы к оценке состояния рекрутинга персонала с помощью введения интегрального показателя качества рекрутинга персонала и выбора методов подбора персонала на стадии оценив...

  10. Cancer incidence predictions in the North of Portugal: keeping population-based cancer registration up to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Clara; Antunes, Luís; Lunet, Nuno; Bento, Maria José

    2016-09-01

    Decision making towards cancer prevention and control requires monitoring of trends in cancer incidence and accurate estimation of its burden in different settings. We aimed to estimate the number of incident cases in northern Portugal for 2015 and 2020 (all cancers except nonmelanoma skin and for the 15 most frequent tumours). Cancer cases diagnosed in 1994-2009 were collected by the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal (RORENO) and corresponding population figures were obtained from Statistics Portugal. JoinPoint regression was used to analyse incidence trends. Population projections until 2020 were derived by RORENO. Predictions were performed using the Poisson regression models proposed by Dyba and Hakulinen. The number of incident cases is expected to increase by 18.7% in 2015 and by 37.6% in 2020, with lower increments among men than among women. For most cancers considered, the number of cases will keep rising up to 2020, although decreasing trends of age-standardized rates are expected for some tumours. Cervix was the only cancer with a decreasing number of incident cases in the entire period. Thyroid and lung cancers were among those with the steepest increases in the number of incident cases expected for 2020, especially among women. In 2020, the top five cancers are expected to account for 82 and 62% of all cases diagnosed in men and women, respectively. This study contributes to a broader understanding of cancer burden in the north of Portugal and provides the basis for keeping population-based incidence estimates up to date.

  11. Wasted research when systematic reviews fail to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis: the example of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cr?quit, Perrine; Trinquart, Ludovic; Yavchitz, Am?lie; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple treatments are frequently available for a given condition, and clinicians and patients need a comprehensive, up-to-date synthesis of evidence for all competing treatments. We aimed to quantify the waste of research related to the failure of systematic reviews to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis over time. Methods We performed a series of systematic overviews and networks of randomized trials assessing the gap between evidence covered by systematic revie...

  12. To compare PubMed Clinical Queries and UpToDate in teaching information mastery to clinical residents: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyah Ensan, Ladan; Faghankhani, Masoomeh; Javanbakht, Anna; Ahmadi, Seyed-Foad; Baradaran, Hamid Reza

    2011-01-01

    To compare PubMed Clinical Queries and UpToDate regarding the amount and speed of information retrieval and users' satisfaction. A cross-over randomized trial was conducted in February 2009 in Tehran University of Medical Sciences that included 44 year-one or two residents who participated in an information mastery workshop. A one-hour lecture on the principles of information mastery was organized followed by self learning slide shows before using each database. Subsequently, participants were randomly assigned to answer 2 clinical scenarios using either UpToDate or PubMed Clinical Queries then crossed to use the other database to answer 2 different clinical scenarios. The proportion of relevantly answered clinical scenarios, time to answer retrieval, and users' satisfaction were measured in each database. Based on intention-to-treat analysis, participants retrieved the answer of 67 (76%) questions using UpToDate and 38 (43%) questions using PubMed Clinical Queries (PPubMed Clinical Queries (PPubMed Clinical Queries users (PPubmed Clinical Queries can lead to not only a higher proportion of relevant answer retrieval within a shorter time, but also a higher users' satisfaction. So, addition of tutoring pre-appraised sources such as UpToDate to the information mastery curricula seems to be highly efficient.

  13. Keeping Up-to-Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman L Jones

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As a senior (read older practising respirologist, I have come to appreciate my position as editor, which keeps me current with present practice standards. Everyone talks about the volume and flow of new knowledge, and not a week goes by in which I feel that I know enough to treat my patients optimally. This is particularly the case when it comes to antibiotic usage: the number of antibiotics and the confident way that junior colleagues bandy them about leaves me distinctly depressed because most of the names mean little to me; even the families and generations of antibiotics seem beyond my grasp. That is why I welcomed the request from Dr Lionel Mandell to publish a summary statement on the use of antibiotics in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, which appears on pages 371-382 of the current issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal.

  14. NASA IceBridge and PolarTREC - Education and Outreach Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.; Beck, J.; Woods, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. PolarTREC has worked specifically with OIB for 3 years and looking forward to ongoing collaboration. PolarTREC brings U.S. K­12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Participating teachers spend 3-6 weeks in the field with research teams conducting surveys and collecting data on various aspects of polar science. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfill a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Working with OIB has opened up the nature of science for the participating teachers. In developing the long-term relationship with OIB teams, teachers can now share (1) the diversity of training, backgrounds, and interests of OIB scientists, (2) identify the linkages between Greenlandic culture and community and cryospheric science and evidence of climate change, (3) network with Danish and Greenlandic educators on the mission (4) gain access to the full spectrum of a science project - development, implementation, analysis, networking, and dissemination of information. All aspects help these teachers become champions of NASA science and educational leaders in their communities. Evaluation data shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals with the OIB partnership and suggests that linking teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their

  15. Impact of up-to-date evaluated nuclear data files on the Monte-Carlo analysis results of metallic fueled BFS critical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jaewoon; Kim, Do-Heon; Kim, Sang-Ji; Kim, Yeong-Il

    2009-01-01

    Three metallic fueled BFS critical assemblies, BFS-73-1, BFS-75-1, and BFS-55-1 were analyzed by using the Monte-Carlo analysis code MCNP4C with five different evaluated data files, ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-AC and ENDF/B-VI.6. The impacts of microscopic cross sections in the up-to-date evaluated nuclear data files were clarified by the analyses. The update of Zr cross section leads to the calculated k-effective lower than that of ENDF/B-VI.6. The revision of U-238 inelastic scattering cross section makes large difference in the predicted k-effectives between the libraries, which depends on the amount of the contribution of the inelastic cross sections change and the compensation of other reaction types. The results of the spectral indices and reaction rate ratios shows the improvement of the up-to-date evaluated nuclear data files for the U-238, Np-237, Pu-240 fission reactions, however, there are still need of further improvement for other minor actinide cross sections. The heterogeneity effects involved on the k-effective and relative fission rate distribution were evaluated in this study, which can be used as the correction factor for constructing the homogeneous benchmark configuration while keeping the consistency with the actual critical experiment. (author)

  16. „Frage stellen, Antwort bekommen, weiterarbeiten!“ – Umfrage zur Benutzung von UpToDate an den Universitäten Freiburg, Leipzig, Münster und Regensburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obst, Oliver

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] UpToDate is an evidence-based resource to support clinical decision-making created by doctors. UpToDate has a wide dissemination in Germany. In a multicenter study, physicians, students, scientists and other healthcare professionals at four German universities were asked about their use of UpToDate. The survey was answered 1,083 times, including 540 doctors. 76% of the surveyed physicians (but only 54% of chief physicians used UpToDate. The lack of knowledge about UpToDate amounted to 10–41%, depending on the user group. 90 to 95% of all clinically active persons named the quick, general overview of diagnosis and therapy of diseases as the main advantage of UpToDate. Every fourth senior doctor pointed to reduced length of stay as a result of UpToDate, (almost every fourth chief physician stated that UpToDate saved costs. UpToDate is an important but expensive resource in patient care and should be promoted more aggressively by the librarians – given the existing lack of knowledge about the existence of this resource.

  17. Wasted research when systematic reviews fail to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis: the example of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Créquit, Perrine; Trinquart, Ludovic; Yavchitz, Amélie; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-01-20

    Multiple treatments are frequently available for a given condition, and clinicians and patients need a comprehensive, up-to-date synthesis of evidence for all competing treatments. We aimed to quantify the waste of research related to the failure of systematic reviews to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis over time. We performed a series of systematic overviews and networks of randomized trials assessing the gap between evidence covered by systematic reviews and available trials of second-line treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other resources sequentially by year from 2009 to March 2, 2015. We sequentially compared the amount of evidence missing from systematic reviews to the randomized evidence available for inclusion each year. We constructed cumulative networks of randomized evidence over time and evaluated the proportion of trials, patients, treatments, and treatment comparisons not covered by systematic reviews on December 31 each year from 2009 to 2015. We identified 77 trials (28,636 patients) assessing 47 treatments with 54 comparisons and 29 systematic reviews (13 published after 2013). From 2009 to 2015, the evidence covered by existing systematic reviews was consistently incomplete: 45 % to 70 % of trials; 30 % to 58 % of patients; 40 % to 66 % of treatments; and 38 % to 71 % of comparisons were missing. In the cumulative networks of randomized evidence, 10 % to 17 % of treatment comparisons were partially covered by systematic reviews and 55 % to 85 % were partially or not covered. We illustrate how systematic reviews of a given condition provide a fragmented, out-of-date panorama of the evidence for all treatments. This waste of research might be reduced by the development of live cumulative network meta-analyses.

  18. Determinants of inequality in the up-to-date fully immunization coverage among children aged 24-35 months: Evidence from Zhejiang province, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yaping; Li, Qian

    2017-08-03

    This study aimed to determine the degree and determinants of inequality in up-to-date fully immunization (UTDFI) coverage among children of Zhejiang province, east China. We used data from the Zhejiang provincial vaccination coverage survey of 2014 and the health outcome was the UTDFI status among children aged 24-35 months. The household income per month was used as an index of socio-economic status for the inequality analysis. The concentration index (CI) was used to quantify the degree of inequality and the decomposition approach was applied to quantify the contributions from demographic factors to inequality in UTDFI coverage. The UTDFI coverage was 80.63% and the CI for UTDFI coverage was 0.12028 (95% CI: 0.10852-0.13175), indicating that immunization practice significantly favored children with relatively higher socio-economic status. The results of decomposition analysis suggested that 68.2% of the socio-economic inequality in UTDFI coverage should be explained by the mother's education level. Furthermore, factors such as birth order, ethnic group, maternal employment status, residence, immigration status, GDP per-capital and percentage of public health spending of the total health spending also could explain the disparity in UTDFI coverage. There exists inequality in UTDFI coverage among the socio-economic disadvantage children. Health interventions of narrowing the socio-economic inequality in UTDFI coverage will benefit from being supplemented with strategies aimed at poverty and illiteracy reduction.

  19. Wine and oxidative stress: up-to-date evidence of the effects of moderate wine consumption on oxidative damage in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, María Isabel; Gambert, Philippe; Fitó, Montserrat; de la Torre, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Wine and alcohol consumption has been considered to be protective against coronary heart disease development, an oxidative stress associated disease. Wine contains polyphenols displaying antioxidant properties tested in in vitro and in vivo studies. Due to this, a general consensus exists, both among the general public and the scientific community, that wine, particularly red wine, is an antioxidant beverage. Alcohol consumption, however, is associated with oxidative damage. Several studies have been carried out on the antioxidant health benefits of wine and wine polyphenols. However, adequate scientific evidence (Level I or II) is required to be provided before recommendations or statements which can reach the general public can be formulated. Here, we summarize the state of the art of the up-to-date body of knowledge, and the extent to which there exists evidence of the benefits of moderate wine consumption on oxidative damage in humans. From the available data, there is no evidence, at present, that sustained wine consumption provides antioxidant benefits in healthy volunteers other than to counteract a possible pro-oxidative effect of the alcohol. On the contrary, data on the antioxidant protective effect of red wine in oxidative stress situations are promising. In this way, the postprandial oxidative stress after a meal, despite the diversity of biomarkers used for its evaluation, is counteracted by the ingestion of wine. Further studies are warranted. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. AIRS-only Product on Giovanni for Exploring Up-to-date AIRS Observation and Comparing with AIRS+AMSU Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, F.; Hearty, T. J., III; Theobald, M.; Vollmer, B.; Wei, J.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has been the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission since its launch in 2002 for the global observations of the atmospheric state. Giovanni, a web-based application developed by the GES DISC, provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data without having to download the data. Most important variables, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing longwave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases, from version 6 AIRS product are available on Giovanni. The AIRS is an instrument suite comprised of a hyperspectral infrared instrument AIRS and two multichannel microwave instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). As the HSB ceased operation in very early stage of AIRS mission, the AIRS project operates two parallel retrieval algorithms: one using both IR and MW measurements (AIRS+AMSU) and the other using only IR measurements (AIRS-only) for the most time of the mission. The AIRS+AMSU product is better and the variables on Giovanni are from it. However, the generation of AIRS+AMSU product has been suspended since the AMSU instrument anomaly occurred in late 2016. To continue exploring up-to-date AIRS observations, the same set of variables from the AIRS-only product are added on Giovanni by the GES DSIC. This will also support the comparison of AIRS-only with AIRS+AMSU retrievals. In the presentation, we will demonstrate the visualization of AIRS-only product and the plots/statistics of comparison with AIRS+AMSU product using Giovanni.

  1. Bringing Antarctic Weddell seals to the classroom through PolarTREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is an NSF funded professional development opportunity in which K-12 teachers and informal educators participated in hands-on field research experiences in the Polar Regions. The program goal is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing together educators and polar researchers. This unique opportunity for educators has two main components: a 4-6 week field experience and a classroom/community connection piece. In preparation for these experiences, museum educator Alex Eilers and science team lead Dr. Jennifer Burns planned, developed and executed extensive outreach efforts for both students and the community to highlight the Weddell seal research project during the 2012, 2014 and 2016 seasons. The following outreach activities summarize the team's most successful attempts at engaging schoolchildren, teachers and the public, creating a broader impact of the Weddell seal scientific project. On-line Daily journal entries were uploaded to the PolarTREC website encouraging an active interaction between the science team and participants. A Polar Connect event offered participants a real-time, interactive internet presentation with the team. Schools A multitude of on-site presentations were made in classrooms, at teacher workshops and faculty meetings. Two 45 minute labs were developed for students visiting the museum, Animals of the Antarctic and Journey to the Poles, the latter is now included in our ongoing program repertoire. Two travelling kits, Extreme Cold Weather Gear and The Weddell Seal, were developed by museum staff and continue to circulate through schools. A multi-lesson educational module was developed by museum staff to bridge the gap between the scientific research conducted in the field and students in grades 3-8. It contains curriculum-based lessons, field data and strategic methods to assist students in analyzing the data. Community Community-wide interest

  2. Up-to-date and projected estimates of survival for people with cystic fibrosis using baseline characteristics: A longitudinal study using UK patient registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Ruth H; Szczesniak, Rhonda; Taylor-Robinson, David; Bilton, Diana

    2018-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common inherited disease in Caucasians, affecting around 10,000 individuals in the UK today. Prognosis has improved considerably over recent decades with ongoing improvements in treatment and care. Providing up-to-date survival predictions is important for patients, clinicians and health services planning. Flexible parametric survival modelling of UK CF Registry data from 2011 to 2015, capturing 602 deaths in 10,428 individuals. Survival curves were estimated from birth; conditional on reaching older ages; and projected under different assumptions concerning future mortality trends, using baseline characteristics of sex, CFTR genotype (zero, one, two copies of F508del) and age at diagnosis. Male sex was associated with better survival, as was older age at diagnosis, but only in F508del non-homozygotes. Survival did not differ by genotype among individuals diagnosed at birth. Median survival ages at birth in F508del homozygotes were 46years (males) and 41years (females), and similar in non-homozygotes diagnosed at birth. F508del heterozygotes diagnosed aged 5 had median survival ages of 57 (males) and 51 (females). Conditional on survival to 30, median survival age rises to 52 (males) and 49 (females) in homozygotes. Mortality rates decreased annually by 2% during 2006-2015. Future improvements at this rate suggest median survival ages for F508del homozygous babies of 65 (males) and 56 (females). Over half of babies born today, and of individuals aged 30 and above today, can expect to survive into at least their fifth decade. Evidence before this study We searched PubMed with terms "(cystic fibrosis survival) and (projection OR model OR registry OR United Kingdom OR UK)" to identify relevant studies on survival estimates for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). We also considered the most recent annual report from the UK Cystic Fibrosis Registry (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2016), a review by Buzzetti and colleagues (2009), the chapter

  3. Up-to-date laboratory methods for assessing the safety of perfumery and cosmetic products in the quality assurance system of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rezaykina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the developed countries as well as Russian Federation have a dynamically developing quality assurance system for testing the quality of laboratory tests and safety of perfumery and cosmetic products entering the market comprising a regulatory and legal framework, physical infrastructure and appropriate methodical basis and staff. At the same time, it is necessary to develop alternative test methods adjusted to perfumery and cosmetic products on a regular basis. In addition, it is necessary to optimize methods for ensuring standard sample preparation conditions in response to new forms of cosmetic products when determining microbiological, physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics, and more accurate observation methods for clinical and laboratory indices to be approved by supervising authorities.

  4. Up-to-date Clinical Trials of Hair Regeneration Using Conditioned Media of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Male and Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyoseung; Won, Chong Hyun; Chung, Woon-Kyung; Park, Byung-Soon

    2017-01-01

    The primary roles of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are to maintain the stem cell niche, facilitate recovery after injury, and ensure healthy aging and the homeostasis of organ and tissues. MSCs have recently emerged as a new therapeutic option for hair loss. Since adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are the most accessible sources of MSCs, ADSCbased hair regeneration is investigated. Besides replacing degenerated cells in affected organs, ADSCs exhibit their beneficial effects through the paracrine actions of various cytokines and growth factors. Several laboratory experiments and animal studies have shown that ADSC-related proteins can stimulate hair growth. In addition, we introduce our clinical pilot studies using conditioned media of ADSCs for pattern hair loss in men and women. We believe that conditioned media of ADSCs represents a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for hair loss. We also discuss practical therapeutic challenges and the direction of future research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. OneGeology - The most appropriate model to achieve access to up-to-date geoscience data using a distributed data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, Marko; Duffy, Tim; Robida, Francois; Harrison, Matt; Allison, Lee

    2015-04-01

    OneGeology is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) around the globe that dates back to Brighton, UK in 2007. Since then OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using a new international standard - a geological exchange language known as the 'GeoSciML' (currently version 3.2 exists, which enables instant interoperability of the data). Increased use of this new language allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet with other organisations. One of very important goals of OneGeology was a transfer of valuable know-how to the developing world, hence shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making its structure more official, its operability more flexible and its membership more open where in addition to GSO also to other type of organisations that manage geoscience data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative will hence be focused into increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource on the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative information on hazards and minerals will help to prevent natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale. With this new stage also renewed OneGeology objectives were defined and these are 1) to be the provider of geosciences data globally, 2) to ensure exchange of know-how and skills so all can participate, and 3) to use the global profile of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professional and general public. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscience data and One

  6. Residents and Medical Students Correctly Answer Clinical Questions More Often with Google and UpToDate than With PubMed or Ovid MEDLINE. A Review of: Thiele, R. H., Poiro, N. C., Scalzo, D. C., & Nemergut, E. C. (2010. Speed, accuracy, and confidence in Google, Ovid, PubMed, and UpToDate: Results of a randomised trial. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 86(1018, 459-465. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2010.098053

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Arndt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine which search tool (Google, UpToDate, PubMed or Ovid-MEDLINE produces more accurate answers for residents, medical students, and attending physicians searching on clinical questions in anesthesiology and critical care. Searcher confidence in the answers and speed with which answers were found were also examined.Design – Randomized study without a control group.Setting – Large university medical center.Subjects –Subjects included 15 fourth year medical students (third and fourth year, 35 residents, and 4 attending physicians volunteered and completed the study. One additional attending withdrew halfway through the study. The authors were unsuccessful in recruiting an equal number of subjects from each group.Methods – A set of eight anesthesia and critical care questions was developed, based on their commonality and importance in clinical practice and their answerability. Four search tools were employed: Google, UpToDate, PubMed, and Ovid MEDLINE. In part I, subjects were given a random set of four of the questions to answer with the search tool(s of their choice, but could use only one search tool per question. In part II, several weeks later, the same subjects were randomly assigned a search tool with which to answer all 8 questions. The authors state that “for data analysis, PubMed was arbitrarily chosen to be the “reference standard.”” Statistical analysis was used to identify significant differences between PubMed and the other search tools.Main Results – Part I: Subjects choosing a search tool were more likely to find a correct answer with Google or UpToDate. There were no statistically significant differences in confidence with answers between any of the search tools and PubMed.Part II: Though subjects were assigned a search tool, some questions were repeated from part I. For repeated questions, Ovid users (compared to PubMed users were significantly less likely to find the correct answer for

  7. Comparison of the Impact of Wikipedia, UpToDate, and a Digital Textbook on Short-Term Knowledge Acquisition Among Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Trial of Three Web-Based Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffidi, Michael A; Khan, Rishad; Wang, Christopher; Keren, Daniela; Tsui, Cindy; Garg, Ankit; Brar, Simarjeet; Valoo, Kamesha; Bonert, Michael; de Wolff, Jacob F; Heilman, James; Grover, Samir C

    2017-10-31

    Web-based resources are commonly used by medical students to supplement curricular material. Three commonly used resources are UpToDate (Wolters Kluwer Inc), digital textbooks, and Wikipedia; there are concerns, however, regarding Wikipedia's reliability and accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Wikipedia use on medical students' short-term knowledge acquisition compared with UpToDate and a digital textbook. This was a prospective, nonblinded, three-arm randomized trial. The study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2016. Preclerkship medical students were recruited from four Canadian medical schools. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants through word of mouth, social media, and email. Participants must have been enrolled in their first or second year of medical school at a Canadian medical school. After recruitment, participants were randomized to one of the three Web-based resources: Wikipedia, UpToDate, or a digital textbook. During testing, participants first completed a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) of 25 questions emulating a Canadian medical licensing examination. During the MCQ, participants took notes on topics to research. Then, participants researched topics and took written notes using their assigned resource. They completed the same MCQ again while referencing their notes. Participants also rated the importance and availability of five factors pertinent to Web-based resources. The primary outcome measure was knowledge acquisition as measured by posttest scores. The secondary outcome measures were participants' perceptions of importance and availability of each resource factor. A total of 116 medical students were recruited. Analysis of variance of the MCQ scores demonstrated a significant interaction between time and group effects (P<.001, η g 2 =0.03), with the Wikipedia group scoring higher on the MCQ posttest compared with the textbook group (P<.001, d=0.86). Access to hyperlinks, search

  8. Up-to-date probabilistic temperature climatologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakauer, Nir Y; Devineni, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    With ongoing global warming, climatologies based on average past temperatures are increasingly recognized as imperfect guides for current conditions, yet there is no consensus on alternatives. Here, we compare several approaches to deriving updated expected values of monthly mean temperatures, including moving average, exponentially weighted moving average, and piecewise linear regression. We go beyond most previous work by presenting updated climate normals as probability distributions rather than only point estimates, enabling estimation of the changing likelihood of hot and cold extremes. We show that there is a trade-off between bias and variance in these approaches, but that bias can be mitigated by an additive correction based on a global average temperature series, which has much less interannual variability than a single-station series. Using thousands of monthly temperature time series from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN), we find that the exponentially weighted moving average with a timescale of 15 years and global bias correction has good overall performance in hindcasting temperatures over the last 30 years (1984–2013) compared with the other methods tested. Our results suggest that over the last 30 years, the likelihood of extremely hot months (above the 99th percentile of the temperature probability distribution as of the early 1980s) has increased more than fourfold across the GHCN stations, whereas the likelihood of very cold months (under the 1st percentile) has decreased by over two-thirds. (letter)

  9. Congenital scoliosis: an up-to-date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnei, G; Gavriliu, S; Vlad, C; Georgescu, I; Ghita, RA; Dughilă, C; Japie, EM; Onilă, A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital scoliosis represents a spinal malformation due to defects of formation, segmentation or mixed ones. It is characterized by a longitudinal and rotational imbalance. 54 patients were analyzed and 39 out of them were operated by various approaches with anterior and posterior instrumentations during 2000 and 2012. The impossibility to appoint some patients encountered in the daily practice into the known classifications, allowed us to purpose two categories of congenital scoliosis related to the predominance of spinal deviances in the coronal and transversal views. No certain etiology of congenital scoliosis has been identified until today. The susceptibility of some polygenic defects is obvious due to the presence of a sum of defects associated to most of the congenital scoliosis cases and the rarity of the presence of a unique defect. The diagnosis requires a thorough clinical and imaging examination in order to establish an individualized therapeutic strategy. The treatment of congenital scoliosis is different from the adolescent idiopathic one. Therapeutic criteria are significantly different. It is essential to assess the difference in growth of the concavity related to the convexity when choosing a particular procedure. The magnitude of the curve and the progressive rate are fundamental issues to the surgeon PMID:26351546

  10. Arthroscopy Up to Date: Hip Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moin; Habib, Anthony; de Sa, Darren; Larson, Christopher M; Kelly, Bryan T; Bhandari, Mohit; Ayeni, Olufemi R; Bedi, Asheesh

    2016-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive review and summary of the research published in Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery and The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM) related to hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). A comprehensive review was conducted in duplicate of Arthroscopy and AJSM from February 2012 to February 2015 for all articles related to FAI, and a quality assessment was completed for all included studies. Clinical outcomes were dichotomized into short-term (Arthroscopy and 44 studies in AJSM, primarily from North America (78.8%), that predominantly assessed clinical outcomes after arthroscopic hip surgery (46.1%). Seventy-one percent of Arthroscopy studies and 20.5% of AJSM studies were Level IV evidence. The modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) was used by 81.5% of included studies. Pooled weighted mean mHHS values after arthroscopic surgery for FAI showed improvements at the midterm from 60.5 points (range, 56.6 to 83.6 points) to 80.5 points (range, 72.1 to 98.0 points) out of a possible 100 points. Pooled weighted outcomes for labral repair showed mean mHHS improvements from 63.8 points (range, 62.5 to 69.0 points) preoperatively to 86.9 points (range, 85.5 to 89.9 points) up to 24 months postoperatively. This comprehensive review of research published in Arthroscopy and AJSM over the past 3 years identified a number of key findings. Arthroscopic intervention results in improvements in functional outcomes at both the short-term and midterm for patients with symptomatic FAI in the absence of significant existing degenerative changes. Labral repair may result in improvements over labral debridement. The most commonly used outcome score was the mHHS for objective assessment of surgical success. There is a need for continued focus on improvement of methodologic quality and reporting of research pertaining to FAI. Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PLSS Townships and Sections, This layer is kept up-to-date with the addition of new survey data, as the data comes in. We have all known data incorporated, but there still remains about 40% of the County that needs more work., Published in 2013, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — PLSS Townships and Sections dataset current as of 2013. This layer is kept up-to-date with the addition of new survey data, as the data comes in. We have all known...

  12. Characterization of powders up to date laws of compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathala, B.; Nicolas, G.

    2001-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out in order to be able to describe the relationship d = f(P) of the compression phase of a powder in a more or less empirical fashion. Among the different laws, that of Heckel is the more frequently applied. The inconvenience of this, however, is that it does not bear witness to the behavior of the powder at extremely low pressure. Two new laws are described hereinafter (a complement to Heckel's Law and a new model), in attempt to solve this problem. The outcome of these equations forms the basis of the identification of the analysed powder, and its statistical sample testing contributes to product quality control. (author)

  13. Up-to-date review on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Gruenewald, T.

    1984-01-01

    Public interest was focussed on food irradiation in the Federal Republic of Germany after petitions for the treatment of spices had been filed and after the Federal Government's attitude concerning radiation processing of food has been discussed in the Parliament. The review discusses potential and limitations of the method and presents literature references as examples for the relevant applications rather than listing all available references. Electron-, gamma-, Roentgen- and bremsstrahlung-rays are used to obtain desinfestation, shelf-life extension, eradication of pathogene microorganisms, and product improvement. The relation between dose and effected radiochemical changes on the one hand and estimation of the wholesomeness of radiation processed food on the other hand, is discussed. 'Codex Alimentarius', a world-wide body for the standardization of food regulations, has recommended the general use of food irradiation up to a maximum dose limit of 10 kGy which covers the most promising applications. Under the premises of the European Community harmonization of food law is indispensable which means that some clearances in several countries have to be accepted by all countries in the Community. There is no need, based on scientific considerations, to label radiation processed foods. However, with regard to the growing environmental concern of the consumer, labelling of radiation processed products is recommended. For practical reasons only 'first generation' products should be labeled. (orig.) [de

  14. Up-to-date analysis of school myopia, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Sadayoshi; Saishin, Motosugu; Uosato, Hiroshi; Asai, Teruo; Nomura, Ken; Saito, Michiko; Okada, Shigemi; Aono, Shizue.

    1985-01-01

    In a previous report we determined that, ultrasonically, axial length does not show any increase after 6 years of age, although lens anterior-posterior thickness increases throughout life. To confirm these results we determined axial length and lens thickness using a G.E. CT Scan at Gifu City Hospital on a total of 63 cases (126 eyes) including males and females from 6 to 77 years old. From the equatorial section of the eyeball, depth of anterior chamber, axial length, eyeball width and lens thickness and width were measured; lens volume was then calculated mathematically based on these data. The results obtained were as follows: Results obtained via two different methods corresponded well; we therefore conclude that the axial length of the eye does not increase with age, although the anterior-posterior thickness of the lens does, while the lens equatorial axis increases slightly with age, causing the lens to become rounder and its volume to increase. On the other hand, to observe the percentage frequency distribution of the direction of astigmatism, to the 6775 astigmatic eyes excludins cases of astigmatic defect reported in a previous paper we added 2157 astigmatic eyes from 20 to 85 years old, of out patients of Kamiya eye clinic. We were able to clarify the fact that astigmatism with-the-rule increases from 9 -- 10 years to 20 years of age, decreasing thereafter, astigmatism against-the-rule decreasing, in contrast, during the same age range, increasing after 20 years of age. At 40 years the percentages cross over, while oblique astigmatism does not show any change with age. Based on these findings we conclude that changes in the direction of astigmatic axis depend upon the chronological development of the lens as a function of age. (author)

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome–up-to-date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklein, Frank; Dimova, Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was described for the first time in the 19th century by Silas Weir Mitchell. After the exclusion of other causes, CRPS is characterised by a typical clinical constellation of pain, sensory, autonomic, motor, or trophic symptoms which can no longer be explained by the initial trauma. These symptoms spread distally and are not limited to innervation territories. If CRPS is not improved in the acute phase and becomes chronic, the visible symptoms change throughout because of the changing pathophysiology; the pain, however, remains. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, although in complex cases further technical examination mainly for exclusion of alternative diagnoses is warranted. In the initial phase, the pathophysiology is dominated by a posttraumatic inflammatory reaction by the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system. In particular, without adequate treatment, central nociceptive sensitization, reorganisation, and implicit learning processes develop, whereas the inflammation moderates. The main symptoms then include movement disorders, alternating skin temperature, sensory loss, hyperalgesia, and body perception disturbances. Psychological factors such as posttraumatic stress or pain-related fear may impact the course and the treatability of CRPS. The treatment should be ideally adjusted to the pathophysiology. Pharmacological treatment maybe particularly effective in acute stages and includes steroids, bisphosphonates, and dimethylsulfoxide cream. Common anti-neuropathic pain drugs can be recommended empirically. Intravenous long-term ketamine administration has shown efficacy in randomised controlled trials, but its repeated application is demanding and has side effects. Important components of the treatment include physio- and occupational therapy including behavioural therapy (eg, graded exposure in vivo and graded motor imaging). If psychosocial comorbidities exist, patients should be appropriately treated and supported. Invasive methods should only be used in specialised centres and in carefully evaluated cases. Considering these fundamentals, CRPS often remains a chronic pain disorder but the devastating cases should become rare. PMID:29392238

  16. The Future of EMC Education: Keeping Faculty Up to Date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1998-01-01

    An account of the activities of the Engineering Educations EMC Network during the project period 1995 - 1998. The network was initiateded by the National Advisory Educational Board for Technology with the objective to initiate a professional development in order to strengthen and renew...... the educations....

  17. Up to date knowledge on different treatment strategies for phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Burlina, Alberto; Harding, Cary O.; Muntau, Ania C.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary management for phenylketonuria was established over half a century ago, and has rendered an immense success in the prevention of the severe mental retardation associated with the accumulation of phenylalanine. However, the strict low-phenylalanine diet has several shortcomings, not the least of which is the burden it imposes on the patients and their families consequently frequent dietary non-compliance. Imperfect neurological outcome of patients in comparison to non-PKU individuals and nutritional deficiencies associated to the PKU diet are other important reasons to seek alternative therapies. In the last decade there has been an impressive effort in the investigation of other ways to treat PKU that might improve the outcome and quality of life of these patients. These studies have lead to the commercialization of sapropterin dihydrochloride, but there are still many questions regarding which patients to challenge with sapropterin what is the best challenge protocol and what could be the implications of this treatment in the long-term. Current human trials of PEGylated phenylalanine ammonia lyase are underway, which might render an alternative to diet for those patients non-responsive to sapropterin dihydrochloride. Preclinical investigation of gene and cell therapies for PKU is ongoing. In this manuscript, we will review the current knowledge on novel pharmacologic approaches to the treatment of phenylketonuria. PMID:21967857

  18. Up-to-date review on food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlermann, D A.E.; Gruenewald, T

    1984-01-01

    Public interest was focussed on food irradiation in the Federal Republic of Germany after petitions for the treatment of spices had been filed and after the Federal Government's attitude concerning radiation processing of food has been discussed in the Parliament. The review discusses potential and limitations of the method and presents literature references as examples for the relevant applications rather than listing all available references. Electron-, gamma-, Roentgen- and bremsstrahlung-rays are used to obtain desinfestation, shelf-life extension, eradication of pathogene microorganisms, and product improvement. The relation between dose and effected radiochemical changes on the one hand and estimation of the wholesomeness of radiation processed food on the other hand, is discussed. 'Codex Alimentarius', a world-wide body for the standardization of food regulations, has recommended the general use of food irradiation up to a maximum dose limit of 10 kGy which covers the most promising applications. Under the premises of the European Community harmonization of food law is indispensable which means that some clearances in several countries have to be accepted by all countries in the Community. There is no need, based on scientific considerations, to label radiation processed foods. However, with regard to the growing environmental concern of the consumer, labelling of radiation processed products is recommended. For practical reasons only 'first generation' products should be labeled.

  19. Spanish Navy Up to Date Data in DCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    therapeutic measures. Final results are similar to another world navies diving centres Bibliography: 1.- Pujante, A.; Inoriza, J; Viqueira, A. Estudio de 121... casos de enfermedad descompresiva Medicina Clinica, vol . 94, n` 7, 1990 2.- Rivera, J.C. Decompression sickness among divers: An analysis of 935

  20. OSINT: A Major Source of Up-to-Date Information

    OpenAIRE

    Lapid, Ephraim

    2016-01-01

    OSINT has become a developing information collection agency throughout the modern world of intelligence. Intelligence bodies and individuals keep expanding their use of information, profiting from the various technological security and civil applications now available in cyberspace. Professional collaborations are recommended, as they would significantly enhance the filtering and processing of open-source information in this age of metadata.

  1. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: Up-to-date and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobone, Maurizio; Citton, Marilisa; Nitti, Donato

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery represents one of the most challenging areas in digestive surgery. In recent years, an increasing number of laparoscopic pancreatic procedures have been performed and laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) has gained world-wide acceptance because it does not require anastomosis or other reconstruction. To date, English literature reports more than 300 papers focusing on LDP, but only 6% included more than 30 patients. Literature review confirms that LDP is a feasible and safe procedure in patients with benign or low grade malignancies. Decreased blood loss and morbidity, early recovery and shorter hospital stay may be the main advantages. Several concerns still exist for laparoscopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma excision. The individual surgeon determines the technical conduction of LDP, with or without spleen preservation; currently robotic pancreatic surgery has gained diffusion. Additional researches are necessary to determine the best technique to improve the procedure results. PMID:23082049

  2. [The swimmer's otitis. An up to date and prevention options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G; Serafini, V; Loggi, A

    2013-01-01

    The swimmer's otitis or acute otitis externa, is a pathology that often occurs in those who practice swimming at a competitive level. The same problem often occurs in the summer with the attendance of swimming pools and bathing areas. A survey made in the United States in 2007 confirms the dynamics of the onset of this pathology, because the contamination of fungi and bacteria in the waters of the swimming pools and the sea cause the inflammation of the epithelium of the auditory canal. To face this issue, in addition to a correct diagnosis, and the necessary and appropriate therapies, it may follow the use of these medicinal preparations. The first one (A) is protective-acting, the second one (B) is characterized as a preventive, hygroscopic, moistening, antiseptic and antimycotic-acting solution. Swimmers who have been using the two (pre-and post) preparations daily for about a year have reported sporadic episodes of otitis. However, there is no doubt that these two compounds deserve a meticulous clinical trial in order to confirm their preventive and therapeutic potentials in external acute otitis.

  3. Up-to-date Geomagnetic Coordinate Transforms with AACGM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G. K.; Morrison, D.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.; Schaefer, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Geomagnetic plasmas organize along magnetic field lines, thus, it is often appropriate to use magnetic field line conjunctions for comparisons between spacecraft observations. Due to the expense of tracing magnetic field lines, the Altitude-Adjusted Corrected GeoMagnetic (AACGM) coordinate system is used. The (AACGM) coordinates are defined by the best fit dipole of the Earth's magnetic field and have been a standard tool used by the SPA community for a long time. However, standard 5 year updated coefficients for this transform are no longer available after the 2010 set. A new version of AACGM (V2 - Shepard, 2014) has been defined. AACGM V2 is fit to a spherical harmonic expansion. A pitfall with this V2 coordinate system is that it is undefined near the magnetic equator, which is problematic for determining conjunctions for spacecraft that with ground stations that pass through these regions. We have derived a new set of coefficients valid for the current epoch that allow us to continue to use the original version of AACGM. We also explore the errors that are introduced by ignoring the magnetic field caused by magnetospheric electric currents. The derived coefficients are made available to the public along with Java software that can be used to evaluate the AACGM coordinates. Shepard, S., 2014, Altitude-Adjusted Corrected Geomagnetic Coordinates: Definition and Functional Approximations, Jour. Geophys. Res., 119, 020264, DOI:10.1002/2014JA020264

  4. Mobile phones. Up-to-date knowledge and actual questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmuss, Monika; Dehos, Anne; Geschwentner, Dirk; Kreuzer, Michaela; Matthes, Ruediger; Poelzl, Christiane; Pophof, Blanka

    2010-01-01

    Starting point of the German Mobile Phone Research Project (DMF) were reported health effects from low level exposure. In mostly interdisciplinary projects, these effects were followed up. In addition the actual everyday exposure was evaluated and the risk perception within the society and possibilities for risk communication were investigated. Although there are still scientific questions unsolved, the DMF contributed significantly to an improvement of the risk assessment and the public communication. Overall, the results from DMF and other research projects do not give reason to doubt the effectiveness of the radiation protection limits. (orig.)

  5. Complex regional pain syndrome–up-to-date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Birklein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS was described for the first time in the 19th century by Silas Weir Mitchell. After the exclusion of other causes, CRPS is characterised by a typical clinical constellation of pain, sensory, autonomic, motor, or trophic symptoms which can no longer be explained by the initial trauma. These symptoms spread distally and are not limited to innervation territories. If CRPS is not improved in the acute phase and becomes chronic, the visible symptoms change throughout because of the changing pathophysiology; the pain, however, remains. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, although in complex cases further technical examination mainly for exclusion of alternative diagnoses is warranted. In the initial phase, the pathophysiology is dominated by a posttraumatic inflammatory reaction by the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system. In particular, without adequate treatment, central nociceptive sensitization, reorganisation, and implicit learning processes develop, whereas the inflammation moderates. The main symptoms then include movement disorders, alternating skin temperature, sensory loss, hyperalgesia, and body perception disturbances. Psychological factors such as posttraumatic stress or pain-related fear may impact the course and the treatability of CRPS. The treatment should be ideally adjusted to the pathophysiology. Pharmacological treatment maybe particularly effective in acute stages and includes steroids, bisphosphonates, and dimethylsulfoxide cream. Common anti-neuropathic pain drugs can be recommended empirically. Intravenous long-term ketamine administration has shown efficacy in randomised controlled trials, but its repeated application is demanding and has side effects. Important components of the treatment include physio- and occupational therapy including behavioural therapy (eg, graded exposure in vivo and graded motor imaging. If psychosocial comorbidities exist, patients should be appropriately treated and supported. Invasive methods should only be used in specialised centres and in carefully evaluated cases. Considering these fundamentals, CRPS often remains a chronic pain disorder but the devastating cases should become rare.

  6. Is Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy Still Up To Date?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kurt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate (SB, which has a vital role in the regulation of acid-base balance of all tissues and organs, is one of the most important buffering systems of the body. SB plays an important role in the treatment of poisoning caused by numerous agents including mainly salicylate and tricyclic antidepressants. In metabolic acidosis (MA occurred in patient with systemic and metabolic diseases, first, the primary disease should be treated and in the case of low bicarbonate levels such as diarrhea and renal tubular acidosis, missing SB should be recovered. As the kidney has an important role in acid-base balance, SB is widely used in the treatment of acute and chronic renal failure. Although there is no conclusive evidence to prevent contrast nephropathy, SB comes to the fore compared to other agents. SB is used due to MA and its effects occurring in acute renal failure. In addition, SB treatment applied to reduce the increased acid levels in chronic kidney failure may reduce mortality. While SB can be used as individualized in lactic acidosis and cardiac arrest cases, it can be used safely as a performance enhancer for athletes. SB is used widely in gastrointestinal tract diseases due to its antacid effects and its routine use is not recommended in diabetic ketoacidosis. These data demonstrate that SB is still popular and it will retain its popularity in the near future.

  7. Bringing Experience from the Field into the Classroom with the NOAA Teacher at Sea and PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, E. D.; Kohin, S.; Oberbauer, S.

    2008-12-01

    As a participant of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Teacher at Sea (2007) and the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S., PolarTREC (2008) programs, I have had the opportunity to participate in hands-on research with leading scientific researchers from the tropics to the Arctic. These Teacher Researcher Experiences (TRE's) and the resulting relationships that have developed with the scientific community have been an asset to my professional development and have greatly enhanced my students' learning. The opportunity to participate in data collection and hands-on research with a NOAA researcher, Dr. Kohin, helped me bring shark, ocean, and ship science from my expedition onboard the NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan in the Channel Island region into my classroom. The new knowledge, experiences, and resources that I brought back allowed me to create lesson plans and host Shark Month--an activity that involved all 300 students in my school. My students were able to link real data regarding the location of sharks to practical application and still meet state standards. Likewise, the scientist from my PolarTREC expedition, Dr. Oberbauer, is assisting me in a long-term plan to incorporate his data into my classroom curricula. Already, my experiences from Barrow, Alaska, have been shared through webinars with my community and as a keynote speaker to over 600 Palm Beach County science teachers. We are also working together to develop a yearlong curriculum, in which my entire school of 300 students will discover interdisciplinary polar science. Participation in TRE's has been beneficial for my students and my community, but what is the return on the investment for the scientists who invited me to participate in their research? Both scientists have transferred their knowledge out of the laboratory and made a link between their research and a different generation--our future scientists. They become instrumental science leaders in a community of young

  8. UpToDate Rated Highest in a Combined Task Assessment/User‐satisfaction Study of Five Clinical Information Resources. A review of: Campbell, Rose, and Joan Ash. “An Evaluation of Five Bedside Information Products Using a User‐centered, Task‐orientated Approach.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 94.4 (Oct. 2006: 435‐41.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Kelson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To compare users’ perceptions of 5 clinical information resources, and to assess the average number of questions answered after attempting 3 randomly assigned clinical questions on each resource.Design – A combined task assessment, based on the design specification published in the Sixth Text REtrieval Conference(TREC‐6 “interactive track,” and a user satisfaction questionnaire developed from previously published surveys.Setting – A health sciences library at a university in the United States of America.Subjects – A convenience sample of 18 volunteers, who were either university health care staff or students.Methods – A set of 15 clinical test questions was developed from previous studies. Participants were randomly allocated 3 testquestions, which they then attempted to answer using each of 5 commercially available clinical information resources. Each participant was allocated a different set of test questions for each resource and did not attempt the same question on more than one resource. As part of the overall study design, the questions were randomised such that each question was paired with each resource at least once. The order in which the resources were tested by participants was also randomised. The resources tested were ACP’s PIER, DISEASEDEX, FIRSTConsult, InfoRetriever and UpToDate. Training in use of the resources was not provided as part of the study; however, participants were allowed to familiarise themselves with each resource before attempting the test questions. To simulate a clinical situation, participants were asked to spend a maximum of 3 minutes on each question. The number of questions successfully answered using each resource was recorded. Participants were also asked to complete a user satisfaction questionnaire, based on previously published questionnaires, for each resource after attempting the 3 questions allocated to that resource. The questionnaire used a 5‐point Likert scale

  9. Ensuring Software IP Cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshad Koohgoli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available At many points in the life of a software enterprise, determination of intellectual property (IP cleanliness becomes critical. The value of an enterprise that develops and sells software may depend on how clean the software is from the IP perspective. This article examines various methods of ensuring software IP cleanliness and discusses some of the benefits and shortcomings of current solutions.

  10. Ensuring Software IP Cleanliness

    OpenAIRE

    Mahshad Koohgoli; Richard Mayer

    2007-01-01

    At many points in the life of a software enterprise, determination of intellectual property (IP) cleanliness becomes critical. The value of an enterprise that develops and sells software may depend on how clean the software is from the IP perspective. This article examines various methods of ensuring software IP cleanliness and discusses some of the benefits and shortcomings of current solutions.

  11. Ensuring effective project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    A brief description is given of the organisation methods employed by the Bechtel Power Corporation, in their contract with Mississippi Power and Light Company for the design, construction and procurement activities for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. The aim is to ensure effective management, and good communications at all stages of construction, between the project team and the client. (U.K.)

  12. Towards ensuring gender equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A

    1996-01-01

    All people should participate in the development process. Many, however, remain excluded from the benefits of development. For example, women are privy to only a small share of developmental opportunities. The goals of equality, development, and peace were stated during the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in September 1995. The author considers whether women truly have equitable access to literacy, education, food, nutrition, health, employment, and the political and economic decision making process. She stresses that the goals pronounced at the Fourth World Conference on Women must be backed up with the necessary resources, including institutions established at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that the objectives are implemented and the implementation is monitored. The author further argues that in order for women to achieve equality with men, all girls must have access to primary and secondary schools; basic literacy is inadequate. Moreover, gender stereotyping must be avoided and gender sensitization ensured at all levels.

  13. Duality ensures modular covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Miao; Yu Ming

    1989-11-01

    We show that the modular transformations for one point functions on the torus, S(n), satisfy the polynomial equations derived by Moore and Seiberg, provided the duality property of the model is ensured. The formula for S(n) is derived by us previously and should be valid for any conformal field theory. As a consequence, the full consistency conditions for modular invariance at higher genus are completely guaranteed by duality of the theory on the sphere. (orig.)

  14. Toward Ensuring Health Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    , the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group......OBJECTIVE: The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. METHODS......: The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool...

  15. Ensuring food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Valentinovich Patsiorkovskiy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the questions of further development of agricultural and food policy in the Russian Federation. The subject of in-depth consideration is the problem related to ensuring food safety. A critical review and analysis of major regulations in the field of food safety is made, including in the implementation of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance. The necessity of the expansion of measures to improve the statistics of food poisoning is grounded. The basic reasons for the spread of management practices of production and sale of food products that pose a threat to human life are revealed. The factors of unhindered penetration of local markets in the cities and the surrounding countrysides with counterfeiting, smuggling and production of global junk food manufacturers and consumer goods are defined. A systematic view is put on the problems of food production in the private farms, ways to limit direct access to the market of food and food raw materials, which production was not controlled and who have not passed state registration, are suggested. One of these problems is creation of independent industrial structures that link production and sales of small-scale sector goods.

  16. Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    much lower, and the performance gained can dramatically reduce life -cycle costs. Validated cost data are scarce, and accurate AM cost models need to be...reduce costs, minimize obsolescence issues and improve both capability and readi- ness across the entire life cycle of naval systems—including both the...of naval weapon systems. The Navy is actively engaging its various communi- ties to align needs and ensure that AM can be safely acceler- ated and

  17. Ensuring the population living safety in the contaminated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Voronov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state policy of the Russian Federation to ensure population, living in the contaminated areas, life safety is implemented by means of federal programs.12 programs for overcoming the Chernobyl accident consequences, children’s population protection and housing provision for the Chernobyl accident liquidators are adopted and realized during this time. Total financing amount from the federal budget is more than 9,2 billion rubles. The main efforts are directed to create necessary infrastructure in settlements, development and deployment rehabilitation measures for agricultural lands and forests, creation of radiation situation monitoring systems, increase housekeeping safety culture in the contaminated territories, informational support and social and psychological rehabilitation of the population. Within the state programs are developing complex systems of a radiation situation monitoring in 12 subjects of the Russian Federation. Experts training for the outreach work with population, concerning radiation safety, increasing population knowledge level about radiation in a format of seminars, conferences, with use of online technologies is provided. The project on creation the uniform interdepartmental information system on overcoming radiation accidents aftermath, integrating the operating information systems of The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters, Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing and the Russian Academy of Sciences is realized.However, the problem of overcoming the radiation accidents aftermath remains relevant up to date.In 14 subjects of the Russian Federation there are territories contaminated by radioactive materials as a result of the Chernobyl accident where more than 1,5 million people live.

  18. Communication equipment radiation resistance ensurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrova, L.O.; Chelizhenko, A.Z.

    1983-01-01

    A review of works on radiation resistance of electronic equipment (epsilon epsilon) for 15 years is presented. The effect of ionizing radiation appearing as a result of nuclear explosions in nuclear facilities and in outerspace on epsilon epsilon has been considered. Types of radiation effects in epsilon epsilon, radiation effect on semiconductor devices and integrated circUits, types of epsilon epsilon failures, as well as the procass of radiation-resistant epsilon epsilon designing and selection of its main parameters have been described. The methods of epsilon epsilon flowsheet optimization, application of mathematical simulation and peculiarities of ensurance of epsilon epsilon radiation resistance of communication systems are considered. Peculiarities of designing of radiation-resistant quartz generators, secondary power supply sources and amplifiers are discussed

  19. Designing an emissions trading scheme for China—An up-to-date climate policy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hübler, Michael; Voigt, Sebastian; Löschel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We assess recent Chinese climate policy proposals in a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model with a Chinese carbon emissions trading scheme (ETS). When the emissions intensity per GDP in 2020 is required to be 45% lower than in 2005, the model simulations indicate that the climate policy induced welfare loss in 2020, measured as the level of GDP and welfare in 2020 under climate policy relative to their level under business-as-usual (BAU) in the same year, is about 1%. The Chinese welfare loss in 2020 slightly increases in the Chinese rate of economic growth in 2020. When keeping the emissions target fixed at the 2020 level after 2020 in absolute terms, the welfare loss will reach about 2% in 2030. If China's annual economic growth rate is 0.5 percentage points higher (lower), the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2030 will rise (decline) by about 0.5 percentage points. Full auctioning of carbon allowances results in very similar macroeconomic effects as free allocation, but full auctioning leads to higher reductions in output than free allocation for ETS sectors. Linking the Chinese to the European ETS and restricting the transfer volume to one third of the EU's reduction effort creates at best a small benefit for China, yet with smaller sectoral output reductions than auctioning. These results highlight the importance of designing the Chinese ETS wisely. - Highlights: • 45% Chinese carbon intensity target for 2020 implemented via emissions trading. • 1% GDP/welfare loss in 2020 and 2% in 2030 for a fixed emissions target after 2020. • 0.5 percentage points higher (lower) growth, increases (decreases) climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2030 by about 0.5 percentage points. • Similar macroeconomic effects for free allocation and full auctioning, but higher reductions in output under full auctioning in ETS sectors. • Restricted linking to EU emissions trading creates at best a small benefit for China

  20. Hypertriglyceridemia and preeclampsia: Its physiological role and up-to-date evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Martínez Linares

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a disease with a highincidence for maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, mainly indeveloping countries. Although its etiology remains unclear, severalstudies have shown that endothelial cell dysfunction plays an important role in the genesis, development and complications relatedto this disease. Among the different processes, lipid per oxidation is involved in what could be an increase in serum lipid concentrations in pregnant women, especially triglycerides. The aim of this review is to describe the role of lipids in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia and the current evidence about the finding of hypertriglyceridemia and its development.

  1. Clinical Outcomes of Zirconium-Oxide Posts: Up-to-Date Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thobity, Ahmad M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the clinical outcomes of the use of zirconium-oxide posts in the past 20 years. The addressed question was: Do zirconium-oxide posts maintain the long-term survival rate of endodontically treated teeth? A database search was made of articles from January 1995 to December 2014; it included combinations of the following keywords: "zirconia," "zirconium oxide," "dowel/dowels," "post/posts," and "post and core." Exclusion criteria included review articles, experimental studies, case reports, commentaries, and articles published in a language other than English. Articles were reviewed by the titles, followed by the abstracts, and, finally, the full text of the selected studies. Four studies were included after filtering the selected studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In one study, the prefabricated zirconia posts with indirect glass-ceramic cores had significantly higher failure rates than other posts with direct composite cores. In two studies, no failure of the cemented posts was observed throughout the follow-up period. Due to the limited number of clinical studies, it can be concluded that the long-term success rate of prefabricated zirconium-oxide posts is unclear.

  2. Molecular diagnostics for Chagas disease: up to date and novel methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Gallego, Montserrat; Schijman, Alejandro G; Gascon, Joaquim

    2017-07-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects 7 million people, mainly in Latin America. Diagnosis is usually made serologically, but at some clinical scenarios serology cannot be used. Then, molecular detection is required for early detection of congenital transmission, treatment response follow up, and diagnosis of immune-suppression reactivation. However, present tests are technically demanding and require well-equipped laboratories which make them unfeasible in low-resources endemic regions. Areas covered: Available molecular tools for detection of T. cruzi DNA, paying particular attention to quantitative PCR protocols, and to the latest developments of user-friendly molecular diagnostic methodologies. Expert commentary: In the absence of appropriate biomarkers, molecular diagnosis is the only option for the assessment of treatment response. Besides, it is very useful for the early detection of acute infections, like congenital cases. Since current Chagas disease molecular tests are restricted to referential labs, research efforts must focus in the implementation of easy-to-use diagnostic tools in order to overcome the access to diagnosis gap.

  3. An up-to-date comparison of state-of-the-art classification algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chongsheng

    2017-04-05

    Current benchmark reports of classification algorithms generally concern common classifiers and their variants but do not include many algorithms that have been introduced in recent years. Moreover, important properties such as the dependency on number of classes and features and CPU running time are typically not examined. In this paper, we carry out a comparative empirical study on both established classifiers and more recently proposed ones on 71 data sets originating from different domains, publicly available at UCI and KEEL repositories. The list of 11 algorithms studied includes Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), Sparse Representation based Classification (SRC), and Deep Learning (DL), which have not been thoroughly investigated in existing comparative studies. It is found that Stochastic Gradient Boosting Trees (GBDT) matches or exceeds the prediction performance of Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Random Forests (RF), while being the fastest algorithm in terms of prediction efficiency. ELM also yields good accuracy results, ranking in the top-5, alongside GBDT, RF, SVM, and C4.5 but this performance varies widely across all data sets. Unsurprisingly, top accuracy performers have average or slow training time efficiency. DL is the worst performer in terms of accuracy but second fastest in prediction efficiency. SRC shows good accuracy performance but it is the slowest classifier in both training and testing.

  4. The particularities of senior pupils’ professional self-determination at up-to-date world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revenko G.О.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was assaying motivational aspects of senior pupils’ career guidance. Today the emotional focus of young people is pragmatic: material and personal well-being, the ability to survive in modern society, profitable employment, meeting well-to-do life partner, "having good sponsors," " rich patron", "avoiding army service". Civil loadings such as service of the country and society aren’t appreciated. The lack of sufficiently deep professional orientation of graduates does not preclude its formation during pariod of training at higher educational institutions. Therefore, the task of the school (family and community consists in choosing of profession which is logical consequence of gradually increasing professional orientation. To solve these problems, first of all, it is necessary to conduct systematic vocational guidance at schools, starting to gradually introduce children into the world of professions beginning with middle classes.

  5. Designing an emissions trading scheme for China. An up-to-date climate policy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebler, Michael [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Environmental Economics and World Trade; Loeschel, Andreas; Voigt, Sebastian [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We assess recent Chinese climate policy proposals in a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model with a Chinese carbon emissions trading scheme (ETS). When the emissions intensity per GDP in 2020 is required to be 45% lower than in 2005, the model simulations indicate that the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2020, measured as the level of GDP and welfare in 2020 under climate policy relative to their level under business-as-usual (BAU) in the same year, is about 1%. The Chinese welfare loss in 2020 slightly increases in the Chinese rate of economic growth in 2020. When keeping the emissions target fixed at the 2020 level after 2020 in absolute terms, the welfare loss will reach about 2% in 2030. If China's annual economic growth rate is 0.5 percentage points higher (lower), the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2030 will rise (decline) by about 0.5 percentage points. Full auctioning of carbon allowances results in very similar macroeconomic effects as free allocation, but full auctioning leads to higher reductions in output than free allocation for ETS sectors. Linking the Chinese to the European ETS and restricting the transfer volume to one third of the EU's reduction effort creates at best a small benefit for China, yet with smaller sectoral output reductions than auctioning. These results highlight the importance of designing the Chinese ETS wisely.

  6. Clinical and Rehabilitative Management of Retinitis Pigmentosa: Up-to-Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Sato, Giovanni; De Nadai, Katia; Romano, Mario R; Binotto, Andrea; Costagliola, Ciro

    2011-01-01

    The term retinitis pigmentosa (RP) indicates a heterogeneous group of genetic rare ocular diseases in which either rods or cones are prevalently damaged. RP represents the most common hereditary cause of blindness in people from 20 to 60 years old. In general, the different RP forms consist of progressive photo-receptorial neuro-degenerations, which are characterized by variable visual disabilities and considerable socio-sanitary burden. Sometimes, RP patients do not become visually impaired or legally blind until their 40-50 years of age and/or maintain a quite acceptable sight for all their life. Other individuals with RP become completely blind very early or in middle childhood. Although there is no treatment that can effectively cure RP, in some case-series the disease’s progression seems to be reducible by specific preventive approaches. In the most part of RP patients, the quality of vision can be considerably increased by means of nanometer-controlled filters. In the present review, the main aspects of the routine clinical and rehabilitative managements for RP patients are described, particularly focusing on the importance of specific referral Centers to practice a real multidisciplinary governance of these dramatic diseases. PMID:22131870

  7. Altitude training: an up-to-date approach and implementation in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Issurin, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This article overviews current comprehension of altitude training, which is quite contradictory: many sources declare that altitude training provides no benefits to sea level performances compared to appropriate conventional training while others consider altitude training to be an efficacious and proven tool to enhance high-performance preparation. This contradiction can be partly explained by the variety of individual training responses, i.e., individual predispositions among some athletes ...

  8. RAS Corner at the ATRF Library Keeps You Up-to-Date on the Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer The new RAS initiative recently undertaken at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research has prompted the Scientific Library to provide support in a creative way to the laboratories at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF), where the research is centered.

  9. Up to date review of toxicological data of some point volatiles with antifungal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonsi, P; Stammati, A [eds.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia; De Vincenzi, M [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Metabolismo e Biochimica Patologica; Zucco, F [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Tecnologie Biomediche

    1999-07-01

    Toxicological cards of the essential oil caraway and ten volatiles compounds components of essential oils, all with fungicide activity, are presented; carvacrol, D-carvone, cinnamaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, decanal, eugenol, 2-hexenal, linalool and thymol. The cards have been prepared in the context of the European Community project FAIR1-CT95-0722, which has the aim of implementing the use of natural pesticides for plant protection during cultivation and storage. Literature data have been collected from 1980, screening different archives (BIOSIS, CAB, CHEMABS, RTECS, MEDLINE) and Council of Europe classifications. [Italian] Il rapporto contiene le schede tossicologiche di un olio essenziale (caraway oil) e di dieci sostanze volatili, componenti di olii essenziali e tutti con attivita' fungicida: carvacrol, D-carvone, cinnamaldehyde, 1, 8-cineole, p-cymene, decanol, eugenol, 2-hexenal, linaool e thymol. Le schede sono state preparate nell'ambito del progetto europeo FAIR1-CT95-0722, che ha lo scopo di sviluppare l'uso di fungicidi naturali per la protezione delle piante durante la coltivazione e lo stoccaggio. Sono stati raccolti i dati della letteratura dal 1980 ad oggi, consultando diversi archivi (BIOSIS, CAB, CHEMABS, RTECS, MEDLINE) e le classificazioni del Consiglio d'Europa.

  10. The PCR-Based Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: Up to Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis, particularly tuberculous meningitis (TBM, is the severest form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.Tb infection, causing death or severe neurological defects in more than half of those affected, in spite of recent advancements in available anti-tuberculosis treatment. The definitive diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis depends upon the detection of M.Tb bacilli in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. At present, the diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis remains a complex issue because the most widely used conventional “gold standard” based on bacteriological detection methods, such as direct smear and culture identification, cannot rapidly detect M.Tb in CSF specimens with sufficient sensitivity in the acute phase of TBM. Recently, instead of the conventional “gold standard”, the various molecular-based methods including nucleic acid amplification (NAA assay technique, particularly polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, has emerged as a promising new method for the diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis because of its rapidity, sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the innovation of nested PCR assay technique is worthy of note given its contribution to improve the diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis. In this review, an overview of recent progress of the NAA methods, mainly highlighting the PCR assay technique, was presented.

  11. An Up-To-Date View of Cardiopulmonary Resusciation Instruction in Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Jack L.

    1977-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation instruction can and should be included as part of first aid and emergency care courses in colleges and universities. Close working relationships with voluntary health organizations that sponsor such courses should be established. (MJB)

  12. Quo Vadis, Informatics Education?--Towards a More Up-to-Date Informatics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsakó, László; Horváth, Gyozo

    2017-01-01

    Informatics education has been in a cul-de-sac for several years (not only in Hungary), being less and less able to meet the needs of the industry and higher education. In addition, the latest PISA survey shows that--to put it a little strongly--the majority of the x-, y- and z generations are digital illiterates. The aim of this paper to examine…

  13. [Up-to-date approach to treatment of inflammatory infections in the maxillofacial region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romantsov, M G; Kovalevskiĭ, M A; Iaremenko, A I; Grigorian, S S; Kovalenko, A L

    2009-01-01

    Cycloferon, a prospective interferon inductor, and the mechanism of its action were characterized. Its formulation for external use as liniment was developed. The pharmacotherapeutic effect of the drug in the treatment of paradontitis was shown. The drug efficacy in herpetic lesions of the mouth and lips mucosa was observed. The use of cycloferon in the treatment of the buccal mucosa affections in HIV-infected subjects was substantiated.

  14. Crataegus special extract WS 1442: up-to-date review of experimental and clinical experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorniak, M; Szydlo, B; Krzeminski, T F

    2017-08-01

    Extracts and tinctures made from Crataegus spp. (Hawthorn) have been used as cardioprotective remedies since ancient times. WS 1442 special extract, manufactured by Dr. W. Schwabe Pharmaceuticals©, made from Crataegus spp. Leaves and flowers is one of the most studied and popular of preparations received from Hawthorn. It is integral, and most important active component of such herbal drugs as Crataegutt® novo 450, and CardioMax®. This standardized extract contains 18.75% oligomeric procyanidins (OPC), which have beneficial cardioprotective values and play a role as free-radicals scavengers, that protect the ischemic heart tissue from neutrophile elastase action successions. Moreover, WS 1442 also carries proven vasorelaxant activity, via affecting eNOS synthase, and prevents ischemic heart tissue swelling by influence on calcium signaling pathways, and thus detain hyperpermeability of endothelium. Actions of WS 1442 special extract were investigated in in vitro as well as in vivo studies including large clinical trials. In this review authors present current state of knowledge about possible beneficial effects of WS 1442 special extract on cardiovascular system.

  15. Up-to-date large-image fluorography of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Turovskij, B.M.; Kaluzhskij, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper is concerned with some organizational and methodological problems relating to the activities of a special stationary gastroflUorographic center for mass screening of gastric pathology. In the authors' opinion, the organization of such stationary gastrofluorographic centers opens new realistic opportunities for the detection of early forms of gastric cancer by means of mass screening among persons with a high risk of cancer

  16. [Up-to-date research for clinical application in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Hiroki

    2006-03-01

    Breast cancer is still increasing in number of patients affected annually, with a peak incidence between 40-50 years of age. Various researches to control the disease have been attracting much attention scientifically and socially. Clinical application of trastuzumab (Herceptin), sentinel node biopsy to avoid unnecessary axillary dissection and individualized use of chemo-endocrine therapy as indicated by large scale clinical trials are among the recent successful results by pre-clinical and early clinical studies. In this context, the present special edition deals with articles on recent progress in breast cancer researches by leading scientists in this field. Hoping readers to understand, digest, and also to be stimulated by the updates for daily clinical practice.

  17. Is the formula of Traub still up to date in antemortem blood glucose level estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiere, Cristian; Sporkert, Frank; Vaucher, Paul; Werner, Dominique; Bardy, Daniel; Rey, François; Lardi, Christelle; Brunel, Christophe; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice

    2012-05-01

    According to the hypothesis of Traub, also known as the 'formula of Traub', postmortem values of glucose and lactate found in the cerebrospinal fluid or vitreous humor are considered indicators of antemortem blood glucose levels. However, because the lactate concentration increases in the vitreous and cerebrospinal fluid after death, some authors postulated that using the sum value to estimate antemortem blood glucose levels could lead to an overestimation of the cases of glucose metabolic disorders with fatal outcomes, such as diabetic ketoacidosis. The aim of our study, performed on 470 consecutive forensic cases, was to ascertain the advantages of the sum value to estimate antemortem blood glucose concentrations and, consequently, to rule out fatal diabetic ketoacidosis as the cause of death. Other biochemical parameters, such as blood 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, acetone, glycated haemoglobin and urine glucose levels, were also determined. In addition, postmortem native CT scan, autopsy, histology, neuropathology and toxicology were performed to confirm diabetic ketoacidosis as the cause of death. According to our results, the sum value does not add any further information for the estimation of antemortem blood glucose concentration. The vitreous glucose concentration appears to be the most reliable marker to estimate antemortem hyperglycaemia and, along with the determination of other biochemical markers (such as blood acetone and 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate, urine glucose and glycated haemoglobin), to confirm diabetic ketoacidosis as the cause of death.

  18. Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis: Case Reports and an Up-to-Date Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbi Lulsegged

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe 2 cases of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. Methods. We report of 2 cases of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in 2 individuals from 2 different backgrounds with emphasis on their presentation and treatment. We also conducted a literature search to put together an update review of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. Results. A 47-year-old Chinese and 28-year-old Caucasian male presented with profound yet reversible weakness associated with hypokalemia on admission bloods and thyrotoxicosis. Both were given definitive therapy to prevent recurrence of attacks with any future relapse of thyrotoxicosis. Conclusion. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a rare but potentially serious complication of thyrotoxicosis resulting in temporary but severe muscle weakness. Recent discovery of a novel mutation in the KCNJ18 gene which codes for an inwardly rectifying potassium channel and is controlled by thyroid hormones may provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of TPP.

  19. Robotic versus laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: an up-to-date meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Gian Piero; Lauretta, Andrea; Belluco, Claudio; Olivieri, Matteo; Forlin, Marco; Basso, Stefania; Breda, Bruno; Bertola, Giulio; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio

    2017-11-09

    Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) reduces postoperative morbidity, hospital stay and recovery as compared with open distal pancreatectomy. Many authors believe that robotic surgery can overcome the difficulties and technical limits of LDP thanks to improved surgical manipulation and better visualization. Few studies in the literature have compared the two methods in terms of surgical and oncological outcome. The aim of this study was to compare the results of robotic (RDP) and laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of control studies published up to December 2016 comparing LDP and RDP. Two Reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and quality of the studies. The meta-analysis was conducted using either the fixed-effect or the random-effect model. Ten studies describing 813 patients met the inclusion criteria. This meta-analysis shows that the RDP group had a significantly higher rate of spleen preservation [OR 2.89 (95% confidence interval 1.78-4.71, p < 0.0001], a lower rate of conversion to open OR 0.33 (95% CI 0.12-0.92), p = 0.003] and a shorter hospital stay [MD -0.74; (95% CI -1.34 -0.15), p = 0.01] but a higher cost than the LDP group, while other surgical outcomes did not differ between the two groups. This meta-analysis suggests that the RDP procedure is safe and comparable in terms of surgical results to LDP. However, even if the RDP has a higher cost compared to LDP, it increases the rate of spleen preservation, reduces the risk of conversion to open surgery and is associated to shorter length of hospital stay.

  20. UP-TO-DATE MANAGEMENT OF LUNG DISEASE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Praprotnik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a multi-organ disease,  affecting mostly lungs and gastrointestinal tract. Data from patient registries show that the survival of patients with CF has progressively improved over the past several decades, as a result of advances in antibiotic treatment, supplementation of pancreatic enzymes, better nutrition and a holistic approach to treatment in CF centres.The purpose of this review is to survey recent developments in the treatment of lung disease  in children and adolescents with CF.We describe newborn screening for CF.When chronic respiratory insufficiency occurs, lung transplantation becomes a very important issue.Lung disease is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in CF patients. Emerging new therapies are targeted at all points in the pathogenesis of lung disease, from drugs that treat infection and inflammation in the airways to gene transfer studies  and to drugs that augment airway surface liquid height. A number of antibacterial agents formulated for inhalation are at various stages of study and there are several anti-inflammatory candidate drugs in  clinical trials.  The most important development  in the recent years is  modulation of the abnormal protein that causes CF, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR, where drugs are targeted at specific defects in the transcription, processing or functioning.When chronic respiratory insufficiency occurs, lung transplantation becomes a very important issue. The role of the CF nurse, who has responsibilities in educating and teaching clinical skills to patients and families, is described.

  1. Three- and four-dimensional ultrasound in fetal echocardiography: an up-to-date overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, B.M.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Haak, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most commonly overlooked lesions in prenatal screening programs. Real-time two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) is the conventionally used tool for fetal echocardiography. Although continuous improvements in the hardware and post-processing software have resulted

  2. Efficient fully controlled up-to-date equipment for catalytic treatment of waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, Radek; Stulir, Roman; Cagas, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes research and development of a new unit for catalytic destruction of waste gases polluted mainly by volatile organic compounds (VOC), halogenated organic compounds (HOC) or carbon monoxide. Novel equipment has considerable advantages compared with commonly used arrangement (combustion chamber (catalytic reactor)-pipeline-heat exchanger). It is very compact and light and has the combustion chamber, catalytic reactor and heat exchanger integrated into one unit. Maximum utilizing heat losses in the combustion chamber and catalytic reactor is achieved. During the development of this unit experience from tests of previously developed equipment used for thermal treatment of waste gases was used, as well as from experimental studies of catalytic disposal of various VOC carried out in the newly built experimental unit. During the development calculation methods were created allowing design modifications of this unit for real industrial applications. The newly developed unit can be used in various branches of industry such as paint shops, refining plants, sewage treatment plants, food processing industry, pharmaceutical industry, but also in companies processing and transporting crude-oil or natural gas, etc

  3. Development of the FIFI digital simulation language and an up-to-date users guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkinson, A.

    1976-03-01

    The report describes some recent improvements to the FIFI digital simulation language following its conversion to FORTRAN IV for use on ICL 4-70 computers and including a stand alone guide for users. (author)

  4. Up-to-Date Information on Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Suda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary involvement is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and affects all the components of the lung. Interstitial lung disease (ILD is the most predominant pulmonary manifestation and has been identified as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in RA. Clinically significant RA-ILD occurs in approximately 10% of RA patients. Several risk factors, such as old age, male gender, and smoking, have been reported to date. Histologically, the proportion of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP pattern is higher in RA-ILD than in ILD associated with other connective tissue diseases, and RA-ILD also shows nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and organizing pneumonia patterns. High-resolution computed tomography scans are highly predictive of the histological UIP pattern with a specificity of 96%-100%. Acute exacerbation, which is the acute deterioration of the respiratory status characterized by newly developed bilateral infiltrates with unknown etiologies, has been reported in RA-ILD. Although acute exacerbation of RA-ILD has high mortality, similar to that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, its incidence is lower in RA-ILD than in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A consensus treatment has not yet been established. Current therapeutic regimens typically include corticosteroids with or without cytotoxic agents. Recent large longitudinal studies reported that the prognosis of RA-ILD was poor with a median survival of 2.6-3.0 years. Furthermore, histological and/or radiological patterns, such as UIP or non-UIP, have significant prognostic implications. RA-ILD patients with histological or radiological UIP patterns have poorer prognoses than those with non-UIP patterns. This review assessed the characteristics of RA-ILD by overviewing recent studies in the field and focused on the clinical significance of histological and/or radiological patterns in RA-ILD.

  5. An up-to-date comparison of state-of-the-art classification algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chongsheng; Liu, Changchang; Zhang, Xiangliang; Almpanidis, George

    2017-01-01

    Current benchmark reports of classification algorithms generally concern common classifiers and their variants but do not include many algorithms that have been introduced in recent years. Moreover, important properties such as the dependency on number of classes and features and CPU running time are typically not examined. In this paper, we carry out a comparative empirical study on both established classifiers and more recently proposed ones on 71 data sets originating from different domains, publicly available at UCI and KEEL repositories. The list of 11 algorithms studied includes Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), Sparse Representation based Classification (SRC), and Deep Learning (DL), which have not been thoroughly investigated in existing comparative studies. It is found that Stochastic Gradient Boosting Trees (GBDT) matches or exceeds the prediction performance of Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Random Forests (RF), while being the fastest algorithm in terms of prediction efficiency. ELM also yields good accuracy results, ranking in the top-5, alongside GBDT, RF, SVM, and C4.5 but this performance varies widely across all data sets. Unsurprisingly, top accuracy performers have average or slow training time efficiency. DL is the worst performer in terms of accuracy but second fastest in prediction efficiency. SRC shows good accuracy performance but it is the slowest classifier in both training and testing.

  6. An Up-To-Date View at the Etiopathogenesis of Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmi Or

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of keratoconus is unknown. Different factors have been shown to play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis. Both genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in the formation of the disease. The research studies that have been done so far suggest a multifactorial phenotypic expression. Research studies have been conducted to find the possible genetic factors for keratoconus in various aspects: Analysis of diseases coexisting with keratoconus, gene research, protein and enzyme studies are some of the studies in this direction. Recent research in the pathophysiology of keratoconus on the basis of cell has shown oxidative stress as a cause of ectatic changes. In the etiology apart from genetic factors, hormones and hormonal balances are investigated, as well as chronic trauma (contact lens use and eye rubbing is examined as a possible cause. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 339-47

  7. Up to date review of toxicological data of some point volatiles with antifungal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonsi, P.; Stammati, A. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia; De Vincenzi, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Metabolismo e Biochimica Patologica; Zucco, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Tecnologie Biomediche

    1999-07-01

    Toxicological cards of the essential oil caraway and ten volatiles compounds components of essential oils, all with fungicide activity, are presented; carvacrol, D-carvone, cinnamaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, decanal, eugenol, 2-hexenal, linalool and thymol. The cards have been prepared in the context of the European Community project FAIR1-CT95-0722, which has the aim of implementing the use of natural pesticides for plant protection during cultivation and storage. Literature data have been collected from 1980, screening different archives (BIOSIS, CAB, CHEMABS, RTECS, MEDLINE) and Council of Europe classifications. [Italian] Il rapporto contiene le schede tossicologiche di un olio essenziale (caraway oil) e di dieci sostanze volatili, componenti di olii essenziali e tutti con attivita' fungicida: carvacrol, D-carvone, cinnamaldehyde, 1, 8-cineole, p-cymene, decanol, eugenol, 2-hexenal, linaool e thymol. Le schede sono state preparate nell'ambito del progetto europeo FAIR1-CT95-0722, che ha lo scopo di sviluppare l'uso di fungicidi naturali per la protezione delle piante durante la coltivazione e lo stoccaggio. Sono stati raccolti i dati della letteratura dal 1980 ad oggi, consultando diversi archivi (BIOSIS, CAB, CHEMABS, RTECS, MEDLINE) e le classificazioni del Consiglio d'Europa.

  8. [Changes in olfaction during ageing and in certain neurodegenerative diseases: up-to-date].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, A-J; Guépet-Sordet, H; Manckoundia, P

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is a complex sensory system, and increasing interest is being shown in the link between olfaction and cognition, notably in the elderly. In this literature review, we revisit the specific neurophysiological features of the olfactory system and odorants that lead to a durable olfactory memory and an emotional memory, for which the implicit component produces subconscious olfactory conditioning. Olfaction is known to affect cognitive abilities and mood. We also consider the impairment of olfactory function due to ageing and to neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, through anatomopathological changes in the peripheral and central olfactory structures. The high frequency of these olfactory disorders as well as their early occurrence in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease are in favour of their clinical detection in subjects suffering from these two neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we analyse the impact of olfactory stimulation on cognitive performance and attention. Current observational data from studies in elderly patients with Alzheimer-type dementia are limited to multiple sensory stimulation methods, such as the Snoezelen method, and aromatherapy. These therapies have shown benefits for dementia-related mood and behaviour disorders in the short term, with few side effects. Since olfactory chemosensory stimulation may be beneficial, it may be proposed in patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer-type dementia, as a complementary or even alternative therapy to existing medical strategies. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an up-to-date NBC self-aid kit for emergency cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Michael; Schmiechen, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with alterations of the political and economical settings of Central Europe in the last decades, the characteristics of NBC hazards have changed. Since war appears unlikely, possible new scenarios involve pandemics, chemical transport accidents or distribution of CB warfare agents and radioactive materials by terroristic acts. Meeting this situation requires new protection and self aid equipment for the German civilian disaster relief forces. The German government has reacted to these risks by designing personal protection equipment for the civilian voluntary and professional disaster relief forces. The new NBC self aid kit will be part of this effort. The scientific approach of the project consisted of an updated risk analysis, a questionnaire for the professionals and volunteers involved in disaster management, a thorough evaluation of commercially available kits and single components, final design of the new kit including user instructions, and validation of a prototype kit in a disaster relief exercise. Results of the questionnaire stressed the need for a NBC self aid kit fulfilling the demands of easy handling, use of commercially available components, stability of materials, consumption adapted supply and portable size and weight of the complete kit. The evaluation of international NBC equipment could not identify any current NBC self aid kit which satisfies all needs of the German civilian disaster relief forces. The authors therefore compiled a new kit consisting of commercially available components. The newly developed kit was evaluated in a disaster relief exercise.

  10. Up-to-date principles of diagnostics and treatment of chronic wound in diabetic foot patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Yur'evna Tokmakova

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available В последние годы отмечен определенный прогресс в лечении больных с синдромом диабетической стопы (СДС. Это обусловлено, в первую очередь, усовер- шенствованием системы длительного наблюдения за больны- ми сахарным диабетом (СД, открытием сети отделений и кабинетов диабетическая стопа?, внедрением в широкую практику новых методов лечения, в первую очередь, хирурги- ческих методов реваскуляризации. Вместе с тем проблема оказания помощи больным с поражениями стоп сохраняет свою актуальность. Это обусловлено, на наш взгляд, значи- тельным числом диагностических ошибок на начальных эта- пах лечения пациентов с СД и поражениями нижних конечно- стей, что влечет за собой ошибочный выбор терапевтической тактики, несвоевременную коррекцию лечения и, как след- ствие, развитие тяжелых осложнений и вынужденную ампу- тацию конечности. Все перечисленное препятствует сниже- нию числа инвалидов, повышает периоперационную смерт- ность лиц с СД, существенным образом увеличивает расходы здравоохранения и социального обеспечения.

  11. Reliability of up-to-date risk factor between residential radon and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Quanfu, Sun; Akiba, Suminori

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The WHO launched an international radon project in January, 2005 because two major scientific articles on the residential-radon-and-lung-cancer risk have been published. Furthermore, the ICRP has just issued a new recommendation (Publ. 103). In the publication, radon issues have been mentioned using these references. They show that there is a significant correlation between radon exposures and lung cancer risks even with a somewhat lower radon concentration than an internationally recommended level (200 Bq m -3 ). In most cases, residential radon concentrations were measured by passive integrating radon monitors based on the alpha track detection techniques in their studies. We examined detection responses for the presence of thoron with some typical alpha track detectors (Kf K: Germany, Radtrak: USA and NRPB: UK), which were widely used in many epidemiological studies. In addition, we measured indoor radon and thoron concentrations in cave dwellings in Gansu Province, China, in which the National Cancer Institute (NCI) conducted a large-scale epidemiological study. The NCI concluded that there was also a significant correlation between the two aforementioned parameters, which was a similar value to recently acceptable one. However, our results on radon concentrations were obviously different from them because there was much thoron in that area. The present study demonstrates whether these risk factors are really correct throughout our data or not. Tokonami (2005) has pointed out that some of popular alpha track detectors are sensitive to thoron ( 220 Rn). This finding implies that radon readings will be overestimated and consequently may lead to biased estimates of lung cancer risk. The present study describes thoron interference on accurate radon measurements from the viewpoint of both experimental studies and field experiences. (author)

  12. Bringing EU-Turkey trade and investment relations up to date?

    OpenAIRE

    Dawar, Kamala; Sübidey, Togan

    2016-01-01

    The case is made that the EU-Turkey CU of 1995 covering industrial goods should be modernised and modified to take into account the various and growing criticisms of the original CU. Furthermore, economic integration between the EU and Turkey should be strengthened by signing a complementary deep integration regional trade agreement (RTA) between the EU and Turkey, covering agriculture, SPS measures, services, government procurement, investment, and dispute settlement. For Turkey, the objecti...

  13. Up-to-date information about China's population and living standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    China's rate of natural increase was 11.45/1000 in 1993, as a result of the crude birth rate of 18.09/1000 and a crude death rate of 6.64/1000. The total population in 1993 was 1,185.17 million. There was an increase of 13.46 million between 1992 and 1993. Personal income increased by 28% to RMB 2337 yuan in 1993, which was a real growth of 10.2%. Rural income increased by 3.2% (adjusted for inflation to 921 yuan). The urban and rural gap widened and living standards declined for some populations. Urban unemployment was 2.6% in 1993, and 128,000 unemployed persons received some assistance. Employment increased to 150.4 million, which was an increase of 2.48 million workers. Private sector and state owned business employment increased. Wages increased by 21.1% to RMB 477 billion yuan for all workers. The average per person wage increased by 19.4% to RMB 3236 yuan. Living conditions as measured by total floor space improved for the urban and rural populations. Social welfare beds available also increased. 40.51 million people received relief funds in rural and urban areas. 31.5% of townships and towns had a social security system. 97,000 community service networks were established in 1993. The number of retired urban persons receiving old age pensions from the community increased. This constituted a change from retirees receiving pensions from their work units. The number of environmental protection workers amounted to 81,000 by the end of 1993. 2290 environmental monitoring stations employed 33,000 workers. 77 national natural reserves were secured by 1993, of which 10 are members of the Man and Biosphere International Protection Network. Standards have been established for assuring environmental quality in 313 ways. Soot control zones were established in 472 cities and numbered 2935. Environmental noise control zones in 363 cities were established; the zones numbered 1774 and covered 3689 sq. miles. 5737 projects were established dealing with environmental pollution; the total investment in environmental protection was RMB 2.54 billion yuan.

  14. Keeping up to date : Incorporating social network sites and employer branding in recruitment processes

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist, Malin; Ekström, Myran

    2016-01-01

    The use of social network sites (SNSs), such as Facebook and LinkedIn, by both organizations and the Swedish population is increasing. Previous publications in this research field lack empirical reinforcement and the empirical research that has been published often suggest a connection between recruitment via SNSs and employer branding. However, this connection has not yet been elaborated on or explained by previous research. Furthermore, both these research fields lack the insight of empiric...

  15. Designing an emissions trading scheme for China: An up-to-date climate policy assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hübler, Michael; Löschel, Andreas; Voigt, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We assess recent Chinese climate policy proposals in a multi‐region, multi‐sector computable general equilibrium model with a Chinese carbon emissions trading scheme (ETS). When the emissions intensity per GDP in 2020 is required to be 45% lower than in 2005, the model simulations indicate that the climate policy‐ induced welfare loss in 2020, measured as the level of GDP and welfare in 2020 under climate policy relative to their level under business‐as‐usual (BAU) in the same yea...

  16. Designing an emissions trading scheme for China. An up-to-date climate policy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We assess recent Chinese climate policy proposals in a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model with a Chinese carbon emissions trading scheme (ETS). When the emissions intensity per GDP in 2020 is required to be 45% lower than in 2005, the model simulations indicate that the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2020, measured as the level of GDP and welfare in 2020 under climate policy relative to their level under business-as-usual (BAU) in the same year, is about 1%. The Chinese welfare loss in 2020 slightly increases in the Chinese rate of economic growth in 2020. When keeping the emissions target fixed at the 2020 level after 2020 in absolute terms, the welfare loss will reach about 2% in 2030. If China's annual economic growth rate is 0.5 percentage points higher (lower), the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2030 will rise (decline) by about 0.5 percentage points. Full auctioning of carbon allowances results in very similar macroeconomic effects as free allocation, but full auctioning leads to higher reductions in output than free allocation for ETS sectors. Linking the Chinese to the European ETS and restricting the transfer volume to one third of the EU's reduction effort creates at best a small benefit for China, yet with smaller sectoral output reductions than auctioning. These results highlight the importance of designing the Chinese ETS wisely.

  17. Up-to-date prospects for development of natural gas and condensate processing in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsenko, A.I.; Tyurin, P.P.

    1991-01-01

    Three large gas processing complexes are expected to be guilt in North Kazakhstan, Western Siberia and Orenburg, in the USSR. With added low temperature emphasis on recovery of ethane, propane and butane, the operation of these complexes will hae an appreciable effect on both domestic and international markets. This paper reports that modifications of alumina and titanium oxide zeolites to new and existing Claus units will improve sulfur recovery by 3-4%. This will cut sulfur costs and improve the environment

  18. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  19. (indigenous) education ensure effective gender mainstreaming in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaving no one behind: can (indigenous) education ensure effective gender ... in the distribution of socio-economic and political benefits, depict that additional ... of gender equality and equity and explores in different ways the relationships ...

  20. Standards for Radiation Effects Testing: Ensuring Scientific Rigor in the Face of Budget Realities and Modern Device Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J M.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented of the space radiation environment and its effects on electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts. Relevant test standards and guidelines are listed. Test standards and guidelines are necessary to ensure best practices, minimize and bound systematic and random errors, and to ensure comparable results from different testers and vendors. Test standards are by their nature static but exist in a dynamic environment of advancing technology and radiation effects research. New technologies, failure mechanisms, and advancement in our understanding of known failure mechanisms drive the revision or development of test standards. Changes to standards must be weighed against their impact on cost and existing part qualifications. There must be consensus on new best practices. The complexity of some new technologies exceeds the scope of existing test standards and may require development of a guideline specific to the technology. Examples are given to illuminate the value and limitations of key radiation test standards as well as the challenges in keeping these standards up to date.

  1. Ensuring Academic Standards in US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, David D.

    2014-01-01

    The most recent research on college-student learning in the US by respected scholars such as Richard Arum, Josipa Roksa, and Ernest Pascarella suggests that the nation's means of ensuring academic standards in US colleges and universities are not working effectively. Like US K-12 education and health care, the US higher education system is…

  2. Ensuring Peace and Reconciliation while Holding Leaders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need to be adopted to ensure that both organizations fulfil their mandate to address impunity on the ... international law; international relations and political studies. ...... 'not any other consideration', which was an attempt to assuage any fears that she ... system, which should play into the hands of the AU – in theory. Yet this.

  3. Communication skills to ensure patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendurnikar, Niranjan; Thakkar, Pareshkumar A

    2013-11-01

    Every pediatrician would want to satisfy their patients and their parents to sustain good practice, earn name and fame and simultaneously to avoid litigation in this era of consumer protection act. This can be achieved only by use of good communication skills. Today the patients demand time, information and want their questions to be answered. They expect politeness, empathy and human touch from doctors. Time constraints, arrogance, telephone calls, language barriers and cultural insensitivity are the important barriers to good communication. Research has shown that doctor, who undergoes training to acquire good communication skills, can better satisfy his patients. Good communication skill is an art which can be acquired or improved by putting conscious efforts in day to day practice. Such skills should also be incorporated as part of medical teaching curriculum. Asking open ended questions, effective listening, appropriate praise, providing enough information as part of advice and finally checking their understanding, are the key areas of communication during medical interview. During this process pediatrician should ensure to address the parental concerns, should empathize with parents and involve parents in decision making. This will not only ensure satisfaction of parents but also their adherence to the therapy and to the pediatrician.

  4. Ensuring the validity of calculated subcritical limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    The care taken at the Savannah River Laboratory and Plant to ensure the validity of calculated subcritical limits is described. Close attention is given to ANSI N16.1-1975, ''Validation of Calculational Methods for Nuclear Criticality Safety.'' The computer codes used for criticality safety computations, which are listed and are briefly described, have been placed in the SRL JOSHUA system to facilitate calculation and to reduce input errors. A driver module, KOKO, simplifies and standardizes input and links the codes together in various ways. For any criticality safety evaluation, correlations of the calculational methods are made with experiment to establish bias. Occasionally subcritical experiments are performed expressly to provide benchmarks. Calculated subcritical limits contain an adequate but not excessive margin to allow for uncertainty in the bias. The final step in any criticality safety evaluation is the writing of a report describing the calculations and justifying the margin

  5. Ensuring Economic Security in Lending Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vadimovich Kochikin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the topic is determined by the need for sustainable development of the country’s banking system, capable of ensuring the process of raising funds to producers and the public for their projects. One of the implementation of this objective is to discourage unfair behavior in financial markets. Trust is a key factor in the development of financial markets, therefore it is necessary to suppress the appearance of unfair practices and participants – black creditors, falsification of financial statements, trading on insider information and market manipulation. It requires a whole range of activities, and above all ensuring the inevitability and proportionality of punishment for unscrupulous players, the introduction of requirements for the business reputation of the management of financial institutions.The article is devoted to structuring legal violations in the lending sphere. The analysis of indicators of credit organizations in Russia was conducted to fulfill this aim. This analysis revealed the causes of sustainable growth of overdue accounts payable – job cuts in enterprises, violations in the financial sector, various errors in the credit granting / raising. The authors carry out the systematization and classification of offenses in the area of lending, provide examples, as well as factual material illustrating the violations in the lending process having the characteristics of a fraud. The article substantiates the obligations of employees of the credit institution, in the result of which risks of granting credit to fraudsters can be reduced. The methods of fraud prevention should include the identified methods of protection against fraud in the area under consideration – exchange of information by banks associated with the criminal intentions of customers; technology development and technical support, training, and personnel responsibilities.

  6. UP TO DATE ANTIPLATELET THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH HIGH RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS AND REAL CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the real rate of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT, acetylsalicylic acid + clopidogrel use in patients having appropriate indications according to current clinical guidelines and to study the possibility of prescription rate improvement by education activity directed to doctors. Material and methods. The study consisted of 3 parts. Parts I and II present the results of two questionnaire surveys of patients with acute myocardial infarction, or stenting, who needed in DAT according to current clinical guidelines. The real use of the DAT was assessed in part III on the basis of the multicenter study conducted in different regions of Russia (ROMB study in a large sample of patients having DAT indications. Results. Part I - PROGNOZ-IBS study. According to the questionnaire survey only 112 out of 239 patients (47% having an absolute indications, received DOT. Part II - phone survey of patients with acute myocardial infarction in two towns of Lyubertsy and Podolsk. 28 of 71 patients (39% took the DAT (from some days to 6 months and 35 patients (49% — did not take it. Part III - ROMB study. 519 patients did not take DAT, at that 259 (50% in hospital and 260 (50% - in out-patient clinic. 521 patients took DAT according to indications, at that 238 (46% in hospital and 283 (54% - in out-patient clinic. Conclusion. Less than 50% of patients, having direct indications, received DAT in the real clinical practice. The prescription rate can be improved due to education activity directed to doctors and increase in clopidogrel drugs affordability.

  7. The system of training teachers to work with gifted children based on up-to-date information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Александрович Филиппов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contain developed by NRNU «MEPhI» jointly ANI «ITE» and SBFO MER MCPE multilevel model of teachers training (tutors, specialist teachers to organize work with gifted children.

  8. Ultrasonography of the biliary tract - up to date. The importance of correlation between imaging methods and patients' signs and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Radu; Zaro, Răzvan; Tanțău, Marcel; Chiorean, Liliana

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonography is generally accepted and performed as a first choice imaging technique in patients with jaundice. The method allows the discrimination between cholestatic and mechanical jaundice. The existing procedures are multiple: gray scale, Doppler, i.v. contrast enhancement, elastography, tridimensional ultrasonography, each of these with different contribution to the positive and differential diagnosis regarding the nature of the jaundice. The final diagnosis is a multimodal one and the efficiency is dependent on the level of the available technology, the examiner's experience, the degree and modality of integration of the data within the clinical context, as well as on the portfolio of available imaging procedures. This review shows the main ultrasonographic methods consecrated in the evaluation of the biliary tree. It also underlines the integrated character of the procedures, as well as the necessity to correlate with other imaging methods and the clinical situation.

  9. Development and design of up-to-date laser scanning two-photon microscope using in neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, Maxim; Popov, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Today one of the main areas of application of two-photon microscopy is biology. This is due to the fact that this technique allows to obtain 3D images of tissues due to laser focus change, that is possible due to substantially greater penetration depth on the main wavelength into biological tissues. Self-developed microscopy system provides possibility to service it and modify the structure of microscope depending on highly specialized experimental design and scientific goals. This article may be regarded as a quick reference to laboratory staff who are wishing to develop their own microscopy system for self-service and modernization of the system and in order to save the lab budget.

  10. The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning: is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?

    OpenAIRE

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    2000-01-01

    The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its i...

  11. The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    2000-01-01

    The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its influence on everyday life. Some examples of previous air-conditioning plants are described and different approaches to the way of calculation of ventilation systems discussed. It gives an overview of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) installations at CERN and points out their particularities. It also compares them with the latest technological developments in the field as well as showing the new trends that are being applied at CERN.

  12. Up-to-date status of ionizing radiation influence issue on testes and gland-gonads system. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the chapter the analytical survey on ionizing radiation action on men sexual function is made. It is known, that the ionizing irradiation destructs both the sexual and the reproductive functions of men. Literature analysis indicates on high frequency of liquidators' complaints on sexual dysfunctions, and that the problem of clinical and pathogenetic regularities of sexual dysfunctions is unexplored. It is noted, that this problem is not only medical problem but it is the social one

  13. Keeping Teachers Up-to-date is essential to reach and maintain a High Quality University Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Aguilar-Santelises

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary group of teachers and scientists from the Faculty for Higher Education (FES Zaragoza from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM has been working during several years, forwarding and testing strategies for the continuous improvement of biochemistry theoretical and experimental teaching, within the various levels from the chemistry, pharmacy and biology (QFB curricula at our University. To provide our teachers with modern teaching abilities to satisfy current national demands of high-level education is our top priority. Therefore, we offer various activities to promote their continuous scientific and didactic updating. We also encourage self-awareness on the strong need for continuous adaptation and utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT that have become very popular among young generations. Teaching is not an isolated discipline. On the contrary, teaching is intimately related with social and economical circumstances. Teachers and students must be aware of their social environment, studying and applying modern techniques, improving their scientific capabilities, which are all necessary to approach national problems with an accurate utilization of national resources. Research and development have to be linked to the best teaching techniques that stimulate teachers and scientists to grow as educators and experimenters continuously looking for feedback from their students and colleagues. Our scientific meetings and advanced and basic courses on scientific topics and teaching techniques have contributed not only to promote individual teaching and scientific capabilities but also to update the study plans from the QFB curricula at our University.

  14. Up-to-date subject matter of world research in the field of materials for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    New approach to the problem of composition of present-day materials, which are working in high temperatures assumes that their microstructure becomes a subject of analysis-not an object-as it was before. Nowadays many industrial and university laboratories deal with these problems, individually or in the cooperation, in framework of the different types of projects, financed by the international organizations. In the report, research realized over the last 20 years in USA, Europe and japan have been reviewed. This research focused on the working in high temperatures steels as a constructional materials for pipes and other units of the power plants. According to the newest achievement in this domain we could expect that the ferritic and ferro-martensitic alloy steels will become new generation of the high-temperature creep-resisting steels (author)

  15. Up-to-date opportunities of cervical lymph nodes ultrasound investigation in patients, suffering from oral cavity cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Alymov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incidence of oral cancer in Russia is 4.52 and mortality – 2.44. Head and neck cancer is characterized by the high risk of development of metastases in regional lymph nodes. Lymph nodes status exerts influence on the treatment plan and appears to be the major predictive factor. Regional metastases result into two-fold decrease of five-year survival. Therefore, evaluation and treatment of metastatic lymph nodes is of prime importance. Objective. The aim of this manuscript was to illustrate and summarize publications devoted to modern methods of ultrasound evaluation of cervical lymph node status in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Results. Numerous studies have demonstrated, that standard ultrasound investigation (in B-mode is characterized by high sensitivity and specificity (specificity varies from 71.0 to 96.4 %, and specificity – from 46.6 to 91.0 %, according to different studies. In addition, ultrasound efficiency exceeds that of CT. Accuracy of ultrasound as the method of cervical lymph node investigation has increased after implementation of such methods, as elastography and elastometry (this techniques allow to achieve sensitivity of 98.1 % and specificity of 100 %. 

  16. Form and Style: Theses, Reports, Term Papers. Eighth Edition. Up-to-Date Information on Chicago, MLA, and APA Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William Giles; And Others

    The eighth edition of this manual, which incorporates recent changes in bibliographical format made by "The Chicago Manual of Style" and the Modern Language Association of America, provides guidance to writers of research papers and reports in college, graduate school, business, government, and the professions. The review of the…

  17. Skin needling as a treatment for acne scarring: An up-to-date review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G. Harris, MBChB

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: There is moderate evidence to suggest that skin needling is beneficial and safe for the treatment of acne scarring. However, double-blinded, randomized controlled trials are required to make more definitive conclusions.

  18. Up-to-date management of lymph node metastasis and the role of tailored lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2007-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM), together with parametrial infiltration and positive surgical margins, is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. The incidence of LNM increases with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, with rates being 12%-22% in stage Ib, 10%-27% in stage IIa, and 34%-43% in stage IIb. Radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy are widely used treatments for early-stage (Ib to IIa) cervical cancer, as well as for stage IIb disease, in some European and Asian countries. In several types of cancer, the therapeutic significance of systematic lymphadenectomy has been demonstrated by recent reports showing that a larger number of lymph nodes removed relates to better survival. In cervical cancer, a significant relationship between the number of lymph nodes removed and disease-free survival has been reported in node-positive patients. Preoperative evaluation of nodal status with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques is not sensitive enough to replace the histological examination of dissected nodes. The sentinel node procedure may be an alternative to systematic lymphadenectomy to reduce treatment-related morbidity, but more work on this is needed. Although the presence of LNM does not change FIGO staging, it will modulate postoperative therapy. Progression-free and overall survivals were significantly improved by the addition of chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy after radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy combined solely with radical hysterectomy and systematic lymphadenectomy may also provide a survival benefit. In conclusion, efforts to establish more tailored surgical strategies, by introducing advanced imaging technologies and molecular diagnostic procedures, are needed for cervical cancer. (author)

  19. WWER-440 reactor thermal power increase. Up-to-date approaches to substantiation of the core heat-engineering reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, I.; Lushin, V.; Zubtsov, D.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing the Units power is an urgent problem for nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. Improving the fuel assembly designs and calculated codes creates all prerequisites to fulfil this purpose. The decrease in the core power peaking is reached by using the profiled fuel assemblies, burnable absorber integrated into the fuel, the FA with the modernized interface attachment, modern calculated codes that allows to reduce conservatism of the RP safety substantiation. A wide spectrum of experimental study of behaviour of the fuel having reached burn-up (50-60) MW days / kg U under the transients and accident conditions was carried out, the post-irradiated examination of the fuel assemblies, fuel rods and fuel pellets with four and five annual operating fuel cycle were performed as well and confirmed the high reliability of the fuel, the presence of large margins of the fuel stack state that contributes to reactor operation at the increased power. The results of the carried out experiments on implementing the five and six annual fuel cycles show that the limiting fuel state as to its serviceability in the WWER-440 reactors is far from being reached. Presently there is an experience of the increased power operation of Kola NPP, Units 1, 2, 4 and Rovno NPP, Unit 2. The Loviisa NPP Units are operated at 109 % power. The Russian experts had gained an experience in substantiating the core operation at 108 % power for Paks NPP, Unit 4. In this paper the additional conditions for increasing the power of the Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2 and the main results of substantiation of increase in power of the Paks NPP, Unit 4 up to 1485 MW are presented in details

  20. Alternative Oral Agents in Prophylaxis and Therapy of Uterine Fibroids—An Up-to-Date Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ciebiera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterine fibroids (UFs are the most common tumors of the female genital tract. The effect of UFs on the quality of life and the overall cost of treatment are significant issues worldwide. Tumor size and location are the two specific factors which influence the occurrence of symptoms, the need for, and method of, treatment (some tumors require surgery while some can be treated with selected drugs. Primary prevention and treatment of early UF disease are worthy goals that might have a great impact on health care systems. Several treatments and prophylactic methods can be used in this endeavor. This publication presents current data about lesser-known substances which may have a beneficial effect on the treatment or prophylaxis of UFs and can be administered orally, serving as an alternative to (or complement of surgery or selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs. Early prevention and treatment of UFs in women from high-risk groups should be our priority. Innovative forms of UF management are under intensive investigation and may be promising options in the near future. Many of them evaluated vitamin D, paricalcitol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, elagolix, aromatase inhibitors (AIs, and cabergoline and deemed them to be safe and effective. The next step in such projects should be properly constructed randomized control trials (RCTs, carried out by successive phases.

  1. Surgical treatment for obesity: ensuring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andris, Deborah A

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Serious medical complications, impaired quality of life, and premature mortality are all associated with obesity. Medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or sleep apnea can improve or be cured with weight loss. Medical treatment programs focused on diet, behavior modification, and/or pharmacologic intervention have met with limited long-term success. Although surgical treatments for obesity have become popular in recent years, they should only be used as a last resort for weight loss. Not all patients can be considered appropriate candidates for surgery; therefore, guidelines based on criteria from the National Institutes of Health should be used preoperatively to help identify suitable persons. Most individuals who opt for weight-loss surgery have usually struggled for many years with losing weight and keeping it off, but surgery alone will not ensure successful weight loss. Patient education is imperative for long-term success. Moreover, any such educational regimen should include information on diet, vitamin and mineral supplementation, and lifestyle changes, as well as expected weight-loss results and improvements in comorbid conditions. Patients must be willing to commit to a long-term follow-up program intended to promote successful weight loss and weight maintenance and to prevent metabolic and nutritional complications.

  2. Reproducing Epidemiologic Research and Ensuring Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2017-08-15

    Measures for ensuring that epidemiologic studies are reproducible include making data sets and software available to other researchers so they can verify published findings, conduct alternative analyses of the data, and check for statistical errors or programming errors. Recent developments related to the reproducibility and transparency of epidemiologic studies include the creation of a global platform for sharing data from clinical trials and the anticipated future extension of the global platform to non-clinical trial data. Government agencies and departments such as the US Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program have also enhanced their data repositories and data sharing resources. The Institute of Medicine and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors released guidance on sharing clinical trial data. The US National Institutes of Health has updated their data-sharing policies. In this issue of the Journal, Shepherd et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186:387-392) outline a pragmatic approach for reproducible research with sensitive data for studies for which data cannot be shared because of legal or ethical restrictions. Their proposed quasi-reproducible approach facilitates the dissemination of statistical methods and codes to independent researchers. Both reproducibility and quasi-reproducibility can increase transparency for critical evaluation, further dissemination of study methods, and expedite the exchange of ideas among researchers. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Ensuring US National Aeronautics Test Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    process; and the reductions in wind tunnel testing requirements within the largest consumer of ATP wind tunnel test time, the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). Retirement of the Space Shuttle Program and recent perturbations of NASA's Constellation Program will exacerbate this downward trend. Therefore it is crucial that ATP periodically revisit and determine which of its test capabilities are strategically important, which qualify as low-risk redundancies that could be put in an inactive status or closed, and address the challenges associated with both sustainment and improvements to the test capabilities that must remain active. This presentation will provide an overview of the ATP vision, mission, and goals as well as the challenges and opportunities the program is facing both today and in the future. We will discuss the strategy ATP is taking over the next five years to address the National aeronautics test capability challenges and what the program will do to capitalize on its opportunities to ensure a ready, robust and relevant portfolio of National aeronautics test capabilities.

  4. ESSENCE OF THE PROBLEM OF ENSURING FOOD SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Lalayan G. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we have revealed the essence of the problem of ensuring food security in detail. The components of economic safety at macroeconomic level are described, defining conditions of ensuring national food security are shown

  5. Perspectives of Security Ensuring within the Framework of Barcelona Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Kirabaev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Barcelona process was aimed to become an important mechanism in the realization of ideas of peace, stability and security ensuring in the Mediterranean Sea region. Cooperation in the sphere of security ensuring means openness of the regional states, social and economic reforms, human rights protection. The article deals with the problem of security ensuring by nonmilitary means.

  6. Methods for ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements: regulators and operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the methods of ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements contained in various radiation protection documents such as Regulations, ICRP Recommendations etc. are considered. These include radiation safety officers and radiation safety committees, personnel monitoring services, dissemination of information, inspection services and legislative power of enforcement. Difficulties in ensuring compliance include outmoded legislation, financial and personnel constraints

  7. Ensuring services to the poor : learning from LLPMS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fajardojp

    necessary steps to delivery services to ensure providing basic facilities but poverty remains central ... services, technological transfer, imparting training, input supply within reasonable ... Providing education, ensuring health facility, safe ..... a workshop organised to get feedback on the methodology of LLPMS the officials of.

  8. An evaluation of adequacy of water policy stipulation in ensuring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of adequacy of water policy stipulation in ensuring water security in the context of climate change. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... The aim of the study was to establish how responsive the Water Policy (2010) is to ensure water security in the context of climate change.

  9. Modelling the System of Ensuring the Investment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moroz Maxim O.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores approaches to modelling the system of ensuring the investment security. Necessity of observance of investment security of Ukraine has been substantiated. The author’s own vision of the modelling essentials has been provided. The eligibility for consideration of the system of ensuring the investment security of Ukraine in the functional, structural, process, formative, and factor aspects has been proved. The target setting and tasks of a functional model of the system of ensuring the investment security have been defined. The functions, subjects, organizational-economic mechanisms of the system of ensuring the investment security of Ukraine have been characterized. A structural model of the system of ensuring the investment security has been presented. Special attention has been given to the definition of objects of direct and indirect influence, control and controlled subsystems, aggregate of indicators, safe levels, principles of formation of the investment security system. The process and formative models of the system of ensuring the investment security, as well as the algorithm of the complex assessment of the level of investment security, were analyzed in detail. Measures to ensure the investment security of Ukraine have been defined.

  10. Strategy to Ensure Institutional Control Implementation at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document sets forth EPA’s strategy (Strategy) for ensuring that institutional controls (ICs) are successfully implemented at Superfund sites, with an emphasis on evaluating ICs at sites where all construction of all remedies is complete (construction complete sites).

  11. A multipronged approach to ensuring food security | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... ... nations committed themselves to ensuring an enabling environment and ... to eradicate poverty and guarantee access to sufficient, safe food to all. They also agreed to promote a fair world trade system, and to work to ...

  12. ENSURING THE SAFETY OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Nikolaevna Andronikova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates Russian and foreign regulatory documents, governing the issues of cargo securing in road transport, and sets out recommendations to ensure the safety of road transportation of goods by means of their attachment.

  13. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webinar series on communications strategies and methods addresses how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  14. Strategies for Ensuring Quality in the Business Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies for Ensuring Quality in the Business Education Programme of Tertiary Institutions in ... The survey method was employed. One research question guided the study while two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 degree of significance.

  15. Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing Evidence Based Policymaking and Regulation to Ensure Greater ... which is Communications Policy Research South (CPRsouth), a yearly conference that ... policy intellectuals through tutorials for young scholars and internships.

  16. Exploring the scope of community-based rehabilitation in ensuring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the scope of community-based rehabilitation in ensuring the holistic ... Rehabilitation is defined as the process of combined ... psychological measures for enabling individuals to at- ... inclusion, meeting basic needs and facilitating access to.

  17. INTERNAL CONTROLS IN ENSURING GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSMAS NJANIKE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed factors that influence the internal controls in ensuring good corporate governance in financial institutions in developing economies with special reference to Zimbabwe. The research paper assessed how lack of internal controls affected good corporate governance and aimed to bring out elements of good corporate governance. It emerged that failure to effectively implement internal controls contributed significantly to poor corporate governance. The study discovered that internal control system overrides and the issue of “fact cat” directors also contributed to poor corporate governance. The study recommended that there is need for the board of directors to guarantee an organizational structure that clearly defines management responsibilities, authority and reporting relationships. There is also need to ensure that delegated responsibilities are effectively carried out to ensure compliance with internal controls of the financial institution concerned.

  18. Ensuring Equal Access to High-Quality Education. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in the U.S. Department of Education (Department) is a law enforcement agency charged with enforcing federal civil rights laws to ensure that educational institutions receiving federal financial assistance do not engage in discriminatory conduct. OCR enforces the federal civil rights laws that prohibit…

  19. Role of Head Teachers in Ensuring Sound Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Jacob; Opare, James K.

    2017-01-01

    The school climate is outlined in literature as one of the most important within school factors required for effective teaching in learning. As leaders in any organisations are assigned the role of ensuring sound climates for work, head teachers also have the task of creating and maintaining an environment conducive for effective academic work…

  20. The Problem of Ensuring Reliability of Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozhnitsky, Yu A.

    2018-01-01

    Requirements to advanced engines for civil aviation are discussing. Some significant problems of ensuring reliability of advanced gas turbine engines are mentioned. Special attention is paid to successful utilization of new materials and critical technologies. Also the problem of excluding failure of engine part due to low cycle or high cycle fatigue is discussing.

  1. Elementary Mathematics Specialists: Ensuring the Intersection of Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGatha, Maggie B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a historical overview of the role and impact of elementary mathematics specialists as well as current implications and opportunities for the field. Furthermore, suggestions are offered for the mathematics education field for ensuring the intersection of practice and research. [For complete proceedings, see ED581294.

  2. Good Work Ensures Employment Success. Myths and Realities No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    It is a myth that skills alone ensure employment. Other keys to workplace success include continuous learning, emotional intelligence, networking, flexibility, and commitment to business objectives. Although academic degrees, skill certifications, and other documentation of accomplishments provide access to employment, they are significant only at…

  3. Ensuring Effective Mentoring in Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper concerns itself only with ascertaining the strategies that could ensure effective mentoring in tertiary institutions. The survey method was employed. The study population comprised 78 teacher educators in tertiary institutions in Anambra State. One research question guided the study while one null hypothesis was ...

  4. Ensuring quality control of forensic accounting for efficient and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on ensuring quality control of forensic accounting for efficient and effective corporate management. Over the years, fraud has taken the center stage in every discussion whether in business or social. “3m” have been identified to be the tool used to effect this crime namely; misappropriation, misapplication ...

  5. Strategies for Ensuring Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Andrew K.

    2004-01-01

    Although many critics are reluctant to accept the trustworthiness of qualitative research, frameworks for ensuring rigour in this form of work have been in existence for many years. Guba's constructs, in particular, have won considerable favour and form the focus of this paper. Here researchers seek to satisfy four criteria. In addressing…

  6. Strategies for ensuring quality data from Indian investigational sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antal K Hajos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of ensuring quality and compliance is and must be a top priority in the conduct of clinical trials, as warranted by regulatory guidelines as well as the inherent responsibility of the professionals conducting such research. Fast-growing emerging clinical geographies such as India demand special attention due to rapid growth and associated factors that may put study quality at risk. In this paper, we used the basic principle of PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, and Adjust to structure the processes of a clinical trial from protocol to final analysis in order to highlight the interactive nature of involved people and processes required to ensure quality of data and site functioning.

  7. Enhancing Scientific Foundations to Ensure Reproducibility: A New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Terry; Vaickus, Max H; Remick, Daniel G

    2018-01-01

    Progress in science is dependent on a strong foundation of reliable results. The publish or perish paradigm in research, coupled with an increase in retracted articles from the peer-reviewed literature, is beginning to erode the trust of both the scientific community and the public. The NIH is combating errors by requiring investigators to follow new guidelines addressing scientific premise, experimental design, biological variables, and authentication of reagents. Herein, we discuss how implementation of NIH guidelines will help investigators proactively address pitfalls of experimental design and methods. Careful consideration of the variables contributing to reproducibility helps ensure robust results. The NIH, investigators, and journals must collaborate to ensure that quality science is funded, explored, and published. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ensuring the Validity of the Micro Foundation in DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    & Primiceri (American Economic Review, forth- coming) and Fernández-Villaverde & Rubio-Ramírez (Review of Economic Studies, 2007) do not satisfy these sufficient conditions, or any other known set of conditions ensuring finite values for the objective functions. Thus, the validity of the micro foundation......The presence of i) stochastic trends, ii) deterministic trends, and/or iii) stochastic volatil- ity in DSGE models may imply that the agents' objective functions attain infinite values. We say that such models do not have a valid micro foundation. The paper derives sufficient condi- tions which...... ensure that the objective functions of the households and the firms are finite even when various trends and stochastic volatility are included in a standard DSGE model. Based on these conditions we test the validity of the micro foundation in six DSGE models from the literature. The models of Justiniano...

  9. Ensuring long-term availability of TELEPERM XS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.-W.; Richter, S.

    1998-01-01

    With putting in operation the first digital TELEPERM XS I and C systems for functions important to safety in nuclear power plants, ensuring long-term availability and reliable operation of TELEPERM XS systems gains increasing importance. On the one hand, the modular structure of TELEPERM XS has already been optimized during system development such that the application-specific functions are independent of the version of hardware components and system software. On the other hand, hardware-independent, tool-based engineering procedures ensure that the application software of installed I and C systems can be flexibly adapted to modified plant requirements while at the same time the very high software quality is retained. Quality-assured procedures and an actively organized configuration management guarantee that the functionality and the availability of the I and C systems keep their qualified standard. This paper discusses aspects of the configuration management for TELEPERM XS I and C systems. (author)

  10. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S

    2016-06-01

    The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.

  11. KEY ASPECTS OF ENSURING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Abramyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the review of the foreign and national academic literature and intended to emphasize the issues of ensuring energy efficiency of buildings and structures applicable to all the countries as for reconstruction of existing buildings as for erection of new ones . The author highlights the key aspects of the provision of energy efficiency of buildings and structures in some foreign countries. The conclusion is made that the studies are mainly aimed at discovering new heat insulation materials, whereby polystyrene insulation is found to be the most widespread wall insulation material in a number of countries. At the same time, it is observed that the ongoing research is focused on solutions to optimize the structure of walling systems in terms of both insulant thickness and the number and sequence of insulation layers in the walling structure. A conclusion is made that hyper insulation of external walls leads to considerable expenses arising due to cooling during the summer season. The use of prefabricated vacuum panels as a heat insulation layer and off-the-shelf single-layer structures, subject to their heat insulation characteristics, appears a more constructive way to meet the energy efficiency requirements, as the arrangement of ideal air space in multilayered walls proves a significant challenge today. One of the most promising ways to ensure energy efficiency is the use of multifunctional polyvalent walls and provision of polyvalent heat supply from renewable energy sources. Since energy efficiency depends on the spatial arrangement of buildings, construction must ensure a minimum ratio of the area of enclosing structures to the overall building volume (by adding on new facilities in case of reconstruction. It is noted that a systemic approach to ensuring energy efficiency of buildings is impossible without proper regard to the environmental parameters of heat insulation materials.

  12. Cep63 and cep152 cooperate to ensure centriole duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Brown

    Full Text Available Centrosomes consist of two centrioles embedded in pericentriolar material and function as the main microtubule organising centres in dividing animal cells. They ensure proper formation and orientation of the mitotic spindle and are therefore essential for the maintenance of genome stability. Centrosome function is crucial during embryonic development, highlighted by the discovery of mutations in genes encoding centrosome or spindle pole proteins that cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly, including Cep63 and Cep152. In this study we show that Cep63 functions to ensure that centriole duplication occurs reliably in dividing mammalian cells. We show that the interaction between Cep63 and Cep152 can occur independently of centrosome localisation and that the two proteins are dependent on one another for centrosomal localisation. Further, both mouse and human Cep63 and Cep152 cooperate to ensure efficient centriole duplication by promoting the accumulation of essential centriole duplication factors upstream of SAS-6 recruitment and procentriole formation. These observations describe the requirement for Cep63 in maintaining centriole number in dividing mammalian cells and further establish the order of events in centriole formation.

  13. Ensuring Sustainable Development through Urban Planning in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and nontreatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan

  14. Ensuring sustainable development through urban planing in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Zaidi, S.S.U.

    2013-01-01

    Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and non- treatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

  15. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  16. THE ISSUEOFSTRENGTHENING BUDGET CAPACITY FOR ENSURING THE FINANCIALINDEPENDENCE OFLOCALAUTHORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytriy V. Nekhaychuk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues on strengthening local governments’ budget capacity in the face of modern challenges. It shows the conceptual in-depth study of local budgets foundations, income and practical recommendations focusing on stability and capacity. The author proves that the revenues of local budgets play a crucial role in ensuring the full and effective performance of the functions and local authorities’ tasks. The paper shows the scientific analysis of modern economists’ views on the local authorities’ financial autonomy and the local budgets’ role in the process. The paper also shows the retrospective comparative analysis of methods, used by local and foreign scientists for the formation of local budgets’ revenues. It considers the economic nature of income in local budgets as a source of finance, ensures the efficient operation of local authorities. It has been found out that the organization of the process of forming local budgets’ revenues is influenced by the organizational and legal forms of management, type of ownership and specifics of enterprises. Taxes are the dominant source of local budgets’ incomes, the financial regulator of production, means of ensuring socio-economic development of the separate administrative and territorial units and the state as a whole. The authors also analyze different types of revenues, including tax, in the revenue part of local budgets. The authors propose to expand the list of local taxes and fees due to the introduction of tax with targeted use of received funds. The conceptual basis of financial independence of local self-government lies in in the optimal interests of the population, local government, state and business structures. The increase of own revenues in the share of local budgets becomes a strategic issue of the financial autonomy and the corresponding administrative and territorial units.

  17. Systems and processes that ensure high quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sally; Westmore, Kathryn

    2012-10-01

    This is the second in a series of articles examining the components of good corporate governance. It considers how the structures and processes for quality governance can affect an organisation's ability to be assured about the quality of care. Complex information systems and procedures can lead to poor quality care, but sound structures and processes alone are insufficient to ensure good governance, and behavioural factors play a significant part in making sure that staff are enabled to provide good quality care. The next article in this series looks at how the information reporting of an organisation can affect its governance.

  18. Ensuring long time access to DELPHI data: the IDEA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camporesi, T.; Charpentier, P.; Elsing, M.; Liko, D.; Smirnov, N.; Wicke, D.

    2001-01-01

    The long term accessibility of its data is an important concern of the DELPHI collaboration. It is the authors' assumption that the storage of the data itself will be a minor issue due to the progress in storage technologies. Therefore DELPHI focuses on a reorganisation of the data, which should provide a flexible and coherent framework for physics analysis in the future. The authors describe the current status of the IDEA (Improved DElphi Analysis) project which will ensure usability of DELPHI data for future generations of physicists

  19. Pharmacologic control of high blood pressure: up to date 2005 Control de la hipertensión arterial con medicamentos: actualización 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Toro Escobar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate use of antihypertensive drugs is one of the key elements to guarantee the achievement of blood pressure goals and the adherence of patients to treatment, in order to diminish the absolute cardiovascular risk. This article is a narrative review based on a systematic literature search in which randomized, controlled studies of initial antihypertensive therapy were selected and treatments with drugs of two or more groups were compared having as outcome the reduction of cardiovascular events. El uso adecuado de los medicamentos antihipertensivos es fundamental para garantizar el cumplimiento de las metas de presión arterial y la adherencia de los pacientes al tratamiento de la hipertensión, elementos necesarios para cumplir con el objetivo fundamental de disminuir el riesgo absoluto cardiovascular de los pacientes. Esta es una revisión narrativa basada en una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura, en la cual se seleccionaron los estudios aleatorizados controlados de terapia antihipertensiva inicial y se compararon tratamientos entre fármacos de dos o más grupos, que tengan como desenlace la reducción de eventos cardiovasculares.

  20. Clinical applications of dendritic cells–cytokine-induced killer cells mediated immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer: an up-to-date meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YC

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yucai Zhang,1 Xiaorui Zhang,1 Anqi Zhang,2 Ke Li,2 Kai Qu3 1Department of Health, 2Department of Central Laboratory, Liaocheng People’s Hospital of Taishan Medical University, Liaocheng, Shandong, 3Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China Purpose: This study aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of dendritic cells–cytokine-induced killer (DC–CIK cells immunotherapy in treating pancreatic cancer (PC patients. Methods: Data were collected from published articles of clinical trials. Databases including Web of Science, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, and CNKI were searched. The main outcome measures in this research included the overall response rate (ORR, disease control rate (DCR, overall survival (OS, patients’ quality of life (QoL, immune function, and adverse events. Comparative analysis was conducted between DC–CIK immunotherapy and chemotherapy (combined therapy and chemotherapy alone. Results: This analysis covered 14 trials with 1,088 PC patients involved. The combined therapy showed advantages over chemotherapy alone in ORR (odds ratio [OR] =1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.20–2.38, P=0.003, DCR (OR =2.33, 95% CI =1.63–3.33, P<0.00001, OS (1-year OS, OR =3.61, 95% CI =2.41–5.40, P<0.00001; 3-year OS, OR =2.65, 95% CI =1.56–4.50, P=0.0003 and patients’ QoL (P<0.01 with statistical significance. After immunotherapy, lymphocyte subsets’ percentages of CD3+ (P<0.00001, CD4+ (P=0.01, CD3+CD56+ (P<0.00001, and cytokine levels of IFN-γ (P<0.00001 were significantly increased, and the percentages of CD4+CD25+CD127low (P<0.00001 and levels of IL-4 (P<0.0001 were significantly decreased, whereas analysis on CD8+ (P=0.59 and CD4+/CD8+ ratio (P=0.64 did not show a significant difference. Conclusion: The combination of DC–CIK immunotherapy and chemotherapy is effective for PC treatment, indicated by prolonging the PC patients’ survival time, which benefit from reconstructed immune function of patients. Keywords: cytokine-induced killer cells, dendritic cells, pancreatic cancer, immunotherapy, meta-analysis

  1. ValidatorDB: database of up-to-date validation results for ligands and non-standard residues from the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnal, David; Svobodová Vařeková, Radka; Pravda, Lukáš; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Geidl, Stanislav; Horský, Vladimír; Jaiswal, Deepti; Wimmerová, Michaela; Koča, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Following the discovery of serious errors in the structure of biomacromolecules, structure validation has become a key topic of research, especially for ligands and non-standard residues. ValidatorDB (freely available at http://ncbr.muni.cz/ValidatorDB) offers a new step in this direction, in the form of a database of validation results for all ligands and non-standard residues from the Protein Data Bank (all molecules with seven or more heavy atoms). Model molecules from the wwPDB Chemical Component Dictionary are used as reference during validation. ValidatorDB covers the main aspects of validation of annotation, and additionally introduces several useful validation analyses. The most significant is the classification of chirality errors, allowing the user to distinguish between serious issues and minor inconsistencies. Other such analyses are able to report, for example, completely erroneous ligands, alternate conformations or complete identity with the model molecules. All results are systematically classified into categories, and statistical evaluations are performed. In addition to detailed validation reports for each molecule, ValidatorDB provides summaries of the validation results for the entire PDB, for sets of molecules sharing the same annotation (three-letter code) or the same PDB entry, and for user-defined selections of annotations or PDB entries. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. The Safety and Efficacy of Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration Combined with Cholecystectomy for the Management of Cholecysto-choledocholithiasis: An Up-to-date Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Chen, Mingyu; Ji, Lin; Zheng, Longbo; Yan, Peijian; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Bin; Cai, Xiujun

    2018-03-12

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of the laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy (pre-EST) and LC for concomitant gallstones and common bile duct (CBD) stones. It remains controversial whether LCBDE+LC is better than pre-EST+LC for gallstones and CBD stones. A specific search of online databases was performed from January 2006 to October 2017. Relative outcomes of perioperative safety and postoperative efficacy were synthesized. Single-arm meta-analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were also conducted. A total of 13 studies involving 1757 (872 vs 885) patients were included for analysis in our study. The CBD stones clearance rate [94.1% vs 90.1%; odds ratio (OR) 1.56, P = 0.012] was significantly higher in patients who underwent LCBDE+LC than pre-EST+LC, while perioperative complications (7.6% vs 12.0%; OR 0.67, P = 0.015), conversion to other procedure (4.1% vs 7.1%; OR 0.64, P = 0.025), retained stones rate (1.2% vs 7.9%; OR 0.34, P = 0.004), lithiasis recurrence rate (1.8% vs 5.6%, OR 0.32, P = 0.005), operative time [112.28 vs 132.03 minutes; weighted mean difference (WMD) -18.08, P = 0.002], length of hospital stay (4.94 vs 6.62 days; WMD -1.63, P = 0.023), and total charges [standardized mean difference (SMD) -2.76, P = 0.002] were significantly lower in LCBDE+LC. The mortality (0.6% vs 1.1%; OR 0.32, P = 0.117) was similar between the 2 groups. The cumulative meta-analyses indicated the effect sizes of CBD stones clearance rate, perioperative complications, and conversion to other procedure have already stabilized between 2 groups. The updated meta-analysis first confirms that LCBDE+LC is superior to pre-EST+LC both in perioperative safety and short- and long-term postoperative efficacy, which should be considered as optimal treatment choice for cholecysto-choledocholithiasis.

  3. Conditions of the optimum development of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline system regarding up-to-date gas economy. [Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csako, D.; Torok, A.; Vasvari, V.

    1980-03-01

    Hungarian engineers enumerate the factors to consider in the planning, construction, and expansion of gas pipeline systems to obtain an optimum solution, both technically and economically. Future development of pipeline systems in Hungary will place equal emphasis on system quality and network expansion.

  4. Fast in-database cross-matching of high-cadence, high-density source lists with an up-to-date sky model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, B.; Bloemen, S.; Mühleisen, H.; Schellart, P.; van Elteren, A.; Kersten, M.; Groot, P. J.

    2018-04-01

    Coming high-cadence wide-field optical telescopes will image hundreds of thousands of sources per minute. Besides inspecting the near real-time data streams for transient and variability events, the accumulated data archive is a wealthy laboratory for making complementary scientific discoveries. The goal of this work is to optimise column-oriented database techniques to enable the construction of a full-source and light-curve database for large-scale surveys, that is accessible by the astronomical community. We adopted LOFAR's Transients Pipeline as the baseline and modified it to enable the processing of optical images that have much higher source densities. The pipeline adds new source lists to the archive database, while cross-matching them with the known cataloguedsources in order to build a full light-curve archive. We investigated several techniques of indexing and partitioning the largest tables, allowing for faster positional source look-ups in the cross matching algorithms. We monitored all query run times in long-term pipeline runs where we processed a subset of IPHAS data that have image source density peaks over 170,000 per field of view (500,000 deg-2). Our analysis demonstrates that horizontal table partitions of declination widths of one-degree control the query run times. Usage of an index strategy where the partitions are densely sorted according to source declination yields another improvement. Most queries run in sublinear time and a few (< 20%) run in linear time, because of dependencies on input source-list and result-set size. We observed that for this logical database partitioning schema the limiting cadence the pipeline achieved with processing IPHAS data is 25 s.

  5. Clinical Psychology and Cardiovascular Disease: An Up-to-Date Clinical Practice Review for Assessment and Treatment of Anxiety and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Compare, Angelo; Germani, Elena; Proietti, Riccardo; Janeway, David

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present review is underline the association between cardiac diseases and anxiety and depression. In the first part of the article, there is a description of anxiety and depression from the definitions of DSM-IV TR. In the second part, the authors present the available tests and questionnaires to assess depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the last part of the review different types of interventions are reported and compared; available interventions...

  6. QuEChERS, a sample preparation technique that is “catching on”: an up-to-date interview with its inventors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The technique of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) is only 7 years old, yet it is revolutionizing the manner in which multiresidue, multiclass pesticide analysis (and perhaps beyond) is performed. Columnist Ron Majors sits down with inventors Steve Lehotay and Michelangelo An...

  7. Up-to-date concentrations of long-lived artificial radionuclides in the Tom and Ob rivers in the area influenced by discharges from Siberian chemical combine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A.I.; Kryshev, I.I.; Bashkirov, N.I.; Valetova, N.K.; Dunaev, G.E.; Kabanov, A.I.; Katrich, I.Yu; Krutovsky, A.O.; Nikitin, V.A.; Petrenko, G.I.; Polukhina, A.M.; Selivanova, G.V.; Shkuro, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is located in Seversk (formerly known as Tomsk-7) in the Tomsk Region of the Russian Federation. The main contribution of radionuclides in the SCC process water discharged into the Tom River was from the single-pass reactors, now removed from service (the last SCC reactor was shutdown on June 5, 2008). The data on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu and other artificial radionuclides in water, bottom sediments and flood-plain soils of the Tom and Ob rivers from Tomsk to the confluence of the rivers, are presented and discussed. The results of measurements carried out after shutdown of the last SCC single-pass reactor indicated no radiologically significant consequences of SCC activities for the studied water environment compartments. Contemporary activity concentrations of long-lived artificial radionuclides 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in river water were below the intervention levels established by current regulations of the Russian Federation for these radionuclides. The results of 3 H analysis in water from the Tom and Samuska rivers demonstrated no inflow of contaminated formation water to surface water from the sites where liquid radioactive wastes of the SCC were injected below the surface. However, the density of flood-plain soil contamination by long-lived 137 Cs in the area influenced by SCC liquid discharges was higher than regional technogenic background. There were local flood-plain areas contaminated not only by 137 Cs, but also other gamma-emitters, such as 60 Co and 152 Eu.

  8. SODA-IIoT4Factory: Blockchain to keep the A.I. of your Intrusion Detection System up-to-date

    OpenAIRE

    Planchon , Frederic; Costa , Fernand; Nicaise , Vincent; Bouzerna , Nabil

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Co-designed with FPC Ingénierie, SODA-IIoT4Factory offers a secure way to update CyPRES rule engines & cyber security/attack models.CyPRES is an intelligent IDS that strengthens industrial information systems. It learns then verifies the operation and behaviour of the system to the lowest level of detail. It detects the first signs of attacks before damage is incurred.

  9. Human factors involved in perception and action in a natural stereoscopic world: an up-to-date review with guidelines for stereoscopic displays and stereoscopic virtual reality (VR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Bayas, Luis

    2001-06-01

    In stereoscopic perception of a three-dimensional world, binocular disparity might be thought of as the most important cue to 3D depth perception. Nevertheless, in reality there are many other factors involved before the 'final' conscious and subconscious stereoscopic perception, such as luminance, contrast, orientation, color, motion, and figure-ground extraction (pop-out phenomenon). In addition, more complex perceptual factors exist, such as attention and its duration (an equivalent of 'brain zooming') in relation to physiological central vision, In opposition to attention to peripheral vision and the brain 'top-down' information in relation to psychological factors like memory of previous experiences and present emotions. The brain's internal mapping of a pure perceptual world might be different from the internal mapping of a visual-motor space, which represents an 'action-directed perceptual world.' In addition, psychological factors (emotions and fine adjustments) are much more involved in a stereoscopic world than in a flat 2D-world, as well as in a world using peripheral vision (like VR, using a curved perspective representation, and displays, as natural vision does) as opposed to presenting only central vision (bi-macular stereoscopic vision) as in the majority of typical stereoscopic displays. Here is presented the most recent and precise information available about the psycho-neuro- physiological factors involved in the perception of stereoscopic three-dimensional world, with an attempt to give practical, functional, and pertinent guidelines for building more 'natural' stereoscopic displays.

  10. Fatigue associated with newly approved vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer patients: an up-to-date meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Gu, Jian

    2017-10-01

    The fatigue associated with five newly approved vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs) (regorafenib, vandetanib, cabozantinib, lenvatinib, axitinib) is poorly understood. We conducted this systematic review to fully investigate the fatigue associated with these VEGFR-TKIs in cancer patients. Relevant studies of randomized controlled trials in cancer patients treated with the five VEGFR-TKIs were retrieved and a systematic evaluation was conducted. EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed were searched for articles published until March 2017. Thirteen randomized controlled trials and 4395 patients were included. The current analysis suggested that the use of five newly approved VEGFR-TKIs increased the risk of all-grade fatigue (1.43; 95% CI 1.23-1.66; p fatigue (1.97; 95% CI1.44-2.70; p fatigue varied significantly within drug type, but high-grade fatigue did not. The RR of all-grade and high-grade fatigue did not vary significantly according to cancer type, treatment line, and treatment duration. The risk of high-grade fatigue may vary with treatment duration, whereas all-grade fatigue may not. The available data suggest that the use of the five newly approved VEGFR-TKIs is associated with a significantly increased risk of fatigue in cancer patients. Physicians should be aware of this adverse effect and should monitor cancer patients receiving these drugs.

  11. Development of an up-to-date NBC self-aid kit for emergency cases; Entwicklung eines zeitgemaessen ABC-Selbsthilfe-Sets fuer den Katastrophenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michael; Schmiechen, Katharina

    2009-07-01

    In accordance with alterations of the political and economical settings of Central Europe in the last decades, the characteristics of NBC hazards have changed. Since war appears unlikely, possible new scenarios involve pandemics, chemical transport accidents or distribution of CB warfare agents and radioactive materials by terroristic acts. Meeting this situation requires new protection and self aid equipment for the German civilian disaster relief forces. The German government has reacted to these risks by designing personal protection equipment for the civilian voluntary and professional disaster relief forces. The new NBC self aid kit will be part of this effort. The scientific approach of the project consisted of an updated risk analysis, a questionnaire for the professionals and volunteers involved in disaster management, a thorough evaluation of commercially available kits and single components, final design of the new kit including user instructions, and validation of a prototype kit in a disaster relief exercise. Results of the questionnaire stressed the need for a NBC self aid kit fulfilling the demands of easy handling, use of commercially available components, stability of materials, consumption adapted supply and portable size and weight of the complete kit. The evaluation of international NBC equipment could not identify any current NBC self aid kit which satisfies all needs of the German civilian disaster relief forces. The authors therefore compiled a new kit consisting of commercially available components. The newly developed kit was evaluated in a disaster relief exercise.

  12. Fast in-database cross-matching of high-cadence, high-density source lists with an up-to-date sky model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.A. Scheers (Bart); S. Bloemen; H.F. Mühleisen (Hannes); P. Schellart; A. Van Elteren (Arjen); M.L. Kersten (Martin); P.J. Groot

    2018-01-01

    htmlabstract

    Coming high-cadence wide-field optical telescopes will image hundreds of thousands of sources per minute. Besides inspecting the near real-time data streams for transient and variability events, the accumulated data archive is a wealthy laboratory for making complementary scientific

  13. From up to date climate and ocean evidence with updated UN emissions projections, the time is now to recommend an immediate massive effort on CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides further compelling evidence for 'an immediate, massive effort to control CO2 emissions, stopped by mid-century' (Cai, Lenton & Lontzek, 2016). Atmospheric CO2 which is above 405 ppm (actual and trend) still accelerating, despite flat emissions since 2014, with a 2015 >3ppm unprecedented spike in Earth history (A. Glikson),is on the worst case IPCC scenario. Atmospheric methane is increasing faster than its past 20-year rate, almost on the worst-case IPCC AR5 scenario (Global Carbon Project, 2016). Observed effects of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution are increasing faster. This includes long-lived atmospheric GHG concentrations, radiative forcing, surface average warming, Greenland ice sheet melting, Arctic daily sea ice anomaly, ocean heat (and rate of going deeper), ocean acidification, and ocean de-oxygenation. The atmospheric GHG concentration of 485 ppm CO2 eq (WMO, 2015) commits us to 'about 2°C' equilibrium (AR5). 2°C by 2100 would require 'substantial emissions reductions over the next few decades' (AR5). Instead, the May 2016 UN update on 'intended' national emissions targets under the Paris Agreement projects global emissions will be 16% higher by 2030 and the November 2016 International Energy Agency update projects energy-related CO2 eq emissions will be 30% higher by 2030, leading to 'around 2.7°C by 2100 and above 3°C thereafter'. Climate change feedback will be positive this century and multiple large vulnerable sources of amplifying feedback exist (AR5). 'Extensive tree mortality and widespread forest die-back linked to drought and temperature stress have been documented on all vegetated continents' (AR5). 'Recent studies suggest a weakening of the land sink, further amplifying atmospheric growth of CO2' (WMO, 2016). Under all but the best-case IPCC AR5 scenario, surface temperature is projected to increase above 2°C by 2100, which is above 3°C (equilibrium) after 2100, with ocean acidification still increasing at 2100. Ocean heat is increasing under all scenarios at 2100. For all producing regions 'With or without adaptation, negative impacts on average crop yields become likely from the 2030s' (AR5). Crop models do not capture all adverse effects. The climate change of 2030 is practically locked in. NASA NEX downscaled daily maximum temperature projections at 1.5°C are incompatible with today's crop yields in major agricultural regions. Climate-change-related impacts from extreme events are high at 1.5°C (AR5) and add to modeled crop declines. 'Some unique and threatened systems are already at risk from climate change (high confidence)' with 'risk of severe consequences' higher with warming of around 1.5°C (AR5). At today's surface temperature increase, 'risks associated with tipping points become moderate' and 'increase disproportionately' as temperature increases above 1.5°C (AR5). According to mitigation projections, global emissions would decline forthwith for a better than 66% chance of a 2°C limit by 2100 (over 3°C after 2100). Failure to do so would risk the future sustainability of civilization and the human population. The IPCC does not make recommendations so this falls on scientists. By recommending immediate (emergency) massive action on CO2, the science community would make a momentous contribution to the future of humanity.

  14. Ensuring the 50 year life of a fissile material container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; Towne, T.L.

    1997-12-01

    Sandia was presented with an opportunity in 1993 to design containers for the long term storage and transport of fissile material. This program was undertaken at the direction of the US Department of Energy and in cooperation with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory which were tasked with developing the internal fixturing for the contents. The hardware is being supplied by Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, and the packaging will occur at Mason and Hangar Corporation's Pantex Plant. The unique challenge was to design a container that could be sealed with the fissile material contents; and, anytime during the next 50 years, the container could be transported with only the need for the pre-shipment leak test. This required not only a rigorous design capable of meeting the long term storage and transportation requirements, but also resulted in development of a surveillance program to ensure that the container continues to perform as designed over the 50-year life. This paper addresses the design of the container, the testing that was undertaken to demonstrate compliance with US radioactive materials transport regulations, and the surveillance program that has been initiated to ensure the 50-year performance

  15. [Ensure - complete and balanced nutrition, convenient on work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurenkov, A V; Iuriatin, A A

    2013-01-01

    The work conditions often may compromise a company ability to supply their employees with adequate, hot meals. For heavy labor workers and some office employees it is important to restore energy and nutrients with food, balanced in nutrients. The lack of adequate nutritive support can give a negative impact on different organs functions. One of the main principles of healthy nutrition is - diet must be balanced in nutrients. Which is easy to say, but difficult to implement, especially on some industries. Complete and balanced liquid and ready-to-use nutrition is new trend in nutrition of healthy people who cannot consume optimal diet, and in people with the risk of nutrient deficiencies. One-two packs of Ensure daily can significantly improve a worker ration. 2 and more packs could serve as a real complete and balanced lunch (>or=780 kcal). Also Ensure is easy to store and to deliver in distant places of work and can be recommended for use as a convenient, complete and balanced nutrition on work.

  16. THE ROLE OF MORTGAGE CREDIT IN ENSURING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Garipova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision of the important social task - ensuring the availability of housing for the mass of the population of the country, on the one hand, allowed to launch investment, savings, financial and credit mechanisms for ensuring economic growth of the Russian economy on the other. Despite the high degree of sophistication in the scientific literature of the organization of mortgage lending system, a study of its impact on economic growth factors in the scientific literature clearly insufficient. The original article was the theory of economic growth, which allowed on the basis of research of interaction of demand for residential property, it deals with the housing mortgage credit to justify a conclusion about its importance not only for solution of social tasks, availability of housing, but also a significant impact on the demand and supply on the residential property market. Based on the analysis of statistical data for the period from 2006 to 2012, and their correlation analysis carried out research of factors of development of housing markets and mortgage lending, namely incomes, housing prices, interest rates on loans, «channel lending conditions, the terms of banking mortgage.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  17. Innovations as a Factor for Ensuring Economic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim SANDU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of development of the competitive environment, one of the main ways to solve economic, social and environmental problems is to use the latest achievements of science and technology. Each enterprise seeks to ensure that economic growth is intense, i.e. to be a consequence of the application of more sophisticated factors of production and technology. The prerequisite for intensive growth is the use of innovative strategy in the practical activities of enterprises. The end result of innovations is the materialization and industrial development of innovation, the idea of which can be the scientific and technical activity, and marketing research to identify unmet needs. The innovations are an effective defensive reaction of the firm to the emerging threats of losing market place, constant pressure from competitors, the challenge of new technologies, shortening the life of products, legislative restrictions and changing the market situation. In the offensive version, the innovation is a mean of exploiting new opportunities to preserve or gain a competitive advantage. In the long term aspect, the company has no choice but to pursue an innovation policy, which is the only source of lasting success. The main objective of researching the innovation activity of any organization is to ensure competitiveness in market conditions in order to identify risk factors and ways to overcome them.

  18. Investment-innovation mechanism of ensuring competitiveness of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozyk Vasyl V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of formation of the investment-innovation mechanism of ensuring competitiveness of industrial enterprises. It identifies the essence, composition, goals and means of functioning of this mechanism. It establishes sequence of the process of functioning of the investment-innovation mechanism of ensuring competitiveness of economic subjects. It marks out such particular types of this mechanism: mechanism of renovation of fixed assets of an enterprise, mechanism of formation of channels and network of sales of enterprise products, mechanism of expansion of production capacity of the enterprise on manufacture of traditional types of products, mechanism of introduction of new progressive production processes, mechanism of development and production of innovation products, and mechanism of reduction of the level of risk of investment activity of the enterprise. The article conducts modelling of the process of development and realisation of investment solutions on introduction of progressive technologies of manufacture of products at the enterprise. It offers a method of selection of the most competitive variant of technology of manufacture of products depending on the level of quality and also specific current capital outlays for their manufacture.

  19. FACTOR IN ENSURING A BALANCED BUDGET NORTHERN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Anatol’evna Naidenova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main tools of sustainable development of the country as a whole and its individual regions are federal and regional budgets. At the same time a prerequisite for the use of this tool is its equilibrium. It is the basic principle of a responsible fiscal policy. The article describes the factors to equilibrium. on the budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation. The measures to ensure budgetary equilibrium in the northern regions of the Russian Federation are offered.The purpose of the article. Substantiating the measures to balance the budgets of the northern Russian Federation subjects on the basis of analysis of the factors that directly affect the mobilization of potential tax revenues to regional budgets.Method and methodology of work. Theoretical and empirical methods, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction.Results of the study. To ensure factors unbalanced budgets northern territories. The proposals the balance of revenues and expenditures of the regional budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation are submitted.Application area. Finance authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation.

  20. Scientific Research & Subsistence: Protocols to Ensure Co-Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, C.; Holman, A.; DeMaster, D.

    2017-12-01

    Commercial, industrial, and research interests in the Arctic are expanding rapidly. Potentials are numerous and exciting, giving rise to the need for guidelines to ensure interactions among waterway users do not conflict. Of particular concern is the potential for adverse impacts to U.S. Arctic coastal communities that rely on living marine resources for nutritional and cultural health, through subsistence hunts from small craft, ice edges, and shore. Recent events raised concerns over research surveys potentially interfering with subsistence hunts in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas. Incidents led to calls by Native Alaskan communities to restrict science activities with a mixed response from the scientific community (i.e., some sympathetic, some defensive). With a common goal of wanting to mitigate this potential interaction, Federal agencies made a commitment in the National Strategy for the Arctic Region to coordinate and consult with Alaska Natives and also to pursue responsible Arctic stewardship, with understanding through scientific research and traditional knowledge. The effort to create a "Standard of Care" for research surveys incorporates years of experience by subsistence hunters working to mitigate impacts of other anthropogenic activities in the region, as well as best practices by many in the research community. The protocols are designed to ensure potential conflicts between the scientific research community and subsistence hunters are avoided and to encourage mutual assistance and collaboration between researchers and hunters. The guidelines focus on enhancing communication between researchers and subsistence hunters before, during, and after research occurs. The best management practices outlined in the Standard of Care assist those overseeing and funding scientific research in making decisions about how best to accomplish the goals of the research while ensuring protection of the Alaska subsistence lifestyle. These protocols could also be

  1. Distributed Design of a Central Service to Ensure Deterministic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ali Jokhio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A central authentication service to EPC (Electronic Product Code system architecture is proposed in our previous work. A challenge for a central service always arises that how it can ensure a certain level of delay while processing emergent data. The increasing data in the EPC system architecture is tags data. Therefore, authenticating increasing number of tag in the central authentication service with a deterministic time response is investigated and a distributed authentication service is designed in a layered approach. A distributed design of tag searching services in SOA (Service Oriented Architecture style is also presented. Using the SOA architectural style a self-adaptive authentication service over Cloud is also proposed for the central authentication service, that may also be extended for other applications.

  2. Standardization by ISO to Ensure the Sustainability of Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A.; Lazare, B.; Oltrogge, D.; Stokes, H.

    2013-08-01

    The ISO / Technical Committee 20 / Sub-committee 14 develops debris-related standards and technical reports to mitigate debris and help ensure mission and space sustainability. While UN Guidelines and the IADC Guidelines encourage national governments and agencies to promote debris mitigation design and operation, the ISO standards will help the global space industry promote and sustain its space-related business. In this paper the scope and status of each ISO standard is discussed within an overall framework. A comparison with international guidelines is also provided to demonstrate the level of consistency. Finally, as a case study, the ISO standards are applied to a CubeSat mission, thus demonstrating their usability on a relatively recent and popular class of satellite.

  3. Ensuring the safety of nuclear facilities located in large cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazantsev, E.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Bylkin, B.K.; Zverkov, Yu.A.

    2002-01-01

    The problems of ensuring the safety of nuclear facilities and other facilities representing a radiation hazard (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear facilities') which are located in large cities are considered in the light of the experience with the 'Kurchatov Institute' Russian Research Centre. The accumulation of substantial quantities of spent nuclear fuel and radwaste at the Centre was an inevitable consequence of the military and civilian nuclear research programmes which started there in 1943. A comprehensive programme has been developed for reducing the impact of ionizing radiation on the Centre's personnel, the population living near the Centre and the local environment. The authors describe the basic elements of a programme for decommissioning reactor facilities and eliminating spent fuel and radwaste storage sites and also describe how the programme is progressing. (author)

  4. Creative payment strategy helps ensure a future for teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancil, D R; Shroyer, A L

    1998-11-01

    The Colorado Medicaid Program in years past relied on disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payment programs to increase access to hospital care for Colorado citizens, ensure the future financial viability of key safety-net hospitals, and partially offset the state's cost of funding the Medicaid program. The options to finance Medicaid care using DSH payments, however, recently have been severely limited by legislative and regulatory changes. Between 1991 and 1997, a creative Medicaid refinancing strategy called the major teaching hospital (MTH) payment program enabled $131 million in net payments to be distributed to the two major teaching hospitals in Colorado to provide enhanced funding related to their teaching programs and to address the ever-expanding healthcare needs of their low-income patients. This new Medicaid payment mechanism brought the state $69.5 million in Federal funding that otherwise would not have been received.

  5. Safety and excellence--is regulation ensuring their achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, R.J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Canada has a large, vigorous nuclear industry staffed by competent people, and a vigourous, independent regulatory agency similarly staffed. Nevertheless, there have been many signs over the last few years that the level of operating and engineering excellence needed to ensure a high level of safety was not being achieved in some key sections of the industry. Years of successful, accident-free operation - a hallmark of Canadian nuclear generating stations - are not by themselves a proof of adequate safety. Signs that the level of excellence is not being met in the nuclear reactor business have been seen, for example, in reviews of significant events, in the standard of generating documentation, and in the time taken to implement necessary design modifications. In the radioisotope business, the number of violations of licence conditions has been growing steadily, and there are an unacceptable number of workers exceeding regulatory dose limits. While many of these violations are minor in themselves, their prevalence suggests a degree of complacency has been developing which will be an enemy of excellence. Equally, the level of review, assessment, inspection and confirmatory research carried out in the past by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) has been clearly inadequate. The paper discusses these and other examples of a lack of excellence, particularly in organization and management within its licensees and its effect on safety,. and identifies some of the performance indicators used. The paper also identifies some of the actions that are being taken by the AECB and the licensees to ensure an adequate level of safety is being maintained. The AECB is increasing, for example, its frequency of inspections in several industrial sectors and increasing its depth of safety review of nuclear generating stations

  6. Unlicensed pharmaceutical preparations for clinical patient care: Ensuring safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Sofieke; de Jong, Maria G H; Le Brun, Paul P H; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Schimmel, Kirsten J M

    2018-01-01

    Most medicinal products dispensed to patients have marketing authorization (MA) to ensure high quality of the product, safety, and efficacy. However, in daily practice, to treat patients adequately, there is a medical need for drugs that do not hold MA. To meet this medical need, medicinal products are used in clinical care without MA (unlicensed), such as products prepared by (local) pharmacies: the pharmaceutical preparations. Three types of pharmaceutical preparations are distinguished: (i) reconstitution in excess of summary of product characteristics; (ii) adaptation of a licensed medicinal product (outside its official labeling); (iii) medicinal products from an active pharmaceutical ingredient. Although unlicensed, patients may expect the same quality for these unlicensed pharmaceutical preparations as for the licensed medicinal products. To assure this quality, a proper risk-benefit assessment and proper documentation in (centralized) patient registries and linking to a national pharmacovigilance database should be in place. Based on a risk assessment matrix, requirements for quality assurance can be determined, which has impact on the level of documentation of a pharmaceutical preparation. In this paper, the approach for good documentation including quality assurance and benefit-risk assessment will be discussed and possibilities for patient registries are described to make these crucial preparations available for regular patient care. KEY POINTS Ensuring pharmaceutical quality and performing a proper benefit-risk assessment will guarantee safe use of pharmaceutical preparations. Good documentation of (ultra-)orphan treatments can be collected in centralized patient registries and should be combined with existing information in (inter)national databases and self-reflection of patients. Linking patient registries to a centralized database for adverse drug events is highly recommended as it increases safety control of the (ultra) orphan pharmaceutical

  7. Methodical Support of Using of Up-to-Date Recruiting Methods at the Machine-Building Enterprises Методическое обеспечение использования современных методов подбора персонала на машиностроительных предприятиях

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilyaeva Irina Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodical approach for assessment of recruiting state using the integral index of recruiting quality, and methodical approach for choice of recruiting methods using factor analysis are proposed in the article. The methodical approach for using up-to-date recruiting methods is proposed.В статье предложены методические подходы к оценке состояния рекрутинга персонала с помощью введения интегрального показателя качества рекрутинга персонала и выбора методов подбора персонала на стадии оценивания кандидатов с помощью факторного анализа. Предложен методический поход по использованию современных методов подбора персонала.

  8. Radiation processing of leafy vegetables to ensure their microbial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khade, H.D.; Jain, M.P.; Satyendra, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Leafy vegetables which are consumed in raw form such as spinach, coriander and mint were found to be heavily burdened with microbial load including presumptive coliform, an indicator of pathogenic contaminations. Total aerobic plate counts in fresh spinach, coriander and mint samples collected from different location of Mumbai and nearby cities were found to be in the order of ∼ 10 7 to ∼ 10 8 CFU/g. In these samples yeast and mould count was in the order of ∼10 5 CFU/g and presumptive coliform in the order of ∼ 10 4 to ∼10 5 CFU/g. As per USFDA coliform load in the food commodity should be nil. The finding thus indicates that these fresh vegetables are not safe for raw consumption. Hence there is utmost need of process which can ensure the safety by reducing their microbial load below permissible level (<10 4 CFU/gm) and coliform load to nil without affecting the appearance and quality of such produce. In this study gamma radiation was used for hygienization of leafy vegetables. The sample were first cleaned in potable water followed by sodium hypochlorite wash (200 ppm for 20 min), air dried, packed in styrofoam based tray, wrapped with cling film and radiation processed at 1 to 2.5 kGy and stored at 4 and 10℃ . Post irradiation microbiological analysis of radiation processed samples was carried out at in 2 kGy irradiated samples total plate count was below ∼10 3 CFU/g and presumptive coliform count was below detectable level. Yeast and mould count in these samples also reduced to below ∼ 10 3 CFU/g. Based on the study the following combination treatment can be given to raw leafy vegetables, washing with potable water (5 min) → sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm 20 min) wash → Air drying → Packaging in styrofoam based tray and wrapping with cling film → Irradiation at 2 kGy → storage at 4℃ . Besides ensuring safety the treatment also resulted in increased shelf life extension of the commodities up to 20 days. (author)

  9. Ensuring the sustainability of EDF power plant operating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, J.

    2009-01-01

    The life extension of the power plants is considered whereas EDF must face an acceleration of the retirement rates due to the fact that the first generations of the baby-boom are ageing 60 years, now. Between 2000 and 2006, EDF gradually set up a system of management of competencies. On the one hand, EDF moved from logic of relatively standardized training to a more individualized logic of acquisition of competencies. In addition, the objective of maintenance of internat competencies defined in 2000 was supplemented in 2003 by a prospective dimension intended to anticipate the departures in inactivity. Then in 2006 competencies of sub-contractors were taken into account. During this period I.R.S.N. has assessed 3 times this system of management. This article briefly presents the principal lessons driven from these evaluations. It accounts for the undeniable effort made by EDF to ensure the maintenance of its competencies. However, it stresses that a high level of vigilance is still needed because it is not stabilized already. (author)

  10. Robust mitotic entry is ensured by a latching switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Tuck

    2013-07-01

    Cell cycle events are driven by Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs and by their counter-acting phosphatases. Activation of the Cdk1:Cyclin B complex during mitotic entry is controlled by the Wee1/Myt1 inhibitory kinases and by Cdc25 activatory phosphatase, which are themselves regulated by Cdk1:Cyclin B within two positive circuits. Impairing these two feedbacks with chemical inhibitors induces a transient entry into M phase referred to as mitotic collapse. The pathology of mitotic collapse reveals that the positive circuits play a significant role in maintaining the M phase state. To better understand the function of these feedback loops during G2/M transition, we propose a simple model for mitotic entry in mammalian cells including spatial control over Greatwall kinase phosphorylation. After parameter calibration, the model is able to recapture the complex and non-intuitive molecular dynamics reported by Potapova et al. (Potapova et al., 2011. Moreover, it predicts the temporal patterns of other mitotic regulators which have not yet been experimentally tested and suggests a general design principle of cell cycle control: latching switches buffer the cellular stresses which accompany cell cycle processes to ensure that the transitions are smooth and robust.

  11. Robust mitotic entry is ensured by a latching switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Chloe; Zhang, Tongli; Potapova, Tamara; Malumbres, Marcos; Novák, Béla

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle events are driven by Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and by their counter-acting phosphatases. Activation of the Cdk1:Cyclin B complex during mitotic entry is controlled by the Wee1/Myt1 inhibitory kinases and by Cdc25 activatory phosphatase, which are themselves regulated by Cdk1:Cyclin B within two positive circuits. Impairing these two feedbacks with chemical inhibitors induces a transient entry into M phase referred to as mitotic collapse. The pathology of mitotic collapse reveals that the positive circuits play a significant role in maintaining the M phase state. To better understand the function of these feedback loops during G2/M transition, we propose a simple model for mitotic entry in mammalian cells including spatial control over Greatwall kinase phosphorylation. After parameter calibration, the model is able to recapture the complex and non-intuitive molecular dynamics reported by Potapova et al. (Potapova et al., 2011). Moreover, it predicts the temporal patterns of other mitotic regulators which have not yet been experimentally tested and suggests a general design principle of cell cycle control: latching switches buffer the cellular stresses which accompany cell cycle processes to ensure that the transitions are smooth and robust.

  12. Ensuring quality in qualitative inquiry: using key concepts as guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Frances Campbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of qualitative scientific inquiry employs a fast-growing variety of approaches, whose traditions, procedures, and structures vary, depending on the type of study design and methodology (i.e., phenomenological, ethnographic, grounded theory, case study, action research, etc.. With the interpretive approach, researchers do not utilize the same measures of validity used in positivist approaches to scientific inquiry, since there is "...no one standard or accepted structure as one typically finds in quantitative research" (Creswell, 2007. With the absence of a single standard, how, then, is it possible for qualitative researchers to know whether or not their study was done with rigor, that it has validity, that it is ready to submit to their peers? The research literature is sprinkled with references to quality in qualitative inquiry, which helps to construe a study's validity. Markula (2008 suggests that we validate our study's findings by assuring readers that it was done "in the best possible way." While each research tradition has its own set of criteria for judging quality, we present here general concepts drawn from the literature. We hope this article will provide a framework from which qualitative researchers can judge their work before submitting it to their peers¸ one which will help ensure that their study was done "in the best possible way."

  13. Failure assessment techniques to ensure shipping container integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, P.

    1986-02-01

    This report discusses several methodologies which may be used to ensure the structural integrity of containment systems to be used for the transport and storage of high-level radioactive substances. For economic reasons, shipping containers constructed of ferritic materials are being considered for manufacture by vendors in the US and Europe. Ferritic show an inherent transition from a ductile, high energy failure mode to a brittle, low energy fracture mode with decreasing temperature. Therefore, formal consideration of means by which to avoid unstable brittle fracture is necessary prior to the licensing of ferritic casks. It is suggested that failure of a shipping container wall be defined as occurring when a flaw extends through the outer wall of the containment system. Crack initiation which may lead to unstable brittle crack growth should therefore be prevented. It is suggested that a fundamental linear elastic fracture mechanics (lefm) approach be adopted on a case-by-case basis, applied perhaps by means of appropriate modifications to ASMA Section III or Section XI. A lefm analysis requires information concerning service temperatures, loading rates, flaw sizes, and applied stresses. Tentative judgments regarding these parameters for typical shipping containers have been made

  14. Ensuring microbiological safety of commercial eggs by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A; Swailam, H.M.; Abd El-Rahim, E.A.; Shallan, M.A; Aly, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Egg shell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh eggs. In this work, fifteen fresh eggs samples of each (balady, white and brown eggs) were collected from different local supermarkets to evaluate their microbiological quality. The results indicated that balady eggs were higher in microbial population in comparison with the two other varieties. Salmonella spp. was detected in 9 (60%) samples of balady eggs. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 0,2,3 and 4 kGy on microbiological quality of balady eggs during storage at 4± 1 deg c for 35 days as well as on total cholesterol , ph, and total carotenoids contents were also investigated. The results showed that irradiation at 3 kGy reduced total aerobic bacterial counts. Whereas completely eliminated coliform bacteria, E.coli and salmonella spp. Total cholesterol and total carotenoids were decreased in yolk egg. irradiation dose of 3 kGy were efficient and sufficient for ensuring safety, maintain quality and extend shelf-life of balady eggs

  15. Ensuring Microbiological Safety of Fresh Eggs by Using Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A. A.; Swailam, H.M.; Aly, W. F.

    2008-01-01

    Egg shell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh eggs. In this work, fifteen fresh eggs samples of each (Balady, White and Brown eggs) were collected from different local supermarkets to evaluate their microbiological quality. The results indicated that Balady eggs were higher in microbial population in comparison with the two other varieties. Salmonella spp. was detected in 9 (60%) samples of Balady eggs. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy on microbiological quality of Balady eggs during storage at 4±1 degree C for 35 days was studied. The effects of irradiation and storage on total cholesterol, and total carotenoids contents in Balady eggs were also investigated. The results showed that irradiation at 3 kGy reduced total aerobic bacterial counts. Coliform bacteria, E. coli and Salmonella spp. were completely eliminated. Total cholesterol and total carotenoids were decreased in yolk egg as a result of irradiation. Treated Balady eggs with irradiation dose of 3 kGy were efficient and sufficient for ensuring safety, maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  16. Nuclear safeguards: power tool for ensuring nuclear safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative measurement of fissile nuclear materials through independent measurements is one of the cornerstones of the Nuclear Material Accounting and Control (NUMAC) edifice. The verification of the accountancy also represents one of the key elements of international nuclear materials Safeguards. The very basis of NUMAC is to ensure safeguarding nuclear material and to state with confidence, “no significant amount of nuclear material has been withdrawn from its intended civilian use.” Thus, materials accounting systems are designed to account for or keep track of the amounts and locations of sensitive nuclear materials by periodic measurements. The purpose of this activity is to detect missing items (gross defects). A variety of C/S techniques are used, primarily optical surveillance and sealing. These measures serve to back up nuclear material accountancy by providing means by which access to nuclear material can be monitored. Unattended monitoring is a special mode of application of NDA or C/S techniques, or a combination of these, that operates for extended periods of time. The complexity and diversity of facilities containing safeguarded nuclear material require a correspondingly diverse set of verification techniques and equipment. The equipment and techniques used in safeguards are briefly described in this talk

  17. Future of Assurance: Ensuring that a System is Trustworthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Verbauwhede, Ingrid; Vishik, Claire

    Significant efforts are put in defining and implementing strong security measures for all components of the comput-ing environment. It is equally important to be able to evaluate the strength and robustness of these measures and establish trust among the components of the computing environment based on parameters and attributes of these elements and best practices associated with their production and deployment. Today the inventory of techniques used for security assurance and to establish trust -- audit, security-conscious development process, cryptographic components, external evaluation - is somewhat limited. These methods have their indisputable strengths and have contributed significantly to the advancement in the area of security assurance. However, shorter product and tech-nology development cycles and the sheer complexity of modern digital systems and processes have begun to decrease the efficiency of these techniques. Moreover, these approaches and technologies address only some aspects of security assurance and, for the most part, evaluate assurance in a general design rather than an instance of a product. Additionally, various components of the computing environment participating in the same processes enjoy different levels of security assurance, making it difficult to ensure adequate levels of protection end-to-end. Finally, most evaluation methodologies rely on the knowledge and skill of the evaluators, making reliable assessments of trustworthiness of a system even harder to achieve. The paper outlines some issues in security assurance that apply across the board, with the focus on the trustworthiness and authenticity of hardware components and evaluates current approaches to assurance.

  18. Ensuring the operational safety of finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Finnish nuclear energy programme has been successful both from the safety and economical point of view. These achievements are based on different factors which are discussed in the paper. Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) has specified the technical requirements and procedures to be followed in the design, construction, commissioning and operation of NPPs in a series of guides. The guides are quite demanding and latest results of safety research and technical development are taken into account. Regulatory supervision of Finnish NPPs is comprehensive. As an example of this the regulatory inspection program for operational phase is presented. An important way to ensure operational safety of a NPP is to define a set of limits and conditions to identify limiting safety envelope for plant operation. Practices in Finland are reviewed in the paper. The strategy of Defence in Depth is amongst the fundamental principles of nuclear safety. Two corollary principles of defence of depth are accident prevention and accident mitigation. Means used in following these principles are discussed. (author)

  19. WISE recommendations to ensure the safety of injections in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, K

    2012-01-01

    Injections and fingersticks administered to patients with diabetes in health care settings present a risk of blood exposure to the injector as well as other workers in potential contact with sharps. Such exposures could lead to transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis and HIV. A recent EU Directive requires that where such risks have been identified, processes and devices must be put in place to reduce or eliminate the risk. The aim of this paper is to provide formal guidelines on the application of this Directive to diabetes care settings. These evidence-based recommendations were written and vetted by a large group of international safety experts. A systematic literature search was conducted for all peer-reviewed studies and publications which bear on sharps safety in diabetes. Initially a group of experts reviewed this literature and drafted the recommendations. These were then presented for review, debate and revision to 57 experts from 14 countries at the WISE workshop in October, 2011. After the WISE meeting, the revised Recommendations were circulated electronically to attendees on three occasions, each time in a new iteration with revisions. Each recommendation was graded by the weight it should have in daily practice and by its degree of support in the medical literature. The topics covered include Risks of Sharps Injury and Muco-cutaneous Exposure, The EU Directive, Device Implications, Injection Technique Implications, Education and Training (Creating a "Safety Culture"), Value, Awareness and Responsibility. These safety recommendations provide practical guidance and fill an important gap in diabetes management. If followed, they should help ensure safe, effective and largely injury-free injections and fingersticks. They will serve as the roadmap for applying the new EU Directive to diabetes care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of alloimmunization to ensure safer transfusion practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sood

    2013-01-01

    significant role in improving blood safety. Centers that have incorporated antibody screen test and identification have ensured safe transfusion. Identified patients should be flagged in a database and information shared. Such patients can be given carry-on cards and educated about the names of the identified antibodies. Full red cell phenotyping of individuals, patients and donors, can be feasibility.

  1. Ensuring Credit to Data Creators: A Case Study for Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boler, F. M.; Gorman, A.

    2011-12-01

    facilitate citation for the purpose of ensuring credit to the data creators. UNAVCO's archiving and metadata management systems are generally well-suited to assigning and maintaining DOIs for two styles of logical collections of data: campaigns, which are spatially and temporally well-defined; and stations, which represent ongoing collection at a single spatial position at the Earth's surface. These two styles form the basis for implementing approximately 3,000 DOIs that can encompass the current holdings in the UNAVCO Archive. In addition, aggregations of DOIs into a superset DOI is advantageous for numerous cases where groupings of stations are naturally used in research studies. There are about 100 such natural collections of stations. However, research using GNSS data can also utilize several hundred or more stations in unique combinations, where tallying the individual DOIs within a reference list is cumbersome. We are grappling with the complexities that inevitably crop up when assigning DOIs, including subsetting, versioning, and aggregating. We also foresee the need for mechanisms for users to go beyond our predefined collections and/or aggregations to define their own ad-hoc collections. Our goal is to create a system for DOI assignment and utilization that succeeds in facilitating data citation within our community of geodesy scientists.

  2. Global Uranium Supply Ensured for Long Term, New Report Shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Uranium resources and production are on the rise with the security of uranium supply ensured for the long term, according to a new report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand, commonly referred to as the ''Red Book'', shows that total identified uranium resources have grown 12.5% since 2008. However, the costs of production have also increased, leading to reductions in lower cost category resources. These figures, which reflect the situation as of 1 January 2011, mean that total identified resources are sufficient for over 100 years of supply based on current requirements. Global uranium mine production increased by over 25% between 2008 and 2010 because of significantly increased production in Kazakhstan, currently the world's leading producer. The increased resource base has been achieved thanks to a 22% increase in uranium exploration and mine development expenditures between 2008 and 2010, which in 2010 totalled over $2 billion. Demand for uranium is expected to continue to rise for the foreseeable future. Although the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident has affected nuclear power projects and policies in some countries, nuclear power remains a key part of the global energy mix. Several governments have plans for new nuclear power plant construction, with the strongest expansion expected in China, India, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation. The speed and magnitude of growth in generating capacity elsewhere is still to be determined. By the year 2035, according to the joint NEA-IAEA Secretariat, world nuclear electricity generating capacity is projected to grow from 375 GWe net (at the end of 2010) to between 540 GWe net in the low demand case and 746 GWe net in the high demand case, increases of 44% and 99% respectively. Accordingly, world annual reactor-related uranium requirements are projected to rise from 63 875 tonnes of uranium metal

  3. Actions needed to ensure a reliable supply of 99Mo and 99mTc?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Peykov, P.

    2014-01-01

    The NEA established the High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) to examine the causes of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc supply shortages in 2009. It undertook an economic analysis and determined that lack of economic sustainability in producing reactors was the major cause of the shortages. From that it developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. Since then it has looked at the way the supply chain has implemented these policy principles through initiating a self-assessment process, which revealed uneven application and lack of adherence to the key principle of full cost recovery. As part of the analysis, the NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo/ 99 mTc supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of reduced supply and underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally-consistent manner. This current paper presents the preliminary results from an updated 99 Mo supply and demand forecast, focusing on the potentially critical 2015-2020 period, when two major 99 Mo producers (the NRU reactor in Canada and the OSIRIS reactor in France) are scheduled to cease 99 Mo irradiations. It concludes with a review of the effectiveness of the actions taken to date and indicates where further action is needed. (author)

  4. 25 CFR 39.409 - How does the OIEP Director ensure accountability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the OIEP Director ensure accountability? 39.409... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Accountability § 39.409 How does the OIEP Director ensure accountability? (a) The Director of OIEP must ensure accountability in student counts and student transportation by doing all of the...

  5. Ensuring Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses why building commissioning for education institutions is needed. School facilities owners and operators should confirm whether their building systems are performing as expected. The more comprehensive the confirmation process, the greater opportunity there is for reducing operations and maintenance costs, and improving…

  6. Development of the innovative food industry in the conditions of ensuring food security

    OpenAIRE

    Berdiev S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to ensure the safety of food and through the development of innovative food industry and learning to increase the production of food. Work to ensure food security of the Republic of Uzbekistan has its own characteristics and analysis of trends and problems identified in this area. As well as ensuring the safety of food and food industry offer based on the priority directions of scientific and practical recommendations developed.

  7. Technical Education as a Tool for Ensuring Sustainable Development: A Case of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gagan Deep; Uppal, Raminder Singh; Mahendru, Mandeep

    2016-01-01

    This paper notes that education needs to essentially lead to sustainable development serving two-fold purpose--eradicating the problems of unemployment and poverty; and ensuring equitable distribution of wealth while ensuring the right understanding leading to a peaceful, prosperous and developed world. In its current state, technical education…

  8. The Essence and Phases of the Comprehensive System of Ensuring the Economic Security of Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianioglo, Alina; Polajeva, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    In present conditions of instability of the environment, entrepreneurs assume the most of the business risks. In this regard, problems of ensuring the economic security become particularly important. The comprehensive system of ensuring the economic security of enterprise was worked out and the results are presented in the article. This system is…

  9. 34 CFR 602.18 - Ensuring consistency in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring consistency in decision-making. 602.18 Section... relies on for making accrediting decisions is accurate; and (e) Provides the institution or program with... Criteria for Recognition Required Standards and Their Application § 602.18 Ensuring consistency in decision...

  10. 28 CFR 97.20 - Standards to ensure the safety of violent prisoners during transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... physical safety of the prisoners during transport, including a first-aid kit and employees who are... transportation, where practicable; (f) Policies, practices, and procedures are in effect to ensure that female..., practices, and procedures are in effect to ensure that female guards are on duty to supervise the...

  11. Outsourcing your medical practice call center: how to choose a vendor to ensure regulatory compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Medical practices receive hundreds if not thousands of calls every week from patients, payers, pharmacies, and others. Outsourcing call centers can be a smart move to improve efficiency, lower costs, improve customer care, ensure proper payer management, and ensure regulatory compliance. This article discusses how to know when it's time to move to an outsourced call center, the benefits of making the move, how to choose the right call center, and how to make the transition. It also provides tips on how to manage the call center to ensure the objectives are being met.

  12. Russian standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birbraer, A N [St. Petersburg Research and Design Institute Atomenergoproject, St. Petersburt (Russian Federation)

    1993-07-01

    Russian Standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions are described. The main attention is paid to the seismic design requirements. Explosions, aircraft impact, and tornado are briefly examined too (author)

  13. Russian standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birbraer, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Russian Standards and design practice of ensuring NPP reliability under severe external loading conditions are described. The main attention is paid to the seismic design requirements. Explosions, aircraft impact, and tornado are briefly examined too (author)

  14. Hospitality industry veteran and Hampton Roads Center team up to present workshop on ensuring success

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2008-01-01

    Hospitality industry veteran Howard Feiertag is hosting a workshop aimed at novice and experienced hotel sales managers, directors and general managers looking for ways to reinvigorate their team's efforts and ensuring success during economic shifts.

  15. Application of modern analytical techniques to ensure seafood safety and authenticity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez, Iciar; James, David; Loréal, Henri

    2005-01-01

    .... The second part deals with methods to ensure seafood authenticity. One section of this report is dedicated to current legislation related to traceability and labelling in the United States of America and Europe...

  16. The Inadequacy of Existing Far Provisions to Ensure Contractor Environmental Compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacDonald, Edward

    1997-01-01

    This thesis focuses on situations where the obligation is on the contractor, and examines the existing FAR provisions and clauses to explore whether they are adequate to ensure government contractor...

  17. Nuclear power plants. Guidelines to ensure quality of collected data on reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This international standard lays down guidelines to be followed in the collection of data relative to nuclear power plants so as to ensure the reliability and completeness of the data and its insertion in a computerized system

  18. Algorithm To Ensure And Enforce Brute-Force Attack-Resilient Password In Routers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Farik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Issues of weak login passwords arising from default passwords in wired and wireless routers has been a concern for more than a decade. In this research we develop and test an algorithm to ensure and enforce passwords in routers that are resistant to brute-force attack. A comparative analysis is performed to show the improved strengths of passwords derived via this algorithm. Implementation of this algorithm in routers will ensure setup of brute-force attack resistant passwords.

  19. Algorithm To Ensure And Enforce Brute-Force Attack-Resilient Password In Routers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Farik; ABM Shawkat Ali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Issues of weak login passwords arising from default passwords in wired and wireless routers has been a concern for more than a decade. In this research we develop and test an algorithm to ensure and enforce passwords in routers that are resistant to brute-force attack. A comparative analysis is performed to show the improved strengths of passwords derived via this algorithm. Implementation of this algorithm in routers will ensure setup of brute-force attack resistant passwords.

  20. In times of change: How distance managers can ensure employees’ wellbeing and organizational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe; Ipsen, Christine

    2017-01-01

    . The analysis of distance managers’ practices showed that they used both activities and capabilities in order to ensure employee wellbeing and organizational performance. The activities included planning, newsletters, and surveys, and the capabilities were to listen, create and show trust, and give authority...... to the employees. Contrary to previous findings on motivating of knowledge workers, our findings show that motivation, surprisingly, is ensured when focusing on the basic needs such as working conditions and belongingness....

  1. Hot vacuum outgassing to ensure low hydrogen content in MOX fuel pellets for thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.; Nair, M.R.; Kumar, Arun

    1983-01-01

    Hot vacuum outgassing treatment to ensure low hydrogen content in Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) pellets for thermal reactors has been described. Hypostoichiometric sintered MOX pellets retain more hydrogen than UO 2 pellets. The hydrogen content further increases with the addition of admixed lubricant and pore formers. However, low hydrogen content in the MOX pellets can be ensured by a hot vacuum outgassing treatment at a temperature between 773K to 823K for 2 hrs. (author)

  2. Problems of Ensuring Complex Business Security in the Conditions of Modern Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy Petrovich Sterkhov

    2015-01-01

    From the viewpoint of ensuring complex business security, the relevance of the present work is associated with the rationale of multilevel hierarchical approach to the classification of security threats in the age of globalization. The specificity of the threats specific to one or another level of the economy, helps to better understand and consequently to build an effective system of ensuring complex business security. For each of the nine hierarchical levels of the economy the author identi...

  3. Ensuring the security and availability of a hospital wireless LAN system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Eisuke; Kudou, Takato; Tsumoto, Shusaku

    2013-01-01

    Wireless technologies as part of the data communication infrastructure of modern hospitals are being rapidly introduced. Even though there are concerns about problems associated with wireless communication security, the demand is remarkably large. Herein we discuss security countermeasures that must be taken and issues concerning availability that must be considered to ensure safe hospital/business use of wireless LAN systems, referring to the procedures introduced at a university hospital. Security countermeasures differ according to their purpose, such as preventing illegal use or ensuring availability, both of which are discussed. The main focus of the availability discussion is on signal reach, electromagnetic noise elimination, and maintaining power supply to the network apparatus. It is our hope that this information will assist others in their efforts to ensure safe implementation of wireless LAN systems, especially in hospitals where they have the potential to greatly improve information sharing and patient safety.

  4. THE ROLE OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN ENSURING THE ECONOMIC FREEDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verginia Vedinaș

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine the role that local government plays in ensuring the economic freedom. It briefly examines the status of local authorities, deliberative and executive, and also the powers that they have to create the conditions for the exercise of economic freedom. The study also examines the constitutional regime of this fundamental freedom which is part of the rights and freedoms of the first generation. The purpose of the research aimed both identifying the role of local government in ensuring this basic freedom but also to determine possible means of action to be considered by the government within the territory.

  5. Ensuring Integrity in AGU Publications and Compliance With Dual Publication Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Calais, Eric

    2011-03-01

    To ensure the highest standards for publication, AGU has begun screening manuscript submissions using CrossCheck (http://www.crossref.org/crosscheck.html) for possible verbatim use of previously published material. Water Resources Research and Geophysical Research Letters have tested this technology since summer 2010. It has proven very useful in ensuring the highest integrity in publication standards and compliance with the AGU dual publication policy (http://www.agu.org/pubs/authors/policies/dualpub_policy.shtml). According to Barbara Major, assistant director of journals, other AGU journals will adopt this screening process in the near future.

  6. BP Network Control for Resource Allocation and QoS Ensurance in UAV Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV cloud can greatly enhance the intelligence of unmanned systems by dynamically unloading the compute-intensive applications to cloud. For the uncertain nature of UAV missions and fast-changing environment, different UAV applications may have different quality of service (QoS requirements. This paper proposes a mixed QoS ensurance and energy-balanced (MQEB architecture for UAV cloud from a view of control theory, which can support both hard and soft QoS ensurance with the consideration of energy saving. The hard and soft QoS requirements are decoupled by being normalized into a two-level cascaded feedback loop. The former is time slot loop (TS-Loop to enforce the absolute QoS ensurance for real-time applications, and the latter is contention window loop (CW-Loop to enforce the plastic QoS ensurance for non-real-time applications. Finally, the back propagating (BP neuron network is used for parameters’ self-tuning and controller design. The hardware experiments demonstrate the feasibility of MQEB. In heavy load, MQEB has greater throughput and better energy efficiency, and in light load, MQBE has lower total power consumption.

  7. The Transformation of Traditional Universities into Entrepreneurial Universities to Ensure Sustainable Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikse, Veronika; Lusena-Ezera, Inese; Rivza, Baiba; Volkova, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the experience and to identify the drivers of transforming traditional universities into Entrepreneurial Universities for ensuring sustainable higher education in Latvia. Due to the wide scope, Entrepreneurial University characteristics, the present research study is limited and focuses on the university providing…

  8. Evaluation of the factors that ensure long-term sustainability of family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that the following challenges need attention to ensure the continuation of the farm as a family farm in the future: corporate governance; performance measurement and compensation of family members; ownership succession; family harmony between all family members and management succession planning.

  9. Means of Ensuring Information Security and Experimental Study of the Efficiency of Forensic Handwriting Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Dmitrievich Kulik; Konstantin Igorevich Tkachenko; Denis Arturovich Nikonets

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the special means, which allow to protect the information in the document. They are an integral part of the automated tools of ensuring the information security. It is proposed the use of a special input device PC Notes Taker. The results of experimental verification of the effectiveness of forensic handwriting techniques are described.

  10. Main Directions in Ensuring Business Continuity for Information and Telecommunication Systems of High Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Mikhailovich Egorov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Continuity Program, Information and Telecommunication System of Bank of Russia The results of the analysis of the main directions to ensure business continuity for the information and telecommunication systems of high availability in relation to expansion of the problems range, their intellectualization and the modern IT implementation are given.

  11. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim

    2015-01-01

    action. Risk-based approaches allow consideration of exposure in assessing whether there may be unacceptable risks to health. Scope and approach The advantages and disadvantages of hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring the safety of food chemicals, allergens, ingredients and microorganisms were...

  12. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process: Upon... Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO...

  13. Formative Evaluation of EFNEP Curriculum: Ensuring the Eating Smart • Being Active Curriculum Is Theory Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natker, Elana; Baker, Susan S.; Auld, Garry; McGirr, Kathryn; Sutherland, Barbara; Cason, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    The project reported here served to assess a curriculum for EFNEP to ensure theory compliance and content validity. Adherence to Adult Learning Theory and Social Cognitive Theory tenets was determined. A curriculum assessment tool was developed and used by five reviewers to assess initial and revised versions of the curriculum. T-tests for…

  14. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050 Section 155.4050 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., water turbidity, water depth, sea state and temperature extremes). (13) Resource provider has the...

  15. Multimodal Corpus Analysis as a Method for Ensuring Cultural Usability of Embodied Conversational Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose the method of multimodal corpus analysis to collect enough empirical data for modeling the behavior of embodied conversational agents. This is a prerequisite to ensure the usability of such complex interactive systems. So far, the development of embodied agents suffers fr...

  16. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, S.M.; Boobis, A.R.; Bridges, J.; Cockburn, A.; Dekant, W.; Hepburn, P.; Houben, G.F.; König, J.; Nauta, M.J.; Schuermans, J.; Bánáti, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food legislation in the European Union and elsewhere includes both hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring safety. In hazard-based approaches, simply the presence of a potentially harmful agent at a detectable level in food is used as a basis for legislation and/or risk management

  17. 25 CFR 36.120 - What type of reporting is required to ensure accountability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accountability? 36.120 Section 36.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION... SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Waivers and Accountability § 36.120 What type of reporting is required to ensure accountability? The homeliving program must provide to the appropriate local school board or...

  18. Ensuring the security of electricity supply in Ontario: is demand-side management the answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuddy, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the issues relating to ensuring the security of electricity supply in Ontario. In particular, it focuses on demand-side management as a means of achieving these objectives. The solution involves both conservation and supply. It is therefore critical that there be investment in new supply with multiple buyers/sellers. regulatory environment and pricing could encourage conservation

  19. Ensuring Academic Depth and Rigour in Teacher Education through Benchmarking, with Special Attention to Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, H. J.; van der Walt, J. L.; Wolhuter, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Benchmarking is one way of ensuring academic depth and rigour in teacher education. After making a case for setting benchmarks in teacher education based on the widely recognised intra-education system contextual factors, the importance of also taking into account the external (e.g. the national-social) context in which teacher education occurs is…

  20. Means of Ensuring Information Security and Experimental Study of the Efficiency of Forensic Handwriting Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Dmitrievich Kulik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the special means, which allow to protect the information in the document. They are an integral part of the automated tools of ensuring the information security. It is proposed the use of a special input device PC Notes Taker. The results of experimental verification of the effectiveness of forensic handwriting techniques are described.

  1. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing...

  2. Role and Responsibility of Board of Governors [BOG] in Ensuring Educational Quality in Colleges & Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents in brief the need and importance of effective, imaginative and responsible governing boards in colleges and universities, so as to ensure educational quality. BOG should engage fruitfully with the principal and activities in college/ university. UGC, AICTE have now prescribed creation of effective boards for both government and…

  3. The role of emerging technologies to ensure the microbial safety of fresh produce, milk and eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reviews emerging techniques that are applied in the produce and dairy industry to ensure product safety. Microbial safety of produce, dairy and egg continues to be a major concern. According to Economic Research Service, USDA the cost of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. tops $15.6 billio...

  4. Ensure the Right of Citizens to Work: Problems of Domestic and International Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdiyarova, Zhamilya; Serikbekova, Samal; Babajanyan, Yester

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the legal problems of ensuring the right to work of citizens in the Republic of Kazakhstan and to find the conformity of labor laws in the Republic of Kazakhstan to international standards. Using the method of comparison analysis of the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan and norms of international…

  5. Ensuring America's Future by Increasing Latino College Completion: Latino College Completion in 50 States. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Deborah; Soliz, Megan

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. This initiative included the release of a benchmarking guide for projections of degree attainment disaggregated by race/ethnicity that offered multiple metrics to track…

  6. Ensuring the operational safety of nuclear power plants with WWER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shasharin, G.A.; Veretennikov, G.A.; Abagyan, A.A.; Lesnoj, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    At the start of 1983, 27 nuclear power producing units with reactor facilities of the WWER type were in operation in the Soviet Union and other countries. In 1982 the average load factor for nuclear power plants with WWER reactors was 73 per cent. There was not a single nuclear accident or even damage with any significant radiation consequences in the WWER reactors during the entire period of their operation. The most modern nuclear power plants with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors meet all present-day international requirements. Safe operation of the plants is achieved by a variety of measures, the most important of which include: procedures for increasing the reliability of plant equipment and systems; ensuring exact compliance with plant operating instructions; ensuring reliable operation of plant safety systems; action directed towards maintaining the skills of plant personnel at a level adequate to ensure the taking of proper action during transient processes and accident situations. The paper discusses concrete steps for ensuring safe nuclear power plant operation along these lines. In particular, measures such as the following are described: the use of a system for collecting and processing information on equipment failures and defects; the development and introduction of methods of early defect diagnosis; the performance of complex testing of safety systems; the training of highly skilled personnel for nuclear power plants at educational combines and at teaching and training centres making use of simulators; arranging accident-prevention training and special instruction for personnel. (author)

  7. 77 FR 43697 - Ensuring the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA) Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    .... Attracting and retaining the best talent means ensuring fair treatment for individuals who have served our... Management; (vi) the Office of the Special Counsel; and (vii) such other agencies or offices as the Co-Chairs... Personnel Management, in consultation with the Council on Veterans Employment established by Executive Order...

  8. LEGISLATIVE ENSURING FOR SEED PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION (BASED ON PARLIAMENTARY SESSION ON 11 JULY IN 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the national seed market state really showed the high dependence of Russian food security on imported seeds. The government means for supporting the national seed production program undertaken in 2015 by Ministry of Agriculture of RF were very effective and took action as showed the data from ‘Roselkhozcentre’. Thus, the total land area used for seed production in vegetables, melons and gourds was increased by 48% that amounted to 2104.3 ha in 2016, and that was more than in 2015. Moreover, the vegetable and melon seed producers and breeders are worried about the facts of falsification and low quality. The main reason of occurrence of such seeds that are not meeting the variety requirements in the market is an insufficient legislative system and its lack of correspondence to the current seed production, conditions and up-to-date requirements. It is necessary to take urgent measures to revise the current state of legislative system in national seed production program. 

  9. Effect of ensure on the oral bioavailability of gatifloxacin in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kays, Michael B; Overholser, Brian R; Lagvankar, Seema; Goldman, Mitchell; Sowinski, Kevin M

    2005-11-01

    To determine the effect of Ensure on the relative oral bioavailability of gatifloxacin in healthy volunteers. Single-dose, randomized, crossover study. University-affiliated research center. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men, six women) aged 18 years or older with no clinically significant abnormal findings on physical examination or in medical history. Intervention. Subjects consumed 120 ml of study liquid-water or Ensure-every 30 minutes for five doses. With the second dose, subjects ingested a single gatifloxacin 400-mg tablet that had been uniformly crushed and mixed into the study liquid. Serial blood samples were collected for 48 hours, and gatifloxacin concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by using noncompartmental methods. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the serum concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) were tested for bioequivalence after log-transformation of the data. Comparison of parameters for gatifloxacin administered with water versus those with Ensure showed that Cmax (4.35 +/- 0.90 vs 2.41 +/- 0.58 mug/ml, pinfinity) (42.4 +/- 10.1 vs 31.3 +/- 8.3 mg*hr/L, pinfinity. The median time to reach Cmax was significantly prolonged when gatifloxacin was administered with Ensure versus that with water (2.5 hrs vs 1.0 hr, p=0.006). The Cmax and AUC0-infinity of gatifloxacin were significantly decreased when the drug was administered with Ensure. The clinical significance of these findings will depend on the offending pathogen and its susceptibility to gatifloxacin.

  10. 32 CFR 37.200 - What are my responsibilities as an agreements officer for ensuring the appropriate use of TIAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... officer for ensuring the appropriate use of TIAs? 37.200 Section 37.200 National Defense Department of... agreements officer for ensuring the appropriate use of TIAs? You must ensure that you use TIAs only in appropriate situations. To do so, you must conclude that the use of a TIA is justified based on: (a) The...

  11. Psychological factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in the educational environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmeleva E.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships. The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments. The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers; the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers. Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment. Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the

  12. Vol. 40 - Methods to Increase Reliability and Ensure Determinism in a White Rabbit Network

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080423; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    The current control and timing system at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has been serving its accelerators for several decades and is reaching its design limits. In preparation is the next generation system, called White Rabbit. White Rabbit is intentionally based on commonly used networking technologies to ensure the flexibility, maintainability and wide commercial support that were missing in the old system. The new system is meant to coordinate the actions of thousands of individual devices constituting the CERN accelerator complex in a timely manner for several decades. At the time of White Rabbit’s conception in 2008, none of the existing networking standards could provide the unprecedented characteristics required by a future-proof accelerator control and timing system. Therefore, the most suitable solutions needed to be enhanced with new specialized services. Two non-existent enhancements are proposed and developed in the context of this thesis. The first ensures that critical i...

  13. Radiation processing of minimally processed fruits and vegetables to ensure microbiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.; Saroj, S.D.; Shashidhar, R.; Dhokane, V.S.; Hajare, S.N.; Nagar, V.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are in demand as they offer ready rich source of nutrients and convenience to consumers. However, these products are often unsafe due to contamination with harmful pathogens. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyze microbiological quality of minimally processed fruits, vegetables and sprouts and to optimize radiation dose necessary to ensure safety of these commodities. Microbiological quality of these products was found to be poor. Decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) for Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in these minimally processed foods (MPF) were in the range of 164 to 588 Gy. Radiation processing with 2 kGy dose of gamma radiation resulted in 5 log reduction of S. Typhimurium and 4 log reduction of L. monocytogenes. The treatment did not significantly affect nutritional, organoleptic and textural properties. These results suggest that radiation processing can ensure safety of these products. (author)

  14. Analysis of the Romanian Insurance Market Based on Ensuring and Exercising Consumers` Right to Claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the financial market of insurance, consumer protection represents an important component contributing to the stability, discipline and efficiency of the market. In this respect, the activity of educating and informing insurance consumers on ensuring and exercising their right to claim plays a leading role in the mechanism of consumer protection. This study aims to improve the decision-making capacity of the financial services consumers from the Romanian insurance market through better information on ensuring and exercising their right to claim under the legislation. Thus, by applying three data analysis techniques – principal components analysis, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis – to the data regarding the petitions that were registered by the 41 insurance companies which operated in the Romanian market in 2012, a classification that assesses the insurance market transparency is achieved, resulting in a better information for consumers and, hence, the improvement of their protection through reducing the level of transactions that are harmful to consumers

  15. Standard Practice for Ensuring Test Consistency in Neutron-Induced Displacement Damage of Electronic Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice sets forth requirements to ensure consistency in neutron-induced displacement damage testing of silicon and gallium arsenide electronic piece parts. This requires controls on facility, dosimetry, tester, and communications processes that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of these tests. It provides background information on the technical basis for the requirements and additional recommendations on neutron testing. In addition to neutrons, reactors are used to provide gamma-ray pulses of intensities and durations that are not achievable elsewhere. This practice also provides background information and recommendations on gamma-ray testing of electronics using nuclear reactors. 1.2 Methods are presented for ensuring and validating consistency in neutron displacement damage testing of electronic parts such as integrated circuits, transistors, and diodes. The issues identified and the controls set forth in this practice address the characterization and suitability of the radiation environm...

  16. Prospects for Reforming the Organizational and Legal Mechanism for Ensuring Human and Civil Rights and Freedoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslav Kovaliv

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is analyzing the prospect of reforming the organizational and legal mechanism for ensuring the rights and freedoms of individuals and citizens of Ukraine from the systemic approach. Based on the methodology of system analysis, the prospects of reforming the organizational and legal mechanism for ensuring the rights and freedoms of men and citizens of Ukraine in the context of association with the European Union are considered. The key factors that influence the effectiveness of the submitted organizational and legal mechanism are analyzed. The measures aimed at the improvement of normative-legal regulation, which shall promote the maintenance of constitutional rights and freedoms in the conditions of reforming all spheres of society's life, are presented.

  17. How to ensure sustainable interoperability in heterogeneous distributed systems through architectural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Frank, Lars

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in ensuring ubiquitous information is the utilization of heterogeneous systems in eHealth. The objective in this paper is to illustrate how an architecture for distributed eHealth databases can be designed without lacking the characteristic features of traditional sustainable databases. The approach is firstly to explain traditional architecture in central and homogeneous distributed database computing, followed by a possible approach to use an architectural framework to obtain sustainability across disparate systems i.e. heterogeneous databases, concluded with a discussion. It is seen that through a method of using relaxed ACID properties on a service-oriented architecture it is possible to achieve data consistency which is essential when ensuring sustainable interoperability.

  18. Building a Model for Optimization of Informational-Analytical Ensuring of Cost Management of Industrial Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisovskyi Ihor V

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines peculiarities of building a model of informational-analytical optimization of cost management. The main sources of information together with approaches to cost management of industrial enterprises have been identified. In order to ensure the successful operation of enterprise in the conditions of growing manifestations of crisis, a continuous improving of the system for enterprise management along with the most important elements, which are necessary for its normal functioning, should be carried out. One of these so important elements are costs of enterprise. Accordingly, for an effective cost management, the most appropriate management approaches and tools must be used, based on a proper informational-analytical support of all processes. The article proposes an optimization model of informationalanalytical ensuring of cost management of industrial enterprises, which will serve as a ground for more informed and economically feasible solutions. A combination of best practices and tools to improve the efficiency of enterprise management has been proposed

  19. How to ensure the safety of extended operations: Practice and experience of Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Paks Nuclear Power Plant strategy is to extend the operational lifetime of the plant and renew the operational license for 20 years over the designed and licensed lifetime. In the paper the preconditions of long-term operation are discussed and the basic findings and experience of the license renewal works are also presented. The further plans fo NPP Paks for ensuring safe operation in long-term are discussed. (author)

  20. UNITED STATES NAVAL STRATEGY IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA TO ENSURE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF NAVIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Europe (FOB-E) Detachment Naples, as well as assignments on the Joint Staff as well as the OPNAV Staff in Washington DC. His hobbies include hiking ...defense, control of maritime trade, defending the regime against domestic threats, and ensuring economic benefit to the state.”9 Additionally, the...million in 7 maritime aid to its Southeast Asian allies -- including a warship for the Philippines.”33 This closer relationship could benefit not

  1. Tomorrow’s Handgun: Ensuring the Right Gun for All Military Law Enforcement Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY TOMORROW’S HANDGUN: ENSURING THE RIGHT GUN FOR ALL MILITARY LAW... gun manufacturers carefully design and deliver products to meet the needs of their potential owners. Additionally, many professionals require...fields make up some of the largest populations of gun owners, in the United States, and handgun manufacturers support them with specifically designed

  2. Will your plans survive a crisis? Principles for ensuring an effective recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Guided by international standards, internal governance and government policy, most businesses and organisations will have continuity plans. There is, however, a significant difference between a having a plan and providing an effective response and recovery to a crisis event. This paper will explore six principles that will ensure an organisation can provide an effective response to significant business disruptions. Two real-life case studies provide practical examples of these principles at work.

  3. The Conceptual Framework for Ensuring Economic Safety of Corporate Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutsaliuk Oleksii M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective growth of the number of displays and influence of negative factors of threats from the environment actualizes the issue of ensuring economic safety of national economic entities. The article notes that simultaneously with counteracting threats enterprises are working for development, one form of which is the establishment of corporate structures and implementation of integration processes. It is proposed to ensure achieving the desired level of the corporate structure economic safety through optimizing the correlation of resources and competencies, skills and technologies for their use within the integrated logistics value chain. In this case it is the implementation of the integration process that serves as an instrument for achieving this optimal correlation, and the level of economic safety is considered as one of the optimization criteria. The system of authors’ hypotheses is taken as the basis for ensuring economic safety of the corporate integration process. Each of the hypotheses corresponds to a set of conceptual principles aimed at practical implementation of the proposed approaches. Within these conceptual principles the relationship between incentives and benefits of integration and the basis for ensuring their safety is presented, the differences between safety of functioning and safety of development are studied, the use of the methodology of logistics to harmonize the interests of participants of the corporate structure is justified, the relevance of applying the resource approach to manage the integration and development safety is proved. The graphical representation of causal relationships between the proposed conceptual principles allowed formalizing the subject area of studying corporate integration safety

  4. Necessity of creating digital tools to ensure efficiency of technical means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakov, V. I.; Zakharova, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    The authors estimated the problems of functioning of technical objects. The article notes that the increasing complexity of automation systems may lead to an increase of the redundant resource in proportion to the number of components and relationships in the system, and to the need of the redundant resource constant change that can make implementation of traditional structures with redundancy unnecessarily costly (Standby System, Fault Tolerance, High Availability). It proposes the idea of creating digital tools to ensure efficiency of technical facilities.

  5. Problems of Ensuring Complex Business Security in the Conditions of Modern Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Petrovich Sterkhov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of ensuring complex business security, the relevance of the present work is associated with the rationale of multilevel hierarchical approach to the classification of security threats in the age of globalization. The specificity of the threats specific to one or another level of the economy, helps to better understand and consequently to build an effective system of ensuring complex business security. For each of the nine hierarchical levels of the economy the author identifies the main threats to the business, as well as the objects and subjects of this study. It is noted that the performance of the business in the form of a complex hierarchical system depends on the principle of specification. The author gives examples of the use of the basic principles of specification. It is noted that the decomposition of the economic system from the viewpoint of its hierarchical nature is of great importance not only to the distribution of the goals and objectives of security of business levels of the system, but their subordination corresponding to each level. The result is the development of specific recommendations and elaboration of the main directions to ensure complex business security for mega-, macro-, micro-, mini-, nano - and mesoeconomic levels. Although the priority of action in multi-level hierarchical system is directed from the upper to the lower levels, the success of the system as a whole depends on the behavior of all system components. It is stated that the interaction with the environment in business occurs mainly in the lower levels of the hierarchy. The quality system of ensuring complex business security which deals with hierarchical positions, will depend not so much on top-level elements, but on response to intervention on the part of lower level, more precisely from their total effect. In other words, the quality of the system of integrated safety management business provides organized feedbacks in the system.

  6. Plagiarism in Student Research: Responsibility of the Supervisors and Suggestions to Ensure Plagiarism Free Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Baryah, Neha; Mukhra, Richa

    2017-08-01

    Plagiarism is a serious threat plaguing the research in publication of science globally. There is an increasing need to address the issue of plagiarism especially among young researchers in the developing part of the world. Plagiarism needs to be earnestly discouraged to ensure a plagiarism free research environment. We provide further suggestions to combat student plagiarism at Master's level and the regulations/guidelines regarding plagiarism in India.

  7. Model of Formation of the Enterprise Business Portfolio in the Context of Ensuring Strategic Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatilova Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers urgent problems of enterprise management under conditions of external environment instability, studies problems of the enterprise strategic flexibility management. It shows that one of the efficient mechanisms of ensuring strategic flexibility is restructuring of the enterprise business portfolio in accordance with the change of the situation in the target market of enterprise functioning. The goal of the article is development of a model of formation of enterprise business portfolio in the context of ensuring strategic flexibility. The main method of optimisation of the enterprise business portfolio in the context of ensuring strategic flexibility is the use of modification of the Markowitz model of investment portfolio formation. The offered model of the enterprise business portfolio formation allows taking into account changes of external and internal environments and conducting portfolio restructuring in the event of the change of the enterprise target market situation. Prospects of further studies in this direction are detailed elaboration and formalisation of the organisational and economic mechanism of realisation of strategic flexibility at an enterprise.

  8. Components of formalized description of selecting tools for ensuring stability of banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Pogorelenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A banking system is one of the key elements of a financial market of any country. Effectiveness and functional orientation of a banking system provide continuous and targeted financial resources flowing between different sectors of economy and this allows to perform economic activities of various entities. Thus, a banking system plays an essential role in the formation of market relations. A question of stable functioning of a banking system can be defined as a key one. The basic task is to improve the management of a banking system by achieving its stability. The disclosure of formalized description of the definition of tools to influence the selection procedure for ensuring stability of a banking system should be determined as the primary objective. For reaching the goal a comparative study has been introduced and generalized concerning the concept definition of «banking system» and the ideology of its management according to the circumstances and factors of influence. The combination of individual components is to determine the instruments of influence on the banking system activity in the form of chain ties. On the base of the analysis carried out the article grounds the necessity of the generalized use of formalized description of the procedures for selecting instruments for ensuring stability of a banking system. For the purpose of this procedure the author has also grounded, determined and disclosed some of its components. To implement the relevant qualitative phase of formalization the author has proposed the use of chain patterns, and to quantify the individual parameters of such a procedure the methodology of border stochastic analysis has been offered. As a scientific novelty of the present research it is necessary to note the qualitative and quantitative phases for formal presentation of describing procedures for the selection of tools to ensure banking system stability as well as the introduction of chain schemes for the

  9. Collaborative efforts are needed to ensure proper knowledge dissemination of telemedicine projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Neel Kolthoff; Jensen, Lena Sundby; Kayser, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Telemedicine is often seen as the solution to the challenge of providing health care for an increasing number of people with chronic conditions. Projects are often organised locally and based on the involvement of stakeholders with a wide range of backgrounds. It can be challenging to ensure that projects are based on previous experience and that they do not repeat previous studies. To better understand these challenges and current practice, we examined telemedicine projects funded in the 2008-2010 period to explore where, how and to what extent results from the projects were documented and disseminated. Public and private funds were contacted for information about telemedicine studies focusing on people residing in their homes. After an initial screening of titles and abstracts, 19 projects were identified. The managers of the projects were contacted and information about project results and dissemination were obtained. More than half of all projects were disseminated to professionals as well as to the public and used two-way communication. However, it was generally difficult to obtain an overview of the projects due to dynamic changes in names and scopes. We propose that the funding authorities require designs comprising proper evaluation models that will subsequently allow the investigators to publish their findings. Furthermore, a dissemination plan comprising both peers and other professions should be made mandatory. The investigators should ensure proper documentation and dissemination of changes both during and after the projects in order to ensure transparency, and national or international organisations should establish a database with relevant data fields. not relevant. not relevant.

  10. Ensuring the Flexibility and Continuity of Supplies in the B2B Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Wieteska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The purpose of this paper is to recognize and compare the best practices that ensure the flexibility and continuity of supplies. Although the flexibility drivers and continuity risk drivers, according to the literature, are actually the same, there is a lack of research articles on this aspect. Design/methodology/approach - A two-phase methodology design, based on the literature review and in-depth interviews, was used, and seven in-depth interviews with the representatives of manufacturing companies that operate in different sectors were conducted. Findings - Supply flexibility and continuity are presented in the literature, mainly as the responses to the business environmental events/changes that have already occurred. Nevertheless, the researched manufacturing companies recognize their use in terms of prevention as well. The researched enterprises use traditional ways of dealing with supply problems (alternative supplier, inventory buffers. They do not really connect ensuring supply continuity with long-term disruptions, but rather understand it as prevention of typical supply delays and quality problems. The respondents regard supplier flexibility not only as a way of responding to the forecasted demand changes but also to unexpected situations. The companies ensure supply continuity and supply flexibility using similar but not exactly the same strategies. For the reactive strategies, sourcing decisions are crucial, whereas for preventive strategies - it is supplier performance management. Research implications/limitations - The small number of conducted interviews is a limitation of performed research, however, some directions for future research can be noted. Apart from other implications described in the paper, it is deduced that sourcing flexibility positively influences supply continuity. Nevertheless, this hypothesis needs quantitative verification.Originality/value/contribution - The paper compares the issue of supply

  11. GLUE 2 deployment: Ensuring quality in the EGI/WLCG information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen; Pradillo, Maria Alandes; Field, Laurence; Keeble, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The GLUE 2 information model is now fully supported in the production EGI/WLCG information system. However, to make it usable and allow clients to rely on the published information it is important that the meaning is clearly defined, and that information providers and site configurations are validated to ensure as far as possible that what they publish is correct. In this paper we describe the definition of a detailed schema usage profile, the implementation of a software tool to validate published information according to the profile and the use of the tool in the production Grid, and also summarise the overall state of GLUE 2 deployment.

  12. Information support of intelligent energy systems and its impact on ensuring adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukreyev Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of the influence of the changed conditions for obtaining probably-determined information on the operation of generating equipment and power consumption regimes on the decisions taken to ensure the required level of reservation of the territorial zones of the UES of Russia in the current regulatory environment to the indicators of balance reliability are considered. Comparison of the present conditions for presenting the initial information for the estimation of the balance sheet reliability of electric power systems with the conditions for the development of methodological recommendations (MR for the design of power systems in 2003 and not approved by the Ministry of Energy of Russia MR 2012.

  13. Harmonization of monographic standards is needed to ensure the quality of Chinese medicinal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Sandy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview on the regulations of Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs in various countries and regions. Harmonization of CMM monographs would provide standards for the quality control of CMM products and play an important role in the modernization and globalization of Chinese medicine. A harmonized regulatory system would improve the quality of CMMs thereby ensuring the safety of the products and assisting Chinese medicine practitioners in their practice. The fast growing demand worldwide for traditional medicines calls for harmonized monographic standards to safeguard the safety and quality of CMM products.

  14. Quickening construction of natural gas infrastructures and ensuring safe supply of natural gas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng; Zhongde, Zhao; Chunliang, Sun; Juexin, Shen

    2010-09-15

    Compared with North America or Europe in respect of natural gas resources, markets and pipeline networks, the current China stands in a special period with natural gas market in quick development, accordingly, it's recommended to strengthen cooperation and coordination between investors by way of diversified investment and joint adventures and on the basis of diversified resource supply modes, so as to accelerate the construction of infrastructures including the natural gas pipeline networks and the storage and peak-shaving facilities, quick up the market development, realize the situation of mutual-win-win, and finally ensure safety of natural gas utilization in the domestic markets.

  15. Solution in Cuba to ensuring the radiological protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentancourt, L.A.; Quevedo, J.R.; La Fuente, A. de

    1996-01-01

    In the middle of the 80's in Cuba takes place a widespread use of nuclear techniques in the national economy, particularly in nuclear medicine practice. In order to harmonize the constructive projects of the nuclear medical facilities, the National Regulatory Authority for Radiation Protection assessed the requirements to be adopted for the purpose of ensuring the optimum fulfillment of the radiation protection regulations in force in the country. As a result of this work a functional solution was developed for the distribution of the sites for the storage, dosage and handling of radioactive substances and the temporary deposit of the radioactive wastes produced. (authors). 4 refs., 1 tab

  16. Nuclear energy and ensuring the long-term energy supply in the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    The author reports on the papers read at the Reactor Conference in 1975. He pays special attention to the development of energy supply from nuclear stations, investigates the motives behind the growing resistance of the public, and shows that the acceptance procedure ensures the construction and operation of safe nuclear power installations. He also discusses the possibilities of improved energy utilisation, the climatic changes in coming generations, the characteristics of supply with nuclear district heating and process heat, as well as the state of building projects with high-temperature reactors and fast breeders. (orig.) [de

  17. Ensuring on-time quality data management deliverables from global clinical data management teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Haque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing emphasis on off-site and off-shore clinical data management activities mandates a paramount need for adequate solutions geared toward on-time, quality deliverables. The author has been leading large teams that have been involved in successful global clinical data management endeavors. While each study scenario is unique and has to be approached as such, there are several elements in defining strategy and team structure in global clinical data management that can be applied universally. In this article, key roles, practices, and high-level procedures are laid out as a road map to ensure success with the model.

  18. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL CAPITAL INVESTMENTS TO ENSURE THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RAILWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kharchenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Every year more attention is paid for the theoretical and practical issue of sustainable development of railway transport. But today the mechanisms of financial support of this development are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine the optimal investment allocation to ensure sustainable development of the railway transport on the example of State Enterprise «Prydniprovsk Railway» and the creation of preconditions for the mathematical model development. Methodology. The ensuring task for sustainable development of railway transport is solved on the basis of the integral indicator of sustainable development effectiveness and defined as the maximization of this criterion. The optimization of measures technological and technical characters are proposed to carry out for increasing values of the integral performance measure components. To the optimization activities of technological nature that enhance the performance criteria belongs: optimization of the number of train and shunting locomotives, optimization of power handling mechanisms at the stations, optimization of routes of train flows. The activities related to the technical nature include: modernization of railways in the direction of their electrification and modernization of the running gear and coupler drawbars of rolling stock, as well as means of separators mechanization at stations to reduce noise impacts on the environment. Findings. The work resulted in the optimal allocation of investments to ensure the sustainable development of railway transportation of State Enterprise «Prydniprovsk Railway». This allows providing such kind of railway development when functioning of State Enterprise «Prydniprovsk Railway» is characterized by a maximum value of the integral indicator of efficiency. Originality. The work was reviewed and the new approach was proposed to determine the optimal allocation of capital investments to ensure sustainable

  19. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim; Cockburn, Andrew; Dekant, Wolfgang; Hepburn, Paul; Houben, Geert F.; König, Jürgen; Nauta, Maarten; Schuermans, Jeroen; Bánáti, Diána

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundFood legislation in the European Union and elsewhere includes both hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring safety. In hazard-based approaches, simply the presence of a potentially harmful agent at a detectable level in food is used as a basis for legislation and/or risk management action. Risk-based approaches allow consideration of exposure in assessing whether there may be unacceptable risks to health.Scope and approachThe advantages and disadvantages of hazard- and risk-ba...

  20. Management across distances – how to ensure performance and employee well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe; Nielsen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    and employee well-being, also termed sustainable management, is not taken into consideration in most intervention studies. In the present study, the concept of sustainable management is applied at the organizational level, aiming at management, with the intention to improve organizational sustainability......Today many businesses are geographically distributed with co-located employees and teams across dispersed work situations. Furthermore, today’s technologies and business requirements both allow and demand distance management like never before. Distance work and management are characteristic...... at ensuring performance and less on the well-being....

  1. Trichinella diagnostics and control: Mandatory and best practices for ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Pozio, E.; Gamble, H. R.

    2009-01-01

    Because of its role in human disease, there are increasing global requirements for reliable diagnostic and control methods for Trichinella in food animals to ensure meat safety and to facilitate trade. Consequently, there is a need for standardization of methods, programs, and best practices used...... in various porcine and equine pre- and post-slaughter programs, including farm or herd certification programs is also discussed. A brief review of the effectiveness of meat processing methods, such as freezing, cooking and preserving is provided. The importance of proper quality assurance and its application...

  2. A New Trusted and Collaborative Agent Based Approach for Ensuring Cloud Security

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Shantanu; Khatua, Sunirmal; Chaki, Nabendu; Sanyal, Sugata

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine the user's trust is a growing concern for ensuring privacy and security in a cloud computing environment. In cloud, user's data is stored in one or more remote server(s) which poses more security challenges for the system. One of the most important concerns is to protect user's sensitive information from other users and hackers that may cause data leakage in cloud storage. Having this security challenge in mind, this paper focuses on the development of a more secure clou...

  3. The UX Book Process and Guidelines for Ensuring a Quality User Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Hartson, Rex

    2012-01-01

    This is a comprehensive textbook on designing interaction to ensure a quality user experience. Combining breadth, depth, and practical applications, this book takes a time-tested process-and-guidelines approach that provides readers with actionable methods and techniques while retaining a firm grounding in HCI concepts and theory. The authors will guide you through the UX lifecycle process, including contextual inquiry and analysis, requirements extraction, design ideation and creation, practical design production, prototyping, and UX evaluation. Development activities are linked via handof

  4. Ensuring the Security of the Educational Environment: Cases of US, Russia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly V. Kabernik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with security, including informational, educational environment. The article considers experience of the United States and Europe, including specific examples. Given a classification of the major threats and they are allocated on the basis of foreign and domestic experience. The article also determines the range of problems actually facing educational institutions and regularly described in special reports on the subject. Provides an overview of a set of measures designed to regulate access to inappropriate content, with special attention given to the phenomenon of social networks that put new challenges in ensuring security of the educational environment.

  5. Ensuring the safety of surgical teams when managing casualties of a radiological dirty bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael; Nocera, Antony

    2010-09-01

    The capacity for surgical teams to ensure their own safety when dealing with the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb is primarily determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type of event. This review article defines the associated radiological terminology with an emphasis on the personal safety of surgical team members in respect to the principles of radiological protection. The article also describes a technique for use of hand held radiation monitors and will discuss the identification and management of radiologically contaminated patients who may pose a significant danger to the surgical team. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Observations and actions to ensure equal treatment of all candidates by the European Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; El Mjiyad, Nadia; Kota, Jhansi; Thelen, Lionel

    2017-04-01

    The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views equality of opportunities as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected in running highly competitive and internationally recognised funding schemes are presented. Recent initiatives to tackle geographical imbalances will also be presented.

  7. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Isaev, Ye D.; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the survey of methods ensuring an optimal off-bottom and a drill bit distance. The analysis of methods shows that the issue is topical and requires further research.

  8. How we Ensured Rigor from a Multi-site, Multi-discipline, Multi-researcher Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ken Crawford

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research has often been criticised for its lack of rigour. In order to overcome this, measures of trustworthiness, dependability and reliability have been suggested. A study of how pastoralists learn to incorporate sustainable farming systems in the tropical savannas of Australia employed multiple-researchers, working in three States and from a variety of disciplines. To ensure rigour a framework for the study was developed by the researchers prior to commencing interviews. This was followed by regular teleconferences to ensure that the framework was valid and to adjust for any problems encountered along the way. Every interview was analysed independently by all researchers before a workshop was conducted to bring the ideas together. Categories and ideas within the data were synthesised to create an overall understanding of the learning process within the confines of "landcare" in the Tropical Savannas. These processes were undertaken in consultation with the pastoralists and the process has been explicitly documented to enable readers to follow the research process easily. The rigour in this project is shown in the clear documentation of the research process carried out by individual researchers and by the team when it met. The understanding of pastoralists' learning processes is our interpretation; it is up to the reader to decide whether s/he agrees with that interpretation, but from the description of the process it is easy for the reader to see where and why her/his interpretation differs. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0001125

  9. Domestic Banks in Bangladesh Could Ensure Efficiency by Improving Human Resource Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad Masum, Abdul Kadar; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to examine the influence of human resource management (HRM) practices on bank efficiency using Malmquist index of total factor productivity. The model comprises HRM index that represents the quality of HRM practices. The results are decomposed into three efficiency scores, namely, technical efficiency, pure efficiency, and scale efficiency. In this study, panel data for 44 banks in Bangladesh are used for the period 2008-2013. This paper reveals that foreign banks are ahead in converting the influence of HRM practices into efficiency scores (0.946>0.833). On the other hand, domestic banks performed better than foreign banks in terms of pure efficiency and scale efficiency. But, in terms of technical efficiency, the domestic banks are regressed by 6.7% annually whereas foreign banks are progressed with a yearly value of 5.8%. The results are robust, because the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskall-Wallis test (non-parametric tests) also confirm the same results. This study emphasizes HRM practices in the banking industry to ensure efficiency in the long-term scenario. Domestic banks are suggested to ensure continuous development in HRM practices in order to compete with foreign banks. PMID:26221727

  10. Ensuring safe water in post-chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Praveen Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Disaster scenarios are dismal and often result in mass displacement and migration of people. In eventuality of emergency situations, people need to be rehabilitated and provided with an adequate supply of drinking water, the most essential natural resource needed for survival, which is often not easily available even during non-disaster periods. In the aftermath of a natural or human-made disaster affecting mankind and livestock, the prime aim is to ensure supply of safe water to reduce the occurrence and spread of water borne disease due to interrupted, poor and polluted water supply. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) emergencies augment the dilemma as an additional risk of “contamination” is added. The associated risks posed to health and life should be reduced to as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining a high level of preparedness is the crux of quick relief and efficient response to ensure continuous supply of safe water, enabling survival and sustenance. The underlying objective would be to educate and train the persons concerned to lay down the procedures for the detection, cleaning, and treatment, purification including desalination, disinfection, and decontamination of water. The basic information to influence the organization of preparedness and execution of relief measures at all levels while maintaining minimum standards in water management at the place of disaster, are discussed in this article. PMID:21829321

  11. Toward Ensuring Health Equity: Readability and Cultural Equivalence of OMERACT Patient-reported Outcome Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Welch, Vivian; Rader, Tamara; Lyddiatt, Anne; Clerehan, Rosemary; Christensen, Robin; Boonen, Annelies; Goel, Niti; Maxwell, Lara J; Toupin-April, Karine; De Wit, Maarten; Barton, Jennifer; Flurey, Caroline; Jull, Janet; Barnabe, Cheryl; Sreih, Antoine G; Campbell, Willemina; Pohl, Christoph; Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Singh, Jasvinder A; Tugwell, Peter S; Guillemin, Francis

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool, the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group participants to gain their perspectives on the importance of comprehensibility and cross-cultural adaptation for PROM. Thirty-one OMERACT delegates attended the equity session. Twenty-six participants agreed that PROM should be assessed for comprehensibility and for use of suitable methods (4 abstained, 1 no). Twenty-two participants agreed that cultural equivalency of PROM should be assessed and suitable methods used (7 abstained, 2 no). Special interest group participants identified challenges with cross-cultural adaptation including resources required, and suggested patient involvement for improving translation and adaptation. Future work will include consensus exercises on what methods are required to ensure PROM are appropriate for people with low literacy and different cultures.

  12. Ensuring safe water in post-chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Amar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster scenarios are dismal and often result in mass displacement and migration of people. In eventuality of emergency situations, people need to be rehabilitated and provided with an adequate supply of drinking water, the most essential natural resource needed for survival, which is often not easily available even during non-disaster periods. In the aftermath of a natural or human-made disaster affecting mankind and livestock, the prime aim is to ensure supply of safe water to reduce the occurrence and spread of water borne disease due to interrupted, poor and polluted water supply. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN emergencies augment the dilemma as an additional risk of "contamination" is added. The associated risks posed to health and life should be reduced to as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining a high level of preparedness is the crux of quick relief and efficient response to ensure continuous supply of safe water, enabling survival and sustenance. The underlying objective would be to educate and train the persons concerned to lay down the procedures for the detection, cleaning, and treatment, purification including desalination, disinfection, and decontamination of water. The basic information to influence the organization of preparedness and execution of relief measures at all levels while maintaining minimum standards in water management at the place of disaster, are discussed in this article.

  13. Domestic Banks in Bangladesh Could Ensure Efficiency by Improving Human Resource Management Practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadar Muhammad Masum

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine the influence of human resource management (HRM practices on bank efficiency using Malmquist index of total factor productivity. The model comprises HRM index that represents the quality of HRM practices. The results are decomposed into three efficiency scores, namely, technical efficiency, pure efficiency, and scale efficiency. In this study, panel data for 44 banks in Bangladesh are used for the period 2008-2013. This paper reveals that foreign banks are ahead in converting the influence of HRM practices into efficiency scores (0.946>0.833. On the other hand, domestic banks performed better than foreign banks in terms of pure efficiency and scale efficiency. But, in terms of technical efficiency, the domestic banks are regressed by 6.7% annually whereas foreign banks are progressed with a yearly value of 5.8%. The results are robust, because the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskall-Wallis test (non-parametric tests also confirm the same results. This study emphasizes HRM practices in the banking industry to ensure efficiency in the long-term scenario. Domestic banks are suggested to ensure continuous development in HRM practices in order to compete with foreign banks.

  14. Using the CER Hub to ensure data quality in a multi-institution smoking cessation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kari L; Kirillova, Olga; Gillespie, Suzanne E; Hsiao, David; Pishchalenko, Valentyna; Pai, Akshatha Kalsanka; Puro, Jon E; Plumley, Robert; Kudyakov, Rustam; Hu, Weiming; Allisany, Art; McBurnie, MaryAnn; Kurtz, Stephen E; Hazlehurst, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) studies involving multiple institutions with diverse electronic health records (EHRs) depend on high quality data. To ensure uniformity of data derived from different EHR systems and implementations, the CER Hub informatics platform developed a quality assurance (QA) process using tools and data formats available through the CER Hub. The QA process, implemented here in a study of smoking cessation services in primary care, used the 'emrAdapter' tool programmed with a set of quality checks to query large samples of primary care encounter records extracted in accord with the CER Hub common data framework. The tool, deployed to each study site, generated error reports indicating data problems to be fixed locally and aggregate data sharable with the central site for quality review. Across the CER Hub network of six health systems, data completeness and correctness issues were prevalent in the first iteration and were considerably improved after three iterations of the QA process. A common issue encountered was incomplete mapping of local EHR data values to those defined by the common data framework. A highly automated and distributed QA process helped to ensure the correctness and completeness of patient care data extracted from EHRs for a multi-institution CER study in smoking cessation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Ensuring living condition for ageing population by public–private partnership (PPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konjar Miha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of financial resources has become one of the main issues in fulfilling social and physical needs in urban development. The declining levels of public resources make the collaboration between public and private investors necessary. When facing the challenges of ageing population, shared investment may contribute to the appropriate development of sheltered housing to meet the goals of spatial planning as well as certain standards at the level of urban design. By ensuring appropriate living conditions for all generations such urban PPP projects may contribute to the fulfilment of the public interest. The paper presents practice of PPP implementation in Ljubljana, Slovenia, where local authority with the collaboration of private partners ensured more than 400 sheltered apartments in the last years. Examples show the extension of the idea from the 70s onwards in finding new models of housing for the aging population. The development of new models can be a good example of strengthening the cooperation between public and private partners in the field of urban development practice.

  16. Investing in Nurses is a Prerequisite for Ensuring Universal Health Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Ann E; Jacob, Sheena; Squires, Allison P; Sliney, Anne; Davis, Sheila; Stalls, Suzanne; Portillo, Carmen J

    2016-01-01

    Nurses and midwives constitute the majority of the global health workforce and the largest health care expenditure. Efficient production, successful deployment, and ongoing retention based on carefully constructed policies regarding the career opportunities of nurses, midwives, and other providers in health care systems are key to ensuring universal health coverage. Yet nurses are constrained by practice regulations, workplaces, and career ladder barriers from contributing to primary health care delivery. Evidence shows that quality HIV care, comparable to that of physicians, is provided by trained nurses and associate clinicians, but many African countries' health systems remain dependent on limited numbers of physicians and fail to meet the demand for treatment. The World Health Organization endorses task sharing to ensure universal health coverage in HIV and maternal health, which requires an investment in nursing education, retention, and professional growth opportunities. Exemplars from Haiti, Rwanda, Republic of Georgia, and multi-country efforts are described. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ensuring the security and privacy of information in mobile health-care communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola P. Abidoye

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of health-care information and its accessibility via the Internet and mobile technology systems is a cause for concern in these modern times. The privacy, integrity and confidentiality of a patient’s data are key factors to be considered in the transmission of medical information for use by authorised health-care personnel. Mobile communication has enabled medical consultancy, treatment, drug administration and the provision of laboratory results to take place outside the hospital. With the implementation of electronic patient records and the Internet and Intranets, medical information sharing amongst relevant health-care providers was made possible. But the vital issue in this method of information sharing is security: the patient’s privacy, as well as the confidentiality and integrity of the health-care information system, should not be compromised. We examine various ways of ensuring the security and privacy of a patient’s electronic medical information in order to ensure the integrity and confidentiality of the information.

  18. Framework conditions and requirements to ensure the technical functional safety of reprocessed medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Marc

    2008-09-03

    Testing and restoring technical-functional safety is an essential part of medical device reprocessing. Technical functional tests have to be carried out on the medical device in the course of the validation of reprocessing procedures. These ensure (in addition to the hygiene tests) that the reprocessing procedure is suitable for the medical device. Functional tests are, however, also a part of reprocessing procedures. As a stage in the reprocessing, they ensure for the individual medical device that no damage or other changes limit the performance. When determining which technical-functional tests are to be carried out, the current technological standard has to be taken into account in the form of product-specific and process-oriented norms. Product-specific norms primarily define safety-relevant requirements. The risk management method described in DIN EN ISO 14971 is the basis for recognising hazards; the likelihood of such hazards arising can be minimised through additional technical-functional tests, which may not yet have been standardised. Risk management is part of a quality management system, which must be bindingly certified for manufacturers and processors of critical medical devices with particularly high processing demands by a body accredited by the competent authority.

  19. Detective quantum efficiency: a standard test to ensure optimal detector performance and low patient exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartin, Terenz R.; Nano, Tomi F.; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2016-03-01

    The detective quantum efficiency (DQE), expressed as a function of spatial frequency, describes the ability of an x-ray detector to produce high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) images. While regulatory and scientific communities have used the DQE as a primary metric for optimizing detector design, the DQE is rarely used by end users to ensure high system performance is maintained. Of concern is that image quality varies across different systems for the same exposures with no current measures available to describe system performance. Therefore, here we conducted an initial DQE measurement survey of clinical x-ray systems using a DQE-testing instrument to identify their range of performance. Following laboratory validation, experiments revealed that the DQE of five different systems under the same exposure level (8.0 μGy) ranged from 0.36 to 0.75 at low spatial frequencies, and 0.02 to 0.4 at high spatial frequencies (3.5 cycles/mm). Furthermore, the DQE dropped substantially with decreasing detector exposure by a factor of up to 1.5x in the lowest spatial frequency, and a factor of 10x at 3.5 cycles/mm due to the effect of detector readout noise. It is concluded that DQE specifications in purchasing decisions, combined with periodic DQE testing, are important factors to ensure patients receive the health benefits of high-quality images for low x-ray exposures.

  20. Institutional Means for Ensuring the Technological Leadership of Germany in the EU Economic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovgal Olеna A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of institutional means for ensuring the technological leadership of Germany in the economic system of the EU. The main idea of all the programs and strategies of the European Union is to ensure competitive and dynamic development. Germany occupies a leading position in many respects both in the European and global technology market, which is due to the country’s strong scientific potential and the high level of spending on R&D. The article compares the tasks of the national high-tech strategy of the FRG and the strategy of the EU Innovation Union. There generalized the functions of the main components of the system of scientific associations of the Federal Republic of Germany, which are an effective tool for implementing the state policy in the field of innovation investment. An approach to qualitative assessment of the level of information interaction of the subjects in the system of R&D institutes and the diffusion of technologies using the criterion of information communication is proposed. A prospect for further research on this issue is a comprehensive analysis of the main components of Germany’s innovation strategy in the EU economic system.

  1. Outreach and education to ensure a clean energy future for all - 59339

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    As the nuclear industry continues to grow throughout the world, we find that support from government officials, local business leaders and the general public is becoming more and more important. In order to help raise awareness and inform these various publics, AREVA expanded upon a best practice from its worldwide operations and recently established a Community Advisory Council in the United States. The member organizations represent a variety of grassroots and minority organizations from across the United States and are active in various ways in local, state and federal arenas. AREVA's objective for the Council is simple - listen to concerns, engage in dialogue and raise awareness about the intrinsic link existing between energy, CO 2 emissions, global warming, and economic growth, so these same people can make decisions when it comes to energy sources in the future. We want our members to help us better understand their communities, listen to their concerns and answer their questions openly and honestly. AREVA understands that this outreach and education are just the first steps toward helping clean energy sources grow. We must maintain regular dialog and operate in a safe manner, because in the long run, it is these community members who will ensure energy security for the country. And it is only by working together as an industry that we can ensure a safe, clean air future for generations to come, no matter where in the world we live. (authors)

  2. Domestic Banks in Bangladesh Could Ensure Efficiency by Improving Human Resource Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Beh, Loo-See

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to examine the influence of human resource management (HRM) practices on bank efficiency using Malmquist index of total factor productivity. The model comprises HRM index that represents the quality of HRM practices. The results are decomposed into three efficiency scores, namely, technical efficiency, pure efficiency, and scale efficiency. In this study, panel data for 44 banks in Bangladesh are used for the period 2008-2013. This paper reveals that foreign banks are ahead in converting the influence of HRM practices into efficiency scores (0.946>0.833). On the other hand, domestic banks performed better than foreign banks in terms of pure efficiency and scale efficiency. But, in terms of technical efficiency, the domestic banks are regressed by 6.7% annually whereas foreign banks are progressed with a yearly value of 5.8%. The results are robust, because the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskall-Wallis test (non-parametric tests) also confirm the same results. This study emphasizes HRM practices in the banking industry to ensure efficiency in the long-term scenario. Domestic banks are suggested to ensure continuous development in HRM practices in order to compete with foreign banks.

  3. 'Trust but verify'--five approaches to ensure safe medical apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Paul; Chiauzzi, Emil

    2015-09-25

    Mobile health apps are health and wellness programs available on mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets. In three systematic assessments published in BMC Medicine, Huckvale and colleagues demonstrate that widely available health apps meant to help patients calculate their appropriate insulin dosage, educate themselves about asthma, or perform other important functions are methodologically weak. Insulin dose calculators lacked user input validation and made inappropriate dose recommendations, with a lack of documentation throughout. Since 2011, asthma apps have become more interactive, but have not improved in quality; peak flow calculators have the same issues as the insulin calculators. A review of the accredited National Health Service Health Apps Library found poor and inconsistent implementation of privacy and security, with 28% of apps lacking a privacy policy and one even transmitting personally identifying data the policy claimed would be anonymous. Ensuring patient safety might require a new approach, whether that be a consumer education program at one extreme or government regulation at the other. App store owners could ensure transparency of algorithms (whiteboxing), data sharing, and data quality. While a proper balance must be struck between innovation and caution, patient safety must be paramount.Please see related articles: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0444-y , http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/13/106 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/13/58.

  4. Religion, Spirituality and Speech-Language Pathology: A Viewpoint for Ensuring Patient-Centred Holistic Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Bernice; Carey, Lindsay B; Carey-Sargeant, Christa L; Webb, Gwendalyn; Millar, CaraJane; Krikheli, Lilli

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a viewpoint concerning the largely neglected clinical relevance of spirituality and religious belief in speech-language pathology (SLP) assessments, interventions and outcomes across the lifespan. An overview of the refereed SLP literature is presented with regard to religion and spirituality. It was found that while there is increasing research with regard to spirituality, health and well-being, there is very little specific to SLP. What is available and clinically relevant, generally relates to holistic care and/or cultural and linguistic diversity. Amidst the health care literature, however, there is a growing number of recommended instruments (for religious/spiritual screening) sensitive to intercultural and interfaith issues that are currently available to medical, nursing, allied health and chaplaincy practitioners. These instruments can also be of value to SLPs to ensure holistic assessments and interventions. It would seem timely for SLPs (and other allied health practitioners) to consider including spiritual screenings/assessments as part of their clinical practice so as to ensure appropriate holistic care. This would also mean undertaking research and including relevant education within tertiary institutions and professional development programs.

  5. Responsible science: Ensuring the integrity of the research process, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report thoughtfully examines the challenges posed in ensuring that the search for truth reflects adherence to ethical standards. In recent years, we have learned, sometimes painfully, that not all scientists adhere to this obligation. Reports of falsified research results and plagiarism involving both junior and senior scientists have stimulated doubts and criticism about the ways in which misconduct in science is addressed by the research community. Misconduct in science is now being publicly examined in all of its aspects; how misconduct is defined, the process by which misconduct is discovered, and procedures for judging innocence or guilt and assessing penalties. Also being explored are the appropriate roles of individuals, research institutions, journals, government research agencies, and the legal system. Issues of misconduct and integrity in science present complex questions. These issues require the sustained attention of all members of the research community as well as of leaders in the public and private sector who are concerned with safeguarding the health of science. In this regard ensuring the integrity of the research process is similar to assuring safety in the workplace: it is a process that requires continued participation from all levels of the entire research enterprise--the practitioners, the host institutions, the sponsors in government, and the legislators who provide the funds.

  6. A corporate treasurer toolkit to ensure fund delivery in disaster zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandeh, Sassan Cyrus

    In a disaster situation, the corporate treasury department of an organisation is also responsible for ensuring business continuity. The treasury department's key role would be to ensure that vendors, suppliers and employees are adequately remunerated and that operations do not seize due to a lack of working capital. Treasury practitioners concerned with business continuity have traditionally focused on three mainstay aspects of the initiative: (1) creating virtual or remote treasury offices; (2) training key backup staff on emergency procedures; (3) maintaining power and telecommunication connectivity with their cash concentration bank to guarantee treasury is able to transmit funding instructions to them. This paper aims to take business continuity measures for corporate treasury departments to a higher level of preparedness by asking one critical question: 'What will happen if the cash concentration bank or the entire banking system of a country in which a company has operations collapses?' Rarely have treasury professionals contemplated such a cataclysmic scenario. This paper aims to (1) validate that banking system failures are common, (2) rationalise why treasury practitioners need to devise contingency funding strategies outside of the banking system and (3) offer some viable alternatives to commercial banks. In this regard the author will draw from the experience of international non-governmental organisations that routinely respond to and operate in cataclysmic emergencies.

  7. Ensuring living condition for ageing population by public-private partnership (PPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjar, Miha; Nikšič, Matej; Grom, Janez Peter; Mujkić, Sabina; Fikfak, Alenka

    2018-03-01

    Lack of financial resources has become one of the main issues in fulfilling social and physical needs in urban development. The declining levels of public resources make the collaboration between public and private investors necessary. When facing the challenges of ageing population, shared investment may contribute to the appropriate development of sheltered housing to meet the goals of spatial planning as well as certain standards at the level of urban design. By ensuring appropriate living conditions for all generations such urban PPP projects may contribute to the fulfilment of the public interest. The paper presents practice of PPP implementation in Ljubljana, Slovenia, where local authority with the collaboration of private partners ensured more than 400 sheltered apartments in the last years. Examples show the extension of the idea from the 70s onwards in finding new models of housing for the aging population. The development of new models can be a good example of strengthening the cooperation between public and private partners in the field of urban development practice.

  8. Protecting me from my Directive: Ensuring Appropriate Safeguards for Advance Directives in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auckland, Cressida

    2018-02-01

    With one in six people over 80 now suffering from dementia, advance directives provide an important means of empowerment. Upholding directives in the context of dementia, however, raises extra challenges, given the potential for the directive to conflict with an assessment of what is in the person's current best interests. Given the profound harm that tying a person with dementia to their previous wishes can do, it is essential that we have sufficient safeguards in place to ensure that we only uphold such directives where we can be sure they are truly autonomous and are intended to apply to the situation at hand-safeguards which are at present, severely lacking. This article will consider various mechanisms by which safeguards can be built into the legal regime to ensure that the original decision is autonomous, including making it mandatory for the person to undergo a consultation with a healthcare professional, which would involve a contemporaneous capacity assessment. Clinicians must also be confident that the directive applies to the situation at hand. Introducing formalities, including a standardised (though not mandatory) proforma, may help to enhance specificity about when the directive is triggered, and to what treatments it relates, to enable clinicians to better assess the directive's applicability. A national registry for advance directives might also be beneficial. It will be argued that health care professionals will have to play a much greater role in the drafting and registering of advance directives, if we are to feel comfortable in upholding them.

  9. Does IGRT ensure target dose coverage of head and neck IMRT patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graff, Pierre; Hu Weigang; Yom, Sue S.; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) ensures dose coverage to the target, and to assess the dosimetric impact of anatomic changes using megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) for patient positioning during head and neck IMRT. Methods and materials: Forty-eight MVCBCT from 10 head and neck IMRT/IGRT patients were analyzed off-line. Target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) contours delineated on CT were transferred and adjusted on MVCBCT images. Each MVCBCT was processed to allow dose recalculation, resulting in 469 dose–volume histograms (DVHs). The concept of dosimetric latitude was introduced to provide a clinical perspective. Results: MVCBCT target DVHs showed a moderate level of difference in D95 (dose to ⩾95% of volume), generally less than a 5% difference from the planned dose. Delivered-dose increases to the spinal cord and brainstem showed no apparent time trend. The 4 mm margin around OARs was a useful precaution to prevent exceeding critical dose thresholds. The parotid glands showed progressive increases in mean dose related to shrinkage of the external contours. Conclusion: IGRT repositioning ensured target volume coverage, but significant dose variations were observed for OARs. The dosimetric impact of anatomic changes during radiotherapy was of lesser importance than the effects of IGRT repositioning.

  10. Patient-centered approach to ensuring appropriateness of care through blood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rita; Michelman, Mark; Curran, Vivian; Bean, Jo; Rowden, Paul; Lindsey, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    Concerns have been raised about the safety and efficacy of blood transfusions. Blood products are in demand and a decreasing supply is projected, with resource conservation a global concern. A consultant group determined that the transfusion rate at Mease Countryside Hospital was higher than an average baseline. A process-improvement project was initiated using a multidisciplinary team approach to improve blood utilization and ensure appropriateness in transfusion practice. The foundation of this project was to create new guidelines for transfusion; provide detailed education, communication, reporting, and feedback; and develop criteria to ensure compliance. The mean monthly usage of red blood cell units per 1000 inpatient discharges between April 2010 and October 2011 was 321.4 compared with 212.0 for the 5 months after implementation. The mean monthly number of patients transfused per 1000 inpatient discharges from April 2010 to October 2011 was 135.2 compared with 90.2 after implementation. In both cases, this reduction was found to be statistically significant at a 95% confidence level (P = 0.000 in both respects). The success of this project was the result of careful planning and execution, administrative support, physician leadership, and teamwork. Blood management includes strategies to avoid inappropriate transfusions and proactively treat anemia. Anemia management should be based on the patient's symptoms, laboratory values, and clinical assessment. Treatment of anemia should encompass a patient-centered approach, with the aim of promoting patient safety and minimizing the risk from exposure to blood products.

  11. Ensuring the conflict sustainability of the information systems on the basis of technical means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Mistrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the purposes, tasks, functions and ways of ensuring conflict stability of func-tioning of information systems on the ba-sis of application of a complex of technical means is carried out. The main contours of management of elements of the organizational and technical systems (OTS in various forms of actions are defined. It is noted that a basis of functioning of OTS, infor-mation sup-port makes, classes of the data making him are defined. It is shown that ensuring conflict stability of functioning of the information sys-tems (IS is carried out by the complex of technical means (CTM, as a part of subsystems of reception / transfer, collecting and de-struction / distortion of information, their main functions are defined. Wednesday in which KTS function, is defined as an information and target situation which is understood as the part of a social and economic situa-tion characterized by existence of KTS providing functioning with IS, their location, operating modes, parameters of the information streams (IS, characteristics of technical means of processing, storage, submission of information realized by ways of the information security (IS for the solution of tasks in dynamics of information conflict. At the same time the information conflict is part target (the difficult conflict OTS representing information ex-change of KTS providing conflict steady functioning of IS at realization of processes of collection of information, transfer and counter-action to carrying out similar actions by the competing party with means of the destroying / distorting in-fluences (RIV. The special at-tention is paid to research of actions of a subsystem of collection of information, methods of collection of information are defined, con-ditions of application of methods of processing of the collected data are shown, features of functioning of subsystems of KTS at vari-ous stages of application are considered. The conclusion is drawn that

  12. PLK1 regulation of PCNT cleavage ensures fidelity of centriole separation during mitotic exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoun; Lee, Kwanwoo; Rhee, Kunsoo

    2015-12-09

    Centrioles are duplicated and segregated in close link to the cell cycle. During mitosis, daughter centrioles are disengaged and eventually separated from mother centrioles. New daughter centrioles may be generated only after centriole separation. Therefore, centriole separation is considered a licensing step for centriole duplication. It was previously known that separase specifically cleaves pericentrin (PCNT) during mitotic exit. Here we report that PCNT has to be phosphorylated by PLK1 to be a suitable substrate of separase. Phospho-resistant mutants of PCNT are not cleaved by separase and eventually inhibit centriole separation. Furthermore, phospho-mimetic PCNT mutants rescue centriole separation even in the presence of a PLK1 inhibitor. On the basis on these results, we propose that PLK1 phosphorylation is a priming step for separase-mediated cleavage of PCNT and eventually for centriole separation. PLK1 phosphorylation of PCNT provides an additional layer of regulatory mechanism to ensure the fidelity of centriole separation during mitotic exit.

  13. Promotion and Suppression of Centriole Duplication Are Catalytically Coupled through PLK4 to Ensure Centriole Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available PLK4 is the major kinase driving centriole duplication. Duplication occurs only once per cell cycle, forming one new (or daughter centriole that is tightly engaged to the preexisting (or mother centriole. Centriole engagement is known to block the reduplication of mother centrioles, but the molecular identity responsible for the block remains unclear. Here, we show that the centriolar cartwheel, the geometric scaffold for centriole assembly, forms the identity of daughter centrioles essential for the block, ceasing further duplication of the mother centriole to which it is engaged. To ensure a steady block, we found that the cartwheel requires constant maintenance by PLK4 through phosphorylation of the same substrate that drives centriole assembly, revealing a parsimonious control in which “assembly” and “block for new assembly” are linked through the same catalytic reaction to achieve homeostasis. Our results support a recently deduced model that the cartwheel-bound PLK4 directly suppresses centriole reduplication.

  14. Pattern of secure bilateral transactions ensuring power economic dispatch in hybrid electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Gao, Wenzhong

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for secure bilateral transactions determination ensuring economic power dispatch of the generators using new AC distribution factors for pool and bilateral coordinated markets. The new optimization problem considers simultaneous minimization of deviations from scheduled transactions and fuel cost of the generators in the network. The fuel cost has been obtained for hybrid market model and impact of different percentage of bilateral demand on fuel cost, generation share, and pattern of transactions has also been determined. The impact of optimally located unified power flow controller (UPFC) on the bilateral transactions, fuel cost and generation pattern has also been studied. The results have also been obtained for pool market model. The proposed technique has been applied on IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (RTS). (author)

  15. Experience in ensuring authenticity of information from safeguards systems installed in facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Thiele, R.; Wagner, W.; Whichello, J.

    1991-01-01

    The increasing sophistication of non-destructive assay instruments, containment and surveillance devices and ancillary computer facilities used for safeguards purposes has resulted in a growing requirement for means to ensure the authenticity of information and thus preserve for the IAEA its capability to draw independent conclusions. The achievements of the last few years, particularly with regard to the development of new instruments, one of a kind instrumentation, conceptually new approaches such as the use of near-real-time accounting, and joint use arrangements, are largely the result of cooperation between the IAEA, state authorities, plant operators and certain national laboratories. It is anticipated that demands for various authentication features will further expand as growth in sophistication of equipment and automation of nuclear facilities continues, and that increasing reliance on in-line, unattended use instrumentation will become in future years the approach of choice. 8 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. Cyborg psychiatry to ensure agency and autonomy in mental disorders. A proposal for neuromodulation therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Fond, Guillaume; Dumas, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Neuromodulation therapeutics-as repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and neurofeedback-are valuable tools for psychiatry. Nevertheless, they currently face some limitations: rTMS has confounding effects on neural activation patterns, and neurofeedback fails to change neural dynamics in some cases. Here we propose how coupling rTMS and neurofeedback can tackle both issues by adapting neural activations during rTMS and actively guiding individuals during neurofeedback. An algorithmic challenge then consists in designing the proper recording, processing, feedback, and control of unwanted effects. But this new neuromodulation technique also poses an ethical challenge: ensuring treatment occurs within a biopsychosocial model of medicine, while considering both the interaction between the patients and the psychiatrist, and the maintenance of individuals' autonomy. Our solution is the concept of Cyborg psychiatry, which embodies the technique and includes a self-engaged interaction between patients and the neuromodulation device.

  17. Romantic partners in a market perspective: expectations about what ensures a highly desirable partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe N; Hattori, Wallisen T; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Lopes, Fívia A

    2013-10-01

    This study used the biological market perspective and influential statistical models from the marketing field to investigate males' and females' expectations regarding which combination of characteristics are most relevant in ensuring desirable partnerships for same-sex individuals. Thus, 358 Brazilian undergraduates assessed eight descriptions of same-gender stimulus targets (formulated with different levels of physical attractiveness, social skills, and current or prospective social status) and evaluated the overall desirability of the targets' expected or probable partners. From the possible combinations, three groups emerged: for one group, mainly composed of men, status characteristics were the most important attributes; for the others, mostly composed of women, social skills or physical characteristics were identified as most important in appealing to a desirable partner. This work expands the understanding of variability in male and female romantic expectations, and its implications are discussed from an evolutionary perspective.

  18. The Experience of Psychological Service of Rosenergoatom in Ensuring the Reliability of the Human Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernetckaia, E.D.; Belyh, T.

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants, since 1982 the laboratories of psycho-physiological support (LPPS) started being established at Russian NPPs. The methodological background for this was later summarised. The LPPS’ activity and professional development of LPPS specialists are currently supported by the scientific methodological centre “Psycho-Physiological Support of Professional Personnel Reliability” (PPSPPR) of Rosatom Central Institute for Continuing Education and Training (ROSATOMCICE& T). The present paper gives the outlines of the main LPPS tasks performed by above mentioned organizations at Russian NPPs: • psycho-physiological examination of candidates and employees (PFE); • psychological and physiological support of workers (PPS); • socio-psychological aspects of safety culture; • psycho-pedagogical support of the educational process.

  19. Sustainability as an Ethical Principle: Ensuring Its Systematic Place in Professional Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Alongside the central focus on the persons requiring nursing care in professional nursing practice, the perspective of the sustainability of interventions and the use of materials (for example, nursing aids and hygiene articles) is gaining prominence in nursing decision-making processes. This contribution makes the principle of sustainability concrete and delineates its importance in the context of professional nursing practice and decision-making. It further suggests the development of an ethical policy in order to systematically ensure that sustainability has a place in ethical reflection and decision-making, and describes the elements involved. Finally, a synthesis is made between the importance of the principle of sustainability, suggested ethical policies (system of ethical reflection) as they affect nursing practice and professional reflection, decision-making, and practice. PMID:27417590

  20. Public health strategies to ensure reduction in suicide incidence in middle and low income nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the incidence of suicide has increased at an alarming rate and in the year 2012 close to 1 million people died because of suicide. Although, it is a well-acknowledged fact that suicides are completely preventable, the public health authorities have failed to halt the rising trend of the suicide because of the presence of various social and health related factors. As suicide is a complex issue, in the low and middle-income nations, the most cost-effective approach is to ensure the integration of suicide prevention program into the primary health care network. To conclude, suicide is an important public health concern which is definitively preventable. However, the need of the hour is that all the stakeholders should take collective responsibility, and work in collaboration to develop and implement a comprehensive multi-sectoral suicide prevention strategy.

  1. Conseptual framework of ensuring food security in the Ural federal district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Samvelovich Beletskiy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the risks and threats to food security of the Ural Federal District which can significantly reduce its the level. The most significant risks are grouped according to the following classification: macroeconomic, technological, climatic, agro-ecological and foreign trade risks. The main directions of economic policy of the Ural Federal District in the area of food security are defined. Particular attention is paid to the improvement of economic and physical availability of food for all groups of population and to the problems of formation of the state material reserves and food safety. Strategic development priorities in the field of agricultural and fishery products, raw materials and food, sustainable development of rural areas in the field of foreign policy are formulated. Conceptual bases for the implementation mechanism of economic policies to ensure food security in the region are suggested.

  2. Institutional models of Bunaken National Park (BNP management to ensure sustainability of ecological and economic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunaken Marine Park is one of the world's most beautiful marine tourism which has a unique coral reefs, turtles and diversity of pelagic fish. Currently Bunaken Marine Park has become an excellent tourist attraction for diving. Since the number of visitors and community activities around the park are continues to increase; there have been severe damages to coral reefs as well as polluting the environment around the marine park. Therefore, the sustainability of economic and social benefits is threatened. To avoid damage to coral reefs and pollutions, it is necessary the institute manager which can ensure the sustainability of he sustainability of the tourism attraction. Interpretative Method Structure Modeling (ISM was chosen to design the institutional model appropriate to the conditions surrounding the object, which is able to manage Bunaken Marine Park as a sustainable tourist attraction.

  3. Collaborative efforts are needed to ensure proper knowledge dissemination of telemedicine projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Neel Kolthoff; Jensen, Lena Sundby; Kayser, Lars

    2014-01-01

    documented and disseminated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Public and private funds were contacted for information about telemedicine studies focusing on people residing in their homes. After an initial screening of titles and abstracts, 19 projects were identified. The managers of the projects were contacted......INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine is often seen as the solution to the challenge of providing health care for an increasing number of people with chronic conditions. Projects are often organised locally and based on the involvement of stakeholders with a wide range of backgrounds. It can be challenging...... to ensure that projects are based on previous experience and that they do not repeat previous studies. To better understand these challenges and current practice, we examined telemedicine projects funded in the 2008-2010 period to explore where, how and to what extent results from the projects were...

  4. Evolving Importance of Securities Market to Ensure Economic Growth: Evidence from Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salnazaryan Ashot

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to reveal the importance of securities market in ensuring economic growth in Armenia. In order to make the research more substantial, we also examined the impact of other financial market segments, such as insurance market and credit market, on the economic growth. To estimate the relationship between financial market segments and economic growth, an empirical research was conducted using correlation and regression techniques. The research reveals that the most significant impact on the economic growth among Armenian financial market segments has the credit market of Armenia. There is no significant relationship between economic growth and insurance, as well as corporate securities market. It is pointed out in the research, that the evolving importance of the role of securities market in the economic growth is not yet demonstrated in Armenia, which, perhaps, results from the absence of interaction between securities market and economy in Armenia.

  5. Decision-making in the Unified Patent Court: Ensuring a balanced approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2016-01-01

    The Unified Patent Court (UPC) will become a central player in the future development of European patent law. For this reason it becomes important to ensure that UPC‘s decision-making reflects the double-function of the Court as an adjudicator of individual disputes and a policy maker. Because...... of its institutional design, the UPC will be biased towards technology based values. Therefore, there is a risk that non-technical values and interests will be either overlooked or underdeveloped in UPC decision-making which is likely to jeopardize public trust and legitimacy of its decisions. This paper...... analyses how these blind spots can be covered in patent litigation before the UPC within the current legislative framework. The paper focuses on the role of UPC judges as case-managers and decision-makers, on the potential role of third party interveners, and addresses the key role of the parties...

  6. Cyborg psychiatry to ensure agency and autonomy in mental disorders. A proposal for neuromodulation therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Arthur eMicoulaud Franchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulation therapeutics—as repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS and neurofeedback—are valuable tools for psychiatry. Nevertheless, they currently face some limitations: rTMS has confounding effects on neural activation patterns, and neurofeedback fails to change neural dynamics in some cases. Here we propose how coupling rTMS and neurofeedback can tackle both issues by adapting neural activations during rTMS and actively guiding individuals during neurofeedback. An algorithmic challenge then consists in designing the proper recording, processing, feedback, and control of unwanted effects. But this new neuromodulation technique also poses an ethical challenge: ensuring treatment occurs within a biopsychosocial model of medicine, while considering both the interaction between the patients and the psychiatrist, and the maintenance of individuals’ autonomy. Our solution is the concept of Cyborg psychiatry, which embodies the technique and includes a self-engaged interaction between patients and the neuromodulation device.

  7. Decoding incident-to and provider-based billing: ensuring payment and avoiding liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, Patricia S; Hart, Elinor L

    2012-01-01

    In this increasingly complex world of Medicare reimbursement, physicians must constantly review their billing practices to ensure compliance with all Medicare requirements. "Incident-to" billing and provider-based billing are two areas that present unique challenges for providers, especially those practicing in hospital-owned practices such as hospital outpatient departments. Both incident-to and provider-based billing limit providers' abilities to bill for and receive reimbursement in those practice settings. The Office of Inspector General's 2012 Work Plan Report identified both incident-to billing and place-of-service errors as two of the many areas for investigation and compliance efforts in 2012. This article focuses on identifying the unique point-of-service challenges presented by physicians practicing in hospital outpatient departments or hospital-owned clinics.

  8. Mathematical model and coordination algorithms for ensuring complex security of an organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoseltsev, V. I.; Orlova, D. E.; Dubrovin, A. S.; Irkhin, V. P.

    2018-03-01

    The mathematical model of coordination when ensuring complex security of the organization is considered. On the basis of use of a method of casual search three types of algorithms of effective coordination adequate to mismatch level concerning security are developed: a coordination algorithm at domination of instructions of the coordinator; a coordination algorithm at domination of decisions of performers; a coordination algorithm at parity of interests of the coordinator and performers. Assessment of convergence of the algorithms considered above it was made by carrying out a computing experiment. The described algorithms of coordination have property of convergence in the sense stated above. And, the following regularity is revealed: than more simply in the structural relation the algorithm, for the smaller number of iterations is provided to those its convergence.

  9. Compulsory licensing in Canada and Thailand: comparing regimes to ensure legitimate use of the WTO rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybecker, Kristina M; Fowler, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines two recent examples of compulsory licensing legislation: one globally embraced regime and one internationally controversial regime operating under the same WTO rules. In particular, we consider Canadian legislation and the use of compulsory licensing for HIV/AIDS drugs destined for a developing country. This is then contrasted with the conditions under which Thai authorities are pursuing compulsory licenses, the outcomes of their compulsory licenses, as well as the likely impact of the Thai policy. Finally, we construct a rubric to evaluate characteristics of a successful regime. This is used to analyze the Canadian and Thai regimes and frame the expected implications of each national policy. It is hoped that the assessment will guide changes to compulsory licensing design to ensure that legitimate regimes are embraced while illegitimate ones are disallowed.

  10. Problems in ensuring normal actuation of pneumatic drilling machines during their manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilev, V

    1982-01-01

    The problems of ensuring normal actuation and reliable operation of pneumatic drilling machines during their manufacturing are examined. The modes of operation are cited with which the normal actuation must be tested. Oscillograms are used to examine the characteristic cases of completion of machines with the impossibility of actuation during operation for one cycle or with an interruption in the mode, along with methods for eliminating these deficiencies. The effect on the actuation process of factors such as the type of rock being drilled, the change in the position of the machine, the axial force, the design of the air distribution device and the impact mechanism, the relationship between the surface areas of the distribution device and the travel of the distributor, the choking of the power and so on is studied. Different methods for completing design are analyzed.

  11. Conducting feasibilities in clinical trials: An investment to ensure a good study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Rajadhyaksha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting clinical trial feasibility is one of the first steps in clinical trial conduct. This process includes assessing internal and environmental capacity, alignment of the clinical trial in terms of study design, dose of investigational product, comparator, patient type, with the local environment and assessing potential of conducting clinical trial in a specific country. A robust feasibility also ensures a realistic assessment and capability to conduct the clinical trial. For local affiliates of pharmaceutical organizations, and contract research organizations, this is a precursor to study placement and influences the decision of study placement. This article provides details on different types of feasibilities, information which is to be included and relevance of each. The article also aims to provide practical hands-on suggestions to make feasibilities more realistic and informative.

  12. Conducting feasibilities in clinical trials: an investment to ensure a good study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajadhyaksha, Viraj

    2010-07-01

    Conducting clinical trial feasibility is one of the first steps in clinical trial conduct. This process includes assessing internal and environmental capacity, alignment of the clinical trial in terms of study design, dose of investigational product, comparator, patient type, with the local environment and assessing potential of conducting clinical trial in a specific country. A robust feasibility also ensures a realistic assessment and capability to conduct the clinical trial. For local affiliates of pharmaceutical organizations, and contract research organizations, this is a precursor to study placement and influences the decision of study placement. This article provides details on different types of feasibilities, information which is to be included and relevance of each. The article also aims to provide practical hands-on suggestions to make feasibilities more realistic and informative.

  13. Use of animals for toxicology testing is necessary to ensure patient safety in pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangipudy, Raja; Burkhardt, John; Kadambi, Vivek J

    2014-11-01

    There is an active debate in toxicology literature about the utility of animal testing vis-a-vis alternative in vitro paradigms. To provide a balanced perspective and add to this discourse it is important to review the current paradigms, explore pros and cons of alternatives, and provide a vision for the future. The fundamental goal of toxicity testing is to ensure safety in humans. In this article, IQ Consortium DruSafe, while submitting the view that nonclinical testing in animals is an important and critical component of the risk assessment paradigm in developing new drugs, also discusses its views on alternative approaches including a roadmap for what would be required to enhance the utilization of alternative approaches in the safety assessment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 49 CFR 39.39 - How do PVOs ensure that passengers with disabilities are able to use accessible cabins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do PVOs ensure that passengers with disabilities are able to use accessible cabins? 39.39 Section 39.39 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... to Services § 39.39 How do PVOs ensure that passengers with disabilities are able to use accessible...

  15. Organizing of medical ensurance of human population under extreme conditions. Summaries of reports of scientific-practical conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Summary of reports are presented of Scientific-Practical conference on the organizing of medical ensurance of human population under extreme conditions including radiation accidents. The conference held in Moscow in October, 1994. It covered problems of organizing medical ensurance of population, medical surveillance problems, sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological problems (including radiation protection), and medical provision problems under extreme conditions

  16. 76 FR 14025 - Guidance for Industry on Planning for the Effects of High Absenteeism To Ensure Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Planning for the Effects of High Absenteeism To Ensure Availability of Medically... entitled ``Planning for the Effects of High Absenteeism to Ensure Availability of Medically Necessary Drug... components to develop production plans in the event of an emergency that results in high absenteeism at one...

  17. THE IMPACT OF THE FOREIGN CAPITAL BANKS ON ENSURING FINANCIAL STABILITY ON LONG TERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac\tBORS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focusing on analysing the role played by the foreign banks within the national and international banking system as well the impact the foreign banks have on the autochthon banking system, on the financial activity, on the real economy and on the financial stability on long terms. The research conducted highlights the fact that along the positive impact on the banking system and on the economy of the host country, generated by their quality as vectors of mobilizing and directioning the international financial flows towards the host country, there can also be considered a negative impact. The study shows that the impact of the negative effects, that have as main cause the reversibility of the international financial flows, depends, on a great extent, on the specific conditions of the host country, on the characteristics of the foreign banks, but mostly, by the share held by the foreign countries within the framework of the host banking system. Starting from the role played by the capitalization of the banking system to ensure financial stability, the research made on Romania’s case shows both, the positive effects generated by the presence of the foreign banks and also, their vulnerability in front of this excessive dependence on the foreign capital induced by this presence. The solution to reduce this dependence can only come from the autochthon capital direction whose mobilization may countervail the gap made by the foreign banks and, by surceasing the process of financial disintermediation, to ensure the maintenance of the financial stability on long term.

  18. Strategies for ensuring global consistency/comparability of water-quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the past 20 years the water quality of the United States has improved remarkably-the waters are safer for drinking, swimming, and fishing. However, despite many accomplishments, it is still difficult to answer such basic questions as: 'How clean is the water?' and 'How is it changing over time?' These same questions exist on a global scale as well. In order to focus water-data issues in the United States, a national Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) was initiated for public and private organizations, whereby key elements involved in data collection, analysis, storage, and management could be made consistent and comparable. The ITFM recommended and its members are implementing a nationwide strategy to improve water-quality monitoring, assessment, and reporting activities. The intent of this paper is to suggest that a voluntary effort be initiated to ensure the comparability and utility of hydrological data on a global basis. Consistent, long-term data sets that are comparable are necessary in order to formulate ideas regarding regional and global trends in water quantity and quality. The author recommends that a voluntary effort similar to the ITFM effort be utilized. The strategy proposed would involve voluntary representation from countries and international organizations (e.g. World Health Organization) involved in drinking-water assessments and/or ambient water-quality monitoring. Voluntary partnerships such as this will improve curability to reduce health risks and achieve a better return on public and private investments in monitoring, environmental protection, and natural resource management, and result in a collaborative process that will save millions of dollars.In this work it is suggested that a voluntary effort be initiated to ensure the comparability and utility of hydrological data on a global basis. The strategy proposed would involve voluntary representation from countries and international organizations involved in

  19. Obligations of low income countries in ensuring equity in global health financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barugahare, John; Lie, Reidar K

    2015-09-08

    Despite common recognition of joint responsibility for global health by all countries particularly to ensure justice in global health, current discussions of countries' obligations for global health largely ignore obligations of developing countries. This is especially the case with regards to obligations relating to health financing. Bearing in mind that it is not possible to achieve justice in global health without achieving equity in health financing at both domestic and global levels, our aim is to show how fulfilling the obligation we propose will make it easy to achieve equity in health financing at both domestic and international levels. Achieving equity in global health financing is a crucial step towards achieving justice in global health. Our general view is that current discussions on global health equity largely ignore obligations of Low Income Country (LIC) governments and we recommend that these obligations should be mainstreamed in current discussions. While we recognise that various obligations need to be fulfilled in order to ultimately achieve justice in global health, for lack of space we prioritise obligations for health financing. Basing on the evidence that in most LICs health is not given priority in annual budget allocations, we propose that LIC governments should bear an obligation to allocate a certain minimum percent of their annual domestic budget resources to health, while they await external resources to supplement domestic ones. We recommend and demonstrate a mechanism for coordinating this obligation so that if the resulting obligations are fulfilled by both LIC and HIC governments it will be easy to achieve equity in global health financing. Although achieving justice in global health will depend on fulfillment of different categories of obligations, ensuring inter- and intra-country equity in health financing is pivotal. This can be achieved by requiring all LIC governments to allocate a certain optimal per cent of their domestic

  20. The Scope of the Obligation to Respect and to Ensure Respect for International Humanitarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zych

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article disputes what seems to have become the dominant interpretation of the obligation to respect and to ensure respect for International Humanitarian Law, as codified in common Article 1 of the Geneva Conventions and in Article 1(1 of Additional Protocol I. According to this dominant interpretation, States are required to take all appropriate measures to ensure that IHL is observed universally, including by other States and by non-State actors operating in other States. It is argued that the intention of the High Contracting Parties, coupled with their subsequent practice, calls for a much more narrow interpretation of that obligation. Cet article conteste ce qui semble être devenue l’interprétation dominante de l’obligation de respecter et de faire respecter le Droit International Humanitaire, tel que codifiée à l’article 1 commun aux Conventions de Genève et à l’article 1(1 du Protocole additionnel I. Selon cette interprétation dominante, les États doivent prendre toutes les mesures appropriées pour assurer que le DIH soit observé de façon universelle, y compris par d’autres États ainsi que par des acteurs non étatiques qui opèrent à l’intérieur d’autres États. On soutient que l’intention des Hautes Parties contractantes, en conjonction avec leur pratique subséquentes, laisse entendre une interprétation beaucoup plus étroite de cette obligation.

  1. Reflexion on linear regression trip production modelling method for ensuring good model quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprayitno, Hitapriya; Ratnasari, Vita

    2017-11-01

    Transport Modelling is important. For certain cases, the conventional model still has to be used, in which having a good trip production model is capital. A good model can only be obtained from a good sample. Two of the basic principles of a good sampling is having a sample capable to represent the population characteristics and capable to produce an acceptable error at a certain confidence level. It seems that this principle is not yet quite understood and used in trip production modeling. Therefore, investigating the Trip Production Modelling practice in Indonesia and try to formulate a better modeling method for ensuring the Model Quality is necessary. This research result is presented as follows. Statistics knows a method to calculate span of prediction value at a certain confidence level for linear regression, which is called Confidence Interval of Predicted Value. The common modeling practice uses R2 as the principal quality measure, the sampling practice varies and not always conform to the sampling principles. An experiment indicates that small sample is already capable to give excellent R2 value and sample composition can significantly change the model. Hence, good R2 value, in fact, does not always mean good model quality. These lead to three basic ideas for ensuring good model quality, i.e. reformulating quality measure, calculation procedure, and sampling method. A quality measure is defined as having a good R2 value and a good Confidence Interval of Predicted Value. Calculation procedure must incorporate statistical calculation method and appropriate statistical tests needed. A good sampling method must incorporate random well distributed stratified sampling with a certain minimum number of samples. These three ideas need to be more developed and tested.

  2. Plants modify biological processes to ensure survival following carbon depletion: a Lolium perenne model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants, due to their immobility, have evolved mechanisms allowing them to adapt to multiple environmental and management conditions. Short-term undesirable conditions (e.g. moisture deficit, cold temperatures generally reduce photosynthetic carbon supply while increasing soluble carbohydrate accumulation. It is not known, however, what strategies plants may use in the long-term to adapt to situations resulting in net carbon depletion (i.e. reduced photosynthetic carbon supply and carbohydrate accumulation. In addition, many transcriptomic experiments have typically been undertaken under laboratory conditions; therefore, long-term acclimation strategies that plants use in natural environments are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. was used as a model plant to define whether plants adapt to repetitive carbon depletion and to further elucidate their long-term acclimation mechanisms. Transcriptome changes in both lamina and stubble tissues of field-grown plants with depleted carbon reserves were characterised using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. The RT-qPCR data for select key genes indicated that plants reduced fructan degradation, and increased photosynthesis and fructan synthesis capacities following carbon depletion. This acclimatory response was not sufficient to prevent a reduction (P<0.001 in net biomass accumulation, but ensured that the plant survived. CONCLUSIONS: Adaptations of plants with depleted carbon reserves resulted in reduced post-defoliation carbon mobilization and earlier replenishment of carbon reserves, thereby ensuring survival and continued growth. These findings will help pave the way to improve plant biomass production, for either grazing livestock or biofuel purposes.

  3. PROBLEMS OF HARMONIZATION OF THE GOALS AND VITAL INTERESTS IN ENSURING SOCIO-ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Shvayba1

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of an independent democratic Belarusian state is inextricably linked with transformations in all aspects of public life and, first of all, in economy. Economic reforms in Belarus are directed on creation of socially oriented market economic system, which will ensure the most efficient usage of resources at minimum social cost. In the social economy concepts of “equality” and “poverty” are considered as basic ones. Social security services are based on these concepts and role of the social security in any country is to reduce poverty and increase equality. In modern world poverty is uniquely associated with a low level of economic development and its eradication is the first step on the path to economic growth. As for inequality, such clear connection of this concept with economic development can not be traced. There are various theories explaining the impact of inequality on economic growth. However, they cannot be considered satisfactory because they predict opposite results. Several studies have universally postulated a security as protection of vital interests of a human being, society and State from internal and external threats. Vital interests comprise a set of needs and satisfaction of these needs reliably ensures existence and possibility of progressive development of a human being, society and State which are the main objects of the security. Presence of a hierarchical structure for organization of the system or its subsystems is an essential feature for any socio-economic system. The economy is a poly-hierarchical system. When considering the hierarchical structure of production management it is important to consider one property of the economic system that is incompleteness of information.

  4. A Strategy for Ensuring Enterprise Competitiveness in the Sphere of Hotel Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavidna Liudmyla D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the process of forming a strategy to ensure competitiveness of an enterprise in the sphere of hotel services. The content of the concepts “competitiveness of an enterprise in the hotel industry”, “competitive advantage” and “competitive strategy” is defined. Factors influencing the level of competitiveness of enterprises in the hotel industry are grouped. Taking into account the analysis of the internal and external environment of hotel facilities, a matrix of SWOT analysis is built, and variants of corporate strategies for enterprises in the sphere of hotel services are proposed. Within the framework of the study, 21 hotel facilities from 10 regions of Ukraine (Vinnytsia, Volyn, Dnipropetrovsk, Zakarpattia, Lviv, Ternopil, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmelnytsky, Chernihiv and Kiev are analyzed. From the positions of the system approach to enterprise competitiveness, a system of factors that influence the process of forming the strategy of enterprises in the sphere of hotel services is proposed. Taking into account the analysis of the internal and external environment of the hotels, potential threats and opportunities from the external environment are revealed, and the weak and strong sides of each of the hotel facilities are detailed, as well as the basic matrix of SWOT analysis is formed. Based on the results of the study, the following options for corporate strategies are proposed: the Maxi-Maxi strategy, the Mini-Maxi strategy, the Maxi-Mini strategy, and the Mini-Mini strategy. The correct choice of the strategy will ensure its full implementation, have a positive effect for the further development and retention of the leading positions of the hotel industry in the market.

  5. The Need to Support and Maintain Legacy Software: Ensuring Ongoing Support for the Isotopics Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.-L.; Funk, P.; McGinnis, B.; Vo, D.; Wang, T.-F.; Peerani, P.; Zsigrai, J.; )

    2015-01-01

    Since about four decades, gamma evaluation codes for plutonium and uranium isotope abundance measurements are a key component of international, regional and domestic safeguards inspections. However, the development of these codes still relies upon a very limited number of experts. This led the safeguards authorities to express concerns, and to request continuity of knowledge and maintenance capability for the codes. The presentation describes initiatives undertaken in the past ten years to ensure ongoing support for the isotopic codes. As a follow-up to the 2005 international workshop, the IAEA issued a roadmap for future developments of gamma codes, followed by a request for support in this field to several MSSP's (namely JNT A 01684). The international working group on gamma spectrometry techniques for U and Pu isotopics (IWG-GST) was launched by the European, French and US MSSPs in 2007, to respond to the needs expressed by the IAEA and other national or international inspectorates. Its activities started with the organization in 2008 of a workshop on gamma spectrometry analysis codes for U and Pu isotopics. The working group is currently developing an international database of reference spectra that will be made available to the community of users and developers. In parallel, IRSN contributes to the JNT A 01684 by advising the IAEA on establishing a procedure for validating a new version of isotopics codes compared to the previous version. The most recent initiative, proposed by the IAEA, consists in organizing an inter-comparison exercise to assess the performances of U and Pu isotopics and mass assay techniques based on medium resolution gamma spectrometry (MRGS). All these initiatives contributed to the continuity of knowledge and maintenance of the gamma isotopic codes, but further efforts are needed to ensure the long-term sustainability of the codes. (author)

  6. The Challenge of Ensuring Persistency of Identifier Systems in the World of Ever-Changing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Car

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of information objects has always been important with library collections with indexes having been created in the most ancient times. Since the digital age, many specialised and generic persistent identifier (PID systems have been used to identify digital objects. Just as many ancient indexes have died over time, so too PID systems have had a lifecycle from inception to active phase to paralysis, and eventually a fall into oblivion. Where the indexes within the Great Library at Alexandria finally succumbed to fire, technology change has been the destroyer of more recent digital indexes. We distil four PID system design principles from observations over the years that we think should be implemented by PID system architects to ensure that their systems survive change. The principles: describe how to ensure identifiers’ system and organisation independence; codify the delivery of essential PID system functions; mandate a separation of PID functions from data delivery mechanisms; and require generation of policies detailing how change is handled. In addition to suggesting specific items for each principle, we propose that a platform-independent model (PIM be established for persistent identifiers – of any sort and with any resolver technology – in order to enable transition between present and future systems and the preservation of the identifiers’ functioning. We detail our PID system—the PID Service—that implements the proposed principles and a data model to some extent and we describe an implementation case study of an organisation’s implementation of PID systems that implement the Pillars further but still not completely. Penultimately, we describe in a Future Work section, an opportunity for the use of both the Pillars and the PIM; that of the World Wide Web Consortium’s Permanent Identifier Community Group who is seeking to “set up and maintain a secure permanent, URL re-direction service for the web”.

  7. Charge initiation schemes for ensuring high-performance operation of cyclic-flow technology cyclic link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Zharikov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the issue of ensuring the quality of crushing rock mass by drilling and blasting method for high productivity of a cyclic link of a cyclic-flow technology complex. The article contains recommendations for calculating certain parameters of drilling and blasting operations, such as the width of the retaining wall Bp. s, the collapse with account for the retaining wall Вr, the width of the collapse of the rock mass Bf when blasting onto a free surface (for the first row of vertical wells and for the first series of inclined wells, the width of the collapse from the first series of wells B1, the deceleration time τ, the coefficient kβ that takes into account the incline angle of wells β to the horizon. The authors prove the expediency of using a retaining wall in explosions of technological blocks. The authors raise the question about the management of detonation characteristics of explosives produced in the field of application for the most rational impact of an explosion on a rock massif. Since the technological schemes for preparing the rock mass to the excavation, which ensure the high-performance operation of the cyclic link of the cyclic-flow technology, can be different, then the choice of a specific drilling and blasting circuit is depends on the geological conditions and elements of the development system. As a preliminary method of breaking, one can consider the explosion of charges along the diagonal (diagonal blasting schemes on the retaining wall. This method provides sufficient reliability of technological explosions, and with the development of modern means of blasting with decelerations between charges of more than 67 ms, there are nearly no back emissions.

  8. Agriculture in the climate change negotiations; ensuring that food production is not threatened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldowney, J; Mounsey, J; Kinsella, L

    2013-06-01

    With the human population predicted to reach nine billion by 2050, demand for food is predicted to more than double over this time period, a trend which will lead to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. Furthermore, expansion in food production is predicted to occur primarily in the developing world, where adaptation to climate change may be more difficult and opportunities to mitigate emissions limited. In the establishment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 'ensuring that food production is not threatened' is explicitly mentioned in the objective of the Convention. However, the focus of negotiations under the Convention has largely been on reducing GHG emissions from energy, and industrial activities and realizing the potential of forestry as a carbon sink. There has been little attention by the UNFCCC to address the challenges and opportunities for the agriculture sector. Since 2006, concerted efforts have been made to raise the prominence of agriculture within the negotiations. The most recent The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report and 'The Emissions Gap Report' by the UNEP highlighted the significant mitigation potential of agriculture, which can help contribute towards keeping global temperature rises below the 2°C limit agreed in Cancun. Agriculture has to be a part of the solution to address climate change, but this will also require a focus on how agriculture systems can adapt to climate change in order to continue to increase food output. However, to effectively realize this potential, systematic and dedicated discussion and decisions within the UNFCCC are needed. UNFCCC discussions on a specific agriculture agenda item started in 2012, but are currently inconclusive. However, Parties are generally in agreement on the importance of agriculture in contributing to food security and employment as well as the need to improve understanding of agriculture and how it can contribute to

  9. Improving outcomes in patients with melanoma: strategies to ensure an early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voss RK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rachel K Voss,1 Tessa N Woods,1 Kate D Cromwell,1 Kelly C Nelson,2 Janice N Cormier1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, 2Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Patients with thin, low-risk melanomas have an excellent long-term prognosis and higher quality of life than those who are diagnosed at later stages. From an economic standpoint, treatment of early stage melanoma consumes a fraction of the health care resources needed to treat advanced disease. Consequently, early diagnosis of melanoma is in the best interest of patients, payers, and health care systems. This review describes strategies to ensure that patients receive an early diagnosis through interventions ranging from better utilization of primary care clinics, to in vivo diagnostic technologies, to new “apps” available in the market. Strategies for screening those at high risk due to age, male sex, skin type, nevi, genetic mutations, or family history are discussed. Despite progress in identifying those at high risk for melanoma, there remains a lack of general consensus worldwide for best screening practices. Strategies to ensure early diagnosis of recurrent disease in those with a prior melanoma diagnosis are also reviewed. Variations in recurrence surveillance practices by type of provider and country are featured, with evidence demonstrating that various imaging studies, including ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, provide only minimal gains in life expectancy, even for those with more advanced (stage III disease. Because the majority of melanomas are attributable to ultraviolet radiation in the form of sunlight, primary prevention strategies, including sunscreen use and behavioral interventions, are reviewed. Recent international government regulation of tanning beds is described, as well as issues surrounding the continued use artificial ultraviolet

  10. Investments on Pro-poor Development Projects on Goats: Ensuring Success for Improved Livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C

    2013-01-01

    The elements that determine the success of development projects on goats and the prerequisites for ensuring this are discussed in the context of the bewildering diversity of goat genetic resources, production systems, multifunctionality, and opportunities for responding to constraints for productivity enhancement. Key determinants for the success of pro-poor projects are the imperatives of realistic project design, resolution of priorities and positive impacts to increase investments and spur agricultural growth, and appropriate policy. Throughout the developing world, there exist 97% of the total world population of 921 million goats across all agro-ecological zones (AEZs), including 570 breeds and 64% share of the breeds. They occupy a very important biological and socio-economic niche in farming systems making significant multifunctional contributions especially to food, nutrition and financial security, stability of farm households, and survival of the poor in the rural areas. Definitions are given of successful and failed projects. The analyses highlighted in successful projects the value of strong participatory efforts with farmers and climate change. Climate change effects on goats are inevitable and are mediated through heat stress, type of AEZ, water availability, quantity and quality of the available feed resources and type of production system. Within the prevailing production systems, improved integrated tree crops - ruminant systems are underestimated and are an important pathway to enhance C sequestration. Key development strategies and opportunities for research and development (R and D) are enormous, and include inter alia defining a policy framework, resolution of priority constraints using systems perspectives and community-based participatory activities, application of yield-enhancing technologies, intensification, scaling up, and impacts. The priority for development concerns the rainfed areas with large concentrations of ruminants in which

  11. Investments on Pro-poor Development Projects on Goats: Ensuring Success for Improved Livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Devendra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The elements that determine the success of development projects on goats and the prerequisites for ensuring this are discussed in the context of the bewildering diversity of goat genetic resources, production systems, multifunctionality, and opportunities for responding to constraints for productivity enhancement. Key determinants for the success of pro-poor projects are the imperatives of realistic project design, resolution of priorities and positive impacts to increase investments and spur agricultural growth, and appropriate policy. Throughout the developing world, there exist 97% of the total world population of 921 million goats across all agro-ecological zones (AEZs, including 570 breeds and 64% share of the breeds. They occupy a very important biological and socio-economic niche in farming systems making significant multifunctional contributions especially to food, nutrition and financial security, stability of farm households, and survival of the poor in the rural areas. Definitions are given of successful and failed projects. The analyses highlighted in successful projects the value of strong participatory efforts with farmers and climate change. Climate change effects on goats are inevitable and are mediated through heat stress, type of AEZ, water availability, quantity and quality of the available feed resources and type of production system. Within the prevailing production systems, improved integrated tree crops - ruminant systems are underestimated and are an important pathway to enhance C sequestration. Key development strategies and opportunities for research and development (R and D are enormous, and include inter alia defining a policy framework, resolution of priority constraints using systems perspectives and community-based participatory activities, application of yield-enhancing technologies, intensification, scaling up, and impacts. The priority for development concerns the rainfed areas with large concentrations of

  12. Protective coating as a factor to ensure the strength and hydraulic performance of recoverable pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an analysis of various types of internal protective pipeline coatings to ensure the strength and hydraulic characteristics of a remodeled pipeline and related coating methods for effective trenchless renovation of engineering systems, water supply systems and sanitation. As protective coating the authors considered a round profile tube of a smaller diameter than of the old pipe, close to the old pipe, sprayed lining on the basis of inorganic and inorganic materials. The article analyzes the methods of trenchless renovation for applying protective coatings: routing in the old pipeline of new pipes made of polymeric materials or polymeric sleeves, centrifugal spraying on the inner surface of pipelines’ inorganic and organic protective coatings. Special attention was paid to bag technology, providing the required strength properties at specific values of the modulus of elasticity and a number of external factors such as the depth of the existing pipe, the existence and magnitude of the horizon groundwater over it. Also attention is paid to the application technology of tape coatings ribbed profile on the inner surface of pipelines. This technology has a unique feature, which is the ability of recoverable pipeline functioning during its renovation by winding an endless belt and the formation of a new pipe. The tape coating winding is carried out by different types of spiral winding machines. The thickness of the protective coating layer forming the tube remains minimal. Inorganic cement-sand and organic coatings were considered as alternative options for repair of pipelines, which allow to localize the defects in the form of a fistula, minor cracks and other damages. However it is noted that a cement-sandy covering is inferior to organic, because it does not provide the strength characteristics of the pipeline system. The main advantage of the organic coating is mudding fistula of a large diameter, making a high wear

  13. Modification of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolyser to ensure tritium compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichelhardt, F.; Cristescu, I.; Michling, R.; Welte, S.

    2010-01-01

    A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is required for the ITER Tritium Plant in order to process tritiated water which is accumulated in various subsystems (e.g. the hall ventilation systems). For the ITER-WDS, the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process with an electrolyser unit as one of the major components is envisaged. An experimental WDS was built and commissioned at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) for the investigation of various subsystems of the CECE process in tritium environment. The TLK-WDS consists of an 8 m Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange column and two Solid Polymer Electrolyte electrolysers, each with a maximum hydrogen output of 1 m 3 /h. The commercially available Hogen40 electrolyser units from Proton Energy Systems are not tritium compatible concerning materials, joints and quality documentation (e.g. necessary certificates). In order to process tritiated water with tritium concentrations up to 370 GBq/kg, tritium compatibility had to be ensured by appropriate modifications. Up to now, the modified system has been operated with tritiated water for 3500 h, the maximum tritium concentration in the electrolysers being 190 GBq/kg. This contribution reports on the necessary modifications of the electrolyser units and the experiences gained thereby. The results are equally important for the ITER-WDS, where the maximum tritium concentration in the feed water of the electrolyser units will be even higher with 11 TBq/kg.

  14. Ensuring good nutritional status in patients with Parkinson's disease: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baroni L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Luciana Baroni,1 Cristina Zuliani2 1Primary Care Unit, Northern District, Azienda ULSS 9 Treviso, Italy; 2Department of Neurology, General Hospital, Mirano, Venice, Italy Abstract: Nutrition is becoming an important tool in the management of the main chronic diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD. Nutritional status has been shown to deteriorate with the progression of PD, due to motor and nonmotor complications. Dietary protein can reduce the effectiveness of levodopa treatment in PD patients, since the large neutral amino acids and levodopa share the same saturated carrier system, while fiber can improve the drug bioavailability. Moreover, nutrition seems to be directly involved in PD risk: high dietary intakes of animal fat, iron, mercury, and dairy, as well as western dietary patterns can increase it, while intake of some antioxidant compounds and plant-based dietary patterns can be protective. The means of ensuring good nutritional status in PD range from providing adequate energy and nutrients for the body, to considering in a broader perspective, the management of motor and nonmotor symptoms and chronic levodopa treatment complications, as well as pursuing potential neuroprotection. This review summarizes the most relevant results in the literature, and discusses the contribution of diet in the management of PD. Keywords: levodopa, Mediterranean diet, plant-based diet, protein-redistribution diet, vegetarian diet

  15. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  16. THE PROBLEMS OF ENSURE OF SAFE LABOR CONDITIONS ON WORKPLACES FOR ADHESIVE BONDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara CIECIŃSKA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the performance a variety of technological operations a human may come into contact with a variety of factors caus-ing deterioration of safety at work. As an example of which is described in article, adhesive bonding operations are re-quiring use of specific chemicals, which are adhesives. They are produced on the basis of a variety of compounds, often hazardous to human health. Furthermore, adhesive bonding requires a series of preparatory operations such as degreas-ing or surface preparation with a specific structure and roughness and auxiliary operations such as measurement of the wettability of surface. In this paper are described examples of risks occurring during adhesive bonding, it is a simple way to estimate the risks associated with the performance of operations. The examples of the determination by the produc-ers of chemicals are described which are used in adhesive bonding and fragment of international chemical safety card (ICSC, as a source of information important to the workplace organization and ensuring safety during adhesive bonding.

  17. 'Mini'-Roadmapping - Ensuring Timely Sites' Cleanup/Closure by Resolving Science and Technology Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, D.E.; Dixon, B.W.; Murphy, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Roadmapping is a powerful tool to manage technical risks and opportunities associated with complex problems. Roadmapping identifies technical capabilities required for both project- and program-level efforts and provides the basis for plans that ensure the necessary enabling activities will be done when needed. Roadmapping reveals where to focus further development of the path forward by evaluating uncertainties for levels of complexity, impacts, and/or the potential for large payback. Roadmaps can be customized to the application, a ''graded approach'' if you will. Some roadmaps are less detailed. We have called these less detailed, top-level roadmaps ''mini-roadmaps''. These mini roadmaps are created to tie the needed enablers (e.g., technologies, decisions, etc.) to the functions. If it is found during the mini-roadmapping that areas of significant risk exist, then those can be roadmapped further to a lower level of detail. Otherwise, the mini-roadmap may be sufficient to manage the project/program risk. Applying a graded approach to the roadmapping can help keep the costs down. Experience has indicated that it is best to do mini-roadmapping first and then evaluate the risky areas to determine whether to further evaluate those areas. Roadmapping can be especially useful for programs/projects that have participants from multiple sites, programs, or other entities which are involved. Increased synergy, better communications, and increased cooperation are the results from roadmapping a program/project with these conditions

  18. ASSERTING AND DEVELOPING THE IDEA OF LEGAL OBLIGATION, FOR ENSURING AND PROTECTING THE HUMAN RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena MARIN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have been written about human rights and freedoms. Addressing this issue appears to be within everyone’s reach and everyone seems to be good at launching discussions about human rights and freedoms. When we are given the opportunity of collecting information about these concepts or of expressing a point of view, we should first refer to the concept itself, as researched by scholars, and then see how these studies can be found in practice, in everyday life. Otherwise, purely theoretical studies and Abstract: analyzes do not have any sense; do not produce any effect, facts which would render them useless. In this paper we aim at analyzing the concepts of legal obligation, of ensuring and protecting the human rights, viewed as a whole, as a unit, just as an idea is perceived. Thus, we are going to place human rights and freedoms in relation to legal normativity, to theory and their legal regulation on the one hand, and, on the other hand, we are going to focus on the materialization and implementation of these concepts, particularly within the national borders, but also in the European Union.

  19. Improvement of NPP training to ensure a transfer of critical knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaisnys, P.; Bieth, M.; Kosilov, A.; Lipar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. The adequate management of human resources, proper educational system and training approaches and methods to achieve and maintain the proper competencies of personnel are indispensable elements of knowledge management for nuclear industry. To transfer the knowledge from the experience to the newcomers, to establish the consistent links between the national educational system and qualification needs, to respond to the changes in the nuclear technology, to ensure the adequate level of corporate memory are the examples of the links between the knowledge management and the training. The paper presents the extensive information on the challenges, the nuclear industry encounters in the training and qualification (T and Q) of the personnel, and the good practises that are in use at nuclear power plants to respond to these challenges. The information presented is based on the experience from the IAEA OSART missions which review the training and qualification matters at the nuclear power plants among the other operational management programmes. IE/JRC-EC supports the OSART activities by providing the experts for the specific operational areas and participating in the development of the IAEA Safety Standards. New Project launched in the IE in 2007, SONIS (Safety of nuclear installations) is focused on the operational aspects of nuclear power plants, in particular maintenance, and the qualification and training of the maintenance personnel is of the particular interest of SONIS. The information presented in the paper is the result of the thorough analysis of the OSMIR Data Base. This database is a compilation of recommendations, suggestions and good practices from OSART mission reports, and covers all missions from January 1991 to the most recent missions for which an official reports have been published. It was

  20. Ensuring clean air: Developing a clean air strategy for British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    In 1992, a clean air strategy will be developed to incorporate views of British Columbians on ways to meet goals related to air quality. A discussion paper is presented to provide information to those interested in participation in developing this strategy. The paper gives information on air quality issues important to the province, including local air quality, urban smog, ozone layer depletion, and global climate change. The views and concerns expressed by stakeholders who attended the Clean Air Conference in 1991 are summarized. The process used to develop the clean air strategy is outlined and some outcomes to be anticipated from the strategy are suggested, including policies and priorities for action to ensure clean air. Air pollutants of concern are total reduced sulfur, mainly from pulp mills and gas processing plants; smoke from wood burning; sulfur dioxide from pulp mills and gas plants; hydrogen fluoride from aluminum smelting; ground-level ozone in urban areas; and acid rain. Elements of a clean air strategy include a smoke management policy, management strategies for greenhouse gases and ozone smog, ozone layer protection measures, regional air quality management plans, and long-term planning efforts in energy use, transportation modes, community design, and land use. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  1. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabato TM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Todd M Sabato, Tanis J Walch, Dennis J Caine Department of Kinesiology and Public Health Education, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA Abstract: This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants – including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification – to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention. Keywords: elite, young athlete, athletic injury, psychological, risk factors, injury prevention

  2. Steps to Ensure a Successful Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety Interventions at an Organizational Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Herrera-Sánchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing meta-analytic evidence that addresses the positive impact of evidence-based occupational health and safety interventions on employee health and well-being. However, such evidence is less clear when interventions are approached at an organizational level and are aimed at changing organizational policies and processes. Given that occupational health and safety interventions are usually tailored to specific organizational contexts, generalizing and transferring such interventions to other organizations is a complex endeavor. In response, several authors have argued that an evaluation of the implementation process is crucial for assessing the intervention’s effectiveness and for understanding how and why the intervention has been (unsuccessful. Thus, this paper focuses on the implementation process and attempts to move this field forward by identifying the main factors that contribute toward ensuring a greater success of occupational health and safety interventions conducted at the organizational level. In doing so, we propose some steps that can guide a successful implementation. These implementation steps are illustrated using examples of evidence-based best practices reported in the literature that have described and systematically evaluated the implementation process behind their interventions during the last decade.

  3. Protein O-fucosylation in Plasmodium falciparum ensures efficient infection of mosquito and vertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaticki, Sash; Yang, Annie S P; John, Alan; Scott, Nichollas E; Lingford, James P; O'Neill, Matthew T; Erickson, Sara M; McKenzie, Nicole C; Jennison, Charlie; Whitehead, Lachlan W; Douglas, Donna N; Kneteman, Norman M; Goddard-Borger, Ethan D; Boddey, Justin A

    2017-09-15

    O-glycosylation of the Plasmodium sporozoite surface proteins CSP and TRAP was recently identified, but the role of this modification in the parasite life cycle and its relevance to vaccine design remain unclear. Here, we identify the Plasmodium protein O-fucosyltransferase (POFUT2) responsible for O-glycosylating CSP and TRAP. Genetic disruption of POFUT2 in Plasmodium falciparum results in ookinetes that are attenuated for colonizing the mosquito midgut, an essential step in malaria transmission. Some POFUT2-deficient parasites mature into salivary gland sporozoites although they are impaired for gliding motility, cell traversal, hepatocyte invasion, and production of exoerythrocytic forms in humanized chimeric liver mice. These defects can be attributed to destabilization and incorrect trafficking of proteins bearing thrombospondin repeats (TSRs). Therefore, POFUT2 plays a similar role in malaria parasites to that in metazoans: it ensures the trafficking of Plasmodium TSR proteins as part of a non-canonical glycosylation-dependent endoplasmic reticulum protein quality control mechanism.The role of O-glycosylation in the malaria life cycle is largely unknown. Here, the authors identify a Plasmodium protein O-fucosyltransferase and show that it is important for normal trafficking of a subset of surface proteins, particularly CSP and TRAP, and efficient infection of mosquito and vertebrate hosts.

  4. Control of welding residual stress for ensuring integrity against fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    The availability of several techniques for residual stress control is discussed in this paper. The effectiveness of these techniques in protecting from fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking is verified by numerical analysis and actual experiment. In-process control during welding for residual stress reduction is easier to apply than using post-weld treatment. As an example, control of the welding pass sequence for multi-pass welding is applied to cruciform joints and butt-joints with an X-shaped groove. However, residual stress improvement is confirmed for post-weld processes. Water jet peening is useful for obtaining a compressive residual stress on the surface, and the tolerance against both fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking is verified. Because cladding with a corrosion-resistant material is also effective for preventing stress-corrosion cracking from a metallurgical perspective, the residual stress at the interface of the base metal is carefully considered. The residual stress of the base metal near the clad edge is confirmed to be within the tolerance of crack generation. Controlling methods both during and after welding processes are found to be effective for ensuring the integrity of welded components

  5. Stewardship of NASA's Earth Science Data and Ensuring Long-Term Active Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Program, NASA has followed an open data policy, with non-discriminatory access to data with no period of exclusive access. NASA has well-established processes for assigning and or accepting datasets into one of 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that are parts of EOSDIS. EOSDIS has been evolving through several information technology cycles, adapting to hardware and software changes in the commercial sector. NASA is responsible for maintaining Earth science data as long as users are interested in using them for research and applications, which is well beyond the life of the data gathering missions. For science data to remain useful over long periods of time, steps must be taken to preserve: (1) Data bits with no corruption, (2) Discoverability and access, (3) Readability, (4) Understandability, (5) Usability' and (6). Reproducibility of results. NASAs Earth Science data and Information System (ESDIS) Project, along with the 12 EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), has made significant progress in each of these areas over the last decade, and continues to evolve its active archive capabilities. Particular attention is being paid in recent years to ensure that the datasets are published in an easily accessible and citable manner through a unified metadata model, a common metadata repository (CMR), a coherent view through the earthdata.gov website, and assignment of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) with well-designed landing product information pages.

  6. Implementation of State Obligations and Responsibility Ensuring the Availability of Clean Water in Karimunjawa Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu; Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih

    2018-02-01

    This article aims to analyze the implementation of state obligations and responsibility ensuring the availability of clean water as part of human rights in Karimunjawa islands. The analysis based on principle of the State obligations and responsibility to fulfill their citizen right. Water sources in Karimunjawa Islands is very limited. It depend on forest conservation. Around 9.600 peoples live in Karimunjawa Islands, but Karimunjawa is non groundwater basin region. It means, Karimunjawa doesn't have groundwater potential. The quantity of water depends on the season. The solution to maintain the sustainability of clean water is piping from water reservoir to residential areas. The problem is there are so many hotels in Karimunjawa islands, it disrupted the fulfillment of clean water. Besides utilizing water from reservoir, many hotels drilled the ground to get water. It had impact to the availibity of water in dry season and affected to fulfillment of water supply for Karimunjawa people. There is no specific regulation and policy to solve this problem. Clean water management is doing by Karimunjawa's people. Meanwhile, based on Mahkamah Konstitusi Decree number 85/PUU-XI/2013, state is a rights holder to dominate the water in accordance with the Articles 33 paragraph (2) and (3) UUD NRI 1945, so the government has an obligation to make a policy, regulations, management, and supervision.

  7. Design of planar microcoil-based NMR probe ensuring high SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zishan; Poenar, D. P.; Aditya, Sheel

    2017-09-01

    A microNMR probe for ex vivo applications may consist of at least one microcoil, which can be used as the oscillating magnetic field (MF) generator as well as receiver coil, and a sample holder, with a volume in the range of nanoliters to micro-liters, placed near the microcoil. The Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) of such a probe is, however, dependent not only on its design but also on the measurement setup, and the measured sample. This paper introduces a performance factor P independent of both the proton spin density in the sample and the external DC magnetic field, and which can thus assess the performance of the probe alone. First, two of the components of the P factor (inhomogeneity factor K and filling factor η ) are defined and an approach to calculate their values for different probe variants from electromagnetic simulations is devised. A criterion based on dominant component of the magnetic field is then formulated to help designers optimize the sample volume which also affects the performance of the probe, in order to obtain the best SNR for a given planar microcoil. Finally, the P factor values are compared between different planar microcoils with different number of turns and conductor aspect ratios, and planar microcoils are also compared with conventional solenoids. These comparisons highlight which microcoil geometry-sample volume combination will ensure a high SNR under any external setup.

  8. Design of planar microcoil-based NMR probe ensuring high SNR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zishan Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A microNMR probe for ex vivo applications may consist of at least one microcoil, which can be used as the oscillating magnetic field (MF generator as well as receiver coil, and a sample holder, with a volume in the range of nanoliters to micro-liters, placed near the microcoil. The Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR of such a probe is, however, dependent not only on its design but also on the measurement setup, and the measured sample. This paper introduces a performance factor P independent of both the proton spin density in the sample and the external DC magnetic field, and which can thus assess the performance of the probe alone. First, two of the components of the P factor (inhomogeneity factor K and filling factor η are defined and an approach to calculate their values for different probe variants from electromagnetic simulations is devised. A criterion based on dominant component of the magnetic field is then formulated to help designers optimize the sample volume which also affects the performance of the probe, in order to obtain the best SNR for a given planar microcoil. Finally, the P factor values are compared between different planar microcoils with different number of turns and conductor aspect ratios, and planar microcoils are also compared with conventional solenoids. These comparisons highlight which microcoil geometry-sample volume combination will ensure a high SNR under any external setup.

  9. Recommendations for Genetic Variation Data Capture in Developing Countries to Ensure a Comprehensive Worldwide Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, George P; Al Aama, Jumana; Al Aqeel, Aida; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Borg, Joseph; Devereux, Andrew; Felice, Alex E; Macrae, Finlay; Marafie, Makia J; Petersen, Michael B; Qi, Ming; Ramesar, Rajkumar S; Zlotogora, Joel; Cotton, Richard GH

    2011-01-01

    Developing countries have significantly contributed to the elucidation of the genetic basis of both common and rare disorders, providing an invaluable resource of cases due to large family sizes, consanguinity, and potential founder effects. Moreover, the recognized depth of genomic variation in indigenous African populations, reflecting the ancient origins of humanity on the African continent, and the effect of selection pressures on the genome, will be valuable in understanding the range of both pathological and nonpathological variations. The involvement of these populations in accurately documenting the extant genetic heterogeneity is more than essential. Developing nations are regarded as key contributors to the Human Variome Project (HVP; http://www.humanvariomeproject.org), a major effort to systematically collect mutations that contribute to or cause human disease and create a cyber infrastructure to tie databases together. However, biomedical research has not been the primary focus in these countries even though such activities are likely to produce economic and health benefits for all. Here, we propose several recommendations and guidelines to facilitate participation of developing countries in genetic variation data documentation, ensuring an accurate and comprehensive worldwide data collection. We also summarize a few well-coordinated genetic data collection initiatives that would serve as paradigms for similar projects. Hum Mutat 31:1–8, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21089065

  10. Multi-station basis for Polar Cap (PC) indices: ensuring credibility and operational reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2018-02-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices, PCN (North) and PCS (South) are based on polar geomagnetic observations from Qaanaaq (Thule) and Vostok, respectively, processed to measure the transpolar plasma convection that may seriously affect space weather conditions. To establish reliable space weather forecasts based on PC indices, and also to ensure credibility of their use for scientific analyses of solar wind-magnetosphere interactions, additional sources of data for the PC indices are investigated. In the search for alternative index sources, objective quality criteria are established here to be used for the selection among potential candidates. These criteria are applied to existing PC index series to establish a quality scale. In the Canadian region, the data from Resolute Bay magnetometer are shown to provide alternative PCN indices of adequate quality. In Antarctica, the data from Concordia Dome-C observatory are shown to provide basis for alternative PCS indices. In examples to document the usefulness of these alternative index sources it is shown that PCN indices in a real-time version based on magnetometer data from Resolute Bay could have given 6 h of early warning, of which the last 2 h were "red alert", up to the onset of the strong substorm event on 13 March 1989 that caused power outage in Quebec. The alternative PCS indices based on data from Dome-C have helped to disclose that presently available Vostok-based PCS index values are corrupted throughout most of 2011.

  11. Photovoltaic System Regulation Based on a PID Fuzzy Controller to Ensure a Fixed Settling Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Ortiz-Valencia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the controllers in photovoltaic systems (PV is to ensure the maximum extraction of the available power. Those controllers usually combine the action of a maximum power point tracking algorithm (MPPT with a voltage regulator, which has the function of rejecting disturbances at the panel terminals. Such controllers are commonly based on PI and PID structures, it requiring linearized models at an operating point. But, due to disturbances generated by the environment and the load, the operating point of the system changes drastically, which hinder to obtain the desired system performance. This paper proposes to regulate the PV system using a Fuzzy PID controller, which adapts to changes in solar irradiance and load oscillations. This characteristic guarantees a constant settling time, which is required to precisely define the period of the MPPT algorithm. In the case of classical linear controllers, the period of the MPPT algorithm is set to the worst case (longest period which generates additional power losses by slowing down the tracking of the optimal operating point. Therefore, the solution proposed in this paper improves the overall system efficiency. Finally, such a solution is validated through simulations in Matlab®.

  12. Development of Beet Sugar Production in Ryazan Region in the Context of Ensuring Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansurov Ruslan Evgenyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on the current state of the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region in the context of the need of improving its efficiency. The study let the author determine that currently the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region does not ensure domestic demand in sand sugar. However, there are reserves of providing more efficient use of soil and climate capacity as well as the productivity potential of the region. When applying the technology of field beet piling, the period of sugar production at sugar factories may be extended up to 200 days. At this, up to 51 thousand tons of sand sugar can be produced. This amount will completely cover the annual demand for sugar in Ryazan region. In order to further study the feasibility of this approach, zoning was carried out and let allocate the zones of beet seeding. As a result, it was determined that a number of areas are far removed from the place of treatment, and in terms of transportation costs minimization the sugar beet cultivation in these areas is not rational. As an alternative, the author proposes to consider the possibility of building a new sugar factory in Ryazhsky district with the processing capacity of 1,000 tons of sugar beet per day. Taking this into account, the recommended acreage of sugar beet by districts and zones of raw material supply were obtained through corresponding calculations.

  13. Long-term interim storage concepts with conditioning strategies ensuring compatibility with subsequent disposal or reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moitrier, C.; Tirel, I.; Villard, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the CEA studies carried out under research topic 3 (long-term interim storage) of the 1991 French radioactive waste management law is to demonstrate the industrial feasibility of a comprehensive, flexible interim storage facility by thoroughly evaluating and comparing all the basic components of various interim storage concepts. In this context, the CEA is considering reference solutions or concepts based on three primary components (the package, the interim storage facility and the site) suitable for determining the specifications of a very long-term solution. Some aspects are examined in greater detail, such as the implementation of long-term technologies, conditioning processes ensuring the absence of water and contamination in the facility, or allowance for radioactive decay of the packages. The results obtained are continually compiled in reports substantiating the design options. These studies should also lead to an overall economic assessment in terms of the capital and operating cost requirements, thereby providing an additional basis for selecting the design options. The comparison with existing industrial facilities highlights the technical and economic progress represented by the new generation of interim storage units. (authors)

  14. The elite young athlete: strategies to ensure physical and emotional health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Todd M; Walch, Tanis J; Caine, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a current review of the risk of physical and psychological injury associated with participation in elite youth sport, and suggests strategies to ensure the physical and emotional health of these young athletes. Although there is lack of epidemiological data, especially with regard to psychological injury, preliminary data suggest that the risk of injury is high in this population. While there is lack of incident and follow-up data, there is also concern regarding burnout, disordered eating, and the long-term consequences of injury. Modifiable injury risk factors identified include postural control, competition anxiety, life events, previous injury, and volume of training. There are presently no studies designed to determine the effectiveness of injury prevention measures in elite youth sports. However, there is adequate evidence arising from injury prevention studies of youth sports participants - including neuromuscular training, protective equipment, mental training to enhance self-esteem, and sport rules modification - to prevent injuries in elite youth sports settings. Although not tested, psychosocial prevention strategies such as adoption of task-oriented coping mechanisms, autonomous support from parents, and a proactive organizational approach also show promise in injury prevention.

  15. Resource Storage Management Model For Ensuring Quality Of Service In The Cloud Archive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kapanowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, service providers offer a lot of IT services in the public or private cloud. The client can buy various kinds of services like SaaS, PaaS, etc. Recently there was introduced Backup as a Service (BaaS as a variety of SaaS. At the moment there are available several different BaaSes for archiving the data in the cloud, but they provide only a basic level of service quality. In the paper we propose a model which ensures QoS for BaaS and some  methods for management of storage resources aimed at achieving the required SLA. This model introduces a set of parameters responsible for SLA level which can be offered on the basic or higher level of quality. The storage systems (typically HSM, which are distributed between several Data Centres,  are built based on disk arrays, VTLs, and tape libraries. The RSMM model does not assume bandwidth reservation or control, but is rather focused on the management of storage resources.

  16. Repackaged sodium valproate tablets--Meeting quality and adherence to ensure seizure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Nichola; Robertson, Sherryl; Kockler, Jutta; Llewelyn, Victoria; Haywood, Alison; Glass, Beverley

    2015-09-01

    Sodium valproate, which is commonly repacked to assist with adherence to ensure seizure control, is hygroscopic and therefore sensitive to moisture. The aim of this study was thus to determine the stability implications of removing the enteric coated tablets from their original packaging and repackaging into a Dose Administration Aid (DAA) with storage under various environmental conditions. Physicochemical stability of enteric coated sodium valproate tablets repackaged into a DAA and stored at controlled room temperature, accelerated and refrigerated conditions was evaluated for 28 days. A validated high performance liquid chromatography method was used for the quantitation of the drug content. Although the chemical stability (sodium valproate between 95 and 105% of labelled content) was maintained for 28 days for all storage conditions, for those tablets stored under accelerated conditions the integrity of the enteric coat was compromised after only 8 days. Repackaging of enteric coated sodium valproate should be undertaken with caution and be informed by storage climate. This is particularly relevant for those patients living in hot, humid environments where they should be advised to store their DAA in a refrigerator. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel fuzzy logic-based image steganography method to ensure medical data security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakış, R; Güler, I; Çapraz, I; Bilir, E

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to secure medical data by combining them into one file format using steganographic methods. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is selected as hidden data, and magnetic resonance (MR) images are also used as the cover image. In addition to the EEG, the message is composed of the doctor׳s comments and patient information in the file header of images. Two new image steganography methods that are based on fuzzy-logic and similarity are proposed to select the non-sequential least significant bits (LSB) of image pixels. The similarity values of the gray levels in the pixels are used to hide the message. The message is secured to prevent attacks by using lossless compression and symmetric encryption algorithms. The performance of stego image quality is measured by mean square of error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity measure (SSIM), universal quality index (UQI), and correlation coefficient (R). According to the obtained result, the proposed method ensures the confidentiality of the patient information, and increases data repository and transmission capacity of both MR images and EEG signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Steps to Ensure a Successful Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety Interventions at an Organizational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Sánchez, Isabel M.; León-Pérez, José M.; León-Rubio, José M.

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing meta-analytic evidence that addresses the positive impact of evidence-based occupational health and safety interventions on employee health and well-being. However, such evidence is less clear when interventions are approached at an organizational level and are aimed at changing organizational policies and processes. Given that occupational health and safety interventions are usually tailored to specific organizational contexts, generalizing and transferring such interventions to other organizations is a complex endeavor. In response, several authors have argued that an evaluation of the implementation process is crucial for assessing the intervention’s effectiveness and for understanding how and why the intervention has been (un)successful. Thus, this paper focuses on the implementation process and attempts to move this field forward by identifying the main factors that contribute toward ensuring a greater success of occupational health and safety interventions conducted at the organizational level. In doing so, we propose some steps that can guide a successful implementation. These implementation steps are illustrated using examples of evidence-based best practices reported in the literature that have described and systematically evaluated the implementation process behind their interventions during the last decade. PMID:29375413

  19. Ensuring microbiological safety and extending the shelf life of shelled sweet corn kernels using hurdle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra

    2015-01-01

    Shelled sweet corn kernels are prone to microbial contaminations due to high moisture and nutrient contents. Post harvest handling further aggravates the condition and makes the product highly perishable and unsafe. In freshly shelled kernels total aerobic plate count, yeast mold count and presumptive coliforms were found to be ∼ 8, 7, and 4 log cfu/g, respectively. IMViC analysis confirmed presence of opportunistic pathogens like Escherichia coli and Enterobacteraerogenes in these samples. Besides, occurrence of mycotoxin such as ochratoxin A (OTA), classified as a possible carcinogenic compound, was found to be high in sweet corn samples spiked with toxigenic strain. To address this issue, a combination process including NaOCl washing (200 ppm for 5 min), hot water blanching (60℃ for 5 min), air drying, LDPE packaging, and finally gamma radiation (5 kGy) treatment was developed. The developed combination process was found to reduce microbial load to below detectable level and quite effectively inactivated Aspergillusochraceus spores as well as pre-formed toxin. These treatments were not found to affect the contents of biochemical constituents such as total and reducing sugars, proteins, phenolics, and flavonoids during storage. Prophylactic properties in terms of antioxidant capacity and potential to suppress chemical induced mutagenesis were not affected in these samples. Physical properties and sensory qualities were also found to be similar to fresh (control). Thus, the developed combination process ensured microbiological safety and extended shelf life of sweet corn kernels up to 30 days at 4℃ . (author)

  20. System principles, mathematical models and methods to ensure high reliability of safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskyi, V.

    2017-04-01

    Modern safety and security systems are composed of a large number of various components designed for detection, localization, tracking, collecting, and processing of information from the systems of monitoring, telemetry, control, etc. They are required to be highly reliable in a view to correctly perform data aggregation, processing and analysis for subsequent decision making support. On design and construction phases of the manufacturing of such systems a various types of components (elements, devices, and subsystems) are considered and used to ensure high reliability of signals detection, noise isolation, and erroneous commands reduction. When generating design solutions for highly reliable systems a number of restrictions and conditions such as types of components and various constrains on resources should be considered. Various types of components perform identical functions; however, they are implemented using diverse principles, approaches and have distinct technical and economic indicators such as cost or power consumption. The systematic use of different component types increases the probability of tasks performing and eliminates the common cause failure. We consider type-variety principle as an engineering principle of system analysis, mathematical models based on this principle, and algorithms for solving optimization problems of highly reliable safety and security systems design. Mathematical models are formalized in a class of two-level discrete optimization problems of large dimension. The proposed approach, mathematical models, algorithms can be used for problem solving of optimal redundancy on the basis of a variety of methods and control devices for fault and defects detection in technical systems, telecommunication networks, and energy systems.

  1. Inauguration of Cogen Plant ensures self-sustainability for Toronto Airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Details of a new cogeneration plant for Pearson International Airport were presented. The plant was installed to ensure that the airport will be self-sufficient with its own uninterrupted power supply, and will also provide steam for the airport's heating and cooling. The plant generated its first power onto the grid in August 2005. The 18,000 sq. foot cogeneration facility cost an estimated $140 million to build and is capable of supplying the airport with 117 MW of power. Power for the plant comes from 2 natural gas turbines, with an additional 33 MW generated by exhaust from the gas turbines passing through once-through steam generators producing steam for a third steam-driven generator. The remaining excess heat from the plant is used to heat and cool the airport buildings through a central utilities distribution system. Natural gas fueled cogeneration plants are considered to be clean energy, and it is anticipated that the plant will lessen the environmental impacts of the airport. Currently, the airport's peak electrical demand is approximately 38 MW of electricity, which is expected to peak at 65 to 70 MW in 2015. The surplus electricity produced at the cogeneration plant will be sold back into Ontario's power grid via the Clean Energy Supply contract. It was concluded that in addition to its environmental benefits, the plant will help to enhance electricity supply in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

  2. EVALUASI MANAJEMEN RISIKO KEAMANAN INFORMASI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN FRAMEWORK COBIT 5 SUBDOMAIN EDM03 (ENSURE RISK OPTIMISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransisca Tiarawati Riadi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pentingnya penggunaan Teknologi Informasi (TI tidak bisa dipisahkan dari risiko-risiko yang akan mungkin terjadi. Satuan organisasi XYZ sendiri telah menerapkan manajemen risiko keamanan informasi menggunakan standar ISO 31000:2009 untuk meminimalisir risiko-risiko tersebut. Penerapan manajemen risiko keamanan informasi dilakukan agar satuan organisasi XYZ dapat mengetahui optimasi risiko yang dikelola satuan organisasi XYZ sudah berjalan dengan baik dan memberikan dampak yang signifikan. Sehingga satuan organsasi XYZ perlu melakukan evaluasi untuk mengetahui tingkat kapabilitas dalam memastikan optimasi risiko yang telah dilaksanakan satuan organisasi terhadap layanan TI. Framework COBIT 5 digunakan untuk melakukan evaluasi manajemen risiko keamanan informasi dengan melakukan pengukuran tingkat kapabilitas yang memfokuskan pada subdomain EDM03 (Ensure Risk Optimisation. Hasil penelitian ini pada subdomain EDM03 memiliki tingkat kapabilitas pada level 1 performed process kategori largely achieved dengan nilai 78,29%. Pada level ini proses yang diimplementasikan organisasi mencapai tujuan prosesnya. Manfaat penelitian ini bagi satuan organisasi XYZ dapat membantu manajemen risiko keamanan informasi dan pengimplementasi framework ISO 31000 mencapai nilai optimal dalam mendukung layanan TIK di Lembaga ABC.

  3. Ensuring economic, health, and social well-being for Papua New Guinea through trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa'alili-Fidow, Jacinta

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of trade liberalization and open markets on global, regional, and local economies are a key consideration for those involved in government, business, and financial sectors. However, their impacts on health and social well-being of populations are not well-evidenced acknowledged within the health sector, let alone the impact on developing countries. As free trade becomes an inevitable outcome for many developing nations, the full implications of trade on economies, environments, and population health needs to be better articulated in order to ensure fully informed trade negotiations that support equitable outcomes. This article takes a broad look at the key issues for Papua New Guinea (PNG) in trade and how these translate to discrepancies in economic, health, and social benefits for its population. Despite its active trading and high GDP, only 10% of the population experience better economic and social outcomes. The bulk of PNG's population lives in poverty, challenged by geographical, cultural, and political barriers to better income, education, and health. Progress needs to be made to minimize these barriers and to allow more of PNG's population to experience the economic benefits generated through trade activities. A balance needs to be maintained between the desire of developed countries to broaden their markets, and the efforts of developing countries to promote and protect the health and well-being of their populations through increasing participation in global markets. PACER Plus presents an opportunity for pursuing alternative models of trade agreements that support and develop Pacific health.

  4. Strategy for monitoring and ensuring safe operation of Russian gas transportation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors examined the legislative framework of the Russian Federation operating in the field of industrial safety, and described how to obtain a license to operate hazardous production facilities. The paper demonstrates that the importance should be given to the quality and completeness of the background information, as well as the choice of inspection strategy in evaluating the technical condition of the line section of main gas pipelines. As a part of a package of measures to ensure industrial safety and technical reliability of existing gas pipelines it is proposed to carry out conditioning of their line sections. The paper describes general requirements for pipeline inspection, which include: detection efficiency of dangerous damages and major leaks, maximum accuracy of detection of the defect location, continuity of monitoring throughout the entire range of operation modes of the pipeline, cost recovery at the stages of development and operation of control systems, forecasting the state of the pipeline and the effects of accidents. In practice, these parameters have the prevailing significance.

  5. Tools to Ensure Safe Medicines: New Monograph Tests in USP-NF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sheehan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes USP-NF compendial updates to six ‘high-priority” excipient monographs: Glycerin, Propylene Glycol, Sorbitol Solution, Sorbitol Sorbitan Solution, Noncrystallizing Sorbitol Solution and Maltitol Solution. The USP-NF revisions arose from the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s requests to include, as part of each monograph’s Identification test, a limit test to detect the presence of Diethylene Glycol (DEG, a toxic adulterant. These revisions align with the 2007 FDA Guidance for Industry: Testing of Glycerin for Diethylene Glycol (1, that drug product manufacturers perform a specific identity test for DEG on all containers of all lots of glycerin before glycerin is used in the manufacture and preparation of drug products. This paper describes several risk factors due to a complex global excipient supply chain, nonspecific specifications, inadequate supply chain qualification, and poor understanding of regulations. Strengthening and conformance to compendial specifications is one of the tools necessary to mitigate risk and help prevent the next DEG adulteration that is part of USP’s efforts to ensure safe medicines.

  6. The Conceptual Foundations for Ensuring the International Competitiveness of Tourism Company in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarha Oleksandra O.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the conceptual-strategic principles of ensuring the international competitiveness of tourism enterprise. As result of research the essence and value of management of competitiveness of tourism enterprise in the conditions of globalization were considered. Factors of formation of competitive advantages, and also the reasons determining competitiveness of a tourism product have been determined. The main aspects of formation of quality of services provision have been identified. On the basis of the carried out research, the concept of integrated marketing communications has been formed, which is a combination of traditional ways of communication activity with the only synchronized communication, oriented towards establishing the multichannel relationships with different target audiences, with choosing an own marketing model for each audience. Application of the given concept would allow to optimally choose means of communication and to provide more effective realization of a tourism product at the international market of tourism services that will promote companies’ overgrowing their local status and gaining their self-importance on a global scale.

  7. Diversification in the Supply Chain of (99)Mo Ensures a Future for (99m)Tc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Cathy S; Schwarz, Sally W

    2014-07-01

    The uncertain availability of (99m)Tc has become a concern for nuclear medicine departments across the globe. An issue for the United States is that currently it is dependent on a supply of (99m)Tc (from (99)Mo) that is derived solely by production outside the United States. Since the United States uses half the world's (99)Mo production, the U.S. (99)Mo supply chain would be greatly enhanced if a producer were located within the United States. The fragility of the old (99)Mo supply chain is being addressed as new facilities are constructed and new processes are developed to produce (99)Mo without highly enriched uranium. The conversion to low-enriched uranium is necessary to minimize the potential misuse of highly enriched uranium in the world for nonpeaceful means. New production facilities, new methods for the production of (99)Mo, and a new generator elution system for the supply of (99m)Tc are currently being pursued. The progress made in all these areas will be discussed, as they all highlight the need to embrace diversity to ensure that we have a robust and reliable supply of (99m)Tc in the future. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  8. Entrepreneurial Woman and Analysis of Barriers and Opportunities Ensuring the Work-Life Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep OYURYÜZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is an increase in the number of women participating in working life with the result of developing technology and industrialization. In our country, there are still many problems that prevent women to become business owners and business owners to continue their business. In this context; potential barriers and opportunities associated with women who could establish a business owner's work-life balance has been identified in Tekirdağ. Women business owners in the sectors of agriculture and agro-based entrepreneurship and participate in 22 different comments associated with being a woman in business levels were evaluated and findings were grouped by factor analysis. According to the reduced factor; ensuring women's work-life balance of barriers or opportunities that may be 6 groups of factors have been identified. In evaluating the distribution of the factor group analysis; "personality characteristics, time constraints, marital status, gender roles, social position and communicative features" titles were created. The factors of entrepreneurial women’s work-life balance have been interpreted to establish the feasibility of barriers or opportunities. For the continuity of business life of women, entrepreneurs are required to continuously improve themselves and their business. In this context, to establish a women's work-life balance training should be provided by the universities and professional chambers. Personal development trainings such as; management skills, motivation, organization, efficient use of time, gain control capability, produce a solution in the face of challenges should be given by the institutions.

  9. Ensuring the Environmental and Industrial Safety in Solid Mineral Deposit Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, Kliment; Rylnikova, Marina; Esina, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    The growing environmental pressure of mineral deposit surface mining and severization of industrial safety requirements dictate the necessity of refining the regulatory framework governing safe and efficient development of underground resources. The applicable regulatory documentation governing the procedure of ore open-pit wall and bench stability design for the stage of pit reaching its final boundary was issued several decades ago. Over recent decades, mining and geomechanical conditions have changed significantly in surface mining operations, numerous new software packages and computer developments have appeared, opportunities of experimental methods of source data collection and processing, grounding of the permissible parameters of open pit walls have changed dramatically, and, thus, methods of risk assessment have been perfected [10-13]. IPKON RAS, with the support of the Federal Service for Environmental Supervision, assumed the role of the initiator of the project for the development of Federal norms and regulations of industrial safety "Rules for ensuring the stability of walls and benches of open pits, open-cast mines and spoil banks", which contribute to the improvement of economic efficiency and safety of mineral deposit surface mining and enhancement of the competitiveness of Russian mines at the international level that is very important in the current situation.

  10. Features and Mechanisms for Ensuring Social and Political Stability in Contemporary Chinese Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим Алексеевич Сущенко

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the features and mechanisms of ensuring and maintaining social and political stability in China. Analyzes the scientific theoretical foundation in the study of this phenomenon, developed by Russian and Chinese scientists. Political stability in contemporary China is understood as a precondition for effective social and economic development. The paper studied the treatment of leadership in China from different generations to tools approval of social and political stability as a way of implementing the modernization program of the political course. It has been found that maintaining the political stability of the society in modern China made possible by the harmonization of public relations, flexible national policy, economic growth, trends in socio-economic development and the use of ideological tools. The author studied the basic mechanisms of the stability of the political system of China at the present stage. It is concluded that a stable political development in contemporary China strengthens the regime and the preservation of the monopoly of the CCP to political power.

  11. COUNTERMAJORITARIAN INSTITUTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN CONSTITUTION OF 1993 AS AN INSTRUMENT ENSURING CONSTITUTIONAL AND POLITICAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shakhray

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article enriches the discussion on the legal reasons and conditions fostering the viability of democratic constitutions by analyzing the rich experience of the Russian Constitution of 1993. Particular attention is paid to the concept of countermajoritarian institutions. The authors elaborate the idea that countermajoritarian institutions can play an important role in ensuring the viability (put in other terms, the proper balance between stability, adaptability, and dynamic development of modern democratic constitutions as well as political regimes.The article presents evidence-based data showing that the President and the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation systematically acted as countermajoritarian institutions at the initial stage of the implementation of the “blueprint for the future” set down in the 1993 Russian Constitution. As a result of the activities of these institutions, strong legal frameworks were created that are necessary for the establishment of anew constitutional system of the Russian state and law.Today, the Russian Constitution of 1993 is one of the longest lasting democratic constitutions in the world (the average “life expectancy” of democratic constitutions adopted over the past 250 years is about seventeen years. The study of the countermajoritarian provisions in the 1993 Russian Constitution is of both theoretical and practical importance. In particular, the results of the study can be useful in creating efficient legal instruments for the maintenance of political stability and social development management both within sovereign states and within interstate communities.

  12. Cluster Head Selection in a Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network Ensuring Full Connectivity with Minimum Isolated Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work proposes a cluster head selection algorithm for a wireless sensor network. A node can be a cluster head if it is connected to at least one unique neighbor node where the unique neighbor is the one that is not connected to any other node. If there is no connected unique node then the CH is selected on the basis of residual energy and the number of neighbor nodes. With the increase in number of clusters, the processing energy of the network increases; hence, this algorithm proposes minimum number of clusters which further leads to increased network lifetime. The major novel contribution of the proposed work is an algorithm that ensures a completely connected network with minimum number of isolated nodes. An isolated node will remain only if it is not within the transmission range of any other node. With the maximum connectivity, the coverage of the network is automatically maximized. The superiority of the proposed design is verified by simulation results done in MATLAB, where it clearly depicts that the total numbers of rounds before the network dies out are maximum compared to other existing protocols.

  13. Methods to ensure the quality of excavated soil material from geogenically metalliferous sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebhard, Peter; Sager, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Soils at geogenically metalliferous sites might exceed heavy metal threshold levels with respect to agricultural use, apart from anthropogenic contamination sources. As a fundamental substrate for green plants and green plant production, soil is not easily renewable, its formation needs long time (e.g. 500 years for 20 mm). In Austria, about 10ha of soil get sealed every day, resulting in complete loss of its biological functions. Excavated soil material has been classified as waste from a legal point of view, which made 33 mill. tons resp. 48% of total waste in Austria in 2010. Recycling of excavated soil material for agricultural use will be an important task to reduce future waste and to enlarge agricultural substrate volumes, but methods to ensure proper qualities are needed to improve regulations. Within this investigation, the transfer of various metals from geogenically metalliferous soils to various crop plants will be investigated, and correlated with various simple soil test methods. Four excavated soil materials from the metalliferous schist zone within the Austrian province of Styria (Kraubath/Mur, Übelbach) and a low-metal reference sample have been taken as substrates to grow raygrass (lolium multiflorum) as a green cover, salad (Lactuca sativa) as a vegetable food item, oats (Avena sativa), maize (Zea mais) and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) as a hyperaccumulating species. Results and recommendations will be presented.

  14. Spatial regression test for ensuring temperature data quality in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, J.; Gavilán, P.; García-Marín, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Quality assurance of meteorological data is crucial for ensuring the reliability of applications and models that use such data as input variables, especially in the field of environmental sciences. Spatial validation of meteorological data is based on the application of quality control procedures using data from neighbouring stations to assess the validity of data from a candidate station (the station of interest). These kinds of tests, which are referred to in the literature as spatial consistency tests, take data from neighbouring stations in order to estimate the corresponding measurement at the candidate station. These estimations can be made by weighting values according to the distance between the stations or to the coefficient of correlation, among other methods. The test applied in this study relies on statistical decision-making and uses a weighting based on the standard error of the estimate. This paper summarizes the results of the application of this test to maximum, minimum and mean temperature data from the Agroclimatic Information Network of Andalusia (southern Spain). This quality control procedure includes a decision based on a factor f, the fraction of potential outliers for each station across the region. Using GIS techniques, the geographic distribution of the errors detected has been also analysed. Finally, the performance of the test was assessed by evaluating its effectiveness in detecting known errors.

  15. Global perspectives on ensuring the safety of pharmaceutical products in the distribution process
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sohyun; Ji, Eunhee

    2018-01-01

    The distribution of counterfeit or falsified drugs is increasing worldwide. This can contribute to the high burden of disease and cost to society and is of global concern with the worldwide circulation of pharmaceuticals. The preparation and implementation of good distribution practice should be one of the most important aspects of ensuring safe drug circulation and administration. This research aimed to compare and analyze good distribution practice guidelines from advanced countries and international organizations, and to evaluate the status of the current good distribution practice guidelines in the world. Advanced pharmaceutical countries and international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, European Union, Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme, United States of America, Canada, and Australia, which have stable good distribution practice guidelines and public confidence, were included in the analysis. The World Health Organization and European Union guidelines are models for standardized good distribution practice for nations worldwide. The United States of America has a combination of four different series of distribution practices which have a unique structure and detailed content compared to those of other countries. The Canadian guidelines focus on temperature control during storage and transportation. The Australian guidelines apply to both classes of medicinal products and medical devices and need separate standardization. Transparent information about the Internet chain, international cooperation regarding counterfeiting, a high-standard qualification of sellers and customers, and technology to track and trace the whole life cycle of drugs should be the main focus of future good distribution practice guidelines worldwide.
.

  16. Social acceptance process model for ensuring the high-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Satoru; Nagasaki, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    Generally speaking, a vast, advanced and unfamiliar science and technology are unacceptable to the public for fear of their unknown nature. Here, the social acceptance process model was examined on the basis of the analysis of the cause phenomenon and numerical grounds, by referring to the problems on the application of literature documentation for location examination of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site in Toyo town in Kochi Pref. in April 2007. In analyzing the Toyo town case, we have found a possibility that the majority of local residents knew very little about the object opposed by the fringe route processing. To ensure a healthy decision making by the public, it is vital to convey fundamental information using sufficient wide-area PR media before the issue becomes actual. After the issue becomes actual, dialog with residents through a careful technology assessment is indispensable. The authors focus attention on the decision-making process of human beings from the social and psychological viewpoints, and point out that it is desirable for promoting social acceptance by adopting two approaches: a direct approach aiming at better intelligibility for the different resident layers and a deductive approach in technological essence. (author)

  17. The ensuring of the competitiveness of the enterprises through the strategic human resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Burkovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study the possibilities of ensuring competitiveness through the strategic human resource management. The study is based on the description of the necessity of strategic human resource management in Ukrainian conditions as a tool to enhance the competitiveness of agricultural enterprises. It is proved that the strategic management of the organization is the initial condition for the strategic management of its staff and competitiveness. Strategic management of human resources potential is considered as an approach to making decisions on the intentions and plans of the organization relating to the strategy and practice of recruitment, training, development, management performance and labor relations. The article describes the features of strategic human resource management as a basis for strategic capacity, which affects the competitiveness of enterprises and determines the direction of its further development. Correlation and regression analysis of dependence of productivity on the size of the average monthly wage of workers in the agricultural sector was held.

  18. A new procedure for marinating fresh anchovies and ensuring the rapid destruction of Anisakis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monsalvez, I; de Armas-Serra, C; Martínez, J; Dorado, M; Sánchez, A; Rodríguez-Caabeiro, F

    2005-05-01

    The consumption of marinated anchovies is the main route of transmission of anisakiasis in Spain. Because this country is one of the world's major tourist destinations, this traditional food also poses a potential health risk to millions of foreign visitors. Anisakis larvae are not destroyed by the traditional marinating procedure, and alternative methods, such as long-term storage in brine, freezing, or hydrostatic pressure treatment, all present major difficulties. In this study, we used high food-grade acetic acid concentrations (10, 20, 30, and 40% [vol/vol] in line with the quantum satis rule) to destroy these larvae rapidly, and we report data on the survival of Anisakis larvae exposed directly to different marinades and when the larvae are placed under the fish musculature. The percentage of salt and acetic acid in the fish tissue water phase was also determined. A marinating procedure is proposed that ensures the rapid death of Anisakis through the use of strong acetic acid concentrations. Posttreatment washes with water reduce these to levels acceptable to consumers. The sensory characteristics of the product were shown to be satisfactory. The actual selection of an acetic acid concentration for marinating depends on costs and the processing time available. The physiological stress of the larvae exposed to the different marinades was determined by measuring the levels of their stress proteins. The latter are good indicators of injury and might reflect the infectivity of larvae. In addition, we also used a rat model to determine the infectivity of larvae considered microscopically dead.

  19. Academic freedom and the obligation to ensure morally responsible scholarship in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2012-06-01

    Academic freedom is generally regarded as being of critical importance to the development, improved understanding, and dissemination of new knowledge in a field. Although of obvious importance to the discipline of nursing, the nature, extent and value of academic freedom and the controversies surrounding it have rarely been considered in the nursing literature. It is a key aim of this paper to redress this oversight by providing a brief examination of: (i) the principle of academic freedom; (ii) the distinction between academic freedom, freedom of speech, and the academic freedom to publish; (iii) the problem of ideological judgments being dressed up as scientific or discipline judgments to supports 'bad' conclusions; and (iv) the standards that might otherwise be appealed to for determining whether maverick manuscripts supporting morally abhorrent conclusions should be accepted for publication. It is suggested that the tenets of academic freedom require robust international debate, with due attention being given to such issues as the development of an international declaration on academic freedom to publish in nursing, how to ensure a robust rebuttal system in nursing journals to counter specious scholarship, and how to better promote the letters pages of nursing journals as a venue for facilitating debate on controversial issues. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Cas4-Dependent Prespacer Processing Ensures High-Fidelity Programming of CRISPR Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hayun; Zhou, Yi; Taylor, David W; Sashital, Dipali G

    2018-04-05

    CRISPR-Cas immune systems integrate short segments of foreign DNA as spacers into the host CRISPR locus to provide molecular memory of infection. Cas4 proteins are widespread in CRISPR-Cas systems and are thought to participate in spacer acquisition, although their exact function remains unknown. Here we show that Bacillus halodurans type I-C Cas4 is required for efficient prespacer processing prior to Cas1-Cas2-mediated integration. Cas4 interacts tightly with the Cas1 integrase, forming a heterohexameric complex containing two Cas1 dimers and two Cas4 subunits. In the presence of Cas1 and Cas2, Cas4 processes double-stranded substrates with long 3' overhangs through site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage. Cas4 recognizes PAM sequences within the prespacer and prevents integration of unprocessed prespacers, ensuring that only functional spacers will be integrated into the CRISPR array. Our results reveal the critical role of Cas4 in maintaining fidelity during CRISPR adaptation, providing a structural and mechanistic model for prespacer processing and integration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ePedigree Traceability System for the Agricultural Food Supply Chain to Ensure Consumer Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Farooq

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability relies on the environmental, social and economical systems: the three pillars of sustainability. The social sustainability mostly advocates the people’s welfare, health, safety, and quality of life. In the agricultural food industry, the aspects of social sustainability, such as consumer health and safety have gained substantial attention due to the frequent cases of food-borne diseases. The food-borne diseases due to the food degradation, chemical contamination and adulteration of food products pose a serious threat to the consumer’s health, safety, and quality of life. To ensure the consumer’s health and safety, it is essential to develop an efficient system which can address these critical social issues in the food distribution networks. This research proposes an ePedigree (electronic pedigree traceability system based on the integration of RFID and sensor technology for real-time monitoring of the agricultural food to prevent the distribution of hazardous and adulterated food products. The different aspects regarding implementation of the proposed system in food chains are analyzed and a feasible integrated solution is proposed. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the proposed ePedigree system’s impact on the social sustainability in terms of consumer health and safety is presented.

  2. Cluster Interaction of Enterprise Structures in Housing Sector of Municipalities in Ensuring Improvement of Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelin Mikhail, D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of modernization and greening of business activity is considered in the paper. This process requires in terms of the development dynamics of Russian regions, the implementation of directed towards the modern transformation of the municipal infrastructure in the region, which allows to transform the reform processes on different objects to achieve well-being in the Russian regions from the perspective of state interests, business and civil society. The effective direction for the modernization of the system to ensure the regional social-economic development is the creation of our proposed mechanism of cluster interaction of state and business structures in the sphere of housing and communal services of municipalities. Therefore, in this study, an analysis of the directions of state support for the development of cluster cooperation in the sphere of housing and communal services of municipalities, aimed at achieving a multiplier effect, in the exercise of entrepreneurial activity in the region socially significant areas, in particular - in the landscaping and planting areas is carried out.

  3. Implementing an integrated standards-based management system to ensure compliance at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjeresen, D.; Roybal, S.; Bertino, P.; Gherman, C.; Hosteny, B.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) is developing and implementing a comprehensive, Integrated Standards-Based Management System (ISBMS) to enhance environmental, safety, and health (ESH) compliance efforts and streamline management of ESH throughout the Laboratory. The Laboratory recognizes that to be competitive in today's business environment and attractive to potential Partnerships, Laboratory operations must be efficient and cost-effective. The Laboratory also realizes potential growth opportunities for developing ESH as a strength in providing new or improved services to its customers. Overall, the Laboratory desires to establish and build upon an ESH management system which ensures continuous improvement in protecting public health and safety and the environment and which fosters a working relationship with stakeholders. A team of process experts from the LANL Environmental Management (EM) Program Office, worked with management system consultants, and the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an ESH management systems process to compare current LANL ESH management Systems and programs against leading industry standards. The process enabled the Laboratory to gauge its performance in each of the following areas: Planning and Policy Setting; Systems and Procedures; Implementation and Education; and Monitoring and Reporting. The information gathered on ESH management systems enabled LANL to pinpoint and prioritize opportunities for improvement in the provision of ESH services throughout the Laboratory and ultimately overall ESH compliance

  4. Development of Tools for Ensuring the Quality of Labor Potential of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Skrynkovskyy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to deepen theoretical and methodological provisions and to develop tools for ensuring the quality of labor potential of industrial enterprises. It was established that the basis of the development of tools for quality assurance of labor potential (within the framework of the development of industrial enterprises lies the system of goals of managerial diagnostics of an industrial enterprise, which includes such key diagnostic objectives as: 1 diagnostics of the effectiveness of controlling the internal business processes of the enterprise; 2 diagnostics of the effectiveness of the typical organizational structure of enterprise management; 3 diagnostics of the efficiency of standardization of the work of linear and functional managers and specialists at the enterprise; 4 diagnostics of the enterprise in the areas of vocational education, labor activity and motivation, innovation work and social development; 5 diagnostics of management policies in the areas of social responsibility, information security and labor protection; 6 diagnostics of the level of conflict in the team at the enterprise 7 diagnosis of the effectiveness of the use of information technology in the management of the enterprise. It was determined that effective management of the quality of labor potential of the personnel (on the basis of its objective assessment is one of the key conditions that determines the success of industrial enterprises. The prospect of further research in this direction is improving the system of diagnostics and planning of reserves for improving the quality of labor potential of an industrial enterprise in crisis conditions.

  5. Pilot study on rugged fiber optic brillouin sensors for large-strain measurements to ensure the safety of transportation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brillouin-scattering Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) is a viable technology for simultaneous, distributed : strain and temperature measurements for miles-long transportation structures. It is a promising tool to ensure the smooth : operatio...

  6. Report: Significant Data Quality Deficiencies Impede EPA’s Ability to Ensure Companies Can Pay for Cleanups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0126, March 31, 2016. Management Alert. Environmental and extensive financial risks exist from the EPA's failure to have accurate and complete data to monitor and ensure compliance with RCRA and CERCLA financial assurance requirements.

  7. Report: EPA Should Assess Needs and Implement Management Controls to Ensure Effective Incorporation of Chemical Safety Research Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0294, June 23, 2017. With management controls that ensure the collaborative development of research products and prioritize chemical safety research needs, the EPA would be better able to conduct faster chemical risk assessments.

  8. What Role Does The Executive Officer Play In Ensuring Senior Officer Success Building An Organization Of Trust Is Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY WHAT ROLE DOES THE EXECUTIVE OFFICER PLAY IN ENSURING SENIOR OFFICER SUCCESS? BUILDING AN ORGANIZATION OF...talk, demonstrate respect, create transparency, right wrongs, show loyalty , deliver results, get better, confront reality, clarify expectations...When speaking for the senior leader, the exec must ensure commander’s intent is conveyed clearly and accurately. It is for this reason that execs

  9. Cernavoda NPP Unit 1: Ensuring heat sink at very low Danube river levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urjan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: On August 24, 2003 the summer heat wave has caused the Danube River to drop to its lowest level in more than a century, forcing a government commission of experts and a team of technical specialists from Cernavoda NPP to close Romania's unique nuclear reactor in operation at Cernavoda. The paper presents some of the required actions needed for plant shutdown and ensuring adequate fuel cooling at very low suction bay levels, due to the Danube River level drop (Danube waters cools the reactor). The water level in the Danube River at Cernavoda village, where the reactor is located, fell to a depth of less than three meters (10 feet) on Saturday, down from its usual level of almost seven meters (23 feet). Consequently, the Unit 1 nuclear power plant was shut down Sunday due to this record drought, which left insufficient water to cool down the reactor. Operating Instruction procedures were elaborated in order to provide a logical sequence of actions when the bay level decreases under 2.25 m, or the estimated level after 3 days will be lower than 1.8 m. When Raw Service Water (RSW) is lost, Recirculated Cooling Water (RCW) will remain in service only for Moderator, ESC, HT Pumps, HT Purification, D/C Cooler, LAC's, and D 2 O Feed Pump. Alternate water sources, like potable water and water from the fire protection system were taken in consideration in order to ensure heat sink to the RCW loads. At the same time, in case of total loss of Class III and Class IV Power, and Stand-By Diesel Generators unavailable because of the loss of heat sink provided by the RSW, Emergency Power System (EPS) was configured to supply directly the Class III Power 6 kV bus (BUG bus). Economical Impact According to a report, closing the nuclear plant costs Romania $500,000 a day. The total cost includes also losses due to a 40 percent reduction in hydroelectric power generation due to reduced river flow. The country had to cease power exports until the reactor comes back on line

  10. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  11. ASDC Collaborations and Processes to Ensure Quality Metadata and Consistent Data Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapasso, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    With the introduction of new tools, faster computing, and less expensive storage, increased volumes of data are expected to be managed with existing or fewer resources. Metadata management is becoming a heightened challenge from the increase in data volume, resulting in more metadata records needed to be curated for each product. To address metadata availability and completeness, NASA ESDIS has taken significant strides with the creation of the United Metadata Model (UMM) and Common Metadata Repository (CMR). These UMM helps address hurdles experienced by the increasing number of metadata dialects and the CMR provides a primary repository for metadata so that required metadata fields can be served through a growing number of tools and services. However, metadata quality remains an issue as metadata is not always inherent to the end-user. In response to these challenges, the NASA Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) created the Collaboratory for quAlity Metadata Preservation (CAMP) and defined the Product Lifecycle Process (PLP) to work congruently. CAMP is unique in that it provides science team members a UI to directly supply metadata that is complete, compliant, and accurate for their data products. This replaces back-and-forth communication that often results in misinterpreted metadata. Upon review by ASDC staff, metadata is submitted to CMR for broader distribution through Earthdata. Further, approval of science team metadata in CAMP automatically triggers the ASDC PLP workflow to ensure appropriate services are applied throughout the product lifecycle. This presentation will review the design elements of CAMP and PLP as well as demonstrate interfaces to each. It will show the benefits that CAMP and PLP provide to the ASDC that could potentially benefit additional NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs).

  12. An assessment tool to ensure compliance for the Imperial Oil Cold Lake operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R. [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Nixon, J.K. [Imperial Oil Resources Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    In order to address noise issues at Imperial Oil Resources' (IOR) Cold Lake facility, HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. was hired to develop a noise assessment tool. The innovative tool which has been used successfully by IOR for the past 2 years to self-monitor IOR's predicted sound level contributions for the Cold Lake Operations Lease area, consists of a noise computer model and a noise assessment spreadsheet. The tool is designed to ensure that the sound levels are below those designated by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board's (EUB) Permissible Sound Level of 40 dBa from a facility to the nearest or most impacted residence. The tool has exceeded design expectations and goals and the spreadsheet has proven to be effective in predicting non-compliance concerns prior to a new facility being constructed or operated. The tool has been incorporated into IOR's corporate project planning process. The tool has shown that the noise contributions from the Cold Lake Lease area are below the EUB Permissible Sound Levels. IOR does not believe that the noise contribution from this area will increase over the life of the project unless a facility is added close to a residence. The IOR-EUB Compliance Self-Assessment Framework, which allows IOR to self-manage noise for its operations, made it possible for IOR to implement this new, site specific regulatory tool which provides accurate, immediate and auditable due-diligence documentation. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Modelling of contact problems involved in ensuring the safety of rail transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Rydygier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mathematical modelling aids diagnostics the track and rolling stock, as it often for technical reasons it is not possible to obtain a complete set of measurement data required to diagnose the rail and wheel deformation caused by the impact of a rail vehicle on the track. The important issue in a railway diagnostics is to study the effects of contact wheel and rail. Diagnostics investigations of track and rolling stock have a fundamental role in ensuring the safety of transport of passengers and goods. The aim of the study presented in the paper was to develop simulation methods of mathematical modelling of the wheel-rail system useful in the diagnostics of the track and a railway vehicle. Methods: In the paper two ways of modelling were presented and discussed. One of these ways is the method which consists in reducing the contact issue to field issue and solving the identification of the field source in 2-D system. Also presented a different method designed on the basis of the methods using one period energy concept. This method is adapted for modelling the dynamics of the contact wheel-rail for the normal force. It has been shown that the developed modelling methods to effectively support the study on the effects of mechanical and thermal of contact wheel-rail and contribute to the safety of operations.  Results and conclusions:  In the case of field sources identifications two specific issues were examined: the issue of rail torsion and the identification of heat sources in the rail due to exposure the rolling contact wheel-rail. In the case of the method using one period energy concept it was demonstrated the usefulness of this method to the study of energy processes in the contact wheel-rail under the normal periodic force. The future direction of research is to establish cooperation with research teams entrusted with the diagnostic measurements of track and rolling stock.  

  14. Positive Feedback of NDT80 Expression Ensures Irreversible Meiotic Commitment in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Dai; Yang, Yang; Lacefield, Soni

    2014-01-01

    In budding yeast, meiotic commitment is the irreversible continuation of the developmental path of meiosis. After reaching meiotic commitment, cells finish meiosis and gametogenesis, even in the absence of the meiosis-inducing signal. In contrast, if the meiosis-inducing signal is removed and the mitosis-inducing signal is provided prior to reaching meiotic commitment, cells exit meiosis and return to mitosis. Previous work has shown that cells commit to meiosis after prophase I but before entering the meiotic divisions. Since the Ndt80 transcription factor induces expression of middle meiosis genes necessary for the meiotic divisions, we examined the role of the NDT80 transcriptional network in meiotic commitment. Using a microfluidic approach to analyze single cells, we found that cells commit to meiosis in prometaphase I, after the induction of the Ndt80-dependent genes. Our results showed that high-level expression of NDT80 is important for the timing and irreversibility of meiotic commitment. A modest reduction in NDT80 levels delayed meiotic commitment based on meiotic stages, although the timing of each meiotic stage was similar to that of wildtype cells. A further reduction of NDT80 resulted in the surprising finding of inappropriately uncommitted cells: withdrawal of the meiosis-inducing signal and addition of the mitosis-inducing signal to cells at stages beyond metaphase I caused return to mitosis, leading to multi-nucleate cells. Since Ndt80 enhances its own transcription through positive feedback, we tested whether positive feedback ensured the irreversibility of meiotic commitment. Ablating positive feedback in NDT80 expression resulted in a complete loss of meiotic commitment. These findings suggest that irreversibility of meiotic commitment is a consequence of the NDT80 transcriptional positive feedback loop, which provides the high-level of Ndt80 required for the developmental switch of meiotic commitment. These results also illustrate the

  15. Rosetta: Ensuring the Preservation and Usability of ASCII-based Data into the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, M. K.; Arms, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Field data obtained from dataloggers often take the form of comma separated value (CSV) ASCII text files. While ASCII based data formats have positive aspects, such as the ease of accessing the data from disk and the wide variety of tools available for data analysis, there are some drawbacks, especially when viewing the situation through the lens of data interoperability and stewardship. The Unidata data translation tool, Rosetta, is a web-based service that provides an easy, wizard-based interface for data collectors to transform their datalogger generated ASCII output into Climate and Forecast (CF) compliant netCDF files following the CF-1.6 discrete sampling geometries. These files are complete with metadata describing what data are contained in the file, the instruments used to collect the data, and other critical information that otherwise may be lost in one of many README files. The choice of the machine readable netCDF data format and data model, coupled with the CF conventions, ensures long-term preservation and interoperability, and that future users will have enough information to responsibly use the data. However, with the understanding that the observational community appreciates the ease of use of ASCII files, methods for transforming the netCDF back into a CSV or spreadsheet format are also built-in. One benefit of translating ASCII data into a machine readable format that follows open community-driven standards is that they are instantly able to take advantage of data services provided by the many open-source data server tools, such as the THREDDS Data Server (TDS). While Rosetta is currently a stand-alone service, this talk will also highlight efforts to couple Rosetta with the TDS, thus allowing self-publishing of thoroughly documented datasets by the data producers themselves.

  16. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kotlyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products. Introduction

  17. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products.

  18. Verifying mixing in dilution tunnels How to ensure cookstove emissions samples are unbiased

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Daniel L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Caubel, Julien J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Sharon S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gadgil, Ashok J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    A well-mixed diluted sample is essential for unbiased measurement of cookstove emissions. Most cookstove testing labs employ a dilution tunnel, also referred to as a “duct,” to mix clean dilution air with cookstove emissions before sampling. It is important that the emissions be well-mixed and unbiased at the sampling port so that instruments can take representative samples of the emission plume. Some groups have employed mixing baffles to ensure the gaseous and aerosol emissions from cookstoves are well-mixed before reaching the sampling location [2, 4]. The goal of these baffles is to to dilute and mix the emissions stream with the room air entering the fume hood by creating a local zone of high turbulence. However, potential drawbacks of mixing baffles include increased flow resistance (larger blowers needed for the same exhaust flow), nuisance cleaning of baffles as soot collects, and, importantly, the potential for loss of PM2.5 particles on the baffles themselves, thus biasing results. A cookstove emission monitoring system with baffles will collect particles faster than the duct’s walls alone. This is mostly driven by the available surface area for deposition by processes of Brownian diffusion (through the boundary layer) and turbophoresis (i.e. impaction). The greater the surface area available for diffusive and advection-driven deposition to occur, the greater the particle loss will be at the sampling port. As a layer of larger particle “fuzz” builds on the mixing baffles, even greater PM2.5 loss could occur. The micro structure of the deposited aerosol will lead to increased rates of particle loss by interception and a tendency for smaller particles to deposit due to impaction on small features of the micro structure. If the flow stream could be well-mixed without the need for baffles, these drawbacks could be avoided and the cookstove emissions sampling system would be more robust.

  19. Integration of Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery and HACCP for Ensuring Drinking Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. I.; Ji, H. W.

    2015-12-01

    The integration of ASTR (Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery) and HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is being attempted to ensure drinking water quality in a delta area. ASTR is a water supply system in which surface water is injected into a well for storage and recovered from a different well. During the process natural water treatment is achieved in the aquifer. ASTR has advantages over surface reservoirs in that the water is protected from external contaminants and free from water loss by evaporation. HACCP, originated from the food industry, can efficiently manage hazards and reduce risks when it is introduced to the drinking water production. The study area is the located in the Nakdong River Delta, South Korea. Water quality of this region has been deteriorated due to the increased pollution loads from the upstream cities and industrial complexes. ASTR equipped with HACCP system is suggested as a means to heighten the public trust in drinking water. After the drinking water supply system using ASTR was decomposed into ten processes, principles of HACCP were applied. Hazardous event analysis was conducted for 114 hazardous events and nine major hazardous events were identified based on the likelihood and the severity assessment. Potential risk of chemical hazards, as a function of amounts, travel distance and toxicity, was evaluated and the result shows the relative threat a city poses to the drinking water supply facility. Next, critical control points were determined using decision tree analysis. Critical limits, maximum and/or minimum values to which biological, chemical or physical parameters must be controlled, were established. Other procedures such as monitoring, corrective actions and will be presented.

  20. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENSURING THE STANDARDS OF THE LIVING STANDARDS OF THE POPULATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Levanda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is legal base in the context of the system of ensuring standards of living standards of the population of Ukraine. Methodology. The analysis of normative – legal documents on the basic level of life of different population groups. The legislative field is investigated through the official web portal of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the State statistics service of Ukraine clarified the period from 1991 to the present. Results. Functioning laws of the last century – outdated, not consistent with the goals of social policy and the contemporary economy. It is important to modernize the laws, concerning basic living standards of the population to the country's foreign policy, according to the EU methodology. Apply state social standard as a tool for poverty reduction, and the perspective tool starter package with a guaranteed standard of living government to its citizens. The practical implications. Different stages of development of economy of independent Ukraine, laid the foundations of the legislative framework of normative documents concerning social protection of the population. A country's legal framework contains a set of laws belonging to the last century, policy and regulatory documents that comply with EU standards. In turn, the regulatory framework has tenedency to the modernization of laws that establish the guaranteed state social standards and guarantees for every citizen. Value/originality. Analysis of the legislative base, revealed the ineffectiveness of the law guaranteeing basic social standard to citizens. Understanding of the process of modernization of a relatively large part of the laws adopted in the last century.

  1. Ensuring Data Storage Security in Tree cast Routing Architecture for Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. E. Naresh; Sagar, U. Vidya; Waheed, Mohd. Abdul

    2010-10-01

    In this paper presents recent advances in technology have made low-cost, low-power wireless sensors with efficient energy consumption. A network of such nodes can coordinate among themselves for distributed sensing and processing of certain data. For which, we propose an architecture to provide a stateless solution in sensor networks for efficient routing in wireless sensor networks. This type of architecture is known as Tree Cast. We propose a unique method of address allocation, building up multiple disjoint trees which are geographically inter-twined and rooted at the data sink. Using these trees, routing messages to and from the sink node without maintaining any routing state in the sensor nodes is possible. In contrast to traditional solutions, where the IT services are under proper physical, logical and personnel controls, this routing architecture moves the application software and databases to the large data centers, where the management of the data and services may not be fully trustworthy. This unique attribute, however, poses many new security challenges which have not been well understood. In this paper, we focus on data storage security, which has always been an important aspect of quality of service. To ensure the correctness of users' data in this architecture, we propose an effective and flexible distributed scheme with two salient features, opposing to its predecessors. By utilizing the homomorphic token with distributed verification of erasure-coded data, our scheme achieves the integration of storage correctness insurance and data error localization, i.e., the identification of misbehaving server(s). Unlike most prior works, the new scheme further supports secure and efficient dynamic operations on data blocks, including: data update, delete and append. Extensive security and performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme is highly efficient and resilient against Byzantine failure, malicious data modification attack, and even server

  2. Development of an industrial complex for ensuring national competitiveness and economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kalach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living standards depends on the state of the country’s industrial complex. In a message to Russian President Vladimir Putin's Federal Assembly was asked to implement in 2015 a national technological initiative, the development of industries of the new technological order. As a result of the predominance of the industry of the sixth technological order should occur major changes in the structure of production factors and significance. It follows the inevitability of structural changes in the system of economic institutions and mechanisms of economic security and competitiveness of the state achieve the main goal of the state program “The development of industry and increase its competitiveness” is carried out through the following the directions of sub-programs: investment goods (chemical complex development composite materials, industrial biotechnology, power engineering, machine tool industry, agricultural machinery, machinery specialized production, transport engineering; goods (light industry, children;s products industry, the automotive industry; military-industrial complex; infrastructure (development of engineering activities, industrial parks; semi-finished goods and materials (timber industry, metallurgy, industrial development of rare-earth metals. At the current pace of technological and economic development, the 6 th technological structure will come into proliferation phase in 2010–2020, and in the phase of maturity – 40-ies of XXI century. At the same time in 2020–2025 there will be a new scientific-technical and technological revolution, which will become the basis for developing, synthesizing advances in the above basic technologies. In this paper, we proposed as a tool to ensure the economic security of the state to use the acceleration system of technical development of the industrial complex.

  3. DAF-12 Regulates a Connected Network of Genes to Ensure Robust Developmental Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckenholz, Carsten; Labhart, Paul; Alexiadis, Vassili; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Fisher, Alfred L.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear receptor DAF-12 has roles in normal development, the decision to pursue dauer development in unfavorable conditions, and the modulation of adult aging. Despite the biologic importance of DAF-12, target genes for this receptor are largely unknown. To identify DAF-12 targets, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by hybridization to whole-genome tiling arrays. We identified 1,175 genomic regions to be bound in vivo by DAF-12, and these regions are enriched in known DAF-12 binding motifs and act as DAF-12 response elements in transfected cells and in transgenic worms. The DAF-12 target genes near these binding sites include an extensive network of interconnected heterochronic and microRNA genes. We also identify the genes encoding components of the miRISC, which is required for the control of target genes by microRNA, as a target of DAF-12 regulation. During reproductive development, many of these target genes are misregulated in daf-12(0) mutants, but this only infrequently results in developmental phenotypes. In contrast, we and others have found that null daf-12 mutations enhance the phenotypes of many miRISC and heterochronic target genes. We also find that environmental fluctuations significantly strengthen the weak heterochronic phenotypes of null daf-12 alleles. During diapause, DAF-12 represses the expression of many heterochronic and miRISC target genes, and prior work has demonstrated that dauer formation can suppress the heterochronic phenotypes of many of these target genes in post-dauer development. Together these data are consistent with daf-12 acting to ensure developmental robustness by committing the animal to adult or dauer developmental programs despite variable internal or external conditions. PMID:21814518

  4. Improving Agricultural Productivity in Tonga through Ensuring Data Availability and Enhancing Agro-meteorological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The project was first conceived in the Global Framework for Climate Services Regional Consultation in the Cook Islands in March 2014. In this meeting, key officials from the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Forests, and Fisheries and the Tonga Meteorological Services had a meeting with the APEC Climate Center scientists with the idea to collaborate on a joint project. The project evolved to include the following components: assessment of users' needs and capacities, development of an agricultural database, research on the core relationships between agriculture and climate through modeling and field trials, and the development and delivery of agro-meteorological services. Envisioned outputs include a 2-7 day warning for pests and diseases, a suite of tools supporting decisions on planting dates and crop varieties, and other advisory services derived from seasonal climate forecasts. As one of the climate adaptation projects under its Pacific Island portfolio, the project will deliver urgent information services for Tongan agricultural growers and exporters. The project comes into greater importance and urgency, as the 2014 drought event resulted in the destruction of 80% of squash in Tonga, a main export crop from which the country derives foreign exchange earnings. Since 2014, some of the project achievements include the first agro-met data collection in Tonga, the development of an agricultural DB management system that houses archived agriculture data, and key meetings with stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives and design with the interests of the Tongan government and other stakeholders. In addition, rigorous scientific research through modeling and field trials has been conducted to address the twin goals of supporting Tonga's economy as well as food security. Based on the findings from the research, tools will be developed to translate the science into knowledge that supports decisions on the farm scale.

  5. What is done in France to ensure that funds will be available when needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locufier, Arnaud; Javanni, Jean

    2006-01-01

    3 nuclear operators in France (EDF, AREVA, CEA) and a national agency for radioactive waste management (ANDRA). Supervision of the operators by the Government Departments and regulatory control of safety through the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN). Funding: No legal requirements for the operators to create a specific fund for D and D and waste long term management. However, EDF, AREVA and CEA already set up funds with specific assets. These funds are managed by the companies, supervised by a special committee (CEA and AREVA) which play an advisory role for the Board of Directors. Evolutions: Open competition on European electricity market, evolution of EDF status, AREVA could go public, 2006 debate on HLW-LL long term management. It is essential to redefine the French approach. The time constant is quite long. A European frame could be used. France Favours a Harmonised European Legal Frame. France shared the intentions of Mrs. De Palacio in launching the 'Nuclear Package' (continuation to the Green Paper). France favoured the inclusion of the dismantling issue in this Package: Lack of provisions on this issue is a matter of concern, mandatory segregation of funds is not suitable for all MS, a balance had been found. But the Nuclear Package has not been voted: Council Conclusion of 28 June 2004. Member States to work together in a 'Bottom-Up' Approach. Commission issued its report 3 Nov. 2004. Pending legal issues: Legal base for European legislation: safety (Euratom) or competition law (EC)?; Where/which are State Aids that may distort competition? Support an 'Action Plan' for the implementation of the Conclusions of the Council (towards 2006-2007). France is committed to come to a European consensus on the implementation of the following: 'to ensure that adequate financial resources are available as to cover when needed the decommissioning costs'

  6. DNA damage response and spindle assembly checkpoint function throughout the cell cycle to ensure genomic integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Lawrence

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Errors in replication or segregation lead to DNA damage, mutations, and aneuploidies. Consequently, cells monitor these events and delay progression through the cell cycle so repair precedes division. The DNA damage response (DDR, which monitors DNA integrity, and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, which responds to defects in spindle attachment/tension during metaphase of mitosis and meiosis, are critical for preventing genome instability. Here we show that the DDR and SAC function together throughout the cell cycle to ensure genome integrity in C. elegans germ cells. Metaphase defects result in enrichment of SAC and DDR components to chromatin, and both SAC and DDR are required for metaphase delays. During persistent metaphase arrest following establishment of bi-oriented chromosomes, stability of the metaphase plate is compromised in the absence of DDR kinases ATR or CHK1 or SAC components, MAD1/MAD2, suggesting SAC functions in metaphase beyond its interactions with APC activator CDC20. In response to DNA damage, MAD2 and the histone variant CENPA become enriched at the nuclear periphery in a DDR-dependent manner. Further, depletion of either MAD1 or CENPA results in loss of peripherally associated damaged DNA. In contrast to a SAC-insensitive CDC20 mutant, germ cells deficient for SAC or CENPA cannot efficiently repair DNA damage, suggesting that SAC mediates DNA repair through CENPA interactions with the nuclear periphery. We also show that replication perturbations result in relocalization of MAD1/MAD2 in human cells, suggesting that the role of SAC in DNA repair is conserved.

  7. Cartel law as an instrument for ensuring security of energy supply; Kartellrecht als Instrument der sicheren Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, W.H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Internationales Privatrecht und Rechtsvergleichung

    2007-07-01

    The title of this paper - cartel law as an instrument for ensuring security of supply - may seem surprising to some. After all, the concepts of security of supply and cartel law are generally viewed as conflicting with one another, as when prohibitive or interdictive norms of cartel law are restricted or suspended in the name of ensuring security of supply. The title implies that there is also another perspective on this relationship, namely that cartel is geared to the goal of maintaining a viable competitive environment. To the extent that competition serves the purpose of ensuring consumers' greatest possible security of supply, even though this may not be its only purpose, any economic system that is driven by competition will also work towards ensuring the security of the energy supply. Seen from this perspective the paper's title is aptly worded, speaking of security of supply through competition rather than through its (justified) restriction. The creation of a European internal energy market in which energy resources are offered and demanded across borders will contribute to ensuring the security of the energy supply. To the extent that cartel law acts towards keeping markets open and safeguarding competition it will also serve the purpose of ensuring security of supply. This applies in particular in cases where contractual bonds act as a repellent, preventing other suppliers from entering the market and thus also counteracting the diversification of buying sources.

  8. Ensuring safe use of water in a river basin with uranium drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.; Oliveira, J.; Malta, M.

    2014-01-01

    A regular radioactivity monitoring programme ensures radioactivity surveillance in a river system with multiple and intensive uses of water. In the catchment of River Mondego, centre of Portugal, there is a uranium mining and milling legacy which encompasses about 12 old uranium mine sites and 3 uranium milling sites. This river basin is an important agriculture and cattle growing region with forest areas for paper pulp production. In the catchment of this river there are four dams for electricity production and two main artificial lakes which are water reservoirs to supply drinking water to more than 3 million people, and irrigation water for agriculture including maize and rice production. In the river basin, environmental remediation works were recently implemented especially at the milling tailings and at the major mine sites, which reduced radioactive drainage into the Mondego tributaries and thus into the Mondego river. Mine drainage and seepage from tailings are recuperated and treated in mine water treatment stations. Although, for example, in drainage from milling tailings at Urgeiriça, water may contain high concentrations of dissolved uranium ("2"3"8U), radium ("2"2"6Ra) and polonium ("2"1"0Po) at 35,700±1100, 1084±30, and 700±40 mBq/L, respectively, in the stream receiving discharges of treated water today radionuclide concentrations are orders of magnitude lower. The tributary streams that in the past received untreated mine discharges are today recovering and concentrations decreased to near natural levels. In the artificial lake of Aguieira dam, built on the Mondego River downstream all uranium sites, and where the main capture of water for human consumption is located, radionuclide concentrations were of 9.2±0.3 mBq/L, 17.7±1.9 mBq/L, and 5.3±0.2 mBq/L for uranium ("2"3"8U), radium ("2"2"6Ra) and polonium ("2"1"0Po), respectively. This water has been over the last years consistently in compliance with the EU drinking water quality standards

  9. How will we ensure the long-term sea ice data record continues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, J. C.; Kaleschke, L.

    2017-12-01

    The multi-channel satellite passive microwave record has been of enormous benefit to the science community and society at large since the late 1970s. Starting with the launch of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multi-Channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) in October 1978, and continuing with the launch of a series of Special Sensor Microwave Imagers (SSM/Is) in June 1987 by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), places previously difficult to monitor year-round, such as the polar regions, came to light. Together these sensors have provided nearly 4 decades of climate data records on the state of sea ice cover over the ocean and snow on land. This data has also been used to map melt extent on the large ice sheets, timing of snow melt onset over land and sea ice. Application also extend well beyond the polar regions, mapping important climate variables, such as soil moisture content, oceanic wind speed, rainfall, water vapor, cloud liquid water and total precipitable water. Today the current SSMIS operational satellite (F18) is 7 years old and there is no follow-on mission planned by the DMSP. With the end of the SSMI family of Sensors, will the polar regions once again be in the dark? Other sensors that may contribute to the long-term data record include the JAXA AMSR2 (5 years old as of May 2017), the Chinese Fen-Yung-3 and the Russian Meteor-N2. Scatterometry and L-band radiometry from SMOS and NASA's SMOS may also provide some potential means of extending the sea ice extent data record, as well as future sensors by the DoD, JAXA and ESA. However, this will require considerable effort to intercalibrate the different sensors to ensure consistency in the long-term data record. Differences in measurement approach, frequency and spatial resolution make this a non-trivial matter. The passive microwave sea ice extent data record is one of the longest and most consistent climate data records available. It provides daily monitoring of one of the most striking changes in

  10. Promiscuous RNA binding ensures effective encapsidation of APOBEC3 proteins by HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Apolonia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3 proteins are cell-encoded cytidine deaminases, some of which, such as APOBEC3G (A3G and APOBEC3F (A3F, act as potent human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 restriction factors. These proteins require packaging into HIV-1 particles to exert their antiviral activities, but the molecular mechanism by which this occurs is incompletely understood. The nucleocapsid (NC region of HIV-1 Gag is required for efficient incorporation of A3G and A3F, and the interaction between A3G and NC has previously been shown to be RNA-dependent. Here, we address this issue in detail by first determining which RNAs are able to bind to A3G and A3F in HV-1 infected cells, as well as in cell-free virions, using the unbiased individual-nucleotide resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP method. We show that A3G and A3F bind many different types of RNA, including HIV-1 RNA, cellular mRNAs and small non-coding RNAs such as the Y or 7SL RNAs. Interestingly, A3G/F incorporation is unaffected when the levels of packaged HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA and 7SL RNA are reduced, implying that these RNAs are not essential for efficient A3G/F packaging. Confirming earlier work, HIV-1 particles formed with Gag lacking the NC domain (Gag ΔNC fail to encapsidate A3G/F. Here, we exploit this system by demonstrating that the addition of an assortment of heterologous RNA-binding proteins and domains to Gag ΔNC efficiently restored A3G/F packaging, indicating that A3G and A3F have the ability to engage multiple RNAs to ensure viral encapsidation. We propose that the rather indiscriminate RNA binding characteristics of A3G and A3F promote functionality by enabling recruitment into a wide range of retroviral particles whose packaged RNA genomes comprise divergent sequences.

  11. Improving and ensuring best practice continence management in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenberg, Gayle

    2008-06-01

    Background  Continence Management within residential aged care is an every day component of care that requires assessment, implementation of strategies, resource allocation and evaluation. At times the management of incontinence of aged residents can be challenging and unsuccessful. The project chosen through the Clinical Fellowship program was Continence Management with the aim of raising awareness of best practice to assist in improving and providing person-centred resident care. Aims/objectives •  Review the literature on best practice management of incontinence •  Evaluate current practice in continence management for elderly residents within residential aged care services •  Improve adherence to best practice strategies of care for incontinence •  Raise awareness within the nursing home of the best practice management of incontinence •  Promote appropriate and effective use of resources for continence management •  Deliver individualised person-centred care to residents. •  Ensure best practice in continence management Methods  The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System clinical audit tool was utilised to measure current practice against best practice. The results identify gaps that require improvement. The Getting Research into Practice process then allowed analysis of the level of compliance with each of the audit criteria, which would identify any barriers in implementing a selected course of action and aim to improve compliance. The project team was consulted with additional stakeholder consultation to form an action plan and implement strategies to improve practice. Results  Although 100% compliance with all audit criteria in audit 1 and 2 was not achieved, there was improvement in the criteria concerning the documented fluid intake for residents. Further strategies have been identified and implemented and this continues to be a 'work in progress'. Staff now have an acute awareness

  12. Structures of twilight patrol in the "Churyumov's Unified network" to ensure continuous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Steklov, E. A.; Slipchenko, A. S.; Romaniuk, Ya. O.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.

    2016-10-01

    1. Three types of astronomical observations, and three classes of astronomical observatories. Over 70% of the observer's time in astronomical observatories accounted for the night of observation after the end of astronomical twilight. Prior to 15.02.2013, from the famous invasion of the Chelyabinsk large meteoroid in morning twilight, astronomers practically no carried out the twilight observations. But it is such morning and evening twilight observation, became the main "highlight" of the authors in the past four years [3, 5, 7]. Results were unexpected, and they allowed us to state that in our time the astronomical observatory (AO) should be divided into AO for nighttime astronomical observations (NAO), daily astronomical observations (DAO) and AO for twilight astronomical observations (SAO). 2. The real problem of AO DAO and SAO. We affirm, that in the interest of health and safety the inhabitants of our cities, astronomers are obliged significantly expand a circle and list of observations; need to include in it astrophysical observations and registration of facts and traces of all kinds of hazardous aerospace invasions into the sky over our cities. Society and the state allocate their money on the development of astronomical observatories, and therefore are entitled to demand recoil in the form of constant monitoring to ensure nocturnal, daytime and twilight control, for their safety the realities of modern complex time. And it is, in the conditions of aggravation of ecological problems, at climate evolution and of the increasing amount of harmful technogenic pollutants emissions in conditions of constant asteroid and comet hazard [10, 11], and especially within the present conditions of hybrid wars [8, 9]. That is why it is necessary give off sufficient observational time for the monitoring control on the facts and trail of all sorts of dangerous invasions. All astronomical observatories could create their own sectors, which would provide ground and space

  13. TU-AB-BRB-00: New Methods to Ensure Target Coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The accepted clinical method to accommodate targeting uncertainties inherent in fractionated external beam radiation therapy is to utilize GTV-to-CTV and CTV-to-PTV margins during the planning process to design a PTV-conformal static dose distribution on the planning image set. Ideally, margins are selected to ensure a high (e.g. >95%) target coverage probability (CP) in spite of inherent inter- and intra-fractional positional variations, tissue motions, and initial contouring uncertainties. Robust optimization techniques, also known as probabilistic treatment planning techniques, explicitly incorporate the dosimetric consequences of targeting uncertainties by including CP evaluation into the planning optimization process along with coverage-based planning objectives. The treatment planner no longer needs to use PTV and/or PRV margins; instead robust optimization utilizes probability distributions of the underlying uncertainties in conjunction with CP-evaluation for the underlying CTVs and OARs to design an optimal treated volume. This symposium will describe CP-evaluation methods as well as various robust planning techniques including use of probability-weighted dose distributions, probability-weighted objective functions, and coverage optimized planning. Methods to compute and display the effect of uncertainties on dose distributions will be presented. The use of robust planning to accommodate inter-fractional setup uncertainties, organ deformation, and contouring uncertainties will be examined as will its use to accommodate intra-fractional organ motion. Clinical examples will be used to inter-compare robust and margin-based planning, highlighting advantages of robust-plans in terms of target and normal tissue coverage. Robust-planning limitations as uncertainties approach zero and as the number of treatment fractions becomes small will be presented, as well as the factors limiting clinical implementation of robust planning. Learning Objectives: To understand

  14. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children. Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule. Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection. Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies. The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The

  15. Development of an integrated fatigue assessment concept for ensuring long term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilg, U.; Ganswind, J.; Motschiedler, W.; Haelbig, J.

    2010-01-01

    comprehensive view on state-of-the-art methods reflecting also the needs for ensuring future long term operation of existing power plants. This programme shall combine sound evaluation of latest available national and international expertise with the operational experience of the VGB nuclear power plants. In the following presentation major aspects from an operator's point of view are shown, unsolved issues are identified and possible approaches are discussed. (Published in PowerPoint form).

  16. 'Mini'-Roadmapping - Ensuring Timely Sites' Cleanup/Closure by Resolving Science and Technology Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale Luke; James Murphy

    2003-01-01

    Roadmapping is a powerful tool to manage technical risks and opportunities associated with complex problems. Roadmapping identifies technical capabilities required for both project- and program-level efforts and provides the basis for plans that ensure the necessary enabling activities will be done when needed. Roadmapping reveals where to focus further development of the path forward by evaluating uncertainties for levels of complexity, impacts, and/or the potential for large payback. Roadmaps can be customized to the application, a ''graded approach'' if you will. Some roadmaps are less detailed. We have called these less detailed, top-level roadmaps ''mini-roadmaps''. These miniroadmaps are created to tie the needed enablers (e.g., technologies, decisions, etc.) to the functions. If it is found during the mini-roadmapping that areas of significant risk exist, then those can be road mapped further to a lower level of detail. Otherwise, the mini-roadmap may be sufficient to manage the project/program risk. Applying a graded approach to the roadmapping can help keep the costs down. Experience has indicated that it is best to do mini-roadmapping first and then evaluate the risky areas to determine whether to further evaluate those areas. Roadmapping can be especially useful for programs/projects that have participants from multiple sites, programs, or other entities which are involved. Increased synergy, better communications, and increased cooperation are the results from roadmapping a program/project with these conditions. And, as with any trip, the earlier you use a roadmap, the more confidence you will have that you will arrive at your destination with few, if any, problems. The longer the trip or complicated the route, the sooner the map is needed. This analogy holds true for using roadmapping for laying out program/project baselines and any alternative (contingency) plans. The mini-roadmapping process has been applied to past projects like the hydrogen gas

  17. Role of thorium in ensuring long term energy security to India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Role of nuclear power in ensuring energy security to the world is inevitable due to a) dwindling fossil fuel resources and b) need for minimising green house gas emission that poses the risk of global climate change. India, keeping in mind its limited uranium and vast thorium resources, is pursuing a three stage nuclear power programme. The first stage is based on reactors that use uranium as fuel. It comprises of the indigenous Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors using natural uranium as fuel and light water reactors that employ enriched uranium as fuel and are to be set up in technical collaboration with other countries. The second stage is based on fast breeder reactors that employ plutonium derived from reprocessing of spent fuel from the first stage reactors. The third stage envisages reactors which will employ thorium based fuel after its irradiation in the second stage reactors. This programme is sequential in nature and has an ultimate objective of securing long term energy security to India through judicial use of its thorium resources. Thorium based reactors offer advantages in terms of better neutronic characteristics of thorium, it being better fertile host for plutonium disposition and better thermo-mechanical properties and slower fuel deterioration of thorium oxide. It is planned to introduce thorium in the Indian Nuclear Power Programme after sufficient (about 200 GWe) capacity build-up in the second stage. DAE is a global leader in the development of the entire thorium fuel cycle. It has a mature technology for extraction of thorium and preparation of thoria pellets. It has long back carried out irradiation of thoria pellets in its research reactors and also in PHWRs, post irradiation examination and reprocessing of irradiated thoria, fabrication of 233 U based fuel. It has KAMINI - the world's only operating reactor employing 233 U as fuel. An Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) has been designed as a technology demonstrator for large scale

  18. ENSURING SMART, SUSTAINABLE, INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGIONS OF UKRAINE IN THE CONDITIONS OF STRUCTURAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bogolib

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the economy based on knowledge-based innovative economy, new economy, at the present stage of social development is defining the international concept, according to which knowledge play a primary role, and their production is a source of economic growth and competitiveness. The economy is based on knowledge that provides a smart, sustainable and inclusive development. The purpose of the study. Showing that the implementation of the Strategy «Europe 2020», the main directions of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in the Ukraine will be able to provide smart, sustainable, inclusive development of the regions of Ukraine, will help to overcome the crisis and become a source for economic growth. Research methods. In the process of writing were used scientific methods, methods of analysis and synthesis, method of scientific abstraction. The results of the study. Macroeconomic instability has been transformed at the regional level, which led to the deepening of regions differentiation, particularly as it affected old industrial regions, including Donetsk and Luhansk. The crisis of public finances does not allow attracting of financial resources for economic development. As a result of hybrid war, the outflow of foreign investment amounted to 12.6 billion dollars USA. A significant part of the Donetsk and Luhansk regions is completely destroyed. Along with this, it's perfect conditions in order to abandon the old and build new. There are all conditions to implement actively the European strategy «Europe 2020» and the main directions of the Fourth Industrial Revolution to a new stage of economic development, and ensure smart, sustainable and inclusive development of the regions of Ukraine. Conclusions and discussion position. The future of Ukraine and its regions depends on the activity of the Strategy «Europe 2020» and the main directions of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. In Ukraine, in the regions, the main emphasis is on export

  19. Corrosion Product Measurements to ensure integrity of the Steam Generators in Beznau NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailand, Irene; Franz, Patrick; Venz, Hartmut

    2012-09-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Beznau comprises two identical 380 MWe PWR units with two loops each, commissioned in 1969 and 1971. Westinghouse was responsible for the primary part of the plant and BBC/ABB for the secondary circuit. The original materials used in the secondary systems were made of several copper-based alloys, such as for the Condensers, the Low Pressure Pre-heaters and the Moisture Separator Re-heater. The original Steam Generator Tubes were made of Inconel 600 MA. Regarding its age, the NPP Beznau has to be qualified as an old plant. However, in fact particularly in the last 20 years the plant has undergone an extensive modernisation programme in which about 1.5 billion Swiss Francs have been invested. Important measures were the replacements of the Steam Generators with tubes comprising Inconel 690 TT which was realized at unit 1 in 1993 and at unit 2 in 1999. Copper was completely banished from the secondary system and replaced by stainless and chromium steel. The Condensers were fitted with titanium tubes. The secondary water chemistry had to be changed by these replacements and moved step by step from Low-AVT with a pH of about 9.3 to High-AVT with a pH of 9.8 to 9.9, currently. To ensure the integrity of the new Steam Generators as well as of the whole Secondary System a corrosion product programme was introduced at the end of the Nineties. Several investigations which are performed periodically are represented by analyses of corrosion products, measurements of sludge mass and composition in the Steam Generators, Hide-Out-Return- and mass balance measurements of corrosion products in the whole circuit. Objectives of these investigations are assessments of the efficiency of the water chemistry and trend considerations regarding to the transport of corrosion products and pollutants into the Steam Generator, as well as of the potential danger of deposits and stored or absorbed pollutants. The main target of all measures is to avoid any chemical

  20. Land Use Manager Application Ensures Protectiveness Following Remediation on the Oak Ridge Reservation - 13355

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, Sid; Brown, Sally; Sims, Lynn [Restoration Services, Inc., P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Darby, Jason [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Oak Ridge Site (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Long-term stewardship is the set of activities necessary to return contaminated land to safe and beneficial use. The activities include physical and legal controls to prevent inappropriate exposure to contamination left in place at a site. It is the longest phase of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management Program and ensures the protection of human health and the environment for varied end uses. At the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation an automated program has been developed and implemented that tracks the multitude of long-term stewardship activities. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a large site that currently has over 50 actions requiring long-term stewardship activities. The Oak Ridge Reservation consists primarily of three plant sites, and long-term stewardship will enable these sites to be leased to private entities (East Tennessee Technology Park), modernized for an evolving national security mission (Y-12 National Security Complex), and revitalized to continue multi-disciplinary research (Oak Ridge National Laboratory). The varied site end uses of the individual plant sites coupled with the multitude of controls required by leaving waste in place presents challenges. A single remedial action may include surveillance and maintenance activities, media monitoring, property record notices as well as physical controls such as fences and signs. Thus, the array of long-term stewardship activities is complex and intermingled (over 200 inspections each year at various frequencies are required currently) and requires an effective tracking program, termed the Land Use Manager. The Land Use Manager is a web-based data management application for use by personnel responsible for implementing, maintaining, and verifying engineering and land use controls on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The program is a data entry and tracking tool, as well as a notification tool. The status and performance of engineering and land use controls are checked annually

  1. Leadership succession in nursing: thinking and acting today to ensure a better tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Bouttelet Munari

    2017-03-01

    , preparing and facilitating exchange of experiences between generations in order to plan and ensure a promising future for the career(1,8-9. Factors such as the ageing workforce(8,10-13, the imminent retirement of a large number of nurses in the coming years(11-12,14, coupled with the low level of interest demonstrated by younger nurses in leadership positions and lack of investment in professional training and improving leadership performance(15 are a foreshadowing of an unprecedented crisis in nursing worldwide(13,16. This crisis tends to make future nursing leaders alienated and ill-prepared for the role, pointing to impacts in services in general, ranging from healthcare institutions to universities and centers for training and research, where professors/researchers are going through the same retirement process(17. One possibility to mitigate the situation is to implement projects to stimulate the sharing of experiences among professionals from different generations, ensuring leadership succession in nursing(8,17.  Even though this matter is of the utmost relevance, leadership succession planning has not received the attention it warrants. This can be observed in the scarce scientific production on the theme, and low levels of investment in health and educational institutions in preparing future leadership, and, furthermore, the issue is not addressed in ongoing education programs(9,11,17. A systematic review of literature on the theme showed that it is an innovative yet incipient theme, even in developed countries. The review produced some theoretical and conceptual articles about leadership succession planning in nursing, however, few studies portrayed experiences with the implementation and monitoring of succession planning (SP, even though there is consensus on the importance of the topic for the future of the profession. The purpose of SP is to ensure continuity of leadership in institutions through the development and assessment of individuals with the potential

  2. Effectiveness of different nursing handover styles for ensuring continuity of information in hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeulers, Marian; Lucas, Cees; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-06-24

    assessed trial quality and extracted data. The search identified 2178 citations, 28 of which were considered potentially relevant. After independent review of the full text of these studies, no eligible studies were identified for inclusion in this review due to the absence of studies with a randomised controlled study design. There was no evidence available to support conclusions about the effectiveness of nursing handover styles for ensuring continuity of information in hospitalised patients because we found no studies that fulfilled the methodological criteria for this review. As a consequence, uncertainty about the most effective practice remains. Research efforts should focus on strengthening the evidence abut the effectiveness of nursing handover styles using well designed, rigorous studies. According to current knowledge, the following guiding principles can be applied when redesigning the nursing handover process: face-to-face communication, structured documentation, patient involvement and use of IT technology to support the process.

  3. Ensuring production-worthy OPC recipes using large test structure arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Christopher; Zimmermann, Rainer; Mei, Xin; Shahin, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    The continual shrinking of design rules as the industry follows Moore's Law and the associated need for low k1 processes, have resulted in more layout configurations becoming difficult to print within the required tolerances. OPC recipes have needed to become more complex as tolerances decreased and acceptable corrections harder to find with simple algorithms. With this complexity comes the possibility of coding errors and ensuring the solutions are truly general. OPC Verification tools can check the quality of a correction based on pre-determined specifications for CD variation, line-end pullback and Edge Placement Error and then highlight layout configuration where violations are found. The problem facing a Mask Tape-Out group is that they usually have little control over the Design Styles coming in. Different approaches to eliminating problematic layouts have included highly restrictive Design Rules [1], whereby certain pitches or orientations are disallowed. Now these design rules are either becoming too complex or they overly restrict the designer from benefiting from the reduced pitch of the new node. The tight link between Design and Mask Tape-Out found in Integrated Device Manufacturers [2] (IDMs) i.e. companies that control both design and manufacturing can do much to dictate manufacturing friendly layout styles, and push ownership of problem resolution back to design groups. In fact this has been perceived as such an issue that a new class of products for designers that perform Lithographic Compliance Check on design layout is an emerging technology [3]. In contrast to IDMs, Semiconductor Foundries are presented with a much larger variety of design styles and a set of Fabless customers who generally are less knowledgeable in terms of understanding the impact of their layout on manufacturability and how to correct issues. The robustness requirements of a foundry's OPC correction recipe, therefore needs to be greater than that for an IDM's tape-out group

  4. Land Use Manager Application Ensures Protectiveness Following Remediation on the Oak Ridge Reservation - 13355

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, Sid; Brown, Sally; Sims, Lynn; Darby, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Long-term stewardship is the set of activities necessary to return contaminated land to safe and beneficial use. The activities include physical and legal controls to prevent inappropriate exposure to contamination left in place at a site. It is the longest phase of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management Program and ensures the protection of human health and the environment for varied end uses. At the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation an automated program has been developed and implemented that tracks the multitude of long-term stewardship activities. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a large site that currently has over 50 actions requiring long-term stewardship activities. The Oak Ridge Reservation consists primarily of three plant sites, and long-term stewardship will enable these sites to be leased to private entities (East Tennessee Technology Park), modernized for an evolving national security mission (Y-12 National Security Complex), and revitalized to continue multi-disciplinary research (Oak Ridge National Laboratory). The varied site end uses of the individual plant sites coupled with the multitude of controls required by leaving waste in place presents challenges. A single remedial action may include surveillance and maintenance activities, media monitoring, property record notices as well as physical controls such as fences and signs. Thus, the array of long-term stewardship activities is complex and intermingled (over 200 inspections each year at various frequencies are required currently) and requires an effective tracking program, termed the Land Use Manager. The Land Use Manager is a web-based data management application for use by personnel responsible for implementing, maintaining, and verifying engineering and land use controls on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The program is a data entry and tracking tool, as well as a notification tool. The status and performance of engineering and land use controls are checked annually for

  5. Establish Central Kitchen under HACCP Control in Food and Beverage Industry to Ensure Food Safety and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Qi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food safety and hygiene have been a social problem. So, it is worth studying in-depth that how to control the safety and hygiene of food and beverage. This paper proposes to establish central kitchens under HACCP control to ensure food safety and hygiene in the food and beverage industry. Considering the practical difficulties in the application of HACCP, this paper introduces the establishment of dishes HACCP system with some examples to give the reference of the food and beverage industry. Central kitchens have many advantages while HACCP is the golden standard to ensure food safety and hygiene, hence, it will ensure food safety and hygiene if both can be combined with in the use of food and beverage industry.

  6. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added

  7. 20 CFR 670.545 - How does Job Corps ensure that students receive due process in disciplinary actions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... receive due process in disciplinary actions? 670.545 Section 670.545 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... process in disciplinary actions? The center operator must ensure that all students receive due process in disciplinary proceedings according to procedures developed by the Secretary. These procedures must include, at...

  8. Solvent driving force ensures fast formation of a persistent and well-separated radical pair in plant cryptochrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüdemann, Gesa; Solov'yov, Ilia; Kubar, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    upon the electron transfer. This approach allows us to follow the time evolution of the electron transfer in an unbiased fashion and to reveal the molecular driving force which ensures fast electron transfer in cryptochrome guaranteeing formation of a persistent radical pair suitable...

  9. Communication Supports and Best Practices: Ensuring People with Aphasia Have an Effective Means of Expressing Needs and Wishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Julia M.; Simmons-Mackie, Nina

    2017-01-01

    When people with aphasia have difculty communicating, there is a risk for miscommunication and negative outcomes related to medical care and safety (Blacksone, Beukelman, & Yorkson, 2015). This risk can be reduced by ensuring that each person with aphasia can communicate efectively when using diferent types of discourse and at diferent points…

  10. Using Newton's law and geophysical bounds on mass density contrast to ensure consistency between gravity and height data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Larsen, Jacob Norby

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we advocate the use of Newton's law of gravitational attraction to ensure perfect consistency between gravity and height data. Starting with the absolute gravity on the topography we decompose this signal into a number of quantities associated with physics of the system. To model gr...

  11. Calming the Spirit and Ensuring Super-Vivencia: Rural Mexican Women-Centred Teaching and Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Ruth Trinidad

    2010-01-01

    The changing social, cultural and economic conditions of transmigrant communities in rural Mexico require that women who stay behind, while their loved ones travel back and forth to the USA, create social relations that ensure their survival. From over five years of ethnographic research, this article explores the healing potential of…

  12. Building the Capacity of States to Ensure Inclusion of Rural Communities in State and Local Primary Violence Prevention Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Craig, Patricia G.; Lane, Karen G.; Siebold, Wendi L.

    2010-01-01

    Rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities face unique challenges associated with ensuring that they are equal partners in capacity-building and prevention planning processes at the state and local level despite barriers that can inhibit participation. By their nature, rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities and…

  13. 41 CFR 301-71.304 - Are we responsible for ensuring the collection of outstanding travel advances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ensuring the collection of outstanding travel advances? 301-71.304 Section 301-71.304 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Accounting for Travel Advances § 301-71.304 Are we...

  14. Distributed Control to Ensure Proportional Load Sharing and Improve Voltage Regulation in Low-Voltage DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, Sandeep; G. Fernandes, Baylon; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    DC microgrids are gaining popularity due to high efficiency, high reliability, and easy interconnection of renewable sources as compared to the ac system. Control objectives of dc microgrid are: 1) to ensure equal load sharing (in per unit) among sources; and 2) to maintain low-voltage regulation...

  15. The main ecological principles of ensuring safety of man and biosphere in the handling of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of ecological safety in the handling of radioactive wastes in the territory of Russia. The following problems are considered: the main sources of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel; assessments of collective dose from the enterprises of the nuclear fuel cycle in Russia; and principles and criteria for ensuring ecological safety when handling radioactive wastes

  16. Law 19.056. It dictate rules to ensure the protection and radiation safety of people, goods and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this law is to ensure the protection and radiation safety of personnel occupationally exposed, the public in general and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation as well as avoid risks of contamination in radiactive sources, physical facilities and means of transport

  17. 34 CFR 611.51 - How does a grantee ensure that a scholarship recipient understands the terms and conditions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the recipient will need to have the LEA provide to the Department to enable the Secretary to confirm... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a grantee ensure that a scholarship recipient understands the terms and conditions of the scholarship before the recipient leaves the teacher preparation...

  18. Polyhedral Lyapunov functions structurally ensure global asymptotic stability of dynamical networks iff the Jacobian is non-singular

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchini, Franco; Giordano, G.

    2017-01-01

    For a vast class of dynamical networks, including chemical reaction networks (CRNs) with monotonic reaction rates, the existence of a polyhedral Lyapunov function (PLF) implies structural (i.e., parameter-free) local stability. Global structural stability is ensured under the additional

  19. Ensuring the Criminological Skills of the Next Generation: A Case Study on the Importance of Enhanced Quantitative Method Teaching Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John Martyn

    2017-01-01

    Against the backdrop of contemporary debates surrounding the public role of criminology, this article argues that a key barrier to ensuring that the next generation of criminologists is equipped with the skills necessary to engage in critical forms of citizenship, is the quantitative "skills gap" that undergraduate students possess as a…

  20. Inclusive Early Childhood Development: Ensuring the Rights and Well-Being of Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertlieb, Donald

    2018-01-01

    The science and practice of early childhood development now stands ready to address the needs and ensure the rights of infants and young children with disabilities and their families, among the most underserved and marginalized in all regions of the world. Synergies in global policies such as the "United Nations Convention on the Rights of…

  1. 42 CFR 137.172 - Should the audit report be sent anywhere else to ensure receipt by the Secretary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Should the audit report be sent anywhere else to ensure receipt by the Secretary? 137.172 Section 137.172 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Audits...

  2. Creating Concussion Management Policy: How School Leaders, Coaches and Parents Can Work Together to Ensure Kids Stay Safer in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    School leaders, parents and coaches are challenged to ensure the safety of athletes participating in interscholastic programs, including concussion management. With an estimated 300,000 sport-related concussions occurring annually in the United States and a public perception that bell ringers are not concussions, many head-injured children are…

  3. 49 CFR 23.25 - What measures must recipients include in their ACDBE programs to ensure nondiscriminatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION OF DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN... race-neutral measures you can implement: (1) Locating and identifying ACDBEs and other small businesses...) Ensuring that competitors for concession opportunities are informed during pre-solicitation meetings about...

  4. Army Contracting: Training and Guidance Needed to Ensure Appropriate Use of the Option to Extend Services Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-28

    reproduce this material separately. The Government Accountability Office, the audit , evaluation, and investigative arm of...Executive Director Army Contracting Command-Redstone Arsenal Army Contracting: Training and Guidance Needed to Ensure Appropriate Use of the Option to...which this report is based in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the

  5. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL... documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making. To...

  6. 20 CFR 670.991 - How does Job Corps ensure that complaints or disputes are resolved in a timely fashion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does Job Corps ensure that complaints or disputes are resolved in a timely fashion? 670.991 Section 670.991 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... resolved in a timely fashion? (a) If a complaint is not resolved by the center operator or service provider...

  7. 41 CFR 301-70.903 - What are our responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative for travel? 301-70... our responsibilities for ensuring that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative for travel? To help ensure that Government aircraft are the most cost-effective alternative for travel, your...

  8. Management of Innovative Projects for Ensuring the Economic Safety in the Conditions of Integration of Economies into the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Usmanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is to reveal problems and prospects, formulate economic security within the framework of innovation projects management, plan technologies in the context of integrating economies into the world economy, identify opportunities for forming, organizing, financing, managing priority economic directions. The subject is the management of innovative projects to ensure the economic security of Russian regions. The relevance of the chosen topic is due to the study of the features of the current state and the problems of the formation of economic security, the development of innovative design solutions in the context of integrating economies into the world economy. Ensuring the economic security of the regions of Russia directly depends on the introduction of innovative technologies and project management in the sectors of the national economy of Russia. Methods: the methodology of the solution of objectives is based on usage of a method of dialectic research, methods of the economic analysis, forecasting, the situational and systemic analysis, expert evaluations and the analysis of empirical data. Hypothesis. Ensuring an economic safety requires formation of innovative solutions, change of the current legislation within the Strategy of social and economic development in the conditions of integration of economies into the world economy. Results: the practical significance of the work is to identify the interrelationship between the development processes of innovative projects that ensure the economic security of the regions of Russia within the framework of regulating the current legislation, forecasting effective economic activity within the framework of the New Industrialization Strategy, selecting optimal project planning models to ensure the country's economic security and competitiveness in the conditions of integration Economies into the world economy. Conclusions and Relevance: in the conditions of integration of

  9. Ensuring and Improving Information Quality for Earth Science Data and Products: Role of the ESIP Information Quality Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram; Peng, Ge; Moroni, David; Shie, Chung-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Quality of products is always of concern to users regardless of the type of products. The focus of this paper is on the quality of Earth science data products. There are four different aspects of quality - scientific, product, stewardship and service. All these aspects taken together constitute Information Quality. With increasing requirement on ensuring and improving information quality, there has been considerable work related to information quality during the last several years. Given this rich background of prior work, the Information Quality Cluster (IQC), established within the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) has been active with membership from multiple organizations. Its objectives and activities, aimed at ensuring and improving information quality for Earth science data and products, are discussed briefly.

  10. Ensuring and Improving Information Quality for Earth Science Data and Products Role of the ESIP Information Quality Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K. (Rama); Peng, Ge; Moroni, David; Shie, Chung-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Quality of products is always of concern to users regardless of the type of products. The focus of this paper is on the quality of Earth science data products. There are four different aspects of quality scientific, product, stewardship and service. All these aspects taken together constitute Information Quality. With increasing requirement on ensuring and improving information quality, there has been considerable work related to information quality during the last several years. Given this rich background of prior work, the Information Quality Cluster (IQC), established within the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) has been active with membership from multiple organizations. Its objectives and activities, aimed at ensuring and improving information quality for Earth science data and products, are discussed briefly.

  11. The development and certification of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to assess and ensure accurate measurement of Pb in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, J D; MacDonald, B S

    2001-08-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has had a major quality-assurance role in the federal effort to reduce lead poisoning of children in the United States through its mission of ensuring the accuracy of chemical measurements. NIST certifies reference materials (standard reference materials--SRMs) that are used to benchmark measurements by secondary and field methods of analysis--to ensure that decisions of great health and economic impact are soundly based on good measurement science. Over the past 10 years, in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS), NIST has prepared and certified SRMs for lead content in soil, indoor dust, and paint. The role of these materials in meeting regulatory and abatement needs is described and their certified values are summarized.

  12. Modelling borders of expediency of use of money funds for ensuring efficiency of marketing activity of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereshchahіna Hanna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article offers improvement of methods of determining the limit exceeding which additional attraction of money funds does not ensure efficiency of marketing activity. These methods are based on the use of theoretical approach based on analysis of change of marginal utility. This approach lies in: 1 the use of the correlation-regression analysis of dependency of change of indicators of efficiency of enterprise activity on change of the volume of resources (money funds directed at conduct of marketing activity; and 2 determination of first derivatives (extreme values, if possible of relevant functions. Practical use of the offered methods allows determination of the maximum volume of investments into the marketing activity required for ensuring its efficiency.

  13. The issue of ensuring the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a launch vehicle with propulsion rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushlyakov Valeriy I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for increasing the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a space launch vehicle (SLV with a propulsion rocket engine (PRE based on the gasification of unusable residues propellant and venting fuel tanks. For gasification and ventilation the hot gases used produced by combustion of the specially selected gas generating composition (GGC with a set of physical and chemical properties. Excluding the freezing of the drainage system on reset gasified products (residues propellant+pressurization gas+hot gases in the near-Earth space is achieved by selecting the physical-chemical characteristics of the GGC. Proposed steps to ensure rotation of gasified products due to dumping through the drainage system to ensure the most favorable conditions for propellant gasification residues. For example, a tank with liquid oxygen stays with the orbital spent second stage of the SLV “Zenit”, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. The Impact Of Occupational Hazards In Workplaces - Maintenance, A Main Target For Ensuring The Safety Of Working Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Anca Elena; Buica, Georgeta; Darabont, Doru Costin; Beiu, Constantin

    2015-07-01

    For use of work equipment having the economic performance and the highest level of safety, it must be ensured that it complies with the conditions set by the manufacturer in terms of putting into service, use and maintenance operations, ensuring appropriate technical and environmental requirements, including appropriate measures and means of protection. The research aimed to identify and analyze the occupational hazards associated to maintenance operations, in terms of the history of the adjustments, maintenance, cleaning and repair, including the case that occur after the incidents, capital repairs and upgrades. The results of the research consisted in the development of recommendations on the effective management of maintenance activities of work equipment and a software model to enable an efficient management of maintenance, as a tool for occupational hazards in companies - premise for increasing the competitiveness of employers in the market economy.

  15. The problem of ensuring the seismic stability of atomic electric power plant equipment and ways of solving it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaznovskii; Filippov, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    By seismic stability the authors mean the ability of the equipment and buildings to retain certain properties when subjected to seismic loads: leakproofness, strength, the absence of any residual changes of shape, which interfere with normal operation, ability to be repaired, nuclear and radiation safety. The latter requirement is the main thing which differentiates atomic electric power plants from other constructions, including other power-generation plants. Whereas, for example, an accident in the event of an earthquake in a thermal electric power plant can be regarded as a local accident, and the measures to ensure seismic stability are determined by economic factors and safety requirements for the operating staff, to ensure the seismic stability of an AES it is essential to take account in the first instance of the possibility of dangerous radiation effects both in the AES and in the vast area around it

  16. Role of young child formulae and supplements to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieux, Florent; Brouzes, Chloé M C; Maillot, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that young child formulae (YCFs) “cannot be considered as a necessity to satisfy the nutritional requirements” of children aged 12–36 months. This study quantifies the dietary changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children who...... consume YCFs and/or supplements and in those who do not. Dietary data from 1147 young children (aged 12–18 months) were used to identify, using linear programming models, the minimum changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy: (i) by changing the quantities of foods initially consumed by each child....../day, respectively). Increasing YCF and supplement consumption was the shortest way to cover the EFSA nutrient requirements of U.K. children....

  17. Ensuring access to public information in Mexico: Proposal for treatment of the information portal of the Ministry of Federal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Hernández Landeros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Reflect on the need to ensure access to information to everyone as the foundation of a information society. The case of Mexico and its public policy information from the Federal Institute of Access to Information. A proposal to adopt an information management system documentation for the Federal Ministry of Health of Mexico, based on international norms and standards in order to control, organize and retrieve information within your site.

  18. Radiation legacy of nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site in the light of requirements ensuring radiation safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logachev, V.A.; Logacheva, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Peculiarities of nuclear tests radiation legacy at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) are shown in the light of performance of requirements ensuring radiation safety, decrease radiation contamination levels in environment and minimize exposure of radiation for population residing contaminated areas by radioactive fallout. The paper provides data on characterization of peculiarities of the STS operation legacy based on review of archival data of the former 3-d General Administration under USSR Ministry of Health. (author)

  19. Problems and Preconditions of Ensuring Effectiveness of the Accounting and Control of Implementation of the Enterprise Development Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Burlan Svitlana A.; Katkova Natalia V.

    2017-01-01

    The main problem aspects of building an effective system of accounting and control at the strategic level of the enterprise are considered. The guidelines for the formation and management of this system in the modern business environment are outlined. The principles of ensuring effectiveness of the accounting and control of implementation of the enterprise development strategy are defined. Taking into account the identified problems of formation of accounting and control support for the imple...

  20. The role that graduate medical education must play in ensuring health equity and eliminating health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Maria E; Fried, Ethan D; DuBose, Thomas D; Nelson, Consuelo; Breida, Margaret

    2014-05-01

    Despite the 2002 Institute of Medicine report that described the moral and financial impact of health care disparities and the need to address them, it is evident that health care disparities persist. Recommendations for addressing disparities include collecting and reporting data on patient race and ethnicity, supporting language interpretation services, increasing awareness of health care disparities through education, requiring cultural competency training for all health care professionals, and increasing diversity among those delivering health care. The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education places strong emphasis on graduate medical education's role in eliminating health care disparities by asking medical educators to objectively evaluate and report on their trainees' ability to practice patient-centered, culturally competent care. Moreover, one of the objectives of the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education Clinical Learning Environment Review visits as part of the Next Accreditation System is to identify how sponsoring institutions engage residents and fellows in the use of data to improve systems of care, reduce health care disparities, and improve patient outcomes. Residency and fellowship programs should ensure the delivery of meaningful curricula on cultural competency and health care disparities, for which there are numerous resources, and ensure resident assessment of culturally competent care. Moreover, training programs and institutional leadership need to collaborate on ensuring data collection on patient satisfaction, outcomes, and quality measures that are broken down by patient race, cultural identification, and language. A diverse physician workforce is another strategy for mitigating health care disparities, and using strategies to enhance faculty diversity should also be a priority of graduate medical education. Transparent data about institutional diversity efforts should be provided to interested medical students