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Sample records for polarized tritium target

  1. Tritium target manufacturing for use in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, P.; Monnin, C.; Van Rompay, M.; Ballanger, A.

    2001-07-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium target on copper substrate, and going to more sophisticated devices. A wide range of possible uses is covered, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets for higher lifetimes, or large size rotating targets for accelerators used in boron neutron therapy. Activity of targets lies in the 1 to 1000 Curie, diameter of targets being up to 30 cm. Special targets are also considered, including surface layer targets for lowering tritium desorption under irradiation, or those made from different kinds of occluders such as titanium, zirconium, erbium, scandium, with different substrates. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output, or lifetime and stability, or thermal behavior.

  2. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target....77. (b) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg...

  3. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  4. Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The role played the large amount supply of tritium and its effects are broadly reviewed. This report is divided into four parts. The introductory part includes the history of tritium research. The second part deals with the physicochemical properties of tritium and the compounds containing tritium such as tritium water and labeled compounds, and with the isotope effects and self radiation effects of tritium. The third part deals with the tritium production by artificial reaction. Attention is directed to the future productivity of tritium from B, Be, N, C, O, etc. by using the beams of high energy protons or neutrons. The problems of the accepting market and the accuracy of estimating manufacturing cost are discussed. The expansion of production may bring upon the reduction of cost but also a large possibility of social impact. The irradiation problem and handling problem in view of environmental preservation are discussed. The fourth part deals with the use of tritium as a target, as a source of radiation or light, and its utilization for geochemistry. The future development of the solid tritium target capable of elongating the life of neutron sources is expected. The rust thickness of the surface of iron can be measured with the X-ray of Ti-T or Zr-T. The tritium can substitute self-light emission paint or lamp. The tritium is suitable for tracing the movement of sea water and land surface water because of its long half life. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  6. Tritium target performance during an LBLOCA in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    In December 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced a preferred strategy for acquiring a new supply of tritium. That strategy is based on pursuing the two most promising production alternatives. These alternatives include either constructing an accelerator-produced tritium system for tritium production or procuring an existing commercial light water reactor or irradiation services from such a reactor to irradiate tritium targets. This paper discusses the safety performance of a tritium target in a commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR). The current conceptual design for the light water tritium targets is quite similar, in terms of external dimensions and materials, to early designs for stainless steel clad discrete burnable absorbers used in PWRs. The tritium targets nominally consist of an annular lithium aluminate pellet wrapped in a Zircaloy-4 getter and clad with Type 316 stainless steel

  7. A Gas Target with a Tritium Gas Handling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1963-12-15

    A detailed description is given of a simple tritium gas target and its tritium gas filling system, and how to put it into operation. By using the T (p,n) He reaction the gas target has been employed for production of monoenergetic fast neutrons of well defined energy and high intensity. The target has been operated successfully for a long time.

  8. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  9. Neutron polarization in polarized 3He targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.; Bernstein, A.M.; Chupp, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    Simple formulas for the neutron and proton polarizations in polarized 3 He targets are derived assuming (1) quasielastic final states; (2) no final-state interactions; (3) no meson-exchange currents; (4) large momentum transfers; (5) factorizability of 3 He SU(4) response-function components. Numerical results from a wide variety of bound-state solutions of the Faddeev equations are presented. It is found that this simple model predicts the polarization of neutrons in a fully polarized 3 He target to be 87%, while protons should have a slight residual polarization of -2.7%. Numerical studies show that this model works very well for quasielastic electron scattering

  10. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  11. Stanford polarized atomic beam target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavis, D.G.; Dunham, J.S.; Hugg, J.W.; Glavish, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    A polarized atomic beam source was used to produce an atomic hydrogen beam which was in turn used as a polarized proton target. A target density of 2 x 10'' atoms/cm 3 and a target polarization of 0.37 without the use of rf transitions were measured. These measurements indicate that a number of experiments are currently feasible with a variety of polarized target beams

  12. Tritium permeation evaluation through vertical target of divertor based on recent tritium transport properties

    OpenAIRE

    中村 博文; 西 正孝

    2003-01-01

    Re-evaluation of tritium permeation through vertical target of divertor under the ITER operation condition was carried out using tritium transport properties in the candidate materials such as the diffusion coefficient and the trapping factors in tungsten for armor, and the surface recombination coefficient on copper for the heat sink obtained by authors' recent investigation (authors' data), which simulated the plasma-facing conditions of ITER. Evaluation with the data set of previous evalua...

  13. Spin-polarized hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium : I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, M.; Ostgaard, E.

    1989-01-01

    The ground-state energy of spin-polarized hydrogen, deuterium and tritium is calculated by means of a modified variational lowest order constrained-variation method, and the calculations are done for five different two-body potentials. Spin-polarized H is not self-bound according to our theoretical results for the ground-state binding energy. For spin-polarized D, however, we obtain theoretical results for the ground-state binding energy per particle from -0.4 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.25 σ -3 or a molar volume of 121 cm 3 /mol to +0.32 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.21 σ -3 or a molar volume of 142 cm 3 /mol, where σ = 3.69 A (1A = 10 -10 m). It is, therefore, not clear whether spin-polarized deuterium should be self-bound or not. For spin-polarized T, we obtain theoretical results for the ground-state binding energy per particle from -4.73 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.41 σ -3 or a molar volume of 74 cm 3 /mol to -1.21 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.28 σ -3 or a molar volume of 109 cm 3 /mol. (Author) 27 refs., 9 figs., tab

  14. Tritium permeation evaluation through vertical target of divertor based on recent tritium transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Nishi, Masataka

    2003-11-01

    Re-evaluation of tritium permeation through vertical target of divertor under the ITER operation condition was carried out using tritium properties in the candidate materials such as the diffusion coefficient and the trapping factors in tungsten for armor, and the surface recombination coefficient on copper for the heat sink obtained by authours' recent investigation (authors' data), which simulated the plasma-facing conditions of ITER. Evaluation with the data set of previous evaluation was also carried out for comparison (previous data). The permeation analysis was carried out individually by classifying into the armor region (Carbon Fiber Composites and tungsten) and the slit region without armor (3% of armor surface area) assuming the incident flux and temperature for each region. As the results of the permeation analysis, estimated permeation amount with the authors' data was one order less than that with the previous data at the end of lifetime of the divertor due to authors' small diffusion coefficient of tritium in tungsten. It also indicated the possibility that permeation through the slit region of the armor tiles could dominate total permeation through the vertical target, since tritium permeation amount through tungsten armor with the authors' data was estimated to be reduced drastically smaller than that with the previous evaluation data. The result of a little tritium permeation amount through the vertical target with the authors' data ensured the conservatism of the current evaluation of tritium concentration in the primary cooling water in ITER divertor, as it indicated the possibility of direct drainage of the divertor primary cooling water. (author)

  15. Review of polarized ammonium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Recently, ammonia (NH 3 ) and deutron ammonia (ND 3 ), instead of conventional alcohol substances, have been used more frequently as a polarized target substance for experiments of polarization at high energy regions. This article reviews major features of the polarized (deutron) ammonia targets. The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNT) method is widely used in high energy polarization experiments. While only a low polarization degree of hydrogen nucleus of 1.7 percent can be obtained by the Brute force method, DNP can produce polarization as high as ∼ 90 percent (2.5 T, ∼ 200 mK). In 1979, ammonia was irradiated with radiations to form NH 2 free radicals, resulting in the achievement of a high polarization degree of greater than 90 percent (hydrogen). Since then, ammonia and deutron ammonia have increasingly been replacing alcohols including butanol. Irradiation of a target substance with radiations destroys the structure of the substance, leading to a decrease in polarization degree. However, ammonia produces unpaired electrons as a result of irradiation, allowing it to be highly resistant to radiation. This report also present some study results, including observations on effects of radiation on the polarization degree of a target, effects of annealing, and polarization of 14 N. A process for producing an ammonia target is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  16. A tritium target system for μCF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmeskal, J.; Ackerbauer, P.; Durham, W.B.; Heard, H.C.; Neumann, W.; Bossy, H.

    1990-12-01

    An apparatus has been constructed for the safe handling of tritium as part of a series of muon-catalyzed fusion experiments. The equipment was designed to handle 100 kCi of tritium. The main parts of this system are the oil-free high vacuum and transfer system, and the quadrupole mass analyzer for a direct determination of the target content. The system was used successfully for five continuous periods of operation of over one month each. A new target system was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for ultimate use at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) to investigate the high temperature and high pressure region. 9 refs., 4 figs

  17. Solid Polarized Targets and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    Examples are given of dynamically polarized targets in use today and how the subsystems have changed to meet the needs of todays experiments. Particular emphasis is placed on target materials such as ammonia and lithium deuteride. Recent polarization studies of irradiated materials such as butanol, deuterated butanol, polyethylene, and deuterated polyethylene are presented. The operation of two non-DNP target systems as well as applications of traditional DNP targets are briefly discussed

  18. Design of a deuterium and tritium-ablator shock ignition target for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, Matthew R.; Perkins, L. John; Sepke, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Shock ignition presents a viable path to ignition and high gain on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In this paper, we describe the development of the 1D design of 0.5 MJ class, all-deuterium and tritium (fuel and ablator) shock ignition target that should be reasonably robust to Rayleigh-Taylor fluid instabilities, mistiming, and hot electron preheat. The target assumes “day one” NIF hardware and produces a yield of 31 MJ with reasonable allowances for laser backscatter, absorption efficiency, and polar drive power variation. The energetics of polar drive laser absorption require a beam configuration with half of the NIF quads dedicated to launching the ignitor shock, while the remaining quads drive the target compression. Hydrodynamic scaling of the target suggests that gains of 75 and yields 70 MJ may be possible.

  19. Safety and environmental advantages of using tritium-lean targets for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzeni, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Logan, B. G.; Meier, W. R.; Moir, R. W.; Perkins, L. J.; Sanz, J.

    1999-01-01

    While traditional inertial fusion energy target designs typically use equimolar portions of deuterium and tritium and have areal densities (ρr) of ∼ 3 g/cm 2 , significant safety and environmental (S and E) advantages may be obtained through the use of high-density (ρr ∼ 10 g/cm 2 ) targets with tritium components as low as 0.5%. Such targets would absorb much of the neutron energy within the target and could be self-sufficient from a tritium breeding point of view. Tritium self-sufficiency within the target would free target chamber designers from the need to use lithium-bearing blanket materials, while low inventories within each target would translate into low inventories in target fabrication facilities. Absorption of much of the neutron energy within the target, the extremely low tritium inventories, and the greatly moderated neutron spectrum, make ''tritium-lean'' targets appear quite attractive from an S and E perspective

  20. Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiege, A.

    1992-07-01

    This report contains information on chemical and physical properties, occurence, production, use, technology, release, radioecology, radiobiology, dose estimates, radioprotection and legal aspects of tritium. The objective of this report is to provide a reliable data base for the public discussion on tritium, especially with regard to its use in future nuclear fusion plants and its radiological assessment. (orig.) [de

  1. Tritium-target performance at RTNS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Logan, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-II) uses a 360-keV deuteron beam and the 3 He(d,n) 4 He reaction to generate 14-MeV neutrons. The neutrons are used for fusion materials damage studies. The tritium target consists of a band of titanium tritide on copper alloy substrates of 23- or 50-cm diameter. During operation, the substrates are internally cooled and rotated at approx. 4000 rpm to withstand beam intensities in excess of 100 mA. Neutron production data have been accumulated for fifty-eight 23-cm and five 50-cm targets. From these data, using a non-linear least-squares fitting procedure, target performance parameters have been obtained which permit a quantitative comparison of individual targets. Average parameters are obtained for the 23- and 50-cm targets

  2. Tritium and ignition target management at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draggoo, Vaughn

    2013-06-01

    Isotopic mixtures of hydrogen constitute the basic fuel for fusion targets of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A typical NIF fusion target shot requires approximately 0.5 mmoles of hydrogen gas and as much as 750 GBq (20 Ci) of 3H. Isotopic mix ratios are specified according to the experimental shot/test plan and the associated test objectives. The hydrogen isotopic concentrations, absolute amounts, gas purity, configuration of the target, and the physical configuration of the NIF facility are all parameters and conditions that must be managed to ensure the quality and safety of operations. An essential and key step in the preparation of an ignition target is the formation of a ~60 μm thick hydrogen "ice" layer on the inner surface of the target capsule. The Cryogenic Target Positioning System (Cryo-Tarpos) provides gas handling, cyro-cooling, x-ray imaging systems, and related instrumentation to control the volumes and temperatures of the multiphase (solid, liquid, and gas) hydrogen as the gas is condensed to liquid, admitted to the capsule, and frozen as a single spherical crystal of hydrogen in the capsule. The hydrogen fuel gas is prepared in discrete 1.7 cc aliquots in the LLNL Tritium Facility for each ignition shot. Post-shot hydrogen gas is recovered in the NIF Tritium Processing System (TPS). Gas handling systems, instrumentation and analytic equipment, material accounting information systems, and the shot planning systems must work together to ensure that operational and safety requirements are met.

  3. Cryogenic polarized target facility: status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, C.; Nash, H.K.; Roberson, N.; Schneider, M.; Seagondollar, W.; Soderstrum, J.

    1985-01-01

    The TUNL cryogenically polarized target facility consists of a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator and a superconducting magnet, together capable of maintaining samples at between 10 and 20 mK in magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla. At these temperatures and magnetic fields brute-force nuclear orientation occurs. Polarizations from 20 to 60% are attainable in about twenty nonzero spin nuclei. Most are metals, ranging in mass from 6 Li to 209 Bi, but the nuclei 1 H and 3 He are also polarizable via this method. The main effort is directed towards a better determination of the effective spin-spin force in nuclei. These experiments are briefly described and the beam stabilization system, cryostat and polarized 3 He targets are discussed

  4. Fusion of a polarized projectile with a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christley, J.A.; Johnson, R.C.; Thompson, I.J.

    1995-01-01

    The fusion cross sections for a polarized target with both unpolarized and polarized projectiles are studied. Expressions for the observables are given for the case when both nuclei are polarized. Calculations for fusion of an aligned 165 Ho target with 16 O and polarized 7 Li beams are presented

  5. OMEGA polar-drive target designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, P. B.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Shvydky, A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Goncharov, V. N.; McKenty, P. W.; Sangster, T. C.; Skupsky, S.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Low-adiabat polar-drive (PD) [Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] implosion designs for the OMEGA [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] laser are described. These designs for cryogenic deuterium–tritium and warm plastic shells use a temporal laser pulse shape with three pickets followed by a main pulse [Goncharov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 165001 (2010)]. The designs are at two different on-target laser intensities, with different in-flight aspect ratios (IFARs). These designs permit studies of implosion energetics and target performance closer to ignition-relevant intensities (∼7 × 10 14 W/cm 2 at the quarter-critical surface, where nonlocal heat conduction and laser–plasma interactions can play an important role) but at lower values of IFAR ∼ 22 or at lower intensity (∼3 × 10 14 W/cm 2 ) but at a higher IFAR (IFAR ∼ 32, where shell instability can play an important role). PD geometry requires repointing of laser beams to improve shell symmetry. The higher-intensity designs optimize target performance by repointing beams to a lesser extent, compensating for the reduced equatorial drive by increasing the energies of the repointed beams. They also use custom beam profiles that improve equatorial illumination at the expense of irradiation at higher latitudes. These latter designs will be studied when new phase plates for the OMEGA Laser System, corresponding to the custom beam profiles, are obtained.

  6. Hot muonic deuterium and tritium from cold targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, G.M.; Beveridge, J.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Beer, G.A.; Knowles, P.E.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A.; Brewer, J.H.; Forster, B.M.; Huber, T.M.; Pippitt, B.; Jacot-Guillarmod, R.; Schellenberg, L.; Martoff, C.J.; Petitjean, C.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments are described which use a solid hydrogen layer to form muonic hydrogen isotopes in vacuum. The method relies on transfer of the muon from protium to either a deuteron or a triton. The resulting muonic deuterium or muonic tritium will not immediately thermalize because of the very low elastic cross sections, and may be emitted from the surface of the layer. Measurements which detect decay electrons, muonic x-rays, and fusion products have been used to study the processes. A target has been constructed which exploits muonic atom emission in order to study the energy dependence of transfer and muon molecular formation

  7. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Budker, D.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Appelt, S.; Bouchard, L. S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ($\\sim$100 Hz) polarization reversal, and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  8. Polarized few-nucleon targets: new developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusser, O

    1992-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements in producing polarized few-nucleon targets for nuclear and particle physics experiments. The emphasis is on progress with polarized gas targets intended for experiments at electron and proton storage rings. (author) 54 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Polarized few-nucleon targets: new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements in producing polarized few-nucleon targets for nuclear and particle physics experiments. The emphasis is on progress with polarized gas targets intended for experiments at electron and proton storage rings. (author) 54 refs., 1 tab

  10. Nuclear spin polarization of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happer, W.

    1990-01-01

    Lasers can be used to produce milligrams to grams of noble gas nuclei with spin polarizations in excess of 50%. These quantities are sufficient to be very useful targets in nuclear physics experiments. Alkali-metal atoms are used to capture the angular momentum of circularly polarized laser photons, and the alkali-metal atoms transfer their angular momentum to noble gas atoms in binary or three-body collisions. Non-radiative collisions between the excited alkali atoms and molecular quenching gases are essential to avoid radiation trapping. The spin exchange can involve gas-phase van der Waals molecules, consisting of a noble gas atom and an alkali metal atom. Surface chemistry is also of great importance in determining the wall-induced relaxation rates of the noble gases

  11. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, M; Baum, G; Doshita, N; Finger, M Jr; Gautheron, F; Goertz, St; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Hess, Ch; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Y; Koivuniemi, J; Kondo, K; Le Goff, J-M; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Srnka, A

    2006-01-01

    The spin structure of the nucleons is investigated in deep inelastic scattering of a polarized muon beam and a polarized nucleon target in the COMPASS experiment at CERN since 2001. To achieve high luminosities a large solid polarized target is used. The COMPASS polarized target consists of a high cooling power $^{3}$He/$^{4}$He dilution refrigerator capable to maintain working temperature of the target material at about 50mK, a superconducting solenoid and dipole magnet system for longitudinal and transversal magnetic field on the target material, respectively, target cells containing polarizable material, microwave cavities and high power microwave radiation systems for dynamic nuclear polarization and the nuclear magnetic resonance system for nuclear spin polarization measurements. During 2001–2004 experiments superconducting magnet system with opening angle $\\pm$69 mrad, polarized target holder with two target cells and corresponding microwave and NMR systems have been used. For the data taking from 200...

  12. Polarized targets at triangle universities nuclear laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, M.L. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Gould, C.R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Haase, D.G. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Huffman, P.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Keith, C.D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Roberson, N.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Wilburn, W.S. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A summary of the polarized and aligned nuclear targets which have been constructed and used at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory is given. Statically polarized targets, typically operating at a temperature of 12 mK and a magnetic field of 7 T, have provided significant nuclear polarization in {sup 1}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 27}Al, {sup 93}Nb and {sup 165}Ho. A rotating, aligned {sup 165}Ho target is also in use. A {sup 3}He melting curve thermometer has been developed for use in statically polarized targets. A dynamically polarized proton target is under construction. ((orig.))

  13. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  14. Tritium solid targets for intense D-T neutron production and its related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji

    1988-01-01

    This review paper is divided into three parts. Firstly, to attain an intense neutron production rate, the construction of a design with a higher tritium-containing surface and an effective cooling system like a rotating target device are discussed. The maximum attainable intensity based on tritium solid targets shall be estimated regarding planning for future D-T sources. Secondly, on the way to carry out some experiments, an absolute intensity calibration and an angular dependent neutron energy spectrum of the neutron source are essential parameters to analyse the results of the experiments. Sometimes the space dependent neutron spectrum is required as well as the space dependent neutron flux near the targets and irradiation samples. The measurement methods and their examples are reviewed for tritium solid targets. The third part is devoted to discuss the protection to tritium contamination problems due to unavoidable release of tritium gas from targets. Performance and effectiveness of tritium collection systems for intense D-T neutron sources shall be discussed in some examples. Tritium contamination incidents due to the faulted film powder of target surface are also reported in some real incident cases. (author). Abstract only

  15. Dynamic nuclear polarization of irradiated target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Polarized nucleon targets used in high energy physics experiments usually employ the method of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to polarize the protons or deuterons in an alcohol. DNP requires the presence of paramagnetic centers, which are customarily provided by a chemical dopant. These chemically doped targets have a relatively low polarizable nucleon content and suffer from loss of polarization when subjected to high doses of ionizing radiation. If the paramagnetic centers formed when the target is irradiated can be used in the DNP process, it becomes possible to produce targets using materials which have a relatively high polarizable nucleon content, but which are not easily doped by chemical means. Furthermore, the polarization of such targets may be much more radiation resistant. Dynamic nuclear polarization in ammonia, deuterated ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, methylamine, borane ammonia, butonal, ethane and lithium borohydride has been studied. These studies were conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center using the Yale-SLAC polarized target system. Results indicate that the use of ammonia and deuterated ammonia as polarized target materials would make significant increases in polarized target performance possible

  16. Flow distribution in the accelerator-production-of-tritium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebe, D.A.; Spatz, T.L.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Sherman, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Achieving nearly uniform flow distributions in the accelerator production of tritium (APT) target structures is an important design objective. Manifold effects tend to cause a nonuniform distribution in flow systems of this type, although nearly even distribution can be achieved. A program of hydraulic experiments is underway to provide a database for validation of calculational methodologies that may be used for analyzing this problem and to evaluate the approach with the most promise for achieving a nearly even flow distribution. Data from the initial three tests are compared to predictions made using four calculational methods. The data show that optimizing the ratio of the supply-to-return-manifold areas can produce an almost even flow distribution in the APT ladder assemblies. The calculations compare well with the data for ratios of the supply-to-return-manifold areas spanning the optimum value. Thus, the results to date show that a nearly uniform flow distribution can be achieved by carefully sizing the supply and return manifolds and that the calculational methods available are adequate for predicting the distributions through a range of conditions

  17. Polarized internal targets for electronuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Brand, J.F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Polarized internal gas targets represent a unique opportunity for the measurement of spin observables in electro-nuclear physics. Two measurements will be discussed. First, spin observables have been measured in elastic and quasi-free scattering of 45, 200, 300, and 415 MeV polarized protons from a polarized 3 He internal gas target at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility Cooler Ring. The data obtained constitute the first measurement of spin correlation parameters using a storage ring with polarized beam and polarized internal gas target. Second, a quasi-free (e,e'p) experiment using tensor polarized deuterium will be discussed. Here, the goal is the measurement of the S- and D-state parts of the proton spectral function by scattering 700 MeV electrons from an atomic beam source. Large acceptance detectors have been used in both experiments. The internal-target technique has broad applicability in nuclear and particle physics

  18. Polarized proton target-IV. Operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.; Fletcher, O.; Moretti, A.; Onesto, F.

    1976-01-01

    Standard operating procedures are presented for the vacuum, cryogenic, and electronic systems of a polarized proton target. The systems are comprised of (1) a target cryostat; (2) a 4 He pumping system; (3) a 3 He pumping system; (4) a microwave system; (5) a magnet and power supply; (6) a computerized polarization monitor; and (7) miscellaneous auxiliary equipment

  19. Estimation of the tritium retention in ITER tungsten divertor target using macroscopic rate equations simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodille, E. A.; Bernard, E.; Markelj, S.; Mougenot, J.; Becquart, C. S.; Bisson, R.; Grisolia, C.

    2017-12-01

    Based on macroscopic rate equation simulations of tritium migration in an actively cooled tungsten (W) plasma facing component (PFC) using the code MHIMS (migration of hydrogen isotopes in metals), an estimation has been made of the tritium retention in ITER W divertor target during a non-uniform exponential distribution of particle fluxes. Two grades of materials are considered to be exposed to tritium ions: an undamaged W and a damaged W exposed to fast fusion neutrons. Due to strong temperature gradient in the PFC, Soret effect’s impacts on tritium retention is also evaluated for both cases. Thanks to the simulation, the evolutions of the tritium retention and the tritium migration depth are obtained as a function of the implanted flux and the number of cycles. From these evolutions, extrapolation laws are built to estimate the number of cycles needed for tritium to permeate from the implantation zone to the cooled surface and to quantify the corresponding retention of tritium throughout the W PFC.

  20. Polarized targets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cates, G.D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Various approaches are discussed for producing polarized nuclear targets for high energy physics experiments. As a unifying theme, examples are drawn from experiments to measure spin dependent structure functions of nucleons in deep inelastic scattering. This single physics goal has, over roughly two decades, been a driving force in advances in target technology. Actual or planned approaches have included solid targets polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), several types of internal targets for use in storage rings, and gaseous 3 He targets polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping. This last approach is the type of target adopted for SLAC E-142, an experiment to measure the spin structure function of the neutron, and is described in detail

  1. Polarized targets in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cates, G.D. Jr. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Various approaches are discussed for producing polarized nuclear targets for high energy physics experiments. As a unifying theme, examples are drawn from experiments to measure spin dependent structure functions of nucleons in deep inelastic scattering. This single physics goal has, over roughly two decades, been a driving force in advances in target technology. Actual or planned approaches have included solid targets polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), several types of internal targets for use in storage rings, and gaseous {sup 3}He targets polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping. This last approach is the type of target adopted for SLAC E-142, an experiment to measure the spin structure function of the neutron, and is described in detail.

  2. Polarized gas targets for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    It is widely recognized that polarized gas targets in electron storage rings represent a new opportunity for precision nuclear physics studies. New developments in polarized target technology specific to internal applications will be discussed. In particular, polarized gas targets have been used in the VEPP-3 electron ring in Novosibirsk. A simple storage cell was used to increase the total target thickness by a factor of 15 over the simple gas jet target from an atomic beam source. Results from the initial phase of this project will be reported. In addition, the plans for increasing the luminosity by an additional order or magnitude will be presented. The application of this work to polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets for the HERA ring will be noted. The influence of beam-induced depolarization, a phenomena encountered in short-pulse electron storage rings, will be discussed. Finally, the performance tests of laser-driven sources will be presented. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  3. Polarized deuteron elastic scattering from a polarized proton target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelzer, R.; Kuiper, H.; Schoeberl, M.; Berber, S.; Hilmert, H.; Koeppel, R.; Pferdmenges, R. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Zankel, H. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)

    1983-01-13

    Measurements are reported of the spin correlation parameter Cy,y for the elastic scattering of 10.0 MeV vector polarized deuterons from a polarized proton target at five CM angles (76/sup 0/,85/sup 0/,98/sup 0/,115/sup 0/,132/sup 0/). The experimental results are compared with different predictions. A Faddeev type calculation on the basis of local potentials also including approximate Coulomb distortion is favoured by our experimental results.

  4. Polarized deuteron elastic scattering from a polarized proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, R.; Kuiper, H.; Schoeberl, M.; Berber, S.; Hilmert, H.; Koeppel, R.; Pferdmenges, R.; Zankel, H.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the spin correlation parameter Cy,y for the elastic scattering of 10.0 MeV vector polarized deuterons from a polarized proton target at five CM angles (76 0 ,85 0 ,98 0 ,115 0 ,132 0 ). The experimental results are compared with different predictions. A Faddeev type calculation on the basis of local potentials also including approximate Coulomb distortion is favoured by our experimental results. (orig.)

  5. Physics with polarized electrons and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of electron stretcher or storage rings electron scattering from polarized targets becomes a general new tool for nuclear structure studies. Without such facilities it is necessary to have very dense polarized targets for use with the typical (less or approximately equal 50 μA) electron beams available and very few measurements of this type have been attempted. On the other hand, with electron rings the effective circulating current can be greatly increased. In this case much thinner internal targets may be used while still maintaining the same luminosity as in external beam experiments. In ancticipation of such new experimental capabilities we have re-developed the theoretical basis for discussions of electron scattering from polarized targets using either unpolarized or polarized electron beams. This work takes the formalism of unpolarized (e,e') and extends it in a straightforward way to include general polarizations of electrons, target nuclei, recoil nuclei or any combinations of these polarizations. In the present context it is only possible to provide a brief summary of the general form of the cross section and to present a few illustrative examples of the nuclear structure information that may be extracted from such polarization measurements

  6. System for measuring of proton polarization in polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkach, A.Ya.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kuz'menko, V.S.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement system of proton polarization in the target, which uses the method of nuclear magnetic resonance is described. To record the signal of NMR-absorption a parallel Q-meter of voltage with analogous subtraction of resonance characteristics of measurement circuit is used. To obtain gradual sensitivity of the system to polarization state in the whole volume of the target the measurement coils is made of tape conductor. The analysis and mathematical modelling of Q-meter are carried out. Corrections for nonlinearity and dispersion are calculated. Key diagrams of the main electron blocks of Q-meter are presented. The system described operates on line with the M6000 computer. Total error of measurement of polarization value of free protons in the target does not exceed 6% [ru

  7. System of measurement of proton polarization in a polarized target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnaukov, I.M.; Chechetenko, V.F.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with high sensitivity. The signal of NMR absorption is recorded by a Q-meter with a series circuit and a circuit for compensation of the resonance characteristic of the measuring circuit. In order to ensure uniform sensitivity of the system to the state of polarization throughout the volume of the target and to enhance the S/N ration the measuring coil is made of a flat conductor. The polarization-measuring system works on-line with an M-6000 computer. The total error of measurement of the polarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of the working substance under irradiation with an intense photon beam is less than or equal to 6%.

  8. Conception and operation of a 10 kCi liquid tritium target for the study of tritium nucleus by electron diffusion: 3H(e,e)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juster, F.P.

    1986-06-01

    We describe the conception and operation of an experimental setup, specially suited for the study of the nuclear structure of tritium by elastic electron scattering at intermediate energy. The experiment has been conducted at the ALS 700 MeV electron linac (Saclay, France). The radioactive nature of tritium has led to the design of a new target, suited for handling reliably ten kilocuries of tritium (one gram). The tritium is contained in three sealed envelopes. Initially a high pressure gas (23 bars) at room temperature, the tritium is cooled down to liquefaction by thermal conduction through a solid, without breaking any seal. The beam path and the scattered trajectories cross thin metallic windows. Additional protection, during the presence of personnel, is provided by a heavy container, remotely operated. Any leak in the containement vessels is detected by changes in pressure and/or temperature gauges, monitored by two independent processors. These processors handle the operation of the outer container, the beam switching and the spare venting system. No tritium leak has been detected during a total six-week run. The tritium liquefies in a cylindrical target, 5 cm long and 1 cm in diameter. A beam of 10 microamperes, in the 200-700 MeV, has been measured. The charge and magnetic form factors of tritium have been measured up to a momentum transfer of 31.3 fm -2 [fr

  9. Polarized proton target with horizontal spin orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, Eh.I.; Kiselev, Yu.F.; Kozlenko, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Proton target, the polarization vector of which may be arbitrary oriented in horizontal plane relatively to the beam, is developed and tested. 70% value of polarization is obtained. 0.6 K temperature is acquired through 3 He pumping out continuous cycle. 1.2-propylene glycol - Cr(V) was used as working medium. Magnetic system is made in the form of Helmholtz sperconducting coils with working curren close to critical one. Target polarization is measured by NMR technique using original system of proton signal processing

  10. Polarized proton and deuteron solid HD targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.

    1977-01-01

    A decade has now elapsed since HD was proposed as a polarized proton and deuteron target with exceptionally desirable properties. These include a very high free proton proportion, independently polarizable proton and deuteron systems, and a ''frozen-spin'' mode of operation which allows separation of the functions of production and utilization of the highly polarized target. A discussion is given of what can be expected of the polarized HD system right now, without further research. The basic features of solid HD pertinent to its use as a ''frozen-spin'' target are outlined, then a summary is given of the particular experimental results which support the contention that the target will perform successfully, and finally, some feasible operating modes and the expected performances from them are presented

  11. A horizontal dilution refrigerator for polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isagawa, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Masaike, A.; Morimoto, K.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal dilution refrigerator was constructed with a view to the spin frozen target and the deuteron polarized target. High cooling power at high temperature such as 3.7 mW at 400 mK serves for overcoming a heat load of microwave to polarize the nuclear spins in the target material. The cooling power at 50 mK was 50 μW, which is sufficient to hold the high nuclear polarization for long time. The lowest temperature reached was 26 mK. The refrigerator has rather simple heat exchangers, a long stainless steel double tube heat exchanger and two coaxial type heat exchangers with sintered copper. The mixing chamber is made of polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and demountable so that the target material can be easily put into it. (Auth.)

  12. Superconducting polarizing magnet for a movable polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchenko, N.G.; Bartenev, V.D.; Blinov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting polarizing magnet was constructed for the JINR (Dubna) movable polarized target (MPT) with working volume 200 mm long and 30 mm in diameter. The magnet provides a polarizing magnetic field up to 6 T in the centre with the uniformity of 4.5 x 10 -4 in the working volume of the target. The magnet contains a main solenoidal winding 558 mm long and 206/144 mm in diameters, and compensating and correcting winding placed at its ends. The windings are made of a NbTi wire, impregnated with the epoxy resin and placed in the horizontal cryostat. The diameter of the 'warm' aperture of the magnet cryostat is 96 mm. The design and technology of the magnet winding are described. Results of the magnetic field map measurements, using a NMR-magnetometer are given. A similar magnet constructed at DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay (France), represented a model for the present development. The MPT array is installed in the beam line of polarized neutrons produced by break-up of polarized deuterons extracted from the synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), JINR (Dubna)

  13. COMPASS polarized target for Drell-Yan

    CERN Document Server

    Pešek, M

    2014-01-01

    In the COMPASS Drell–Yan experiment the pion beam with momen tum of 190 GeV/ c and in- tensity up to 10 8 pions/s will interact with transversely polarized proton t arget producing muon pair via Drell–Yan process. The solid-state NH 3 will be polarized by dynamic nuclear polar- ization. Maximum polarization reached during data taking i s expected to be up to 90%. The non-interacting beam and other particles produced inside t he target will be stopped in the hadron absorber after the target. Two target cells, sepparated by a 20 cm gap in between, each 55 cm long and 4 cm in diameter give the target material volume about 691 cm 3 . The target platform needs to be moved by 2.3 m in upstream dire ction from the position used in previous experiments in order to accomodate the absorber. D uring the beam time higher radiation is expected in the area of the control room. Thus a new target r emote control system is needed. The target magnet is undergoing a substantial upgrade. Drell–Yan data taking is expected t...

  14. New investigations of polarized solid HD targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.; Whisnant, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Polarized solid HD targets in a frozen-spin mode, with superior nuclear physics characteristics and simple operational configurations, have previously been restricted in their deployment due to a disproportionate target production time with respect to utilization time. Recent investigations have yielded frozen-spin polarization lifetimes, at a convenient target temperature of 1.5 K, of nearly a year for both H and D at high holding fields, and of more than a week at sub-Tesla holding fields. These results, taken together with the advent of new interesting spin-physics using relatively weakly ionizing beams, such as polarized photon beams, remove the above impediment and open up the use of polarized solid HD to long duration nuclear spin-physics experiments. Large, multiple targets can be produced, retrieved from the polarization-production apparatus with a cold-transport (4 K) device, stored for very long times in inexpensive (1.5 K, 7 T) cryostats, and introduced 'off-the-shelf' into in-beam cryostats via the portable cold-transport apparatus. Various modes for achieving polarized H and/or D, as well as already achieved and expected polarization values, are reported. Experimental results are given on Kapitza resistance between the solid HD and the cooling wires necessary to obtain low temperatures during the heat-evolving polarization process. 15 mK is achievable using gold-plated aluminum wires, which constitute 15% extraneous nucleons over the number of polarizable H or D nucleons. Application to more highly ionizing beams is also given consideration. ((orig.))

  15. Safety aspects of tritium in ICF reactors with internally-breeding targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.; Miley, G.H.; University of Illinois, Urbana, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The LOTRIT inertial confinement reactor concept employs a deuterium burning target with a DT spark trigger core. This eliminates the need for tritium breeding in a blanket, and leads to a minimization of the tritium inventory and of the possibility of metal fire hazards if lead is used instead of lithium for first wall protection. The active fuel inventory in the fuel cycle and blanket per MJ of energy produced is only 5 percent of the DT case. The most significant reduction in the total tritium inventory is in the target manufacture and storage areas, and is about 1.8% of the DT case per unit of fusion energy produced. If the goal is to reduce the risk from tritium releases from fusion reactors to below that of fission reactors, it is estimated that the tritium releases must be maintained at 0.13-5.0 Ci/day. Attaining these values will be costly, technologically difficult and will constrain the design options in DTbased systems, but may be within the realm of systems using the LOTRIT concept

  16. Modeling alignment enhancement for solid polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    A model of dynamic orientation using optimized radiofrequency (RF) irradiation produced perpendicular to the holding field is developed for the spin-1 system required for tensor-polarized fixed-target experiments. The derivation applies to RF produced close to the Larmor frequency of the nucleus and requires the electron spin-resonance linewidth to be much smaller than the nuclear magnetic resonance frequency. The rate equations are solved numerically to study a semi-saturated steady-state resulting from the two sources of irradiation: microwave from the DNP process and the additional RF used to manipulate the tensor polarization. The steady-state condition and continuous-wave NMR lineshape are found that optimize the spin-1 alignment in the polycrystalline materials used as solid polarized targets in charged-beam nuclear and particle physics experiments. (orig.)

  17. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Doshita, N.; Finger Jr., M.; Finger, M.; Gautheron, F.; Goertz, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hess, C.; Horikawa, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kisselev, Y.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kondo, K.; Le Goff, J.M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Srnka, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. F (2006), F295-F305 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : COMPASS * polarized target * Dilution refrigerator Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  18. Calculating the energy spectrum of neutrons from tritium target of the NG-150 type generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortash, A.I.; Kuznetsov, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Calculation procedure of neutron spectra yielding from the NG-150 generator target chamber with regard to deutron moderation is suggested. Using the suggested procedure, neutron spectra for different escape angles formed in the tritium target are calculated. The spectrum of neutrons scattered in cooling water is calculated. The mean energy of neutrons escaping at the angle of 0 deg equalling 14.5 MeV is obtained

  19. Tritium inventory of a target factor in an ICF power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherohman, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary parametric study has been performed to estimate the tritium inventory of a conjectured Target Factory. The inventory of a proposed tritiated fuel processing system was determined as a function of production efficiency, storage factor, and time interval for the slowest processing step. Results indicated that a study of this type will be beneficial in evaluating possible processing schemes for the production of tritiated laser fusion targets

  20. Burn performance of deuterium-tritium, deuterium-deuterium, and catalyzed deuterium ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Blue, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    The University of Illinois hydrodynamic burn code, AFBURN, has been used to model the performance of homogeneous D-T, D 2 , and catalyzed deuterium ICF targets. Yields and gains are compared for power-producing targets. AFBURN is a one-dimensional, two-temperature, single-fluid hydrodynamic code with non-local fusion product energy deposition. The initial conditions for AFBURN are uniformly compressed targets with central hot spots. AFBURN predicts that maximum D 2 target gains are obtained for target rhoR and spark rhoR about seven times larger than the target and spark rhoR for maximum D-T target gains, that the maximum D 2 target gain is approximately one third of the maximum D-T target gain, and that the corresponding yields are approximately equal. By recycling tritium and 3 He from previous targets, D 2 target performance can be improved by about 10%. (author)

  1. Electron scattering with polarized targets at TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Belostotski, S.

    2000-11-01

    Measurements of polarized electron-nucleon scattering can be realized at the TESLA linear collider facility with projected luminosities that are about two orders of magnitude higher than those expected of other experiments at comparable energies. Longitudinally polarized electrons, accelerated as a small fraction of the total current in the e + arm of TESLA, can be directed onto a solid state target that may be either longitudinally or transversely polarized. A large variety of polarized parton distribution and fragmentation functions can be determined with unprecedented accuracy, many of them for the first time. A main goal of the experiment is the precise measurement of the x- and Q 2 -dependence of the experimentally totally unknown quark transversity distributions that will complete the information on the nucleon's quark spin structure as relevant for high energy processes. Comparing their Q 2 -evolution to that of the corresponding helicity distributions constitutes an important precision test of the predictive power of QCD in the spin sector. Measuring transversity distributions and tensor charges allows access to the hitherto unmeasured chirally odd operators in QCD which are of great importance to understand the role of chiral symmetry. The possibilities of using unpolarized targets and of experiments with a real photon beam turn TESLA-N into a versatile next-generation facility at the intersection of particle and nuclear physics. (orig.)

  2. H- ion current from a polarized vapor target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    A method of determining the polarization transferred to hydrogen atoms in charge-exchange reactions is outlined. The method also provides a means of determining target polarizations once the polarization transfer function is known

  3. Compression of a spherically symmetric deuterium-tritium plasma liner onto a magnetized deuterium-tritium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarius, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Converging plasma jets may be able to reach the regime of high energy density plasmas (HEDP). The successful application of plasma jets to magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) would heat the plasma by fusion products and should increase the plasma energy density. This paper reports the results of using the University of Wisconsin’s 1-D Lagrangian, radiation-hydrodynamics, fusion code BUCKY to investigate two MIF converging plasma jet test cases originally analyzed by Samulyak et al.[Physics of Plasmas 17, 092702 (2010)]. In these cases, 15 cm or 5 cm radially thick deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma jets merge at 60 cm from the origin and converge radially onto a DT target magnetized to 2 T and of radius 5 cm. The BUCKY calculations reported here model these cases, starting from the time of initial contact of the jets and target. Compared to the one-temperature Samulyak et al. calculations, the one-temperature BUCKY results show similar behavior, except that the plasma radius remains about twice as long near maximum compression. One-temperature and two-temperature BUCKY results differ, reflecting the sensitivity of the calculations to timing and plasma parameter details, with the two-temperature case giving a more sustained compression.

  4. Characteristics of target polarization by laser ablation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Delle Side, D.; Giuffreda, E.; Nassisi, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2015), 601-605 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0454; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant - others:LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Target current in laser-produced plasmas * positive and negative target polarization * space structure of ion front Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2015

  5. Target/Blanket Design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappiello, M. W.

    1997-01-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium Target/Blanket (T/B) system is comprised of the T/B assembly and the attendant heat removal systems. The T/B assembly produces tritium using a high energy proton beam, and a spallation neutron source. The supporting heat removal systems safely remove the heat deposited by the proton beam during both normal and off-normal conditions. All systems reside within the T/B building, which is located at the end of a linear accelerator. Protons are accelerated to an energy of 1700 MeV at a current of 100 mA and are directed onto the T/B assembly. The protons interact with tungsten and lead nuclei to produce neutrons through the process of nuclear spallation. Neutron capture in 3 He gas produces tritium which is removed on a continual basis in an adjacent Tritium Separation Facility (TSF). The T/B assembly is modular to allow for replacement of spent components and minimization of waste. Systems and components are designed with safety as a primary consideration to minimize risk to the workers and the public

  6. Energy cost of negative pion production on deuterium-tritium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzminov, V.V. (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Petrov, Yu.V. (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Shabelski, Yu.M. (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1993-12-01

    The negative pion production by deuterons (T[sub 0] = 0.8 GeV/nucl.) was calculated for a cylindrical gaseous deuterium-tritium target (the density of DT-mixture is [phi] = 0.5). Revised cross sections of nucleon-nucleus interaction were used in a Monte Carlo simulation and multiple nucleon-nuclei collisions were taken into account. The energy cost of negative pion production is [epsilon][sub [pi][sup -

  7. Laser ``M'egajoule'' cryogenic target program: from target fabrication to conformation of the deuterium-tritium ice layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Rémy; Durut, Frédéric; Reneaume, Benoît; Chicane, Cédric; Théobald, Marc; Breton, Olivier; Martin, Michel; Fleury, Emmanuel; Vincent-Viry, Olivier; Bachelet, Franck; Jeannot, Laurent; Geoffray, Isabelle; Botrel, Ronan; Dauteuil, Christophe; Hermerel, Cyril; Choux, Alexandre; Bednarczyk, Sophie; Legaie, Olivier

    2008-11-01

    For the French inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, cryogenic target assemblies (CTAs) for the LMJ program are manufactured and filled at CEA Valduc (Dijon) in the cryogenic targets filling station (IRCC). They will be moved at about 20 K into a transport cryostat for cryogenic targets and will be driven from CEA/Valduc to CEA/CESTA (Bordeaux). Cryogenic targets will then be transferred by several cryogenic grippers on the cryogenic target positioner before shots. The CTA has to meet severe specifications and involves a lot of challenging tasks for its manufacture. To fill CTAs by permeation with deuterium-tritium (DT), the IRCC need to meet strict thermal, mechanical and dimensional specifications. To obtain a good combustion yield, a very homogenous DT ice layer and very smooth roughness at 1.5 K below the DT triple point are also required. This paper deals with the up to date main issues in the different fields of the LMJ cryogenic target program.

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on polarized targets in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-08-01

    Polarization phenomena have played an increasingly important part in the study of nuclei and nucleons in recent years. Polarization studies have been hampered by the relatively few and rather fragile polarized targets which are presently available. The concept of polarized gas targets in storage rings opens a much wider range of possibilities than is available in the external target geometry. This novel method will represent a considerable advance in nuclear physics and will continue to receive much attention in plans for future facilities. An internal, polarized-target station is being planned for the cooler ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. Internal targets are compatible with recent designs of electron accelerators proposed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Southeastern Universities Research Association. The key to nuclear-science programs based on internal targets pivots on recent developments in polarized atomic beam methods, which include the more recent laser-driven polarized targets. The workshop drew together a unique group of physicists in the fields of high-energy, nuclear and atomic physics. The meeting was organized in a manner that stimulated discussion among the 58 participants and focused on developments in polarized target technology and the underlying atomic physics. An impressive array of future possibilities for polarized targets as well as current developments in polarized target technology were discussed at the workshop. Abstracts of individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  9. Computer control of the SMC polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.M.; Azoulay, R.; Berglund, P.; Dulya, C.; Gournay, J.F.; Hayashi, N.; Kyynaeraeinen, J.; Magnon, A.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Trentalange, S.

    1995-01-01

    The SMC polarized target is controlled through VME crates driven by CPUs working under the VxWorks operating system. The CPUs are connected to a SUN workstation which provides the user interface due to a graphical package named SL-GMS. This results in user friendliness, high modularity and flexibility. The system allows the control of: (1) the superconductive solenoid and the transverse dipole: control of the power supplies; automatic reversal of the spin direction by field rotation; acquisition, display and storage of the electric and cryogenic parameters; generation of alarms; and (2) the dilution refrigerator: evaporator level control; acquisition, display and storage of ∼100 cryogenic parameters; and generation of alarms. ((orig.))

  10. Dynamic nuclear polarization tests in some polymers for polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, B. van den; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; Bunyatova, E.I.

    1998-01-01

    The results of dynamic polarization tests in polyethylene (PE) and ethylene propylene copolymer (EPC), doped with the stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), are presented. Sizable proton polarizations have been achieved in a magnetic field of 2.5 T at a temperature below 0.3 K and 5T at 1 K

  11. Laser-driven polarized H/D sources and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; Dutta, D.; Gao, H.; Seely, J.; Xu, W.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, Atomic Beam Sources are used to produce targets of nuclear polarized hydrogen (H) or deuterium (D) for experiments using storage rings. Laser-Driven Sources (LDSs) offer a factor of 20-30 gain in the target thickness (however, with lower polarization) and may produce a higher overall figure of merit. The LDS is based on the technique of spin-exchange optical pumping where alkali vapor is polarized by absorbing circularly polarized laser photons. The H or D atoms are nuclear-polarized through spin-exchange collisions with the polarized alkali vapor and through subsequent hyperfine interactions during frequent H-H or D-D collisions

  12. Few-body experiments with polarized beams and polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is presented concerning recent polarization experiments in the elastic p-d, p- 3 He, and p- 4 He systems. Mention is made of selected neutron experiments. The nominal energy range is 10 to 1000 MeV. Recent results and interpretations of the p-d system near 10 MeV are discussed. New experiments on the energy dependence of back angle p-d tensor polarization are discussed with respect to resolution of discrepancies and difficulty of theoretical interpretation. Progress is noted concerning multiple scattering interpretation of forward p-d deuteron polarization. Some new results are presented concerning the p- 3 He system and higher energy p- 4 He polarization experiments. 52 references

  13. Report of the workshop on polarized target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, G.R.; Crabb, D.G.; Fernow, R.C.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; Gray, S.W.; Hill, D.A.; Jarmer, J.J.; Krisch, A.D.; Krumpolic, M.; Niinikoski, T.O.

    1978-01-01

    The workshop concentrated on an examination of: radiation damage in polarized target materials, a survey of clean target materials, and dynamic polarization results with the new stable Cr(V) complexes. In addition to the normal polarized target experts with backgrounds in high energy physics, low temperature physics and solid state physics, scientists with strong backgrounds in various areas of chemistry and radiation damage physics were included, as these areas were quite crucial to the workshop goals. However, it is clear that much closer collaboration with experts in these areas will be necessary to find polarized target materials that allow more precise experiments on high P 2 perpendicular processes and inclusive processes

  14. Optically pumped electron spin polarized targets for use in the production of polarized ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    The production of relatively dense electron spin polarized alkali metal vapor targets by optical pumping with intense cw dye lasers is discussed. The target density and electron spin polarization depend on the dye laser intensity and bandwidth, the magnetic field at the target, and the electron spin depolarization time. For example in a magnetic field of 1.5 x 10 3 G, and using 1 W dye laser with a bandwidth of 10 10 Hz one can construct an electron spin polarized Na vapor target with a target thickness of 1.6 x 10 13 atoms/cm 2 and an average electron spin polarization of about 90% even though the Na atoms are completely depolarized at every wall collision. Possible uses of the electron spin polarized targets for the production of intense beams of polarized H - or 3 He - ions are discussed. (orig.)

  15. The polarized double cell target of the SMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.; Adeva, B.; Arik, E.; Arvidson, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballintijn, M.K.; Bardin, G.; Baum, G.; Berglund, P.; Betev, L.; Bird, I.G.; Birsa, R.; Bjoerkholm, P.; Bonner, B.E.; Botton, N. de; Boutemeur, M.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Bueltmann, S.; Burtin, E.; Cavata, C.; Crabb, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar, T.; Torre, S. Dalla; Dantzig, R. van; Derro, B.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Dulya, C.; Dyring, A.; Eichblatt, S.; Faivre, J.C.; Fasching, D.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandez, C.; Forthmann, S.; Frois, B.; Gallas, A.; Garzon, J.A.; Gaussiran, T.; Gilly, H.; Giorgi, M.; Goeler, E. von; Goertz, S.; Gracia, G.; Groot, N. de; Perdekamp, M. Grosse; Guelmez, E.; Haft, K.; Harrach, D. von; Hasegawa, T.; Hautle, P.; Hayashi, N.; Heusch, C.A.; Horikawa, N.; Hughes, V.W.; Igo, G.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kabuss, E.M.; Kageya, T.; Karev, A.; Kessler, H.J.; Ketel, T.J.; Kiryluk, J.; Kishi, A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klostermann, L.; Kraemer, D.; Krivokhijine, V.; Kroeger, W.; Kurek, K.; Kyynaeraeinen, J.; Lamanna, M.; Landgraf, U.; Layda, T.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de; Lichtenstadt, J.; Lindqvist, T.; Litmaath, M.; Lowe, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Marie, F.; Martin, A.; Martino, J.; Matsuda, T.; Mayes, B.; McCarthy, J.S.; Medved, K.; Meyer, W.; Middelkoop, G. van; Miller, D.; Miyachi, Y.; Mori, K.; Moromisato, J.; Nassalski, J.; Naumann, L.; Neganov, B.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Oberski, J.E.J.; Ogawa, A.; Ozben, C.; Parks, D.P.; Pereira, H.; Penzo, A.; Perrot-Kunne, F.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piegaia, R.; Pinsky, L.; Platchkov, S.; Plo, M.; Pose, D.; Postma, H.; Pretz, J.; Pussieux, T.; Pyrlik, J.; Raedel, G.; Reyhancan, I.; Reicherz, G.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.; Roberts, J.B.; Rock, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Rondio, E.; Rosado, A.; Roscherr, B.; Sabo, I.; Saborido, J.; Sandacz, A.; Savin, I.; Schiavon, P.; Schiller, A.; Schueler, K.P.; Segel, R.; Seitz, R.; Semertzidis, Y.; Sever, F.; Shanahan, P.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simeoni, F.; Smirnov, G.I.; Staude, A.; Steinmetz, A.; Stiegler, U.; Stuhrmann, H.; Szleper, M.; Teichert, K.M.; Tessarotto, F.; Thers, D.; Tlaczala, W.; Trentalange, S.; Tripet, A.; Unel, G.; Velasco, M.; Vogt, J.; Voss, R.; Weinstein, R.; Whitten, C.; Windmolders, R.; Willumeit, R.; Wislicki, W.; Witzmann, A.; Zanetti, A.M.; Zaremba, K.; Zhao, J.

    1999-01-01

    The polarized target of the Spin Muon Collaboration at CERN was used for deep inelastic muon scattering experiments during 1993-1996 with a polarized muon beam to investigate the spin structure of the nucleon. Most of the experiments were carried out with longitudinal target polarization and 190 GeV muons, and some were done with transverse polarization and 100 GeV muons. Protons as well as deuterons were polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in three kinds of solid materials -- butanol, ammonia, and deuterated butanol -- with maximum degrees of polarization of 94%, 91% and 60%, respectively. Considerable attention was paid to the accuracies of the NMR polarization measurements and their analyses, the accuracies achieved were between 2.0% and 3.2%. The SMC target system with two cells of opposite polarizations, each cell 65 cm long and 5 cm in diameter, constitutes the largest polarized target system ever built and facilitates accurate spin asymmetry measurements. The design considerations, construction and performance of the target are reviewed

  16. Design of a tensor polarized deuterium target polarized by spin-exchange with optically pumped NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed design for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) for nuclear physics studies in an electron storage ring accelerator is presented. The deuterium atoms undergo electron spin exchange with a highly polarized sodium vapor; this polarization is transferred to the deuterium nuclei via the hyperfine interaction. The deuterium nuclei obtain their tensor polarization through repeated electron spin exchange/hyperfine interactions. The sodium vapor polarization is maintained by standard optical pumping techniques. Model calculations are presented in detail leading to a discussion of the expected performance and the technical obstacles to be surmounted in the development of such a target

  17. Design of a tensor polarized deuterium target polarized by spin-exchange with optically pumped NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.C.

    1984-05-01

    A proposed design for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) for nuclear physics studies in an electron storage ring accelerator is presented. The deuterium atoms undergo electron spin exchange with a highly polarized sodium vapor; this polarization is transferred to the deuterium nuclei via the hyperfine interaction. The deuterium nuclei obtain their tensor polarization through repeated electron spin exchange/hyperfine interactions. The sodium vapor polarization is maintained by standard optical pumping techniques. Model calculations are presented in detail leading to a discussion of the expected performance and the technical obstacles to be surmounted in the development of such a target. 15 references, 10 figures

  18. The polarized double cell target of the SMC

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Adeva, B; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Bird, I G; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; Bonner, B E; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gülmez, E; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Layda, T; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Neganov, B S; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Parks, D P; Pereira, H; Penzo, Aldo L; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Rädel, G; Reyhancan, I; Reicherz, G; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Rosado, A; Roscherr, B; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Schüler, K P; Segel, R E; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Trentalange, S; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1999-01-01

    The polarized target of the Spin Muon Collaboration at CERN was used for deep inelastic muon scattering experiments during 1993 to 1996 with a polarized muon beam to investigate the spin structure of the nucleon. Most of the experiments were carried out with longitudinal target polarization and 190 GeV muons, and some were done with transverse polarization and 100 GeV muons. Protons as well as deuterons were polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in three kinds of solid materials $-$ butanol, ammonia, and deuterated butanol, with maximum degrees of polarization of 94, 91, and 60 \\%, respectively. Considerable attention was paid to the accuracies of the NMR polarization measurements and their analyses. The achieved accuracies were between 2.0 and 3.2 \\%. The SMC target system with two cells of opposite polarizations, each cell 65 cm long and 5 cm in diameter, constitutes the largest polarized target system ever built and facilitates accurate spin asymmetry measurements. The design considerations, the ...

  19. High pressure deuterium-tritium gas target vessels for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Spaletta, H.W.; Ware, A.G.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Hardwick, D.A.; Maltrud, H.R.; Paciotti, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental studies of muon-catalyzed fusion, the density of the hydrogen gas mixture is an important parameter. Catalysis of up to 150 fusions per muon has been observed in deuterium-tritium gas mixtures at liquid hydrogen density; at room temperature, such densities require a target gas pressure of the order of 1000 atmospheres (100 MPa, 15,000 psi). We report here the design considerations for hydrogen gas target vessels for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments that operate at 1000 and 10,000 atmospheres. The 1000 atmosphere high pressure target vessels are fabricated of Type A-286 stainless steel and lined with oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OFHC) copper to provide a barrier to hydrogen permeation of the stainless steel. The 10,000 atmosphere ultrahigh pressure target vessels are made from 18Ni (200 grade) maraging steel and are lined with OFHC copper, again to prevent hydrogen permeation of the steel. In addition to target design features, operating requirements, fabrication procedures, and secondary containment are discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Polarized target physics at the Bonn electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1988-12-01

    At the BONN 2.5 GeV electron synchrotron experiments with polarized nucleon targets have a long tradition. Starting with measurements of the target asymmetry in single pion photoproduction off polarized protons, resp. neutrons, the experiments have been concentrated on photodisintegration measurements of polarized deuterons. Parallel to these activities a considerable progress in the field of the target technology, e.g. cryogenics and target materials, has been made, by which all the measurements have profitted enormously. Especially the development of the new target material ammonia has allowed the first use of a polarized deuteron (ND 3 ) target in an intense electron beam. The construction of a frozen spin target, which will be used in combination with a tagged polarized photon beam, makes a new generation of polarized target experiments in photon induced reactions possible. Together with electron scattering off polarized deuterons and neutrons they will be a main activity in the physics program at the new stretcher accelerator ELSA in BONN. (orig.)

  1. Numerical studies of deuterium-tritium ignition in impact-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.; Ribe, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical one-dimensional solution of the Euler equations for an imploding spherical tungsten shell with internal deuterium-tritium gas is applied to study impact-fusion dynamics with parameters of fusion reactor relevance. Thermal conduction and radiative energy loss by the plasma are taken into account, as is heating by fusion generated alpha particles. A variety of target sizes and impact velocities are examined, and scaling laws for fusion yields are deduced which define possible parameters for conceptual commercial impact-fusion power reactors. It is found that shell energies and velocities of about 30 MJ and 110 km/s would be satisfactory. A commercial impact-fusion reactor based on such parameters is discussed

  2. Tensor polarized deuteron targets for intermediate energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.; Schilling, E.

    1985-03-01

    At intermediate energies measurements from a tensor polarized deuteron target are being prepared for the following reactions: the photodisintegration of the deuteron, the elastic pion-deuteron scattering and the elastic electron-deuteron scattering. The experimental situation of the polarization experiments for these reactions is briefly discussed in section 2. In section 3 the definitions of the deuteron polarization and the possibilities to determine the vector and tensor polarization are given. Present tensor polarization values and further improvements in this field are reported in section 4. (orig.)

  3. Electro- and photonuclear physics with polarized beams and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two long-standing issues in photonuclear physics, the giant M1 resonance in Pb and deuteron photodisintegration, have been studied recently with polarized photons at Urbana and Frascati, respectively. The implications that this work has for settling these key issues will be discussed. In addition, the advantages of the internal polarized target method for electron scattering studies will be discussed and the technology of internal polarized target development will be reviewed. The first results from a spin-exchange, optically-pumped polarized H and D source will be presented

  4. The SLAC high-density gaseous polarized 3He target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Chupp, T.E.; Smith, T.B.; Cates, G.D.; Driehuys, B.; Middleton, H.; Newbury, N.R.; Hughes, E.W.; Meyer, W.

    1995-01-01

    A large-scale high-pressure gaseous 3 He polarized target has been developed for use with a high-intensity polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This target was used successfully in an experiment to study the spin structure of the neutron. The target provided an areal density of about 7x10 21 nuclei/cm 2 and operated at 3 He polarizations between about 30% and 40% for the six-week duration of the experiment. ((orig.))

  5. Implementation of a secondary-ion tritium beam by means of the associated particle technique and its test on a gold target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policroniades, R.; Fernández-Arnáiz, J.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P.; Méndez, B. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. México-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Chávez, E.; Ortíz-Salazar, M.E.; Huerta, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Varela-González, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, D.F. 01000 (Mexico)

    2014-05-21

    In this work we present the implementation and characterization of a (secondary ion) tritium beam generated through the D(d,t)p reaction, at deuteron energies of 2.0 and 1.88 MeV, tagging the tritium ions with the associated particle technique. In order to prove its utility as a projectile for scientific applications, this beam was made to impinge on a thin gold target to observe expected elastic scattering events. - Highlights: • A new secondary ion tritium beam obtained through the D(d,t)3He reaction. • Tritium beam tagging by the associated particle technique. • A low energy Tritium beam without radiation contamination of equipment. • Tritium elastic scattering on gold.

  6. Implementation of a secondary-ion tritium beam by means of the associated particle technique and its test on a gold target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policroniades, R.; Fernández-Arnáiz, J.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P.; Méndez, B.; Chávez, E.; Ortíz-Salazar, M.E.; Huerta, A.; Varela-González, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the implementation and characterization of a (secondary ion) tritium beam generated through the D(d,t)p reaction, at deuteron energies of 2.0 and 1.88 MeV, tagging the tritium ions with the associated particle technique. In order to prove its utility as a projectile for scientific applications, this beam was made to impinge on a thin gold target to observe expected elastic scattering events. - Highlights: • A new secondary ion tritium beam obtained through the D(d,t)3He reaction. • Tritium beam tagging by the associated particle technique. • A low energy Tritium beam without radiation contamination of equipment. • Tritium elastic scattering on gold

  7. A polarized sup 3 He internal target for storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Poolman, H R; Bulten, H J; Doets, M; Ent, R; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Geurts, D G; Harvey, M; Mul, F A

    2000-01-01

    A polarized sup 3 He internal target was employed at the internal target facility of the Amsterdam electron Pulse Stretcher and Storage ring (AmPS) at the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (NIKHEF). The unique features of internal targets such as chemical and isotopic purity, high and rapidly reversible polarization, and the ability to manipulate the target spin orientation were successfully demonstrated. A nuclear polarization of 0.50 (0.42) at a sup 3 He gas flow of 1.0 (2.0)x10 sup 1 sup 7 at s sup - sup 1 could be obtained. Operation at a nominal flow of 1x10 sup 1 sup 7 at s sup - sup 1 resulted in a target thickness of 0.7x10 sup 1 sup 5 at cm sup - sup 2 at a target temperature of 17 K.

  8. Polarized proton Target-III operators manual, revision A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.; Moretti, A.; Onesto, F.; Rynes, P.

    1976-04-01

    A revision is given of a manual containing standard operating procedures for the vacuum, cryogenic, and electronic systems of a polarized proton target. The discussion includes the target cryostat, the 3 He and 4 He pumping systems, remote monitors and controls, the microwave system, the magnet and power supply, the computerized polarization monitor, the 4 He liquifier and gas recovery system, and miscellaneous auxiliary equipment

  9. Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0644 TITLE: Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chun-Ju...Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0644 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population with acquired perpetuating self-renewal properties which

  10. Prospects of polarized fixed target Drell-Yan experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M X; Jiang, X; Crabb, D G; Chen, J P; Bai, M

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the Siverse transverse single spin asymmetry in Drell-Yan production in transversely polarized p+p collisions would have an opposite sign compared to what has been observed in the polarized Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) experiments. Experimental confirmation or disproval of this prediction would provide a novel fundamental test of QCD and shed new light on our theoretical understanding of the transverse spin physics phenomena. We discuss the prospects and physics sensitivities of polarized fixed target Drell-Yan experiments that could utilize the existing proton and other hadron beams at Fermilab, and polarized proton beams at RHIC with a polarized solid proton and/or neutron target option. We show that if realized, the new experiments would provide critical measurements of not only the sign change (or not) of Sivers functions, but also the information of quark and antiquark's Sivers distributions over a wide kinematic range.

  11. Nonlinear Magnetic Phenomena in Highly Polarized Target Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Yu F

    2007-01-01

    The report introduces and surveys nonlinear magnetic phenomena which have been observed at high nuclear polarizations in polarized targets of the SMC and of the COMPASS collaborations at CERN. Some of these phenomena, namely the frequency modulation eect and the distortion of the NMR line shape, promote the development of the polarized target technique. Others, as the spin-spin cross-relaxation between spin subsystems can be used for the development of quantum statistical physics. New findings bear on an electromagnetic noise and the spectrally resolved radiation from LiD with negatively polarized nuclei detected by low temperature bolometers. These nonlinear phenomena need to be taken into account for achieving the ultimate polarizations.

  12. Dynamically polarized hydrogen target as a broadband, wavelength-independent thermal neutron spin polarizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkui; Garamus, Vasil M.; Mueller, Wilhelm; Willumeit, Regine

    2005-01-01

    A hydrogen-rich sample with dynamically polarized hydrogen nuclei was tested as a wavelength-independent neutron transmission spin polarizer. The experiment used a modified setup of the dynamic nuclear polarization target station at the GKSS research center. The standard solvent sample at the GKSS DNP station was used. It is 2.8mm thick and consists of 43.4wt% water, 54.6wt% glycerol, and 2wt% of EHBA-Cr(v) complex. The wavelength of the incident neutrons for the transmission experiment was λ=8.1A with Δλ/λ=10%. The polarization of neutron beam after the target sample was analyzed with a supermirror analyzer. A neutron polarization of -52% was achieved at the hydrogen polarization of -69%. Further experiments will test the feasibility of other hydrogen-rich materials, such as methane, as the polarizer. A theoretical calculation shows that a polarized methane target would allow over 95% neutron polarizations with more than 30% transmission

  13. Calorimetric measurement of afterheat in target materials for the accelerator production of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The estimate of afterheat in a spallation target of lead (Pb) or tungsten (W), by calorimetry, is the purpose of this experiment in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT). Such measurements are needed to confirm code calculations, these being the only practical way of gaining this type of information in a form suitable to aid the design of the APT machine. Knowledge of the magnitude and duration of afterheat resulting from decay of activation products produced by proton bombardment of the target is necessary to quantify APT safety assumptions, to design target cooling and safety systems, and to reduce technical risk. Direct calorimetric measurement of the afterheat for the appropriate incident proton energies is more reliable than the available alternative, which is indirect, based on data from gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. The basic concept, a direct measurement of decay afterheat which bypasses the laborious classical way of determining this quantity, has been demonstrated to work. The gamma-ray energy given off by the decay products produced in the activation of lead or tungsten with high-energy protons apparently does represent a significant fraction of the total decay energy. A calorimeter designed for measurement of isotopes decaying by alpha emission must be modified to reduce energy lost with escaping gamma rays. Replacement of the aluminum liner with a tungsten liner in the SSC measurement chamber resulted in a 270% increase in measured heat, proving that the energy loss in the earlier (1992) measurements was significant. Gamma-ray measurements are needed to confirm the gamma-ray absorption calculations for the calorimeter to determine the correction for loss of heat due to transmission of high-energy gamma rays through the calorimeter walls. The experiments at BLIP have shown that calorimetry can be a useful tool in measuring the afterheat in APT target materials

  14. Camouflaged target detection based on polarized spectral features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian; Zhang, Junping; Zou, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The polarized hyperspectral images (PHSI) include polarization, spectral, spatial and radiant features, which provide more information about objects and scenes than traditional intensity or spectrum ones. And polarization can suppress the background and highlight the object, leading to the high potential to improve camouflaged target detection. So polarized hyperspectral imaging technique has aroused extensive concern in the last few years. Nowadays, the detection methods are still not very mature, most of which are rooted in the detection of hyperspectral image. And before using these algorithms, Stokes vector is used to process the original four-dimensional polarized hyperspectral data firstly. However, when the data is large and complex, the amount of calculation and error will increase. In this paper, tensor is applied to reconstruct the original four-dimensional data into new three-dimensional data, then, the constraint energy minimization (CEM) is used to process the new data, which adds the polarization information to construct the polarized spectral filter operator and takes full advantages of spectral and polarized information. This way deals with the original data without extracting the Stokes vector, so as to reduce the computation and error greatly. The experimental results also show that the proposed method in this paper is more suitable for the target detection of the PHSI.

  15. Optically pumped polarized 23Na vapor target for use in polarized ion source. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    We are currently measuring relaxation times in an optically pumped 23 Na vapor target. Our research is directed toward improvements in the optically pumped Na vapor targets used for the production of polarized H - ions. In this progress report we review the properties of the optically pumped polarized H - ion source and especially the optically pumped Na vapor target employed in this source as well as discussing the progress of our research on relaxation times in an optically pumped Na vapor target. 30 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  16. Broad-aperture polarized proton target with arbitrary orientation of polarization vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, A.A.; Get'man, V.A.; Derkach, A.Ya.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Razumnyj, A.A.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Polarized proton target with the Helmholtz broad-aperture superconducting magnetic system is described. Axial aperture α=95 deg, inter-coil access angle β=23 deg. The structure of the target allows various versions of the installation what make sure an arbitrary orientation of polarization vector. The 0.1 W cold output 3 He evaporation cryostat was used to obtain the work temperature 0.5 K allowing quick transformation to a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator. Results of the study are given on the dynamical proton polarization in 1,2-propylenglycol with various stable Cr 5 complexes

  17. A technique for measurement of vector and tensor polarization in solid spin one polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielhorn, W.F.

    1991-06-01

    Vector and tensor polarizations are explicitly defined and used to characterize the polarization states of spin one polarized targets, and a technique for extracting these polarizations from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is developed. This technique is independent of assumptions about spin temperature, but assumes the target's crystal structure induces a quadrupole interaction with the spin one particles. Analysis of the NMR signals involves a computer curve fitting algorithm implemented with a fast Fourier transform method which speeds and simplifies curve fitting algorithms used previously. For accurate curve fitting, the NMR electronic circuit must be modeled by the fitting algorithm. Details of a circuit, its model, and data collected from this circuit are given for a solid deuterated ammonia target. 37 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs

  18. A technique for measurement of vector and tensor polarization in solid spin one polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielhorn, W.F.

    1991-06-01

    Vector and tensor polarizations are explicitly defined and used to characterize the polarization states of spin one polarized targets, and a technique for extracting these polarizations from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is developed. This technique is independent of assumptions about spin temperature, but assumes the target's crystal structure induces a quadrupole interaction with the spin one particles. Analysis of the NMR signals involves a computer curve fitting algorithm implemented with a fast Fourier transform method which speeds and simplifies curve fitting algorithms used previously. For accurate curve fitting, the NMR electronic circuit must be modeled by the fitting algorithm. Details of a circuit, its model, and data collected from this circuit are given for a solid deuterated ammonia target. 37 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Long-Lifetime Low-Scatter Neutron Polarization Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Jonathan M.

    2004-01-01

    Polarized neutrons scattering is an important technology for characterizing magnetic and other materials. Polarized helium three (P-3He) is a novel technology for creating polarized beams and, perhaps more importantly, for the analysis of polarization in highly divergent scattered beams. Analysis of scattered beams requires specialized targets with complex geometries to ensure accurate results. Special materials and handling procedures are required to give the targets a long useful lifetime. In most cases, the targets must be shielded from stray magnetic fields from nearby equipment. SRL has developed and demonstrated hybrid targets made from glass and aluminum. We have also developed and calibrated a low-field NMR system for measuring polarization lifetimes. We have demonstrated that our low-field system is able to measure NMR signals in the presence of conducting (metallic) cell elements. We have also demonstrated a non-magnetic valve that can be used to seal the cells. We feel that these accomplishments in Phase I are sufficient to ensure a successful Phase II program. The commercial market for this technology is solid. There are over nine neutron scattering centers in the US and Canada and over 22 abroad. Currently, the US plans to build a new $1.4B scattering facility called the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The technology developed in this project will allow SRL to supply targets to both existing and future facilities. SRL is also involved with the application of P-3He to medical imaging

  20. The tagged photon beam polarization of the jet target experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, N.; Muccifora, V.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of the residual electron selection method to the tagging method of the jet target laboratory has been studied. With this end in view the behaviour of the polarized bremsstrahlung cross section in the range considered has been analysed, while the polarization increase by means of the RES has been evaluated. The vertical conditions of the focusing of the tagging spectrometer as a function of energy have been determined. Finally the gamma beam density and the tagging efficiency have been calculated

  1. The CERN polarized atomic hydrogen beam target project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubischta, W.; Dick, L.

    1990-01-01

    The UA6-experiment at the CERN p bar p Colider is at present using an unpolarized hydrogen cluster target with a thickness up to 5.10 14 atoms/cm 2 . It is planned to replace this target by a polarized atomic hydrogen beam target with a thickness up to about 10 13 atoms/cm 2 . This paper discusses basic requirements and results of atom optical calculations

  2. Construction and test of a polarized proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aures, R.

    1983-12-01

    This work describes experiments in which for the first time a proton target has been constructed which is polarized by the ''brute-force'' method. This method requires very low temperatures and high magnetic fields. The low temperatures (down to 10 mK) are obtained by a 3 He/ 4 He dilution refrigerator, the magnetic field (up to 9 T) is produced by a superconducting split pair magnet. The proton target has a volume of about 18 cm 3 and consists of pressed titaniumhydride powder, which has a titanium/-hydrogen ratio of 1:1,96. The hydrogen content is 1,3 mol. Titaniumhydride has the advantage of sufficient heat conductivity at low temperatures and a very high proton density. The heat conductivity of the sample is measured, with and without the presence of a magnetic field. Thermodynamical measurements and adiabatic demagnetisation experiments proved quantitatively the polarization of the protons. The polarization of the proton has been measured in a transmission experiment using polarized neutrons of 1.2 MeV. The result shows a good agreement of theoretical and actual polarization. From the results it can be concluded, that this sample can be used successfully as a polarized proton target for neutron scattering experiments to measure spin-correlations. (orig.) [de

  3. Superconducting shielding for a polarized target in PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Froehlich, Bertold; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Aguar Bartolome, Patricia; Gerz, Kathrin; Ahmed, Samer; Wang, Yadi; Lin, Dexu; Feldbauer, Florian [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Penuelas, Ana [Universitat de Valencia (Spain); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The measurement of the phase between the electric and the magnetic form factors of the proton can be measured using a polarized interaction. A feasible possibility to allow this kind of reactions would be to develop a transversely polarized proton target to be used in the PANDA experiment. The first step to achieve the transverse target polarization is to study the feasibility of shielding the target region from the external 2 T longitudinal magnetic field generated by the PANDA solenoid. BSCOO-2212, a new high-temperature superconductor material, has been identified as a possible candidate to be used for shielding this external magnetic field. Tests at 4 K have taken place in the Helmholtz Institute Mainz with this material, and the first preliminary results are shown here.

  4. A polarized atomic-beam target for COSY-Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eversheim, P. D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.; Glende, M.; Walker, M.; Hiemer, A.; Gebel, R.

    1998-01-01

    An atomic-beam target (ABT) for the EDDA experiment has been built in Bonn and was tested for the very first time at the cooler synchrotron COSY. The ABT differs from the polarized colliding-beams ion source for COSY in the DC-operation of the dissociator and the use of permanent 6-pole magnets. At present the beam optics of the ABT is set-up for maximum density in the interaction zone, but for target-cell operation it can be modified to give maximum intensity. The modular concept of this atomic ground-state target allows to provide all vector- (and tensor) polarizations for protons and deuterons, respectively. Up to now the polarization of the atomic-beam could be verified by the EDDA experiment to be > or approx. 80% with a density in the interaction zone of > or approx. 10 11 atoms/cm 2

  5. Laser-driven polarized hydrogen and deuterium internal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    After completing comprehensive tests of the performance of the source with both hydrogen and deuterium gas, we began tests of a realistic polarized deuterium internal target. These tests involve characterizing the atomic polarization and dissociation fraction of atoms in a storage cell as a function of flow and magnetic field, and making direct measurements of the average nuclear tensor polarization of deuterium atoms in the storage cell. Transfer of polarization from the atomic electron to the nucleus as a result of D-D spin-exchange collisions was observed in deuterium, verifying calculations suggesting that high vector polarization in both hydrogen and deuterium can be obtained in a gas in spin temperature equilibrium without inducing RF transitions between the magnetic substates. In order to improve the durability of the system, the source glassware was redesigned to simplify construction and installation and eliminate stress points that led to frequent breakage. Improvements made to the nuclear polarimeter, which used the low energy 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction to analyze the tensor polarization of the deuterium, included installing acceleration lenses constructed of wire mesh to improve pumping conductance, construction of a new holding field coil, and elimination of the Wien filter from the setup. These changes substantially simplified operation of the polarimeter and should have reduced depolarization in collisions with the wall. However, when a number of tests failed to show an improvement of the nuclear polarization, it was discovered that extended operation of the system with a section of teflon as a getter for potassium caused the dissociation fraction to decline with time under realistic operating conditions, suggesting that teflon may not be a suitable material to eliminate potassium from the target. We are replacing the teflon surfaces with drifilm-coated ones and plan to continue tests of the polarized internal target in this configuration

  6. Simulation and Automation of Microwave Frequency Control in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization for Solid Polarized Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Gonaduwage; Johnson, Ian; Keller, Dustin

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is used in most of the solid polarized target scattering experiments. Those target materials must be irradiated using microwaves at a frequency determined by the difference in the nuclear Larmor and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) frequencies. But the resonance frequency changes with time as a result of radiation damage. Hence the microwave frequency should be adjusted accordingly. Manually adjusting the frequency can be difficult, and improper adjustments negatively impact the polarization. In order to overcome these difficulties, two controllers were developed which automate the process of seeking and maintaining the optimal frequency: one being a standalone controller for a traditional DC motor and the other a LabVIEW VI for a stepper motor configuration. Further a Monte-Carlo simulation was developed which can accurately model the polarization over time as a function of microwave frequency. In this talk, analysis of the simulated data and recent improvements to the automated system will be presented. DOE.

  7. Michel Borghini as a Mentor and Father of the Theory of Polarization in Polarized Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Wim

    2016-02-01

    This paper is a contribution to the memorial session for Michel Borghini at the Spin 2014 conference in Bejing, honoring his pivotal role for the development of polarized targets in high energy physics. Borghini proposed for the first time the correct mechanism for dynamic polarization in polarized targets using organic materials doped with free radicals. In these amorphous materials the spin levels are broadened by spin-spin interactions and g-factor anisotropy, which allows a high dynamic polarization of nuclei by cooling of the spin-spin interaction reservoir. In this contribution I summarize the experimental evidence for this mechanism. These pertinent experiments were done at CERN in the years 1971 - 1974, when I was a graduate student under the guidance of Michel Borghini. I finish by shortly describing how Borghini’s spin temperature theory is now applied in cancer therapy.

  8. Laser-driven nuclear-polarized hydrogen internal gas target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, J.; Crawford, C.; Clasie, B.; Xu, W.; Dutta, D.; Gao, H.

    2006-01-01

    We report the performance of a laser-driven polarized internal hydrogen gas target (LDT) in a configuration similar to that used in scattering experiments. This target used the technique of spin-exchange optical pumping to produce nuclear spin polarized hydrogen gas that was fed into a cylindrical storage (target) cell. We present in this paper the performance of the target, methods that were tried to improve the figure-of-merit (FOM) of the target, and a Monte Carlo simulation of spin-exchange optical pumping. The dimensions of the apparatus were optimized using the simulation and the experimental results were in good agreement with the results from the simulation. The best experimental result achieved was at a hydrogen flow rate of 1.1x10 18 atoms/s, where the sample beam exiting the storage cell had 58.2% degree of dissociation and 50.5% polarization. Based on this measurement, the atomic fraction in the storage cell was 49.6% and the density averaged nuclear polarization was 25.0%. This represents the highest FOM for hydrogen from an LDT and is higher than the best FOM reported by atomic beam sources that used storage cells

  9. Calibration of the Fermilab E-704 polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report lists the final, best estimate of the target polarization P T as a function of time for all of the periods during which scattering data were (or may have been) collected. The information under ''RUN'' refers to Δσ L -runs. The notation ''sfs'' stands for ''start of frozen spin,'' ''efs'' for ''end of frozen spin,'' ''→ la'' for ''go to large-aperture'' target magnet position, and ''nla'' for ''not large-aperture'' position, i.e., the target magnet is in ''polarizing'' position. Where the ''NOTE'' column is blank it means that all standard frozen-spin conditions were in effect: the target temperature was reduced and the magnet was in large-aperture position. The timing marks were developed on the basis of three criteria: (1) the availability of direct NMR data, (2) the inclusion of major Target and Run boundaries, and (3) the arbitrary inclusion of enough ''minor'' Run boundaries to shorten large timing gaps. The sign of the P T -values is given in the NMR convention: (+) corresponds to predominant occupation of the Zeeman ground state (the ''thermal'' NMR-signals are considered positive). Since the target magnet field pointed upstream, (+) corresponds to target spin antiparallel to the beam momentum. The estimated uncertainty on P T is ±6.5% (2σ), and the estimated uncertainty on the ratio of values for the two signs of polarization, P T (+)/PT(-), is ±4.3% (2σ)

  10. Feasibility study of a transversely polarized target in PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Bertold [Helmholtz Institut Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    PANDA (Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt) is a key project at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), currently under construction at the GSI Darmstadt. PANDA is a state of the art detector for antiproton-proton fixed target experiments. A transversely polarized target in PANDA would allow the determination of the proton electromagnetic form factors in the time-like region with unprecedented accuracy and the first-time extraction of their imaginary part, opening a new window for investigating the nucleon structure. As a first step for achieving a transverse target polarization, the target region has to be shielded against the 2 T longitudinal magnetic flux from the solenoid of the PANDA spectrometer. We present numerical simulations and experimental results on intense magnetic flux shielding using a high temperature superconducting hollow cylinder.

  11. Cryogenic control system of the large COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Gautheron, F; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Görtz, S; Gustafsson, K K; Horikawa, N; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Kondo, K; Meyer, Werner T; Reicherz, G

    2004-01-01

    The dilution refrigerator used to cool the large COMPASS polarized target is monitored through a PC running LabVIEW trademark 6.1 under Windows 2000 trademark . About 60 parameters of the target (temperatures, pressures, flow rates) are continuously plotted and checked. They are periodically recorded in an Oracle trademark database and in a data file. An alarm for every parameter can be individually activated and optionally connected to a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) delivery message system. A web server receives and publishes the online status of the target with online tables and graphics on a dedicated COMPASS polarized target information web site. A Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC) powered by an uninterruptable source keeps the cryogenic system safe and stable during the long beam periods by controlling valves and interlocks. This safety feature protects the dilution refrigerator against potential damages in case of power failure.

  12. Local field in LiD polarized target material

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, Yu V; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Horikawa, N; Koivuniemi, J H; Kondo, K; Magnon, A; Meyer, Werner T; Reicherz, G

    2004-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the first and the second moments of D, **6Li and **7Li (I greater than 1/2) NMR lines in a granulated LiD- target material as a function of nuclear polarizations and the data has been compared with a theory elaborated by Abragam, Roinel and Bouffard for monocrystalline samples. The experiments were carried out in the large COMPASS twin-target at CERN. The static local magnetic field of the polarized nuclei was measured by frequency shift between the NMR-signals in the two oppositely polarized cells and lead to the first moment, whereas the investigation of the second moment was done through Gaussian approximation. The average field magnitude in granulated material was estimated 20% larger than the value given by the calculations for monocrystalline samples of cylindrical shape. The second moment shows a qualitative agreement with the theory but it is slightly larger at the negative than at the positive polarization. In a polarized mode, the moments depend on the saturated microw...

  13. Feasibility study of a transversely polarized target in PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Heybat; Deiseroth, Malte; Khaneft, Dmitry; Noll, Oliver; Valente, Roserio; Zambrana, Manuel [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Ahmed, Samer [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Capozza, Luigi; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Froehlich, Bertold; Lin, Dexu; Maas, Frank; Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Morales Morales, Cristina; Rodriguez Pineiro, David; Zimmermann, Iris [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA (Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt) spectrometer, located at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), is an excellent tool for exploring the nucleon structure. An unpolarized target allows the determination of the electromagnetic time-like form factor of the proton. An additional experiment in which the target is transversely polarized is necessary for the first-time extraction of their imaginary part. A transverse polarization requires the shielding of the 2 T longitudinal field from the PANDA-Solenoid at the target volume and an additional transverse holding field. We present results from our first experiment at the Institut fuer Kernphysik in Mainz on intense magnetic flux shielding using a BSCCO (bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide) thin-wall hollow cylinder at 4.2 K and a 1.4 T external magnetic field and compare this to numerical calculations.

  14. Quasielastic nucleon scattering using polarized beams and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1990-07-01

    Inelastic scattering of polarized intermediate energy nucleons to continuum nuclear states is discussed with emphasis on recent results. Spin momentum correlations of protons in polarized targets of 3 He were observed for the first time. Complete spin observables in (p,p') show effects of the nuclear spin-isospin response and of an NN interaction modified by the nuclear medium. A comparison of Gamow Teller and isovector M1 giant resonance strengths in the sd shell provides evidence for large meson exchange current effects in the M1. (Author) (37 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.)

  15. Pentanol-based target material with polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    1-pentanol is a promising material for a target with polarized protons owing to its high resistance to radiation damage. To develop the target, the solutions of 1-pentanol or 2-pentanol with complexes of pentavalent chromium ware investigated. The material based EHBA-Cr(V) solution in a glass-like matrix, consisting of 1-pentanol, 3-pentanol and 1,2-propanediol, was proposed as a target material. It was investigated by the electron paramagnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry methods. 24 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Analysis of a Partial MOX Core Design with Tritium Targets for Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Adams, Marvin L. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-04-19

    This report constitutes tangible and verifiable deliverable associated with the task To study the effects of using WG MOX fuel in tritium-producing LWR” of the subproject Water Reactor Options for Disposition of Plutonium. The principal investigators of this subproject are Naeem M. Abdurrahman of the University of Texas at Austin and Marvin L. Adams of Texas A&M University. This work was sponsored by the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium.

  17. VME online system of the Bonn polarized nucleon targets and polarization measurements on NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, W.

    1991-02-01

    The measurement of spin observables is the main purpose of the PHOENICS detector at the Bonn Electron Accelerator ELSA. Therefore a new frosen spin target was built allowing any spin orientation by means of two perpendicular holding fields and the use of a polarizing field up to 7 Tesla. With a vertical dilution refrigerator the polarization can be frozen at a temperature of 70 mK. This thesis describe a VME based control and monitor system for the various parts of this target. It mainly consists of a VIP processor together with different kinds of I/O and interface boards. Caused by its modular structure in hard- and software it can be easyly set up to control and monitor different hardware environments. A menu and command oriented user interface running on an ATARI computer allows a comfortable operation. Secondly the new NMR system is described in detail. It is based on the Liferpool module allowing a dispersion user interface running on an ATARI computer allows a comfortable operation. Secondly the new NMR system is described in detail. It is based on the Liverpool module allowing a dispersion free detection and a simple adjustment to different magnetic fields. A similar VME system takes care of all the necessary task for the polarization measurements. Fast optodecoupled analog I/O modules a e used as an interface to the NMR hardware. Finally the first measurements with this target are presented. Using NH 3 as target material and a polarizing field of 3.5 Tesla a proton polarization of +94% and -100% could be achieved. By lowering the magnetic field to 0.35 Tesla a superradiance effect was observed. (orig.)

  18. Polarized proton target-III. Operations manual, revision B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.; Moretti, A.; Onesto, F.; Rynes, P.

    1978-01-01

    The manual presented contains certain standard operating procedures for the vacuum, cryogenic, and electronic systems of PPT-III. In total, these systems comprise the following major divisions: (1) the target cryostat; (2) the 4 He pumping system; (3) the 3 He pumping system; (4) the remote monitors and controls; (5) the microwave system; (6) the magnet and power supply; (7) the computerized polarization monitor; (8) the 4 He liquefier and gas recovery system; and (9) miscellaneous auxiliary equipment

  19. Combining orthogonal polarization for elongated target detection with GPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lualdi, Maurizio; Lombardi, Federico

    2014-01-01

    For an accurate imaging of ground penetrating radar data the polarization characteristics of the propagating electromagnetic (EM) wavefield and wave amplitude variations with antenna pattern orientation must be taken into account. For objects that show some directionality feature and cylindrical shape any misalignment between transmitter and target can strongly modify the polarization state of the backscattered wavefield, thus conditioning the detection capability of the system. Hints on the depolarization can be used to design the optimal GPR antenna survey to avoid omissions and pitfalls during data processing. This research addresses the issue of elongated target detection through a multi azimuth (or multi polarization) approach based on the combination of mutually orthogonal GPR data. Results from the analysis of the formal scattering problem demonstrate how this strategy can reach a scalar formulation of the scattering matrix and achieve a rotational invariant quantity. The effectiveness of the algorithm is then evaluated with a detailed field example showing results closely proximal to those obtained under the optimal alignment condition: detection is significantly improved and the risk of target missing is reduced. (paper)

  20. Remote Monitoring of the Polarized Target's Control for E1039

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, David; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The 1039 experiment at FNAL will further our understanding of spin structure by measuring the contribution that sea quarks orbital angular momentum provide to overall nucleon spin. It is accepted that the valence-quarks of nucleons only provide 30% of the total nucleon spin. To study the nucleon's sea quark contribution, E1039 will use the Drell-Yan process by colliding 120 GeV un-polarized beam protons with polarized ammonia targets of hydrogen and deuterium. The asymmetric spin distributions of resulting dimuons will be measured. These asymmetries are sensitive, among other effects, to the orbital angular momentum contribution of the sea quarks. The polarized target requires a multi-stage vacuum pump located near the target. Since access to its present controls will not be possible during running, remote control and monitoring upgrades were required. A secondary control panel was purchased and tested. Information from the programmable logic controller (PLC) must be fed into our data stream to enable remote monitoring and to signal possible alarm conditions. This solution and the program created using explicit TCP/IP messaging to extract data tags from the PLC and log it within our databases will be presented. Supported by U.S. D.O.E. Medium Energy Nuclear Physics under Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  1. Scattering of polarized electrons from polarized targets: Coincidence reactions and prescriptions for polarized half-off-shell single-nucleon cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, J.A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Donnelly, T.W.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Poulis, G.I.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1993-01-01

    Coincidence reactions of the type vector A( vector e, e'N)B involving the scattering of polarized electrons from polarized targets are discussed within the context of the plane-wave impulse approximation. Prescriptions are developed for polarized half-off single-nucleon cross sections; the different prescriptions are compared for typical quasi-free kinematics. Illustrative results are presented for coincidence polarized electron scattering from typical polarized nuclei. (orig.)

  2. Tritium production distribution in the accelerator production of tritium device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidman, R.B.

    1997-11-01

    Helium-3 ( 3 He) gas is circulated throughout the accelerator production of tritium target/blanket (T/B) assembly to capture neutrons and convert 3 He to tritium. Because 3 He is very expensive, it is important to know the tritium producing effectiveness of 3 He at all points throughout the T/B. The purpose of this paper is to present estimates of the spatial distributions of tritium production, 3 He inventory, and the 3 He FOM

  3. Polarization imaging enhancement for target vision through haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-Ying; Zhang, San-Xi; Li, Jie; LI, Bin; Tang, Zi-li; Liu, Biao; Jia, Wen-Wu

    2016-10-01

    Haze, fog, and smoke are turbid medium in the atmosphere which usually degrade viewing condition of outdoor scenes. The resulted images lose contrast and color fidelity with serious degradation. Due to loss of large detailed information of measured scene, it will usually lead to invalid detection and measurement. The suspended particles in the atmosphere and the scene being measured give rise to polarization changes by their reflection. In the process of reflection, absorption and scattering, the object itself can be determined by its own polarization characteristics. Based on this point, we proposed an approach for target vision through haze. This approach is based on the polarization differences between the scene being measured and the scattering background to move the haze effects. It can realize a great visibility enhancement and enable the scene rendering even if imaged under restricted viewing conditions with low polarization. In this work, the detailed theoretical operation principle is presented. A validating imaging system is established and the corresponding experiment is carried out. We present the experimental results of haze-free image of scene with recovered high contrast. This method also can be used to effectively enhance the imaging performance of any other optical system.

  4. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  5. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  6. Polarized target as analyzer of polarization of particle beam with spin Ssub(B)=1/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, V.M.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gornushkin, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    A possibility of using a polarized target as a target analyzer of beam particle polarization (Ssub(T)=1/2 Psub(T) vector) so that all the components of beam polarization Ssub(B)=1/2 anti Psub(B) should be determined in one experiment, is revealed. A proton polarization target is considered as a polarization target-analyzer. Asub(SK) and Asub(kk) asymmetry tensors are considered for elastic pp and pn scatterings by amplitudes of NN scattering which attain the values of 0.3-0.9 at 95-400 MeV. Asub(kk)(pp) and Asub(sk)(pp) are experimentally measured in the 445-576 MeV range. It is found that their highest absolute values are equal to 0.4-0.5 and 0.2-0.3 respectively. Elastic proton scattering on polarized electrons may be another variant of using polarized target for measuring proton beam polarization. Asub(sk) and Asub(kk) components of asymmetry tensor of elastic pe scattering are graphically presented. A possibility of using a polarized charge with spin I=1/2 as a target-analyzer of particle beam polarization is marked

  7. Optimum measurement and analysis of small polarization asymmetry in high-energy inelastic scattering using a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.

    1976-01-01

    Optimum linear filter theory is employed for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio in measurements of small polarization asymmetry in the presence of severe counting efficiency fluctuation, most likely to occur in high-energy inclusive and inelastic scattering experiments, using a polarized target. The r.m.s. error of the polarization asymmetry is obtained in closed form, allowing numeric optimization of the operation of the target. Guidelines are given for processing the record of data. (Auth.)

  8. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, T., E-mail: takeshi@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Bouchigny, S. [IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay (France); CEA LIST, BP6-92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France); Didelez, J.-P. [IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay (France); Fujiwara, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fukuda, K. [Kansai University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Shizuki Awaji 656-2131 (Japan); Kohri, H.; Kunimatsu, T.; Morisaki, C.; Ono, S. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Rouille, G. [IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay (France); Tanaka, M. [Kobe Tokiwa University, Ohtani-cho 2-6-2, Nagata, Kobe 653-0838 (Japan); Ueda, K.; Uraki, M.; Utsuro, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Wang, S.Y. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan (China); Yosoi, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H{sub 2} ({approx}0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1-5% impurities of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to purify the HD gas up to {approx}99.99%. The distillation system is equipped with a cryogenic distillation unit filled with many small stainless steel cells called 'Heli-pack'. The distillation unit consists of a condenser part, a rectification part, and a reboiler part. The unit is kept at the temperature of 17-21 K. The Heli-pack has a large surface area that makes a good contact between gases and liquids. An amount of 5.2 mol of commercial HD gas is fed into the distillation unit. Three trials were carried out to purify the HD gas by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. One mol of HD gas with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained for the first time. The effective NTP (Number of Theoretical Plates), which is an indication of the distillation performances, is obtained to be 37.2{+-}0.6. This value is in good agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by adding an optimal amount of ortho-H{sub 2} to the purified HD gas.

  9. Optically pumped polarized alkali atomic beams and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    The optical pumping of 23 Na and 6 Li atomic beams is discussed. Experiments on the optical pumping of 23 Na atomic beams using either a single mode dye laser followed by a double passed acousto-optic modulator or a multimode dye laser are reported. The optical pumping of a 23 Na vapor target for use in a polarized H - ion source is discussed. Results on the use of viton as a wall coating with a long relaxation time are reported. 31 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  10. 16th International Workshop on Polarized Sources, Targets, and Polarimetry (PSTP 2015)

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The Workshop on Polarized Sources, Targets and Polarimetry has been a tradition for more than 20 years, moving between Europe, USA and Japan. The XVIth International Workshop on Polarized Sources, Targets and Polarimetry (PSTP 2015) will take place at the Ruhr-University of Bochum, Germany. The workshop addresses the physics and technological challenges related to polarized gas/solid targets, polarized electron/positron/ion/neutron sources, polarimetry and their applications. will be published in Proceedings of Science

  11. Topical report on a preconceptual design for the Spallation-Induced Lithium Conversion (SILC) target for the accelerator production of tritium (APT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Cokinos, D.M.; Czajkowski, C.; Franz, E.M.; Kroeger, P.; Todosow, M.; Youngblood, R.; Zucker, M.

    1993-01-01

    The preconceptual design of the APT Li-Al target system, also referred to as the Spallation-Induced Lithium Conversion (SILC), target system, is summarized in this report. The system has been designed to produce a ''3/8 Goal'' quantity of tritium using the 200-mA, 1.0 GeV proton beam emerging from the LANL-designed LINAC. The SILC target system consists of a beam expander, a heavy-water-cooled lead spallation neutron source assembly surrounded by light-water-cooled Li-Al blankets, a target window, heat removal systems, and related safety systems. The preconceptual design of each of these major components is described. Descriptions are also provided for the target fabrication, tritium extraction, and waste-steam processes. Performance characteristics are presented and discussed

  12. Topical report on a preconceptual design for the Spallation-Induced Lithium Conversion (SILC) target for the accelerator production of tritium (APT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Cokinos, D.M.; Czajkowski, C.; Franz, E.M.; Kroeger, P.; Todosow, M.; Youngblood, R.; Zucker, M.

    1993-09-30

    The preconceptual design of the APT Li-Al target system, also referred to as the Spallation-Induced Lithium Conversion (SILC), target system, is summarized in this report. The system has been designed to produce a ``3/8 Goal`` quantity of tritium using the 200-mA, 1.0 GeV proton beam emerging from the LANL-designed LINAC. The SILC target system consists of a beam expander, a heavy-water-cooled lead spallation neutron source assembly surrounded by light-water-cooled Li-Al blankets, a target window, heat removal systems, and related safety systems. The preconceptual design of each of these major components is described. Descriptions are also provided for the target fabrication, tritium extraction, and waste-steam processes. Performance characteristics are presented and discussed.

  13. Improved techniques for the analysis of experiments with polarized targets. [1 to 2 GeV/c, polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrelet, E.

    1975-06-01

    An experiment was performed at the Bevatron to measure the polarization in the reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/n from a polarized target, at beam momenta between 1 and 2 GeV/c. Concentration is placed on the original aspects of our analysis, in particular: the geometrical reconstruction of the elastic events; the use of the high analyzing power of the reaction studied to probe the polarization of the target in magnitude and distribution; a study of the statistical estimation of the polarization parameter; a detailed study of the quasielastic background. (JFP)

  14. Tritium permeation through iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagi, Hideki; Hayashi, Yasunori

    1989-01-01

    An experimental method for measuring diffusion coefficients and permeation rates of tritium in metals around room temperature has been established, and their values in iron have been obtained by using the method. Permeation rates of tritium and hydrogen through iron were measured by the electrochemical method in which a tritiated aqueous solution was used as a cathodic electrolyte. Tritium and hydrogen were introduced from one side of a membrane specimen by cathodic polarization, while at the other side of the specimen the permeating tritium and hydrogen were extracted by potentiostatical ionization. The amount of permeated hydrogen was obtained by integrating the anodic current, and that of tritium was determined by measuring the radioactivity of the electrolyte sampled from the extraction side. Diffusion coefficients of tritium (D T ) and hydrogen (D H ) were determined from the time lag of tritium and hydrogen permeation. D T =9x10 -10 m 2 /s and D H =4x10 -9 m 2 /s at 286 K for annealed iron specimens. These values of D T and D H were compared with the previous data of the diffusion coefficients of hydrogen and deuterium, and the isotope effect in diffusion was discussed. (orig.)

  15. Energy behaviour of neutrons generated by Witch-type distributed axi-symmetrical deuteron beams accelerated onto plane tritium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timus, D.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Timus, B.D.; Kalla, S.L.; Srivastava, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an analytical study of the spatial dependency of the d-T neutron energy in the vicinity of a homogeneous tritium-occluded plane target. Close to the target, and along the path of incidence of axially symmetric deuteron beams, the transverse density of accelerated deuterons is assumed to be governed by a law approximated by the 'Witch' function. In particular circumstances, the elementary neutron emission process in non-dispersive media can be considered to be omni-directional (due consideration being paid to collision kinetics, depending upon mass and kinetic energy of particles involved in the nuclear collision, nuclear reaction energy, etc.). Consequently, analytical expressions can be considerably simplified. By applying the classical kinetic energy and momentum conservation laws to nuclear processes, a theoretical description is obtained, taking into account the exoergic character of d-T fusion reaction. A number of expressions for energetic prediction of the fast neutron field are proposed. The associated relations, involving elementary functions, can be investigated using a desk-top computer. Computationally tractable tools are of importance in the study of diverse situations such as induced reactions and activation analysis using 14 MeV neutron generators, investigations in health-physics, radiation dose measurements, nuclear medicine, damage effects, and simulation studies

  16. Tritium conference days; Journees tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Sene, M.; Devin, P.; Chretien, V.; Le Guen, B.; Guetat, Ph.; Baglan, N.; Ansoborlo, E.; Boyer, C.; Masson, M.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Jenkinson, St.; Wakeford, R.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Thompson, P.; Leterq, D.; Chastagner, F.; Cortes, P.; Philippe, M.; Paquet, F.; Fournier, M.

    2009-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Twenty presentations out of 21 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - tritium in the environment (J. Garnier-Laplace); 2 - status of knowledge about tritium impact on health (L. Lebaron-Jacobs); 3 - tritium, discrete but present everywhere (M. Sene); 4 - management of tritium effluents from Areva NC La Hague site - related impact and monitoring (P. Devin); 5 - tritium effluents and impact in the vicinity of EDF's power plants (V. Chretien and B. Le Guen); 6 - contribution of CEA-Valduc centre monitoring to the knowledge of atmospheric tritiated water transfers to the different compartments of the environment (P. Guetat); 7 - tritium analysis in environment samples: constraints and means (N. Baglan); 8 - organically-linked tritium: the analyst view (E. Ansoborlo); 9 - study of tritium transfers to plants via OBT/HTO{sub air} and OBT/HTO{sub free} (C. Boyer); 10 - tritium in the British Channel (M. Masson and P. Bailly-Du-Bois); 11 - tritium in British coastal waters (S. Jenkinson); 12 - recent results from epidemiology (R. Wakeford); 13 - effects of tritiated thymidine on hematopoietic stem cells (P.H. Romeo); 14 - tritium management issue in Canada: the point of view from authorities (P. Thompson); 15 - experience feedback of the detritiation process of Valduc centre (D. Leterq); 16 - difficulties linked with tritiated wastes confinement (F. Chastagner); 17 - optimisation of tritium management in the ITER project (P. Cortes); 18 - elements of thought about the management of tritium generated by nuclear facilities (M. Philippe); 19 - CIPR's position about the calculation of doses and risks linked with tritium exposure (F. Paquet); 20 - tritium think tanks (M. Fournier). (J.S.)

  17. Summary of the XIII International Workshop on Polarized Sources, Targets and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, F.

    2011-01-01

    The workshops on polarized sources, targets, and polarimetry are held every two years. The present meeting took place in Ferrara, Italy, and was organized by the University of Ferrara. Sessions on Polarized Proton and Deuterium Sources, Polarized Electron Sources, Polarimetry, Polarized Solid Targets, and Polarized Internal Targets, highlighted topics, recent developments, and progress in the field. A session decicated to Future Facilities provided an overview of a number of new activities in the spin-physics sector at facilities that are currently in the planning stage. Besides presenting a broad overview of polarized ion sources, electron sources, solid and gaseous targets, and their neighboring fields, the workshop also addressed the application of polarized atoms in applied sciences and medicine that is becoming increasingly important.

  18. PST 2009: XIII International Workshop on Polarized Sources Targets and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenisa, Paolo

    2011-05-01

    The workshops on polarized sources, targets, and polarimetry are held every two years. In 2009 the meeting took place in Ferrara, Italy, and was organized by the University of Ferrara and INFN. Sessions on Polarized Proton and Deuterium Sources, Polarized Electron Sources, Polarimetry, Polarized Solid Targets, and Polarized Internal Targets, highlighted topics, recent developments, and progress in the field. A session dedicated to Future Facilities provided an overview of a number of new activities in the spin-physics sector at facilities that are currently in the planning stage. Besides presenting a broad overview of polarized ion sources, electron sources, solid and gaseous targets, and their neighbouring fields, the workshop also addressed the application of polarized atoms in applied sciences and medicine that is becoming increasingly important.

  19. An assembly of tritium production experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshihiko

    1981-01-01

    An assembly for tritium production experiment, i.e. Tritium Extraction System (TREX) constructed as a small scale test facility for tritium production, and Tritium Removal System (TRS) attached to TREX, and the preliminary results of the experiments with them are described. The radiological safety of the process and operation is also an important consideration. Lithium-aluminum alloy was selected as the most promising target material. The following matters are involved in the scope of production technology: the selection of a target material and target preparation, reactor irradiation, the construction of a facility for the extraction of tritium from the irradiated target, the establishment of the optimum conditions of extraction, the purification, collection and storage of tritium, and the inspection of the product. The tritium production experiment at JAERI is yet on the initial stage; the development is to be continued with the stepwise increase of the scale of tritium production. (J.P.N.)

  20. TRAC analysis of design basis events for the accelerator production of tritium target/blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Elson, J.

    1997-01-01

    A two-loop primary cooling system with a residual heat removal system was designed to mitigate the heat generated in the tungsten neutron source rods inside the rungs of the ladders and the shell of the rungs. The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) was used to analyze the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the primary cooling system during a pump coastdown transient; a cold-leg, large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA); a hot-leg LBLOCA; and a target downcomer LBLOCA. The TRAC analysis results showed that the heat generated in the tungsten neutron source rods can be mitigated by the primary cooling system for the pump coastdown transient and all the LBLOCAs except the target downcomer LBLOCA. For the target downcomer LBLOCA, a cavity flood system is required to fill the cavity with water at a level above the large fixed headers

  1. Radiation assisted thermonuclear burn wave dynamics in heavy ion fast ignition of cylindrical deuterium-tritium fuel target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Kouser, R.; Nazir, R.; Manzoor, Z.; Tasneem, G.; Jehan, N.; Nasim, M.H.; Salahuddin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of thermonuclear burn wave propagation assisted by thermal radiation precursor in a heavy ion fast ignition of cylindrical deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel target are studied by two dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations using Multi-2D code. Thermal radiations, as they propagate ahead of the burn wave, suffer multiple reflections and preheat the fuel, are found to play a vital role in burn wave dynamics. After fuel ignition, the burn wave propagates in a steady state manner for some time. Multiple reflection and absorption of radiation at the fuel-tamper interface, fuel ablation and radial implosion driven by ablative shock and fast fusion rates on the fuel axis, at relatively later times, result into filamentary wave front. Strong pressure gradients are developed and sausage like structures behind the front are appeared. The situation leads to relatively reduced and non-uniform radial fuel burning and burn wave propagation. The fuel burning due to DD reaction is also taken into account and overall fusion energy and fusion power density, due to DT and DD reactions, during the burn wave propagation are determined as a function of time. (authors)

  2. Tritium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glodic, S.; Boreli, F.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It directly follows the metabolism of water and it can be bound into genetic material, so it is very important to control levels of contamination. In order to define the state of contamination it is necessary to establish 'zero level', i.e. actual global inventory. The importance of tritium contamination monitoring increases with the development of fusion power installations. Different sources of tritium are analyzed and summarized in this paper. (author)

  3. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  4. The HERMES polarized hydrogen and deuterium gas target in the HERA electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The HERMES hydrogen and deuterium nuclear-polarized gas targets have been in use since 1996 with the polarized electron beam of HERA at DESY to study the spin structure of the nucleon. Polarized atoms from a Stern-Gerlach Atomic Beam Source are injected into a storage cell internal to the HERA electron ring. Atoms diffusing from the center of the storage cell into a side tube are analyzed to determine the atomic fraction and the atomic polarizations. The atoms have a nuclear polarization, the axis of which is defined by an external magnetic holding field. The holding field was longitudinal during 1996-2000, and was changed to transverse in 2001. The design of the target is described, the method for analyzing the target polarization is outlined, and the performance of the target in the various running periods is presented

  5. The HERMES polarized hydrogen and deuterium gas target in the HERA electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Peking University, Beijing

    2004-08-01

    The HERMES hydrogen and deuterium nuclear-polarized gas targets have been in use since 1996 with the polarized electron beam of HERA at DESY to study the spin structure of the nucleon. Polarized atoms from a Stern-Gerlach Atomic Beam Source are injected into a storage cell internal to the HERA electron ring. Atoms diffusing from the center of the storage cell into a side tube are analyzed to determine the atomic fraction and the atomic polarizations. The atoms have a nuclear polarization, the axis of which is defined by an external magnetic holding field. The holding field was longitudinal during 1996-2000, and was changed to transverse in 2001. The design of the target is described, the method for analyzing the target polarization is outlined, and the performance of the target in the various running periods is presented. (orig.)

  6. Commissioning experiment of the polarized internal gas target with deuterium at ANKE/COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    In order to conduct the production experiments with polarized deuterium target and (un)polarized proton beam at ANKE/COSY, a commissioning experiment of the polarized internal target with deuterium is imperative. The commissioning experiment includes the measurements of both the vector (Q{sub y}) and tensor (Q{sub yy}) polarization of the deuterium gas target through the nuclear reactions with large and well known analyzing powers, which can be detected in ANKE. The dependence of the polarizations along the storage cell is also determined. The poster presents the physics case for the experiments with deuterium polarized internal target and the apparatus needed for the commissioning experiment, as well as the procedure of extraction for spin observables.

  7. Status of the hydrogen and deuterium atomic beam polarized target for NEPTUN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balandikov, N.I.; Ershov, V.P.; Fimushkin, V.V.; Kulikov, M.V.; Pilipenko, Y.K.; Shutov, V.B.

    1995-01-01

    NEPTUN-NEPTUN-A is a polarized experiment at Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK, IHEP) with two internal targets. Status of the atomic beam polarized target that is being developed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna is presented. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. Performance of a hydrogen/deuterium polarized gas target in a storage ring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, L.D.; Szczerba, D.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Klous, S.; Mul, F.A.; Poolman, H.R.; Simani, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a hydrogen/deuterium polarized gas target in a storage ring is presented. The target setup consisted of an atomic beam source, a cryogenic storage cell and a Breit-Rabi polarimeter. High frequency transition units were constructed to produce vector polarized hydrogen and

  9. Performance of a Polarized Deuterium Internal Target in a Medium-Energy Electron Storage Ring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Z.L.; Ferro Luzzi, M.M.E.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Alarcon, R.; van Bommel, R.; Botto, T.; Bouwhuis, M.; Buchholz, M.; Choi, S.; Comfort, J.; Doets, M.; Dolfini, S.; Ent, R.; Gaulard, C.; de Jager, C.W.; Lang, J.; de Lange, D.J.; Miller, M.A.; Passchier, E.; Passchier, I.; Poolman, H.R.; Six, E.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Unal, O.; de Vries, H.

    1996-01-01

    A polarized deuterium target internal to a medium-energy electron storage ring is described in the context of spindependent (e, e′d) and (e ,e′p) experiments. Tensor polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell target. A Breit-Rabi polarimeter was used

  10. TESLA-N electron scattering with polarized targets at TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotokov, V.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of polarized eN scattering can be realized at the TESLA linear collider facility at DESY with luminosities that are about two orders of magnitude higher than those expected for other experiments at comparable energies. A large variety of polarized parton distribution and fragmentation functions can be determined with unprecedented accuracy, many of them for the first time

  11. Tritium trick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. V.; Zukas, E. G.; Eash, D. T.

    1971-01-01

    Large controlled amounts of helium in uniform concentration in thick samples can be obtained through the radioactive decay of dissolved tritium gas to He3. The term, tritium trick, applies to the case when helium, added by this method, is used to simulate (n,alpha) production of helium in simulated hard flux radiation damage studies.

  12. A cryostat to hold frozen-spin polarized HD targets in CLAS: HDice-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, M.M., E-mail: mlowry@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Bass, C.D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); D' Angelo, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Universita' di Roma ‘Tor Vergata’, and INFN Sezione di Roma ‘Tor Vergata’, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Deur, A.; Dezern, G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Hanretty, C. [University of Virginia, 1400 University Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ho, D. [Carnegie-Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Kageya, T.; Kashy, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Khandaker, M. [Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, VA 23504 (United States); Laine, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Université Blaise Pascal, 34 Avenue Carnot, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); O' Connell, T. [University of Connecticut, 115 N Eagleville Road, Storrs-Mansfield, CT 06269 (United States); Pastor, O. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Peng, P. [University of Virginia, 1400 University Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Sandorfi, A.M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Sokhan, D. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Bat 100 – M053, Orsay 91406 (France); and others

    2016-04-11

    The design, fabrication, operation, and performance of a {sup 3/4}He dilution refrigerator and superconducting magnet system for holding a frozen-spin polarized hydrogen deuteride target in the Jefferson Laboratory CLAS detector during photon beam running is reported. The device operates both vertically (for target loading) and horizontally (for target bombardment). The device proves capable of maintaining a base temperature of 50 mK and a holding field of 1 T for extended periods. These characteristics enabled multi-month polarization lifetimes for frozen spin HD targets having proton polarization of up to 50% and deuteron up to 27%.

  13. A polarized solid {sup 3}He target for neutron transmission experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, C.D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Gould, C.R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Haase, D.G. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Huffman, P.R. [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Roberson, N.R. [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Seely, M.L. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Tornow, W. [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Wilburn, W.S. [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)

    1995-04-01

    We describe the construction and operation of a solid {sup 3}He polarized nuclear target which we have used for measurements of the spin dependence of the n-{sup 3}He interaction at MeV energies. The target, which contains 0.4 mole of {sup 3}He was polarized to 38% at 12 mK in a field of 7 T. The target is suitable for nuclear physics measurements which are insensitive to the large magnetic field and produce beam heating of tenths of microwatts.We discuss refinements and paths to improved solid {sup 3}He targets at higher polarizations and lower fields. ((orig.)).

  14. Measurement of pzz of the laser-driven polarized deuterium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.; Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.; Poelker, M.; Potterveld, D.P.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Buchholz, M.; Neal, J.; van den Brand, J.F.J.

    1993-01-01

    The question of whether nuclei are polarized as a result of H-H (D-D) spin-exchange collisions within the relatively dense gas of a laser-driven source of polarized hydrogen (deuterium) can be addressed directly by measuring the nuclear polarization of atoms from the source. The feasibility of using a polarimeter based on the D + T → n + 4 He reaction to measure the tensor polarization of deuterium in an internal target fed by the laser-driven source has been tested. The device and the measurements necessary to test the spin-exchange polarization theory are described

  15. A polarized {sup 3}He target for the photon beam at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J., E-mail: j.krimmer@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Aguar Bartolome, P.; Ahrens, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Arends, H.J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Heil, W.; Karpuk, S.; Otten, E.W. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Pedroni, P. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Salhi, Z. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Thomas, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-08-21

    A polarized {sup 3}He target has been installed for the first time inside the 4{pi} Crystal Ball detector at the tagged photon beam of the MAinz MIcrotron (MAMI). It has been demonstrated that the system works reliably and that the polarization losses during handling of the polarized gas are under control. Initial polarization values up to 70% and total relaxation times up to 20 h could be obtained during a first test beam time devoted to the measurement of the double polarized photoabsorption cross-section in the {Delta}(1232) baryon resonance region.

  16. Effect of nonlinearity of spin interaction with electromagnetic resonance field on characteristics of polarized nuclear target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertij, A.A.; Gavrilov, S.P.; Shestopalov, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    Interaction of incident nuclear particle beam with J = 1/2 (neutrons) spin and (J = 1/2) protons with the target substance is considered. It is shown that neutron polarization at the target exit and neutron transparency (G) of the target depend significantly on incident wave amplitude level and physical parameter values which characterize the target, such as target temperature, resonator mirror reflection factor, number of spins interacting with the field, etc. Under interaction of neutrons with a target resonator which features a high mirror reflection factor and low losses for absorption which is not related to magnetic dipole absorption, a bistable response of neutron polarization and G manifests itself. 1 ref

  17. Investigation of polarized-proton target materials by differential calorimetry: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.; Hill, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple differential calorimeter was designed and operated for an investigation of the thermodynamic properties of polarized target materials. The calibration and use of the calorimeter are discussed, after a brief exposition of our motivation for this work. The results of a preliminary study of target materials is presented with emphasis on the relevance of the glass state to dynamic polarization in chemically-doped targets

  18. The Spin Structure of the Neutron Determined Using a Polarized He-3 Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, H

    2004-01-06

    Described is a study of the internal spin structure of the neutron performed by measuring the asymmetry in spin-dependent deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from nuclear polarized {sup 3}He. Stanford Linear Accelerator experiment E142's sample of 400 million scattering events collected at beam energies between 19 and 26 GeV led to the most precise measurement of a nucleon spin structure function to date. The {sup 3}He target represents a major advance in polarized target technology, using the technique of spin exchange with optically pumped rubidium vapor to produce a typical {sup 3}He nuclear polarization of 34% in a 30cm long target cell with a gas density of 2.3 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The target polarization was measured to {+-}7% using an Adiabatic Fast Passage NMR system calibrated with the thermal equilibrium polarization of the protons in a sample of water. The relatively high polarization and target thickness were the result of the development of large volume glass target cells which had inherent nuclear spin relaxation times for the {sup 3}He gas of as long as 70 hours. A target cell production procedure is presented which focuses on special glass blowing techniques to minimize surface interactions with the {sup 3}He nuclei and careful gas purification and vacuum system procedures to reduce relaxation inducing impurities.

  19. On feasibility of the experiments with a polarized deuteron beam and a polarized target at Charles University in relation with polarized fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plis, Yu.A.

    2001-01-01

    There is an interest in the problem of polarized fusion with the neutron-free d 3 He reaction. Up to now, the experimental data on the cross sections of two dd reactions, which produce neutrons at once or through secondary dt reaction, are absent for polarized deuterons. There is a relatively cheap way to carry out the experiments with polarized deuterons at the Charles University in Prague. A polarized deuteron beam with energy from 100 keV up to approximately 1 MeV may be produced on the Van de Graaff accelerator by the channeling of a deuteron beam through magnetized Ni single crystal foil, according M. Kaminsky [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 819 (1969)]. This method permits to produce a polarized deuteron beam of an energy ≤1 MeV with a current of ∼1 nA, vector polarization P 3 up to 2/3 and tensor polarization P 33 =0. It will be necessary to modify the existing polarized target at Charles University for work with a low energy deuteron beam [N. S. Borisov et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 345, 421 (1994)

  20. STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR TARGET/BLANKET SYSTEM COMPONENT MATERIALS FOR THE ACCELERATOR PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. JOHNSON; R. RYDER; P. RITTENHOUSE

    2001-01-01

    The design of target/blanket system components for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) plant is dependent on the development of materials properties data specified by the designer. These data are needed to verify that component designs are adequate. The adequacy of the data will be related to safety, performance, and economic considerations, and to other requirements that may be deemed necessary by customers and regulatory bodies. The data required may already be in existence, as in the open technical literature, or may need to be generated, as is often the case for the design of new systems operating under relatively unique conditions. The designers' starting point for design data needs is generally some form of design criteria used in conjunction with a specified set of loading conditions and associated performance requirements. Most criteria are aimed at verifying the structural adequacy of the component, and often take the form of national or international standards such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME B and PV Code) or the French Nuclear Structural Requirements (RCC-MR). Whether or not there are specific design data needs associated with the use of these design criteria will largely depend on the uniqueness of the conditions of operation of the component. A component designed in accordance with the ASME B and PV Code, where no unusual environmental conditions exist, will utilize well-documented, statistically-evaluated developed in conjunction with the Code, and will not be likely to have any design data needs. On the other hand, a component to be designed to operate under unique APT conditions, is likely to have significant design data needs. Such a component is also likely to require special design criteria for verification of its structural adequacy, specifically accounting for changes in materials properties which may occur during exposure in the service environment. In such a situation it is common for the design criteria

  1. Proton and neutron polarized targets for nucleon-nucleon experiments at SATURNE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Combet, M.; Sans, J.L.; Benda, B.; Chaumette, P.; Deregel, J.; Durand, G.; Dzyubak, A.P.; Gaudron, C.; Lehar, F.; Janout, Z.; Khachaturov, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    A SATURNE polarized target has been used for nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering and transmission experiments for 15 years. The polarized proton target is a 70 cm 3 cartridge loaded with Pentanol-2. For polarized neutron target, two cartridges loaded with 6 LiD and 6 LiH are set in the refrigerator and can be quickly inserted in the beam. First experiments using 6 Li products in quasielastic pp or pn analyzing power measurements are compared with the same observables measured in a free nucleon-nucleon scattering using polarized proton targets. Angular distribution as a function of a kinematically conjugate angle and coplanarity in nucleon-nucleon scattering is shown for different targets. (author)

  2. Polarized photoproduction from nuclear targets with arbitrary spin and relation to deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoodbhoy, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad

    1990-01-01

    Inclusive photo-production from polarized targets of arbitrary spin is analyzed by using multipoles. The Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule, which was originally fromulated for spin-1/2 targets, is generalized to all spins and multipoles, and shown to have some interesting consequences. Measurements to test the new rules, or to derive nuclear structure information from them, could be incorporated into existing plans at electron accelerator facilities. Finally, the possible relevance of these generalized sum rules to sum rules measurable in polarized lepton-polarized target deep inelastic inclusive scattering is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Prospects for a deuterium internal target, tensor polarized by optical pumping: spin exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) appropriate for nuclear physics studies in medium and high energy particle storage rings are discussed. Using the technique of electron spin exchange with an optically pumped sodium (or potassium) vapor, we hope to polarize deuterium at a rate approx. 10 17 atoms/sec. Predictions for the deuterium polarization for a particular target cell design will be presented leading to the identification of the required optical pumping power and cell wall depolarization probability to attain optimum performance. The technical obstacles to be surmounted in such a target design will also be discussed

  4. Polarized proton and deuteron targets for the usage in intensive proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Get'man, V.A.; Derkach, A.Ya.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Razumnyj, A.A.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporo, E.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1982-01-01

    Polarized proton and deuteron targets are developed and tested for conducting investigations in intense photon beams. A flowsheet of polarization targets which includes: working agent of the target, superconducting magnet, cryostat of 3 He evaporation with 3 He pumping and recirculation systems, SHF system of 4 mm range for polarization pumping, measuring system of target polarization protons is presented. Working agent of the targets includes frozen balls with 1.5 mm diameter. Ethylene-glucol and 1.2-propylene-glycol were used as a working substance for proton targets. Completely deuterated ethylene-glycol was used for the deuteron target. Vertical magnetic field with 2.7 T intensity is produced by a superconducting magnetic system. Polarization pumping is exercised at 75 GHz frequency. Q-meter of direct current is used for determination of polarization. Working temperature of the cryostat is approximately 0.5 K. The lock device permits to exercise replacement of the target working agent during 30 minutes

  5. Polarimetry of the polarized hydrogen deuteride HDice target under an electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, Vivien E. [Blaise Pascal Univ., Aubiere (France)

    2013-10-01

    The study of the nucleon structure has been a major research focus in fundamental physics in the past decades and still is the main research line of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). For this purpose and to obtain statistically meaningful results, having both a polarized beam and a highly efficient polarized target is essential. For the target, this means high polarization and high relative density of polarized material. A Hydrogen Deuteride (HD) target that presents both such characteristics has been developed first at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and brought to the Hall B of Jefferson Lab in 2008. The HD target has been shown to work successfully under a high intensity photon beam (BNL and Jefferson Lab). However, it remained to be seen if the target could stand an electron beam of reasonably high current (nA). In this perspective, the target was tested for the first time in its frozen spin mode under an electron beam at Jefferson Lab in 2012 during the g14 experiment. This dissertation presents the principles and usage procedures of this HD target. The polarimetry of this target with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) during the electron beam tests is also discussed. In addition, this dissertation also describes another way to perform target polarimetry with the elastic scattering of electrons off a polarized target by using data taken on helium-3 during the E97-110 experiment that occurred in Jefferson Lab's Hall A in 2003.

  6. Tritium autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen distribution and diffusion within many materials may be investigated by autoradiography if the radioactive isotope tritium is used in the study. Tritium is unstable and decays to helium-3 by emission of a low energy (18 keV) beta particle which may be detected photographically. The basic principles of tritium autoradiography will be discussed. Limitations are imposed on the technique by: (1) the low energy of the beta particles; (2) the solubility and diffusivity of hydrogen in materials; and (3) the response of the photographic emulsion to beta particles. These factors control the possible range of application of tritium autoradiography. The technique has been applied successfully to studies of hydrogen solubility and distribution in materials and to studies of hydrogen damage

  7. QED corrections in deep-inelastic scattering from tensor polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Gakh, G I

    2001-01-01

    The QED correction in the deep inelastic scattering from the polarized tensor of the deuteron target is considered. The calculations are based on the covariant parametrization of the deuteron quadrupole polarization tensor. The Drell-Yan representations in the electrodynamics are used for describing the radiation real and virtual particles

  8. Polarization observables for strangeness photoproduction on a frozen spin target with CLAS at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The FROST experiment at Jefferson Lab used the CLAS detector in Hall B with the intention of performing a complete measurement of polarization observables associated with strangeness photoproduction, in combination with data from previous JLab experiments. This was achieved by utilizing the FROST polarized target in conjunction with polarized photon beams, allowing direct measurement of beam-target double polarization observables. By studying strangeness reactions, such as γp → K + Λ 0 , it may be possible to find 'missing' baryon resonances, predicted by symmetric quark models but not observed in previous experiments, whose results are consistent with the di-quark model. It is thought these 'missing' resonances remain undiscovered because they have different coupling strengths for different reaction channels, such as the strangeness reactions, whereas the current data is dominated by studies of pN reactions. Observing these resonances therefore has important implications for our knowledge of the excited states of nucleons, and the models predicting the quark interactions within them. The G polarization observable is one of the beam-target double polarization observables, associated with a longitudinally polarized target and a linearly polarized photon beam, and its measurement for the strangeness reaction γp → K + Λ 0 is the focus of the work presented.

  9. Moeller polarimeter for VEPP-3 storage ring based on internal polarized gas jet target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyug, M.V.; Grigoriev, A.V.; Kiselev, V.A.; Lazarenko, B.A.; Levichev, E.B.; Mikaiylov, A.I.; Mishnev, S.I.; Nikitin, S.A.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Rachek, I.A.; Shestakov, Yu.V.; Toporkov, D.K.; Zevakov, S.A.; Zhilich, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    A new method to determine the polarization of an electron beam circulating in a storage ring by a non-destructive way, based on measuring the asymmetry in scattering of beam electrons on electrons of the internal polarized gas jet target, has been developed and tested at the VEPP-3 storage ring

  10. Polarization Calculation and Underwater Target Detection Inspired by Biological Visual Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In challenging underwater environments, the polarization parameter maps calculated by the Stokes model are characterized by the high noise and error, harassing the underwater target detection tasks. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel bionic polarization calculation and underwater target detection method by modeling the visual system of mantis shrimps. This system includes many operators including a polarization-opposition calculation, a factor optimization and a visual neural network model. A calibration learning method is proposed to search the optimal value of the factors in the linear subtraction model. Finally, a six-channel visual neural network model is proposed to detect the underwater targets. Experimental results proved that the maps produced by the polarization-opposition parameter is more accurate and have lower noise than that produced by the Stokes parameter, achieving better performance in underwater target detection tasks.

  11. Electron spin resonance and its implication on the maximum nuclear polarization of deuterated solid target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, J.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.; Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.

    2006-01-01

    ESR spectroscopy is an important tool in polarized solid target material research, since it allows us to study the paramagnetic centers, which are used for the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The polarization behavior of the different target materials is strongly affected by the properties of these centers, which are added to the diamagnetic materials by chemical doping or irradiation. In particular, the ESR linewidth of the paramagnetic centers is a very important parameter, especially concerning the deuterated target materials. In this paper, the results of the first precise ESR measurements of the deuterated target materials at a DNP-relevant magnetic field of 2.5 T are presented. Moreover, these results allowed us to experimentally study the correlation between ESR linewidth and maximum deuteron polarization, as given by the spin-temperature theory

  12. First use of a laser-driven polarized H/D target at the IUCF cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.; Brack, J.; Cadman, R. V.; Cummings, W. J.; Fedchak, J.; Fox, B.; Gao, H.; Grosshauser, C.; Holt, R. J.; Jones, C.; Kinney, E.; Kowalczyk, R.; Lu, Z.-T.; Miller, M. A.; Nagengast, W.; Owen, B.; Rith, K.; Schmidt, F.; Schulte, E.; Sowinski, J.; Sperisen, F.; Stenger, J.; Thorsland, E.; Williamson, S.

    1997-01-01

    The HERMES Laser-Driven Target Task Force (Argonne, Erlangen and Illinois) is charged with developing a polarized H/D target for use in the HERA ring at DESY. Rapid progress was made in the beginning of 1996, leading us to the decision to test the target in a realistic experimental environment. In particular, polarizations of 0.6 and flows above 10 18 atoms·s -1 have been achieved on the bench. The laser-driven target and a simple detector system are currently installed in Cooler storage ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in order to test its applicability to nuclear physics experiments. Target polarizations are being measured using the rvec H(p, p) and rvec D(p, p) reactions. Initial tests were reasonably successful and the target is well along toward becoming viable for nuclear physics

  13. Target mass effects in polarized deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccione, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a computation of nucleon mass corrections to nucleon structure functions for polarized deep-inelastic scattering. We perform a fit to existing data including mass corrections at first order in m 2 /Q 2 and we study the effect of these corrections on physically interesting quantities. We conclude that mass corrections are generally small, and compatible with current estimates of higher twist uncertainties, when available. (orig.)

  14. A highly polarized hydrogen/deuterium internal gas target embedded in a toroidal magnetic spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheever, D.; Ihloff, E.; Kelsey, J.; Kolster, H.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Shinozaki, A.; Tsentalovich, E.; Zwart, T.; Ziskin, V.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2006-01-01

    A polarized hydrogen/deuterium internal gas target has been constructed and operated at the internal target region of the South Hall Ring (SHR) of the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to carry out measurements of spin-dependent electron scattering at 850MeV. The target used an Atomic Beam Source (ABS) to inject a flux of highly polarized atoms into a thin-walled, coated storage cell. The polarization of the electron beam was determined using a Compton laser backscattering polarimeter. The target polarization was determined using well-known nuclear reactions. The ABS and storage cell were embedded in the Bates Large Acceptance Toroidal Spectrometer (BLAST), which was used to detect scattered particles from the electron-target interactions. The target has been designed to rapidly (∼8h) switch operation from hydrogen to deuterium. Further, this target was the first to be operated inside a magnetic spectrometer in the presence of a magnetic field exceeding 2kG. An ABS intensity 2.5x10 16 at/s and a high polarization (∼70%) inside the storage cell have been achieved. The details of the target design and construction are described here and the performance over an 18 month period is reported

  15. Cryogenic polarized-target facility. Progress report, July 1, 1981-June 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this three-year research project is to build a cryogenically polarized target facility for measuring total neutron cross sections for polarized neutrons incident on polarized nuclei. The components of the system have been assembled at TUNL during the current contract period. These include the dilution-refrigerator support assembly, the dilution-refrigerator itself, the dewar, the beam line, the shielding cave for the neutron source, and the neutron-detector shield and rolling-cart assembly. The dilution refrigerator is presently undergoing testing at liquid-nitrogen and liquid-helium temperatures. Experiments with aluminum and copper targets are scheduled for the coming contract period

  16. High magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchenko, N.G.; Bartenev, V.D.; Blinov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting polarizing magnet was constructed for movable polarized target (MPT) with working volume 200 mm long and 30 mm in diameter. The magnet provides a polarizing magnetic field up to 6 T with the uniformity of 4.5 x 10 -4 in the working volume of the target. The magnet windings are made of a NbTi wire, impregnated with the epoxy resin and placed in the horizontal cryostat with 'warm' aperture diameter of 96 mm. The design and technology of the magnet winding are described. Results of the magnetic field map measurements using a NMR-magnetometer are given. The MPT set-up is installed in the beam line of polarized neutrons produced by break-up of polarized deuterons extracted from the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), JINR, Dubna

  17. Polarization reversal of proton spins in solid-state targets by superradiance effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichertz, L.A.

    1991-02-01

    Scattering experiments with polarized targets are prepared at the Bonn accelerator ELSA. The new Bonn frozen spin target (BOFROST) developed for real photon experiments at the PHOENICS detector has been tested in the laboratory. Proton polarization values of -99% and +94% in ammonia, -96% and +90% in butanol have been achieved at a magnetic field of 3.5 Tesla. At a temperature of 70 mK and a magnetic field of 0.35 Tesla a very fast spontaneous polarization reversal has been observed. This effect occured at negative polarization only and has been identified as a self-induced superradiance effect in the proton spin system. This work describes the polarization and relaxation measurements at BOFROST and detailed experiments concerning the superradiance effect. (orig.) [de

  18. Spin Interactions and Cross-checks of Polarization in NH$_{3}$ Target

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Yu; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Hess, Ch; Iwata, T; Koivuniemi, J; Kondo, K; Magnon, A; Mallot, G; Michigami, T; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G

    2008-01-01

    We study the magnetic structure of irradiated ammonia (NH$_{3}$) polarized by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization method at 0.2 K and at 2.5 T field. In this material, the electron spins, induced by ionizing radiation, couple $^{14}$N and $^{1}$H spins by the indirect spin-spin interaction. As a result, the local frequencies of $^{1}$H-spins are varied depending on $^{14}$N spin polarizations and lead to an asymmetry in the proton signal. This asymmetry allowes a good detection of $^{14}$N spins directly on the proton Larmor frequency. In the long COMPASS target at CERN, we use the cross-checks between spectral asymmetries and integral polarizations to decrease the relative error for longitudinal target polarizations up to $\\pm$2.0%.

  19. Medium effects in DIS from polarized nuclear targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanchiotti, Huner; Garcia Canal, Carlos A.; Tarutina, Tatiana [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, C.C. 67, La Plata (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP(CONICET), C.C. 67, La Plata (Argentina); Vento, Vicente [Universidad de Valencia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    The behavior of the nucleon structure functions in lepton nuclei deep inelastic scattering, both polarized and unpolarized, due to nuclear structure effects is reanalyzed. The study is performed in two schemes: an x-rescaling approach, and one in which there is an increase of sea quark components in the in-medium nucleon, related to the low-energy N-N interaction. In view of a recent interesting experimental proposal to study the behavior of the proton spin structure functions in nuclei we proceed to compare these approaches in an effort to enlighten the possible phenomenological interest of such difficult experiment. (orig.)

  20. Development of high-performance alkali-hybrid polarized 3He targets for electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaideep T.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Tobias, W. A.; Averett, T. D.; Kelleher, A.; Mooney, K. E.; Nelyubin, V. V.; Wang, Yunxiao; Zheng, Yuan; Cates, G. D.

    2015-05-01

    Background: Polarized 3He targets have been used as effective polarized neutron targets for electron scattering experiments for over twenty years. Over the last ten years, the effective luminosity of polarized 3He targets based on spin-exchange optical pumping has increased by over an order of magnitude. This has come about because of improvements in commercially-available lasers and an improved understanding of the physics behind the polarization process. Purpose: We present the development of high-performance polarized 3He targets for use in electron scattering experiments. Improvements in the performance of polarized 3He targets, target properties, and operating parameters are documented. Methods: We utilize the technique of alkali-hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping to polarize the 3He targets. Spectrally narrowed diode lasers used for the optical pumping greatly improved the performance. A simulation of the alkali-hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping process was developed to provide guidance in the design of the targets. Data was collected during the characterization of 24 separate glass target cells, each of which was constructed while preparing for one of four experiments at Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, Virginia. Results: From the data obtained we made determinations of the so-called X -factors that quantify a temperature-dependent and as-yet poorly understood spin-relaxation mechanism that limits the maximum achievable 3He polarization to well under 100%. The presence of the X -factor spin-relaxation mechanism was clearly evident in our data. Good agreement between the simulation and the actual target performance was obtained by including details such as off-resonant optical pumping. Included in our results is a measurement of the K -3He spin-exchange rate coefficient kseK=(7.46 ±0.62 ) ×10-20cm3/s over the temperature range 503 K to 563 K. Conclusions: In order to achieve high performance under the operating conditions described in this paper

  1. Luminance and chromatic contributions to a hyperacuity task: isolation by contrast polarity and target separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Cooper, Bonnie; Lee, Barry B

    2012-03-01

    Vernier thresholds are known to be elevated when a target pair has opposite contrast polarity. Polarity reversal is used to assess the role of luminance and chromatic pathways in hyperacuity performance. Psychophysical hyperacuity thresholds were measured for pairs of gratings of various combinations of luminance (Lum) and chromatic (Chr) contrast polarities, at different ratios of luminance to chromatic contrast. With two red-green gratings of matched luminance and chromatic polarity (+Lum+Chr), there was an elevation of threshold at isoluminance. When both luminance and chromatic polarity were mismatched (-Lum-Chr), thresholds were substantially elevated under all conditions. With the same luminance contrast polarity and opposite chromatic polarity (+Lum-Chr) thresholds were only elevated close to isoluminance; in the reverse condition (-Lum+Chr), thresholds were elevated as in the -Lum-Chr condition except close to equiluminance. Similar data were obtained for gratings isolating the short-wavelength cone mechanism. Further psychophysical measurements assessed the role of target separation with matched or mismatched contrast polarity; similar results were found for luminance and chromatic gratings. Comparison physiological data were collected from parafoveal ganglion cells of the macaque retina. Positional precision of ganglion cell signals was assessed under conditions related to the psychophysical measurements. On the basis of these combined observations, it is argued that both magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular pathways have access to cortical positional mechanisms associated with vernier acuity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeting NCK-Mediated Endothelial Cell Front-Rear Polarity Inhibits Neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrac, Alexandre; Genet, Gael; Ola, Roxana; Zhang, Feng; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Han, Jinah; Zhang, Jiasheng; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Chedotal, Alain; Schwartz, Martin A; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-01-26

    Sprouting angiogenesis is a key process driving blood vessel growth in ischemic tissues and an important drug target in a number of diseases, including wet macular degeneration and wound healing. Endothelial cells forming the sprout must develop front-rear polarity to allow sprout extension. The adaptor proteins Nck1 and 2 are known regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and polarity, but their function in angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that the Nck adaptors are required for endothelial cell front-rear polarity and migration downstream of the angiogenic growth factors VEGF-A and Slit2. Mice carrying inducible, endothelial-specific Nck1/2 deletions fail to develop front-rear polarized vessel sprouts and exhibit severe angiogenesis defects in the postnatal retina and during embryonic development. Inactivation of NCK1 and 2 inhibits polarity by preventing Cdc42 and Pak2 activation by VEGF-A and Slit2. Mechanistically, NCK binding to ROBO1 is required for both Slit2- and VEGF-induced front-rear polarity. Selective inhibition of polarized endothelial cell migration by targeting Nck1/2 prevents hypersprouting induced by Notch or Bmp signaling inhibition, and pathological ocular neovascularization and wound healing, as well. These data reveal a novel signal integration mechanism involving NCK1/2, ROBO1/2, and VEGFR2 that controls endothelial cell front-rear polarity during sprouting angiogenesis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Targeting NCK-Mediated Endothelial Cell Front-Rear Polarity Inhibits Neo-Vascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrac, Alexandre; Genet, Gael; Ola, Roxana; Zhang, Feng; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Han, Jinah; Zhang, Jiasheng; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Chedotal, Alain; Schwartz, Martin A.; Eichmann, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Sprouting angiogenesis is a key process driving blood vessel growth in ischemic tissues and an important drug target in a number of diseases, including wet macular degeneration and wound healing. Endothelial cells forming the sprout must develop front-rear polarity to allow sprout extension. The adaptor proteins Nck1 and 2 are known regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and polarity, but their function in angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here we show that the Nck adaptors are required for endothelial cell front-rear polarity and migration downstream of the angiogenic growth factors VEGF-A and Slit2. Methods and Results Mice carrying inducible, endothelial-specific Nck1/2 deletions fail to develop front-rear polarized vessel sprouts and exhibit severe angiogenesis defects in the postnatal retina and during embryonic development. Inactivation of NCK1 and 2 inhibits polarity by preventing Cdc42 and Pak2 activation by VEGF-A and Slit2. Mechanistically, NCK binding to ROBO1 is required for both Slit2 and VEGF induced front-rear polarity. Selective inhibition of polarized endothelial cell migration by targeting Nck1/2 prevents hypersprouting induced by Notch or Bmp signaling inhibition, as well as pathological ocular neovascularization and wound healing. Conclusions These data reveal a novel signal integration mechanism involving NCK1/2, ROBO1/2 and VEGFR2 that controls endothelial cell front-rear polarity during sprouting angiogenesis. PMID:26659946

  4. Target recognition of log-polar ladar range images using moment invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenze; Han, Shaokun; Cao, Jie; Yu, Haoyong

    2017-01-01

    The ladar range image has received considerable attentions in the automatic target recognition field. However, previous research does not cover target recognition using log-polar ladar range images. Therefore, we construct a target recognition system based on log-polar ladar range images in this paper. In this system combined moment invariants and backpropagation neural network are selected as shape descriptor and shape classifier, respectively. In order to fully analyze the effect of log-polar sampling pattern on recognition result, several comparative experiments based on simulated and real range images are carried out. Eventually, several important conclusions are drawn: (i) if combined moments are computed directly by log-polar range images, translation, rotation and scaling invariant properties of combined moments will be invalid (ii) when object is located in the center of field of view, recognition rate of log-polar range images is less sensitive to the changing of field of view (iii) as object position changes from center to edge of field of view, recognition performance of log-polar range images will decline dramatically (iv) log-polar range images has a better noise robustness than Cartesian range images. Finally, we give a suggestion that it is better to divide field of view into recognition area and searching area in the real application.

  5. Tritium immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridger, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    Tritium is immobilised for long term storage by absorption in a hydridable/tritidable material, such as zirconium. A gas permeable container is packed with the material in the form of sponge fragments, rods or tubes, and a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and tritium introduced into the container whilst the container is at a temperature of about 600 deg C or above. Thermal expansion of the material during reaction with the gaseous mixture compacts the material into a coherent body in the container relatively free from finely divided hydride/ tritide material. (author)

  6. Development Of A Hydrogen And Deuterium Polarized Gas Target For Application In Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberli, Willy

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of spin degrees of freedom in nuclear and high-energy interactions requires the use of spin-polarized projectiles and/or spin-polarized targets. During the last two decades, the use of external beams from cyclotrons has to a large extent been supplanted by use of circulating beams stored in storage rings. In these experiments, the circulating particles pass millions of times through targets internal to the ring. Thus the targets need to be very thin to avoid beam loss by scattering out of the acceptance aperture of the ring.

  7. A study of lithium deuteride as a material for a polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Bültmann, S; Day, D B; Fatemi, R D; Gardner, B; Harris, C M; Johnson, J R; Mccarthy, J S; McKee, P M; Meyer, Werner T; Penttilae, S I; Ponikvar, E; Rijllart, A; Rondon, Oscar A; Lorant, S S; Tobias, W A; Trentalange, S; Zhu, H; Zihlmann, B; Zimmermann, D

    1999-01-01

    Experiment E155 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) measured the spin-dependent structure of the proton and neutron, using for the first time sup 6 LiD as the polarized deuteron target material in a high-energy electron beam. This compound provides a significantly higher dilution factor than any other solid deuteron target material currently used in high-energy physics experiments. Results of the polarization behavior of the sup 6 LiD target material before and after exposure to the 50 GeV/c electron beam used in E155 are presented.

  8. Performance of a hydrogen/deuterium polarized gas target in a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buuren, L.D. van; Szczerba, D.; Brand, J.F.J. van den; Bulten, H.J.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Klous, S.; Kolster, H.; Lang, J.; Mul, F.A.; Poolman, H.R.; Simani, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a high-density polarized hydrogen/deuterium gas target internal to a medium-energy electron storage ring is presented. Compared to our previous electron scattering experiments with tensor-polarized deuterium at NIKHEF (Zhou et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 378 (1996) 40; Ferro-Luzzi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 2630; Van den Brand et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 1235; Bouwhuis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 687; Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 687) the target figure of merit, (polarization) 2 xluminosity, was improved by more than an order of magnitude. The target density was increased by upgrading the flux of nuclear-polarized atoms injected into the storage cell and by using a longer (60 cm) and colder (∼70 K) storage cell. A maximal target thickness of 1.2 (1.1)±0.1x10 14 nuclei/cm 2 was achieved with deuterium (hydrogen). With typical beam currents of 110 mA, this corresponds to a luminosity of about 8.4 (7.8)±0.8x10 31 e - nuclei cm -2 s -1 . By reducing the molecular background and using a stronger target guide field, a higher polarization was achieved. The target was used in combination with a 720 MeV polarized electron beam stored in the AmPS ring (NIKHEF) to measure spin observables in electron-proton and electron-deuteron scattering. Scattered electrons were detected in a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer. Ejected hadrons were detected in a single time-of-flight scintillator array. The product of beam and target vector polarization, P e P t , was determined from the known spin-correlation parameters of e'p quasi-elastic (or elastic) scattering. With the deuterium (hydrogen) target, values up to P e P t =0.49±0.03 (0.32±0.03) were obtained with an electron beam polarization of P e =0.62±0.04 (0.56±0.03) as measured with a Compton backscattering polarimeter (Passchier et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 414 (1998) 4988). From this, we deduce a cell-averaged target polarization of P t =0.78±0.07 (0.58±0

  9. Spin filtering neutrons with a proton target dynamically polarized using photo-excited triplet states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Brandt, B. van den; Eichhorn, T.R.; Hautle, P.; Wenckebach, W.Th.

    2012-01-01

    In a test of principle a neutron spin filter has been built, which is based on dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) using photo-excited triplet states. This DNP method has advantages over classical concepts as the requirements for cryogenic equipment and magnets are much relaxed: the spin filter is operated in a field of 0.3 T at a temperature of about 100 K and has performed reliably over periods of several weeks. The neutron beam was also used to analyze the polarization of the target employed as a spin filter. We obtained an independent measurement of the proton spin polarization of ∼0.13 in good agreement with the value determined with NMR. Moreover, the neutron beam was used to measure the proton spin polarization as a function of position in the naphthalene sample. The polarization was found to be homogeneous, even at low laser power, in contradiction to existing models describing the photo-excitation process.

  10. Detailed studies of a high-density polarized hydrogen gas target for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapfe, K.; Brueckner, W.; Gaul, H.G.; Grieser, M.; Lin, M.T.; Moroz, Z.; Povh, B.; Rall, M.; Stechert, B.; Steffens, E.; Stenger, J.; Stock, F.; Tonhaeuser, J.; Montag, C.; Rathmann, F.; Fick, D.; Braun, B.; Graw, G.; Haeberli, W.

    1996-01-01

    A high-density target of polarized atomic hydrogen gas for applications in storage rings was produced by injecting atoms from an atomic beam source into a T-shaped storage cell. The influence of the internal gas target on electron-cooled beams of 27 MeV α-particles and 23 MeV protons in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring has been studied in detail. Target polarization and target thickness were measured by means of 27 MeV α-particles. For hyperfine states 1+2 a target thickness of n=(0.96±0.04) x 10 14 H/cm 2 was achieved with the cell walls cooled to 100 K. Working with a weak magnetic holding field (∼5 G) the maximum target polarization was P T =0.84±0.02 when state 1 and P T =0.46±0.01 when states 1+2 were injected. The target polarization was found to be constant over a period of 3 months with a net charge of Q∼100 C passing the storage cell. (orig.)

  11. Confirmatory experiments for the United States Department of Energy Accelerator Production of Tritium Program: Neutron, triton and radionuclide production by thick targets of lead and tungsten bombarded by 800 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Cappiello, M.; Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D.; Laird, R.; Mayo, D.; Waters, L.; Zoeller, C.; Staples, P.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron and Triton Production by 800 MeV Protons: The experiments presented in this report were performed in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at the Los Alamos Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility in order to provide data to benchmark and validate physics simulations used in the APT target/blanket design. An experimental apparatus was built that incorporated many of the features of the neutron source region of the 3 He target/blanket. Those features included a tungsten neutron source, flux traps, neutron moderator, lead backstop, lead multiplying annulus, neutron absorbing blanket and a combination neutron de-coupler and tritium producing gas ( 3 He). The experiments were performed in two separate proton irradiations each with approximately 100 nA-hr of 800 MeV protons. The first irradiation was made with a small neutron moderating blanket, allowing the authors to measure tritium production in the 3 He gas by sampling, and counting the amount of tritium. The second irradiation was performed with a large neutron moderating blanket (light water with a 1% manganese sulfate solution) that allowed them to measure both the tritium production in the central region and the total neutron production. The authors did this by sampling and counting the tritium produced and by measuring the activation of the manganese solution. Results of the three tritium production measurements show large disagreements with each other and therefore with the values predicted using the LAHET-MCNP code system. The source of the discrepancies may lie with the sampling system or adsorption on the tungsten surfaces. The authors discuss tests that may resolve that issue. The data for the total neutron production measurement is much more consistent. Those results show excellent agreement between calculation and experiment

  12. Initial investigations of (np)-scattering with a polarized deuterium target at ANKE-COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing

    2015-07-01

    The understanding of the forces among nucleons is fundamental to the whole of nuclear and hadronic physics. The nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering is the ideal probe to study the nuclear forces. The scattering amplitudes for the complete description of the NN interactions can be reconstructed from phase-shift analyses (PSA), which requires measurements with polarized experiments. The existing data allow to extract unambiguous proton-proton (pp) amplitudes below 2 GeV. However, there is very little known about the neutron-proton (np) system above 800 MeV nucleon energy. THE ANKE-COSY collaboration has embarked on a systematic program which aims to extract the np scattering amplitudes through the deuteron-proton charge-exchange process dp→{pp}{sub s}n. First part of the program via polarized deuteron beam and hydrogen target allowed successful measurement of np amplitudes up to 1.135 GeV nucleon energy, which is the maximum nucleon energy that can be accessed with deuteron beam at COSY. Via inverse kinematics, i.e. using a proton beam incident on a polarized deuterium target will allow to enhance the np study up to 2.8 GeV, the highest energy available at COSY. The method of inverse kinematics has to be validated prior to the production experiment. As the proof-of-principle (POP) experiment, the initial research has been conducted at proton energy T{sub p}=600 MeV using a polarized deuterium target. The projectiles were measured by two silicon tracking telescopes (STT) placed closed to the target and by the ANKE sub-detection systems. Four polarization modes of the deuterium target were employed. In order to increase the effective target thickness, polarized deuterium atoms produced by the atomic beam source (ABS) was filled into a storage cell, where the circulating COSY beam collides with the target. The target polarizations were measured using the proton-deuteron elastic reaction. The vector and tensor analyzing powers A{sub y} and A{sub yy} of pvector d

  13. Physics in the GeV region with polarized targets in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    There is evidence from the D(γ,p)n reaction that the meson-exchange model is failing in the GeV region. Surprisingly, it appears that the new (Dγ,p)n data favor the energy dependence of the nuclear chromodynamics model rather that of the meson-exchange model. Application of the polarization method to electron scattering studies is in its infancy, and it is potentially a very powerful technique. The internal target method coupled with laser-driven polarized targets should represent an important tool for nuclear physics

  14. Irradiated NH3 and ND3 - two new target materials for polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1982-11-01

    A study of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in NH 3 and ND 3 was made at the Bonn 2.5 GeV electron synchrotron. The paramagnetic radicals in the polycristalline ammonia beads were created by irradiation in the high intensity 20 MeV electron beam (> 10 14 electrons/sec) of the injection linac. During irradiation the ammonia beads, produced by dropping into liquid nitrogen, were cooled in liquid argon at approx.= 90 K. DNP measurements were performed at 1 K, 0.5 K and 0.2 K in a 2.5 T magnetic field. Samples of NH 3 , prepared in this way, yielded a maximum proton polarization of 66% at a temperature of 0.5 K with a short polarization build-up time of 9 minutes. ND 3 could be polarized at a temperature of 0.2 K up to 31%. The radiation resistance of the polarization of NH 3 is better than that of butanol. (orig.)

  15. A Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Structure Functions Using a Polarized HE-3 Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes a precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure function, g 1 n (x). The measurement was made by the E154 collaboration at SLAC using a longitudinally polarized, 48.3 GeV electron beam, and a 3 He target polarized by spin exchange with optically pumped rubidium. A target polarization as high as 50% was achieved. The elements of the experiment which pertain to the polarized 3 He target will be described in detail in this thesis. To achieve a precision measurement, it has been necessary to minimize the systematic error from the uncertainty in the target parameters. All of the parameters of the target have been carefully measured, and the most important parameters of the target have been measured using multiple techniques. The polarization of the target was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and has been calibrated using both proton NMR and by measuring the shift of the Rb Zeeman resonance frequency due to the 3 He polarization. The fraction of events which originated in the 3 He, as measured by the spectrometers, has been determined using a physical model of the target and the spectrometers. It was also measured during the experiment using a variable pressure 3 He reference cell in place of the polarized 3 He target. The spin dependent structure function g 1 n (z) was measured in the Bjorken x range of 0.014 2 of 5 (GeV/c) 2 . One of the primary motivations for this experiment was to test the Bjorken sum rule. Because the experiment had smaller statistical errors and a broader kinematic coverage than previous experiments, the behavior of the spin structure function g 1 n (x) could be studied in detail at low values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. It was found that g 1 n (x) has a strongly divergent behavior at low values of x, calling into question the methods commonly used to extrapolate the value of g 1 n (x) to low x. The precision of the measurement made by the E154 collaboration at SLAC puts a tighter

  16. A Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Structure Functions Using a Polarized HE-3 Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T

    2003-11-05

    This thesis describes a precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure function, g{sub 1}{sup n}(x). The measurement was made by the E154 collaboration at SLAC using a longitudinally polarized, 48.3 GeV electron beam, and a {sup 3}He target polarized by spin exchange with optically pumped rubidium. A target polarization as high as 50% was achieved. The elements of the experiment which pertain to the polarized {sup 3}He target will be described in detail in this thesis. To achieve a precision measurement, it has been necessary to minimize the systematic error from the uncertainty in the target parameters. All of the parameters of the target have been carefully measured, and the most important parameters of the target have been measured using multiple techniques. The polarization of the target was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and has been calibrated using both proton NMR and by measuring the shift of the Rb Zeeman resonance frequency due to the {sup 3}He polarization. The fraction of events which originated in the {sup 3}He, as measured by the spectrometers, has been determined using a physical model of the target and the spectrometers. It was also measured during the experiment using a variable pressure {sup 3}He reference cell in place of the polarized {sup 3}He target. The spin dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}(z) was measured in the Bjorken x range of 0.014 < x < 0.7 with an average Q{sup 2} of 5 (GeV/c){sup 2}. One of the primary motivations for this experiment was to test the Bjorken sum rule. Because the experiment had smaller statistical errors and a broader kinematic coverage than previous experiments, the behavior of the spin structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) could be studied in detail at low values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. It was found that g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) has a strongly divergent behavior at low values of x, calling into question the methods commonly used to extrapolate the value of g

  17. Magnetic shielding for a transversely polarized target in the longitudinal field of the PANDA solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Bertold; Ahmed, Samer; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Gerz, Kathrin; Lin, Dexu; Maas, Frank; Martinez, Ana Penuelas; Morales, Cristina; Wang, Yadi [Helmholtz Institut Mainz (Germany); Aguar Bartolome, Patricia [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A transversely polarized target in PANDA would allow for the first time access to the imaginary part of the time like electromagnetic proton form factors, namely the phase angle in the imaginary plane between electric and magnetic form factors. Moreover it would allow for a number of other target single spin asymmetries revealing nucleon structure observables connected with the transverse spin structure of the proton. As a first step for achieving a transverse target polarization, the target region has to be shielded against the 2 T longitudinal magnetic flux from the solenoid of the PANDA spectrometer. We present experimental results on intense magnetic flux shielding using a BSCCO-2212 high temperature superconducting hollow cylinder at liquid helium temperature.

  18. Detection-Discrimination Method for Multiple Repeater False Targets Based on Radar Polarization Echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. ZONG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple repeat false targets (RFTs, created by the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM system of jammer, are widely used in practical to effectively exhaust the limited tracking and discrimination resource of defence radar. In this paper, common characteristic of radar polarization echoes of multiple RFTs is used for target recognition. Based on the echoes from two receiving polarization channels, the instantaneous polarization radio (IPR is defined and its variance is derived by employing Taylor series expansion. A detection-discrimination method is designed based on probability grids. By using the data from microwave anechoic chamber, the detection threshold of the method is confirmed. Theoretical analysis and simulations indicate that the method is valid and feasible. Furthermore, the estimation performance of IPRs of RFTs due to the influence of signal noise ratio (SNR is also covered.

  19. Target correlation and polarization effects on the electron impact ionization of He atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Hari P, E-mail: hps1@physics.ucf.edu [Physics Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2011-03-28

    We have reported here the results of our investigation of the effects of electron correlation and polarization of the target in the incident channel on the electron impact ionization of the helium atom. The triple differential cross section (TDCS) is calculated for 28.6 eV incident electron energy for the case when the two final-state outgoing electrons share 4.0 eV excess energy equally and unequally and leave in the opposite direction. The electron correlation and polarization of the He-target in the initial state are considered completely ab initio using the recently extended multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method. The electron correlation between the two outgoing electrons in the final state is included through the variationally determined screening potential. It is found that both target correlation and polarization in the incident channel play an important role; the polarization has larger effect on the TDCS than the target correlation. We compared our results with available experimental and theoretical data.

  20. Polarization Observables from two-pion and ρ meson photoproduction on polarized HD target at JLab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonta, Irene [Univ. of Rome, Tor Vergata (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    The preliminary results discussed in this theses have been carried out with the Nuclear Physics group of the Department of Physics at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, under the supervision of Prof. A. D’Angelo.On March 2012 I joined the CLAS collaboration at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, in Virginia, USA, and became a term member after a probation period of 9 months. As a member I could participate to the g14 data taking, started on November 18th 2011 and finished on May 18th 2012. In that period I was in charge of the timing calibration of the CLAS forward electromagnetic spectrometer. For the duration of the experiment, I was also responsible of the Raman laboratory located at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, where the Raman measurements were performed. The Raman measurements were crucial for determining the relative concentrations of H2 and D2 in the Hydrogen-Deuteride gas which was used for the target of the g14 experiment.

  1. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Lv, Xiaonan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); CAS Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing 100090 (China); Herrler, Georg [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Enjuanes, Luis [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Zhou, Xingdong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Qu, Bo [Faculty of Life Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Meng, Fandan [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Cong, Chengcheng [College Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161 (China); Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs.

  2. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun; Lv, Xiaonan; Herrler, Georg; Enjuanes, Luis; Zhou, Xingdong; Qu, Bo; Meng, Fandan; Cong, Chengcheng; Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing

    2015-01-01

    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs

  3. Results of observations of the tritium concentration in water fractions in the disposition regions of tritium laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, G.N.; Kuzmina, A.I.; Kolomiets, N.F.; Svarichevskaya, E.V.; Rogosin, V.N.; Svyatun, O.V.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper results of the long term of control of tritium concentration in the water fractions in the region close to the tritium laboratories of INR NAS of Ukraine are presented. The regular observations for the tritium concentration in the water fractions (thawed water of the snow cover, birch juice and sewer water) in the influence region of tritium laboratories shows small amount of tritium concentration in all kinds of investigated water fractions in comparison with the tritium concentration in the reper points. The proper connection of the levels of tritium concentration of the water samples with the quantity of the technology production is observed. In common, the tritium pollution on the territory of INR shows the tendency for a considerable decrease of the environmental pollution levels from year to year. It can be explained by the perfection of the production technology of tritium structures and targets as well as the rising of the qualification of the personnel. 3 refs., 4 figs

  4. Implementation of the Polarized HD target at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaden Djalali; David Tedeschi

    2007-01-01

    The original goal of this proposal was to study frozen spin polarized targets (HD target and other technologies) and produce a conceptual design report for the implementation of such a target in the HALL B detector of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). During the first two years of the proposal, we came to the conclusion that the best suited target for JLab was a frozen spin target and helped with the design of such a target. We have not only achieved our original goal but have exceeded it by being involved in the actual building and testing of parts the target. The main reason for this success has been the hiring of a senior research associate, Dr. Oleksandr Dzyubak, who had more than 10 years of experience in the field of frozen spin polarized targets. The current grant has allowed the USC nuclear physics group to strengthen its role in the JLab collaboration and make important contribution to both the detector development and the scientific program

  5. Influence of laser-target interaction on the polarization of a CO2-laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, K.; Herziger, G.; Loosen, P.; Seelig, W.

    1988-01-01

    Laser materials processing shows a special peculiarity compared to other customary techniques: the generally reflecting target introduces optical feedback into the system. This feedback changes the mode properties of the laser radiation according to the targets dynamics. The authors report on one of these aspects of laser-target interaction resulting in the change of the polarization of the incident light. Based of rate equations, a theoretical model is presented in this paper that allows the calculation of this change with respect of the target properties, yielding a simple relation for the two orthogonal planes of polarization of a laser mode. This relation turns out to be linearly dependent of a function ψ (t) which describes the optical feedback. The relation holds for target reflexions of up to 10% and four times larger than τ 2 x τ 2 /τ 1 - τ 2 (where τ 1 , τ 2 are the time constants of the passive resonator for the two orthogonal planes of polarization). The model offers a method for the modulation for the modulation of laser radiation without change of frequency or intensity. It might also be of interest for high-power CO 2 laser cutting and welding of metals

  6. Initial research of np scattering with polarized deuterium target at ANKE/COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Boxing [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73000 Lanzhou (China); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    With the goal of understanding the nuclear forces, the ANKE collaboration has been working on a systematic NN spin program for many years. Due to the lack of free neutron sources experimental data of np scattering are very rare, especially at higher energies. It has been shown that using phase shift analysis (PSA) it is possible to reconstruct np scattering amplitudes from the spin observables of pd → {pp}{sub {sup 1}S{sub 0}}n charge-exchange reaction. So far experiments were conducted using polarized deuteron beams and hydrogen target, which led to valuable results. To extend the research up to the highest nucleon energy available at COSY (2.8 GeV), proton beam and polarized deuterium target will be used. This talk presents the results of the commissioning experiment of a deuterium target at ANKE with emphasis on the initial research of charge-exchange reaction.

  7. Irradiation cryostat for LiH and LiD polarized solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertz, S.

    1991-01-01

    Scattering experiments with polarized nucleon targets are an important tool to understand the nuclear spin structure. Pion photoproduction experiments on polarized protrons and neutrons as well as measurements of the neutron and deuteron formfactors will be performed at ELSA. 7 LiH and 6 LiD seem to be attractive target materials for these experiments, because they offer high proton and deuteron polarisation, respectively. Expecially 6 LiD has further very important advantages compared to the common deuteron target materials as d-Butanol and ND 3 . This work describes the mechanism of DNP (Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) in LiH and LiD and gives a view on the nature of the so-called paramagnetic impurities in these materials. In order to maximize the nuclear polarization, the production of these radicals have to take place under well defined temperature conditions. Therefore the first version of an irradiation cryostat was built and tested in regard to its cooling power and temperature adjustment. (orig.)

  8. The polarized atomic-beam target for the EDDA experiment and the time-reversal invariance test at COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eversheim, P.D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.

    1996-01-01

    For the the EDDA experiment, which was set up to measure the p-vector - p-vector excitation function during the acceleration ramp of the cooler synchrotron COSY at Juelich, a polarized atomic-beam target was designed regarding the restrictions imposed by the geometry of the EDDA detector. Later, when the time-reversal invariance experiment is to be performed, the EDDA detector will serve as efficient internal polarimeter and the source has to deliver tensor polarized deuterons. The modular design of this polarized atomic-beam target that allows to meet these conditions are discussed in comparison to other existing polarized atomic-beam targets. (orig.)

  9. The polarized atomic-beam target for the EDDA experiment and the time-reversal invariance test at COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversheim, P. D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.

    1997-02-01

    For the the EDDA experiment, which was set up to measure the p¯-p¯ excitation function during the acceleration ramp of the cooler synchrotron COSY at Jülich, a polarized atomic-beam target was designed regarding the restrictions imposed by the geometry of the EDDA detector. Later, when the time-reversal invariance experiment is to be performed, the EDDA detector will serve as efficient internal polarimeter and the source has to deliver tensor polarized deuterons. The modular design of this polarized atomic-beam target that allows to meet these conditions will be discussed in comparison to other existing polarized atomic-beam targets.

  10. Magmatic tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I.; McMurtry, G.M.; Shevenell, L.; Pettit, D.R.; Stimac, J.A.; Werner, C.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ( 3 H) of deep origin ( 2 O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable 3 H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics

  11. NMR parallel Q-meter with double-balanced-mixer detection for polarized target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissevain, J.; Tippens, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    A constant-voltage, parallel-tuned nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) circuit, patterned after a Liverpool design, has been developed for polarized target experiments. Measuring the admittance of the resonance circuit allows advantageous use of double-balanced mixer detection. The resonant circuit is tolerant of stray capacitance between the NMR coil and the target cavity, thus easing target-cell-design constraints. The reference leg of the circuit includes a voltage-controlled attenuator and phase shifter for ease of tuning. The NMR output features a flat background and has good linearity and stability

  12. MEASUREMENT OF POLARIZATION OBSERVABLES IN VECTOR MESON PHOTOPRODUCTION USING A TRANSVERSELY-POLARIZED FROZEN-SPIN TARGET AND POLARIZED PHOTONS AT CLAS, JEFFERSON LAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Priyashree [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The study of baryon resonances provides a deeper understanding of the strong interaction because the dynamics and relevant degrees of freedom hidden within them are re ected by the properties of the excited states of baryons. Higher-lying excited states at and above 1.7 GeV/c2 are generally predicted to have strong couplings to final states involving a heavier meson, e. g. one of the vector mesons, ρ, ω φ, as compared to a lighter pseudoscalar meson, e. g. π and η. Decays to the ππΝ final states via πΔ also become more important through the population of intermediate resonances. We observe that nature invests in mass rather than momentum. The excited states of the nucleon are usually found as broadly overlapping resonances which may decay into a multitude of final states involving mesons and baryons. Polarization observables make it possible to isolate single resonance contributions from other interference terms. The CLAS g9 (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Je?erson Laboratory, accumulated photoproduction data using circularly- & linearly-polarized photons incident on a transversely-polarized butanol target (g9b experiment) in the photon energy range 0:3-2:4 GeV & 0:7-2:1 GeV, respectively. In this work, the analysis of reactions and polarization observables which involve two charged pions, either in the fully exclusive reaction γρ -> ρπ+π- or in the semi-exclusive reaction with a missing neutral pion, γρ -> ρπ+π-(π0) will be presented. For the reaction ρπ+π-, eight polarization observables (Is, Ic, Px, Py, Psx; y, Pcx; y) have been extracted. The high statistics data rendered it possible to extract these observables in three dimensions. All of them are first-time measurements. The fairly good agreement of Is, Ic obtained from this analysis with the experimental results from a previous CLAS experiment provides support for the first-time measurements. For the reaction γρ -> ρω -> ρπ+π(π0, five polarization

  13. Target and double spin asymmetries of deeply virtual π0 production with a longitudinally polarized proton target and CLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The target and double spin asymmetries of the exclusive pseudoscalar channel e→p→→epπ0 were measured for the first time in the deep-inelastic regime using a longitudinally polarized 5.9 GeV electron beam and a longitudinally polarized proton target at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS. The data were collected over a large kinematic phase space and divided into 110 four-dimensional bins of Q2, xB, −t and ϕ. Large values of asymmetry moments clearly indicate a substantial contribution to the polarized structure functions from transverse virtual photon amplitudes. The interpretation of experimental data in terms of generalized parton distributions (GPDs provides the first insight on the chiral-odd GPDs H˜T and ET, and complement previous measurements of unpolarized structure functions sensitive to the GPDs HT and E¯T. These data provide a crucial input for parametrizations of essentially unknown chiral-odd GPDs and will strongly influence existing theoretical calculations based on the handbag formalism.

  14. Target and double spin asymmetries of deeply virtual π 0 production with a longitudinally polarized proton target and CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.; Avakian, H.; Burkert, V.; Joo, K.; Kim, W.; Adhikari, K. P.; Akbar, Z.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Badui, R. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Chetry, T.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Djalali, C.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garc con, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niccolai, S.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Torayev, B.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.

    2017-05-01

    The target and double spin asymmetries of the exclusive pseudoscalar channel e→p→→epπ0 were measured for the first time in the deep-inelastic regime using a longitudinally polarized 5.9 GeV electron beam and a longitudinally polarized proton target at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The data were collected over a large kinematic phase space and divided into 110 four-dimensional bins of Q2, xB, -t and Φ. Large values of asymmetry moments clearly indicate a substantial contribution to the polarized structure functions from transverse virtual photon amplitudes. The interpretation of experimental data in terms of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) provides the first insight on the chiral-odd GPDs H˜T and ET, and complement previous measurements of unpolarized structure functions sensitive to the GPDs HT and E¯T. These data provide a crucial input for parametrizations of essentially unknown chiral-odd GPDs and will strongly influence existing theoretical calculations based on the handbag formalism.

  15. Target and double spin asymmetries of deeply virtual π0 production with a longitudinally polarized proton target and CLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A.; Avakian, H.; Burkert, V.; Joo, K.; Kim, W.; Adhikari, K. P.; Akbar, Z.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Badui, R. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Chetry, T.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Djalali, C.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garc con, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niccolai, S.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Torayev, B.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.

    2017-05-01

    The target and double spin asymmetries of the exclusive pseudoscalar channel e → p → → epπ0 were measured for the first time in the deep-inelastic regime using a longitudinally polarized 5.9 GeV electron beam and a longitudinally polarized proton target at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The data were collected over a large kinematic phase space and divided into 110 four-dimensional bins of Q2, xB, -t and ϕ. Large values of asymmetry moments clearly indicate a substantial contribution to the polarized structure functions from transverse virtual photon amplitudes. The interpretation of experimental data in terms of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) provides the first insight on the chiral-odd GPDs H˜T and ET, and complement previous measurements of unpolarized structure functions sensitive to the GPDs HT and EbarT. These data provide a crucial input for parametrizations of essentially unknown chiral-odd GPDs and will strongly influence existing theoretical calculations based on the handbag formalism.

  16. Transverse polarization of Σ+(1189) in photoproduction on a hydrogen target in CLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepali, C. S.; Amaryan, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Fassi, L. El; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fleming, J. A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Glazier, D. I.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kvaltine, N. D.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Torayev, B.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2013-04-01

    Experimental results on the Σ+(1189) hyperon transverse polarization in photoproduction on a hydrogen target using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory are presented. The Σ+(1189) was reconstructed in the exclusive reaction γ+p→KS0+Σ+(1189) via the Σ+→pπ0 decay mode. The KS0 was reconstructed in the invariant mass of two oppositely charged pions with the π0 identified in the missing mass of the detected pπ+π- final state. Experimental data were collected in the photon energy range Eγ=1.0-3.5 GeV (s range 1.66-2.73 GeV). We observe a large negative polarization of up to 95%. As the mechanism of transverse polarization of hyperons produced in unpolarized photoproduction experiments is still not well understood, these results will help to distinguish between different theoretical models on hyperon production and provide valuable information for the searches of missing baryon resonances.

  17. Recent progress in the development of a polarized proton target for reactions with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrego-Blanco, J.P.; Bingham, C.R.; Brandt, B. van den; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Schmelzbach, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Polarization observables in nuclear reactions with stable beams have provided important information concerning structural properties of nuclei and reaction mechanisms and hold great promise in the context of exotic nuclei. We report on the development of a polarized target based on plastic foils of 20-200 μm thickness to be used with radioactive ion beams. The operation of such a target requires a moderately high magnetic field and very low temperatures. The plastic foil is placed inside a chamber attached to the mixing chamber of a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator. Cooling of the foil is achieved via a superfluid film of 4 He that can be supplied through two capillaries. The chamber has two thin, highly uniform silicon nitride windows. An NMR coil is attached to the target to monitor the polarization. Results of a first test to characterize the target system, using the elastic scattering of 38 MeV 12 C by protons in inverse kinematics are presented

  18. Tritium dosimetry and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    Actual problem of radiation hygiene such as an evaluation of human irradiation hazard due to a contact with tritium compounds both in industrial and public spheres is under discussion. Sources of tritium release to environment are characterized. Methods of tritium radiation monitoring are discussed. Methods of dosimetry of internal human exposure resulted from tritium compounds are developed on the base of modern representations on metbolism and tritium radiobiological effect. A system of standardization of permissible intake of tritium compounds for personnel and persons of population is grounded. Some protection measures are proposed as applied to tritium overdosage

  19. The control system of the polarized internal target of ANKE at COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleines, H. [Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Sarkadi, J. [Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Zwoll, K. [Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Engels, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Grigoryev, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Mikirtychyants, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Nekipelov, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Rathmann, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Seyfarth, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: h.seyfarth@fz-juelich.de; Kravtsov, P. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Vasilyev, A. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-10

    The polarized internal target for the ANKE experiment at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Juelich utilizes a polarized atomic beam source to feed a storage cell with polarized hydrogen or deuterium atoms. The nuclear polarization is measured with a Lamb-shift polarimeter. For common control of the two systems, industrial equipment was selected providing reliable, long-term support and remote control of the target as well as measurement and optimization of its operating parameters. The interlock system has been implemented on the basis of SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-300 family of programmable logic controllers. In order to unify the interfacing to the control computer, all front-end equipment is connected via the PROFIBUS DP fieldbus. The process control software was implemented using the Windows-based WinCC toolkit from SIEMENS. The variety of components, to be controlled, and the logical structure of the control and interlock system are described. Finally, a number of applications derived from the present development to other, new installations are briefly mentioned.

  20. The control system of the polarized internal target of ANKE at COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleines, H.; Sarkadi, J.; Zwoll, K.; Engels, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Rathmann, F.; Seyfarth, H.; Kravtsov, P.; Vasilyev, A.

    2006-05-01

    The polarized internal target for the ANKE experiment at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Jülich utilizes a polarized atomic beam source to feed a storage cell with polarized hydrogen or deuterium atoms. The nuclear polarization is measured with a Lamb-shift polarimeter. For common control of the two systems, industrial equipment was selected providing reliable, long-term support and remote control of the target as well as measurement and optimization of its operating parameters. The interlock system has been implemented on the basis of SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-300 family of programmable logic controllers. In order to unify the interfacing to the control computer, all front-end equipment is connected via the PROFIBUS DP fieldbus. The process control software was implemented using the Windows-based WinCC toolkit from SIEMENS. The variety of components, to be controlled, and the logical structure of the control and interlock system are described. Finally, a number of applications derived from the present development to other, new installations are briefly mentioned.

  1. Photoproduction of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.A.; Anderson, J.D.; Weiss, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    3 H (Tritium) is required for maintenance of nuclear weapons in the stockpile. The National Defense need for 3 H was historically met by the Savannah River Facility. This facility is no longer safe for operation. 3 H decays with a mean lifetime τ = 17.8 y, and therefore new methods of 3 H production are required to meet US military requirements. Irradiation of 7 Li by low-energy photons produces tritium ( 3 H) via the photodisintegration process. Waste heat from the 7 Li target can be extracted and used for the direct generation of electricity. Other advantages include: negligible residual radioactivity, simple target technology, small low-energy electron accelerators for bremsstrahlung production (the photon source), developed liquid metal technology, modularity, simple extraction of 3 H from a recirculating 7 Li target, abundant supply of 7 Li, and straightforward target-accelerator-bremsstrahlung converter interface. A schematic plant characterized by very low risk is described, and a figure-of-merit is obtained

  2. Tritium accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, R.; Spannagel, G.

    1995-01-01

    Conventional accountancy means that for a given material balance area and a given interval of time the tritium balance is established so that at the end of that interval of time the book inventory is compared with the measured inventory. In this way, an optimal effectiveness of accountancy is achieved. However, there are still further objectives of accountancy, namely the timely detection of anomalies as well as the localization of anomalies in a major system. It can be shown that each of these objectives can be optimized only at the expense of the others. Recently, Near-Real-Time Accountancy procedures have been studied; their methodological background as well as their merits will be discussed. (orig.)

  3. Radiative electron rearrangement and polarization in target K x-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two topics in the atomic physics of ion-atom collisions are studied. The first is an investigation of a free-atom decay process that is shown to be a two-electron one-photon decay. This two-electron decay requires an initial state with multiple inner-shell vacancies that has a high probability of creation in ion-atom collisions. Because this decay promotes one electron to a higher shell while allowing the other to fall to a lower shell, it is referred to as radiative electron rearrangement (RER). The investigation of this process includes the experimental study of the x-ray spectra region approx. 150 eV below the characteristic Kα 1 2 target radiation in third period elements when bombarded by various ion beams in the energy range 1 to 2 MeV/amu. Theoretical calculations of the transition energies, line strengths, and line widths are performed to verify the origin of the RER lines. The second topic of consideration is the study of the polarization of Kα satellite radiation from targets of Al and Si. It is shown that the polarization, which is observed experimentally with a curved-crystal polarimeter, is due to the nonstatistical population of the magnetic substates created in specific ion-atom collisions. Further, the polarization of the RER lines is studied. The connection between the polarization of the normal Kα satellite radiation and the polarization of the RER lines adds final proof to their origin as two-electron one-photon transitions

  4. A polarized hydrogen/deuterium atomic beam source for internal target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerba, D.; Buuren, L.D. van; Brand, J.F.J. van den; Bulten, H.J.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Klous, S.; Kolster, H.; Lang, J.; Mul, F.; Poolman, H.R.; Simani, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    A high-brightness hydrogen/deuterium atomic beam source is presented. The apparatus, previously used in electron scattering experiments with tensor-polarized deuterium (Ferro-Luzzi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 2630; van den Brand et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 1235; Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1998) 687; Bouwhuis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 3755), was configured as a source for internal target experiments to measure single- and double-polarization observables, with either polarized hydrogen or vector/tensor polarized deuterium. The atomic beam intensity was enhanced by a factor of ∼2.5 by optimizing the Stern-Gerlach focusing system using high tip-field (∼1.5 T) rare-earth permanent magnets, and by increasing the pumping speed in the beam-formation chamber. Fluxes of (5.9±0.2)x10 16 1 H/s were measured in a diameter 12 mmx122 mm compression tube with its entrance at a distance of 27 cm from the last focusing element. The total output flux amounted to (7.6±0.2)x10 16 1 H/s

  5. A Gamma Polarimeter for Neutron Polarization Measurement in a Liquid Deuterium Target for Parity Violation in Polarized Neutron Capture on Deuterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, A; Sint, A K; Bowers, M; Snow, M

    2005-01-01

    A measurement of the parity-violating gamma asymmetry in n-D capture would yield information on N-N parity violation independent of the n-p system. Since cold neutrons will depolarize in a liquid deuterium target in which the scattering cross section is much larger than the absorption cross section, it will be necessary to quantify the loss of polarization before capture. One way to do this is to use the large circular polarization of the gamma from n-D capture and analyze the circular polarization of the gamma in a gamma polarimeter. We describe the design of this polarimeter.

  6. A split-target technique in determining the dE/dX of 1.0-5.0 MeV tritium in A1, Ni and Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labor, M.I.W.

    1986-06-01

    The energy loss of 1.0 to 5.0 MeV tritium in aluminium, nickel and gold have been measured by a split-target technique. The data have been analysed by integrating an analytical expression for the variation of dE/dX with energy. The results are compared with semi-empirical calculations and with previously determined values. (author)

  7. Tritium Management Loop Design Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jordan D. [ORNL; Felde, David K. [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Greenwood, Michael Scott [ORNL; Qualls, A L. [ORNL; Calderoni, Pattrick [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2017-12-01

    This report summarizes physical, chemical, and engineering analyses that have been done to support the development of a test loop to study tritium migration in 2LiF-BeF2 salts. The loop will operate under turbulent flow and a schematic of the apparatus has been used to develop a model in Mathcad to suggest flow parameters that should be targeted in loop operation. The introduction of tritium into the loop has been discussed as well as various means to capture or divert the tritium from egress through a test assembly. Permeation was calculated starting with a Modelica model for a transport through a nickel window into a vacuum, and modifying it for a FLiBe system with an argon sweep gas on the downstream side of the permeation interface. Results suggest that tritium removal with a simple tubular permeation device will occur readily. Although this system is idealized, it suggests that rapid measurement capability in the loop may be necessary to study and understand tritium removal from the system.

  8. Effect of Beam Scanning on Target Polarization Scattering Matrix Observed by Fully Polarimetric Phased-array Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mianquan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The polarization feature of a fully Polarimetric Phased-Array Radar (PPAR antenna varies according to the beam-scanning angle, thereby introducing two problems on the target Polarization Scattering Matrix (PSM measurement. First, the antenna polarization basis is defined within the vertical cross-section of an electromagnetic wave propagation direction, and the polarization basis of each beam direction angle is not identical, resulting in the PSM of a fixed-posture target observed by PPAR being not identical for different beam-scanning angles. Second, the cross polarization of the PPAR antenna increases with increasing beamscanning angle, resulting in a crosstalk among the elements of PSM observed by PPAR. This study focuses on the analysis of the abovementioned two aspects of the effect of beam scanning on target PSM observed by PPAR. The results will establish a more accurate observation of the equation for the precision PSM measurement of PPAR.

  9. Laser - Polarized HE-3 Target Used for a Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romalis, M

    2003-11-05

    This thesis describes a precision measurement of the deep inelastic neutron spin structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}(x). The main motivation for the experiment is a test of the Bjorken sum rule. Because of smaller statistical errors and broader kinematic coverage than in previous experiments, we are able to study in detail the behavior of the spin structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) for low values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. We find that it has a strongly divergent behavior, in contradiction to the naive predictions of the Regge theory. This calls into question the methods commonly used for extrapolation of g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) to x = 0. The difference between the proton and the neutron spin structure functions is less divergent at low x, so a test of the Bjorken sum rule is possible. We confirm the sum rule with an accuracy of 8%. The experiment was performed at SLAC using a 50 GeV polarized electron beam and a polarized {sup 3}He target. In this thesis the polarized target is described in detail. We used the technique of Rb optical pumping and Rb-He spin exchange to polarize the {sup 3}He. Because of a novel mechanical design our target had the smallest dilution ever achieved for a high density gas target. Since this is a precision measurement, particular efforts were made to reduce the systematic errors due to the uncertainty in the target parameters. Most important parameters were measured by more than one method. We implemented novel techniques for measuring the thickness of the glass windows of the target, the {sup 3}He density, and the polarization. In particular, one of the methods for measuring the gas density relied on the broadening of the Rb optical absorption lines by collisions with {sup 3}He atoms. The calibration of this technique resulted in the most precise measurements of the pressure broadening parameters for {sup 3}He as well as several other gases, which are described in an Appendix. The polarization of the {sup 3}He was also measured by

  10. STAR facility tritium accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawelko, R. J.; Sharpe, J. P.; Denny, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has been established to provide a laboratory infrastructure for the fusion community to study tritium science associated with the development of safe fusion energy and other technologies. STAR is a radiological facility with an administrative total tritium inventory limit of 1.5 g (14,429 Ci) [1]. Research studies with moderate tritium quantities and various radionuclides are performed in STAR. Successful operation of the STAR facility requires the ability to receive, inventory, store, dispense tritium to experiments, and to dispose of tritiated waste while accurately monitoring the tritium inventory in the facility. This paper describes tritium accountancy in the STAR facility. A primary accountancy instrument is the tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS): a system designed to receive, assay, store, and dispense tritium to experiments. Presented are the methods used to calibrate and operate the SAS. Accountancy processes utilizing the Tritium Cleanup System (TCS), and the Stack Tritium Monitoring System (STMS) are also discussed. Also presented are the equations used to quantify the amount of tritium being received into the facility, transferred to experiments, and removed from the facility. Finally, the STAR tritium accountability database is discussed. (authors)

  11. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Charles A.; Parker, John J.; Guttadora, Gregory L.; Ciebiera, Lloyd P.

    2002-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system

  12. Tritium activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian tritium activites comprise three major interests: utilites, light manufacturers, and fusion. There are 21 operating CANDU reactors in Canada; 19 with Ontario Hydro and one each with Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power. There are two light manufacturers, two primary tritium research facilities (at AECL Chalk River and Ontario Hydro Technologies), and a number of industry and universities involved in design, construction, and general support of the other tritium activities. The largest tritum program is in support of the CANDU reactors, which generate tritium in the heavy water as a by-product of normal operation. Currently, there are about 12 kg of tritium locked up in the heavy water coolant and moderator of these reactors. The fusion work is complementary to the light manufacturing, and is concerned with tritium handling for the ITER program. This included design, development and application of technologies related to Isotope Separation, tritium handling, (tritiated) gas separation, tritium-materials interaction, and plasma fueling

  13. One of the polarized targets that was developed for the S134 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The target is polarized dynamically as usual in a 25 kg homogeneous magnetic field. It is then cooled to some 50 millidegrees and moved into the large gap of the ETH spectrometer magnet, where the field is 10 kg, with a poorer homogeneity. It stands in front of the beam, in the centre of the detection system, for studying all the spin parameters in the reaction pi-p - K0LAMBDA0 at 5 GeV/c, with an available solid angle of nearly 4 p.

  14. Bounds on Time Reversal Violation From Polarized Neutron Capture With Unpolarized Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E D; Gould, C R; Mitchell, G E; Sharapov, E I

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed constraints on parity-odd time-reversal noninvariant interactions derived from measurements of the energy dependence of parity-violating polarized neutron capture on unpolarized targets. As previous authors found, a perturbation in energy dependence due to a parity (P)-odd time (T)-odd interaction is present. However, the perturbation competes with T-even terms which can obscure the T-odd signature. We estimate the magnitudes of these competing terms and suggest strategies for a practicable experiment.

  15. The Tritium White Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of the activities of two work-groups between May 2008 and April 2010. It reports the ASN's (the French Agency for Nuclear Safety) point of view, describes its activities and actions, and gives some recommendations. It gives a large and detailed overview of the knowledge status on tritium: tritium source inventory, tritium origin, management processes, capture techniques, reduction, tritium metrology, impact on the environment, impacts on human beings

  16. Hadron-pair production on transversely polarized targets in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Christopher

    2014-07-29

    Nucleons such as protons and neutrons are composite objects made of quarks, which are bound together by the strong force via the exchange of gluons. The probability of finding a quark of flavor q carrying the momentum fraction x of the fast moving parent nucleon is described by a parton distribution function (PDF) f{sub 1}{sup q}(x), the number density. The spin, an intrinsic angular momentum of elementary particles such as quarks but also of composite objects like nucleons, couples with magnetic fields, which allows one to align it. Taking into account this additional parameter, the spin, the scheme of PDFs in leading twist is expanded by the helicity distribution g{sub 1}{sup q}(x) and the transversity distribution h{sub 1}{sup q}(x). The first distribution covers the case where the nucleon and the quark are longitudinally polarized, while a transverse polarization is taken into account by the latter. A tool for the investigation of the PDFs is inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of electro-magnetic probes off (un)polarized nucleons at fixed-target experiments. This only gives access to f{sub 1}{sup q}(x) and g{sub 1}{sup q}(x), while the chiral-odd nature of the transversity distribution prevents a measurement without detecting the final hadronic states. However, h{sub 1}{sup q}(x) can be observed in semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS) in combination with another chiral-odd function like the dihadron fragmentation function H{sub 1} {sup angle} {sup q} in the production of a hadron-pair. The resulting experimental challenge is the reason why f{sub 1}{sup q}(x) and g{sub 1}{sup q}(x) have been investigated for almost four decades, while h{sub 1}{sup q}(x) is still subject to recent measurements and analyses. The 160 GeV/c polarized muon beam of CERN's M2 beamline allows the COMPASS experiment to investigate spin effects using polarized solid-state targets. Since the year 2002 COMPASS has collected unique data sets on transversely polarized targets of lithium

  17. ZEPHYR tritium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansiger, W.; Andelfinger, C.; Buchelt, E.; Fink, J.; Sandmann, W.; Stimmelmayr, A.; Wegmann, H.G.; Weichselgartner, H.

    1982-04-01

    The ignition experiment ZEPHYR will need tritium as an essential component of the fuel. The ZEPHYR Tritium Systems are designed as to recycle the fuel directly at the experiment. An amount of tritium, which is significantly below the total throughput, for example 10 5 Ci will be stored in uranium getters and introduced into the torus by a specially designed injection system. The torus vacuum system operates with tritium-tight turbomolecular pumps and multi-stage roots pumps in order to extract and store the spent fuel in intermediate storage tanks at atmospheric pressure. A second high vacuum system, similar in design, serves as to evacuate the huge containments of the neutral injection system. The spent fuel will be purified and subsequently processed by an isotope separation system in which the species D 2 , DT and T 2 will be recovered for further use. This isotope separation will be achieved by a preparative gaschromatographic process. All components of the tritium systems will be installed within gloveboxes which are located in a special tritium handling room. The atmospheres of the gloveboxes and of the tritium rooms are controlled by a tritium monitor system. In the case of a tritium release - during normal operation as well as during an accident - these atmospheres become processed by efficient tritium absorption systems. All ZEPHYR tritium handling systems are designed as to minimize the quantity of tritium released to the environment, so that the stringent German laws on radiological protection are satisfied. (orig.)

  18. TFTR tritium handling concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, to be located on the Princeton Forrestal Campus, is expected to operate with 1 to 2.5 MA tritium--deuterium plasmas, with the pulses involving injection of 50 to 150 Ci (5 to 16 mg) of tritium. Attainment of fusion conditions is based on generation of an approximately 1 keV tritium plasma by ohmic heating and conversion to a moderately hot tritium--deuterium ion plasma by injection of a ''preheating'' deuterium neutral beam (40 to 80 keV), followed by injection of a ''reacting'' beam of high energy neutral deuterium (120 to 150 keV). Additionally, compressions accompany the beam injections. Environmental, safety and cost considerations led to the decision to limit the amount of tritium gas on-site to that required for an experiment, maintaining all other tritium in ''solidified'' form. The form of the tritium supply is as uranium tritide, while the spent tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are getter-trapped by zirconium--aluminum alloy. The issues treated include: (1) design concepts for the tritium generator and its purification, dispensing, replenishment, containment, and containment--cleanup systems; (2) features of the spent plasma trapping system, particularly the regenerable absorption cartridges, their integration into the vacuum system, and the handling of non-getterables; (3) tritium permeation through the equipment and the anticipated releases to the environment; (4) overview of the tritium related ventilation systems; and (5) design bases for the facility's tritium clean-up systems

  19. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Laser polarization dependence of proton emission from a thin foil target irradiated by a 70 fs, intense laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumi, A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Daido, H.; Li, Z.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Orimo, S.; Kado, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, M.; Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T.; Nemoto, K.; Oishi, Y.; Nayuki, T.; Fujii, T.; Noda, A.; Nakamura, S.

    2005-01-01

    A study of proton emission from a 3-μm-thick Ta foil target irradiated by p-, s-, and circularly polarized laser pulses with respect to the target plane has been carried out. Protons with energies up to 880 keV were observed in the target normal direction under the irradiation by the p-polarized laser pulse, which yielded the highest efficiency for proton emission. In contrast, s- and circularly polarized laser pulses gave the maximum energies of 610 and 680 keV, respectively. The difference in the maximum energy between the p- and s-polarized cases was associated with the difference between the sheath fields estimated from electron spectra

  1. What should be measured in deuteron breakup with polarized proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strokovskij, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    At present, two different approaches are used for interpretation of inclusive data on deuteron breakup with emission of protons-fragments at zero degree by hadrons. According to one of them the observed characteristics of this reaction (cross sections, polarization observables) are determined by the reaction mechanism and the deuteron structure at short distances (in the commonly accepted sense) plays a minor role. According to the other approach it is the deuteron structure at short distances which determines the observed trend of the data. Neither of these approaches can describe the data even qualitatively in the whole investigated region of kinematical variables, having particular success for some narrow region corresponding to long distances. Installation of the polarized proton target at LHE (Laboratory of High Energies) JINR opens an opportunity to perform a rather simple experiment which could discriminate one of these completing approaches. The idea of this experiment is discussed in the present paper. Measurement of the observable suggested here is a particular example of a general problem of a search for spin correlations in inelastic reactions between particles separated well in 4-velocity or rapidity spaces. In our particular case correlations of spin degrees of freedom between particles, one of which is in the target fragmentation region and the other belongs to the projectile fragmentation region, are discussed. 10 refs., 1 fig

  2. Management of Tritium in European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ene, Daniela; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    with the country regulation criteria. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the different aspects of the tritium management in ESS facility. Besides the design parameter study of the helium coolant purification system of the target the consequences of the tritium releasing into the environment were also...... of the results on soil examinations. With the assumption of 100% release of tritium to the atmosphere during the occurring of the extreme accidents, it was found as well that the total dose complies with the constraint....

  3. Tritium conference days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Sene, M.; Devin, P.; Chretien, V.; Le Guen, B.; Guetat, Ph.; Baglan, N.; Ansoborlo, E.; Boyer, C.; Masson, M.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Jenkinson, St.; Wakeford, R.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Thompson, P.; Leterq, D.; Chastagner, F.; Cortes, P.; Philippe, M.; Paquet, F.; Fournier, M.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Twenty presentations out of 21 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - tritium in the environment (J. Garnier-Laplace); 2 - status of knowledge about tritium impact on health (L. Lebaron-Jacobs); 3 - tritium, discrete but present everywhere (M. Sene); 4 - management of tritium effluents from Areva NC La Hague site - related impact and monitoring (P. Devin); 5 - tritium effluents and impact in the vicinity of EDF's power plants (V. Chretien and B. Le Guen); 6 - contribution of CEA-Valduc centre monitoring to the knowledge of atmospheric tritiated water transfers to the different compartments of the environment (P. Guetat); 7 - tritium analysis in environment samples: constraints and means (N. Baglan); 8 - organically-linked tritium: the analyst view (E. Ansoborlo); 9 - study of tritium transfers to plants via OBT/HTO air and OBT/HTO free (C. Boyer); 10 - tritium in the British Channel (M. Masson and P. Bailly-Du-Bois); 11 - tritium in British coastal waters (S. Jenkinson); 12 - recent results from epidemiology (R. Wakeford); 13 - effects of tritiated thymidine on hematopoietic stem cells (P.H. Romeo); 14 - tritium management issue in Canada: the point of view from authorities (P. Thompson); 15 - experience feedback of the detritiation process of Valduc centre (D. Leterq); 16 - difficulties linked with tritiated wastes confinement (F. Chastagner); 17 - optimisation of tritium management in the ITER project (P. Cortes); 18 - elements of thought about the management of tritium generated by nuclear facilities (M. Philippe); 19 - CIPR's position about the calculation of doses and risks linked with tritium exposure (F. Paquet); 20 - tritium think tanks (M. Fournier). (J.S.)

  4. PDRD (SR13046) TRITIUM PRODUCTION FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.; Sheetz, S.

    2013-09-30

    Utilizing the results of Texas A&M University (TAMU) senior design projects on tritium production in four different small modular reactors (SMR), the Savannah River National Laboratory’s (SRNL) developed an optimization model evaluating tritium production versus uranium utilization under a FY2013 plant directed research development (PDRD) project. The model is a tool that can evaluate varying scenarios and various reactor designs to maximize the production of tritium per unit of unobligated United States (US) origin uranium that is in limited supply. The primary module in the model compares the consumption of uranium for various production reactors against the base case of Watts Bar I running a nominal load of 1,696 tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) with an average refueling of 41,000 kg low enriched uranium (LEU) on an 18 month cycle. After inputting an initial year, starting inventory of unobligated uranium and tritium production forecast, the model will compare and contrast the depletion rate of the LEU between the entered alternatives. This is an annual tritium production rate of approximately 0.059 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU (g-T/kg-LEU). To date, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license has not been amended to accept a full load of TPBARs so the nominal tritium production has not yet been achieved. The alternatives currently loaded into the model include the three light water SMRs evaluated in TAMU senior projects including, mPower, Holtec and NuScale designs. Initial evaluations of tritium production in light water reactor (LWR) based SMRs using optimized loads TPBARs is on the order 0.02-0.06 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU used. The TAMU students also chose to model tritium production in the GE-Hitachi SPRISM, a pooltype sodium fast reactor (SFR) utilizing a modified TPBAR type target. The team was unable to complete their project so no data is available. In order to include results from a fast reactor, the SRNL

  5. Sources of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water

  6. Tritium pellet injector results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, P.W.; Bauer, M.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Deleanu, L.E.; Fehling, D.T.; Milora, S.L.; Whitson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of 3 He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs

  7. Environmental aspects of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quisenberry, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    The potential radiological implications of environmental tritium releases must be determined in order to develop a programme for dealing with the tritium inventory predicted for the nuclear power industry which, though still in its infancy, produces tritium in megacurie quantities annually. Should the development of fusion power generation become a reality, it will create a potential source for large releases of tritium, much of it in the gaseous state. At present about 90% of the tritium produced enters the environment through gaseous and liquid effluents and is deposited in the hydrosphere as tritiated water. Tritium can be assimilated by plants and animals and organically bound, regardless of the exposure pathway. However, there appears to be no concentration factor relative to hydrogen at any level of food chains analysed to date. The body burden, for man, is dependent on the exposure pathway and tissue-bound fractions are primarily the result of organically bound tritium in food. (author)

  8. Electronic device for measuring the polarization parameter in the π-p → π0n charge exchange reaction on a polarized proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehin, S.

    1967-12-01

    An electronic apparatus has been constructed to measure the polarization parameter P 0 (t) in π - p → π 0 n charge exchange scattering at 5.9 GeV/c and 11,2 GeV/c on polarized proton target. This device insures triggering of a heavy plate spark chamber, allowing visualisation of γ rays from the π 0 decays when the associated neutron offers suitable characteristics in direction and energy. The neutron is detected by an array of 32 counters and his energy is measured by a time of flight method. Electronic circuits of this apparatus are described as test and calibration methods used. (author) [fr

  9. Horizontal cryostat for polarized proton targets; Cryostat horizontal pour cibles de protons polarises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubeau, P M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    Continuously fed horizontal cryostat to be used for polarized proton targets; includes: 1 standard storage dewar commercially available; 2 shifting of dewar requiring 10 minutes, without any warming of the target; 3 no conventional nitrogen cooled shield but rather taking advantage of the cold helium vapours evaporated in the transfer line and/or the helium evaporated to cool the polarized crystal; 4 a heat exchanger which reduces by a factor of two the consumption of helium lowering in the same ratio the transfer line and/or the helium evaporated to cool the polarized crystal; 5 regulation of the temperature by means of a needle valve included in the superfluid helium line. This cryostat, used in conjunction with a 1000 l/s pump allows one to maintain at 1.06 deg. K a target, in which is dissipated 1 watt hyper frequency power, with an helium consumption of 40 litres/day (measured directly in the storage dewar). (author) [French] Description d'un cryostat horizontal, a alimentation continue, pour cible de protons polarises, presentant les caracteristiques suivantes: 1 utilisation de vases de stockage de modele commercial; 2 echange de vase en 10 minutes sans rechauffement; 3 absence d'azote liquide remplace par les vapeurs froides de l'helium evapore dans la canalisation de transfert et/ou les vapeurs de l'helium evapore pour refroidir le cristal polarise; 4 utilisation d'un echangeur qui aboutit a reduire de moitie la consommation d'helium, donc la pression d'evaporation, et qui permet, pour une pompe donnee, d'abaisser la temperature de fonctionnement de 0.1 degre environ; 5 reglage de la temperature au moyen d'une vanne a aiguille placee sur le circuit d'helium prerefroidi (superfluide). Ce cryostat, utilise avec une pompe de 1000 l/s permet de maintenir a une temperature de 1.06 deg. K une cible dans laquelle est dissipee une puissance d'hyperfrequence de 1 watt, moyennant une consommation d'helium de 40 litres/jour (mesuree dans le vase de stockage). (auteur)

  10. Issues Associated with Tritium Legacy Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the issues associated with the treatment of legacy materials linked to research into tritium over many years and also of materials used to contain or store tritium. The aim of the work is to recover tritium where practicable, and to leave the residual materials passively safe, either for disposal or for continued storage. A number of materials are currently stored at AWE which either contain tritium or have been used in tritium processing. It is essential that these materials are characterised such that a strategy may be developed for their safe stewardship, and ultimately for their treatment and disposal. Treatment processes for such materials are determined by the application of best practicable means (BPM) studies in accordance with the requirements of the Environment Agency of England and Wales. Clearly, it is necessary to understand the objectives of legacy material treatment / processing and the technical options available before a definitive BPM study is implemented. The majority of tritium legacy materials with which we are concerned originate from the decommissioning of a facility that was operational from the late 1950's through to the late 1990's when, on post-operative clear-out (POCO), the entire removable and transportable tritium inventory was moved to new, purpose built facilities. One of the principle tasks to be undertaken in the new facilities is the treatment of the legacy materials to recover tritium wherever practicable, and render the residual materials passively safe for disposal or continued storage. Where tritium recovery was not reasonably or technically feasible, then a means to assure continued safe storage was to be devised and implemented. The legacy materials are in the following forms: - Uranium beds which may or may not contain adsorbed tritium gas; - Tritium gas stored in containers; - Tritide targets for neutron generation; - Tritides of a broad spectrum of metals manufactured for research / long

  11. Organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabate, S.; Strack, S.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant and animal organisms with tritiated water as a reaction partner are of great importance in this respect. The most important production process, in quantitative terms, is photosynthesis in green plants. The translocation of organically bound tritium from the leaves to edible parts of crop plants should be considered in models of organically bound tritium behavior. Organically bound tritium enters the human body on several pathways, either from the primary producers (vegetable food) or at a higher tropic level (animal food). Animal experiments have shown that the dose due to ingestion of organically bound tritium can be up to twice as high as a comparable intake of tritiated water in gaseous or liquid form. In the environment, organically bound tritium in plants and animals is often found to have higher specific tritium concentrations than tissue water. This is not due to some tritium enrichment effects but to the fact that no equilibrium conditions are reached under natural conditions. 66 refs

  12. Tritium sampling and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.J.; McElroy, R.G.; Surette, R.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Current methods for sampling and measuring tritium are described. Although the basic techniques have not changed significantly over the last 10 y, there have been several notable improvements in tritium measurement instrumentation. The design and quality of commercial ion-chamber-based and gas-flow-proportional-counter-based tritium monitors for tritium-in-air have improved, an indirect result of fusion-related research in the 1980s. For tritium-in-water analysis, commercial low-level liquid scintillation spectrometers capable of detecting tritium-in-water concentrations as low as 0.65 Bq L-1 for counting times of 500 min are available. The most sensitive method for tritium-in-water analysis is still 3He mass spectrometry. Concentrations as low as 0.35 mBq L-1 can be detected with current equipment. Passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers are now being used for workplace monitoring and even in some environmental sampling applications. The reliability, convenience, and low cost of passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers make them attractive options for many monitoring applications. Airflow proportional counters currently under development look promising for measuring tritium-in-air in the presence of high gamma and/or noble gas backgrounds. However, these detectors are currently limited by their poor performance in humidities over 30%. 133 refs

  13. The Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Structure Function Using Polarized HE-3 Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X

    2004-01-05

    Using a 48.6 GeV polarized electron beam scattering off a polarized {sup 3}He target at Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre (SLAC), they measured the neutron spin structure function g{sub 1}{sup n} over kinematic(x) ranging 0.014 < x <0.7 and 1 < Q{sup 2} < 17GeV{sup 2}. The measurement gave the integral result over the neutron spin structure function {integral}{sub 0.014}{sup 0.7} g{sub 1}{sup n}(x)dx = -0.036 {+-} 0.004(stat) {+-} 0.005(syst) at an average Q{sup 2} = 5GeV{sup 2}. Along with the proton results from SLAC E143 experiment (0.03 < x) and SMC experiment (0.014 < x < 0.03), they find the Bjorken sum rule appears to be largely saturated by the data integrated down to x of 0.014. However, they observe relatively large values for g{sub 1}{sup n} at low x. The result calls into question the usual methods (Regge theory) for extrapolating to x = 0 to find the full neutron integral {integral}{sub 0}{sup t} g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) dx, needed for testing the Quark-Parton Model (QMP).

  14. Letter of Intent for a Drell-Yan Experiment with a Polarized Proton Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geesaman, D.; Reimer, P.; Brown, C.; Christian, D.; Diefenthaler, M.; Peng, J.C.; Chang, W.C.; Chen, Y.C.; Sawada, S.; Chang, T.H.; Huang, J.; Jiang, X.; Leitch, M.; Klein, A.; Liu, K.; Liu, M.; McGaughey, P.; Beise, E.; Nakahara, K.; Aidala, C.; Lorenzon, W.; Raymond, R.; Badman, T.; Long, E.; Slifer, K.; Zielinski, R.; Guo, R.S.; Goto, Y.; El Fassi, L.; Myers, K.; Ransome, R.; Tadepalli, A.; Tice, B.; Chen, J.P.; Nakano, K.; Shibata, T.A.; Crabb, D.; Day, D.; Keller, D.; Rondon, O.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the proton is a spin-1/2 particle, but how the constituents (quarks and gluons) assemble to this quantized spin is still a mystery. There is a worldwide effort to map out the individual contributions to the proton spin. It is established that the quark spins contribute around 30%, while the gluon intrinsic angular momentum is still under active investigation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Fully resolving the proton spin puzzle requires information on the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of both quarks and gluons. Recent studies have shown that the so-called transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs) can inform us about the OAM of the partons. One of the most important TMDs, and the main focus of this LOI, is the so-called Sivers function. To summarize, we propose to make the first measurement of the Sivers function of sea quarks, which is expected to be non-zero if the sea quarks contribute orbital angular momentum to the proton spin, as expected from the pion cloud model, which also partially explains the E866 results. Thus, we will be able to deduce whether or not sea quark orbital motion contributes significantly to the proton spin. Specifically, we will determine the contribution from the anti-up quarks, with Bjorken-x in the range of ~ 0.1 to 0.5. Drell-Yan production off a polarized proton target has never been measured, and is complementary to the recently approved (stage-1) experiment E1027 at Fermilab, which will measure the Sivers function of the valence quarks using a polarized proton beam on an unpolarized proton target. If the measured sea quark Sivers function is non-zero, we will also determine its sign.

  15. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  16. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented

  17. Environmental tritium in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)

  18. Tritium monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, J.R.; Buckner, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    As part of their operations, the U.S. Navy is required to store or maintain operational nuclear weapons on ships and at shore facilities. Since these weapons contain tritium, there are safety implications relevant to the exposure of personnel to tritium. This is particularly important for shipboard operations since these types of environments can make low-level tritium detection difficult. Some of these ships have closed systems, which can result in exposure to tritium at levels that are below normally acceptable levels but could still cause radiation doses that are higher than necessary or could hamper ship operations. This report describes the state of the art in commercial tritium detection and monitoring and recommends approaches for low-level tritium monitoring in these environments

  19. Tritium in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this Chapter a review is given of some of the important features of metal tritides as opposed to hydrides and deuterides. After an introduction to the topics of tritium and tritium in metals information will be presented on a variety of metal-tritium systems. Of main interest here are the differences from the classic hydrogen behavior; the so called isotope effect. A second important topic is that of aging effects produced by the accumulation of 3 He in the samples. (orig.)

  20. Tritium sources; Izvori tricijuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glodic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Boreli, F [Elektrotehnicki fakultet, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1993-07-01

    Tritium is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It directly follows the metabolism of water and it can be bound into genetic material, so it is very important to control levels of contamination. In order to define the state of contamination it is necessary to establish 'zero level', i.e. actual global inventory. The importance of tritium contamination monitoring increases with the development of fusion power installations. Different sources of tritium are analyzed and summarized in this paper. (author)

  1. High-pressure tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  2. Measurements of the spin structure of the nucleon using SPHICE: A strongly polarized hydrogen and deuterium ice target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusci, D.; Blecher, M.; Breuer, M.; Caracappa, A.; Commeaux, C.; Didelez, J.; Fan, Q.; Giordano, G.; Hicks, K.; Hoblit, S.; Hoffmann-Rothe, P.; Honig, A.; Kistner, O.C.; Khandaker, M.; Li, Z.; Lucas, M.A.; Matone, G.; Miceli, L.; Preedom, B.M.; Rigney, M.; Sandorfi, A.M.; Schaerf, C.; Thorn, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Frozen-spin HD polarized targets operating between 0.4 and 4K, used with cold-transfer (4K) techniques, provide great configurational flexibility. Their long depolarization times under target usage conditions assure reasonable match between polarization production and usage times, for weakly ionizing beam fluxes, and the very long relaxation times at fields above 7T (∼1 yr.) provide an economical storage mode and open-quote open-quote off-the-shelf close-quote close-quote availability. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  3. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  4. Analysis and speciation of the tritium in environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchetta, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with environmental monitoring. The main aims are (i) the optimisation of the analytical procedure for the tritium in organic form determination, and (ii) the identification of the tritium bearing molecules which are responsible for its transfer from the environment to man. The study was divided into three stages. First an analytical method was developed to determine hydrogen content of several samples, which is a key element to calculate accurate organically bound tritium activities. Secondly, the impact of the organically bound tritium fractions separation (labile exchange) for the determination of the representative fraction of the level of environmental tritium activity was then evaluated. For that, the amount of solubilised sample was estimated. Finally, the speciation of tritium in environmental samples was investigated. Several molecules classes and organic compounds dissolved in the labile exchanges solvent were identified. The results show that the distribution of tritium in organisms depends on both properties of the chemical bond in which it is involved and chemical properties of tritium bearing molecules. The identified compounds belong to the molecules classes such as carbohydrates or amino acids, constitutive of living organisms. It would now be of interest to study the tritium distribution in an environmental sample to target molecules of interest and study the impact of tritium from the environment to man. (author) [fr

  5. Effect of H-wave polarization on laser radar detection of partially convex targets in random media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ocla, Hosam

    2010-07-01

    A study on the performance of laser radar cross section (LRCS) of conducting targets with large sizes is investigated numerically in free space and random media. The LRCS is calculated using a boundary value method with beam wave incidence and H-wave polarization. Considered are those elements that contribute to the LRCS problem including random medium strength, target configuration, and beam width. The effect of the creeping waves, stimulated by H-polarization, on the LRCS behavior is manifested. Targets taking large sizes of up to five wavelengths are sufficiently larger than the beam width and are sufficient for considering fairly complex targets. Scatterers are assumed to have analytical partially convex contours with inflection points.

  6. Near infrared spectral polarization imaging of prostate cancer tissues using Cybesin: a receptor-targeted contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Wang, W. B.; Tang, G. C.; Liang, Kexian; Achilefu, S.; Alfano, R. R.

    2013-03-01

    Cybesin, a smart contrast agent to target cancer cells, was investigated using a near infrared (NIR) spectral polarization imaging technique for prostate cancer detection. The approach relies on applying a contrast agent that can target cancer cells. Cybesin, as a small ICG-derivative dye-peptide, emit fluorescence between 750 nm and 900 nm, which is in the "tissue optical window". Cybesin was reported targeting the over-expressed bombesin receptors in cancer cells in animal model and the human prostate cancers over-expressing bombesin receptors. The NIR spectral polarization imaging study reported here demonstrated that Cybesin can be used as a smart optical biomarker and as a prostate cancer receptor targeted contrast agent.

  7. Feasibility study of electron-scattering experiments with a tensor-polarized deuterium target in an electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.; Geesaman, D.F.; Goodman, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of using a spin-exchange optical-pumping method to produce a high flux of tensor-polarized deuterium atoms is being tested. In this method, alkali atoms are polarized by optical pumping and the polarization is transferred to deuterium by successive spin-exchange collisions. In a test with a simple model the authors achieved 10 mW of laser power absorbed to the spin-exchange process with deuterium. Construction of a more sophisticated prototype was completed and tests are in progress. Dissociation fractions in excess of 80% for deuterium molecules have been achieved thus far. In order to optimize the performance of the prototype target, a computerized model of the target was constructed. A section of a differential-pumping system was constructed and tested. It was possible to sustain more than the required 5 orders-of-magnitude pressure drop in a distance of approximately 1.5 m

  8. Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings. Annual report, February 1, 1986-January 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberli, W.

    1986-01-01

    Insertion of an internal polarized gas target into storage rings for protons, antiprotons or electrons would permit interesting new experiments, particularly if the circulating beam is polarized as well. The purpose of the present project is the development of a polarized gas target, based on injection of polarized hydrogen or deuterium atoms into a storage cell in order to build up the required target thickness. A method has been developed and tested, which permits measurement of the target polarization under realistic conditions (i.e., in the presence of an intense ion beam) without the need for a large accelerator. First measurements with an oxidized aluminum cell have been made. It is proposed to study wall depolarization in storage cells and to search for suitable wall conditions (wall material, coating, temperature, vacuum conditions) to permit eventual construction of a polarized gas target for a storage ring

  9. The ITER tritium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glugla, M.; Antipenkov, A.; Beloglazov, S.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Cristescu, I.R.; Cristescu, I.; Day, C.; Doerr, L.; Girard, J.-P.; Tada, E.

    2007-01-01

    ITER is the first fusion machine fully designed for operation with equimolar deuterium-tritium mixtures. The tokamak vessel will be fuelled through gas puffing and pellet injection, and the Neutral Beam heating system will introduce deuterium into the machine. Employing deuterium and tritium as fusion fuel will cause alpha heating of the plasma and will eventually provide energy. Due to the small burn-up fraction in the vacuum vessel a closed deuterium-tritium loop is required, along with all the auxiliary systems necessary for the safe handling of tritium. The ITER inner fuel cycle systems are designed to process considerable and unprecedented deuterium-tritium flow rates with high flexibility and reliability. High decontamination factors for effluent and release streams and low tritium inventories in all systems are needed to minimize chronic and accidental emissions. A multiple barrier concept assures the confinement of tritium within its respective processing components; atmosphere and vent detritiation systems are essential elements in this concept. Not only the interfaces between the primary fuel cycle systems - being procured through different Participant Teams - but also those to confinement systems such as Atmosphere Detritiation or those to fuelling and pumping - again procured through different Participant Teams - and interfaces to buildings are calling for definition and for detailed analysis to assure proper design integration. Considering the complexity of the ITER Tritium Plant configuration management and interface control will be a challenging task

  10. Radionuclide Basics: Tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritium is a hydrogen atom that has two neutrons in the nucleus and one proton. It is radioactive and behaves like other forms of hydrogen in the environment. Tritium is produced naturally in the upper atmosphere and as a byproduct of nuclear fission.

  11. Asymmetry measurements in nucleon--nucleon scattering with polarized beams and targets at ZGS to Fermilab energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakosawa, A.

    1977-01-01

    Results of various asymmetry measurements in nucleon-nucleon scattering with polarized beams and targets at ZGS energies are presented. A possible direct-channel resonance in the pp system is discussed. Most of the discussion above ZGS energies are aimed at future measurements

  12. Reduction of weighing errors caused by tritium decay heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    The deuterium-tritium source gas mixture for laser targets is formulated by weight. Experiments show that the maximum weighing error caused by tritium decay heating is 0.2% for a 104-cm 3 mix vessel. Air cooling the vessel reduces the weighing error by 90%

  13. In-vessel tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshio; Ohya, Kaoru; Ashikawa, Naoko; Ito, Atsushi M.; Kato, Daiji; Kawamura, Gakushi; Takayama, Arimichi; Tomita, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ono, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Hisato; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori; Nakano, Tomohide; Nakamura, Makoto; Hoshino, Kazuo; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi; Saito, Seiki; Takagi, Ikuji; Tanaka, Yasunori; Tanabe, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Masafumi; Toma, Mitsunori; Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Homma, Yuki; Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The in-vessel tritium research is closely related to the plasma-materials interaction. It deals with the edge-plasma-wall interaction, the wall erosion, transport and re-deposition of neutral particles and the effect of neutral particles on the fuel recycling. Since the in-vessel tritium shows a complex nonlinear behavior, there remain many unsolved problems. So far, behaviors of in-vessel tritium have been investigated by two groups A01 and A02. The A01 group performed experiments on accumulation and recovery of tritium in thermonuclear fusion reactors and the A02 group studied theory and simulation on the in-vessel tritium behavior. In the present article, outcomes of the research are reviewed. (author)

  14. Protection against tritium radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Georges

    1964-05-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of tritium, describes how it is produced as a natural or as an artificial radio-element. It outlines the hazards related to this material, presents how materials and tools are contaminated and decontaminated. It addresses the issue of permissible maximum limits: factors of assessment of the risk induced by tritium, maximum permissible activity in body water, maximum permissible concentrations in the atmosphere. It describes the measurement of tritium activity: generalities, measurement of gas activity and of tritiated water steam, tritium-induced ionisation in an ionisation chamber, measurement systems using ionisation chambers, discontinuous detection of tritium-containing water in the air, detection of surface contamination [fr

  15. Tritium fuel cycle modeling and tritium breeding analysis for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongli; Pan, Lei; Lv, Zhongliang; Li, Wei; Zeng, Qin, E-mail: zengqin@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A modified tritium fuel cycle model with more detailed subsystems was developed. • The mean residence time method applied to tritium fuel cycle calculation was updated. • Tritium fuel cycle analysis for CFETR was carried out. - Abstract: Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is a critical goal for fusion reactor operated on the D–T fuel cycle. The tritium fuel cycle models were developed to describe the characteristic parameters of the various elements of the tritium cycle as a tool for evaluating the tritium breeding requirements. In this paper, a modified tritium fuel cycle model with more detailed subsystems and an updated mean residence time calculation method was developed based on ITER tritium model. The tritium inventory in fueling system and in plasma, supposed to be important for part of the initial startup tritium inventory, was considered in the updated mean residence time method. Based on the model, the tritium fuel cycle analysis of CFETR (Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor) was carried out. The most important two parameters, the minimum initial startup tritium inventory (I{sub m}) and the minimum tritium breeding ratio (TBR{sub req}) were calculated. The tritium inventories in steady state and tritium release of subsystems were obtained.

  16. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-01-01

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  17. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  18. Analyzing power measurements for the (π+,π0) reaction on a polarized 13C target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goergen, J.J.

    1991-05-01

    The analyzing powers A y differential cross sections dσ/dΩ for the reaction 13 C(π + ,π 0 ) 13 N have been measured for forward scattering angles at an incident pion kinetic energy of T pi + = 163 MeV by using a transversely polarized target. Analyzing powers and reaction cross sections impose stringent constrains on nuclear reaction models and can be used to test the present understanding of nuclear structure for 1p-shell nuclei. The resulting A y are compared to the predictions of first-order Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation (DWIA) calculations, which reproduce well the differential cross sections. Although there is qualitative agreement at forward angles, the quantitative agreement is poor, especially at scattering angles larger than 50 degrees. Since the DWIA calculations do not appear to be strongly sensitive to the assumed nuclear structure model, the discrepancy in describing the analyzing powers suggests that the reaction mechanism may not yet be well understood and higher order corrections may be important. Also measured were the analyzing powers for the elementary charge exchange reaction π - bar p → π degrees n over the same angular range and at an incident pion kinetic energy of T pi - = 161 MeV. The results are compared to the most recents phase shift predictions. Within the experimental uncertainties, phase shift calculations agree with the measured A y and no changes in the πN phase shifts near the P 33 resonance are needed to describe the data

  19. Collisional pumping for the production of intense spin-polarized neutral beams: target considerations. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, J.W.; Burrell, C.F.; Kaplan, S.N.; Pyle, R.V.; Ruby, L.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    Polarized beams at intensity levels heretofore not considered feasible have recently been proposed for heating and fueling fusion plasmas. Polarized-beam fueling could increase fusion rates by 50% as well as allow control of the directionality of the fusion products. A process which we have recently described, and called collisional pumping, promises to produce beams of polarized ions vastly more intense than producible by current methods

  20. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Greene, G.A.; Boyack, B.E.

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities

  1. First measurement of target and double spin asymmetries for polarized e- polarized p --> e p pi0 in the nucleon resonance region above the Delta(1232)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biselli, Angela; Burkert, Volker; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Asryan, Gegham; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Battaglieri, Marco; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bookwalter, Craig; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bosted, Peter; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Deur, Alexandre; Dhamija, Seema; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Feuerbach, Robert; Fersch, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gohn, Wesley; Gothe, Ralf; Graham, Lewis; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hassall, Neil; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keller, Dustin; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacCormick, Marion; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kil; Park, Seungkyung; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Price, John; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Smith, Elton; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Weygand, Dennis; Williams, M.; Wolin, Elliott; Wood, Michael; Yegneswaran, Amrit; Yurov, Mikhail; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2008-10-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.78.045204
    The exclusive channel polarized proton(polarized e,e prime p)pi0 was studied in the first and second nucleon resonance regions in the Q2 range from 0.187 to 0.770 GeV2 at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). Longitudinal target and beam-target asymmetries were extracted over a large range of center-of-mass angles of the pi0 and compared to the unitary isobar model MAID, the dynamic model by Sato and Lee, and the dynamic model DMT. A strong sensitivity to individual models was observed, in particular for the target asymmetry and in the higher invariant mass region. This data set, once included in the global fits of the above models, is expected to place strong constraints on the electrocoupling amplitudes A_{1/2} and S_{1/2} for the Roper resonance N(1400)P11, and the N(1535)S11 and N(1520)D13 states.

  2. Account of magnetic field effects of polarized proton target on charged particle trajectories in experiments with magnetic spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, Yu.N.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Sporov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Some effects of the influence of magnetic field of a polarized proton target (PPT) on trajectories of secondary particles in experiments using magnetic spectrometers are considered. It is shown that these effects can be eliminated by the target shift relatively to the spectrometer rotation axis and variation of the spectrometer installation angle. Numerical calculations of the correction values were performed for emitted particle momenta of 100-800 MeB/s and working intensity of the H 0 magnetic field H 0 =27 kG. The influence of the PPT magnetic field on the functions of angular and energy resolution in the γp→π + n experiment is investigated. The results obtained can be used in experiments with a polarized proton target

  3. Single and double spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering measured with CLAS and a longitudinally polarized proton target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, S.; Biselli, A.; Niccolai, S.; Seder, E.; Guidal, M.; Mirazita, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, B.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D. G.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garçon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Meyer, C. A.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Single-beam, single-target, and double spin asymmetries for hard exclusive electroproduction of a photon on the proton e →p →→e'p'γ are presented. The data were taken at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer and a longitudinally polarized NH3 14 target. The three asymmetries were measured in 165 four-dimensional kinematic bins, covering the widest kinematic range ever explored simultaneously for beam and target-polarization observables in the valence quark region. The kinematic dependences of the obtained asymmetries are discussed and compared to the predictions of models of generalized parton distributions. The measurement of three DVCS spin observables at the same kinematic points allows a quasi-model-independent extraction of the imaginary parts of the H and H ˜ Compton form factors, which give insight into the electric and axial charge distributions of valence quarks in the proton.

  4. Single and double spin asymmetries for deeply virtual Compton scattering measured with CLAS and a longitudinally polarized proton target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisano, S.; Biselli, A.; Niccolai, S.; Seder, E.; Guidal, M.; Mirazita, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, B.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D. G.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Meyer, C. A.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatie, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2015-03-19

    Single-beam, single-target, and double-spin asymmetries for hard exclusive photon production on the proton e→p→e'p'γ are presented. The data were taken at Jefferson Lab using the CLAS detector and a longitudinally polarized 14NH3 target. The three asymmetries were measured in 165 4-dimensional kinematic bins, covering the widest kinematic range ever explored simultaneously for beam and target-polarization observables in the valence quark region. The kinematic dependences of the obtained asymmetries are discussed and compared to the predictions of models of Generalized Parton Distributions. As a result, the measurement of three DVCS spin observables at the same kinematic points allows a quasi-model-independent extraction of the imaginary parts of the H and H~ Compton Form Factors, which give insight into the electric and axial charge distributions of valence quarks in the proton.

  5. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  6. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmings, R.L. [Canatom NPM (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  7. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmings, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  8. Metabolism and dosimetry of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.L.; Johnson, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document was prepared as a review of the current knowledge of tritium metabolism and dosimetry. The physical, chemical, and metabolic characteristics of various forms of tritium are presented as they pertain to performing dose assessments for occupational workers and for the general public. For occupational workers, the forms of tritium discussed include tritiated water, elemental tritium gas, skin absorption from elemental tritium gas-contaminated surfaces, organically bound tritium in pump oils, solvents and other organic compounds, metal tritides, and radioluminous paints. For the general public, age-dependent tritium metabolism is reviewed, as well as tritiated water, elemental tritium gas, organically bound tritium, organically bound tritium in food-stuffs, and tritiated methane. 106 refs

  9. Experience in handling concentrated tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    The notes describe the experience in handling concentrated tritium in the hydrogen form accumulated in the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Tritium Laboratory. The techniques of box operation, pumping systems, hydriding and dehydriding operations, and analysis of tritium are discussed. Information on the Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant is included as a collection of reprints of papers presented at the Dayton Meeting on Tritium Technology, 1985 April 30 - May 2

  10. Problems of anthropogenic tritium limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetkov О.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the current situation in respect to the environmental concentrations of anthropogenic and natural tritium. There are presented and analyzed domestic standards for НТО of all Radiation Safety Standards (NRB, as well as the regulations analyzed for tritium in drinking water taken in other countries today. This article deals with the experience of limitation of tritium and focuses on the main problem of rationing of tritium — rationing of organically bound tritium.

  11. The role of macrophage polarization on bipolar disorder: Identifying new therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Bruna M; Géa, Luiza P; Colombo, Rafael; Barbé-Tuana, Florência M; Kapczinski, Flávio; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro

    2016-07-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, severe and disabling disease; however, its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Recent evidence has suggested that inflammation and immune dysregulation play a significant role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. This review is aimed to highlight the importance of systemic inflammation in modulating the inflammatory response of microglia and hence its potential involvement with bipolar disorder. We also discuss novel therapeutic strategies that emerge from this new research. This article presents a theoretical synthesis of the effects of systemic inflammation on the immune response of the central nervous system in bipolar disorder. The complex relationship between stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and microglial dysfunction is summarized, emphasizing the role of the kynurenine pathway in this process and, consequently, their effects on neuronal plasticity. Bipolar patients demonstrate increased serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) and lower hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis sensitivity. This imbalance in the immune system promotes a change in blood-brain barrier permeability, leading to an inflammatory signal spread in the central nervous system from the periphery, through macrophages activation (M1 polarization). Chronic microglial activation can result in neuronal apoptosis, neurogenesis inhibition, hippocampal volume reduction, lower neurotransmitters synthesis and cytotoxicity, by increasing glutamate production and kynurenine metabolism. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms involved in the immune system imbalance and its potential involvement in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Consequently, new strategies that normalize the immune-inflammatory pathways may provide a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of these disorders. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  12. Tritium permeation and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, R.A.; Hamilton, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is an appendix to a study of the reactor relevance of the NET design concept. The latter study examines whether the technologies and design principles proposed for NET can be directly extrapolated to a demonstration (DEMO) reactor. In this appendix, tritium transport in the DEMO breeding blanket is considered with emphasis on the permeation rate from the lithium-lead breeder into the coolant. A computational model used to calculate the tritium transport in the breeder blanket is described. Results are reported for the tritium transport in the NET/INTOR type blanket as well as the DEMO blanket in order to provide a comparison. In addition, results are presented for the helium coolant tritium extraction analysis. (U.K.)

  13. Tritium protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, T.P.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions

  14. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Tritium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vichot, L.; Losset, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of tritium in the environment stems from its natural production by cosmic rays, from the fallout of the nuclear weapon tests between 1953 and 1964, and locally from nuclear industry activities. A part of the tritiated water contained in the foliage of plants is turned into organically bound tritium (OBT) by photosynthesis. The tritium of OBT, that is not exchangeable and then piles up in the plant, can be used as a marker of the past. It has been shown that the quantity of OBT contained in the age-rings of an oak that grew near the CEA center of Valduc was directly correlated with the tritium releases of the center. (A.C.)

  16. Tritium-v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Several bibliographical references about tritium are shown. The following aspects are presented: properties, analysis, monitoring, dosimetry reactions, labelling, industrial production, radiological protection, applications to science, technology and industry and some processes to obtain the element. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  18. Tritium protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T. P.; Easterly, C. E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions.

  19. Increase in the specific radioactivity of tritium-labeled compounds obtained by tritium thermal activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, G.A.; Chernysheva, M.G.; Ksenofontov, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    A method of tritium introduction into different types of organic molecules that is based on the interaction of atomic tritium with solid organic target is described. Tritium atoms are formed on the hot W-wire, which is heated by the electric current. Such an approach is called 'tritium thermal activation method'. Here we summarize the results of labeling globular proteins (lysozyme, human and bovine serum albumins); derivatives of pantothenic acid and amino acids; ionic surfactants (sodium dodecylsulfate and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides) and nonionic high-molecular weight surfactants - pluronics. For the first time it is observed that if the target-compound is fixed and its radicals are stable the specific radioactivity of the labeled product can be drastically increased (up to 400 times) when the target temperature is ca. 295 K compared with the results obtained at 77 K. The influence of labeling parameters as tritium gas pressure, exposure time and W-wire temperature was tested for each target temperature that results in the optimum labeling conditions with high specific radioactivity and chemical yield of the resulting compound. (orig.)

  20. Management of tritium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisalu, J.; Mellow, D.G.; Pennington, J.D.; Thompson, H.M.; Wood, E.

    1991-07-01

    This work provides a review of the management of tritium wastes with particular reference to current practice, possible alternatives and to the implications of any alternatives considered. It concludes that reduction in UK emissions from nuclear industry is feasible but at a cost out of all proportion to the reduction in dose commitment achievable. Commercial usage of tritium involves importation at several times the UK nuclear production level although documentation is sparse. (author)

  1. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  2. Electrochemical measurement of tritium and hydrogen permeation through iron membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagi, Hideki; Hayashi, Yasunori

    1988-01-01

    Permeation rates of tritium and hydrogen through iron were measured by the electrochemical method in which an aqueous solution containing 3.7 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 tritium was used as a cathodic electrolyte. Tritium and hydrogen were introduced from one side of a specimen by cathodic polarization with a constant current density, while at the other side of the specimen the permeated tritium and hydrogen were extracted by potentiostatical ionization. Nearly all of the potentiostatic current of the extraction side stands for the ionization of hydrogen, because the concentration of tritium in the cathodic electrolyte is very small. The amount of permeated hydrogen was obtained by integrating the anodic current, and that of tritium was determined by measuring the radioactivity of the electrolyte sampled from the extraction side. The separation factor for permeation obtained under steady state conditions (the ratio of permeation rates of hydrogen to tritium divided by the ratio of the concentration of hydrogen to tritium in the charging electrolyte) is 12 at 288 K. This value is independent of cathodic current density. Diffusion coefficients of tritium (D T ) and hydrogen (D H ) in iron were determined from the time lag of tritium and hydrogen permeation. For annealed specimens at 286 K, D T = 9 x 10 -10 m 2 /s and D H = 4 x 10 -9 m 2 /s, and for 9% cold-worked specimens at 284 K, D T = 3 x 10 -10 m 2 /s and D H = 4 x 10 -10 m 2 /s. (author)

  3. Electrochemical measurement of tritium and hydrogen permeation through iron membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagi, Hideki; Hayashi, Yasunori

    1987-01-01

    Permeation rates of tritium and hydrogen through iron were measured by the electro-chemical method in which an aqueous solution containing 3.7 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 tritium was used as a cathodic electrolyte. Tritium and hydrogen were introduced from one side of a specimen by cathodic polarization with a constant current density, while at the other side of the specimen the permeated tritium and hydrogen were extracted by potentiostatical ionization. Nearly all of the potentiostatic current on the extraction side is produced by the ionization of hydrogen, because the concentration of tritium in the cathodic electrolyte is very small. The amount of permeated hydrogen was obtained by integrating the potentiostatic current, and that of permeated tritium was determined by measuring the radioactivity of the electrolyte sampled from the anodic side. The separation factor for permeation obtained under steady state conditions (the ratio of permeation rates of hydrogen to tritium divided by the ratio of the concentration of hydrogen to tritium in the cathodic electrolyte) is 12 at 288 K. This value is independent of cathodic current density. Diffusion coefficients of tritium (D T ) and hydrogen (D H ) in iron were determined from the tritium and hydrogen permeation by using time lag technique. For annealed iron at 286 K, D T = 9 x 10 -10 m 2 /s and D H = 4 x 10 -9 m 2 /s, and for 9 % cold-worked iron at 284 K, D T = 3 x 10 -10 m 2 /s and D H = 4 x 10 -10 m 2 /s. (author)

  4. Tritium in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badyaev, V.V.; Egorov, Yu.A.; Sklyarov, V.P.; Stegachev, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of tritium formation during NPP operation is considered on the basis of available published data. Tritium characteristics are given, sources of the origin of natural and artificial tritium are described. NPP contribution to the total tritium amount in the environment is determined, as well as contribution of each process in the reactor to the quantity of tritium, produced at the NPP. Thermal- and fast-neutron reactions with tritium production are shown, their contribution to the total amount of tritium in a coolant is estimated, taking into account the type of reactor. Data on tritium content in NPP wastes and in the air of working premises are presented. Methods for sampling and sample preparation to measurements as well as the appropriate equipment are considered. Design of the gas-discharge counter of internal filling, used for measuring tritium activity in samples is described [ru

  5. Effect of initial-state target polarization on the single ionization of helium by 1-keV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shi-Yan; Ma Xiao-Yan; Li Xia; Miao Xiang-Yang; Jia Xiang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    We report new results of triple differential cross sections for the single ionization of helium by 1-KeV electron impact at the ejection energy of 10 eV. Investigations have been made for both the perpendicular plane and the plane perpendicular to the momentum transfer geometries. The present calculation is based on the three-Coulomb wave function. Here we have also incorporated the effect of target polarization in the initial state. A comparison is made between the present calculation with the results of other theoretical methods and a recent experiment [Dürr M, Dimopoulou C, Najjari B, Dorn A, Bartschat K, Bray I, Fursa D V, Chen Z, Madison D H and Ullrich J 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 032717]. At an impact energy of 1 KeV, the target polarization is found to induce a substantial change of the cross section for the ionization process. We observe that the effect of target polarization plays a dominant role in deciding the shape of triple differential cross sections. (atomic and molecular physics)

  6. Japanese university program on tritium radiobiology and environmental tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Shigefumi

    1989-01-01

    The university program of the tritium study in the Special Research Project of Nuclear Fusion (1980-1989) is now on its 9th year. The study's aim is to assess tritium risk on man and environment for development of Japanese Nuclear Fusion Program. The tritium study begun by establishing various tritium safe-handling devices and methods to protect scientists from tritium contamination. Then, the tritium studies were initiated in three areas: The first was the studies on biological effects of tritiated water, where their RBE values, their modifying factors and mechanisms were investigated. Also, several human monitoring systems for detection of tritium-induced damage were developed. The second was the metabolic studies of tritium, including a daily tritium monitoring system, methods to enhance excretion of tritiated water from body and means to prevent oxidation of tritium gas in the body. The third was the study of environmental tritium. Tritium levels in environmental waters of various types were estimated all-over in Japan and their seasonal or regional variation were analyzed. Last two years, the studies were extended to estimate tritium activities of plants, foods and man in Japan. (author)

  7. Tritium Assay and Dispensing of KEPRI Tritium Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Song, K. M.; Lee, S. K.; Lee, K.W.; Ko, B. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility(WTRF) has been constructed to reduce tritium levels in the heavy water systems and environmental emissions at the site. The WTRF was designed to process 100 kg/h of heavy water with the overall tritium extraction efficiency of 97% per single pass and to produce ∼700 g of tritium as T2 per year at the feed concentration of 0.37 TBq/kg. The high purity tritium greater than 99% is immobilized as a metal hydride to secure its long term storage. The recovered tritium will be made available for industrial uses and some research applications in the future. Then KEPRI is constructing the tritium lab. to build-up infrastructure to support tritium research activities and to support tritium control and accountability systems for tritium export. This paper describes the initial phases of the tritium application program including the laboratory infrastructure to support the tritium related R and D activities and the tritium controls in Korea

  8. Comparison of tritium production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Huang Jinhua

    2002-01-01

    Detailed investigation and research on the source of tritium, tritium production facilities and their comparison are presented based on the basic information about tritium. The characteristics of three types of proposed tritium production facilities, i.e., fissile type, accelerator production tritium (APT) and fusion type, are presented. APT shows many advantages except its rather high cost; fusion reactors appear to offer improved safety and environmental impacts, in particular, tritium production based on the fusion-based neutron source costs much lower and directly helps the development of fusion energy source

  9. Effect of Tritium on Cracking Threshold in 7075 Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Morgan, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-02-28

    The effect of long-term exposure to tritium gas on the cracking threshold (KTH) of 7075 Aluminum Alloy was investigated. The alloy is the material of construction for a cell used to contain tritium in an accelerator at Jefferson Laboratory designed for inelastic scattering experiments on nucleons. The primary safety concerns for the Jefferson Laboratory tritium cell is a tritium leak due to mechanical failure of windows from hydrogen isotope embrittlement, radiation damage, or loss of target integrity from accidental excessive beam heating due to failure of the raster or grossly mis-steered beam. Experiments were conducted to investigate the potential for embrittlement of the 7075 Aluminum alloy from tritium gas.

  10. Tritium emissions reduction facility (TERF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Hedley, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium handling operations at Mound include production of tritium-containing devices, evaluation of the stability of tritium devices, tritium recovery and enrichment, tritium process development, and research. In doing this work, gaseous process effluents containing 400,000 to 1,000,000 curies per year of tritium are generated. These gases must be decontaminated before they can be discharged to the atmosphere. They contain tritium as elemental hydrogen, as tritium oxide, and as tritium-containing organic compounds at low concentrations (typically near one ppm). The rate at which these gases is generated is highly variable. Some tritium-containing gas is generated at all times. The systems used at Mound for capturing tritium from process effluents have always been based on the open-quotes oxidize and dryclose quotes concept. They have had the ability to remove tritium, regardless of the form it was in. The current system, with a capacity of 1.0 cubic meter of gas per minute, can effectively remove tritium down to part-per-billion levels

  11. Tritium inventory measurements by 'in-bed' gas flowing calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamada, M.; Okuno, K.

    1996-01-01

    In order to establish the 'in-bed' tritium accounting technology for the ITER scale tritium storage system, a gas flowing calorimetry has been studied using a scaled ZrCo bed (25 g tritium capacity). The basic calorimetric characteristics, steady state temperature raise of He gas stream flowing through a secondary coil line fixed in the ZrCo tritide, was measured and correlated with the stored tritium inventory. The results shows that about 4 degrees raise of He stream temperature can be detected for each gram of tritium storage. The sensitivity of this calorimetry is about 0.05 g of tritium, calculated by 0.2 degrees of temperature sensor error. The accuracy is better than 0.25 g of tritium on 25 g storage, evaluated by 2 times of standard deviation from the repeat measurements. This accuracy of < 1% on full storage capacity is satisfied the target accountability to measure ± 1 gram of tritium on 100 g storage for ITER. 13 refs., 7 figs

  12. Real-time multi-target ranging based on chaotic polarization laser radars in the drive-response VCSELs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dongzhou; Xu, Geliang; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Zhenzhen

    2017-09-04

    According to the principle of complete chaos synchronization and the theory of Hilbert phase transformation, we propose a novel real-time multi-target ranging scheme by using chaotic polarization laser radar in the drive-response vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). In the scheme, to ensure each polarization component (PC) of the master VCSEL (MVCSEL) to be synchronized steadily with that of the slave VCSEL, the output x-PC and y-PC from the MVCSEL in the drive system and those in the response system are modulated by the linear electro-optic effect simultaneously. Under this condition, by simulating the influences of some key parameters of the system on the synchronization quality and the relative errors of the two-target ranging, related operating parameters can be optimized. The x-PC and the y-PC, as two chaotic radar sources, are used to implement the real-time ranging for two targets. It is found that the measured distances of the two targets at arbitrary position exhibit strong real-time stability and only slight jitter. Their resolutions are up to millimeters, and their relative errors are very small and less than 2.7%.

  13. Semi-inclusive DIS Experiments Using Transversely Polarized Targets in Hall-A: Current Results and Future Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allada Kalyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of single (SSA and double spin asymmetries (DSA in semiinclusive DIS reactions using polarized targets provide a powerful method to probe transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs. In particular, the experimentally measured SSA on nucleon targets can help in extracting the transversity and Sivers distribution functions of u and d-quarks. Similarly, the measured DSA are sensitive to the quark spin-orbital correlations, and provide an access to the TMD parton distribution function (g1T. A recent experiment conducted in Hall-A Jefferson Lab using transversely polarized 3He provide first such measurements on “effective” neutron target. The measurement was performed using 5.9 GeV beam from CEBAF and measured the target SSA/DSA in the SIDIS reaction 3He↑(e, e′π±X. The kinematical range, x = 0.19 ~ 0.34, at Q2 = 1.77 ~ 2.73 (GeV/c2, was focused on the valence quark region. The results from this measurement along with our plans for future high precision measurements in Hall-A are presented.

  14. Tritium Systems Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafasso, F.A.; Maroni, V.A.; Smith, W.H.; Wilkes, W.R.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This TSTF proposal has two principal objectives. The first objective is to provide by mid-FY 1981 a demonstration of the fuel cycle and tritium containment systems which could be used in a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor for operation in the mid-1980's. The second objective is to provide a capability for further optimization of tritium fuel cycle and environmental control systems beyond that which is required for the EPR. The scale and flow rates in TSTF are close to those which have been projected for a prototype experimental power reactor (PEPR/ITR) and will permit reliable extrapolation to the conditions found in an EPR. The fuel concentrations will be the same as in an EPR. Demonstrations of individual components of the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle and of monitoring, accountability and containment systems and of a maintenance methodology will be achieved at various times in the FY 1979-80 time span. Subsequent to the individual component demonstrations--which will proceed from tests with hydrogen (and/or deuterium) through tracer levels of tritium to full operational concentrations--a complete test and demonstration of the integrated fuel processing and tritium containment facility will be performed. This will occur near the middle of FY 1981. Two options were considered for the TSTF: (1) The modification of an existing building and (2) the construction of a new facility

  15. Tritium analysis at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, D.R.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Zimmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The tritium analytical system at TFRR is used to determine the purity of tritium bearing gas streams in order to provide inventory and accountability measurements. The system includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer and beta scintillator originally configured at Monsanto Mound Research Laboratory in the late 1970's and early 1980's. The system was commissioned and tested between 1991 and 1992 and is used daily for analysis of calibration standards, incoming tritium shipments, gases evolved from uranium storage beds and measurement of gases returned to gas holding tanks. The low resolution mass spectrometer is enhanced by the use of a metal getter pump to aid in resolving the mass 3 and 4 species. The beta scintillator complements the analysis as it detects tritium bearing species that often are not easily detected by mass spectrometry such as condensable species or hydrocarbons containing tritium. The instruments are controlled by a personal computer with customized software written with a graphical programming system designed for data acquisition and control. A discussion of the instrumentation, control systems, system parameters, procedural methods, algorithms, and operational issues will be presented. Measurements of gas holding tanks and tritiated water waste streams using ion chamber instrumentation are discussed elsewhere

  16. Targeting of SNAP-23 and SNAP-25 in polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, SH; Roche, PA; Anderson, HA; van Ijzendoorn, SCD; Zhang, M; Mostov, KE; Weimbs, T

    1998-01-01

    SNAP-23 is the ubiquitously expressed homologue of the neuronal SNAP-25, which functions in synaptic vesicle fusion, We have investigated the subcellular localization of SNAP-23 in polarized epithelial cells, In hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells and in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, the

  17. [Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberli, W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the following topics: the Wisconsin test facility for storage cells; results of target tests; the new UHV target test system; funding request for a new atomic beam system; and planning of storage ring experiments

  18. The movable polarized target as a basic equipment for high energy spin physics experiments at the JINR-Dubna accelerator complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehar, F.; Adiasevich, B.; Androsov, V.P.; Angelov, N.; Anischenko, N.; Antonenko, V.; Ball, J.; Baryshevsky, V.G.; Bazhanov, N.A.; Belyaev, A.A.; Benda, B.; Bodyagin, V.; Borisov, N.; Borzunov, Yu.; Bradamante, F.; Bunyatova, E.; Burinov, V.; Chernykh, E.; Combet, M.; Datskov, A.; Durand, G.; Dzyubak, A.P.; Fontaine, J.M.; Get`man, V.A.; Giorgi, M.; Golovanov, L.; Grebenyuk, V.; Grosnick, D.; Gurevich, G.; Hasegawa, T.; Hill, D.; Horikawa, N.; Igo, G.; Janout, Z.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kasprzyk, T.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Kirillov, A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Kousmine, E.S.; Kovalenko, A.; Kovaljov, A.I.; Ladygin, V.P.; Lazarev, A.; Leconte, P.; Lesquen, A. de; Lukhanin, A.A.; Mango, S.; Martin, A.; Matafonov, V.N.; Matyushevsky, E.; Mironov, S.; Neganov, A.B.; Neganov, B.S.; Nomofilov, A.; Perelygin, V.; Plis, Yu.; Pilipenko, Yu.; Pisarev, I.L.; Piskunov, N.; Polunin, Yu.; Popkov, Yu.P.; Propov, A.A.; Prokofiev, A.N.; Rekalo, M.P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Sans, J.L.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sharov, V.; Shilov, S.; Shishov, Yu.; Sitnik, I.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Spinka, H.; Sporov, E.A.; Strunov, L.N.; Svetov, A.; De Swart, J.J.; Telegin, Yu.P.; Tolmashov, I.; Trentalange, S.; Tsvinev, A.; Usov, Yu.A.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Whitten, C.A.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarubin, A.; Zhdanov, A.A.; Zolin, L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee]|[I.V. Kurchatov Inst. of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)]|[Lab. of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)]|[Lab. of High Energy Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)]|[Lab. National SATURNE, CNRS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Inst. of Physics, Belarus Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus)]|[Dept. of Physics, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    A movable polarized proton target is planned to be installed in polarized beams of the Synchrophasotron-Nuclotron complex in order to carry out a spin physics experimental program at Dubna. The project is described and the first proposed experiments are discussed. ((orig.))

  19. The movable polarized target as a basic equipment for high energy spin physics experiments at the JINR-Dubna accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehar, F.; Adiasevich, B.; Androsov, V.P.; Angelov, N.; Anischenko, N.; Antonenko, V.; Ball, J.; Baryshevsky, V.G.; Bazhanov, N.A.; Belyaev, A.A.; Benda, B.; Bodyagin, V.; Borisov, N.; Borzunov, Yu.; Bradamante, F.; Bunyatova, E.; Burinov, V.; Chernykh, E.; Combet, M.; Datskov, A.; Durand, G.; Dzyubak, A.P.; Fontaine, J.M.; Get'man, V.A.; Giorgi, M.; Golovanov, L.; Grebenyuk, V.; Grosnick, D.; Gurevich, G.; Hasegawa, T.; Hill, D.; Horikawa, N.; Igo, G.; Janout, Z.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kasprzyk, T.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Kirillov, A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Kousmine, E.S.; Kovalenko, A.; Kovaljov, A.I.; Ladygin, V.P.; Lazarev, A.; Leconte, P.; Lesquen, A. de; Lukhanin, A.A.; Mango, S.; Martin, A.; Matafonov, V.N.; Matyushevsky, E.; Mironov, S.; Neganov, A.B.; Neganov, B.S.; Nomofilov, A.; Perelygin, V.; Plis, Yu.; Pilipenko, Yu.; Pisarev, I.L.; Piskunov, N.; Polunin, Yu.; Popkov, Yu.P.; Propov, A.A.; Prokofiev, A.N.; Rekalo, M.P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Sans, J.L.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sharov, V.; Shilov, S.; Shishov, Yu.; Sitnik, I.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Spinka, H.; Sporov, E.A.; Strunov, L.N.; Svetov, A.; De Swart, J.J.; Telegin, Yu.P.; Tolmashov, I.; Trentalange, S.; Tsvinev, A.; Usov, Yu.A.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Whitten, C.A.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarubin, A.; Zhdanov, A.A.; Zolin, L.

    1995-01-01

    A movable polarized proton target is planned to be installed in polarized beams of the Synchrophasotron-Nuclotron complex in order to carry out a spin physics experimental program at Dubna. The project is described and the first proposed experiments are discussed. ((orig.))

  20. Tritium - is it underestimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    Practical experience in the use of the Whitlock Tritium Meter in various laboratories and industrial establishments throughout the world has shown that:-a) Measurements by smear/wipe tests can often be in error by three orders of magnitude or more; b) Sub-visual surface scratches (8μ deep) are radiologically important; c) Volatile forms of tritium exist in 20% to 30% of establishments visited. It is concluded that a) the widespread use of smear/wipe techniques for the assessment of 3 H surface contamination based on the assumption that 10% of removable activity is collected by the smear/wipe should be re-examined and b) tritium surface contamination assessed as 'fixed' can contain volatile fractions with a hazard potential which may be considerably greater than the hazard from removable activity at present covered by maximum permissible level recommendations. (H.K.)

  1. Tritium in HTR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinwarz, W.

    1987-07-01

    Starting from the basis of the radiological properties of tritium, the provisions of present-day radiation protection legislation are discussed in the context of the handling of this radionuclide in HTR plants. Tritium transportation is then followed through from the place of its creation up until the sink, i.e. disposal and/or environmental route, and empirical values obtained in experiments and in plant operation translated into guidelines for plant design and planning. The use of the example of modular HTR plants permits indication that environmental contamination via the 'classical' routes of air and water emissions, and contamination of products, and resulting consumer exposure, are extremely low even on the assumption of extreme conditions. This leads finally to a requirement that the expenditure for implementation of measures for further reduction of tritium activity rates be measured against low radiological effect. (orig.) [de

  2. Physicochemical processes behind atomic tritium harnessing for investigation into surface of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, G.A.; Fedoseev, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal dissociation of hydrogen molecules on tungsten wire heated up to 1500 - 2000 K is a comfortable method for the atomic hydrogen production. The role of the different physicochemical processes taking place during dissociation of the molecular tritium interaction, atomic tritium transport to the target and its interaction with the molecules of the target is discussed. High selectivity of the atomic tritium interaction with the components of the different chemical nature target allowed such investigations to be made. The examples of atomic tritium use for the investigation into polymeric materials, absorption layers of surfactants, structure of biological macromolecules and hypomolecular formations are demonstrated [ru

  3. Atmospheric tritium. Measurement and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejaville, Gerard

    1967-02-01

    The possible origins of atmospheric tritium are reviewed and discussed. A description is given of enrichment (electrolysis and thermal diffusion) and counting (gas counters and liquid scintillation counters) processes which can be used for determining atmospheric tritium concentrations. A series of examples illustrates the use of atmospheric tritium for resolving a certain number of hydrological and glaciological problems. (author) [fr

  4. Handling of tritium at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, C.W.; Howe, H.J.; Yemin, L.; Lind, K.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the engineering approaches taken at TFTR for the tritium control systems are discussed as the requirements being placed on the tritium systems by the operating scenarios of the Tokamak. The tritium control systems presently being designed for TFTR will limit the annual release to the environment to less than 100 curies

  5. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  6. Development of tritium technology at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is dedicated to the development, demonstration, and interfacing of technologies related to the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle for large scale fusion reactor systems starting with the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) or the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR). This paper briefly describes the fuel cycle and safety systems at TSTA including the Vacuum Facility, Fuel Cleanup, Isotope Separation, Transfer Pumping, Emergency Tritium Cleanup, Tritium Waste Treatment, Tritium Monitoring, Data Acquisition and Control, Emergency Power and Gas Analysis systems. Discussed in further detail is the experimental program proposed for the startup and testing of these systems

  7. Monitoring of tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1981-01-01

    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  8. Simulation of a short-cable Q-meter for measuring the deuteron target polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation of Q-meter with a phase automatic-frequency control of a reception circuit is carried out in the paper. Effect of circuit parameters and connecting cable on Q-meter sensitivity and magnitude of distortions of recorded signal is studied. It is shown that usage of the cable with a length of lambda/12-lambda/10 instead of traditional semiwave one enables to increase essentially the circuit sensitivity at the same distortion rate. Errors conditioned by distortions of the deuteron magnetic resonance (DMR) signal forms in the reception circuit, which can effect essertially on accuracy of deuteron polarization detection by the method of DMR spectrum decomposition, are discussed. It is shown that in the case of utilization of a short cable the polarization error due to spectrum distortions does not exceed 4...5%

  9. Exercise enhances wound healing and prevents cancer progression during aging by targeting macrophage polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren C

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity, which can include regular and repetitive exercise training, has been shown to decrease the incidence of age-related diseases. Aging is characterized by aberrant immune responses, including impaired wound healing and increased cancer risk. The behavior and polarized phenotype of tissue macrophages are distinct between young and old organisms. The balance of M1 and M2 macrophages is altered in the aged tissue microenvironment, with a tilt towards an M2-dominant macrophage population, as well as its associated signaling pathways. These M2-type responses may result in unresolved inflammation and create an environment that impairs wound healing and is favorable for cancer growth. We discuss the concept that exercise training can improve the regulation of macrophage polarization and normalize the inflammatory process, and thereby exert anticancer effects and enhance wound healing in older humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberli, W.

    1991-01-01

    The present report contains the progress report for the second year of the 3-year budget period, and proposes work for the third year. Progress has been made on the two major components of the project, the tests of storage cells for polarized atoms under various operating conditions, and the construction of a new atomic beam source which conforms to the high vacuum requirements of storage rings

  11. Tritium in rad waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, P.M.; Ali, S.S.; Mathur, R.K.; Rastogi, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive waste arising from PHWR's are invariably contaminated with tritium activity. Their disposal is crucial as it governs the manner and extent of radioactive contamination of human environment. The technique of tritium measurement and its application plays an important role in assessing the safety of the disposal system. Thus, typical applications involving tritium measurements include the evaluation of a site for solid waste burial facility and evaluation of a water body for liquid waste dispersal. Tritium measurement is also required in assessing safe air route dispersal of tritium. (author)

  12. ARIES-I tritium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Tam, S.W.; Billone, M.C.; Hassanein, A.M.; Martin, R.

    1990-09-01

    A key safety concern in a D-T fusion reactor is the tritium inventory. There are three components in a fusion reactor with potentially large inventories, i.e., the blanket, the fuel processing system and the plasma facing components. The ARIES team selected the material combinations, decided the operating conditions and refined the processing systems, with the aiming of minimizing the tritium inventories and leakage. The total tritium inventory for the ARIES-I reactor is only 700 g. This paper discussed the calculations and assumptions we made for the low tritium inventory. We also addressed the uncertainties about the tritium inventory. 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  14. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  15. Properties of tritium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belovodskij, L.F.; Gaevoj, V.K.; Grishmanovskij, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Ways of tritium preparation and different aspects of its application are considered. Physicochemical properties of this isotope and some compounds of it - tritium oxides, lithium, titanium, zirconium, uranium tritides, tritium organic compounds - are discussed. In particular, diffusion of tritium and its oxide through different materials, tritium oxidation processes, decomposition of tritium-containing compounds under the action of self-radiation are considered. Main radiobiological tritium properties are described

  16. A Large-Acceptance Detector System for Electron Scattering from Polarized Internal targets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, E.; Bouwhuis, M.; Choi, S.; Zhou, Z.L.; Alarcon, R.; Anghinolfi, M.; Botto, T.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Dimitroyannis, D.; Doets, M.; Ent, R.; Ferro Luzzi, M.M.E.; Higinbotham, D.W.; de Jager, C.W.; Lang, J.; de Lange, D.J.; Nikolenko, D.; Nooren, G.J.; Papadakis, N.; Passchier, I.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.; Ripani, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Taiuti, M.; Vodinas, N.; de Vries, H.

    1997-01-01

    The design and the performance of a non-magnetic detector setup for internal target physics at the NIKHEF electron-scattering facility is described. The detector setup, used in the first internal-target experiment at the AmPS ring, measures the spin dependence in the elastic and break-up reaction

  17. Use of tritium and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    There are many kinds of tritium, sources in the environment. The maximum inventory of them is the nuclear tests, although the atmospheric nuclear test has not been carried out since 1981. So that the inventory originated from them will decrease. By the latest data in 1989, the total amount of released tritium was about 24 PBq/yr by the use of atomic energy in the world. The maximum source was the heavy water moderated reactors, for example, CANDU reactor. In the future, large amount of tritium inventory may be the fusion reactor. The test of JET (Joint European Torus) released about 600 GBq of tritium until March in 1992. 80-90% of them were tritium water (HTO). The amount of tritium released from industries and medicine are limited. Although ITER has a large amount of tritium inventory, the amount of release is seemed not to be larger than other nuclear power facility. (S.Y.)

  18. Analyzing powers and proton spin transfer coefficients in the elastic scattering of 800 MeV polarized protons from an L-type polarized deuteron target at small momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.L.

    1986-10-01

    Analyzing powers and spin transfer coefficients which describe the elastic scattering of polarized protons from a polarized deuteron target have been measured. The energy of the proton beam was 800 MeV and data were taken at laboratory scattering angles of 7, 11, 14, and 16.5 degrees. One analyzing power was also measured at 180 degrees. Three linearly independent orientations of the beam polarization were used and the target was polarized parallel and antiparallel to the direction of the beam momentum. The data were taken with the high resolution spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (experiment 685). The results are compared with multiple scattering predictions based on Dirac representations of the nucleon-nucleon scattering matrices. 27 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Tritium transport calculations for the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Jana, E-mail: jana.freund@kit.edu; Arbeiter, Frederik; Abou-Sena, Ali; Franza, Fabrizio; Kondo, Keitaro

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Delivery of material data for the tritium balance in the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module. • Description of the topological models in TMAP and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). • Computation of release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas. • Computation of the loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line. - Abstract: The IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM) is projected to measure online the tritium release from breeder ceramics and beryllium pebble beds under high energy neutron irradiation. Tritium produced in the pebble bed of TRTM is swept out continuously by a purge gas flow, but can also permeate into the module's metal structures, and can be lost by permeation to the environment. According analyses on the tritium inventory are performed to support IFMIF plant safety studies, and to support the experiment planning. This paper describes the necessary elements for calculation of the tritium transport in the Tritium Release Test Module as follows: (i) applied equations for the tritium balance, (ii) material data from literature and (iii) the topological models and the computation of the five different cases; namely release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas, loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line in detail. The problem of tritium transport in the TRTM has been studied and analyzed by the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). TMAP has been developed at INEEL and now exists in Version 7. FUS-TPC Code was written in MATLAB with the original purpose to study the tritium transport in Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) blanket and in a later version the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket by [6] (Franza, 2012). This code has been further modified to be applicable to the TRTM. Results from the

  20. Tritium transport calculations for the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, Jana; Arbeiter, Frederik; Abou-Sena, Ali; Franza, Fabrizio; Kondo, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Delivery of material data for the tritium balance in the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module. • Description of the topological models in TMAP and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). • Computation of release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas. • Computation of the loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line. - Abstract: The IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM) is projected to measure online the tritium release from breeder ceramics and beryllium pebble beds under high energy neutron irradiation. Tritium produced in the pebble bed of TRTM is swept out continuously by a purge gas flow, but can also permeate into the module's metal structures, and can be lost by permeation to the environment. According analyses on the tritium inventory are performed to support IFMIF plant safety studies, and to support the experiment planning. This paper describes the necessary elements for calculation of the tritium transport in the Tritium Release Test Module as follows: (i) applied equations for the tritium balance, (ii) material data from literature and (iii) the topological models and the computation of the five different cases; namely release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas, loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line in detail. The problem of tritium transport in the TRTM has been studied and analyzed by the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). TMAP has been developed at INEEL and now exists in Version 7. FUS-TPC Code was written in MATLAB with the original purpose to study the tritium transport in Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) blanket and in a later version the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket by [6] (Franza, 2012). This code has been further modified to be applicable to the TRTM. Results from the

  1. Tritium determination in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavini, Ricardo M.

    2008-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of tritium in water is described in this paper. The determination is carried out in presence of other radionuclides, such as Fe-55, Ni-63, Mn-54, Zn-65, Co-60, Cd-109, Sr-90, Cs-134 and Cs-137. The method consists in a simple distillation stage prior to measurement by liquid scintillation counting. The samples containing beta and gamma emitters are conditioned with a (NO 3 ) 2 Pb solution and Na(OH) up to pH = 7 - 8. This produces lead hydroxide precipitation that allows fixing volatile elements, which could be transported together with tritium, and may increase the extinction degree of the sample or interfere with the counting process. Special attention must be paid if presence of Fe-55 (E max ∼ 5.95 keV) is suspected as it might not be distinguished from tritium (E max ∼ 18 keV), leading to an overestimation of tritium activity. Different tests were carried to obtain the optimum method conditions, to achieve the purification of the tritium and a pH near to 7 in the distilled. The detection limit (2σ) was 8.0 Bq/l and the distillation performance was 98.3 %. This technique was applied to water samples containing Fe-55 and other gamma radionuclides in 1M hydrochloric acid media in successive Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intercomparison programs. The results obtained were very satisfactory and are presented in this paper. (author)

  2. Future utilization of polarized beams and targets at the ZGS. Report of the Technical Advisory Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    A program is proposed for upgrading the usefulness and attractiveness of ZGS polarized facilities to the user community. It is hoped that the advance approval or completion of parts (or all) of such a program will lead to an accelerated interest in proposing experiments unique to the ZGS, which will open new dimensions in the understanding of high energy phenomena. Recommendations are summarized, and a discussion is given of past activities and future plans of various experimental groups and ZGS facilities. A series of arguments is made concerning possible future ZGS facilities which do not necessarily relate to any specific experiments, suggested or proposed

  3. Preparation of α-alanine-3H by the interaction of atomic tritium heated up to 2000 K with a solid alanine target at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, Eh.S.; Simonov, E.F.; Shishkov, A.V.; Mogil'nikov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    Absorption of hydrogen by alanine targets, the target behaviour and the yield of α-alanine- 3 H were studied in experiments involving straight passage of H and T atoms from the sourse (2000 K) to the target (77 K) as a function of the exposure time. In the studies with 3 H 2 the radioactivity of the gas phase was decreasing more rapidly than the overall pressure of hydrogen: H 3 H accumulates more rapidly in the gas phase. Alanine decomposition products were identified. The conditions for the studies of α-alanine- 3 H are suggested

  4. Hadron-pair production on transversely polarized targets in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Christopher

    Nucleons such as protons and neutrons are composite objects made of quarks, which are bound together by the strong force via the exchange of gluons. The probability of finding a quark of flavor q carrying the momentum fraction x of the fast moving parent nucleon is described by a parton distribution function (PDF) f q 1 ( x ) , the number density. The spin, an intrinsic angular momentum of elementary particles such as quarks but also of composite objects like nucleons, couples with magnetic fields, which allows one to align it. Taking into account this additional parameter, the spin, the scheme of PDFs in leading twist is expanded by the helicity distribution g q 1 ( x ) and the transversity distribution h q 1 ( x ) . The first distribution covers the case where the nucleon and the quark are longitudinally polarized, while a transverse polarization is taken into account by the latter. A tool for the investigation of the PDFs is inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of electro- magnetic probes off (un)pola...

  5. Technology benefits resulting from accelerator production of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    One of the early and most dramatic uses of nuclear transformations was in development of the nuclear weapons that brought World War II to an end. Despite that difficult introduction, nuclear weapons technology has been used largely as a deterrent to war throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) offers a clean, safe, and reliable means of producing the tritium (a heavy form of hydrogen) needed to maintain the nuclear deterrent. Tritium decays away naturally at a rate of about 5.5% per year; therefore, the tritium reservoirs in nuclear weapons must be periodically replenished. In recent years this has been accomplished by recycling tritium from weapons being retired from the stockpile. Although this strategy has served well since the last US tritium production reactor was shut down in 1988, a new tritium production capability will be required within ten years. Some benefits will result from direct utilization of some of the APT proton beam; others could result from advances in the technologies of particle accelerators and high power spallation targets. The APT may save thousands of lives through the production of medical isotopes, and it may contribute to solving the nation's problem in disposing of long-lived nuclear wastes. But the most significant benefit may come from advancing the technology, so that the great potential of accelerator applications can be realized during our lifetimes

  6. Fusion reactor start-up without an external tritium source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, S., E-mail: Shanliang.Zheng@ccfe.ac.uk; King, D.B.; Garzotti, L.; Surrey, E.; Todd, T.N.

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Investigated the feasibility (including plasma physics, neutronics and economics) of starting a fusion reactor from running pure D–D fusion reactor to gradually move towards the D–T operation. • Proposed building up tritium from making use of neutrons generated by D–D fusion reactions. • Studied plasma physics feasibility for pure D–D operation and provided consistent fusion power and neutron yield in the plasma with different mixture of deuterium and tritium. • Discussed the economics aspect for operating a pure D–D fusion reactor towards a full-power D–T fusion reactor. - Abstract: It has long been recognised that the shortage of external tritium sources for fusion reactors using D–T, the most promising fusion fuel, requires all such fusion power plants (FPP) to breed their own tritium. It is also recognised that the initial start-up of a fusion reactor will require several kilograms of tritium within a scenario in which radioactive decay, ITER and subsequent demonstrator reactors are expected to have consumed most of the known tritium stockpile. To circumvent this tritium fuel shortage and ultimately achieve steady-state operation for a FPP, it is essential to first accumulate sufficient tritium to compensate for loss due to decay and significant retention in the materials in order to start a new FPP. In this work, we propose to accumulate tritium starting from D–D fusion reactions, since D exists naturally in water, and to gradually build up the D–T plasma targeted in fusion reactor designs. There are two likely D–D fusion reaction channels, (1) D + D → T + p, and (2) D + D → He3 + n. The tritium can be generated via the reaction channel ‘(1)’ and the 2.45 MeV neutrons from ‘(2)’ react with lithium-6 in the breeding blanket to produce more tritium to be fed back into plasma fuel. Quantitative evaluations are conducted for two blanket concepts to assess the feasibility and suitability of this approach to FPP

  7. Ion-driver fast ignition: Reducing heavy-ion fusion driver energy and cost, simplifying chamber design, target fab, tritium fueling and power conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, G.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Perkins, J.; Caporaso, G.; Tabak, M.; Moir, R.; Meier, W.; Bangerter, Roger; Lee, Ed

    1998-04-01

    Ion fast ignition, like laser fast ignition, can potentially reduce driver energy for high target gain by an order of magnitude, while reducing fuel capsule implosion velocity, convergence ratio, and required precisions in target fabrication and illumination symmetry, all of which should further improve and simplify IFE power plants. From fast-ignition target requirements, we determine requirements for ion beam acceleration, pulse-compression, and final focus for advanced accelerators that must be developed for much shorter pulses and higher voltage gradients than today's accelerators, to deliver the petawatt peak powers and small focal spots ({approx}100 {micro}m) required. Although such peak powers and small focal spots are available today with lasers, development of such advanced accelerators is motivated by the greater likely efficiency of deep ion penetration and deposition into pre-compressed 1000x liquid density DT cores. Ion ignitor beam parameters for acceleration, pulse compression, and final focus are estimated for two examples based on a Dielectric Wall Accelerator; (1) a small target with {rho}r {approx} 2 g/cm{sup 2} for a small demo/pilot plant producing {approx}40 MJ of fusion yield per target, and (2) a large target with {rho}r {approx} 10 g/cm{sup 2} producing {approx}1 GJ yield for multi-unit electricity/hydrogen plants, allowing internal T-breeding with low T/D ratios, >75 % of the total fusion yield captured for plasma direct conversion, and simple liquid-protected chambers with gravity clearing. Key enabling development needs for ion fast ignition are found to be (1) ''Close-coupled'' target designs for single-ended illumination of both compressor and ignitor beams; (2) Development of high gradient (>25 MV/m) linacs with high charge-state (q {approx} 26) ion sources for short ({approx}5 ns) accelerator output pulses; (3) Small mm-scale laser-driven plasma lens of {approx}10 MG fields to provide steep focusing angles

  8. Ion-driver fast ignition: Reducing heavy-ion fusion driver energy and cost, simplifying chamber design, target fab, tritium fueling and power conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, G.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Perkins, J.; Caporaso, G.; Tabak, M.; Moir, R.; Meier, W.; Bangerter, Roger; Lee, Ed

    1998-01-01

    Ion fast ignition, like laser fast ignition, can potentially reduce driver energy for high target gain by an order of magnitude, while reducing fuel capsule implosion velocity, convergence ratio, and required precisions in target fabrication and illumination symmetry, all of which should further improve and simplify IFE power plants. From fast-ignition target requirements, we determine requirements for ion beam acceleration, pulse-compression, and final focus for advanced accelerators that must be developed for much shorter pulses and higher voltage gradients than today's accelerators, to deliver the petawatt peak powers and small focal spots (∼100 (micro)m) required. Although such peak powers and small focal spots are available today with lasers, development of such advanced accelerators is motivated by the greater likely efficiency of deep ion penetration and deposition into pre-compressed 1000x liquid density DT cores. Ion ignitor beam parameters for acceleration, pulse compression, and final focus are estimated for two examples based on a Dielectric Wall Accelerator; (1) a small target with ρr ∼ 2 g/cm 2 for a small demo/pilot plant producing ∼40 MJ of fusion yield per target, and (2) a large target with ρr ∼ 10 g/cm 2 producing ∼1 GJ yield for multi-unit electricity/hydrogen plants, allowing internal T-breeding with low T/D ratios, >75 % of the total fusion yield captured for plasma direct conversion, and simple liquid-protected chambers with gravity clearing. Key enabling development needs for ion fast ignition are found to be (1) ''Close-coupled'' target designs for single-ended illumination of both compressor and ignitor beams; (2) Development of high gradient (>25 MV/m) linacs with high charge-state (q ∼ 26) ion sources for short (∼5 ns) accelerator output pulses; (3) Small mm-scale laser-driven plasma lens of ∼10 MG fields to provide steep focusing angles close-in to the target (built-in as part of each target); (4) beam space charge

  9. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products

  10. Tritium. Today's and tomorrow's developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazal, S.; Amiard, J.C.; Caussade, Bernard; Chenal, Christian; Hubert, Francoise; Sene, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive hydrogen isotope, tritium is one of the radionuclides which is the most released in the environment during the normal operation of nuclear facilities. The increase of nuclear activities and the development of future generations of reactors, like the EPR and ITER, would lead to a significant increase of tritium effluents in the atmosphere and in the natural waters, thus raising many worries and questions. Aware about the importance of this question, the national association of local information commissions (ANCLI) wished to make a status of the existing knowledge concerning tritium and organized in 2008 a colloquium at Orsay (France) with an inquiring approach. The scientific committee of the ANCLI, renowned for its expertise skills, mobilized several nuclear specialists to carry out this thought. This book represents a comprehensive synthesis of today's knowledge about tritium, about its management and about its impact on the environment and on human health. Based on recent scientific data and on precise examples, it treats of the overall questions raised by this radionuclide: 1 - tritium properties and different sources (natural and anthropic), 2 - the problem of tritiated wastes management; 3 - the bio-availability and bio-kinetics of the different tritium species; 4 - the tritium labelling of environments; 5 - tritium measurement and modeling of its environmental circulation; 6 - tritium radio-toxicity and its biological and health impacts; 7 - the different French and/or international regulations concerning tritium. (J.S.)

  11. Tritium breeders and tritium permeation barrier coatings for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamawaki, Michio; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko

    2004-01-01

    A state of R and D of tritium breeders and tritium permeation barrier coatings for fusion reactor is explained. A list of candidate for tritium breeders consists of ceramics containing lithium, for examples, Li 2 O, Li 2 TiO 3 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and LiAlO 2 . The characteristics and form are described. The optimum particle size is from 1 to 10 μm. The production technologies of tritium breeders in the world are stated. Characteristics of ceramics with lithium as tritium breeders are compared. TiC, TiN/TiC, Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 are tritium permeation barrier coating materials. These production methods and evaluation of characteristics are explained. (S.Y.)

  12. Universal tritium transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordaro, J. V.; Wood, M.

    2008-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site and throughout the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) tritium is measured using Ion or Kanne Chambers. Tritium flowing through an Ion Chamber emits beta particles generating current flow proportional to tritium radioactivity. Currents in the 1 x 10 -15 A to 1 x 10 -6 A are measured. The distance between the Ion Chamber and the electrometer in NNSA facilities can be over 100 feet. Currents greater than a few micro-amperes can be measured with a simple modification. Typical operating voltages of 500 to 1000 Volts and piping designs require that the Ion Chamber be connected to earth ground. This grounding combined with long cable lengths and low currents requires a very specialized preamplifier circuit. In addition, the electrometer must be able to supply 'fail safe' alarm signals which are used to alert personnel of a tritium leak, trigger divert systems preventing tritium releases to the environment and monitor stack emissions as required by the United States federal Government and state governments. Ideally the electrometer would be 'self monitoring'. Self monitoring would reduce the need for constant checks by maintenance personnel. For example at some DOE facilities monthly calibration and alarm checks must be performed to ensure operation. NNSA presently uses commercially available electrometers designed specifically for this critical application. The problems with these commercial units include: ground loops, high background currents, inflexibility and susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) which includes RF and Magnetic fields. Existing commercial electrometers lack the flexibility to accommodate different Ion Chamber designs required by the gas pressure, type of gas and range. Ideally the electrometer could be programmed for any expected gas, range and high voltage output. Commercially available units do not have 'fail safe' self monitoring capability. Electronics used to measure extremely low current must have

  13. Pebble fabrication and tritium release properties of an advanced tritium breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: hoshino.tsuyoshi@jaea.go.jp [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuch, Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Edao, Yuki [Tritium Technology Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata, Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kawamura, Yoshinori [Blanket Technology Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro [BA Project Coordination Group, Department of Fusion Power Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuch, Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) pebble as an advanced tritium breeders was fabricated using emulsion method. • Grain size of Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles was controlled to be less than 5 μm. • Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to that of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. - Abstract: Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) has been developed as an advanced tritium breeder. With respect to the tritium release characteristics of the blanket, the optimum grain size after sintering was less than 5 μm. Therefore, an emulsion method was developed to fabricate pebbles with this target grain size. The predominant factor affecting grain growth was assumed to be the presence of binder in the gel particles; this remaining binder was hypothesized to react with the excess Li, thereby generating Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, which promotes grain growth. To inhibit the generation of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, calcined Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles were sintered under vacuum and subsequently under a 1% H{sub 2}–He atmosphere. The average grain size of the sintered Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles was less than 5 μm. Furthermore, the tritium release properties of Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles were evaluated, and deuterium–tritium (DT) neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the Fusion Neutronics Source facility in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. To remove the tritium produced by neutron irradiation, 1% H{sub 2}–He purge gas was passed through the Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties, similar to those of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of tritiated hydrogen gas for easier tritium handling was greater than the released amount of tritiated water.

  14. Evaluation of tritium production rate in a gas-cooled reactor with continuous tritium recovery system for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Hideaki, E-mail: mat@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nakaya, Hiroyuki; Nakao, Yasuyuki [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shimakawa, Satoshi; Goto, Minoru; Nakagawa, Shigeaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Nishikawa, Masabumi [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The performance of a gas-cooled reactor as a tritium production system was studied. • A continuous tritium recovery using helium gas was considered. • Gas-cooled reactors with 3 GW output in all can produce ∼6 kg of tritium in a year • Performance of the system was examined for Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2} compounds. -- Abstract: The performance of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor as a tritium production with continuous tritium recovery system is examined. A gas turbine high-temperature reactor of 300-MWe (600 MW) nominal capacity (GTHTR300) is assumed as the calculation target, and using the continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport code MVP-BURN, burn-up simulations for the three-dimensional entire-core region of the GTHTR300 were performed. A Li loading pattern for the continuous tritium recovery system in the gas-cooled reactor is presented. It is shown that module gas-cooled reactors with a total thermal output power of 3 GW in all can produce ∼6 kg of tritium maximum in a year.

  15. Environmental monitoring for tritium in tritium separation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2001-01-01

    The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project in the nuclear energy national research program, which has the aim of developing technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation. The experimental installation is located 15 km near the highest city of the area and 1 km near Olt River. An important chemical activity is developed in the area and chemical plants make up almost entire neighborhood of the Experimental Cryogenic Pilot. It is necessary to emphasize this aspect because the hall sewage system of the pilot is connected with the one of other three chemical plants from vicinity. This is the reason why we progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring program well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. The first step was the tritium level monitoring in environmental water and sewage from neighboring industrial activity. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation was used to determine tritium activity concentration according to ISO 9698/1998 standard. We measured drinking water, precipitation, river water, underground water and wastewater. The tritium level was between 10 TU and 27 TU what indicates that there is no source of tritium contamination in the neighborhood of Cryogenic Pilot. In order to determine baseline levels we decided to monitor monthly each location. In this paper it is presented a standard method used for tritium determination in water samples, the precautions needed to achieve reliable results and the evolution of tritium level in different location near the Experimental Pilot for Tritium and Deuterium Cryogenic Separation. (authors)

  16. Environmental monitoring for tritium at tritium separation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Steflea, D.; Lazar, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project in the nuclear energy national research program, which has the aim of developing technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation. The experimental installation is located 15 km near the highest city of the area and 1 km near Olt River. An important chemical activity is developed in the area and the Experimental Cryogenic Pilot's, almost the entire neighborhood are chemical plants. It is necessary to emphasize this aspect because the sewerage system is connected with the other three chemical plants from the neighborhood. This is the reason that we progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring program well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. The first step was the tritium level monitoring in environmental water and waste water of industrial activity from neighborhood. In this work, a low background liquid scintillation is used to determine tritium activity concentration according to ISO 9698/1998. We measured drinking water, precipitation, river water, underground water and waste water. The tritium level was between 10 TU and 27 TU that indicates there is no source of tritium contamination in the neighborhood of Cryogenic Pilot. In order to determine baseline levels we decide to monitories monthly each location. In this paper a standard method is presented which it is used for tritium determination in water sample, the precautions needed in order to achieve reliable results, and the evolution of tritium level in different location near the Experimental Pilot Tritium and Deuterium Cryogenic Separation.(author)

  17. Tritium concentration monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shono, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    A device for measuring the concentration of tritium in gaseous wastes in a power plant and a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is reduced in the size and improved in performance. The device of the present invention pressurizes a sampling gas and cools it to a dew point. Water content in the sampling gas cooled to the dew point is condensated and recovered to a fine tube-like water content recovering container. The concentration of the recovered condensates is measured by a tritium density analyzer. With such procedures, since the specimen is pressurized, the dew point can be elevated. Accordingly, the size of the cooling device can be decreased, enabling to contribute to the reduction of the size of the entire device. Further, since the water content recovering device is formed as a fine tube, the area of contact between the specimen gas and the liquid condensated water can be reduced. Accordingly, evaporation of the liquid condensates can be prevented. (I.S.)

  18. Metabolism of organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  19. A prototype wearable tritium monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R. A.; Dubeau, J.

    2008-01-01

    Sudden unexpected changes in tritium-in-air concentrations in workplace air can result in significant unplanned exposures. Although fixed area monitors are used to monitor areas where there is a potential for elevated tritium in air concentrations, they do not monitor personnel air space and may require some time for acute tritium releases to be detected. There is a need for a small instrument that will quickly alert staff of changing tritium hazards. A moderately sensitive tritium instrument that workers could wear would bring attention to any rise in tritium levels that were above predetermined limits and help in assessing the potential hazard therefore minimizing absorbed dose. Hand-held instruments currently available can be used but require the assistance of a fellow worker or restrict the user to using only one hand to perform some duties. (authors)

  20. Effects of tritium in elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    Elastomers are used as flange gaskets in the piping system of the Savannah River Plant tritium facilities. A number of elastomers is being examined to identify those compounds more radiation-resistant than the currently specified Buna-N rubber and to study the mechanism of tritium radiation damage. Radiation resistance is evaluated by compression set tests on specimens exposed to about 1 atm tritium for several months. Initial results show that ethylene-propylene rubber and three fluoroelastomers are superior to Buna-N. Off-gassing measurements and autoradiography show that retained surface absorption of tritium varies by more than an order of magnitude among the different elastomer compounds. Therefore, tritium solubility and/or exchange may have a role in addition to that of chemical structure in the damage process. Ongoing studies of the mechanism of radiation damage include: (1) tritium absorption kinetics, (2) mass spectroscopy of radiolytic products, and (3) infrared spectroscopy

  1. A new technique of ion beam tritium labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Nianbao; Sheng Shugang; Yao Fuzeng

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new technique is reported for tritium labelling of proteins, peptides and other nonvolatile organic compounds. A tritium ion beam is accelerated to bombard solid sample target for producing tritium exchange with hydrogen. The tritium labelling method has been applied to tritiated soybean trypsin inhibitor, ribonuclease A, elastin, pachyman and others totalled 11. After purifying by dialysis, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration, the tritiated proteins and polysaccharide were obtained with specific activity over 37 GBq/mmol, without decomposition and with biological activity well preserved. By amino acid analysis of tritiated protein it was shown that the relative specific radioactivities for His., Tyr. and Phe. residues were higher while those for Val., Ile. and Ser. residues were lower

  2. Tritium production in thorium by 135 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, M.; Simonoff, G.; Tarrago, X.; Bibron, R.

    1960-01-01

    We have measured the cross-section of tritium production by bombardment of thorium by 135 MeV protons in the Orsay synchro-cyclotron. The tritium was separated from the targets by heating in a graphite crucible with a high-frequency generator, under hydrogen gas pressure. Tritiated water was synthesised and the tritium was measured with liquid scintillator. A value of 19.5 ± 0.05 mbarns was obtained for the tritium-cross section and ten percent of tritons have energies higher than 35 MeV. This large cross-section is attributed to a double pick-up process. Reprint of a paper published in Le Journal de Physique et le Radium, t. 20, p. 959, dec 1959 [fr

  3. Tritium Storage Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, Donald F.; Luo, Weifang; Smugeresky, John E.; Robinson, David B.; Fares, Stephen James; Ong, Markus D.; Arslan, Ilke; Tran, Kim L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Sartor, George B.; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Clift, W. Miles

    2008-01-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 nm pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a commercial Pd black were measured.

  4. Toxicity of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Among radionuclides of importance in atomic energy, 3 H has relatively low toxicity. The main health and environmental worry is the possibility that significant biological effects may follow from protracted exposure to low concentrations in water. To examine this possible hazard and measure toxicity at low tritium concentrations, chronic exposure studies were done on mice and monkeys. During vulnerable developmental periods animals were exposed to 3 HOH, and mice were exposed also to 60 Co gamma irradiation and energy-related chemical agents. The biological endpoint measured was the irreversible loss of female germ cells. Effects from tritium were observed at surprisingly low concentrations where 3 H was found more damaging than previously thought. Comparisons between tritium and gamma radiation showed the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) to be greater than 1 and to reach approximately 3 at very low exposures. For perspective, other comparisons were made: between radiation and chemical agents, which revealed parallels in action on germ cells, and between pre- and postnatal exposure, which warn of possible special hazard to the fetus from both classes of energy-related byproducts

  5. Biological effects of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this project is to study the thermal effects on proliferation activity in the intestinal epithelium of the goldfish acclimated at different temperatures (stationary state). The cell division occurs only at certain phases of the circadian cycle when the proliferative activity is synchronized or trained by an environmental factor such as light-dark cycle. Another aspect of the project is the study of the biological effects, non-stochastic, on cell kinetics in animals chronically exposed to low dose rates or tritium and gamma rays from 60 CO, used as a standard radiation. The influence on the accumulated dose per cell and cycle cell in function of the duration of the cell cycle at different acclimation temperatures should be considered. To calculate the risk of tritium contamination from nuclear power plants (radiation exposure), the organic tissue-bond is of decisive importance due to the long turnover of the organic tissue-bond in organisms favouring transport of tritium to other organisms of the ecosystem and to man. (author)

  6. Spin-polarized 3He nuclear targets and metastable 4He atoms by optical pumping with a tunable, Nd:YAP laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohler, C.L.; Schearer, L.D.; Leduc, M.; Nacher, P.J.; Zachorowski, L.; Milner, R.G.; McKeown, R.D.; Woodward, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Several Nd:YAP lasers were constructed which could be broadly tuned in the 1083-nm region which includes the helium 2 3 S-2 3 P transition, using a Lyot filter and thin, uncoated etalons within the laser cavity. 1 W of power could be extracted at 1083 nm through a 1% transmitting output coupler. This laser beam was used to optically pump metastable 4 He and 3 He 2 3 S helium atoms in a weak discharge cell, spin polarizing the metastable ensemble. In a 3 He cell the polarization is transferred to the nuclear spin system. A 3 He target cell at 0.3 Torr was polarized to 52% in a few minutes. We describe the application of this system to the design of polarized targets for experiments in nuclear physics

  7. Tritium removal and retention device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.F.; Durigon, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    A device is provided for removing and retaining tritium from a gaseous medium, and also a method of manufacturing the device. The device, consists of an inner core of zirconium alloy, preferably Zircaloy-4, and an outer adherent layer of nickel which acts as a selective and protective window for passage of tritium. The tritium then reacts with or is absorbed by the zirconium alloy, and is retained until such time as it is desirable to remove it during reprocessing. (auth)

  8. An overview of tritium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Huang Jinghua; Feng Kaiming

    2002-01-01

    The characteristics of three types of proposed tritium production facilities, fissile type, accelerator production tritium (APT), and fusion type, are presented. The fissile reactors, especially commercial light water reactor, use comparatively mature technology and are designed to meet current safety and environmental guidelines. Conversely, APT shows many advantages except its rather high cost, while fusion reactors appear to offer improved safety and environmental impact, in particular, tritium production based on the fusion-based neutron source. However, its cost keeps unknown

  9. Tritium safety issues for TFCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, H.J.; Piet, S.J.; Merrill, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    Estimated tritium releases from the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment are compared to the expected limits. A reaction kinetics model is described that predicts the conversion of tritium to the oxide form in free space. An analysis of the required capacity of the Emergency Tritium Cleanup System is also presented. The conclusions of this work are expected to be applicable to other experimental fusion devices that are now being considered

  10. Tritium behavior in ITER beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1990-10-01

    The beryllium neutron multiplier in the ITER breeding blanket will generate tritium through transmutations. That tritium constitutes a safety hazard. Experiments evaluating tritium storage and release mechanisms have shown that most of the tritium comes out in a burst during thermal ramping. A small fraction of retained tritium is released by thermally activated processes. Analysis of recent experimental data shows that most of the tritium resides in helium bubbles. That tritium is released when the bubbles undergo swelling sufficient to develop porosity that connects with the surface. That appears to occur when swelling reaches about 10--15%. Other tritium appears to be stored chemically at oxide inclusions, probably as Be(OT) 2 . That component is released by thermal activation. There is considerable variation in published values for tritium diffusion through the beryllium and solubility in it. Data from experiments using highly irradiated beryllium from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory showed diffusivity generally in line with the most commonly accepted values for fully dense material. Lower density material, planned for use in the ITER blanket may have very short diffusion times because of the open structure. The beryllium multiplier of the ITER breeding blanket was analyzed for tritium release characteristics using temperature and helium production figures at the midplane generated in support of the ITER Summer Workshop, 1990 in Garching. Ordinary operation, either in Physics or Technology phases, should not result in the release of tritium trapped in the helium bubbles. Temperature excursions above 600 degree C result in large-scale release of that tritium. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Tritium inventory tracking and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichenberg, T.W.; Klein, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    This investigation has identified a number of useful applications of the analysis of the tracking and management of the tritium inventory in the various subsystems and components in a DT fusion reactor system. Due to the large amounts of tritium that will need to be circulated within such a plant, and the hazards of dealing with the tritium an electricity generating utility may not wish to also be in the tritium production and supply business on a full time basis. Possible scenarios for system operation have been presented, including options with zero net increase in tritium inventory, annual maintenance and blanket replacement, rapid increases in tritium creation for the production of additional tritium supplies for new plant startup, and failures in certain system components. It has been found that the value of the tritium breeding ratio required to stabilize the storage inventory depends strongly on the value and nature of other system characteristics. The real operation of a DT fusion reactor power plant will include maintenance and blanket replacement shutdowns which will affect the operation of the tritium handling system. It was also found that only modest increases in the tritium breeding ratio are needed in order to produce sufficient extra tritium for the startup of new reactors in less than two years. Thus, the continuous operation of a reactor system with a high tritium breeding ratio in order to have sufficient supplies for other plants is not necessary. Lastly, the overall operation and reliability of the power plant is greatly affected by failures in the fuel cleanup and plasma exhaust systems

  12. Tritium monitor and collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  13. Tritium accounting for PHWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, P.S.; Duraisamy, S.

    2012-01-01

    Tritium, the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, is produced as a byproduct of the nuclear reactions in the nuclear power plants. In a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) tritium activity is produced in the Heat Transport and Moderator systems due to neutron activation of deuterium in heavy water used in these systems. Tritium activity build up occurs in some of the water systems in the PHWR plants through pick up from the plant atmosphere, inadvertent D 2 O ingress from other systems or transfer during processes. The tritium, produced by the neutron induced reactions in different systems in the reactor undergoes multiple processes such as escape through leaks, storage, transfer to external locations, decay, evaporation and diffusion and discharge though waste streams. Change of location of tritium inventory takes place during intentional transfer of heavy water, both reactor grade and downgraded, from one system to another. Tritium accounting is the application of accounting techniques to maintain knowledge of the tritium inventory present in different systems of a facility and to construct activity balances to detect any discrepancy in the physical inventories. It involves identification of all the tritium hold ups, transfers and storages as well as measurement of tritium inventories in various compartments, decay corrections, environmental release estimations and evaluation of activity generation during the accounting period. This paper describes a methodology for creating tritium inventory balance based on periodic physical inventory taking, tritium build up, decay and release estimations. Tritium accounting in the PHWR plants can prove to be an effective regulatory tool to monitor its loss as well as unaccounted release to the environment. (author)

  14. Tritium-assisted fusion breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1983-08-01

    This report undertakes a preliminary assessment of the prospects of tritium-assisted D-D fuel cycle fusion breeders. Two well documented fusion power reactor designs - the STARFIRE (D-T fuel cycle) and the WILDCAT (Cat-D fuel cycle) tokamaks - are converted into fusion breeders by replacing the fusion electric blankets with 233 U producing fission suppressed blankets; changing the Cat-D fuel cycle mode of operation by one of the several tritium-assisted D-D-based modes of operation considered; adjusting the reactor power level; and modifying the resulting plant cost to account for the design changes. Three sources of tritium are considered for assisting the D-D fuel cycle: tritium produced in the blankets from lithium or from 3 He and tritium produced in the client fission reactors. The D-D-based fusion breeders using tritium assistance are found to be the most promising economically, especially the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium mode of operation in which the 3 He exhausted from the plasma is converted, by neutron capture in the blanket, into tritium which is in turn fed back to the plasma. The number of fission reactors of equal thermal power supported by Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium fusion breeders is about 50% higher than that of D-T fusion breeders, and the profitability is found to be slightly lower than that of the D-T fusion breeders

  15. TFTR tritium operations lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Raftopoulos, S.; LaMarche, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor which is the progenitor for full D-T operating tokamaks has successfully processed > 81 grams of tritium in a safe and efficient fashion. Many of the fundamental operational techniques associated with the safe movement of tritium through the TFTR facility were developed over the course of many years of DOE tritium facilities (LANL, LLNL, SRS, Mound). In the mid 1980's The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at LANL began reporting operational techniques for the safe handling of tritium, and became a major conduit for the transfer of safe tritium handling technology from DOE weapons laboratories to non-weapon facilities. TFTR has built on many of the TSTA operational techniques and has had the opportunity of performing and enhancing these techniques at America's first operational D-T fusion reactor. This paper will discuss negative pressure employing 'elephant trunks' in the control and mitigation of tritium contamination at the TFTR facility, and the interaction between contaminated line operations and Δ pressure control. In addition the strategy employed in managing the movement of tritium through TFTR while maintaining an active tritium inventory of < 50,000 Ci will be discussed. 5 refs

  16. Overview of tritium fast-fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.

    1981-03-01

    Tritium production rates are very important to the development of fast reactors because tritium may be produced at a greater rate in fast reactors than in light water reactors. This report focuses on tritium production and does not evaluate the transport and eventual release of the tritium in a fast reactor system. However, if an order-of-magnitude increase in fast fission yields for tritium is confirmed, fission will become the dominant production source of tritium in fast reactors

  17. Technology developments for improved tritium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.; Spagnolo, D.A.

    1994-06-01

    Tritium technology developments have been an integral part of the advancement of CANDU reactor technology. An understanding of tritium behaviour within the heavy-water systems has led to improvements in tritium recovery processes, tritium measurement techniques and overall tritium control. Detritiation technology has been put in place as part of heavy water and tritium management practices. The advances made in these technologies are summarized. (author). 20 refs., 5 figs

  18. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  19. Tritium sorption by cement and subsequent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, F.; Tanaka, S.; Yamawaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    In a fusion reactor or tritium handling facilities, contamination of concrete by tritium and subsequent release from it to the reactor or experimental rooms is a matter of problem for safety control of tritium and management of operational environment. In order to evaluate these tritium behavior, interaction of tritiated water with concrete or cement should be clarified. In the present study, HTO sorption and subsequent release from cement were studied by combining various experimental methods. From the basic studies on tritium-cement interactions, it has become possible to evaluate tritium uptake by cement or concrete and subsequent tritium release behavior as well as tritium removing methods from them

  20. Study on the temperature control mechanism of the tritium breeding blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changle; Qiu, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Lei; Yao, Damao; Li, Guoqiang; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Songtao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2017-12-01

    The Chinese fusion engineering testing reactor (CFETR) will demonstrate tritium self- sufficiency using a tritium breeding blanket for the tritium fuel cycle. The temperature control mechanism (TCM) involves the tritium production of the breeding blanket and has an impact on tritium self-sufficiency. In this letter, the CFETR tritium target is addressed according to its missions. TCM research on the neutronics and thermal hydraulics issues for the CFETR blanket is presented. The key concerns regarding the blanket design for tritium production under temperature field control are depicted. A systematic theory on the TCM is established based on a multiplier blanket model. In particular, a closed-loop method is developed for the mechanism with universal function solutions, which is employed in the CFETR blanket design activity for tritium production. A tritium accumulation phenomenon is found close to the coolant in the blanket interior, which has a very important impact on current blanket concepts using water coolant inside the blanket. In addition, an optimal tritium breeding ratio (TBR) method based on the TCM is proposed, combined with thermal hydraulics and finite element technology. Meanwhile, the energy gain factor is adopted to estimate neutron heat deposition, which is a key parameter relating to the blanket TBR calculations, considering the structural factors. This work will benefit breeding blanket engineering for the CFETR reactor in the future.

  1. JET experiments with tritium and deuterium–tritium mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horton, L.; Batistoni, P.; Boyer, H.; Challis, C.; Ciric, D.; Donne, A. J. H.; Eriksson, L. G.; Garcia, J.; Garzotti, L.; Gee, S.; Hobirk, J.; Joffrin, E.; Jones, T.; King, D. B.; Knipe, S.; Litaudon, X.; Matthews, G. F.; Monakhov, I.; Murari, A.; Nunes, I.; Riccardo, V.; Sips, A. C. C.; Warren, R.; Weisen, H.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive preparations are now underway for an experiment in the Joint European Torus (JET) using tritium and deuterium–tritium mixtures. The goals of this experiment are described as well as the progress that has been made in developing plasma operational scenarios and physics reference pulses for

  2. Tritium contaminated waste management at the tritium systems test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.; Carlson, R.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos continues to move toward full operation of an integrated, full-sized, computer-controlled fusion fuel processing loop. Concurrent nonloop experiments further the development of advanced tritium technologies and handling methods. Since tritium operations began in June 1984, tritium contaminated wastes have been produced at TSTA that are roughly typical in kind and amount of those to be produced by tritium fueling operations at fusion reactors. Methods of managing these wastes are described, including information on some methods of decontamination so that equipment can be reused. Data are given on the kinds and amounts of wastes and the general level of contamination. Also included are data on environmental emissions and doses to personnel that have resulted from TSTA operations. Particular problems in waste managements are discussed

  3. Separation of S-wave pseudoscalar and pseudovector amplitudes in π-p→π+π-n reaction on polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, R.; Lesniak, L.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-06-01

    A new analysis of S-wave production amplitudes for the reaction π - p→π + π - n on a transversely polarized target is performed. It is based on the results obtained by CERN-Cracow-Munich collaboration in the ππ energy range from 600 MeV to 1600 MeV at 17.2 GeV/c π - momentum. Energy-independent separation of the S-wave pseudoscalar amplitude (π exchange) from the pseudovector amplitude (a 1 exchange) is carried out using assumptions much weaker than those in all previous analyses. We show that, especially around 1000 MeV and around 1500 MeV, the a 1 exchange amplitude cannot be neglected. The scalar-isoscalar ππ phase shift are calculated using fairly weak assumptions. Our results are consistent both with the so called ''up'' and the well-known ''down'' solution, provided we choose those in which the S-wave phases increase slower with the effective ππ mass than the P-wave phases. Above 1420 MeV both sets of phase shifts increase with energy faster than in the experiment on an unpolarized target. This fact can be related to the presence of scalar resonance f o (1500). (author). 41 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  4. Tritium transport and control in the FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The tritium systems for the FED have three primary purposes. The first is to provide tritium and deuterium fuel for the reactor. This fuel can be new tritium or deuterium delivered to the plant site, or recycled DT from the reactor that must be processed before it can be recycled. The second purpose of the FED tritium systems is to provide state-of-the-art tritium handling to limit worker radiation exposure and to minimize tritium losses to the environment. The final major objective of the FED tritium systems is to provide an integrated system test of the tritium handling technology necessary to support the fusion reactor program. Every effort is being made to incorporate available information from the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium systems, and the tritium handling information generated within DOE for the past 20 years

  5. Ontario Hydro diversifies into tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A report is given on a plant which is to be built at the Darlington Candu reactor site in Canada for the extraction of tritium from heavy water. As tritium is used as a fuel in fusion research the market for it is expected to grow. The design of the system is outlined with the help of a flow diagram. (U.K.)

  6. Tritium containment in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The key environmental control systems that have been identified and are being developed are listed. A brief description of each of the following systems is given: primary process materials, permeation barriers, secondary containment, tritium waste treatment, emergency tritium cleanup, maintenance procedures, and tertiary containment

  7. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Moore, M.L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  8. A uranium bed with ceramic body for tritium storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khapov, A.S.; Grishechkin, S.K.; Kiselev, V.G. [' All Russia Research Institute of Automatics' - FSUE VNIIA, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    It is widely recognized that ceramic coatings provide an attractive solution to lower tritium permeation in structural materials. Alumina based ceramic coatings have the highest permeation reduction factor for hydrogen. For this reason an attempt was made to apply crack-free low porous ceramics as a structural material of a bed body for tritium storage in a setup used for hydrogenating neutron tube targets at VNIIA. The present article introduces the design of the bed. This bed possesses essentially a lower hydrogen permeation factor than traditionally beds with stainless steel body. Bed heating in order to recover hydrogen from the bed is suggested to be implemented by high frequency induction means. Inductive heating allows decreasing the time necessary for tritium release from the bed as well as power consumption. Both of these factors mean less thermal power release into glove box where a setup for tritium handling is installed and thus causes fewer problems with pressure regulations inside the glove box. Inductive heating allows raising tritium sorbent material temperature up to melting point. The latter allows achieving nearly full tritium recovery.

  9. Wet scrubber technology for tritium confinement at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevezentsev, A.N., E-mail: alexander.perevezentsev@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Andreev, B.M.; Rozenkevich, M.B.; Pak, Yu.S.; Ovcharov, A.V.; Marunich, S.A. [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, 125047 Miusskaya Sq. 9, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    Operation of the ITER machine with tritium plasma requires tritium confinement systems to protect workers and the environment. Tritium confinement at ITER is based on multistage approach. The final stage provides tritium confinement in building sectors and consists of building's walls as physical barriers and control of sub-atmospheric pressure in those volumes as a dynamic barrier. The dynamic part of the confinement function shall be provided by safety important components that are available all the time when required. Detritiation of air prior to its release to the environment is based on catalytic conversion of tritium containing gaseous species to water vapour followed by their isotopic exchange with liquid water in scrubber column of packed bed type. Wet scrubber technology has been selected because of its advantages over conventional air detritiation technique based on gas drying by water adsorption. The most important design target of system availability was very difficult to meet with conventional water adsorption driers. This paper presents results of experimental trial for validation of wet scrubber technology application in the ITER tritium confinement system and process evaluation using developed simulation computer code.

  10. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Ambiente; Vasselli, R. [ANPA, Roma (Italy); Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Energia

    1994-11-01

    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10{sup 1}1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed.

  11. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A.; Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L.

    1994-11-01

    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10 1 1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed

  12. The tritium operations experience on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halle, A. von; Anderson, J.L.; Gentile, C.; Grisham, L.; Hosea, J.; Kamperschroer, J.; LaMarche, P.; Oldaker, M.; Nagy, A.; Raftopoulos, S.; Stevenson, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium gas system is administratively limited to 5 grams of tritium and provides the feedstock gas for the neutral beam and torus injection systems. Tritium operations on TFTR began with leak checking of gas handling systems, qualification of the gas injection systems, and high power plasma operations using trace amounts of tritium in deuterium feedstock gas. Full tritium operation commenced with four highly diagnosed neutral beam pulses into a beamline calorimeter to verify planned tritium beam operating routines and to demonstrate the deuterium to tritium beam isotope exchange. Since that time, TFTR has successfully operated each of the twelve neutral beam ion sources in tritium during hundreds of tritium beam pulses and torus gas injections. This paper describes the TFTR tritium gas handling systems and TFTR tritium operations of the gas injection systems and the neutral beam ion sources. Tritium accounting and accountability is discussed, including tritium retention issues of the torus limiters and beam impinged surfaces of the beamline components. Also included is tritium beam velocity analysis that compares the neutral beam extracted ion species composition for deuterium and tritium and that determines the extent of beam isotope exchange on subsequent deuterium and tritium beam pulses. The required modifications to TFTR operating routines to meet the U.S. Department of Energy regulations for a low hazard nuclear facility and the problems encountered during initial tritium operations are described. (orig.)

  13. The tritium operations experience on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Halle, A.; Gentile, C.

    1994-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium gas system is administratively limited to 5 grains of tritium and provides the feedstock gas for the neutral beam and torus injection systems. Tritium operations on TFTR began with leak checking of gas handling systems, qualification of the gas injection systems, and high power plasma operations using using trace amounts of tritium in deuterium feedstock gas. Full tritium operation commenced with four highly diagnosed neutral beam pulses into a beamline calorimeter to verify planned tritium beam operating routines and to demonstrate the deuterium to tritium beam isotope exchange. Since that time, TFTR has successfully operated each of the twelve neutral beam ion sources in tritium during hundreds of tritium beam pulses and torus gas injections. This paper describes- the TFTR tritium gas handling systems and TFTR tritium operations of the gas injection systems and the neutral beam ion sources. Tritium accounting and accountability is discussed, including tritium retention issues of the torus limiters and beam impinged surfaces of the beamline components. Also included is tritium beam velocity analysis that compares the neutral beam extracted ion species composition for deuterium and tritium and that determines the extent of beam isotope exchange on subsequent deuterium and tritium beam pulses. The required modifications to TFTR operating routines to meet the US Department of Energy regulations for a low hazard nuclear facility and the problems encountered during initial tritium operations are described

  14. Tritium in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Tritium is a hydrogen isotope taking part in the global hydrogen cycle as well as in all metabolic processes. The resultant problems with respect to the food chain are summarized briefly with emphasis on 'organically bound tritium'. However, only a small number of the numerous publications on this topic can be taken into consideration. Publications describing experiments under defined conditions are reported, thus allowing a semiempirical interpretation to be made. Tritium activity measurements of food grown in the vicinity of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center have been carried out. A list of the results is given. A dose assessment is performed under simplifying assumptions. Even when the organically bound tritium is taken into account, a radiation exposure of less than 1% of that of K-40 is obtained under these conditions. To avoid misinterpretation, the specific activity (Bq H-3/g H) of water-bound and organically bound tritium has to be considered separately. (orig.) [de

  15. Tritium metabolism in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a series of studies designed to evaluate the relative radiotoxicity of various tritiated compounds, metabolism of tritium in rat tissues was studied after administration of tritiated water, leucine, thymidine, and glucose. The distribution and retention of tritium varied widely, depending on the chemical compound administered. Tritium introduced as tritiated water behaved essentially as body water and became uniformly distributed among the tissues. However, tritium administered as organic compounds resulted in relatively high incorporation into tissue constituents other than water, and its distribution differed among the various tissues. Moreover, the excretion rate of tritium from tissues was slower for tritiated organic compounds than for tritiated water. Administrationof tritiated organic compounds results in higher radiation doses to the tissues than does administration of tritiated water. Among the tritiated compounds examined, for equal radioactivity administered, leucine gave the highest radiation dose, followed in turn by thymidine, glucose, and water. (author)

  16. Tritium behaviour in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenot, J.

    1984-05-01

    Vine grapes and potato seedlings have been exposed in situ to tritiated water vapor and 14 C labeled carbon dioxide. Leaves sampling was done during and after the exposition. Measurements allowed to distinguish the three forms of tritium in leaves, i.e. tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT), in exchangeable position or not. The results lead to a description of the dynamical behaviour of tritium between these three compartments. It has been shown that 20% of organically bound hydrogen is readily exchangeable thus being in permanent isotopic equilibium with tissue free water. Moreover, the activity of nonexchangeable OBT appears to be strongly related to the organic 14 C, which shows that photosynthesis is responsible of tritium incorporation in organic nonexchangeable position, and occurs with a 20% discrimination in favor of protium. In contrast with the other two compartments, this fixation is almost irreversible, which is a fact of importance from a radiological point of view [fr

  17. Tritium practices past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gede, V.P.; Gildea, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    History of the production and use of tritium, as well as handling techniques, are reviewed. Handling techniques first used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory made use of glass vacuum systems and relatively crude ion chambers for monitoring airborne activity. The first use of inert atmosphere glove boxes demonstrated that uptake through the skin could be a serious personnel exposure problem. Growing environmental concerns in the early 1970's resulted in the implementation by the Atomic Energy Commission of a new criteria to limit atmospheric tritium releases to levels as low as practicable. An important result of the new criteria was the development of containment and recovery systems to capture tritium rather than vent it to the atmosphere. The Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Tritium Research Laboratory containment and decontamination systems are presented as a typical example of this technology. The application of computers to control systems is expected to provide the greatest potential for change in future tritium handling practices

  18. Scattering of polarized 7Li by 120Sn and projectile-target spin-dependent interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuragi, Y.; Yahiro, M.; Kamimura, M.; Tanifuji, M.

    1986-07-01

    Scattering of 7 Li by 120 Sn targets at E lab = 44 MeV is investigated in the coupled-channel frame by taking account of the projectile virtual excitations to the lowest three excited states. Calculations are performed by the cluster-folding (CF) interactions and the double-folding (DF) one. Both interactions reproduce very well the expeimental data on the cross section, the vector analyzing power, the second-rank tensor ones and the third-rank tensor one in elastic and projectile inelastic scattering, although some differences are found between the CF results and the DF ones. In the calculation, the virtual excitations of the projectile are important for most of the analyzing powers and the spin-orbit interaction is indispensable for the vector analyzing power. These features are in contrast to those in 7 Li - 58 Ni scattering at 20 MeV and are interpreted as over-Coulomb-barrier effects. The scattering amplitudes and the analyzing powers are investigated by the invariant amplitude method, which provides a key connecting the spin-dependent interactions to the analyzing powers. The method proposes an important relationship between the tensor analyzing powers, which is useful in analyses of both theoretical and experimental results. Finally, it is found that in the elastic scattering the second-rank tensor analyzing powers are proportional to the strength of the second-rank tensor interaction and the vector and third-rank tensor analyzing powers to the square or cube of the strength of this interaction, while in the inelastic scattering the cross section is proportional to the square of the strength of the tensor interaction, other quantities being weakly dependent on the strength. (author)

  19. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1976-01-01

    A method for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates.

  20. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates

  1. Notes on T-invariance and polarization effects in the elastic scattering of a particle with spin 1/2 on the unpolarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyuboshits, V.V.; Lyuboshits, V.L.

    1998-01-01

    In the frames of T-invariance the analysis of the general dependence of the elastic scattering effective cross section of a particle with spin 1/2 on the unpolarized target with arbitrary spin upon the initial and final polarizations of the particle has been performed. On the base of the T-symmetry of the differential scattering cross section only, without traditional consideration of the spin structure of scattering amplitudes, a simple proof of the Wolfenstein theorem is obtained (this theorem states that the degree of transverse polarization, arising in the elastic scattering of an unpolarized particle on the unpolarized target, is equal to the coefficient of left-right asymmetry in the elastic scattering of the same but transversally polarized particle on the same target). Meantime, it is ascertained that in the case of P-parity violation (conserving T-invariance) there exists no analogous universal relation between the degree of longitudinal polarization and the coefficient of P-odd spin asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized particles. It is shown, further, that under T-invariance the amplitude and cross section of 'backward' scattering of neutrons on zero-spin nuclei do not depend on spin, and the observation of such a dependence would testify unambiguously to the T-invariance violation. However, according to the fulfilled estimates, the T-noninvariant spin asymmetry in the 'backward' scattering is very small (about 10 -8 - 10 -7 )

  2. Tritium-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkaldy, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    The report deals broadly with tritium-surface interactions as they relate to a fusion power reactor enterprise, viz., the vacuum chamber, first wall, peripherals, pumping, fuel recycling, isotope separation, repair and maintenance, decontamination and safety. The main emphasis is on plasma-surface interactions and the selection of materials for fusion chamber duty. A comprehensive review of the international (particularly U.S.) research and development is presented based upon a literature review (about 1 000 reports and papers) and upon visits to key laboratories, Sandia, Albuquerque, Sandia, Livermore and EGβG Idaho. An inventory of Canadian expertise and facilities for RβD on tritium-surface interactions is also presented. A number of proposals are made for the direction of an optimal Canadian RβD program, emphasizing the importance of building on strength in both the technological and fundamental areas. A compendium of specific projects and project areas is presented dealing primarily with plasma-wall interactions and permeation, anti-permeation materials and surfaces and health, safety and environmental considerations. Potential areas of industrial spinoff are identified

  3. Torus evacuation and tritium handling on NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinner, P.; Chazalon, M.; Iseli, M.

    1986-08-01

    The use of tritium as a fuel affects the design of many systems, as well as requiring several new systems not needed on non DT-burning Tokamaks. This paper summarizes: major tritium process interconnections, tritium flows and inventories; primary requirements, preferred design alternatives, and related development issues; design philosophy for tritium and primary vacuum systems. 14 refs

  4. Contribution to the tritium continental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.R.; Froehlich, K.; Hebert, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of tritium measurements of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation samples for 1982 and 1983 are presented. The data were used to establish a simple model describing the tritium continental effect taking into account re-evaporation of tritium from the continental land surfaces and man-made tritium. (author)

  5. Contribution to the tritium continental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.R.; Froehlich, K.; Hebert, D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of tritium measurements of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation samples for 1982 and 1983 are presented. The data were used to establish a simple model describing the tritium continental effect taking into account re-evaporation of tritium from the continental land surfaces. Some comments on man made tritium are given. (author)

  6. Ionization of oriented targets by intense circularly polarized laser pulses: Imprints of orbital angular nodes in the two-dimensional momentum distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Christian; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a few-cycle circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulse that interacts with an oriented target exemplified by an argon atom, initially in a 3px or 3py state. The photoelectron momentum distributions show distinct signatures o...

  7. Overview of the tritium system of Ignitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzello, C.; Tosti, S.

    2008-01-01

    Among the recent design activities of the Ignitor program, the analysis of the tritium system has been carried out with the aim to describe the main equipments and the operations needed for supplying the deuterium-tritium mixtures and recovering the plasma exhaust. In fact, the tritium system of Ignitor provides for injecting deuterium-tritium mixtures into the vacuum chamber in order to sustain the fusion reaction: furthermore, it generally manages and controls the tritium and the tritiated materials of the machine fuel cycle. Main functions consist of tritium storage and delivery, tritium injection, tritium recovery from plasma exhaust, treatment of the tritiated wastes, detritiation of the contaminated atmospheres, tritium analysis and accountability. In this work an analysis of the designed tritium system of Ignitor is summarized

  8. Nuclear polarization and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaettli, H.

    1985-01-01

    Different possibilities for the use of polarized nuclei in thermal neutron scattering on condensed matter are reviewed. Highly polarized nuclei are the starting point for studying dipolar magnetic order. Systematic measurement of spin-dependent scattering lengths is possible on samples with polarized nuclei. Highly polarized hydrogen should help to unravel complicated structures in chemistry and biology. The use of polarized proton targets as an energy-independent neutron polarizer in the thermal and epithermal region should be considered afresh. (author)

  9. Recent results from the NN-interaction studies with polarized beams and targets at ANKE-COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymov, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    Adding to the nucleon-nucleon scattering database is one of the major priorities of the ANKE collaboration. Such data are necessary ingredients, not only for the understanding of nuclear forces, but also for the description of meson production and other nuclear reactions at intermediate energies. By measuring the cross section, deuteron analysing powers, and spin-correlation parameters in the dp → {pp}sn reaction, where {pp}s represents the 1S0 state, information has been obtained on small-angle neutron-proton spin-flip charge-exchange amplitudes. The measurements of pp elastic scattering by the COSY-EDDA have had a major impact on the partial wave analysis of this reaction above 1 GeV. However, these experiments only extended over the central region of c.m. angles, 300 < θcm < 1500, that has left major ambiguities in the phase shift analysis by the SAID group. In contrast, the small angle region is accessible at ANKE-COSY, that allowed measurement of the differential cross section and the analysing power at 50 < θcm < 300 in the 0.8 — 2.8 GeV energy range. The data on the pn elastic scattering are much more scarce than those of pp, especially in the region above 1.15 GeV. The study of the dp → {pp}s n reaction provides the information about the pn elastic scattering at large angles. The small angle scattering was studied with the polarized proton COSY beam and an unpolarised deuterium gas target. The detection the spectator proton in the ANKE vertex silicon detector allowed to use the deuterium target as an effective neutron one. The analysing powers of the process were obtained at six beam energies from 0.8 to 2.4 GeV.

  10. Effect of Nonlocal Electron Transport in Both Directions on the Symmetry of Polar-Drive--Ignition Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delettrez, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Shvydky, A.; Moses, G.; Cao, D.; Marinak, M. M.

    2012-10-01

    A nonlocal, multigroup diffusion model for thermal electron transportfootnotetextG. P. Schurtz, Ph. D. Nicola"i, and M. Busquet, Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000). has been added to the 2-D hydrodynamic code DRACO. This model has been applied to simulations of polar-drive (PD) NIF ignition designs. Previous simulations were carried out with a constant flux-limiter model in both the radial and transverse directions. Due to the nonsymmetry of PD illumination, these implosions suffer from low-mode nonuniformities that affect their performance. Nonlocal electron transport in both directions is expected to reduce these nonuniformities. The 2-D thermal electron flux from simulations, using either the nonlocal model or the standard flux-limited approach, will be compared and the effect of the nonlocal transport model on the growth of the nonuniformities and on target performance will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  11. Enhancing the intestinal absorption of molecules containing the polar guanidino functionality: a double-targeted prodrug approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-01-28

    A prodrug strategy was applied to guanidino-containing analogues to increase oral absorption via hPEPT1 and hVACVase. l-Valine, l-isoleucine, and l-phenylalanine esters of [3-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl]guanidine (3-HPG) were synthesized and evaluated for transport and activation. In HeLa/hPEPT1 cells, Val-3-HPG and Ile-3-HPG exhibited high affinity to hPEPT1 (IC(50): 0.65 and 0.63 mM, respectively), and all three l-amino acid esters showed higher uptake (2.6- to 9-fold) than the parent compound 3-HPG. Val-3-HPG and Ile-3-HPG demonstrated remarkable Caco-2 permeability enhancement, and Val-3-HPG exhibited comparable permeability to valacyclovir. In rat perfusion studies, Val-3-HPG and Ile-3-HPG permeabilities were significantly higher than 3-HPG and exceeded/matched the high-permeability standard metoprolol, respectively. All the l-amino acid 3-HPG esters were effectively activated in HeLa and Caco-2 cell homogenates and were found to be good substrates of hVACVase (k(cat)/K(m) in mM(-1) x s(-1): Val-3-HPG, 3370; Ile-3-HPG, 1580; Phe-3-HPG, 1660). In conclusion, a prodrug strategy is effective at increasing the intestinal permeability of polar guanidino analogues via targeting hPEPT1 for transport and hVACVase for activation.

  12. Tritium, biography of an element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium is the lightest radioactive atom, an isotope of hydrogen. In science it has many uses, particularly for marking organic molecules in order to find out about biochemical and medical processes. But also the traces of tritium contained in rain or sea water are used for investigations; they range from establishing the vintage of old wines to ascertaining sea water mixtures. Tritium will become important in large-scale technology if it should become possible to construct fusion reactors, since it is one of the fuels. (orig.) [de

  13. Tritium monitor for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalbert, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    This report describes the design, operation, and performance of a flow-through ion-chamber instrument designed to measure tritium concentrations in air containing /sup 13/N, /sup 16/N, and /sup 41/Ar produced by neutrons generated by D-T fusion devices. The instrument employs a chamber assembly consisting of two coaxial ionization chambers. The inner chamber is the flow-through measuring chamber and the outer chamber is used for current subtraction. A thin wall common to both chambers is opaque to the tritium betas. Currents produced in the two chambers by higher energy radiation are automatically subtracted, leaving only the current due to tritium.

  14. The organically bound tritium: an analyst vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Baglan, N.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the work of a work group on tritium analysis. They recall the different physical forms of tritium: gas (HT, hydrogen-tritium), water vapour (HTO or tritiated water) or methane (CH3T), but also in organic compounds (OBT, organically bound tritium) which are either exchangeable or non-exchangeable. They evoke measurement techniques and methods, notably to determine the tritium volume activity. They discuss the possibilities to analyse and distinguish exchangeable and non-exchangeable OBTs

  15. Tritium incorporation in lipid preparations by catalytic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.P.; Bezuglov, V.V.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1983-01-01

    A series of polar and nonpolar lipids labelled with tritium, which are the most important components of biological membranes, has been prepared. Possible ways to increase the yield and molar radioactivity of biologically active preparations are considered. A supposition is made, that all the factors promoting dissociative adsorption of substrates during heterogeneous catalysis, should promote the increase in product yield of the initial structure and preparation of labelled preparations with molar radioactivity sufficient for carrying out the major part of biological studies

  16. Tritium monitoring at the Sandia Tritium Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, T.K.

    1978-10-01

    Sandia Laboratories at Livermore, California, is presently beginning operation of a Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL). The laboratory incorporates containment and cleanup facilities such that any unscheduled tritium release is captured rather than vented to the atmosphere. A sophisticated tritium monitoring system is in use at the TRL to protect operating personnel and the environment, as well as ensure the safe and effective operation of the TRL decontamination systems. Each monitoring system has, in addition to a local display, a display in a centralized control room which, when coupled room which, when coupled with the TRL control computer, automatically provides an immediate assessment of the status of the entire facility. The computer controls a complex alarm array status of the entire facility. The computer controls a complex alarm array and integrates and records all operational and unscheduled tritium releases

  17. JET experiments with tritium and deuterium–tritium mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Lorne, E-mail: Lorne.Horton@jet.uk [JET Exploitation Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Batistoni, P. [Unità Tecnica Fusione - ENEA C. R. Frascati - via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Roma), 00044, Frascati (Italy); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Boyer, H.; Challis, C.; Ćirić, D. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Donné, A.J.H. [EUROfusion Programme Management Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); FOM Institute DIFFER, PO Box 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Eriksson, L.-G. [European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Garcia, J. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Garzotti, L.; Gee, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hobirk, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Joffrin, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • JET is preparing for a series of experiments with tritium and deuterium–tritium mixtures. • Physics objectives include integrated demonstration of ITER operating scenarios, isotope and alpha physics. • Technology objectives include neutronics code validation, material studies and safety investigations. • Strong emphasis on gaining experience in operation of a nuclear tokamak and training scientists and engineers for ITER. - Abstract: Extensive preparations are now underway for an experiment in the Joint European Torus (JET) using tritium and deuterium–tritium mixtures. The goals of this experiment are described as well as the progress that has been made in developing plasma operational scenarios and physics reference pulses for use in deuterium–tritium and full tritium plasmas. At present, the high performance plasmas to be tested with tritium are based on either a conventional ELMy H-mode at high plasma current and magnetic field (operation at up to 4 MA and 4 T is being prepared) or the so-called improved H-mode or hybrid regime of operation in which high normalised plasma pressure at somewhat reduced plasma current results in enhanced energy confinement. Both of these regimes are being re-developed in conjunction with JET's ITER-like Wall (ILW) of beryllium and tungsten. The influence of the ILW on plasma operation and performance has been substantial. Considerable progress has been made on optimising performance with the all-metal wall. Indeed, operation at the (normalised) ITER reference confinement and pressure has been re-established in JET albeit not yet at high current. In parallel with the physics development, extensive technical preparations are being made to operate JET with tritium. The state and scope of these preparations is reviewed, including the work being done on the safety case for DT operation and on upgrading machine infrastructure and diagnostics. A specific example of the latter is the planned calibration at

  18. Thought experiment with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.F.; Everhart, J.L.; Hobrock, D.L.; Seabaugh, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment is proposed in which a minimum of thirty (30) grams of tritium is packaged as lithium tritide in a steel container weighing several kilograms. After decontamination of the outside surface, calorimetry measurements would be made, and the unit would be weighed very accurately. After several decades, the calorimeter and weight measurements would be repeated. If the weight measurements could be made with the required accuracy, it would be possible to correlate the observed change in mass with the total energy emitted (calculated from the mean energy measured by calorimetry) over the time interval. If successful, this experiment would, in the opinion of the authors, be the first laboratory experiment to directly verify the equivalency of mass and energy. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  19. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, J.W.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  20. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  1. Tritium containment of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Tsukumo, Kiyohiko; Suzuki, Tatsushi

    1979-01-01

    It is well known that tritium is used as the fuel for nuclear fusion reactors. The neutrons produced by the nuclear fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium react with lithium in blankets, and tritium is produced. The blankets reproduce the tritium consumed in the D-T reaction. Tritium circulates through the main cooling system and the fuel supply and evacuation system, and is accumulated. Tritium is a radioactive substance emitting β-ray with 12.6 year half-life, and harmful to human bodies. It is an isotope of hydrogen, and apt to diffuse and leak. Especially at high temperature, it permeates through materials, therefore it is important to evaluate the release of tritium into environment, to treat leaked tritium to reduce its release, and to select the method of containing tritium. The permeability of tritium and its solubility in structural materials are discussed. The typical blanket-cooling systems of nuclear fusion reactors are shown, and the tungsten coating of steam generator tubes and tritium recovery system are adopted for reducing tritium leak. In case of the Tokamak type reactor of JAERI, the tritium recovery system is installed, in which the tritium gas produced in blankets is converted to tritium steam with a Pd-Pt catalytic oxidation tower, and it is dehydrated and eliminated with a molecular sieve tower, then purified and recovered. (Kako, I.)

  2. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  3. Tritium transport around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Sweet, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    The transport and cycling of tritium around nuclear facilities is reviewed with special emphasis on studies at the Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina. These studies have shown that the rate of deposition from the atmosphere, the site of deposition, and the subsequent cycling are strongly influenced by the compound with which the tritium is associated. Tritiated hydrogen is largely deposited in the soil, while tritiated water is deposited in the greatest quantity in the vegetation. Tritiated hydrogen is converted in the soil to tritiated water that leaves the soil slowly, through drainage and transpiration. Tritiated water deposited directly to the vegetation leaves the vegetation more rapidly after exposure. Only a small part of the tritium entering the vegetation becomes bound in organic molecules. However, it appears tht the existence of soil organic compounds with tritium concentrations greater than the equilibrium concentration in the associated water can be explained by direct metabolism of tritiated hydrogen in vegetation

  4. TFTR tritium inventory accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saville, C.; Ascione, G.; Elwood, S.; Nagy, A.; Raftopoulos, S.; Rossmassler, R.; Stencel, J.; Voorhees, D.; Tilson, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the program, PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) Material Control and Accountability Plan, that has been implemented to track US Department of Energy's tritium and all other accountable source material. Specifically, this paper details the methods used to measure tritium in various systems at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor; resolve inventory differences; perform inventory by difference inside the Tokamak; process and measure plasma exhaust and other effluent gas streams; process, measure and ship scrap or waste tritium on molecular sieve beds; and detail organizational structure of the Material Control and Accountability group. In addition, this paper describes a Unix-based computerized software system developed at PPPL to account for all tritium movements throughout the facility. 5 refs., 2 figs

  5. Tritium management for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, J.L.; Djerassi, H.

    1985-01-01

    To determine a waste management strategy, one has to identify first the wastes (quantities, activities, etc.), then to define options, and to compare these options by appropriate criteria and evaluations. Two European Associations are working together, i.e., Studsvik and CEA, on waste treatment and tritium problems. A contribution to fusion specific tritiated waste management strategy is presented. It is demonstrated that the best strategy is to retain tritium (outgas and recover, or immobilize it) so that residual tritium releases are kept to a minimum. For that, wastes are identified, actual regulations are described and judged inadequate without amendments for fusion problems. Appropriate criteria are defined. Options for treatment and disposal of tritiated wastes are proposed and evaluated. A tritium recovery solution is described

  6. Radiotoxicity of tritium in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silini, G.; Metalli, P.; Vulpis, G.

    1972-12-01

    Basic data relative to tritium, its physicochemical behaviour in environment, its major sources of contamination and its metabolism through the mammalian organisms are reviewed. After considering the radiotoxicity of tritium particularly at the cellular and whole-body level the conclusion is drawn that the major uncertainties regard the fraction of tritium incorporated into the nuclei of some tissues. This fraction is eliminated very slowly and is capable of modifying the genetic structures of the nucleus. A more refined analysis of radiobiological phenomena and a better knowledge of the dose effect relationship should permit the extrapolation of the data to the low doses of tritium contamination. This extrapolation is of great interest in the field of public health for the elaboration of the relevant radioprotection standards

  7. Tritium transport around nuclear faciliteis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Sweet, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The transport and cycling of tritium around nuclear facilities is reviewed with special emphasis on studies at the Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina. These studies have shown that the rate of deposition from the atmosphere, the site of deposition, and the subsequent cycling are strongly influenced by the compound with which the tritium is associated. Tritiated hydrogen is largely deposited in the soil, while tritiated water is deposited in the greatest quantity in the vegetation. Tritiated hydrogen is converted in the soil to tritiated water that leaves the soil slowly, through drainage and transpiration. Tritiated water deposited directly to the vegetation leaves the vegetation more rapidly after exposure. Only a small part of the tritium entering the vegetation becomes bound in organic molecules. However, it appears that the existence of soil organic compounds with tritium concentrations greater than the equilibrium concentration in the associated water can be explained by direct metabolism of tritiated hydrogen in vegetation. (J.P.N.)

  8. Tritium in fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.; Talbot, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    When tritium is used in a fusion energy experiment or reactor, several implications affect and usually restrict the design and operation of the system and involve questions of containment, inventory, and radiation damage. Containment is expected to be particularly important both for high-temperature components and for those components that are prone to require frequent maintenance. Inventory is currently of major significance in cases where safety and environmental considerations limit the experiments to very low levels of tritium. Fewer inventory restrictions are expected as fusion experiments are placed in more-remote locations and as the fusion community gains experience with the use of tritium. However, the advent of power-producing experiments with high-duty cycle will again lead to serious difficulties based principally on tritium availability; cyclic operations with significant regeneration times are the principal problems

  9. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.; Cruz, S.L.

    1985-08-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND83-8036. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy 5630 series Orders, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  10. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability

  11. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.

    1981-03-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, Building 968 at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND78-8018. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy Manual, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  12. Design and test about de tritium system to filling tritium glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Jiarong; Du, Yang; Yang, Yong

    2008-01-01

    In order to deal tritium permeated from inflating tritium system at the scene of inflating tritium, dealing waste tritium gas system was designed according to demand and action of dealing waste tritium gas from inflating tritium, and the data of character and volume about appliance of catalyst reaction and drying agent was calculated. Through the test at the scene of inflating tritium, it is result that dealing waste tritium gas system's efficiency reaches above 85% average in circulatory system, so that it can be used in practice extensively. (author)

  13. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 (micro)C 1 tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 (micro)C 1 /L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 (micro)C 1 /L to 0.07 (micro)C 1 /L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 (micro)C 1 /L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest

  14. Tritium research activities in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Jung, E-mail: kjjung@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei-Hun, E-mail: shyun@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Min Ho; Kang, Hyun-Goo; Chung, Dongyou; Cho, Seungyon; Lee, Hyeon Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hongsuk; Choi, Woo-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyu-Min; Moon, Chang-Bae [Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Central Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Euy Soo [Dongguk University, Jung-gu, Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jungho; Kim, Dong-Sun [Kongju National University, Cheonan, Chungnam, 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hung-Man [Daesung Industrial Gases Co., Ltd., Danwon-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 425-090 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Seung Jeong [Dankook University, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Hyunchul [Inha University, Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Tae-Whan [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, Chungbuk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • NFRI, KAERI and KHNP CRI are major leading group for the ITER tritium SDS design; studying engineering, simulation of hydride bed, risk analysis (on safety, HAZOP), basic study, control logic & sequential operation, and others. KHNP has WTRF which gives favorable experiences for collaboration researchers. • Supplementary research partners: Five Universities (Dongguk University and POSTECH, Inha University, Dankook University, Korea National Transport University, and Kongju National University) and one industrial company (Daesung Industrial Gases Co., Ltd.); studying on basic and engineering, programming & simulation on the various topics for ITER tritium SDS, TEP, ISS, ADS, and etc. - Abstract: Major progress in tritium research in the Republic of Korea began when Korea became responsible for ITER tritium Storage and Delivery System (SDS) procurement package which is part of the ITER Fuel Cycle. To deliver the tritium SDS package, a variety of research institutes, universities and industry have respectively taken roles and responsibilities in developing technologies that have led to significant progress. This paper presents the current work and status of tritium related technological research and development (R&D) in Korea and introduces future R&D plans in the area of fuel cycle systems for fusion power generation.

  15. Tritium concentrations in tree ring cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Toshio; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Takashima, Yoshimasa.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of tritium (tissue bound tritium; TBT) concentration in tree rings are presented and discussed. Such measurement is expected to provide a useful means of estimating the tritium level in the environment in the past. The concentration of tritium bound in the tissue (TBT) in a tree ring considered to reflect the environmental tritium level in the area at the time of the formation of the ring, while the concentration of tritium in the free water in the tissue represents the current environmental tritium level. First, tritium concentration in tree ring cellulose sampled from a cedar tree grown in a typical environment in Fukuoka Prefecture is compared with the tritium concentration in precipitation in Tokyo. Results show that the year-to-year variations in the tritium concentration in the tree rings agree well with those in precipitation. The maximum concentration, which occurred in 1963, is attibuted to atmospheric nuclear testing which was performed frequently during the 1961 - 1963 period. Measurement is also made of the tritium concentration in tree ring cellulose sampled from a pine tree grown near the Isotope Center of Kyushu University (Fukuoka). Results indicate that the background level is higher probably due to the release of tritium from the facilities around the pine tree. Thus, measurement of tritium in tree ring cellulose clearly shows the year-to-year variation in the tritium concentration in the atmosphere. (N.K.)

  16. The time series variations of tritium concentration in precipitation and its relationships to the rainfall-inducing air mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Jun

    1978-01-01

    The author measured the tritium concentration in precipitation of Tokyo for every ten-day period from August 1972 to May 1974. Judging from the daily synoptic weather chart, the rainfall-inducing air masses in Japan were classified into five types; polar maritime air mass (Pm), polar continental air mass (Pc), tropical maritime air mass (Tm), tropical continental air mass (Tc), and equatorial maritime air mass (Em). And the precipitation for every ten-day period sampled for tritium measurement were classified into these five types. Based on this classification, it is confirmed that there exist clear difference in the tritium concentration between the rainfall from the continental air mass and ones from the maritime air mass. It is characteristic that the tritium concentration in rainfall induced by equatorial maritime air mass such as typhoon in summer and early fall season is very low whereas the tritium concentration in rainfall and snowfall induced directly by the polar continental air mass in late winter season is very high. The regional difference of the tritium concentration in intermonthly precipitation could considerably be explained by this synoptic meteological classification of rainfall-inducing air mass. In spite of these regional difference of tritium concentration in precipitation, use of the tritium concentration of Tokyo as a representative value of Japan may be allowed because of the similarities of the changing pattern and annual mean tritium concentration. The time series variations of tritium concentration in precipitation of Tokyo from August 1972 to December 1977, Tsukuba from December 1976 to April 1978, and Nagaoka from April 1977 to March 1978 are listed. (author)

  17. Polarization Utilization in Radar Target Reconstruction: C-Wide (Multi-Frequency) Band Relationship of a Target’s Characteristic Operators with Its Unique Set of Natural Eigenfrequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-14

    the left half of the s- plane . These are representation independent. We shall be interested in these poles only. These poles are the complex...on the Left Half Plane Asymptotic Behavior of the SEM Expansion of Surface Currents, Published in Special Issue on the Singularity Expansion Method...precisely, the polarization chart is an orthogonal projection of the Poincare Sphere on a plane , having polar coordinates p= cos (2-) and

  18. A new technique for ion beam tritium labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Nianbao; Sheng Shugang; Yao Fuzeng

    1990-06-01

    An advanced technique, the ion beam tritium labelling method (IBTL), used for labelling proteins, peptides and other nonvolatile organic compounds is introduced. In this method the excited tritium ion beam is accelerated and then bombs a solid sample target in which tritium exchanging for hydrogen is taken place. The IBTL has been used for preparation of tritiated soybean trypsin inhibitor, ribonuclease A, elastin and pachyman etc. After purifing by dialysis, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration, the tritiated proteins and polysaccharide were obtained with the specific activity over 37 GBq/mmol, the function of tritiated decomposition products was not found. The product was shown to have native biological activity. Amino acid analysis of tritiated protein showed that the relative specific radioactivities were higher for His., Tyr. and Phe. but lower for Val., Ile. and Ser

  19. Marine target detection in quad-pol synthetic aperture radar imagery based on the relative phase of cross-polarized channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunhua; Li, Huimin; Zhang, Yanmin; Guo, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    A focus on marine target detection in noise corrupted fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is presented. The property of the relative phase between two cross-polarized channels reveals that the relative phases evaluated within sea surface area or noise corrupted area are widely spread phase angle region [-π,π] due to decorrelation effect; however, the relative phases are concentrated to zero and ±π for real target and its first-order azimuth ambiguities (FOAAs), respectively. Exploiting this physical behavior, the reciprocal of the mean square value of the relative phase (RMSRP) is defined as a new parameter for target detection, and the experiments based on fully polarimetric Radarsat-2 SAR images show that the strong noise and the FOAAs can be effectively suppressed in RMSRP image. Meanwhile, validity of the new parameter for target detection is also verified by two typical Radarsat-2 SAR images, in which targets' ambiguities and strong noise are present.

  20. Absence of molecular deuterium dissociation during room-temperature permeation into polystyrene ICF target shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.; Alexander, N.; Fan, Q.; Gram, R.; Kim, H.

    1991-01-01

    Polystyrene microshells filled with deuterium and tritium gas are important target shells for inertially confined fusion (ICF) and are particularly promising for target containing spin-polarized hydrogens fuels. A currently active approach to the latter uses polarized D in HD, in a method which requires preservation of the high purity of the initially prepared HD (very low specified H 2 and D 2 concentrations). This would not be possible if dissociation should occur during permeation into the target shells. We have thus tested polystyrene shells using a novel method which employs very pure polystyrene shells using a novel method which employs very pure ortho-D 2 as the test gas. An upper limit of 6 x 10 -4 was deduced for the dissociation of D 2 upon room temperature permeation through an approximately 8 um wall of polystyrene, clearing the way for use of polystyrene target shells for ICF fusion experiments with spin-polarized hydrogens fuels. 19 refs., 1 fig

  1. Exploration for tritium-free water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.D.

    1982-10-01

    Tritium-free water is generally required in large quantities for the preparation of laboratory tritium standards as well as blanks which are used to determine background count rate in the measurement of low level tritium concentrations in water samples by liquid scintillation counting method. In order to meet the requirements of tritium-free water and save the recurring expenditure on its import from abroad, exploration for locating its source in the country was undertaken. Water samples collected from a few possible sources were analysed precisely for their tritium content at the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria and a source of tritium-free water was determined. (authors)

  2. Tritium problems in fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    A brief introduction is given to the role tritium will play in the development of fusion power. The biological and worldwide environmental behavior of tritium is reviewed. The tritium problems expected in fusion power reactors are outlined. A few thoughts on tritium permeation and recent results for tritium cleanup and CT 4 accumulation are presented. Problems involving the recovery of tritium from the breeding blanket in fusion power reactors are also considered, including the possible effect of impurities in lithium blankets and the use of lithium as a regenerable getter pump. (auth)

  3. Single-spin asymmetry in electro-production of {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} pairs from a transversely polarized proton target at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiao-Rui

    2008-10-15

    In this thesis, the measurement of an azimuthal amplitude of the asymmetry in the lepto-production of {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} pairs at the HERMES experiment is reported. The experiment was carried out at DESY in Germany, utilizing the longitudinally polarized 27.6 GeV electron/positron beam of the HERA storage ring in combination with a longitudinally or transversely polarized gaseous target internal to the beam pipe. For the present measurement, the transversely polarized proton target was used and the beam polarization was averaged out in order to measure the asymmetry A{sub UT}. A Ring Imaging Cerenkov (RICH) detector allows the precise identification of pions, kaons and protons over essentially the entire momentum range of the experiment. The asymmetry A{sub UT} for {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} pair production was measured for the first time in the world by HERMES. The amplitudes are extracted as functions of different kinematic variables, which can facilitate the comparison with the theoretical models and the extraction of transversity with combination of the measurement of the dihadron fragmentation function. (orig.)

  4. Single-spin asymmetry in electro-production of π+ π- pairs from a transversely polarized proton target at the HERMES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiao-Rui

    2008-09-01

    In this thesis, the measurement of an azimuthal amplitude of the asymmetry in the lepto-production of π + π - pairs at the HERMES experiment is reported. The experiment was carried out at DESY in Germany, utilizing the longitudinally polarized 27.6 GeV electron/positron beam of the HERA storage ring in combination with a longitudinally or transversely polarized gaseous target internal to the beam pipe. For the present measurement, the transversely polarized proton target was used and the beam polarization was averaged out in order to measure the asymmetry A UT . A Ring Imaging Cerenkov (RICH) detector allows the precise identification of pions, kaons and protons over essentially the entire momentum range of the experiment. The asymmetry A UT for π + π - pair production was measured for the first time in the world by HERMES. The amplitudes are extracted as functions of different kinematic variables, which can facilitate the comparison with the theoretical models and the extraction of transversity with combination of the measurement of the dihadron fragmentation function. (orig.)

  5. Studies on chemical phenomena of high concentration tritium water and organic compounds of tritium from viewpoint of the tritium confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takumi; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Hara, Masanori; Sugiyama, Takahiko; Okuno, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the grant-in-aid for scientific research on priority areas entitled 'frontiers of tritium researches toward fusion reactors', coordinated two research programs on chemical phenomena of high concentration tritium water and organic compounds of tritium from view point of the tritium confinement have been conducted by the C01 team. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Chemical effects of the high concentration tritium water on stainless steels as structural materials of fusion reactors were investigated. Basic data on tritium behaviors at the metal-water interface and corrosion of metal in tritium water were obtained. (2) Development of the tritium confinement and extraction system for the circulating cooling water in the fusion reactor was studied. Improvement was obtained in the performance of a chemical exchange column and catalysts as major components of the water processing system. (J.P.N.)

  6. Turkey Point tritium. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostlund, H.G.; Dorsey, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972-73 the Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) began operation of two nuclear reactors at Turkey Point on lower Biscayne Bay. One radioactive by-product resulting from the operation of the nuclear reactors, tritium, provides a unique opportunity to study transport and exchange processes on a local scale. Since the isotope in the form of water is not removed from the liquid effluent, it is discharged to the cooling canal system. By studying its residence time in the canal and the pathways by which it leaves the canals, knowledge of evaporative process, groundwater movement, and bay exchange with the ocean can be obtained. Preliminary results obtained from measurement of tritium levels, both in the canal system and in the surrounding environment are discussed. Waters in lower Biscayne Bay and Card and Barnes Sounds receive only a small portion of the total tritium produced by the nuclear plant. The dominating tritium loss most likely is through evaporation from the canals. The capability of measuring extremely low HTO levels allows the determination of the evaporation rate experimentally by measuring the tritium levels of air after having passed over the canals

  7. Tritium in the environment. Knowledge synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report first presents the nuclear and physical-chemical properties of tritium and addresses the notions of bioaccumulation, bio-magnification and remanence. It describes and comments the natural and anthropic origins of tritium (natural production, quantities released in the environment in France by nuclear tests, nuclear plants, nuclear fuel processing plants, research centres). It describes how tritium is measured as a free element (sampling, liquid scintillation, proportional counting, enrichment method) or linked to organic matter (combustion, oxidation, helium-3-based measurement). It discusses tritium concentrations noticed in different parts of the environment (soils, continental waters, sea). It describes how tritium is transferred to ecosystems (transfer of atmospheric tritium to ground ecosystems, and to soft water ecosystems). It discusses existing models which describe the behaviour of tritium in ecosystems. It finally describes and comments toxic effects of tritium on living ground and aquatic organisms

  8. Recommended radiological controls for tritium operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, G.

    1992-01-01

    This informal report presents recommendations for an adequate radiological protection program for tritium operations. Topics include hazards analysis, facility design, personnel protection equipment, training, operational procedures, radiation monitoring, to include surface and airborne tritium contamination, and program management

  9. Tritium in metals: Techniques of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laesser, R.; Klatt, K.H.; Mecking, P.; Wenzl, H.

    1982-08-01

    In order to study the behavior of tritium in metals, an all metal apparatus has been built for the safe handling of 100 mg of tritium. Samples of palladium, vanadium, niobium, and tantalum were loaded with tritium, deuterium or hydrogen. Some details of the phase diagrams could be established by DTA and by measurement of the lattice parameters. The diffusion of tritium in V, Nb, and Ta was studied with the Gorsky-effect. (TWO)

  10. Tritium decontamination of machine components and walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.; Wong, K.Y.; Jalbert, R.A.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium decontamination techniques for machine components and their application at tritium handling facilities are reviewed. These include commonly used methods such as vacuuming, purging, thermal desorption and isotopic exchange as well as less common methods such as chemical/electrochemical etching, plasma discharge cleaning, and destructive methods. Problems associated with tritium contamination of walls and use of protective coatings are reviewed. Tritium decontamination considerations at fusion facilities are discussed

  11. Long life neutron generator target using deuterium pass-through structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Target structure permits all deuterons, except the one-in-a-million that interacts with tritium atom to produce a neutron, to pass completely through target structure and be returned to vacuum system. Since tritium atoms are not displaced as in conventional targets, tritium population will remain unchanged while under deuteron bombardment.

  12. Tritium calorimeter setup and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Rodgers, D E

    2002-01-01

    The LBNL tritium calorimeter is a stable instrument capable of measuring tritium with a sensitivity of 25 Ci. Measurement times range from 8-hr to 7-days depending on the thermal conductivity and mass of the material being measured. The instrument allows accurate tritium measurements without requiring that the sample be opened and subsampled, thus reducing personnel exposure and radioactive waste generation. The sensitivity limit is primarily due to response shifts caused by temperature fluctuation in the water bath. The fluctuations are most likely a combination of insufficient insulation from ambient air and precision limitations in the temperature controller. The sensitivity could probably be reduced to below 5 Ci if the following improvements were made: (1) Extend the external insulation to cover the entire bath and increase the top insulation. (2) Improve the seal between the air space above the bath and the outside air to reduce evaporation. This will limit the response drift as the water level drops. (...

  13. Polymeric media for tritium fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, J.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis and leach testing of several polymeric media for tritium fixation are presented. Tritiated bakelite, poly(acrylonitrile) and polystyrene successfully fixed tritium. Tritium leach rates at the tracer level appear to be negligible. Advantages and disadvantages of the processes are discussed, and further bench-scale investigations underway are reported. Rough cost estimates are presented for the different media and are compared with alternate approaches such as deep-well injection and long-term tank storage. Polymeric media costs are high compared to deep-well storage and are of the same order of magnitude per liter of water as for isotopic enrichment. With this limitation, polymeric media can be economically feasible only for highly concentrated tritiated wastes. It is recommended that the bakelite and polystyrene processes be examined on a larger scale to permit more accurate cost analysis and process design. (auth)

  14. Tritium processing using metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company is commissioned by the US Department of Energy to operate the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory. The primary purpose of the plant is to produce radioactive materials for national defense. In keeping with current technology, new processes for the production of tritium are being developed. Three main objectives of this new technology are to ease the processing of, ease the storage of, and to reduce the operating costs of the tritium production facility. Research has indicated that the use of metal hydrides offers a viable solution towards satisfying these objectives. The Hydrogen and Fuels Technology Division has the responsibility to conduct research in support of the tritium production process. Metal hydride technology and its use in the storage and transportation of hydrogen will be reviewed

  15. Implanted-tritium permeation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Holland, D.F.; Casper, L.A.; Hsu, P.Y.; Miller, L.G.; Schmunk, R.E.; Watts, K.D.; Wilson, C.J.; Kershner, C.J.; Rogers, M.L.

    1982-04-01

    In fusion reactors, charge exchange neutral atoms of tritium coming from the plasma will be implanted into the first wall and other interior structures. EG and G Idaho is conducting two experiments to determine the magnitude of permeation into the coolant streams and the retention of tritium in those structures. One experiment uses an ion gun to implant deuterium. The ion gun will permit measurements to be made for a variety of implantation energies and fluxes. The second experiment utilizes a fission reactor to generate a tritium implantation flux by the 3 He(n,p) 3 H reaction. This experiment will simulate the fusion reactor radiation environment. We also plan to verify a supporting analytical code development program, in progress, by these experiments

  16. Laser Fusion: status, future, and tritium control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, P.E.

    1978-11-01

    At Livermore the 10 kJ, 20 to 30 TW Shiva facility is now operational and producing regular new fusion results. Design work has begun on a 200 to 300 TW laser designed to carry the program through the first breakeven demonstration experiments in the mid-1980's. Confidence in reaching this goal is based on the significant progress we have made in state-of-the-art, high-power Nd:glass laser technology, in experimental laser fusion and laser plasma interaction physics, and in theoretical and analytical computer codes which reliably model and predict experimental results. For all of these experiments, a variety of fusion targets are being fabricated in the laboratory, and the control and handling of tritium is now a regular and routine part of ongoing inertial fusion experiments. Target design with gains of about 1000 have been studied and the means to mass produce such pellets at low cost are also being developed

  17. Tritium emissions from a detritiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, L.; El-Behairy, O.; Boniface, H.; Hotrum, C.; McCrimmon, K.

    2010-01-01

    Tritium is produced in heavy-water reactors through neutron capture by the deuterium atom. Annual production of tritium in a CANDU reactor is typically 52-74 TBq/MW(e). Some CANDU reactor operators have implemented detritiation technology to reduce both tritium emissions and dose to workers and the public from reactor operations. However, tritium removal facilities also have the potential to emit both elemental tritium and tritiated water vapor during operation. Authorized releases to the environment, in Canada, are governed by Derived Release Limits (DRLs). DRLs represent an estimate of a release that could result in a dose of 1 mSv to an exposed member of the public. For the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, the DRLs for airborne elemental tritium and tritiated water emissions are ~15.6 PBq/week and ~825 TBq/week respectively. The actual tritium emissions from Darlington Tritium Removal Facility (DTRF) are below 0.1% of the DRL for elemental tritium and below 0.2% of the DRL for tritiated water vapor. As part of an ongoing effort to further reduce tritium emissions from the DTRF, we have undertaken a review and assessment of the systems design, operating performance, and tritium control methods in effect at the DTRF on tritium emissions. This paper discusses the results of this study. (author)

  18. Tritium inventory prediction in a CANDU plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.J.; Son, S.H.; Jang, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    The flow of tritium in a CANDU nuclear power plant was modeled to predict tritium activity build-up. Predictions were generally in good agreement with field measurements for the period 1983--1994. Fractional contributions of coolant and moderator systems to the environmental tritium release were calculated by least square analysis using field data from the Wolsong plant. From the analysis, it was found that: (1) about 94% of tritiated heavy water loss came from the coolant system; (2) however, about 64% of environmental tritium release came from the moderator system. Predictions of environmental tritium release were also in good agreement with field data from a few other CANDU plants. The model was used to calculate future tritium build-up and environmental tritium release at Wolsong site, Korea, where one unit is operating and three more units are under construction. The model predicts the tritium inventory at Wolsong site to increase steadily until it reaches the maximum of 66.3 MCi in the year 2026. The model also predicts the tritium release rate to reach a maximum of 79 KCi/yr in the year 2012. To reduce the tritium inventory at Wolsong site, construction of a tritium removal facility (TRF) is under consideration. The maximum needed TRF capacity of 8.7 MCi/yr was calculated to maintain tritium concentration effectively in CANDU reactors

  19. Tritium oxidation and exchange: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1978-05-01

    The radiological hazard resulting from an exposure to either tritium oxide or tritium gas is discussed and the factors contributing to the hazard are presented. From the discussion it appears that an exposure to tritium oxide vapor is 10 4 to 10 5 times more hazardous than exposure to tritium gas. Present and future sources of tritium are briefly considered and indicate that most of the tritium has been and is being released as tritium oxide. The likelihood of gaseous releases, however, is expected to increase in the future, calling to task the present general release assumption that 100% of all tritium released is as oxide. Accurate evaluation of the hazards from a gaseous release will require a knowledge of the conversion rate of tritium gas to tritium oxide. An experiment for determining the conversion rate of tritium gas to tritium oxide is presented along with some preliminary data. The conversion rates obtained for low initial concentrations (10 -4 to 10 -1 mCi/ml) indicate the conversion may proceed more rapidly than would be expected from an extrapolation of previous data taken at higher concentrations

  20. Bioassay guideline 2: guidelines for tritium bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This guideline is one of a series under preparation by the Federal-Provincial Working Group on Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring Criteria. In this report tritium compounds have been grouped into four categories for the purpose of calculating Annual Limits on Intake and Investigation Levels: tritium gas, tritiated water, tritium-labelled compounds and nucleic acid precursors

  1. 10 CFR 30.55 - Tritium reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium reports. 30.55 Section 30.55 Energy NUCLEAR..., Inspections, Tests, and Reports § 30.55 Tritium reports. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, each licensee who is authorized to possess tritium shall report promptly to...

  2. Cosmogenic production of tritium in dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaré, J.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Coarasa, I.; Cuesta, C.; Dafni, T.; Galán, J.; García, E.; Garza, J. G.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzón, G.; Martínez, M.; Mirallas, H.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Puimedón, J.; Ruiz-Chóliz, E.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2018-01-01

    The direct detection of dark matter particles requires ultra-low background conditions at energies below a few tens of keV. Radioactive isotopes are produced via cosmogenic activation in detectors and other materials and those isotopes constitute a background source which has to be under control. In particular, tritium is specially relevant due to its decay properties (very low endpoint energy and long half-life) when induced in the detector medium, and because it can be generated in any material as a spallation product. Quantification of cosmogenic production of tritium is not straightforward, neither experimentally nor by calculations. In this work, a method for the calculation of production rates at sea level has been developed and applied to some of the materials typically used as targets in dark matter detectors (germanium, sodium iodide, argon and neon); it is based on a selected description of tritium production cross sections over the entire energy range of cosmic nucleons. Results have been compared to available data in the literature, either based on other calculations or from measurements. The obtained tritium production rates, ranging from a few tens to a few hundreds of nuclei per kg and per day at sea level, point to a significant contribution to the background in dark matter experiments, requiring the application of specific protocols for target material purification, material storing underground and limiting the time the detector is on surface during the building process in order to minimize the exposure to the most dangerous cosmic ray components.

  3. Toxicity and dosimetry of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Johnson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium doses to the general public are very low (currently about 0.2 μSv per year). Radiation doses from tritium to members of the public living in the vicinity of a CANDU power station are higher but rarely exceed 20 μSv per year or 1% of normal exposures to radiation from all natural sources, but doses to some radiation workers can approach ten mSv per year. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta rays varies appreciably depending upon the biological endpoint. Observed RBE values at low doses and low dose-rates are usually about 2 to 3 when tritium beta rays are compared to 60 Co gamma rays but are closer to 1 than to 2 when compared to 200 kVp X-rays. This conclusion is supported by microdosimetric considerations of the quality of tritium beta rays, 60 Co gamma rays and X-rays. Since X-rays have traditionally been accepted as reference radiation by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, it seems reasonable that the quality factor (Q) assigned to tritium beta rays should be close to one. Recommended procedures in Canada for estimation of effective dose equivalents from exposures to HTO and HT assume that Q = 1 and that body water represents 67% of the mass of soft tissue; they take into account conversions of HTO to appear to be reasonable for radiation protection purposes when the source of exposure is HTO or HT, but will not be adequate for exposures to other tritiated compounds. (modified author abstract) (137 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.)

  4. The INEL Tritium Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Tritium Research Facility (TRF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a small, multi-user facility dedicated to research into processes and phenomena associated with interaction of hydrogen isotopes with other materials. Focusing on bench-scale experiments, the main objectives include resolution of issues related to tritium safety in fusion reactors and the science and technology pertinent to some of those issues. In this report the TRF and many of its capabilities will be described. Work presently or recently underway there will be discussed, and the implications of that work to the development of fusion energy systems will be considered. (orig.)

  5. The INEL Tritium Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The Tritium Research Facility (TRF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a small, multi-user facility dedicated to research into processes and phenomena associated with interaction of hydrogen isotopes with other materials. Focusing on bench-scale experiments, the main objectives include resolution of issues related to tritium safety in fusion reactors and the science and technology pertinent to some of those issues. In this report the TRF and many of its capabilities will be described. Work presently or recently underway there will be discussed, and the implications of that work to the development of fusion energy systems will be considered. (orig.).

  6. Tritium turnover in succulent plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Gogate, S.S.; Soman, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of turnover rates for tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and tissue bound tritium (TBT) were carried out in three succulent plants, Opuntia sp., E. Trigona and E. Mili using tritiated water as tracer. The estimated half-times were 52, 57.5 and 80 days for TFWT and 212, 318 and 132 days for TBT in the stems of the above plants respectively. Opuntia sp. showed significant incorporation of TBT, 10% of TFWT on weight basis, while the other two plants showed lesser incorporation, 2-3% of TFWT. However, the leaves of E. Mili indicated the same level of fixation of TBT as the stem of Opuntia sp. (author)

  7. Tritium processing in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miya, Naoyuki; Masaki, Kei

    1997-01-01

    Tritium retention analysis and tritium concentration measurement have been made during the large Tokamak JT-60U deuterium operations. This work has been carried out to evaluate the tritium retention for graphite tiles inside the vacuum vessel and tritium release characteristics in the tritium cleanup operations. JT-60U has carried out D-D experiments since July 1991. In the deuterium operations during the first two years, about 1.7 x 10 19 D-D fusion neutrons were produced by D (d, p) T reactions in plasma, which are expected to produce ∼31 GBq of tritium. The tritium produced is evacuated by a pumping system. A part of tritium is, however, trapped in the graphite tiles. Several sample tiles were removed from the vessel and the retained tritium Distribution in the tiles was measured using a liquid scintillator. The results of poloidal distribution showed that the tritium concentration in the divertor tiles was higher than that in the first wall tiles and it peaked in the tiles between two strike points of divertor magnetic lines. Tritium concentration in the exhaust gas from the vessel have also been measured with an ion chamber during the tritium cleanup operations with hydrogen divertor discharges and He-GDC. Total of recovered tritium during the cleanup operations was ∼ 7% of that generated. The results of these measurements showed that the tritium of 16-23 GBq still remained in the graphite tiles, which corresponded to about 50-70% of the tritium generated in plasma. The vessel is ventilated during the in-vessel maintenance works, then the atmosphere is always kept lower than the legal concentration guide level of 0.7 Bq/cm 3 for radiation work permit requirements. (author)

  8. Uses of laser optical pumping to produce polarized ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Laser optical pumping can be used to produce polarized alkali atom beams or polarized alkali vapor targets. Polarized alkali atom beams can be converted into polarized alkali ion beams, and polarized alkali vapor targets can be used to produce polarized H - or 3 He - ion beams. In this paper the authors discuss how the polarized alkali atom beams and polarized alkali vapor targets are used to produce polarized ion beams with emphasis on the production of polarized negative ion beams

  9. Tritium monitoring in environment at ICIT Tritium Separation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, I.; Vagner, Irina; Faurescu, I.; Toma, A.; Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project developed within the national nuclear energy research program, which is designed to develop the required technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation of heavy water. The process used in this installation is based on a combination between liquid-phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) and cryogenic distillation. Basically, there are two ways that the Cryogenic Pilot could interact with the environment: by direct atmospheric release and through the sewage system. This experimental installation is located 15 km near the region biggest city and in the vicinity - about 1 km, of Olt River. It must be specified that in the investigated area there is an increased chemical activity; almost the entire Experimental Cryogenic Pilot's neighborhood is full of active chemical installations. This aspect is really essential for our study because the sewerage system is connected with the other three chemical plants from the neighborhood. For that reason we progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring program well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. The first step was the tritium level monitoring in environmental water and wastewater of industrial activity from neighborhood. In order to establish the base level of tritium concentration in the environment around the nuclear facilities, we investigated the sample preparation treatment for different types of samples: onion, green beams, grass, apple, garden lettuce, tomato, cabbage, strawberry and grapes. We used azeotropic distillation of all types of samples, the carrier solvent being toluene from different Romanian providers. All measurements for the determination of environmental tritium concentration were performed using liquid scintillation counting (LSC), with the Quantulus 1220 spectrometer. (authors)

  10. Automation system for tritium contaminated surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counter and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  11. Tritium compatibility of alumina and Fosterite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1979-09-01

    Many pressure measurements are required to control processing of the fuel gases associated with fusion power reactors. Since most pressure transducers respond to changes in pressure sensitive electrical parameters, insulators will be required to withstand chronic exposures to concentrated tritium. For this investigation samples of alumina and Fosterite were exposed to concentrated tritium gas for 11 weeks. Gas phase impurities were then analyzed for clues that would indicate decomposition of the exposed materials. The only gaseous impurity resulting from these tritium exposures was tritio-methane, which is always produced when tritium is stored in stainless steel containers. There was no evidence that either alumina or Fosterite decomposed in the presence of tritium.

  12. Management of tritium at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report presents extending summaries of the works of the participants to an IAEA co-ordinated research programme, ''Handling Tritium - bearing effluents and wastes''. The subjects covered include production of tritium in nuclear power plants (mainly heavy water and light water reactors), as well as at reprocessing plants; removal and enrichment of tritium at nuclear facilities; conditioning methods and characteristics of immobilized tritium of low and high concentration; some potential methods of storage and disposal of tritium. In addition to the conclusions of this three-years work, possible activities in the field are recommended

  13. Study on tritium recovery from breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, H.; Moritani, K.

    1997-01-01

    For the development of fusion reactor blanket systems, some of the key issues on the tritium recovery performance of solid and liquid breeder materials were studied. In the case of solid breeder materials, a special attention was focussed on the effects of irradiation on the tritium recovery performance, and tritium release experiments, luminescence measurements of irradiation defects and modeling studies were systematically performed. For liquid breeder materials, tritium recovery experiments from molten salt and liquid lithium were performed, and the technical feasibility of tritium recovery methods was discussed. (author)

  14. Measurement of "pretzelosity" asymmetry of charged pion production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on a polarized 3He target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Qian, X.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Huang, J.; Katich, J.; Wang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bradshaw, P. C.; Bosted, P.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chen, W.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Chudakov, E.; Cisbani, E.; Cornejo, J. C.; Cusanno, F.; Dalton, M. M.; Deconinck, W.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Ding, H.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Dutta, D.; El Fassi, L.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Guo, L.; Hamilton, D.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Ibrahim, H. F.; Iodice, M.; Jiang, X.; Jin, G.; Jones, M. K.; Kelleher, A.; Kim, W.; Kolarkar, A.; Korsch, W.; LeRose, J. J.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Long, E.; Lu, H.-J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; McNulty, D.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nanda, S.; Narayan, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Norum, B.; Oh, Y.; Osipenko, M.; Parno, D.; Peng, J. C.; Phillips, S. K.; Posik, M.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Ransome, R. D.; Riordan, S.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shahinyan, A.; Shabestari, M. H.; Širca, S.; Stepanyan, S.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tang, L.-G.; Tobias, W. A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yuan, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.; Zhu, X.; Zong, X.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    An experiment to measure single-spin asymmetries of semi-inclusive production of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target was performed at Jefferson Laboratory in the kinematic region of 0.16 polarization approximation, we extracted the corresponding neutron asymmetries from the measured 3He asymmetries and cross-section ratios between the proton and 3He. Our results show that both π± on 3He and on neutron pretzelosity asymmetries are consistent with zero within experimental uncertainties.

  15. A design assessment of tritium removal systems for the mirror advanced reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, S.K.; Kveton, O.K.

    1983-01-01

    This study investigates the available processes for removing tritium from light water, and selects the most appropriate process for recovering tritium from the various tritiated water streams identified in the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). A simplified flowsheet is shown for the process and the main process parameters are identified. Previous experience is utilized to predict direct capital costs and power requirement for the Tritiated Water Removal Unit (TWRU). A number of possibilities are discussed for lowering the cost of the TWRU. An estimate is made of the direct capital cost for the Air Detritiation System that has already been selected as the reference design by MARS personnel. The leakage from the MARS coolant loop is estimated, based on the experience obtained with Ontario Hydro's coolant systems. Design targets are identified for tritium levels in the reactor hall atmosphere and in water and air emissions. Tritium levels are predicted for these and are assessed against the previously identified targets

  16. New experimental possibility to search for the ratio of a possible T-violating amplitude to the weak-interaction amplitude in polarized neutron transmission through a polarized nuclear target

    CERN Document Server

    Lukashevich, V V; Dallman, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a spin-dependent neutron interaction with optical potentials (fields) from the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and an assumed T-violating interaction. The vector sum of these fields and their interferences determines an effective field of the target with an angular position in space due to polar and azimuthal angles. The phase of the azimuthal component is found to be the sum of two angles. The tangent of the first angle is equal to the ratio of the T-violating forward-scattering amplitude D to the weak-interaction amplitude C. The quantity is of interest. The tangent of the second angle depends on the spin rotation in the residual pseudomagnetic field of the target, and it can be treated as a background effect. This paper shows that the second angle has different signs in measurements with polarized and unpolarized neutrons; thus, two measurements allow it to be compensated for. In addition, the use of the Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields for measurement of the neu...

  17. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najera, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  18. Generation of gaseous tritium standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    The determination of aqueous and non-aqueous tritium in gaseous samples is one type of determination often requested of radioanalytical laboratories. This determination can be made by introducing the sample as a gas into a sampling train containing two silica gel beds separated by.a catalytic oxidizer bed. The first bed traps tritiated water. The sample then passes into and through the oxidizer bed where non-aqueous tritium containing species are oxidized to water and other products of combustion. The second silica gel bed then traps the newly formed tritiated water. Subsequently, silica gel is removed to plastic bottles, deionized water is added, and the mixture is permitted to equilibrate. The tritium content of the equilibrium mixture is then determined by conventional liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For many years, the moisture content of inert, gaseous samples has been determined using monitors which quantitatively electrolyze the moisture present after that moisture has been absorbed by phosphorous pentoxide or other absorbents. The electrochemical reaction is quantitative and definitive, and the energy consumed during electrolysis forms the basis of the continuous display of the moisture present. This report discusses the experimental evaluation of such a monitor as the basis for a technique for conversion of small quantities of SRMs of tritiated water ( 3 HOH) into gaseous tritium standards ( 3 HH)

  19. Tritium-labelled abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluciennik, H.; Michalski, L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of biologically active abscisic acid (growth inhibiting plant hormone) labelled with tritium is described. The product obtained has a specific radioactivity of 1.12 GBq mmol -1 : the yield is about 60% as compared to the initial amount of the substance used. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  20. Tritium Level in Romanian Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Faurescu, I.; Bogdan, D.; Soare, A. [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotope Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Duliu, O. G. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele (Romania)

    2013-07-15

    Romania is one of the countries that has no station included in GNIP (Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation) on its territory. This paper presents results regarding the tritium concentration in precipitation for the period 1999-2009. The precipitation fell at the Institute for cryogenic and Isotope technologies (geographical coordinates: altitude 237 m, latitude 45{sup o}02'07' N, longitude 24{sup o}17'03' E) an was collected both individually and as a composite average of each month. It was individually measured and the average was calculated and compared with the tritium concentration measured in the composite sample. tritium concentration levels ranged from 9.9 {+-} 2.1 TU for 2004 and 13.7 {+-} 2.2 TU for 2009. Comparing the arithmetic mean values with the weighted mean for the period of observation, it was noticed that the higher absolute values of the weighted means were constant. It was found that for the calculated monthly average for the period of observation (1999-2009), the months with the maximum tritium concentration are the same as the months with the maximum amount of precipitation. This behaviour is typical for the monitored location. (author)

  1. Tritium transport analysis for CFETR WCSB blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pinghui, E-mail: phzhao@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Yang, Wanli; Li, Yuanjie; Ge, Zhihao; Nie, Xingchen; Gao, Zhongping

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A simplified tritium transport model for CFETR WCSB blanket was developed. • Tritium transport process in CFETR WCSB blanket was analyzed. • Sensitivity analyses of tritium transport parameters were carried out. - Abstract: Water Cooled Solid Breeder (WCSB) blanket was put forward as one of the breeding blanket candidate schemes for Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). In this study, a simplified tritium transport model was developed. Based on the conceptual engineering design, neutronics and thermal-hydraulic analyses of CFETR WCSB blanket, tritium transport process was analyzed. The results show that high tritium concentration and inventory exist in primary water loop and total tritium losses exceed CFETR limits under current conditions. Conducted were sensitivity analyses of influential parameters, including tritium source, temperature, flow-rate capacity and surface condition. Tritium performance of WCSB blanket can be significantly improved under a smaller tritium impinging rate, a larger flow-rate capacity or a better surface condition. This work provides valuable reference for the enhancement of tritium transport behavior in CFETR WCSB blanket.

  2. Tritium behavior intentionally released in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Iwai, Y.; Yamanishi, T.; Willms, R. S.; Carlson, R. V.

    2008-01-01

    To construct a fusion reactor with high safety and acceptability, it is necessary to establish and to ensure tritium safe handling technology. Tritium should be well-controlled not to be released to the environment excessively and to prevent workers from excess exposure. It is especially important to grasp tritium behavior in the final confinement area, such as the room and/or building. In order to obtain data for actual tritium behavior in a room and/or building, a series of intentional Tritium Release Experiments (TREs) were planned and carried out within a radiologically controlled area (main cell) at Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) in Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under US-JAPAN collaboration program. These experiments were carried out three times. In these experiments, influence of a difference in the tritium release point and the amount of hydrogen isotope for the initial tritium behavior in the room were suggested. Tritium was released into the main cell at TSTA/LANL. The released tritium reached a uniform concentration about 30 - 40 minutes in all the experiments. The influence of the release point and the amount of hydrogen isotope were not found to be important in these experiments. The experimental results for the initial tritium behavior in the room were also simulated well by the modified three-dimensional eddy flow analysis code FLOW-3D. (authors)

  3. Tritium migration in nuclear desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralev, E.D.

    2003-01-01

    Tritium transport, as one of important items of radiation safety assessment, should be taken into consideration before construction of a Nuclear Desalination Plant (NDP). The influence of tritium internal exposition to the human body is very dangerous because of 3 H associations with water molecules. The problem of tritium in nuclear engineering is connected to its high penetration ability (through fuel element cans and other construction materials of a reactor), with the difficulty of extracting tritium from process liquids and gases. Sources of tritium generation in NDP are: nuclear fuel, boron in control rods, and deuterium in heat carrier. Tritium passes easily through the walls of a reactor vessel, intermediate heat exchangers, steam generators and other technological equipment, through the walls of heat carrier pipelines. The release of tritium and its transport could be assessed, using mathematical models, based on the assumption that steady state equilibrium has been attained between the sources of tritium, produced water and release to the environment. Analysis of the model shows the tritium concentration dependence in potable water on design features of NDP. The calculations obtained and analysis results for NDP with BN-350 reactor give good convergence. According to the available data, tritium concentration in potable water is less than the statutory maximum concentration limit. The design of a NDP requires elaboration of technical solutions, capable of minimising the release of tritium to potable water produced. (author)

  4. Storage and Assay of Tritium in STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, Glen R.; Anderl, Robert A.; Pawelko, Robert J.; Stoots, Carl J.

    2005-01-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently being commissioned to investigate tritium-related safety questions for fusion and other technologies. The tritium inventory for the STAR facility will be maintained below 1.5 g to avoid the need for STAR to be classified as a Category 3 nuclear facility. A key capability in successful operation of the STAR facility is the ability to receive, inventory, and dispense tritium to the various experiments underway there. The system central to that function is the Tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS).The SAS has four major functions: (1) receiving and holding tritium, (2) assaying, (3) dispensing, and (4) purifying hydrogen isotopes from non-hydrogen species.This paper describes the design and operation of the STAR SAS and the procedures used for tritium accountancy in the STAR facility

  5. Tritium pellet injection sequences for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.; Attenberger, S.E.; Singer, C.E.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium pellet injection into neutral deuterium, beam heated deuterium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is shown to be an attractive means of (1) minimizing tritium use per tritium discharge and over a sequence of tritium discharges; (2) greatly reducing the tritium load in the walls, limiters, getters, and cryopanels; (3) maintaining or improving instantaneous neutron production (Q); (4) reducing or eliminating deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron production in non-optimized discharges; and (5) generally adding flexibility to the experimental sequences leading to optimal Q operation. Transport analyses of both compression and full-bore TFTR plasmas are used to support the above observations and to provide the basis for a proposed eight-pellet gas gun injector for the 1986 tritium experiments

  6. Imaging of tritium implanted into graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, M.E.; Causey, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The extensive use of graphite in plasma-facing surfaces of tokamaks such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, which has planned tritium discharges, makes two-dimensional tritium detection techniques important in helping to determine torus tritium inventories. We have performed experiments in which highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples were first tritium implanted with fluences of ∼10 16 T/cm 2 at energies approx. 0 C resulted in no discernible motion of tritium along the basal plane, but did show that significant desorption of the implanted tritium occurred. The current results indicate that tritium in quantities of 10 12 T/cm 2 in tritiated components could be readily detected by imaging at lower magnifications

  7. Calculation of tritium release from reactor's stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for calculation of tritium release from nuclear to environment has been discussed. Part of gas effluent contain tritium in form of HTO vapor released from reactor's stack was sampled using silica-gel. The silica-gel was put in the water to withdraw HTO vapor absorbed by silica-gel. Tritium concentration in the water was measured by liquid scintillation counter of Aloka LSC-703. Tritium concentration in the gas effluent and total release of tritium from reactor's stack during certain interval time were calculated using simple mathematic formula. This method has examined for calculation of tritium release from JRR-3M's stack of JAERI, Japan. From the calculation it was obtained the value of tritium release as much as 4.63 x 10 11 Bq during one month. (author)

  8. Tritium systems test assembly stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, William G.; Michelotti, Roy A.; Anast, Kurt R.; Tesch, Charles

    2004-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) was a facility dedicated to tritium technology Research and Development (R and D) primarily for future fusion power reactors. The facility was conceived in mid 1970's, operations commenced in early 1980's, stabilization and deactivation began in 2000 and were completed in 2003. The facility will remain in a Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) mode until the Department of Energy (DOE) funds demolition of the facility, tentatively in 2009. A safe and stable end state was achieved by the TSTA Facility Stabilization Project (TFSP) in anticipation of long term S and M. At the start of the stabilization project, with an inventory of approximately 140 grams of tritium, the facility was designated a Hazard Category (HC) 2 Non-Reactor Nuclear facility as defined by US Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-1027-92 (1997). The TSTA facility comprises a laboratory area, supporting rooms, offices and associated laboratory space that included more than 20 major tritium handling systems. The project's focus was to reduce the tritium inventory by removing bulk tritium, tritiated water wastes, and tritium-contaminated high-inventory components. Any equipment that remained in the facility was stabilized in place. All of the gloveboxes and piping were rendered inoperative and vented to atmosphere. All equipment, and inventoried tritium contamination, remaining in the facility was left in a safe-and-stable state. The project used the End Points process as defined by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (web page http://www.em.doe.- gov/deact/epman.htmtlo) document and define the end state required for the stabilization of TSTA Facility. The End Points process added structure that was beneficial through virtually all phases of the project. At completion of the facility stabilization project the residual tritium inventory was approximately 3,000 curies, considerably less than the 1.6-gram threshold for a HC 3 facility. TSTA is now

  9. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  10. A novel approach radiolabeling detonation nanodiamonds through the tritium thermal activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Semenenko, Mikhail N.; Lisichkin, Georgii V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.; Yakovlev, Ruslan Yu.; Leonidov, Nikolai B. [Pavlov Ryazan State Medical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Tritium labeling was introduced into detonation nanodiamonds (ND) through the tritium thermal activation method. Two target preparation techniques were developed to increase the radioactivity and the specific radioactivity of the labeled product: the desiccation of the waterless solvent suspension and the lyophilization of the hydrosol. The specific radioactivity of the labeled product was shown to correlate with the hydrogen content in the starting material and to achieve 2.6 TBq/g.

  11. A novel approach radiolabeling detonation nanodiamonds through the tritium thermal activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Semenenko, Mikhail N.; Lisichkin, Georgii V.

    2014-01-01

    Tritium labeling was introduced into detonation nanodiamonds (ND) through the tritium thermal activation method. Two target preparation techniques were developed to increase the radioactivity and the specific radioactivity of the labeled product: the desiccation of the waterless solvent suspension and the lyophilization of the hydrosol. The specific radioactivity of the labeled product was shown to correlate with the hydrogen content in the starting material and to achieve 2.6 TBq/g.

  12. Tritium issues in plasma wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, T.

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish a D-T fusion reactor as an energy source, it is not enough to have a DT burning plasma, and economical conversion of fusion energy to electricity and/or heat, a large enough margin of tritium breeding and tritium safety must be simultaneously achieved. In particular, handling of huge amount of tritium needs a significant effort to ensure that the radiation dose of radiological workers and of the public is below the limits specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. For the safety reasons, tritium in a reactor will be limited to only a few kg orders in weight, with radioactivity up to 10 17 Bq. Since public exposure to tritium is regulated at a level as tiny as a few Bq/cm 2 , tritium must be strictly confined in a reactor system with accountancy of an order of pg (pico-gram). Generally qualitative analysis with the accuracy of more than 3 orders of magnitude is hardly possible. We are facing to lots of safety concerns in the handling of huge amounts of radioactive tritium as a fuel and to be bred in a blanket. In addition, tritium resources are very limited. Not only for the safety reason but also for the saving of tritium resources, tritium retention in a reactor must be kept as small as possible. In the present tokamaks, however, hydrogen retention is significantly large, i.e. more than 20% of fueled hydrogen is continuously piled up in the vacuum vessel, which must not be allowed in a reactor. After the introduction of tritium as a hydrogen radioisotope, this lecture will present tritium issues in plasma wall interactions, in particular, fueling, retention and recovering, considering the handling of large amounts of tritium, i.e. confinement, leakage, contamination, permeation, regulations and tritium accountancy. Progress in overcoming such problems will be also presented. This document is made of the slides of the presentation. (author)

  13. Analysis on tritium permeation in tritium storage bed with gas flowing calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Suzuki, Takumi; Nishi, Masataka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshida, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka Fusion Research Establishment, ITER-Joint Centeral Team, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Tritium permeation amount in a tritium storage bed with gas flowing calorimetric was evaluated under a condition of new operation mode for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). As a result, tritium permeation under the new operation mode was estimated to be about twice of that under the practical operation mode. This result show that it would be regardless in a view point of material control of tritium, however, it was suggested to be required additional tritium removal or evacuate system in a view points of safety control or performance of accountability or thermal insulating of the tritium storage bed. (author)

  14. Tritium transport studies with use of the ISEP NPA during tritium trace experimental campaign on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, M I; Afanasyev, V I; Murari, A; Santala, M; Beaumont, P

    2010-01-01

    The neutral particle analyzer (NPA) known as ISEP (Ion SEParator) was applied to measure the tritium neutral flux during the tritium trace experiment (TTE) on JET. The energy dependence (in the 5-28 keV energy range) of the tritium neutral flux rise time after a short ∼100 ms tritium gas puff into deuterium plasmas has been observed for the first time. The dependence has been interpreted as being due to the penetration of the tritium ions from the plasma boundary into the core and has been used for the calculation of the tritium diffusion coefficient and convective velocity values.

  15. Tritium confinement in a new tritium processing facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.; Owen, J.H.; Hsu, R.H.; Hashinger, R.F.; Ward, D.E.; Bandola, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    A new tritium processing facility, named the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF), has been completed and is being prepared for startup at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The RTF has the capability to recover, purify and separate hydrogen isotopes from recycled gas containers. A multilayered confinement system is designed to reduce tritium losses to the environment. This confinement system is expected to confine and recover any tritium that might escape the process equipment, and to maintain the tritium concentration in the nitrogen glovebox atmosphere to less than 10 -2 μCi/cc tritium

  16. DAQ systems for the high energy and nuclotron internal target polarimeters with network access to polarization calculation results and raw data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isupov, A.Yu.

    2004-01-01

    On-line data acquisition (DAQ) system for the Nuclotron Internal Target Polarimeter (ITP) at the LHE, JINR, is explained in respect of design and implementation, based on the distributed data acquisition and processing system qdpb. Software modules specific for this implementation (dependent on ITP data contents and hardware layout) are discussed briefly in comparison with those for the High Energy Polarimeter (HEP) at the LHE, JINR. User access methods both to raw data and to results of polarization calculations of the ITP and HEP are discussed

  17. Hyperfine structure of S-states of muonic tritium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynenko F.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics we carry out a precise calculation of hyperfine splitting of S-states in muonic tritium. The one-loop and two-loop vacuum polarization corrections, relativistic effects, nuclear structure corrections in first and second orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The contributions to hyperfine structure are obtained in integral form and calculated analytically and numerically. Obtained results for hyperfine splitting can be used for a comparison with future experimental data of CREMA collaboration.

  18. Tritium sorption by cement and subsequent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, F.; Yamawaki, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a fusion reactor or tritium-handling facilities, contamination of concrete by tritium and subsequent release from it to the reator or experimental room is a matter of problem for safe control of tritium and management of operational environment. In order to evaluate this tritium behavior, interaction of tritiated water with concrete or cement should be clarified. In the present study, HTO sorption and subsequent release from cement were experimentally studied.(1)Sorption experiments were conducted using columns packed with cement particles of different sizes. From the analysis of the breakthrough curve, tritium diffusivity in macropores and microparticles were evaluated.(2)From the short-term tritium release experiments, effective desorption rate constants were evaluated and the effects of temperature and moisture were studied.(3)In the long-term tritium release experiments to 6000h, the tritium release mechanism was found to be composed of three kinds of water: initially from capillary water, and in the second stage from gel water and from the water in the cement crystal.(4)Tritium release behavior by heat treatment to 800 C was studied. A high temperature above 600 C was required for the tritium trapped in the crystal water to be released. (orig.)

  19. The LLNL portable tritium processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The end of the Cold War significantly reduced the need for facilities to handle radioactive materials for the US nuclear weapons program. The LLNL Tritium Facility was among those slated for decommissioning. The plans for the facility have since been reversed, and it remains open. Nevertheless, in the early 1990s, the cleanup (the Tritium Inventory Removal Project) was undertaken. However, removing the inventory of tritium within the facility and cleaning up any pockets of high-level residual contamination required that we design a system adequate to the task and meeting today's stringent standards of worker and environmental protection. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory and EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies, we fabricated a three-module Portable Tritium Processing System (PTPS) that meets current glovebox standards, is operated from a portable console, and is movable from laboratory to laboratory for performing the basic tritium processing operations: pumping and gas transfer, gas analysis, and gas-phase tritium scrubbing. The Tritium Inventory Removal Project is now in its final year, and the portable system continues to be the workhorse. To meet a strong demand for tritium services, the LLNL Tritium Facility will be reconfigured to provide state-of-the-art tritium and radioactive decontamination research and development. The PTPS will play a key role in this new facility

  20. The Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Harrison, T.E.; Spagnolo, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant for removal of tritium from heavy water is described. Tritium is present in the heavy water from research reactors in the form of DTO at a concentration in the range of 1-35 Ci/kg. It is removed by a combination of catalytic exchange to transfer the tritium from DTO to DT, followed by cryogenic distillation to separate and concentrate the tritium to T 2 . The tritium product is reacted with titanium and packaged for transportation and storage as titanium tritide. The plant processes heavy water at a rate of 25 kg/h and removes 80% of the tritium and 90% of the protium per pass. Catalytic exchange is carried out in the liquid phase using a proprietary wetproofed catalyst. The plant serves two roles in the Canadian fusion program: it produces pure tritium for use in fusion research and development, and it demonstrates on an industrial scale many of the tritium technologies that are common to the tritium systems in fusion reactors (author)