WorldWideScience

Sample records for polarized transverse wave

  1. Dispersion properties of transverse waves in electrically polarized BECs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A; Kuz'menkov, L S

    2014-01-01

    Further development of the method of quantum hydrodynamics in applications for Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) is presented. To consider the evolution of polarization direction along with particle movement, we have developed a corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. It includes equations of the polarization evolution and the polarization-current evolution along with the continuity equation and the Euler equation (the momentum-balance equation). Dispersion properties of the transverse waves, including the electromagnetic waves propagating through the BECs, are considered. To this end, we consider a full set of the Maxwell equations for the description of electromagnetic field dynamics. This approximation gives us the possibility of considering the electromagnetic waves along with the matter waves. We find a splitting of the electromagnetic-wave dispersion on two branches. As a result, we have four solutions, two for the electromagnetic waves and two for the matter waves; the last two are the concentration-polarization waves appearing as a generalization of the Bogoliubov mode. We also find that if the matter wave propagates perpendicular to the external electric field then the dipolar contribution does not disappear (as it follows from our generalization of the Bogoliubov spectrum). A small dipolar frequency shift exists in this case due to the transverse electric field of perturbation. (paper)

  2. Resolution enhancement of slam using transverse wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Dae Sik; Moon, Gun; Kim, Young H.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Since the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM Image In the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode.

  3. Lattice dynamics approach to determine the dependence of the time-of-flight of transversal polarized acoustic waves on external stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarar, K. S.; Pluta, M.; Amjad, U.; Grill, W.

    2011-04-01

    Based on the lattice dynamics approach the dependence of the time-of-flight (TOF) on stress has been modeled for transversal polarized acoustic waves. The relevant dispersion relation is derived from the appropriate mass-spring model together with the dependencies on the restoring forces including the effect of externally applied stress. The lattice dynamics approach can also be interpreted as a discrete and strictly periodic lumped circuit. In that case the modeling represents a finite element approach. In both cases the properties relevant for wavelengths large with respect to the periodic structure can be derived from the respective limit relating also to low frequencies. The model representing a linear chain with stiffness to shear and additional stiffness introduced by extensional stress is presented and compared to existing models, which so far represent each only one of the effects treated here in combination. For a string this effect is well known from musical instruments. The counteracting effects are discussed and compared to experimental results.

  4. The energy and temporal characteristics of orthogonal polarized waves generated by a transversely-excited pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertel, I.M.; Churakov, V.V.; Petukhov, V.O.; Prokopov, A.P.; Trushin, S.A.; Voitovich, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    The competition of orthogonally-polarized waves with various differences in the wave Q-factors and active medium pressures is studied. The possibility of controlling the parameters of a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser by changing the value of the amplitude anisotropy of the cavity is demonstrated. The duration of the emission pulse for one of two orthogonal polarizations was reduced by virtually 50%.

  5. Explaining polarization reversals in STEREO wave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L. B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, Breneman et al. (2011) reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (L plane transverse to the magnetic field showed that the transmitter waves underwent periodic polarization reversals. Specifically, their polarization would cycle through a pattern of right-hand to linear to left-hand polarization at a rate of roughly 200 Hz. The lightning whistlers were observed to be left-hand polarized at frequencies greater than the lower hybrid frequency and less than the transmitter frequency (21.4 kHz) and right-hand polarized otherwise. Only right-hand polarized waves in the inner radiation belt should exist in the frequency range of the whistler mode and these reversals were not explained in the previous paper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by ±200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo (1984) whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by ˜200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al. (2008).

  6. Longitudinal and transverse polarizations in the deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressan, A.

    1996-07-01

    This course is an introduction to the dominant effects of longitudinal and transverse spin in deep inelastic reactions. Only the effects present to the 'leading twist' are attacked. The mass and transverse impulsion of partons are neglected. We will attach to bring out the respective specificities of longitudinal and transverse polarizations. (N.C.)

  7. Linearly Polarized Gluons and the Higgs Transverse Momentum Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; den Dunnen, Wilco J.; Pisano, Cristian; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner

    2012-01-01

    We study how gluons carrying linear polarization inside an unpolarized hadron contribute to the transverse momentum distribution of Higgs bosons produced in hadronic collisions. They modify the distribution produced by unpolarized gluons in a characteristic way that could be used to determine

  8. Feasibility study of a transversely polarized target in PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Heybat; Deiseroth, Malte; Khaneft, Dmitry; Noll, Oliver; Valente, Roserio; Zambrana, Manuel [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Ahmed, Samer [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Capozza, Luigi; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Froehlich, Bertold; Lin, Dexu; Maas, Frank; Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Morales Morales, Cristina; Rodriguez Pineiro, David; Zimmermann, Iris [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA (Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt) spectrometer, located at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), is an excellent tool for exploring the nucleon structure. An unpolarized target allows the determination of the electromagnetic time-like form factor of the proton. An additional experiment in which the target is transversely polarized is necessary for the first-time extraction of their imaginary part. A transverse polarization requires the shielding of the 2 T longitudinal field from the PANDA-Solenoid at the target volume and an additional transverse holding field. We present results from our first experiment at the Institut fuer Kernphysik in Mainz on intense magnetic flux shielding using a BSCCO (bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide) thin-wall hollow cylinder at 4.2 K and a 1.4 T external magnetic field and compare this to numerical calculations.

  9. Polarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering on transversely and longitudinally polarized nucleons at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hommes, B.

    2005-01-01

    The HERMES experiment has measured double spin asymmetries in the cross section for deep-inelastic scattering of longitudinal polarized positrons off longitudinal polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets. From these asymmetries, based on inclusive and semi-inclusive measurements, polarized quark distributions were extracted as a function of x. Single-spin azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive pion production were measured by the HERMES experiment for the first time, with a transversely polarized hydrogen target. Two different sine-dependencies were extracted which can be related to the quark transversity distribution h q 1 (x) and the Sivers function (Author)

  10. Statistics of polarization and Stokes parameters of stochastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, M. J.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2004-09-01

    Several theories now exist to describe the probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the electric field strength, intensity, and power of signals. In this work, a model is developed for the PDFs of the polarization properties of the superposition of multiple transverse wave populations. The polarization of each transverse wave population is described by a polarization ellipse with fixed axial ratio and polarization angle, and PDFs for the field strength and phase. Wave populations are vectorially added, and expressions found for the Stokes parameters I , U , Q , and V , as well as the degrees of linear and circular polarization, and integral expressions for their statistics. In this work, lognormal distributions are chosen for the electric field, corresponding to stochastic growth, and polarization PDFs are numerically calculated for the superposition of orthonormal mode populations, which might represent the natural modes emitted by a source. Examples are provided of the superposition of linear, circular, and elliptically polarized wave populations in cases where the component field strength PDFs are the same, and where one field strength PDF is dominant.

  11. Gravitational Wave Polarizations in f (R Gravity and Scalar-Tensor Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Yungui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory opens a new era to use gravitational waves to test alternative theories of gravity. We investigate the polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R gravity and Horndeski theory, both containing scalar modes. These theories predict that in addition to the familiar + and × polarizations, there are transverse breathing and longitudinal polarizations excited by the massive scalar mode and the new polarization is a single mixed state. It would be very difficult to detect the longitudinal polarization by interferometers, while pulsar timing array may be the better tool to detect the longitudinal polarization.

  12. Gravitational Wave Polarizations in f (R) Gravity and Scalar-Tensor Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yungui; Hou, Shaoqi

    2018-01-01

    The detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory opens a new era to use gravitational waves to test alternative theories of gravity. We investigate the polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R) gravity and Horndeski theory, both containing scalar modes. These theories predict that in addition to the familiar + and × polarizations, there are transverse breathing and longitudinal polarizations excited by the massive scalar mode and the new polarization is a single mixed state. It would be very difficult to detect the longitudinal polarization by interferometers, while pulsar timing array may be the better tool to detect the longitudinal polarization.

  13. Transverse Polarization for Energy Calibration at the Z peak

    CERN Document Server

    Koratzinos, M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we deal with aspects of transverse polarization for the purpose of energy calibration of proposed circular colliders like the FCC-ee and the CEPC. The main issues of such a measurement will be discussed. The possibility of using this method to accurately determine the energy at the WW threshold as well as the Z peak will be addressed. The use of wigglers for reducing long polarization times will be discussed and a possible strategy will be presented for minimising the energy uncertainty error in these large machines.

  14. Coupling of transverse and longitudinal waves in piano strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchenique, Nikki; Collin, Samantha R; Moore, Thomas R

    2015-04-01

    The existence of longitudinal waves in vibrating piano strings has been previously established, as has their importance in producing the characteristic sound of the piano. Modeling of the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motion of strings indicates that the amplitude of the longitudinal waves are quadratically related to the transverse displacement of the string, however, experimental verification of this relationship is lacking. In the work reported here this relationship is tested by driving the transverse motion of a piano string at only two frequencies, which simplifies the task of unambiguously identifying the constituent signals. The results indicate that the generally accepted relationship between the transverse motion and the longitudinal motion is valid. It is further shown that this dependence on transverse displacement is a good approximation when a string is excited by the impact of the hammer during normal play.

  15. Ultra-broadband carpet cloak for transverse-electric polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Xu, Su; Zhang, Runren; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Hua; Gao, Fei; Yu, Faxin; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Magnetism is a necessity in constructing macroscopic metamaterial invisibility cloaks that are theoretically designed by transformation optics, but will generally limit the cloaking bandwidth to an impractically narrow range. To meet the broad bandwidth demand, magnetism has been fully abandoned in previous demonstrations of macroscopic carpet cloaking, whose approach, however, cannot apply to a transverse-electric (TE) polarization. To fill this gap, here we experimentally demonstrate an ultra-broadband magnetic carpet cloak for the TE polarization. The cloak is made of non-resonant closed-ring metamaterials with little dispersion and the cloaking performance is confirmed with both time-domain simulation and frequency scanning measurement over a broad bandwidth corresponding to a pulse signal illumination.

  16. Exploration of Wave Development during Yarn Transverse Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hudspeth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Single yarns have been impacted in a transverse fashion so as to probe the characteristics of resulting wave development. Longitudinal wave speeds were tracked in efforts to directly measure the yarn tensile stiffness, resulting in a slight increase in the modulus of Kevlar® KM2 and Dyneema® SK76. Additionally, the load developed in AuTx® and Kevlar® KM2 yarns behind the longitudinal wave front has been recorded, providing additional verification for the Smith relations. Further effort to bolster the Smith equations has been successfully performed via tracking transverse wave speeds in AuTx® yarns over a range of impacting velocities. Additional emphasis has been placed at understanding the transverse wave development around the yarn critical velocity, demonstrating that there is a velocity zone where partial yarn failure is detected. Above the critical velocity, measurement of early time transverse wave speeds also agrees with the Smith solution, though the wave speed quickly reduces in value due to the drop in tensile stresses resulting from filament rupture. Finally, the Smith equations have been simplified and are compared to the Cunniff equation, which bear a striking resemblance. Due to such a resemblance, it is suggested that yarn critical velocity experiments can be performed on trial yarn material, and the effect of modifying yarn mechanical properties is discussed.

  17. Formation of transverse waves in oblique detonations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.; Higgins, A.J.; Stowe, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of oblique detonation waves stabilized on a hypersonic wedge in mixtures characterized by a large activation energy is investigated via steady method of characteristics (MoC) calculations and unsteady computational flowfield simulations. The steady MoC solutions show that, after the

  18. Driven transverse shear waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    The linear dispersion properties of transverse shear waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma are experimentally studied in a DC discharge device by exciting them in a controlled manner with a variable frequency external source. The dusty plasma is maintained in the strongly coupled fluid regime with (1 c ) where Γ is the Coulomb coupling parameter and Γ c is the crystallization limit. A dispersion relation for the transverse waves is experimentally obtained over a frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 2 Hz and found to show good agreement with viscoelastic theoretical results

  19. Right- and left-handed rules on the transverse spin angular momentum of a surface wave of photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinbing; Xia, Tongnan; Cai, Xiaoshu; Tian, Shengnan; Guo, Hanming; Zhuang, Songlin

    2017-07-01

    By investigating the surface wave of photonic crystal, we put forward two sets of rules: the right-handed screw rule, judging the transverse spin angular momentum (SAM) directions according to the propagation direction of the surface wave; and the left-handed rule, judging the excitation direction of the surface wave in accordance to the SAM direction of incident circularly polarized light and the relative position of the dipole-like scatterer with respect to the interface where the surface wave propagates. Both right- and left-handed rules apply to the interface consisting of opposite-sign-permittivity materials. With the help of these two sets of rules, it is convenient to judge the direction of the transverse SAM and the excited surface wave, which facilitate the application involving transverse SAM of the surface wave.

  20. Stimulated polarization wave process in spin 3/2 chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G. B.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulated wave of polarization, triggered by a flip of a single spin, presents a simple model of quantum amplification. Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in an idealized one-dimensional Ising spin 1/2 chain with nearest-neighbor interactions and realistic spin 1/2 chain including the natural dipole-dipole interactions, irradiated by a weak resonant transverse field, a wave of flipped spins can be triggered by a single spin flip. Here we focuse on control of polarization wave in chain of spin 3/2, where the nuclear quadrupole interaction is dominant. Results of simulations for 1D spin chains and rings with up to five spins are presented.

  1. ENERGY CONTENT AND PROPAGATION IN TRANSVERSE SOLAR ATMOSPHERIC WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Soler, R. [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Verth, G., E-mail: tom.vandoorsselaere@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    Recently, a significant amount of transverse wave energy has been estimated propagating along solar atmospheric magnetic fields. However, these estimates have been made with the classic bulk Alfven wave model which assumes a homogeneous plasma. In this paper, the kinetic, magnetic, and total energy densities and the flux of energy are computed for transverse MHD waves in one-dimensional cylindrical flux tube models with a piecewise constant or continuous radial density profile. There are fundamental deviations from the properties for classic bulk Alfven waves. (1) There is no local equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy. (2) The flux of energy and the velocity of energy transfer have, in addition to a component parallel to the magnetic field, components in the planes normal to the magnetic field. (3) The energy densities and the flux of energy vary spatially, contrary to the case of classic bulk Alfven waves. This last property has the important consequence that the energy flux computed with the well known expression for bulk Alfven waves could overestimate the real flux by a factor in the range 10-50, depending on the flux tube equilibrium properties.

  2. Polarization properties of low frequency electromagnetic cyclotron waves associated with magnetic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Feng, H. Q.; Wu, D. J.; Huang, J.

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed that there are a large number of low frequency electromagnetic cyclotron waves (ECWs) occurring in and around magnetic clouds (MCs) that are common magnetic structures in interplanetary space. Using magnetic field data from the STEREO spacecraft, this paper investigates polarization properties of ECWs associated with 120 MCs. Results show that the ECWs are highly transverse, strongly polarized waves with large ellipticities. Specifically, almost all of the waves take place with the ratios of transverse power to total power higher than 0.94, polarization degrees greater than 0.85, and ellipticities larger than 0.5. The mean values of these quantities can be up to 0.99, 0.96, 0.85, respectively. In particular, there is a tendency of ellipticities decreasing with respect to the wave normal angles for ECWs with left handed polarization. The decreasing tendency is consistent with the recent theory and simulation results.

  3. Transverse spin effects in polarized semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappalardo, Luciano Libero

    2008-10-15

    The theoretical framework for the inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is provided in Chapters 2 and 3, respectively. While a phenomenological and historical perspective is adopted in Chapter 2 for the description of the inclusive processes, a detailed treatment of the formalism concerning the physics of the transverse degrees of freedom of the nucleon is presented in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 the main components of the HERMES experimental apparatus are presented. The extraction of the Collins and Sivers moments is discussed in Chapter 5 after a brief overview of the main steps of the data analysis. A selection of systematic studies is also reported at the end of the chapter. Chapter 6 is completely devoted to the estimate of the acceptance and smearing effects on the extracted azimuthal moments. A crucial role in the studies presented is played by a newly developed Monte Carlo generator which simulates azimuthal asymmetries arising from intrinsic quark momenta. A novel approach for the estimate of the acceptance effects is presented at the end of the chapter. The extracted Collins and Sivers moments, corrected for the acceptance effects, are shown in Chapter 7. The discussion and the interpretation of the results, together with a preliminary extraction of the Sivers polarization, are also treated in Chapter 7. Final conclusions and a brief summary are reported in Chapter 8. (orig.)

  4. Stochastic analysis of pitch angle scattering of charged particles by transverse magnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemons, Don S.; Liu Kaijun; Winske, Dan; Gary, S. Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a theory of the velocity space scattering of charged particles in a static magnetic field composed of a uniform background field and a sum of transverse, circularly polarized, magnetic waves. When that sum has many terms the autocorrelation time required for particle orbits to become effectively randomized is small compared with the time required for the particle velocity distribution to change significantly. In this regime the deterministic equations of motion can be transformed into stochastic differential equations of motion. The resulting stochastic velocity space scattering is described, in part, by a pitch angle diffusion rate that is a function of initial pitch angle and properties of the wave spectrum. Numerical solutions of the deterministic equations of motion agree with the theory at all pitch angles, for wave energy densities up to and above the energy density of the uniform field, and for different wave spectral shapes.

  5. Long waves over a bi-viscous seabed: transverse patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Becker

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled interaction of long standing hydrodynamic waves with a deformable non-Newtonian seabed is examined using a two-layer model for which the upper layer fluid is inviscid and the lower layer is bi-viscous. The two-dimensional response of the system to forcing by a predominantly longitudinal (cross-shore standing wave perturbed by a small transverse (along-shore component is determined. With a constant yield stress in the bi-viscous lower layer, there is little amplification of these transverse per-turbations and the model response typically remains quasi-one-dimensional. However, for a bi-viscous layer with a pressure-dependent yield stress (which represents the effect that the seabed deforms less readily under compression and hence renders the rheology history dependent, the initially small transverse motions are amplified in some parameter regimes and two-dimensional, permanent bedforms are formed in the lower layer. This simple dynamical model is, therefore, able to explain the formation of permanent bedforms with significant cross- and along-shore features by predominantly cross-shore standing wave forcing.

  6. Explaining Polarization Reversals in STEREO Wave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L, B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently Breneman et al. reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (Lpaper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by +/-200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by 200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al.

  7. Kinetic damping of transverse waves in a homogeneous magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1984-12-01

    In a hot magnetized plasma large ion excursions can take place along the magnetic field lines, thereby introducing kinetic effects which cannot be treated in terms of a macroscopic fluid model. This effect is studied for the transverse wave motion of ions and electrons in a homogeneous thermal plasma, being immersed in a homogeneous magnetic field. Strong kinetic wave damping is found to occur when the product ku sub (i) of the wave number k and the ion thermal velocity u sub (i) exceeds the ion gyro frequency ω sub (i). The physical mechanism of this damping originates from large ion excursions and differs from that of Landau damping. The present results suggest that kinetic damping becomes important in hot tokamak plasmas for wave lengths of the order of a few centimeters and less. In high-beta systems, such as the Z-pinch, wave lengths in a large range become affected by kinetic damping, in some case even those which are comparable to the characteristic macroscopic dimensions. This also affects the conditions of plasma stability and plasma high-frequency heating. (Author)

  8. CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in the muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    In the most general weak interaction model with intermediate vector bosons, allowing CP breaking in the muon decay, CP- even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons is calculated taking into account the radiative corrections. It is shown that such corrections are essential only at the beginning of the spectrum reducing the observed transverse polarization effects. When the electron energy is close to its maximum and the emission angles are small, the transverse polarization considerably grows. Search for CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons should be carried out at energies Esub(e) approximately equal to O.975 Esub(e)sup(max) and emission angles THETA approximately equal to 25+35 deg [ru

  9. Launching transverse-electric Localized Waves from a circular waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Axially symmetric transverse electric (TE) modes of a circular waveguide section are used to synthesize the vector TE Localized Wave (LW) field at the open end of the waveguide section. The necessary excitation coefficients of these modes are obtained by the method of matching, taking advantage of the modal power orthogonality relations. The necessary excitation of modes provided by a number of coaxial loop antennas inserted inside the waveguide section. The antennas currents are computed from the solution of the waveguide excitation inverse problem. The accuracy of the synthesized wave field (compared to the mathematical model) and the power efficiency of the generation technique are evaluated in order to practically realize a launcher for LWs in the microwave regime. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Sausage Waves in Transversely Nonuniform Monolithic Coronal Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate fast sausage waves in a monolithic coronal magnetic tube, modeled as a local density inhomogeneity with a continuous radial profile. This work is a natural extension of our previous results, obtained for a slab loop model for the case of cylindrical geometry. Using Kneser’s oscillating theorem, we provided the criteria for the existence of trapped and leaky wave regimes as a function of the profile features. For a number of density profiles there are only trapped modes for the entire range of longitudinal wave numbers. The phase speed of these modes tends toward the external Alfvén speed in the long wavelength limit. The generalized results were supported by the analytic solution of the wave equation for the specific density profiles. The approximate Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin solutions allowed us to obtain the desired dispersion relations and to study their properties as a function of the profile parameters. The multicomponent quasi-periodic pulsations in flaring loops, observed on 2001 May 2 and 2002 July 3, are interpreted in terms of the transversely fundamental trapped fast sausage mode with several longitudinal harmonics in a smooth coronal waveguide.

  11. SAUSAGE WAVES IN TRANSVERSELY NONUNIFORM MONOLITHIC CORONAL TUBES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate fast sausage waves in a monolithic coronal magnetic tube, modeled as a local density inhomogeneity with a continuous radial profile. This work is a natural extension of our previous results, obtained for a slab loop model for the case of cylindrical geometry. Using Kneser’s oscillating theorem, we provided the criteria for the existence of trapped and leaky wave regimes as a function of the profile features. For a number of density profiles there are only trapped modes for the entire range of longitudinal wave numbers. The phase speed of these modes tends toward the external Alfvén speed in the long wavelength limit. The generalized results were supported by the analytic solution of the wave equation for the specific density profiles. The approximate Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin solutions allowed us to obtain the desired dispersion relations and to study their properties as a function of the profile parameters. The multicomponent quasi-periodic pulsations in flaring loops, observed on 2001 May 2 and 2002 July 3, are interpreted in terms of the transversely fundamental trapped fast sausage mode with several longitudinal harmonics in a smooth coronal waveguide

  12. Modifications of Surface Wave Discrimination Filter Based on the Polarization Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutlu, Y. A.; Sayil, N.

    2007-01-01

    The polarization properties of Love and Rayleigh waves are utilized to design Surface Wave Discrimination Filter. Filtering process for a selected window length and moving interval is that the amplitudes at each frequency on vertical, radial and transverse components are weighted according to how closely the theoretical three-dimensional particle motion pattern. In this study, weighted functions have been modified for epicenteral distances smaller than about 2200 km to corresponding with angular distribution of polarization parameters obtained from computed synthetic seismograms. Modified Surface Wave Discrimination Filter has been tested on synthetic seismograms and digital three-components broadband records at Trabzon earthquake station

  13. Determination of the Stress State From Transverse Wave Speeds in Isotropic Inelastic Solids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheidler, Mike

    1997-01-01

    For a transverse acceleration wave propagating along a principal axis of strain in a nonlinear isotropic elastic solid, a simple formula due to Ericksen relates the wave speed to the stress and strain...

  14. Electron Cyclotron Waves Polarization in the TJII Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, A.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Wagner, D.

    2013-05-01

    This report describes the theoretical calculations related with the electron cyclotron (EC) waves polarization control in the TJII stellarator. Two main aspects will be distinguished: the determination of the vacuum polarization that the wave must exhibit if a given propagation mode in a cold plasma is desired and the calculation of the behavior of the grooved polarizers and other transmission systems used to launch the vacuum wave with the required polarization. (Author) 13 refs.

  15. Simultaneously improving optical absorption of both transverse-electric polarized and transverse-magnetic polarized light for organic solar cells with Ag grating used as transparent electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbing Long

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical simulations are performed to investigate optical performance of organic solar cells with Ag grating electrode. It is demonstrated that optical absorption for both transverse-electric (TE polarized and transverse-magnetic(TM polarized light is simultaneously improved when compared with that for the device without the Ag grating. The improvement is respectively attributed to the resonance and the surface plasmon polaritons within the device. After an additional WO3 layer is capped on the Ag grating, absorption of TE-polarized light is further improved due to resonance of double microcavities within the device, and absorption of TM-polarized light is improved by the combined effects of the microcavity resonance and the surface plasmon polaritons. Correspondingly, the short current density for randomly polarized light is improved by 18.1% from that of the device without the Ag grating. Finally, it is demonstrated that high transmission may not be an essential prerequisite for metallic gratings when they are used as transparent electrode since absorption loss caused by low transmission can be compensated by using a capping layer to optimize optical resonance of the WMC structure within the device.

  16. Free asymmetric transverse vibration of polar orthotropic annular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Houmat A 2001 A sector Fourier p-element applied to free vibration analysis of sectorial plates. J. Sound Vibr. 243: 269–282. Irie T, Yamada G, Ito F 1979 Free vibration of polar orthotropic sector plates. J. Sound Vibr 67: 89–100. Irie T, Tanaka K, Yamada G 1988 Free vibration of a cantilever annular sector plate with curved ...

  17. New shapes of light-cone distributions of the transversely polarized ρ-mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhajlov, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    The leading twist light-cone distributions for transversely polarized ρ-, ρ ' - and b 1 mesons are reanalyzed in the framework of QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates. Using different kinds of sum rules to obtain reliable predictions, we estimate the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-th moments for transversely polarized ρ- and ρ ' -meson distributions and reestimate tensor couplings f ρ,ρ ' ,b 1 T . It is stressed that the results of standard sum rules also support our estimation of the second moment of the transversely polarized ρ-meson distribution. New models for light-cone distributions are briefly discussed. Our results are compared with those found by Ball and Braun (1996), and the latter is shown to be incomplete

  18. Light-matter interactions in a polarization standing wave

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, X.; MacDonald, K.F.; Zheludev, N.I.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the application of polarization standing waves (PSW) to the coherent control of light-matter interactions in planar photonic nanostructures. Such waves, formed by counter-propagating (linear or circular) orthogonally polarized beams can uniquely detect polarization conversion, planar chirality and related asymmetric transmission effects.

  19. Induction of transverse polarity by blue light: an all-or-none response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, P; Schafer, E

    1991-10-01

    Phototropic stimulation induces a spatial memory. This was inferred from experiments with maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles involving opposing blue-light pulses, separated by variable time intervals, and rotation on a horizontal clinostat (Nick and Schafer, 1988b, Planta 175, 380-388). In those experiments, individual seedlings either curved towards the first or towards the second pulse, or they remained straight. Bending, if it occurred, seemed to be an all-or-none response. Intermediates, i.e. plants, bending only weakly, were not observed. In the first part of the present study it was attempted to create such intermediates. For this purpose the strength of the first, inducing, and the second, opposing, pulse was varied. The result was complex: (i) Individual seedlings maintained the all-or-none expression of spatial memory. (ii) However, on the level of the whole population, the time intervals at which a given response type dominated depended on the fluence ratio. (iii) Furthermore, the final curvature was determined by the fluence ratio. These results are discussed in terms of a blue-light-induced transverse polarity. This polarity initiates from a labile precursor, which can be reoriented by an opposing stimulation (indicated by the strong bending towards the second pulse). The strong curvatures towards the first pulse over long time intervals reveal that, eventually, the blue-light-induced transverse polarity becomes stabilised and thus immune to the counterpulse. In the second part of the study, the relation between phototropic transduction and transverse polarity was characterised by a phenomenological approach involving the following points: (i) Sensory adaptation for induction of transverse polarity disappears with a time course similar to that for phototropic sensory adaptatation. (ii) The fluence response for induction of transverse polarity is a saturation curve and not bell-shaped like the curve for phototropism (iii) For strong counterpulses and long

  20. Switching the response of metasurfaces in polarization standing waves

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, X.; MacDonald, K.F.; Zheludev, N.I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that standing waves of polarization, as opposed to intensity, can be engaged to coherently control light-matter interactions in planar photonic nanostructures, presenting unique opportunities for all-optical data processing and polarization-dependent molecular spectroscopy. Such waves, formed by counter-propagating (linear or circular) orthogonally polarized beams can, for example, uniquely detect polarization conversion, planar chirality and related asymmetric t...

  1. MEASUREMENT OF POLARIZATION OBSERVABLES IN VECTOR MESON PHOTOPRODUCTION USING A TRANSVERSELY-POLARIZED FROZEN-SPIN TARGET AND POLARIZED PHOTONS AT CLAS, JEFFERSON LAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Priyashree [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The study of baryon resonances provides a deeper understanding of the strong interaction because the dynamics and relevant degrees of freedom hidden within them are re ected by the properties of the excited states of baryons. Higher-lying excited states at and above 1.7 GeV/c2 are generally predicted to have strong couplings to final states involving a heavier meson, e. g. one of the vector mesons, ρ, ω φ, as compared to a lighter pseudoscalar meson, e. g. π and η. Decays to the ππΝ final states via πΔ also become more important through the population of intermediate resonances. We observe that nature invests in mass rather than momentum. The excited states of the nucleon are usually found as broadly overlapping resonances which may decay into a multitude of final states involving mesons and baryons. Polarization observables make it possible to isolate single resonance contributions from other interference terms. The CLAS g9 (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Je?erson Laboratory, accumulated photoproduction data using circularly- & linearly-polarized photons incident on a transversely-polarized butanol target (g9b experiment) in the photon energy range 0:3-2:4 GeV & 0:7-2:1 GeV, respectively. In this work, the analysis of reactions and polarization observables which involve two charged pions, either in the fully exclusive reaction γρ -> ρπ+π- or in the semi-exclusive reaction with a missing neutral pion, γρ -> ρπ+π-(π0) will be presented. For the reaction ρπ+π-, eight polarization observables (Is, Ic, Px, Py, Psx; y, Pcx; y) have been extracted. The high statistics data rendered it possible to extract these observables in three dimensions. All of them are first-time measurements. The fairly good agreement of Is, Ic obtained from this analysis with the experimental results from a previous CLAS experiment provides support for the first-time measurements. For the reaction γρ -> ρω -> ρπ+π(π0, five polarization

  2. Transverse polarization of Λ and Λ¯ hyperons in quasireal photoproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Ammosov, V. V.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bailey, P.; Baturin, V.; Baumgarten, C.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bernreuther, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brack, J.; Brüll, A.; Brunn, I.; Capitani, G. P.; Chiang, H. C.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Court, G. R.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; de Leo, R.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Devitsin, E.; di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Ely, J.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Felawka, L.; Fox, B.; Franz, J.; Frullani, S.; Gärber, Y.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garutti, E.; Gaskell, D.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Graw, G.; Grebeniouk, O.; Greeniaus, L. G.; Haeberli, W.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Heesbeen, D.; Henoch, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Hesselink, W. H. A.; Hillenbrand, A.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Iarygin, G.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Königsmann, K.; Kolster, H.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Lindemann, T.; Lipka, K.; Lorenzon, W.; Makins, N. C. R.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Menden, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Orlandi, G.; Potashov, S.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Scarlett, C.; Schäfer, A.; Schill, C.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Schwind, A.; Seibert, J.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Simani, M. C.; Sinram, K.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stewart, J.; Stösslein, U.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Tessarin, S.; Thomas, E.; Tkabladze, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Urciuoli, G. M.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van de Vyver, R.; Veretennikov, D.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Visser, J.; Vogt, M.; Volmer, J.; Weiskopf, C.; Wendland, J.; Wilbert, J.; Wise, T.; Yen, S.; Yoneyama, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zohrabian, H.; Zupranski, P.

    2007-11-01

    The HERMES experiment has measured the transverse polarization of Λ and Λ¯ hyperons produced inclusively in quasireal photoproduction at a positron beam energy of 27.6 GeV. The transverse polarization PnΛ of the Λ hyperon is found to be positive while the observed Λ¯ polarization is compatible with zero. The values averaged over the kinematic acceptance of HERMES are PnΛ=0.078±0.006(stat)±0.012(syst) and PnΛ¯=-0.025±0.015(stat)±0.018(syst) for Λ and Λ¯, respectively. The dependences of PnΛ and PnΛ¯ on the fraction ζ of the beam’s light-cone momentum carried by the hyperon and on the hyperon’s transverse momentum pT were investigated. The measured Λ polarization rises linearly with pT and exhibits a different behavior for low and high values of ζ, which approximately correspond to the backward and forward regions in the center-of-mass frame of the γ*N reaction.

  3. Spin annihilations of and spin sifters for transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves in co- and counter-rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung-In; Mok, Jinsik

    2014-01-01

    This study is motivated in part to better understand multiplexing in wireless communications, which employs photons carrying varying angular momenta. In particular, we examine both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves in either co-rotations or counter-rotations. To this goal, we analyze both Poynting-vector flows and orbital and spin parts of the energy flow density for the combined fields. Consequently, we find not only enhancements but also cancellations between the two modes. To our surprise, the photon spins in the azimuthal direction exhibit a complete annihilation for the counter-rotational case even if the intensities of the colliding waves are of different magnitudes. In contrast, the orbital flow density disappears only if the two intensities satisfy a certain ratio. In addition, the concepts of spin sifters and enantiomer sorting are illustrated.

  4. Spin annihilations of and spin sifters for transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves in co- and counter-rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-In Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is motivated in part to better understand multiplexing in wireless communications, which employs photons carrying varying angular momenta. In particular, we examine both transverse electric (TE and transverse magnetic (TM waves in either co-rotations or counter-rotations. To this goal, we analyze both Poynting-vector flows and orbital and spin parts of the energy flow density for the combined fields. Consequently, we find not only enhancements but also cancellations between the two modes. To our surprise, the photon spins in the azimuthal direction exhibit a complete annihilation for the counter-rotational case even if the intensities of the colliding waves are of different magnitudes. In contrast, the orbital flow density disappears only if the two intensities satisfy a certain ratio. In addition, the concepts of spin sifters and enantiomer sorting are illustrated.

  5. Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xu, Di-Hu; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-02-18

    A freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband terahertz waves is demonstrated using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized terahertz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. This low-cost, high-efficiency, and freely tunable device has potential applications as material analysis, wireless communication, and THz imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Role of Quasi-Transverse Propagation in Observed Polarization of Flare Loop Microwave Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, A. V.; Melnikov, V. F.; Morgachev, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    The ordinary mode of gyrosynchrotron radiation was identified to be predominant in some segments of flare loops in solar flares of July 19, 2012, and October 22, 2014. These events were studied by investigation of the quasi-transverse propagation effect on the observed polarization. The analysis involved reconstruction of the magnetic field topology at the linear force-free approximation based on the data of the SDO HMI space telescope and the subsequent simulation of radio emission of flare loops with the GX Simulator software package. The quasi-transverse propagation effect was established to be characteristic for both events, but its influence on the radio emission polarization at a frequency of 17 GHz was observed only in the October 22, 2014 flare.

  7. Effects of transversity in deep-inelastic scattering by polarized protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-689 Warsaw (Poland); Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Avetisyan, E. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bacchetta, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Belostotski, S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad region 188300 (Russian Federation); Bianchi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Borissov, A. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bowles, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Brodsky, I. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Bryzgalov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region 142281 (Russian Federation); Burns, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Capiluppi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, and Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, G.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cisbani, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione Roma 1, Gruppo Sanita, and Physics Lab., Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Roma (Italy)

    2010-09-20

    Single-spin asymmetries for pions and charged kaons are measured in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of positrons and electrons off a transversely nuclear-polarized hydrogen target. The dependence of the cross section on the azimuthal angles of the target polarization ({phi}{sub S}) and the produced hadron ({phi}) is found to have a substantial sin({phi}+{phi}{sub S}) modulation for the production of {pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup -} and K{sup +}. This Fourier component can be interpreted in terms of non-zero transversity distribution functions and non-zero favored and disfavored Collins fragmentation functions with opposite sign. For {pi}{sup 0} and K{sup -} production the amplitude of this Fourier component is consistent with zero.

  8. Search for Time Reversal Violation in Neutron Decay: A Measurement of the Transverse Polarization of Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, K.; Kaczmarek, A.; Kistryn, St.; Kuzniak, M.; Zejma, J.; Pulut, J.; Kirch, K.; Bialek, A.; Kozela, A.; Ban, G.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Gorel, P.; Beck, M.; Lindroth, A.; Severijns, N.; Stephan, E.; Czarnecki, A.

    2006-01-01

    A non-zero value of the R-correlation coefficient due to the e - polarization component, perpendicular to the plane spanned by the spin of the decaying neutron and the electron momentum, would signal a violation of time reversal symmetry and thus physics beyond the Standard Model. The value of the N-correlation coefficient, given by the transverse e - polarization component within that plane, is expected to be finite. The measurement of N serves as an important systematic check of the apparatus for the R-measurement. The first phase of data taking has been completed. Preliminary results from a limited data sample show no deviations from the Standard Model predictions

  9. Spin asymmetry in muon-proton deep inelastic scattering on a transversely-polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.; Arik, E.; Arvidson, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballintijn, M.K.; Bardin, G.; Baum, Guenter; Berglund, P.; Betev, L.; Bird, I.G.; Birsa, R.; Bjorkholm, P.; Bonner, B.E.; de Botton, N.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Brull, A.; Bueltmann, Stephen L.; Burtin, E.; Cavata, C.; Clocchiatti, M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Crabb, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Crawford, M.; Cuhadar, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; van Dantzig, R.; Dhawan, S.; Dulya, C.; Dyring, A.; Eichblatt, S.; Faivre, J.C.; Fasching, D.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandez, C.; Frois, B.; Garzon, J.A.; Gaussiran, T.; Giorgi, M.; von Goeler, E.; Gracia, G.; de Groot, N.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gulmez, Erhan; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hautle, P.; Hayashi, N.; Heusch, C.A.; Horikawa, N.; Hughes, V.W.; Igo, G.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kabuss, E.M.; Kaiser, R.; Karev, A.; Kessler, H.J.; Ketel, T.J.; Kishi, A.; Kiselev, Yu.; Klostermann, L.; Kramer, D.; Krivokhijine, V.; Kukhtin, V.; Kyynarainen, J.; Lamanna, M.; Landgraf, U.; Lau, K.; Layda, T.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Lindqvist, T.; Litmaath, M.; Lopez-Ponte, S.; Lowe, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Marie, F.; Martin, A.; Martino, J.; Matsuda, T.; Mayes, B.; McCarthy, J.S.; Medved, K.; van Middelkoop, G.; Miller, D.; Mori, K.; Moromisato, J.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nassalski, J.; Naumann, L.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Oberski, J.E.J.; Parks, D.P.; Penzo, A.; Perez, G.; Kunne, F.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piegaia, R.; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Platchkov, S.; Plo, M.; Pose, D.; Postma, H.; Pretz, J.; Pussieux, T.; Pyrlik, J.; Reyhancan, I.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.; Roberts, J.B.; Rock, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Rondio, E.; Rosado, A.; Sabo, I.; Saborido, J.; Sandacz, A.; Savin, Igor A.; Schiavon, P.; Schuler, P.; Segel, R.; Seitz, R.; Semertzidis, Y.; Sever, F.; Shanahan, P.; Shumeiko, N.; Smirnov, G.; Staude, A.; Steinmetz, A.; Stiegler, U.; Stuhrmann, H.; Teichert, K.M.; Tessarotto, F.; Velasco, M.; Vogt, J.; Voss, R.; Weinstein, R.; Whitten, C.; Windmolders, R.; Willumeit, R.; Wislicki, W.; Witzmann, A.; Zanetti, A.M.; Zhao, J.

    1994-01-01

    We measured the spin asymmetry in the scattering of 100 GeV longitudinally-polarized muons on transversely polarized protons. The asymmetry was found to be compatible with zero in the kinematic range $0.006

  10. Nonextensive statistics and skin depth of transverse wave in collisional plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemzadeh, M., E-mail: hashemzade@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Skin depth of transverse wave in a collisional plasma is studied taking into account the nonextensive electron distribution function. Considering the kinetic theory for charge particles and using the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision model, a generalized transverse dielectric permittivity is obtained. The transverse dispersion relation in different frequency ranges is investigated. Obtaining the imaginary part of the wave vector from the dispersion relation, the skin depth for these frequency ranges is also achieved. Profiles of the skin depth show that by increasing the q parameter, the penetration depth decreases. In addition, the skin depth increases by increasing the electron temperature. Finally, it is found that in the high frequency range and high electron temperature, the penetration depth decreases by increasing the collision frequency. In contrast, by increasing the collision frequency in a highly collisional frequency range, the skin depth of transverse wave increases.

  11. Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, Kyle S., E-mail: sprattkyle@gmail.com; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F. [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, P. O. Box 8029, Austin, Texas 78713–8029, US (United States)

    2015-10-28

    A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic.

  12. Ultrashort hybrid plasmonic transverse electric pass polarizer for silicon-on-insulator platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mohamed Farhat O.; Zaghloul, Reham; Azzam, Shaimaa I.; Obayya, Salah S. A.

    2017-01-01

    A design of a transverse electric (TE)-pass polarizer based on hybrid plasmonic silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is reported and analyzed using full vectorial finite element method. The proposed design has gold nanorods that are injected into the silicon dioxide substrate to tolerate the function of the device, and hence the required polarizing state can be obtained. Detailed design principle is presented, taking advantage of the distinct confinements of the TE and transverse magnetic modes in the core region and their coupling with the surface plasmon modes around the metallic nanorods. According to the positions of the gold nanorods, the suggested plasmonic SOI can be used as a TE-pass polarizer with a compact device length of 1.85 μm with 0.1639 dB insertion losses and extinction ratio of 14.58 dB at wavelength of 1.55 μm. The optimized geometrical parameters offer 3 orders of magnitude smaller than similar devices previously demonstrated on the SOI platform. The proposed design has advantages in terms of simplicity and compactness, which makes it a good candidate to be used in integrated silicon photonics. Further, the compact device size and good performance could provide a simple yet satisfactory solution to the polarization-dependent performance drawback of the silicon photonics devices on the SOI platform.

  13. An Automated Algorithm for Identifying and Tracking Transverse Waves in Solar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberg, Micah J.; Morton, Richard J.; McLaughlin, James A.

    2018-01-01

    Recent instrumentation has demonstrated that the solar atmosphere supports omnipresent transverse waves, which could play a key role in energizing the solar corona. Large-scale studies are required in order to build up an understanding of the general properties of these transverse waves. To help facilitate this, we present an automated algorithm for identifying and tracking features in solar images and extracting the wave properties of any observed transverse oscillations. We test and calibrate our algorithm using a set of synthetic data, which includes noise and rotational effects. The results indicate an accuracy of 1%–2% for displacement amplitudes and 4%–10% for wave periods and velocity amplitudes. We also apply the algorithm to data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and find good agreement with previous studies. Of note, we find that 35%–41% of the observed plumes exhibit multiple wave signatures, which indicates either the superposition of waves or multiple independent wave packets observed at different times within a single structure. The automated methods described in this paper represent a significant improvement on the speed and quality of direct measurements of transverse waves within the solar atmosphere. This algorithm unlocks a wide range of statistical studies that were previously impractical.

  14. Amplification of surface acoustic waves by transverse electric current in piezoelectric semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulyaev, Yuri V.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the principal characteristic feature of the surface acoustic waves in piezoelectrics—the presence of an alternating electric field transverse to the surface, which can be of the same order of magnitude as the longitudinal field—may not only give rise to the known transverse...... acoustoelectric effect but also lead to amplification of surface acoustic waves by electron drift perpendicular to the surface. For Love waves in a piezoelectric semiconductor film on a highly conducting substrate, the amplification coefficient is found and the conditions necessary for amplification...

  15. Dust-acoustic waves modulational instability and rogue waves in a polarized dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzit, Omar; Tribeche, Mouloud [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Plasma Physics Group, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2015-10-15

    The polarization force-induced changes in the dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) modulational instability (MI) are examined. Using the reductive perturbation method, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation that governs the MI of the DAWs is obtained. It is found that the effect of the polarization term R is to narrow the wave number domain for the onset of instability. The amplitude of the wave envelope decreases as R increases, meaning that the polarization force effects render weaker the associated DA rogue waves. The latter may therefore completely damp in the vicinity of R ∼ 1, i.e., as the polarization force becomes close to the electrostatic one (the net force acting on the dust particles becomes vanishingly small). The DA rogue wave profile is very sensitive to any change in the restoring force acting on the dust particles. It turns out that the polarization effects may completely smear out the DA rogue waves.

  16. Ratios of helicity amplitudes for exclusive ρ0 electroproduction on transversely polarized proton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaenkov Serguei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive ρ0-meson electroproduction is studied by the HERMES experiment, using the 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron/positron beam of HERA and a transversely polarized hydrogen target, in the kinematic region 1.0 GeV2 < Q2 < 7.0 GeV2, 3.0 GeV < W < 6.3 GeV, and −t′ < 0.4 GeV2. Using an unbinned maximum-likelihood method, 25 parameters are extracted. They determine the real and imaginary parts of the ratios of certain helicity amplitudes describing ρ0-meson production by a virtual photon, where the denominator is the dominant amplitude F012012${F_{0{1 \\over 2}}}_{0{1 \\over 2}}$. The latter is the nucleon-helicity-non-flip amplitude, which describes the production of a longitudinal ρ0 meson by a longitudinal virtual photon. The transverse target polarization allows for the first time the extraction of ratios of a number of nucleon-helicity-flip amplitudes to F012012${F_{0{1 \\over 2}}}_{0{1 \\over 2}}$. The ratios of nucleon-helicity-non-flip amplitudes are found to be in good agreement with those from the previous HERMES analysis.

  17. A bulk superconducting MgB2 cylinder for holding transversely polarized targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statera, M.; Balossino, I.; Barion, L.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Lenisa, P.; Lowry, M. M.; Sandorfi, A. M.; Tagliente, G.

    2018-02-01

    An innovative solution is being pursued for the challenging magnetic problem of producing an internal transverse field around a polarized target, while shielding out an external longitudinal field from a detector. A hollow bulk superconductor can trap a transverse field that is present when cooled through its transition temperature, and also shield its interior from any subsequent field changes. A feasibility study with a prototype bulk MgB2 superconducting cylinder is described. Promising measurements taken of the interior field retention and exterior field exclusion, together with the corresponding long-term stability performance, are reported. In the context of an electron scattering experiment, such a solution minimizes beam deflection and the energy loss of reaction products, while also eliminating the heat load to the target cryostat from current leads that would be used with conventional electromagnets.

  18. Dynamics of a quasiparticle in the α-T3 model: Role of pseudospin polarization and transverse magnetic field on zitterbewegung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tutul; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti

    2018-01-09

    We consider the $\\alpha$-$T_3$ model which provides a smooth crossover between the honeycomb lattice with pseudospin $1/2$ and the dice lattice with pseudospin $1$ through the variation of a parameter $\\alpha$. We study the dynamics of a wave packet representing a quasiparticle in the $\\alpha$-T$_3$ model with zero and finite transverse magnetic field. For zero field, it is shown that the wave packet undergoes a transient $zitterbewegung$ (ZB). Various features of ZB depending on the initial pseudospin polarization of the wave packet have been revealed. For an intermediate value of the parameter $\\alpha$ i.e. for $0<\\alpha<1$ the resulting ZB consists of two distinct frequencies when the wave packet was located initially in $rim$ site. However, the wave packet exhibits single frequency ZB for $\\alpha=0$ and $\\alpha=1$. It is also unveiled that the frequency of ZB corresponding to $\\alpha=1$ gets exactly half of that corresponding to the $\\alpha=0$ case. On the other hand, when the initial wave packet was in $hub$ site, the ZB consists of only one frequency for all values of $\\alpha$. Using stationary phase approximation we find analytical expression of velocity average which can be used to extract the associated timescale over which the transient nature of ZB persists. On the contrary the wave packet undergoes permanent ZB in presence of a transverse magnetic field. Due to the presence of large number of Landau energy levels the oscillations in ZB appear to be much more complicated. The oscillation pattern depends significantly on the initial pseudospin polarization of the wave packet. Furthermore, it is revealed that the number of the frequency components involved in ZB depends on the parameter $\\alpha$. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Ratios of helicity amplitudes for exclusive ρ{sup 0} electroproduction on transversely polarized protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); University of Michigan, Randall Laboratory of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Akopov, N.; Elbakian, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Marukyan, H.; Petrosyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z.; Borissov, A.; Deconinck, W.; Holler, Y.; Rostomyan, A.; Zihlmann, B. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C.; Nowak, W.D. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W.; Marianski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Zupranski, P. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Belostotski, S.; Kisselev, A.; Manaenkov, S.I.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Leningrad Region (Russian Federation); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bryzgalov, V.; Ivanilov, A.; Korotkov, V.; Salomatin, Y. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Capitani, G.P.; De Sanctis, E.; Muccifora, V.; Reolon, A.R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Ciullo, G.; Lenisa, P.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Statera, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); Contalbrigo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); De Leo, R.; Lagamba, L.; Vilardi, I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Dueren, M. [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Ellinghaus, F. [University of Colorado, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Boulder, CO (United States); Felawka, L. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, Gruppo Collegato Sanita, Rome (Italy); Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Gavrilov, G. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Leningrad Region (Russian Federation); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Goloskokov, S.V.; Shutov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Jackson, H.E.; Reimer, P.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, Argonne, IL (United States); Joosten, S. [Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gent (Belgium); University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); Kaiser, R.; Lehmann, I.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B. [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Karyan, G. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Kozlov, V.; Terkulov, A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kravchenko, P. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Leningrad Region (Russian Federation); Kroll, P.; Schaefer, A. [Universitaet Regensburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Regensburg (Germany); Lapikas, L. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lorenzon, W. [University of Michigan, Randall Laboratory of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Miyachi, Y.; Shibata, T.A. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Movsisyan, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Nass, A.; Rith, K. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Riedl, C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); Ryckbosch, D.; Tytgat, M.; Haarlem, Y. van [Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gent (Belgium); Schnell, G. [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); Basque Foundation for Science, IKERBASQUE, Bilbao (Spain); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gent (Belgium); Truty, R. [University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); Hulse, C. van [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gent (Belgium); Yaschenko, S. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Collaboration: The HERMES Collaboration

    2017-06-15

    Exclusive ρ{sup 0}-meson electroproduction is studied by the HERMES experiment, using the 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron/positron beam of HERA and a transversely polarized hydrogen target, in the kinematic region 1.0 GeV{sup 2} < Q{sup 2} < 7.0 GeV{sup 2}, 3.0 GeV < W < 6.3 GeV, and -t{sup '} < 0.4 GeV{sup 2}. Using an unbinned maximum-likelihood method, 25 parameters are extracted. These determine the real and imaginary parts of the ratios of several helicity amplitudes describing ρ{sup 0}-meson production by a virtual photon. The denominator of those ratios is the dominant amplitude, the nucleon-helicity-non-flip amplitude F{sub 0(1)/(2)0(1)/(2)}, which describes the production of a longitudinal ρ{sup 0}-meson by a longitudinal virtual photon. The ratios of nucleon-helicity-non-flip amplitudes are found to be in good agreement with those from the previous HERMES analysis. The transverse target polarization allows for the first time the extraction of ratios of a number of nucleon-helicity-flip amplitudes to F{sub 0(1)/(2)0(1)/(2)}. Results obtained in a handbag approach based on generalized parton distributions taking into account the contribution from pion exchange are found to be in good agreement with these ratios. Within the model, the data favor a positive sign for the π - ρ transition form factor. By also exploiting the longitudinal beam polarization, a total of 71 ρ{sup 0} spin-density matrix elements is determined from the extracted 25 parameters, in contrast to only 53 elements as directly determined in earlier analyses. (orig.)

  20. Hadron-pair production on transversely polarized targets in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Christopher

    2014-07-29

    Nucleons such as protons and neutrons are composite objects made of quarks, which are bound together by the strong force via the exchange of gluons. The probability of finding a quark of flavor q carrying the momentum fraction x of the fast moving parent nucleon is described by a parton distribution function (PDF) f{sub 1}{sup q}(x), the number density. The spin, an intrinsic angular momentum of elementary particles such as quarks but also of composite objects like nucleons, couples with magnetic fields, which allows one to align it. Taking into account this additional parameter, the spin, the scheme of PDFs in leading twist is expanded by the helicity distribution g{sub 1}{sup q}(x) and the transversity distribution h{sub 1}{sup q}(x). The first distribution covers the case where the nucleon and the quark are longitudinally polarized, while a transverse polarization is taken into account by the latter. A tool for the investigation of the PDFs is inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of electro-magnetic probes off (un)polarized nucleons at fixed-target experiments. This only gives access to f{sub 1}{sup q}(x) and g{sub 1}{sup q}(x), while the chiral-odd nature of the transversity distribution prevents a measurement without detecting the final hadronic states. However, h{sub 1}{sup q}(x) can be observed in semi-inclusive DIS (SIDIS) in combination with another chiral-odd function like the dihadron fragmentation function H{sub 1} {sup angle} {sup q} in the production of a hadron-pair. The resulting experimental challenge is the reason why f{sub 1}{sup q}(x) and g{sub 1}{sup q}(x) have been investigated for almost four decades, while h{sub 1}{sup q}(x) is still subject to recent measurements and analyses. The 160 GeV/c polarized muon beam of CERN's M2 beamline allows the COMPASS experiment to investigate spin effects using polarized solid-state targets. Since the year 2002 COMPASS has collected unique data sets on transversely polarized targets of lithium

  1. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those......We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....

  2. Multiband Circular Polarizer Based on Fission Transmission of Linearly Polarized Wave for X-Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Mangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband circular polarizer based on fission transmission of linearly polarized wave for x-band application is proposed, which is constructed of 2 × 2 metallic strips array. The linear-to-circular polarization conversion is obtained by decomposing the linearly incident x-polarized wave into two orthogonal vector components of equal amplitude and 90° phase difference between them. The innovative approach of “fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarized wave” is firstly introduced to obtain giant circular dichroism based on decomposition of orthogonal vector components through the structure. It means that the incident linearly polarized wave is converted into two orthogonal components through lower printed metallic strips layer and two transmitted waves impinge on the upper printed strips layer to convert into four orthogonal vector components at the end of structure. This projection and transmission sequence of orthogonal components sustain the chain transmission of electromagnetic wave and can achieve giant circular dichroism. Theoretical analysis and microwave experiments are presented to validate the performance of the structure. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation results. In addition, the proposed circular polarizer exhibits the optimal performance with respect to the normal incidence. The right handed circularly polarized wave is emitted ranging from 10.08 GHz to 10.53 GHz and 10.78 GHz to 11.12 GHz, while the left handed circular polarized wave is excited at 10.54 GHz–10.70 GHz and 11.13 GHz–11.14 GHz, respectively.

  3. Possible parametric instabilities of beat waves in a transversely magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.

    1988-05-01

    The effect of an external magnetic field on the various possible parametric instabilities of the longitudinal beat wave at the difference frequency of two incident laser beams in a hot plasma has been thoeretically investigated. The kinetic equation is employed to obtain the nonlinear response of the magnetized electrons due to the nonlinear coupling of the beat wave with the low-frequency electrostatic plasma modes. It is noted that the growth rates of the three-wave and the four-wave parametric instabilities can be influenced by the external transverse magnetic field. (author). 20 refs, 3 figs

  4. Hadron-pair production on transversely polarized targets in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Christopher

    Nucleons such as protons and neutrons are composite objects made of quarks, which are bound together by the strong force via the exchange of gluons. The probability of finding a quark of flavor q carrying the momentum fraction x of the fast moving parent nucleon is described by a parton distribution function (PDF) f q 1 ( x ) , the number density. The spin, an intrinsic angular momentum of elementary particles such as quarks but also of composite objects like nucleons, couples with magnetic fields, which allows one to align it. Taking into account this additional parameter, the spin, the scheme of PDFs in leading twist is expanded by the helicity distribution g q 1 ( x ) and the transversity distribution h q 1 ( x ) . The first distribution covers the case where the nucleon and the quark are longitudinally polarized, while a transverse polarization is taken into account by the latter. A tool for the investigation of the PDFs is inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of electro- magnetic probes off (un)pola...

  5. Spiky soliton in circular polarized Alfven wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Sanuki, H.; Konno, K.; Wadati, M.

    1979-06-01

    A new type of nonlinear evolution equation for the Alfven waves, propagating parallel to the magnetic field, is now registered to the completely integrable family of nonlinear evolution equations. In spite of the extensive studies of Kaup and Newell, and of Kawata and Inoue, these analysis have been dealing with solutions for restricted boundary conditions. The present paper presents full account of stationary solitary wave solutions for the plane wave boundary condition. The obtained results exhibit peculiar structure of spiky modulation of amplitude and phase, which arises from the derivative nonlinear coupling term. A nonlinear equation for complex amplitude associated with the carrier wave is shown to be a mixed type of nonlinear Schroedinger equation, having and ordinary cubic nonlinear term and the derivative of cubic nonlinear term. (author)

  6. The Potential Energy Density in Transverse String Waves Depends Critically on Longitudinal Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The question of the correct formula for the potential energy density in transverse waves on a taut string continues to attract attention (e.g. Burko 2010 "Eur. J. Phys." 31 L71), and at least three different formulae can be found in the literature, with the classic text by Morse and Feshbach ("Methods of Theoretical Physics" pp 126-127) stating…

  7. Transverse plane wave analysis of short elliptical chamber mufflers: An analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimani, A.; Munjal, M. L.

    2011-03-01

    Short elliptical chamber mufflers are used often in the modern day automotive exhaust systems. The acoustic analysis of such short chamber mufflers is facilitated by considering a transverse plane wave propagation model along the major axis up to the low frequency limit. The one dimensional differential equation governing the transverse plane wave propagation in such short chambers is solved using the segmentation approaches which are inherently numerical schemes, wherein the transfer matrix relating the upstream state variables to the downstream variables is obtained. Analytical solution of the transverse plane wave model used to analyze such short chambers has not been reported in the literature so far. This present work is thus an attempt to fill up this lacuna, whereby Frobenius solution of the differential equation governing the transverse plane wave propagation is obtained. By taking a sufficient number of terms of the infinite series, an approximate analytical solution so obtained shows good convergence up to about 1300 Hz and also covers most of the range of muffler dimensions used in practice. The transmission loss (TL) performance of the muffler configurations computed by this analytical approach agrees excellently with that computed by the Matrizant approach used earlier by the authors, thereby offering a faster and more elegant alternate method to analyze short elliptical muffler configurations.

  8. On the nature of transverse coronal waves revealed by wavefront dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ariste, A.; Luna, M.; Arregui, I.; Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Coronal waves are an important aspect of the dynamics of the plasma in the corona. Wavefront dislocations are topological features of most waves in nature and also of magnetohydrodynamic waves. Are there dislocations in coronal waves? Aims: The finding and explanation of dislocations may shed light on the nature and characteristics of the propagating waves, their interaction in the corona, and in general on the plasma dynamics. Methods: We positively identify dislocations in coronal waves observed by the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) as singularities in the Doppler shifts of emission coronal lines. We study the possible singularities that can be expected in coronal waves and try to reproduce the observed dislocations in terms of localization and frequency of appearance. Results: The observed dislocations can only be explained by the interference of a kink and sausage wave modes propagating with different frequencies along the coronal magnetic field. In the plane transverse to the propagation, the cross-section of the oscillating plasma must be smaller than the spatial resolution, and the two waves result in net longitudinal and transverse velocity components that are mixed through projection onto the line of sight. Alfvén waves can be responsible for the kink mode, but a magnetoacoustic sausage mode is necessary in all cases. Higher (flute) modes are excluded. The kink mode has a pressure amplitude that is less than the pressure amplitude of the sausage mode, though its observed velocity is higher. This concentrates dislocations on the top of the loop. Conclusions: To explain dislocations, any model of coronal waves must include the simultaneous propagation and interference of kink and sausage wave modes of comparable but different frequencies with a sausage wave amplitude much smaller than the kink one. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.

  10. Circularly polarized millimeter-wave imaging for personnel screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Lechelt, Wayne M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.

    2005-05-01

    A novel polarimetric millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for concealed weapon detection applications. Wideband millimeter-wave imaging systems developed at PNNL utilize low-power, coherent, millimeter-wave illumination in the 10-100 GHz range to form high-resolution images of personnel. Electromagnetic waves in these frequency ranges easily penetrate most clothing materials and are reflected from the body and any concealed items. Three-dimensional images are formed using computer image reconstruction algorithms developed to mathematically focus the received wavefronts scattered from the target. Circular polarimetric imaging can be employed to obtain additional information from the target. Circularly polarized waves incident on relatively smooth reflecting targets are typically reversed in their rotational handedness, e.g. left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) is reflected to become right-hand circular polarization (RHCP). An incident wave that is reflected twice (or any even number) of times prior to returning to the transceiver, has its handedness preserved. Sharp features such as wires and edges tend to return linear polarization, which can be considered to be a sum of both LHCP and RHCP. These characteristics can be exploited for personnel screening by allowing differentiation of smooth features, such as the body, and sharper features present in many concealed items. Additionally, imaging artifacts due to multipath can be identified and eliminated. Laboratory imaging results have been obtained in the 10-20 GHz frequency range and are presented in this paper.

  11. The transverse and rotational motions of magnetohydrodynamic kink waves in the solar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, bus 2400, B-3001 Herverlee (Belgium); Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Verth, G., E-mail: marcel.goossens@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves have now been observed to be ubiquitous throughout the solar atmosphere. With modern instruments, they have now been detected in the chromosphere, interface region, and corona. The key purpose of this paper is to show that kink waves do not only involve purely transverse motions of solar magnetic flux tubes, but the velocity field is a spatially and temporally varying sum of both transverse and rotational motion. Taking this fact into account is particularly important for the accurate interpretation of varying Doppler velocity profiles across oscillating structures such as spicules. It has now been shown that, as well as bulk transverse motions, spicules have omnipresent rotational motions. Here we emphasize that caution should be used before interpreting the particular MHD wave mode/s responsible for these rotational motions. The rotational motions are not necessarily signatures of the classic axisymmetric torsional Alfvén wave alone, because kink motion itself can also contribute substantially to varying Doppler velocity profiles observed across these structures. In this paper, the displacement field of the kink wave is demonstrated to be a sum of its transverse and rotational components, both for a flux tube with a discontinuous density profile at its boundary, and one with a more realistic density continuum between the internal and external plasma. Furthermore, the Doppler velocity profile of the kink wave is forward modeled to demonstrate that, depending on the line of sight, it can either be quite distinct or very similar to that expected from a torsional Alfvén wave.

  12. Single-Spin Asymmetries in Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized Hydrogen Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bacchetta, A.; Bailey, P.; Balin, D.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Borysenko, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capitani, G. P.; Cappiluppi, M.; Chen, T.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Leo, R. De; Demey, M.; Nardo, L. De; Sanctis, E. De; Devitsin, E.; Nezza, P. Di; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garrow, K.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Grebeniouk, O.; Gregor, I. M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Henoch, M.; Hesselink, W. H.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Ilyichev, A.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, H.; Lu, J.; Lu, S.; Ma, B.-Q.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Michler, T.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Osborne, A.; Pickert, N.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Schäfer, A.; Schill, C.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Sinram, K.; Sommer, W.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Tait, P.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, C.; Volmer, J.; Wang, S.; Wendland, J.; Wilbert, J.; Smit, G. Ybeles; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2005-01-01

    Single-spin asymmetries for semi-inclusive electroproduction of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering of positrons are measured for the first time with transverse target polarization. The asymmetry depends on the azimuthal angles of both the pion (ϕ) and the target spin axis (ϕS) about the virtual-photon direction and relative to the lepton scattering plane. The extracted Fourier component πUT is a signal of the previously unmeasured quark transversity distribution, in conjunction with the Collins fragmentation function, also unknown. The component πUT arises from a correlation between the transverse polarization of the target nucleon and the intrinsic transverse momentum of quarks, as represented by the previously unmeasured Sivers distribution function. Evidence for both signals is observed, but the Sivers asymmetry may be affected by exclusive vector meson production.

  13. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in transversely isotropic half-space with inclined axis of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.; Savina, L.S.

    2003-09-01

    A method for determination of characteristics of quasi-Rayleigh (qR) wave in a transversely isotropic homogeneous half-space with inclined axis of symmetry is outlined. The solution is obtained as a superposition of qP, qSV and qSH waves, and surface wave velocity is determined from the boundary conditions at the free surface and at infinity, as in the case of Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Though the theory is simple enough, a numerical procedure for the calculation of surface wave velocity presents some difficulties. The difficulty is conditioned by necessity to calculate complex roots of a non-linear equation, which in turn contains functions determined as roots of nonlinear equations with complex coefficients. Numerical analysis shows that roots of the equation corresponding to the boundary conditions do not exist in the whole domain of azimuths and inclinations of the symmetry axis. The domain of existence of qR wave depends on the ratio of the elastic parameters: for some strongly anisotropic models the wave cannot exist at all. For some angles of inclination qR wave velocities deviate from those calculated on the basis of the perturbation method valid for weak anisotropy, though they have the same tendency of variation with azimuth. The phase of qR wave varies with depth unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space, qR wave has three components - vertical, radial and transverse. Particle motion in horizontal plane is elliptic. Direction of the major axis of the ellipsis coincide with the direction of propagation only in azimuths 0 deg. (180 deg.) and 90 deg. (270 deg.). (author)

  14. Transmural transverse stiffness estimation in vascular shear wave imaging: A simulation and phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuexin; Lo, Ho Yuen; Lee, Wei-Ning

    2017-05-01

    Shear wave imaging has emerged as a potential non-invasive technique for the quantitative assessment of the arterial shear modulus. Nonetheless, the arterial elasticity estimation in the transverse direction has been overlooked compared with the longitudinal direction, and the estimated transmural stiffness has rarely been evaluated. Accurate depiction of the transverse stiffness across the thin arterial wall warrants comprehensive characterization in both normal and pathological conditions. This study estimated the transmural arterial shear modulus in both the longitudinal ( μ Long) and transverse directions ( μ Trans) using group ( c T) and phase velocities ( c p h) in finite element models and hollow cylindrical tissue-mimicking phantoms with various shape factors. The results were validated against mechanical testing. Zero-order antisymmetric Lamb wave and circumferential Lamb type wave models were considered in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the thin-walled hollow cylinder, respectively. The results derived from the model with the thin plate assumption confirmed that c T underestimated μ Long and μ Trans. Unlike the c p h-based μ Long estimates that were in excellent agreement with measured values, the c p h-based μ Trans estimates were found to be comparable to c p h-based μ Long at the inner wall but increased radially outward. Transmural μ Trans estimation using c p h was demonstrated to be feasible for thin-walled hollow cylinders but necessitated careful account of the wall geometry, in particular the shape factor.

  15. Polarizer design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Salewski, Mirko; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2013-01-01

    by birefringent windows, the microwave receivers can be designed to be more compact at lower cost. Sapphire windows (a-cut) as well as grooved high density polyethylene windows can serve this purpose. The sapphire window can be designed such that the calculated transmission of the wave energy is better than 99......Radiation from magnetized plasmas is in general elliptically polarized. In order to convert the elliptical polarization to linear polarization, mirrors with grooved surfaces are currently employed in our collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade. If these mirrors can be substituted...

  16. Metasurfaces for Terahertz Waves Polarization Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    in the visible, near infrared or microwave regimes these issues in principle have strong alternatives via a conventional optics or electromagnetic approaches, at terahertz (THz) frequencies metamaterials are often considered as being the unique solution for the encountered problems. Several approaches involving...... that the maximal conversion efficiency with a single metamaterial surface is 50 % in transmission and up to 90% in reflection. However, a double layer transmission converter and a single layer with a metallic mirror can have 100% polarization conversion efficiency. We tested our conclusions numerically reaching...

  17. Coupling between surface plasmon polaritons and transverse electric polarized light via L-shaped nano-apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Hu, Chuang; Wen, Qiuling; Zhao, Chenglong; Zhang, Jiasen

    2015-03-15

    Given that plasmonic fields are intrinsically transverse magnetic (TM), coupling surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and transverse electric (TE) polarized light, especially at nanoscale, remain challenging. We propose the use of L-shaped nano-apertures to overcome this fundamental limitation and enable coupling between SPPs and TE polarized light. Polarization conversion originates from the interference of two resonant modes excited in the nano-apertures and the nearly 180° phase retardation between them. The experiments show that both TE-to-plasmon and plasmon-to-TE couplings can be implemented at the subwavelength scale. This discovery provides great freedom when manipulating light based on SPPs at the nanoscale and helps in using the energy of TE polarized light.

  18. Longitudinal waves in carbon nanotubes in the presence of transverse magnetic field and elastic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu; Liu, Hua; Yang, Jialing

    2017-09-01

    In the present paper, the coupling effect of transverse magnetic field and elastic medium on the longitudinal wave propagation along a carbon nanotube (CNT) is studied. Based on the nonlocal elasticity theory and Hamilton's principle, a unified nonlocal rod theory which takes into account the effects of small size scale, lateral inertia and radial deformation is proposed. The existing rod theories including the classic rod theory, the Rayleigh-Love theory and Rayleigh-Bishop theory for macro solids can be treated as the special cases of the present model. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type model) is used to represent the elastic medium. The influence of transverse magnetic field, Pasternak-type elastic medium and small size scale on the longitudinal wave propagation behavior of the CNT is investigated in detail. It is shown that the influences of lateral inertia and radial deformation cannot be neglected in analyzing the longitudinal wave propagation characteristics of the CNT. The results also show that the elastic medium and the transverse magnetic field will also affect the longitudinal wave dispersion behavior of the CNT significantly. The results obtained in this paper are helpful for understanding the mechanical behaviors of nanostructures embedded in an elastic medium.

  19. Dihadron fragmentation functions in the quark-jet model: Transversely polarized quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Kotzinian, Aram; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2018-01-01

    Within the most recent extension of the quark-jet hadronization framework, we explore the transverse-polarization-dependent dihadron fragmentation functions (DiFFs) H1∢ and H1⊥ of a quark into π+π- pairs. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are employed to model polarized quark hadronization and calculate the corresponding number densities. These, in turn, are used to extract the Fourier cosine moments of the DiFFs H1∢ and H1⊥. A notable finding is that there are previously unnoticed apparent discrepancies between the definitions of the so-called interference DiFF (IFF) H1∢ , entering the cross sections for two-hadron semi-inclusive electroproduction, and those involved in the production of two pairs of hadrons from back-to-back jets in electron-positron annihilation. This manuscript completes the studies of all four leading-twist DiFFs for unpolarized hadron pairs within the quark-jet framework, following our previous work on the helicity-dependent DiFF G1⊥.

  20. Detectability of inflationary gravitational waves with microwave background polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamionkowski, M.; Kosowsky, A.

    1998-01-01

    Inflation predicts specific relations between the amplitudes and spectral indices of the primordial spectrum of density (scalar metric) perturbations and gravitational waves (tensor metric perturbations). Detection of a stochastic gravitational-wave background is essential for identifying this unmistakable signature. Polarization of the cosmic microwave background can isolate these tensor modes in a model-independent way and thereby circumvent the cosmic-variance limit to detecting a small tensor signal with only a temperature map. Here we assess the detectability of a gravity-wave background with a temperature and polarization map. For detector sensitivities better than 10 endash 20μK√ (sec) , the sensitivity to a tensor signal is always dominated by the polarization map. With a detector sensitivity of order 1μK√ (sec) , polarization could improve on a temperature-map sensitivity to tensor modes by two to three orders of magnitude. Even a small amount of reionization substantially enhances tensor-mode detectability. We also argue that the sensitivity of the Planck Surveyor to tensor modes is significantly improved with polarization, even taking into account the resulting degradation of the intensity determination in the high-frequency channels. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Estimation of the gravitational wave polarizations from a nontemplate search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Irene; Drago, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is just beginning, after the recent success of the four direct detections of binary black hole (BBH) mergers and the first observation from a binary neutron star inspiral, with the expectation of many more events to come. Given the possibility to detect waves from not exactly modeled astrophysical processes, it is fundamental to be ready to calculate the polarization waveforms in the case of searches using nontemplate algorithms. In such a case, the waveform polarizations are the only quantities that contain direct information about the generating process. We present the performance of a new valuable tool to estimate the inverse solution of gravitational wave transient signals, starting from the analysis of the signal properties of a nontemplate algorithm that is open to a wider class of gravitational signals not covered by template algorithms. We highlight the contributions to the wave polarization associated with the detector response, the sky localization, and the polarization angle of the source. In this paper we present the performances of such a method and its implications by using two main classes of transient signals, resembling the limiting case for most simple and complicated morphologies. The performances are encouraging for the tested waveforms: the correlation between the original and the reconstructed waveforms spans from better than 80% for simple morphologies to better than 50% for complicated ones. For a nontemplate search these results can be considered satisfactory to reconstruct the astrophysical progenitor.

  2. First measurement of the π0-photoproduction on transversely polarized protons near the threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, Peter-Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses the photo induced production of neutral pions very close to the threshold energy. There are two objectives: Firstly, to test predictions made by these effective theories and models and secondly to determine all relevant partial wave amplitudes model independently from measured observables. In the future, this method shall also be applied to higher energies in the region of nucleon resonances. In the thesis, the execution and analysis of an experiment is presented which had been carried out at the Mainzer Mikrotron (MAMI) in the years 2010 to 2013. A circularly polarised, real photon beam was produced via tagged bremsstrahlung technique from the MAMI electron beam. For the first time in such experiments a transversely polarised proton target was utilised. For that purpose, butanol was dynamically polarised within a special apparatus. Because of using butanol as a target material - which resulted in less than 5 % of the pions produced on polarised protons - the background subtraction treatment is an essential task. The target was surrounded by an almost 4π-covering combined CB/TAPS detector setup. Two different background subtraction methods are being described, whereof the better had been applied in the analysis. In conclusion a detailed estimation of systematic errors are presented. For the first time transversely polarised protons provide access to previously not measured spin degrees of freedom. Using the measured data in combination with a previous experiment from the year 2008 with linearly polarised photon beam it was possible for the first time to determine model independently all complex s- and p-partial wave amplitudes. Furthermore, substantial improvements to the experimental apparatus were achieved. Examples are an electron beam polarimeter, a cellular multiplicity trigger for CB, as well as significant improvements to the data acquisition and trigger electronics. Parts of these developments are presented in this thesis.

  3. Modeling Gravitational Waves to Test GR Dispersion and Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Rhondale; Chen, Yanbei; Isi, Maximilliano

    2017-01-01

    Given continued observation runs from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory Scientific Collaboration, further gravitational wave (GW) events will provide added constraints on beyond-general relativity (b-GR) theories. One approach, independent of the GW generation mechanism at the source, is to look at modification to the GW dispersion and propagation, which can accumulate over vast distances. Generic modification of GW propagation can also, in certain b-GR theories, impact the polarization content of GWs. To this end, a comprehensive approach to testing the dispersion and polarization content is developed by modeling anisotropic deformations to the waveforms' phase, along with birefringence effects and corollary consequences for b-GR polarizations, i.e., breathing, vector, and longitudinal modes. Such an approach can be mapped to specific theories like Lorentz violation, amplitude birefringence in Chern-Simons, and provide hints at additional theories to be included. An overview of data analysis routines to be implemented will also be discussed.

  4. High Frame Rate Vector Velocity Estimation using Plane Waves and Transverse Oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating 2-D vector velocities using plane waves and transverse oscillation. The approach uses emission of a low number of steered plane waves, which result in a high frame rate and continuous acquisition of data for the whole image. A transverse oscillating field...... in a flow rig phantom is scanned at beam-to-flow angles of 90, 75, and 60◦ . The relative bias is between -1.4 % and -5.8 % and the relative std. between 5 % and 8.2 % for the lateral velocity component at the measured beam-to-flow angles. The estimated flow angle is 73.4◦± 3.6◦ for the measurement at 75...

  5. Effect of transverse electron drift on absorption of surface acoustic waves in CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmita, A.M.; Medved', A.V.; Fedorets, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the transverse electron drift on acousto-electron interaction in CdS has been studied. It has been revealed that the free electron drift only in the direction normal to the plane of propagation of surface acoustic waves may change the sound electron absorption coefficient in a wide range. In the case of metallization of the active part of a crystal surface a decrease in sound absorption has been observed both on the electron drift to a working crystal surface and on the opposite direction. Whereas in the case of a free crystal surface the transverse electron drift directed to the working plate surface causes an increase in sound absorption, and with the opposite drift electron absorption of the Rayleigh ultrasound waves is almost not observed. An explanation of the effects observed is proposed

  6. Effect of a transverse plasma jet on a shock wave induced by a ramp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu WANG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted experiments in a wind tunnel with Mach number 2 to explore the evolution of a transverse plasma jet and its modification effect on a shock wave induced by a ramp with an angle of 24°. The transverse plasma jet was created by arc discharge in a small cylindrical cavity with a 2 mm diameter orifice. Three group tests with different actuator arrangements in the spanwise or streamwise direction upstream from the ramp were respectively studied to compare their disturbances to the shock wave. As shown by a time-resolved schlieren system, an unsteady motion of the shock wave by actuation was found: the shock wave was significantly modified by the plasma jet with an upstream motion and a reduced angle. Compared to spanwise actuation, a more intensive impact was obtained with two or three streamwise actuators working together. From shock wave structures, the control effect of the plasma jet on the shock motion based on a thermal effect, a potential cause of shock modification, was discussed. Furthermore, we performed a numerical simulation by using the Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES method to simulate the evolution of the transverse plasma jet plume produced by two streamwise actuators. The results show that flow structures are similar to those identified in schlieren images. Two streamwise vortices were recognized, which indicates that the higher jet plume is the result of the overlap of two streamwise jets. Keywords: Flow control, Improved delayed detached eddy simulation (IDDES method, Plasma synthetic jet, Shock wave/boundary layer interaction, Time resolved schlieren system

  7. Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves

    KAUST Repository

    Armaroli, Andrea

    2009-11-03

    We investigate the impact of nonlocality, owing to diffusive behavior, on transverse instabilities of a dark stripe propagating in a defocusing cubic medium. The nonlocal response turns out to have a strongly stabilizing effect both in the case of a single soliton input and in the regime where dispersive shock waves develop (multisoliton regime). Such conclusions are supported by the linear stability analysis and numerical simulation of the propagation. © 2009 The American Physical Society.

  8. Plasma turbulence driven by transversely large-scale standing shear Alfvén waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Rao, Sathyanarayan

    2012-01-01

    Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we study generation of turbulence consisting of transversely small-scale dispersive Alfvén and electrostatic waves when plasma is driven by a large-scale standing shear Alfvén wave (LS-SAW). The standing wave is set up by reflecting a propagating LS-SAW. The ponderomotive force of the standing wave generates transversely large-scale density modifications consisting of density cavities and enhancements. The drifts of the charged particles driven by the ponderomotive force and those directly caused by the fields of the standing LS-SAW generate non-thermal features in the plasma. Parametric instabilities driven by the inherent plasma nonlinearities associated with the LS-SAW in combination with the non-thermal features generate small-scale electromagnetic and electrostatic waves, yielding a broad frequency spectrum ranging from below the source frequency of the LS-SAW to ion cyclotron and lower hybrid frequencies and beyond. The power spectrum of the turbulence has peaks at distinct perpendicular wave numbers (k ⊥ ) lying in the range d e −1 -6d e −1 , d e being the electron inertial length, suggesting non-local parametric decay from small to large k ⊥ . The turbulence spectrum encompassing both electromagnetic and electrostatic fluctuations is also broadband in parallel wave number (k || ). In a standing-wave supported density cavity, the ratio of the perpendicular electric to magnetic field amplitude is R(k ⊥ ) = |E ⊥ (k ⊥ )/|B ⊥ (k ⊥ )| ≪ V A for k ⊥ d e A is the Alfvén velocity. The characteristic features of the broadband plasma turbulence are compared with those available from satellite observations in space plasmas.

  9. Direct transverse load profile determination using the polarization-dependent loss spectral response of a chirped fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Frédéric; Bette, Sébastien; Kinet, Damien; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The determination of stress profiles created by transverse loads was proved to be important in different domains, such as structural health monitoring and biomechanics, and, more specifically, in the prostheses domain. In this paper, we report an original method to estimate the transverse load profile from the polarization-dependent loss (PDL) spectrum of a chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG). This method makes use of the relationship between the integration of the PDL of a CFBG, and the force profile has the advantage of not requiring any iterative method to estimate the transverse load profile. The relationship linking the integration of the PDL and the force profile is demonstrated using an analytical approximation of the transmission spectrum of CFBGs. The validity of this method for the determination of non-uniform load profiles is then shown using a numerical analysis. An experimental demonstration is finally reported using a 48 mm-long CFBG subject to different step transverse load profiles.

  10. Polarized-neutron-scattering study of the spin-wave excitations in the 3-k ordered phase of uranium antimonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, N; Caciuffo, R; Lander, G H; Hiess, A; Regnault, L-P

    2010-03-24

    The anisotropy of magnetic fluctuations propagating along the [1 1 0] direction in the ordered phase of uranium antimonide has been studied using polarized inelastic neutron scattering. The observed polarization behavior of the spin waves is a natural consequence of the longitudinal 3-k magnetic structure; together with recent results on the 3-k-transverse uranium dioxide, these findings establish this technique as an important tool to study complex magnetic arrangements. Selected details of the magnon excitation spectra of USb have also been reinvestigated, indicating the need to revise the currently accepted theoretical picture for this material.

  11. Measurement of double-spin asymmetries associated with deeply virtual Compton scattering on a transversely polarized hydrogen target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Akopov, Z. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Augustyniak, W. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 00-689 Warsaw (Poland); Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Avetisyan, E. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Belostotski, S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad region 188300 (Russian Federation); Bianchi, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Blok, H.P. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Borissov, A. [DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bowles, J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Brodski, I. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Bryzgalov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region 142281 (Russian Federation); Burns, J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Capiluppi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, G.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cisbani, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, gruppo Sanita and Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Rome (Italy); Ciullo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2011-10-05

    Double-spin asymmetries in exclusive electroproduction of real photons from a transversely polarized hydrogen target are measured with respect to the product of target polarization with beam helicity and beam charge, and with respect to the product of target polarization with beam helicity alone. The asymmetries arise from the deeply virtual Compton scattering process and its interference with the Bethe-Heitler process. They are related to the real part of the same combination of Compton form factors as that determining the previously published transverse target single-spin asymmetries through the imaginary part. The results for the double-spin asymmetries are found to be compatible with zero within the uncertainties of the measurement, and are not incompatible with the predictions of the only available GPD-based calculation.

  12. Small amplitude transverse waves on taut strings: exploring the significant effects of longitudinal motion on wave energy location and propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David R.

    2013-03-01

    Introductory discussions of energy transport due to transverse waves on taut strings universally assume that the effects of longitudinal motion can be neglected, but this assumption is not even approximately valid unless the string is idealized to have a zero relaxed length, a requirement approximately met by the slinky spring. While making this additional idealization is probably the best approach to take when discussing waves on strings at the introductory level, for intermediate to advanced undergraduate classes in continuum mechanics and general wave phenomena where somewhat more realistic models of strings can be investigated, this paper makes the following contributions. First, various approaches to deriving the general energy continuity equation are critiqued and it is argued that the standard continuum mechanics approach to deriving such equations is the best because it leads to a conceptually clear, relatively simple derivation which provides a unique answer of greatest generality. In addition, a straightforward algorithm for calculating the transverse and longitudinal waves generated when a string is driven at one end is presented and used to investigate a cos2 transverse pulse. This example illustrates much important physics regarding energy transport in strings and allows the ‘attack waves’ observed when strings in musical instruments are struck or plucked to be approximately modelled and analysed algebraically. Regarding the ongoing debate as to whether the potential energy density in a string can be uniquely defined, it is shown by coupling an external energy source to a string that a suggested alternative formula for potential energy density requires an unphysical potential energy to be ascribed to the source for overall energy to be conserved and so cannot be considered to be physically valid.

  13. Small amplitude transverse waves on taut strings: exploring the significant effects of longitudinal motion on wave energy location and propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, David R

    2013-01-01

    Introductory discussions of energy transport due to transverse waves on taut strings universally assume that the effects of longitudinal motion can be neglected, but this assumption is not even approximately valid unless the string is idealized to have a zero relaxed length, a requirement approximately met by the slinky spring. While making this additional idealization is probably the best approach to take when discussing waves on strings at the introductory level, for intermediate to advanced undergraduate classes in continuum mechanics and general wave phenomena where somewhat more realistic models of strings can be investigated, this paper makes the following contributions. First, various approaches to deriving the general energy continuity equation are critiqued and it is argued that the standard continuum mechanics approach to deriving such equations is the best because it leads to a conceptually clear, relatively simple derivation which provides a unique answer of greatest generality. In addition, a straightforward algorithm for calculating the transverse and longitudinal waves generated when a string is driven at one end is presented and used to investigate a cos 2 transverse pulse. This example illustrates much important physics regarding energy transport in strings and allows the ‘attack waves’ observed when strings in musical instruments are struck or plucked to be approximately modelled and analysed algebraically. Regarding the ongoing debate as to whether the potential energy density in a string can be uniquely defined, it is shown by coupling an external energy source to a string that a suggested alternative formula for potential energy density requires an unphysical potential energy to be ascribed to the source for overall energy to be conserved and so cannot be considered to be physically valid. (paper)

  14. Azimuthal asymmetries in hard exclusive meson muoproduction off transversely polarized protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolbeek, Johannes ter

    2015-04-15

    In 2010, the COMPASS experiment at CERN took data with a 160 GeV μ{sup +} beam and a transversely polarized NH{sub 3} target. In this thesis, this data is analyzed for azimuthal target spin asymmetries, including five single spin and three double spin asymmetries in hard exclusive ω meson production. This thesis is the worldwide first analysis investigating on azimuthal asymmetries in exclusive ω muoproduction (μ'p→μ'+p'+ω→μ'+p'+π{sup +}π{sup -}π{sup 0}). The analysis is confronted with several challenges beside the small cross section of the examined process. The detection of two photons in the final state requires an excellent performance of the electromagnetic calorimeters as well as a good understanding of the detector. To increase the yield of reconstructed γ pairs from a decaying π{sup 0} meson, a decay product of the ω meson, extensive studies relating to performance of the calorimeters were necessary. Firstly the time information of the calorimeters had to be parametrized in dependence of the cluster energy to ensure the assignment of beam particle and photon due to a correlation in time. Secondly, a parametrization of the invariant mass of the photon pair was performed in terms of the energy of the reconstructed π{sup 0}, for the better discrimination of signal and background. In the setup with the transversely polarized target, the recoiled proton cannot be detected. Thus in order to ensure the exclusivity of the process, the missing energy is calculated. The signal region, defined at vertical stroke E{sub miss} vertical stroke < 3GeV, contains ω mesons from exclusive events as well as from semi-inclusive production. Hence the understanding of non-exclusive background is essential for the further analysis. For this purpose, a semiinclusive Monte Carlo sample is studied. In order to reach a better agreement of the Monte Carlo and data, like-sign samples from both, real data and Monte Carlo, are compared and the

  15. Love waves propagation in a transversely isotropic piezoelectric layer on a piezomagnetic half-space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzin, Hamdi; Ben Amor, Morched; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical approach is taken into consideration to investigate Love wave propagation in a transversely isotropic piezoelectric layer on a piezomagnetic half-space. The magneto-electrically open and short conditions are applied to solve the problem. The phase and group velocity of the Love wave is numerically calculated for the magneto-electrically open and short cases, respectively. The variations of magneto-electromechanical coupling factor, mechanical displacements, electric and magnetic potentials along the thickness direction of the layers are obtained and discussed. The numerical results clearly show the influence of different stacking sequences on dispersion curves and on magneto-electromechanical coupling factor. This work may be relevant to analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezoelectric and piezomagnetic materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impulsively Generated Sausage Waves in Coronal Tubes with Transversally Continuous Structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Li, Bo; Chen, Shao-Xia; Xiong, Ming; Guo, Ming-Zhe

    2016-12-01

    The frequency dependence of the longitudinal group speeds of trapped sausage waves plays an important role in determining impulsively generated wave trains, which have often been invoked to account for quasi-periodic signals in coronal loops. We examine how the group speeds ({v}{gr}) depend on angular frequency (ω) for sausage modes in pressureless coronal tubes with continuous transverse density distributions by solving the dispersion relation pertinent to the case where the density inhomogeneity of arbitrary form occurs in a transition layer of arbitrary thickness. We find that in addition to the transverse lengthscale l and density contrast {ρ }{{I}}/{ρ }{{e}}, the group speed behavior also depends on the detailed form of the density inhomogeneity. For parabolic profiles, {v}{gr} always decreases with ω first before increasing again, as happens for the much studied top-hat profiles. For linear profiles, however, the behavior of the ω -{v}{gr} curves is more complex. When {ρ }{{I}}/{ρ }{{e}}≲ 6, the curves become monotonical for large values of l. On the other hand, for higher density contrasts, a local maximum {v}{gr}\\max exists in addition to a local minimum {v}{gr}\\min when coronal tubes are diffuse. With time-dependent computations, we show that the different behavior of group speed curves, the characteristic speeds {v}{gr}\\min and {v}{gr}\\max in particular, is reflected in the temporal evolution and Morlet spectra of impulsively generated wave trains. We conclude that the observed quasi-periodic wave trains not only can be employed to probe such key parameters as density contrasts and profile steepness, but also have the potential to discriminate between the unknown forms of the transverse density distribution.

  17. Primordial gravitational waves measurements and anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yu Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching for the signal of primordial gravitational waves in the B-modes (BB power spectrum is one of the key scientific aims of the cosmic microwave background (CMB polarization experiments. However, this could be easily contaminated by several foreground issues, such as the interstellar dust grains and the galactic cyclotron electrons. In this paper we study another mechanism, the cosmic birefringence, which can be introduced by a CPT-violating interaction between CMB photons and an external scalar field. Such kind of interaction could give rise to the rotation of the linear polarization state of CMB photons, and consequently induce the CMB BB power spectrum, which could mimic the signal of primordial gravitational waves at large scales. With the recently released polarization data of BICEP2 and the joint analysis data of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck, we perform a global fitting analysis on constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by considering the polarization rotation angle [α(nˆ] which can be separated into a background isotropic part [α¯] and a small anisotropic part [Δα(nˆ]. Since the data of BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments have already been corrected by using the “self-calibration” method, here we mainly focus on the effects from the anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation angle. We find that including Δα(nˆ in the analysis could slightly weaken the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, when using current CMB polarization measurements. We also simulate the mock CMB data with the BICEP3-like sensitivity. Very interestingly, we find that if the effects of the anisotropic polarization rotation angle could not be taken into account properly in the analysis, the constraints on r will be dramatically biased. This implies that we need to break the degeneracy between the anisotropies of the CMB polarization rotation angle and the CMB primordial tensor perturbations, in order to measure the signal of primordial

  18. Pure Quasi-P-wave calculation in transversely isotropic media using a hybrid method

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2018-04-12

    The acoustic approximation for anisotropic media is widely used in current industry imaging and inversion algorithms mainly because P-waves constitute the majority of the energy recorded in seismic exploration. The resulting acoustic formulas tend to be simpler, resulting in more efficient implementations, and depend on fewer medium parameters. However, conventional solutions of the acoustic wave equation with higher-order derivatives suffer from shear wave artifacts. Thus, we derive a new acoustic wave equation for wave propagation in transversely isotropic (TI) media, which is based on a partially separable approximation of the dispersion relation for TI media and free of shear wave artifacts. Even though our resulting equation is not a partial differential equation, it is still a linear equation. Thus, we propose to implement this equation efficiently by combining the finite difference approximation with spectral evaluation of the space-independent parts. The resulting algorithm provides solutions without the constrain of ε ≥ δ. Numerical tests demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  19. Transverse and Oblique Long Bone Fracture Evaluation by Low Order Ultrasonic Guided Waves: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Dan; Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; Le, Lawrence H; Wang, Weiqi

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have recently been used in fracture evaluation and fracture healing monitoring. An axial transmission technique has been used to quantify the impact of the gap breakage width and fracture angle on the amplitudes of low order guided wave modes S 0 and A 0 under a 100 kHz narrowband excitation. In our two dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD) simulation, the long bones are modeled as three layers with a soft tissue overlay and marrow underlay. The simulations of the transversely and obliquely fractured long bones show that the amplitudes of both S 0 and A 0 decrease as the gap breakage widens. Fixing the crack width, the increase of the fracture angle relative to the cross section perpendicular to the long axis enhances the amplitude of A 0, while the amplitude of S 0 shows a nonmonotonic trend with the decrease of the fracture angle. The amplitude ratio between the S 0 and A 0 modes is used to quantitatively evaluate the fracture width and angles. The study suggests that the low order guided wave modes S 0 and A 0 have potentials for transverse and oblique bone fracture evaluation and fracture healing monitoring.

  20. Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging With Cascaded Dual-Polarity Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Guo, Yuexin; Lee, Wei-Ning

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound imaging using plane or diverging waves, instead of focused beams, has advanced greatly the development of novel ultrasound imaging methods for evaluating tissue functions beyond anatomical information. However, the sonographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ultrafast imaging remains limited due to the lack of transmission focusing, and thus insufficient acoustic energy delivery. We hereby propose a new ultrafast ultrasound imaging methodology with cascaded dual-polarity waves (CDWs), which consists of a pulse train with positive and negative polarities. A new coding scheme and a corresponding linear decoding process were thereby designed to obtain the recovered signals with increased amplitude, thus increasing the SNR without sacrificing the frame rate. The newly designed CDW ultrafast ultrasound imaging technique achieved higher quality B-mode images than coherent plane-wave compounding (CPWC) and multiplane wave (MW) imaging in a calibration phantom, ex vivo pork belly, and in vivo human back muscle. CDW imaging shows a significant improvement in the SNR (10.71 dB versus CPWC and 7.62 dB versus MW), penetration depth (36.94% versus CPWC and 35.14% versus MW), and contrast ratio in deep regions (5.97 dB versus CPWC and 5.05 dB versus MW) without compromising other image quality metrics, such as spatial resolution and frame rate. The enhanced image qualities and ultrafast frame rates offered by CDW imaging beget great potential for various novel imaging applications.

  1. Dominant transverse-electric polarized emission from 298 nm MBE-grown AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Ooi, Yu Kee; Islam, S. M.; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Zhang, Jing

    2017-02-01

    III-nitride based ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) are of considerable interest in replacing gas lasers and mercury lamps for numerous applications. Specifically, AlGaN quantum well (QW) based LEDs have been developed extensively but the external quantum efficiencies of which remain less than 10% for wavelengths <300 nm due to high dislocation density, difficult p-type doping and most importantly, the physics and band structure from the three degeneration valence subbands. One solution to address this issue at deep UV wavelengths is by the use of the AlGaN-delta-GaN QW where the insertion of the delta-GaN layer can ensure the dominant conduction band (C) - heavyhole (HH) transition, leading to large transverse-electric (TE) optical output. Here, we proposed and investigated the physics and polarization-dependent optical characterizations of AlN-delta- GaN QW UV LED at 300 nm. The LED structure is grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) where the delta-GaN layer is 3-4 monolayer (QW-like) sandwiched by 2.5-nm AlN sub-QW layers. The physics analysis shows that the use of AlN-delta-GaN QW ensures a larger separation between the top HH subband and lower-energy bands, and strongly localizes the electron and HH wave functions toward the QW center and hence resulting in 30-time enhancement in TEpolarized spontaneous emission rate, compared to that of a conventional Al0.35Ga0.65N QW. The polarization-dependent electroluminescence measurements confirm our theoretical analysis; a dominant TE-polarized emission was obtained at 298 nm with a minimum transverse-magnetic (TM) polarized emission, indicating the feasibility of high-efficiency TEpolarized UV emitters based on our proposed QW structure.

  2. Spin Transfer in Inclusive Λ0 Production by Transversely Polarized Protons at 200GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosnick, D.P.; Hill, D.A.; Laghai, M.; Lopiano, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Spinka, H.; Stanek, R.W.; Underwood, D.G.; Yokosawa, A.; Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de; Rossum, L. van; Cossairt, J.D.; Read, A.L.; Iwatani, K.; Belikov, N.I.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Grachov, O.A.; Matulenko, Y.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Nurushev, S.B.; Patalakha, D.I.; Rykov, V.L.; Solovyanov, V.L.; Vasiliev, A.N.; Akchurin, N.; Onel, Y.; Maki, T.; Enyo, H.; Funahashi, H.; Goto, Y.; Iijima, T.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Makino, S.; Masaike, A.; Miyake, K.; Nagamine, T.; Saito, N.; Yamashita, S.; Takashima, R.; Takeutchi, F.; Kuroda, K.; Michalowicz, A.; Rappazzo, G.F.; Salvato, G.; Luehring, F.C.; Miller, D.H.; Tamura, N.; Yoshida, T.; Adams, D.L.; Bonner, B.E.; Corcoran, M.D.; Cranshaw, J.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Nguyen, C.; Roberts, J.B.; Skeens, J.; White, J.L.; Bravar, A.

    1997-01-01

    Surprisingly large polarizations in hyperon production by unpolarized protons have been known for a long time. The spin dynamics of the production process can be further investigated with polarized beams. Recently, a negative asymmetry A N was found in inclusive Λ 0 production with a 200GeV/c transversely polarized proton beam. The depolarization D NN in p↑+p→Λ 0 +X has been measured with the same beam over a wide x F range and at moderate p T . D NN reaches positive values of about 30% at high x F and p T ∼1.0GeV/c . This result shows a sizable spin transfer from the incident polarized proton to the outgoing Λ 0 . copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Longitudinal polarization of direct muons with 1.9 GeV/c transverse momentum produced in NN-collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.V.; Alekseev, A.V.; Bityukov, S.I.

    1978-01-01

    The results of new measurements of direct-muon longitudinal polarization are presented. The experiment has been carried out at the Serpukhov accelerator with 70 GeV protons on a copper target. Muons produced from the internal copper target at 9 deg to the incident beam have been slowed down and focused by a muonguide from magnetized iron which has also selected muon with an identical charge. The coefficient of direct muon polarization etasub(x) is calculated through the polarization of muons from π and K decays and through the number of direct muon fraction in the beam. etasub(x) is found to be -0.41+-0.17. In other words the evidence is found that among direct muons produced with 1.9 GeV/c transverse momentum there is a component with negative polarization. The result agrees poorely with a hypothesis that all direct muons are originated in electromagnetic interactions (eta=0)

  4. Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Reich@tu-berlin.de; Guttmann, Martin; Wernicke, Tim; Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Feneberg, Martin; Goldhahn, Rüdiger [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Universitätsplatz 2, Magdeburg 39106 (Germany); Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Knauer, Arne; Kueller, Viola; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2015-10-05

    The optical polarization of emission from ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on (0001)-oriented Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) has been studied by simulations and electroluminescence measurements. With increasing aluminum mole fraction in the quantum well x, the in-plane intensity of transverse-electric (TE) polarized light decreases relative to that of the transverse-magnetic polarized light, attributed to a reordering of the valence bands in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N. Using k ⋅ p theoretical model calculations, the AlGaN MQW active region design has been optimized, yielding increased TE polarization and thus higher extraction efficiency for bottom-emitting LEDs in the deep UV spectral range. Using (i) narrow quantum wells, (ii) barriers with high aluminum mole fractions, and (iii) compressive growth on patterned aluminum nitride sapphire templates, strongly TE-polarized emission was observed at wavelengths as short as 239 nm.

  5. Real time transverse-force sensor based on polarization properties of fiber Bragg grating and cross-sensitivity compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yang; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Baofu; Peng, Hui; Ye, Zhenxing

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method for real-time transverse force sensor based on the measurement of the polarization properties of a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written into standard single mode fiber. Unlike the usual spectral analysis of FBG sensors, we demonstrate here that the amplitude of the first Stokes parameters of a uniform FBG in transmission can be used to obtain transverse force value. The influences of incident angle of linear polarized light launched into FBG on sensor performance are analyzed. Experimental results measured by means of a tunable laser source and a polarimeter are presented. We also propose a kind of grating structure with triangular-shaped transmission spectrum to reduce the influences of cross-sensitivity. The compensation effect can satisfy the requirements of the practical application with optimized grating parameters. (paper)

  6. Polarization-dependent transverse-stress sensing based on photonic crystal fiber with gold-coated air-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Zhu, Chenghao; Wang, Yan; Tan, Ce; Li, Hongwei; Cheng, Deqiang

    2017-05-01

    A transverse-stress sensor with polarization filtering function based on a specially designed photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed. Four ultralarge side-holes are introduced into the cladding layer, and two of them are gold-coated to enhance the stress sensitivity. The finite element method is applied to study the polarization-dependent wavelength-selective sensing characteristics at the optical communication wavelength. Results reveal that the sensor can achieve a high sensitivity in either direction that can be divided into an x-direction component and a y-direction component. Combining the advantages of side-hole structure and surface plasmon resonance technology, the proposed sensor is believed to be an excellent candidate for the transverse-stress measurement.

  7. A new family of four-ring bent-core nematic liquid crystals with highly polar transverse and end groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Upadhyaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-symmetrically substituted four-ring achiral bent-core compounds with polar substituents, i.e.., chloro in the bent or transverse direction in the central core and cyano in the lateral direction at one terminal end of the molecule, are designed and synthesized. These molecules possess an alkoxy chain attached at only one end of the bent-core molecule. The molecular structure characterization is consistent with data from elemental and spectroscopic analysis. The materials thermal behaviour and phase characterization have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing microscopy. All the compounds exhibit a wide-ranging monotropic nematic phase.

  8. Azimuthal transverse single-spin asymmetries of inclusive jets and charged pions within jets from polarized-proton collisions at √{s }=500 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adams, J. R.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Barish, K.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Deppner, I. M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fujita, J.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Herrmann, N.; Hirsch, A.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, T.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kapukchyan, D.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kim, C.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Krauth, L.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, H.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Luo, S.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Mayes, D.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nemes, D. B.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seto, R.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shi, Z.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stewart, D. J.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, G.; Xie, W.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, J.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    We report the first measurements of transverse single-spin asymmetries for inclusive jet and jet+π± production at midrapidity from transversely polarized proton-proton collisions at √{s }=500 GeV . The data were collected in 2011 with the STAR detector sampled from 23 pb-1 integrated luminosity with an average beam polarization of 53%. Asymmetries are reported for jets with transverse momenta 6 transverse single-spin asymmetry, sensitive to twist-3 initial-state quark-gluon correlators; the Collins asymmetry, sensitive to quark transversity coupled to the polarized Collins fragmentation function; and the first measurement of the "Collins-like" asymmetry, sensitive to linearly polarized gluons. Within the present statistical precision, inclusive-jet and Collins-like asymmetries are small, with the latter allowing the first experimental constraints on gluon linear polarization in a polarized proton. At higher values of jet transverse momenta, we observe the first nonzero Collins asymmetries in polarized-proton collisions, with a statistical significance of greater than 5 σ . The results span a range of x similar to results from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering but at much higher Q2. The Collins results enable tests of universality and factorization breaking in the transverse momentum-dependent formulation of perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

  9. Excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized electromagnetic wave incident upon a boundary of a dense magnetoactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragila, R.; Vukovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of surfave waves that are associated with a boundary between a rare plasma and a dense magnetoactive plasma and that propagate along a dc magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the presence of the magnetic field introduces symmetry in terms of the polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave that excites the surface waves. A surface wave excited by an incident p-polarized (s-polarized) electromagnetic wave leaks in the form of an s-polarized (p-polarized) electromagnetic wave. The rate of rotation of polarization is independent of the polarization of the incident wave. Because a surface wave can leak in the form of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave, it can also be pumped by such a wave, and conditions were found for excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized incident electromagnetic wave

  10. Modeling Transversely Isotropic, Viscoelastic, Incompressible Tissue-like Materials with Application in Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Bo; Brigham, John C.; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Urban, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to model the shear wave propagation in transversely isotropic, viscoelastic and incompressible media. The targeted application is ultrasound-based shear wave elastography for viscoelasticity measurements in anisotropic tissues such as the kidney and skeletal muscles. The proposed model predicts that if the viscoelastic parameters both across and along fiber directions can be characterized as a Voigt material, then the spatial phase velocity at any angle is also governed by a Voigt material model. Further, with the aid of Taylor expansions, it is shown that the spatial group velocity at any angle is close to a Voigt type for weakly attenuative materials within a certain bandwidth. The model is implemented in a finite element code by a time domain explicit integration scheme and shear wave simulations are conducted. The results of the simulations are analyzed to extract the shear wave elasticity and viscosity for both the spatial phase and group velocities. The estimated values match well with theoretical predictions. The proposed theory is further verified by an ex vivo tissue experiment measured in a porcine skeletal muscle by an ultrasound shear wave elastography method. The applicability of the Taylor expansion to analyze the spatial velocities is also discussed. We demonstrate that the approximations from the Taylor expansions are subject to errors when the viscosities across or along the fiber directions are large or the maximum frequency considered is beyond the bandwidth defined by radii of convergence of the Taylor expansions. PMID:25591921

  11. Modeling transversely isotropic, viscoelastic, incompressible tissue-like materials with application in ultrasound shear wave elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Bo; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F; Zhang, Xiaoming; Urban, Matthew W; Brigham, John C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to model the shear wave propagation in transversely isotropic, viscoelastic and incompressible media. The targeted application is ultrasound-based shear wave elastography for viscoelasticity measurements in anisotropic tissues such as the kidney and skeletal muscles. The proposed model predicts that if the viscoelastic parameters both across and along fiber directions can be characterized as a Voigt material, then the spatial phase velocity at any angle is also governed by a Voigt material model. Further, with the aid of Taylor expansions, it is shown that the spatial group velocity at any angle is close to a Voigt type for weakly attenuative materials within a certain bandwidth. The model is implemented in a finite element code by a time domain explicit integration scheme and shear wave simulations are conducted. The results of the simulations are analyzed to extract the shear wave elasticity and viscosity for both the spatial phase and group velocities. The estimated values match well with theoretical predictions. The proposed theory is further verified by an ex vivo tissue experiment measured in a porcine skeletal muscle by an ultrasound shear wave elastography method. The applicability of the Taylor expansion to analyze the spatial velocities is also discussed. We demonstrate that the approximations from the Taylor expansions are subject to errors when the viscosities across or along the fiber directions are large or the maximum frequency considered is beyond the bandwidth defined by radii of convergence of the Taylor expansions. (paper)

  12. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  13. Polarization speed meter for gravitational-wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew R.; McKenzie, Kirk; Chen, Yanbei; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Chow, Jong H.; McClelland, David E.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a modified configuration of an advanced gravitational-wave detector that is a speed-meter-type interferometer with improved sensitivity with respect to quantum noise. With the addition of polarization-controlling components to the output of an arm cavity Michelson interferometer, an orthogonal polarization state of the interferometer can be used to store signal, returning it later with opposite phase to cancel position information below the storage bandwidth of the opposite mode. This modification provides an alternative to an external kilometer-scale Fabry-Pérot cavity, as presented in earlier work of Purdue and Chen [Phys. Rev. D 66, 122004 (2002)]. The new configuration requires significantly less physical infrastructure to achieve speed meter operation. The quantity of length and alignment degrees of freedom is also reduced. We present theoretical calculations to show that such a speed meter detector is capable of beating the strain sensitivity imposed by the standard quantum limit over a broad range of frequencies for Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory-like parameters. The benefits and possible difficulties of implementing such a scheme are outlined. We also present results for tuning of the speed meter by adjusting the degree of polarization coupling, a novel possibility that does not exist in previously proposed designs, showing that there is a smooth transition from speed meter operation to that of a signal-recycling Michelson behavior.

  14. Observational Signatures of Transverse Magnetohydrodynamic Waves and Associated Dynamic Instabilities in Coronal Flux Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolin, P.; Moortel, I. De [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Doorsselaere, T. Van [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Yokoyama, T., E-mail: patrick.antolin@st-andrews.ac.uk [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-02-20

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves permeate the solar atmosphere and constitute potential coronal heating agents. Yet, the waves detected so far may be but a small subset of the true existing wave power. Detection is limited by instrumental constraints but also by wave processes that localize the wave power in undetectable spatial scales. In this study, we conduct 3D MHD simulations and forward modeling of standing transverse MHD waves in coronal loops with uniform and non-uniform temperature variation in the perpendicular cross-section. The observed signatures are largely dominated by the combination of the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI), resonant absorption, and phase mixing. In the presence of a cross-loop temperature gradient, we find that emission lines sensitive to the loop core catch different signatures compared to those that are more sensitive to the loop boundary and the surrounding corona, leading to an out-of-phase intensity and Doppler velocity modulation produced by KHI mixing. In all of the considered models, common signatures include an intensity and loop width modulation at half the kink period, a fine strand-like structure, a characteristic arrow-shaped structure in the Doppler maps, and overall line broadening in time but particularly at the loop edges. For our model, most of these features can be captured with a spatial resolution of 0.″33 and a spectral resolution of 25 km s{sup −1}, although we do obtain severe over-estimation of the line width. Resonant absorption leads to a significant decrease of the observed kinetic energy from Doppler motions over time, which is not recovered by a corresponding increase in the line width from phase mixing and KHI motions. We estimate this hidden wave energy to be a factor of 5–10 of the observed value.

  15. Optical coating on a corrugated surface to align the polarization of an unpolarized wave without loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Yi Jun

    2017-12-01

    A multilayer comprising birefringent thin films is devised to present to function as a polarization beam splitter and waveplate simultaneously. By arranging such a multilayer on a right triangle-shaped corrugated surface, a polarizer is realized to align the randomly oscillating electric field of an unpolarized wave into a linear polarized wave without loss.

  16. Propagation and dispersion of transverse wave trains in magnetic flux tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ruderman, M. S., E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The dispersion of small-amplitude, impulsively excited wave trains propagating along a magnetic flux tube is investigated. The initial disturbance is a localized transverse displacement of the tube that excites a fast kink wave packet. The spatial and temporal evolution of the perturbed variables (density, plasma displacement, velocity, ...) is given by an analytical expression containing an integral that is computed numerically. We find that the dispersion of fast kink wave trains is more important for shorter initial disturbances (i.e., more concentrated in the longitudinal direction) and for larger density ratios (i.e., for larger contrasts of the tube density with respect to the environment density). This type of excitation generates a wave train whose signature at a fixed position along a coronal loop is a short event (duration ≅ 20 s) in which the velocity and density oscillate very rapidly with typical periods of the order of a few seconds. The oscillatory period is not constant but gradually declines during the course of this event. Peak values of the velocity are of the order of 10 km s{sup –1} and are accompanied by maximum density variations of the order of 10%-15% the unperturbed loop density.

  17. Measurement of the Polarization of W Bosons with Large Transverse Momenta in W+Jets Events at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Joris; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Rosin, Michele; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Peruzzi, Marco; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Yiu, Chun Hin; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Maurisset, Aurelie; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tadel, Matevz; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Dutta, Suchandra; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; MacEvoy, Barry C; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Chandra, Avdhesh; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Sudano, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Cassel, David; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Limon, Peter; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Mesa, Dalgis; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Quertenmont, Loic; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hamdan, Saleh; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Flood, Kevin; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Palmonari, Francesco; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A first measurement of the polarization of W bosons with large transverse momenta in pp collisions is presented. The measurement is based on 36 inverse picobarns of data recorded at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV by the CMS detector at the LHC. The left-handed, right-handed and longitudinal polarization fractions (f_L, f_R, f_0) of W bosons with transverse momenta larger than 50 GeV are determined using decays to both electrons and muons. The muon final state yields the most precise measurement, (f_L - f_R) = 0.240 ± 0.036 (stat.) ± 0.031 (syst.) and f_0 = 0.183 ± 0.087 (stat.) ± 0.123 (syst.) for negatively charged W bosons, and (f_L - f_R) = 0.310 ± 0.036 (stat.) ± 0.017 (syst.) and f_0 = 0.171 ± 0.085 (stat.) ± 0.099 (syst.) for positively charged W bosons. This establishes, for the first time, that W bosons produced in pp collisions with large transverse momenta are predominantly left-handed, as expected in the standard model.

  18. Transverse linear and orbital angular momenta of beam waves and propagation in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnotskii, Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    For paraxial propagation of scalar waves, the classic electromagnetic theory definition of transverse linear (TLM) and orbital angular (OAM) momenta of the beam wave are represented in terms of the coherence function. We show in examples that neither is the presence of optical vortices necessary for the intrinsic OAM, nor does the presence of optical vortices warrant the non-zero intrinsic OAM. The OAM is analyzed for homogeneously coherent and twisted partially coherent beam waves. A twisted Gaussian beam has an intrinsic OAM with a per-unit power value that can be continuously changed by varying the twist parameters. Using the parabolic propagation equation for the coherence function, we show that both the total TLM and OAM are conserved for the free-space propagation, but not for propagation in an inhomogeneous medium. In the presence of the random inhomogeneous medium, the total TLM and OAM are conserved in average, but the OAM fluctuations grow with the propagation path. This growth is slower for beams with rotation-symmetric irradiance.

  19. Kinetic theory of geomagnetic pulsations 2. Ion flux modulations by transverse waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chen (Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)); Hasegawa, Akira (Osaka Univ. (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    Ion flux modulations by ultra-low-frequency radially polarized geomagnetic pulsations are examined theoretically based on the gyrokinetic analysis of Chen and Hasegawa. The theoretical results thus contain important effects such as plasma anisotropy and inhomogeneities, finite Larmor radii, realistic magnetic field, magnetic trapping, and wave mode structures. The predicted properties are consistent with the satellite observations [Takahashi et al.] and further support the drift-Alfven ballooning mode as a primary instability candidate. The analysis, furthermore, demonstrates that, in the case of highly energetic ions, it is crucial to include the finite-Larmor-radius effects self-consistently in order to properly analyze and compare with the satellite observations.

  20. Shear wave induced resonance elastography of spherical masses with polarized torsional waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj Henni, Anis; Schmitt, Cédric; Trop, Isabelle; Cloutier, Guy

    2012-03-01

    Shear wave induced resonance (SWIR) is a technique for dynamic ultrasound elastography of confined mechanical inclusions. It was developed for breast tumor imaging and tissue characterization. This method relies on the polarization of torsional shear waves modeled with the Helmholtz equation in spherical coordinates. To validate modeling, an invitro set-up was used to measure and image the first three eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a soft sphere. A preliminary invivo SWIR measurement on a breast fibroadenoma is also reported. Results revealed the potential of SWIR elastography to detect and mechanically characterize breast lesions for early cancer detection.

  1. THE BEHAVIOR OF TRANSVERSE WAVES IN NONUNIFORM SOLAR FLUX TUBES. I. COMPARISON OF IDEAL AND RESISTIVE RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Goossens, Marcel, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. Kink waves are a type of transverse MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes that are damped due to resonant absorption. The theoretical study of kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes is usually based on the simplification that the transverse variation of density is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the tube, i.e., the so-called thin boundary approximation. Here, we develop a general analytic method to compute the dispersion relation and the eigenfunctions of ideal MHD waves in pressureless flux tubes with transversely nonuniform layers of arbitrary thickness. Results for kink waves are produced and compared with fully numerical resistive MHD eigenvalue computations in the limit of small resistivity. We find that the frequency and resonant damping rate are the same in both ideal and resistive cases. The actual results for thick nonuniform layers deviate from the behavior predicted in the thin boundary approximation and strongly depend on the shape of the nonuniform layer. The eigenfunctions in ideal MHD are very different from those in resistive MHD. The ideal eigenfunctions display a global character regardless of the thickness of the nonuniform layer, while the resistive eigenfunctions are localized around the resonance and are indistinguishable from those of ordinary resistive Alfvén modes. Consequently, the spatial distribution of wave energy in the ideal and resistive cases is dramatically different. This poses a fundamental theoretical problem with clear observational consequences.

  2. The order parameter of glass transition: Spontaneously delocalized nanoscale solitary wave with transverse ripplon-like soft wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Lin Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In macromolecular self-avoiding random walk, movement of each chain-particle accompanies an instantaneous spin system with de Gennes n = 0 that provides extra energy, extra vacancy volume and relaxation time needed for chain-particles co-movement. Using these additional and instantaneous spin systems not only directly yields the same Brownian motion mode in glass transition (GT and reptation-tube model, but also proves that the entangled chain length corresponding to the Reynolds number in hydrodynamics and the inherent diffusion - delocalization mode of entangled chains, from frozen glass state to melt liquid state, is a chain-size solitary wave with transverse ripplon-like soft wave. Thus, the order parameter of GT is found. The various currently available GT theories, such as Static Replica, Random First-Order Transition, Potential Energy Landscape, Mode-Coupling and Nanoscale Heterogeneity, can be unified using the additional and instantaneous spin system. GT served as an inspiration and continues to serve as the paradigm in the universal random delocalization transitions from disorder to more disorder until turbulence.

  3. Transverse traceless gravitational waves in a spatially flat FLRW universe: Causal structure from dimensional reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yi-Zen

    2015-12-01

    This work was mainly driven by the desire to explore to what extent embedding some given geometry in a higher dimensional flat one is useful for understanding the causal structure of classical fields traveling in the former, in terms of that in the latter. We point out, in the four-dimensional (4D) spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe, that the causal structure of transverse-traceless (TT) gravitational waves can be elucidated by first reducing the problem to a two-dimensional (2D) Minkowski wave equation with a time-dependent potential, where the relevant Green's function is a pure tail—waves produced by a physical source propagate strictly within the null cone. By viewing this 2D world as embedded in a 4D one, the 2D Green's function can also be seen to be sourced by a cylindrically symmetric scalar field in three dimensions (3D). From both the 2D wave equation and the 3D scalar perspective, we recover the exact solution of the 4D graviton tail for the case where the scale factor written in conformal time is a power law. There are no TT gravitational-wave tails when the universe is radiation dominated because the background Ricci scalar is zero. In a matter-dominated one, we estimate the amplitude of the tail to be suppressed relative to its null counterpart by both the ratio of the duration of the (isolated) source to the age of the universe η0 and the ratio of the observer-source spatial distance (at the observer's time) to the same η0. In a universe driven primarily by a cosmological constant, the tail contribution to the background geometry a [η ]2ημ ν after the source has ceased is the conformal factor a2 times a spacetime-constant symmetric matrix proportional to the spacetime volume integral of the TT part of the source's stress-energy-momentum tensor. In other words, massless spin-2 gravitational waves exhibit a tail-induced memory effect in 4D de Sitter spacetime.

  4. Feasibility Study for Using a Linear Transverse Flux Machine as part of the Structure of Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Pereira da Costa Cunha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a feasibility study for the generation of wave energy by means of a transverse flux machine connected to a device for converting wave energy known as Point Absorber. The article contains literature review on the topic and analysis of data obtained by means of a prototype built in the laboratory. Based on the results, the study concludes that this use is feasible.

  5. Nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method for acoustic wave modeling in tilted transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-01-01

    Discrete earth models are commonly represented by uniform structured grids. In order to ensure accurate numerical description of all wave components propagating through these uniform grids, the grid size must be determined by the slowest velocity of the entire model. Consequently, high velocity areas are always oversampled, which inevitably increases the computational cost. A practical solution to this problem is to use nonuniform grids. We propose a nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method which utilizes nonuniform grids to obtain high efficiency and relies on implicit operators to achieve high accuracy. We present a simple way of deriving implicit finite difference operators of arbitrary stencil widths on general nonuniform grids for the first and second derivatives and, as a demonstration example, apply these operators to the pseudo-acoustic wave equation in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. We propose an efficient gridding algorithm that can be used to convert uniformly sampled models onto vertically nonuniform grids. We use a 2D TTI salt model to demonstrate its effectiveness and show that the nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method can produce highly accurate seismic modeling results with enhanced efficiency, compared to uniform grid explicit finite difference implementations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Enhancement of the transverse Kerr magneto-optic effect by surface magnetoplasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, P.E.; Stafsudd, O.M.; Wallis, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of the enhancement of the transverse Kerr magneto-optic effect (TKMOE) in a magnetic thin film due to the onset of surface plasma waves (SMPW) are presented. The magnetic thin film was vacuum deposited onto the base of a half-cylinder glass prism. SPW and SMPW induced at the film-air surface can resonant couple to the optical wave propagating parallel to the glass-film surface. In the presence of resonant coupling, the ordinary metallic reflectivity decreases and the normalized reflectivity difference (measure of the TKMOE) increases. Calculations have been made of the reflectivity and the normalized reflectivity difference as a function of angle of incidence for two iron thin films. In addition calculations have been made of the reflectivity and the normalized reflectivity difference as a function of photon energy and angle of incidence for two nickel films of 160A and 200A thickness. The normalized reflectivity difference and reflectivity have been measured for a thick nickel film and a thin nickel film (160A). An enhancement of the normalized reflectivity difference of 3x has been found. (Auth.)

  7. The Main Principles of Formation of the Transverse Modes in the Multilayered Waveguides of Surface Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveshnikov, B. V.; Bagdasaryan, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    We develop a self-consistent model allowing one to analyze the properties of the interdigital transducer of the surface acoustic waves as a symmetric five-layered waveguide on a piezoelectric substrate with three possible values of the phase velocity of the acoustic-wave propagation along the longitudinal axis of the system. The transcendental dispersion relation for describing the waves in such a system is derived and the method for its instructive graphic analysis is proposed. The condition under which only the fundamental transverse mode is excited in the waveguide is formulated. The method for calculating the normalized power and the transverse distribution of the field of the continuous-spectrum waves radiated from the considered waveguide is described. It is shown that the characteristic spatial scale of the longitudinal damping of the amplitude of this field at the waveguide center can be a qualitative estimate of the transverse-mode formation length. The efficiency of a new method for suppressing the higher-order transverse waveguide modes is demonstrated.

  8. High quality ion acceleration through the interaction of two matched counterpropagating transversely polarized Gaussian lasers with a flat foil target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weijun; Hong, Xueren; Xie, Baisong; Yang, Yang; Wang, Li; Tian, Jianmin; Tang, Rongan; Duan, Wenshan

    2018-02-01

    In order to generate high quality ion beams through a relatively uniform radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of a common flat foil, a new scheme is proposed to overcome the curve of the target while being radiated by a single transversely Gaussian laser. In this scheme, two matched counterpropagating transversely Gaussian laser pulses, a main pulse and an auxiliary pulse, impinge on the foil target at the meantime. It is found that in the two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation, by the restraint of the auxiliary laser, the curve of the foil can be effectively suppressed. As a result, a high quality monoenergetic ion beam is generated through an efficient RPA of the foil target. For example, two counterpropagating transversely circularly polarized Gaussian lasers with normalized amplitudes a1=120 and a2=30 , respectively, impinge on the foil target at the meantime, a 1.3 GeV monoenergetic proton beam with high collimation is obtained finally. Furthermore, the effects on the ions acceleration with different parameters of the auxiliary laser are also investigated.

  9. A New Kind of Circular Polarization Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of circular polarization leaky-wave antenna with N-shaped slots cut in the upper side of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW is investigated and presented. The radiation pattern and polarization axial ratio of the leaky-wave antenna are studied. The results show that the width of N-shaped slots has significant effect on the circular polarization property of the antenna. By properly choosing structural parameters, the SIW based leaky-wave antenna can realize circular polarization with excellent axial ratio in 8 GHz satellite band.

  10. Dispersion characteristics of anisotropic unmagnetized ultra-relativistic transverse plasma wave with arbitrary electron degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, M.; Farooq, H.; Abbas, G.; Noureen, S.; Iqbal, Z.; Rasheed, A.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal momentum space anisotropy is ubiquitous in many astrophysical and laboratory plasma environments. Using Vlasov-Maxwell's model equations, a generalized polarization tensor for a collisionless ultra-relativistic unmagnetized electron plasma is derived. In particular, the tensor is obtained by considering anisotropy in the momentum space. The integral of moments of Fermi-Dirac distribution function in terms of Polylog functions is used for describing the border line plasma systems (T/e TF e ≈1 ) comprising arbitrary electron degeneracy, where Te and TF e, are thermal and Fermi temperatures, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of variation in thermal momentum space anisotropy on the electron equilibrium number density and the spectrum of electromagnetic waves are analyzed.

  11. Angle gathers in wave-equation imaging for transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2010-11-12

    In recent years, wave-equation imaged data are often presented in common-image angle-domain gathers as a decomposition in the scattering angle at the reflector, which provide a natural access to analysing migration velocities and amplitudes. In the case of anisotropic media, the importance of angle gathers is enhanced by the need to properly estimate multiple anisotropic parameters for a proper representation of the medium. We extract angle gathers for each downward-continuation step from converting offset-frequency planes into angle-frequency planes simultaneously with applying the imaging condition in a transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) medium. The analytic equations, though cumbersome, are exact within the framework of the acoustic approximation. They are also easily programmable and show that angle gather mapping in the case of anisotropic media differs from its isotropic counterpart, with the difference depending mainly on the strength of anisotropy. Synthetic examples demonstrate the importance of including anisotropy in the angle gather generation as mapping of the energy is negatively altered otherwise. In the case of a titled axis of symmetry (TTI), the same VTI formulation is applicable but requires a rotation of the wavenumbers. © 2010 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  12. Polarization and Compressibility of Oblique Kinetic Alfven Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunana, Peter; Goldstein, M. L.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Laveder, D.; Zank, G. P.

    2012-01-01

    Even though solar wind, as a collisionless plasma, is properly described by the kineticMaxwell-Vlasov description, it can be argued that much of our understanding of solar wind observational data comes from an interpretation and numerical modeling which is based on a fluid description of magnetohydrodynamics. In recent years, there has been a significant interest in better understanding the importance of kinetic effects, i.e. the differences between the kinetic and usual fluid descriptions. Here we concentrate on physical properties of oblique kinetic Alfvn waves (KAWs), which are often recognized as one of the key ingredients in the solar wind turbulence cascade. We use three different fluid models with various degrees of complexity and calculate polarization and magnetic compressibility of oblique KAWs (propagation angle q = 88), which we compare to solutions derived from linear kinetic theory. We explore a wide range of possible proton plasma b = [0.1,10.0] and a wide range of length scales krL = [0.001,10.0]. It is shown that the classical isotropic two-fluid model is very compressible in comparison with kinetic theory and that the largest discrepancy occurs at scales larger than the proton gyroscale. We also show that the two-fluid model contains a large error in the polarization of electric field, even at scales krL 1. Furthermore, to understand these discrepancies between the two-fluid model and the kinetic theory, we employ two versions of the Landau fluid model that incorporate linear low-frequency kinetic effects such as Landau damping and finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections into the fluid description. It is shown that Landau damping significantly reduces the magnetic compressibility and that FLR corrections (i.e. nongyrotropic contributions) are required to correctly capture the polarization.We also show that, in addition to Landau damping, FLR corrections are necessary to accurately describe the damping rate of KAWs. We conclude that kinetic effects

  13. Polarization attraction using counter-propagating waves in optical fiber at telecommunication wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, S; Fatome, J; Millot, G

    2008-04-28

    In this work, we report the experimental observation of a polarization attraction process which can occur in optical fibers at telecommunication wavelengths. More precisely, we have numerically and experimentally shown that a polarization attractor, based on the injection of two counter-propagating waves around 1.55microm into a 2-m long high nonlinear fiber, can transform any input polarization state into a unique well-defined output polarization state.

  14. Electrical access to critical coupling of circularly polarized waves in graphene chiral metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Teun-Teun; Oh, Sang Soon; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Park, Hyun Sung; Hess, Ortwin; Min, Bumki; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-09-01

    Active control of polarization states of electromagnetic waves is highly desirable because of its diverse applications in information processing, telecommunications, and spectroscopy. However, despite the recent advances using artificial materials, most active polarization control schemes require optical stimuli necessitating complex optical setups. We experimentally demonstrate an alternative-direct electrical tuning of the polarization state of terahertz waves. Combining a chiral metamaterial with a gated single-layer sheet of graphene, we show that transmission of a terahertz wave with one circular polarization can be electrically controlled without affecting that of the other circular polarization, leading to large-intensity modulation depths (>99%) with a low gate voltage. This effective control of polarization is made possible by the full accessibility of three coupling regimes, that is, underdamped, critically damped, and overdamped regimes by electrical control of the graphene properties.

  15. Polarization-Based Tests of Gravity with the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Callister

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The direct observation of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo offers novel opportunities to test general relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. One such opportunity is the measurement of gravitational-wave polarizations. While general relativity predicts only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories of gravity allow for up to four additional vector and scalar modes. The detection of these alternative polarizations would represent a clear violation of general relativity. The LIGO-Virgo detection of the binary black hole merger GW170814 has recently offered the first direct constraints on the polarization of gravitational waves. The current generation of ground-based detectors, however, is limited in its ability to sensitively determine the polarization content of transient gravitational-wave signals. Observation of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, in contrast, offers a means of directly measuring generic gravitational-wave polarizations. The stochastic background, arising from the superposition of many individually unresolvable gravitational-wave signals, may be detectable by Advanced LIGO at design sensitivity. In this paper, we present a Bayesian method with which to detect and characterize the polarization of the stochastic background. We explore prospects for estimating parameters of the background and quantify the limits that Advanced LIGO can place on vector and scalar polarizations in the absence of a detection. Finally, we investigate how the introduction of new terrestrial detectors like Advanced Virgo aid in our ability to detect or constrain alternative polarizations in the stochastic background. We find that, although the addition of Advanced Virgo does not notably improve detection prospects, it may dramatically improve our ability to estimate the parameters of backgrounds of mixed polarization.

  16. The polarization evolution of electromagnetic waves as a diagnostic method for a motional plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhi, Alireza; Mehdian, Hassan; Hajisharifi, Kamal; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    The polarization evolution of electromagnetic (EM) radiation propagating through an electron beam-ion channel system is studied in the presence of self-magnetic field. Solving the fluid-Maxwell equations to obtain the medium dielectric tensor, the Stokes vector-Mueller matrix approach is employed to determine the polarization of the launched EM wave at any point in the propagation direction, applying the space-dependent Mueller matrix on the initial polarization vector of the wave at the plasma-vacuum interface. Results show that the polarization evolution of the wave is periodic in space along the beam axis with the specified polarization wavelength. Using the obtained results, a novel diagnostic method based on the polarization evolution of the EM waves is proposed to evaluate the electron beam density and velocity. Moreover, to use the mentioned plasma system as a polarizer, the fraction of the output radiation power transmitted through a motional plasma crossed with the input polarization is calculated. The results of the present investigation will greatly contribute to design a new EM amplifier with fixed polarization or EM polarizer, as well as a new diagnostic approach for the electron beam system where the polarimetric method is employed.

  17. The nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity wave packets: dispersion and polarization relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-D. Zhang

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the results of the numerical simulations of nonlinear propagation of three Gaussian gravity-wave packets in isothermal atmosphere individually, the nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity waves are studied quantitatively. The analyses show that during the nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packets the mean flows are accelerated and the vertical wavelengths show clear reduction due to nonlinearity. On the other hand, though nonlinear effects exist, the time variations of the frequencies of gravity wave packets are close to those derived from the dispersion relation and the amplitude and phase relations of wave-associated disturbance components are consistent with the predictions of the polarization relation of gravity waves. This indicates that the dispersion and polarization relations based on the linear gravity wave theory can be applied extensively in the nonlinear region.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides

  18. Analytical treatment of particle motion in circularly polarized slab-mode wave fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Cedric; Vainio, Rami; Spanier, Felix

    2018-02-01

    Wave-particle interaction is a key process in particle diffusion in collisionless plasmas. We look into the interaction of single plasma waves with individual particles and discuss under which circumstances this is a chaotic process, leading to diffusion. We derive the equations of motion for a particle in the fields of a magnetostatic, circularly polarized, monochromatic wave and show that no chaotic particle motion can arise under such circumstances. A novel and exact analytic solution for the equations is presented. Additional plasma waves lead to a breakdown of the analytic solution and chaotic particle trajectories become possible. We demonstrate this effect by considering a linearly polarized, monochromatic wave, which can be seen as the superposition of two circularly polarized waves. Test particle simulations are provided to illustrate and expand our analytical considerations.

  19. Polarization Statistics on 0.01 Hz Waves in the Lunar Plasma Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S. K.; Halekas, J. S.; Harada, Y.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    One generating mechanism for waves in the lunar plasma environment is through the process of resonant interactions with non-solar wind ions. In particular, this mechanism is believed to be a main generator of waves that lie near the ion cyclotron frequency; around 0.01 Hz. Both left-handed and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame has been observed for waves in this frequency range. Due to the effects of Doppler shift from the solar wind, the intrinsic polarization of the waves is not necessarily the same as their polarization in the spacecraft frame. A significant source of non-solar wind ions is incoming solar wind protons that are reflected by localized crustal magnetic fields on the lunar surface. Previous statistical studies have looked at the distribution of non-solar wind ions and 0.01 Hz waves around the Moon, and how they are influenced by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction. Here we investigate the polarization statistics of 0.01 Hz waves around the Moon using ARTEMIS data from August 2011 through December 2016. Initial statistics on observation rates and location indicate that waves that appear left-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame are more common and have a broader spatial distribution around the Moon; waves that appear right-hand polarized are less frequently observed and are more centralized to the dawn side of the Moon. We further investigate how the distributions are related to IMF direction and lunar phase, and we make comparisons between non-solar wind ion distributions and polarization distributions. Additionally, we use a combination of wave analysis and ion tracing simulations to examine the intrinsic properties of these waves.

  20. Evolution of full stokes parameters in polarized radiative transfer of electron cyclotron waves on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idei, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Tsumori, K.; Watari, T.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Takita, Y.; Yoshimura, Y.; Ohkubo, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Tanaka, K.; Morisaki, T.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Nakanishi, H.; Ohdachi, S.; Emoto, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Motojima, O.; Fujiwara, M. [LHD Experimental Group, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, 509-5292 (Japan); Notake, T. [Nagoya University, Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    To study polarized radiative transfer of electron cyclotron waves, a general equation of polarization evolution that includes the effects of both birefringence and dichroism is dealt with. Full Stokes parameters are used to describe the polarization state and the absorption rate in the equation. The evolution equation on polarization state is able to treat general cases in which two polarization states of Eigenmodes are not necessary to be orthogonal. Using this equation, a single absorption rate in second harmonic electron cyclotron heating is investigated on the Large Helical Device. (authors)

  1. Polarization-dependent transverse-stress sensing characters of the gold-coated and liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fiber based on Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Zhu, Chenghao; Wang, Yan; Tan, Ce; Li, Hongwei

    2018-03-01

    A transverse-stress sensor with enhanced sensitivity based on nematic liquid crystal (NLC) filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed and analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM). The central hole of the PCF is infiltrated with NLC material with an adjustable rotation angle to achieve the polarization-dependent wavelength-selective sensing. And the combined use of side-hole structure and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technology enhanced the transverse-stress sensitivity enormously. Results reveal that the sensor can achieve a high sensitivity based on the polarization filter characteristic at special wavelengths. Besides that, the temperature and the transverse-stress in either direction can be effectively discriminated through dual-parameter demodulation method by adjusting the rotation angle of the NLC to introduce a new degree of freedom for sensing.

  2. Spin-wave propagation and spin-polarized electron transport in single-crystal iron films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladii, O.; Halley, D.; Henry, Y.; Bailleul, M.

    2017-11-01

    The techniques of propagating spin-wave spectroscopy and current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift are applied to a 20-nm-thick Fe/MgO(001) film. The magnetic parameters extracted from the position of the spin-wave resonance peaks are very close to those tabulated for bulk iron. From the zero-current propagating wave forms, a group velocity of 4 km/s and an attenuation length of about 6 μ m are extracted for 1.6-μ m -wavelength spin wave at 18 GHz. From the measured current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift, we extract a surprisingly high degree of spin polarization of the current of 83 % , which constitutes the main finding of this work. This set of results makes single-crystalline iron a promising candidate for building devices utilizing high-frequency spin waves and spin-polarized currents.

  3. Topological events in polarization resolved angular patterns of nematic liquid crystal cells at varying ellipticity of incident wave

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Vovk, Roman G.

    2008-01-01

    We study the angular structure of polarization of light transmitted through a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell by analyzing the polarization state as a function of the incidence angles and the polarization of the incident wave. The polarization resolved angular patterns emerging after the NLC cell illuminated by the convergent light beam are described in terms of the polarization singularities such as C-points (points of circular polarization) and L-lines (lines of linear polarization). For ...

  4. Polarization Insensitive Wavelength Conversion Based on Four-Wave Mixing in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements.......We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements....

  5. Nonplanar electrostatic shock waves in an opposite polarity dust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Amina

    2017-05-30

    May 30, 2017 ... The coexistence of positively and negatively charged dust grains has been observed in the Earth's mesosphere [11,12] as well as in cometary tails and comae [6]. The propagation of various types of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas, viz., dust-acoustic (DA) waves [13], dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) waves [14,15] ...

  6. Slot-dimer babinet metamaterials as polarization shapers for terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Chigrin, D. N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically study optical properties of free-standing metallic membranes patterned with an array of two-slot elements (dimers) comprising two rectangular slots of different dimensions and orientation. It is shown that these structures feature extraordinary optical transmission with strong...... and spectrally selective polarization conversion capabilities. The output polarization is highly dependent on the dimer geometry, which can be used in the design of compact polarization shapers for terahertz waves....

  7. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  8. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  9. Vector wave diffraction pattern of slits masked by polarizing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This calls for a systematic study of diffraction properties of different apertures using polarization-sensitive devices. In the present paper, we have studied the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of slits masked by different kinds of polarizing devices which introduce a phase difference between the two orthogonal components of the ...

  10. Bistable polarization switching in a continuous wave ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawandy, N. M.; Afzal, R. Sohrab

    1988-01-01

    Bistability in the output power, polarization state, and mode volume of an argon-ion laser pumped single mode ruby laser at 6943 A has been observed. The laser operates in a radially confined mode which exhibits hysteresis and bistability only when the pump polarization is parallel to the c-axis.

  11. Arbitrary amplitude dust kinetic Alfvén solitary waves in the presence of polarization force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Kaur, Nimardeep; Saini, N. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this investigation, the effect of polarization force on dust kinetic Alfvén solitary waves (DKASWs) in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of dust fluid, electrons, and positively charged ions is studied. By incorporating density non-uniformity and polarization force in the fluid model equations, the energy balance equation is derived, and from the expression for Sagdeev pseudopotential, the existence conditions for solitary structures in terms of Mach number are determined. From the numerical analysis of Sagdeev pseudopotential, compressive and rarefactive DKASWs at sub- and super-Alfvénic speeds are observed. These waves are significantly affected by varying polarization force, angle of propagation, plasma beta, and Mach number.

  12. Transverse electron polarization in the neutron decay - Direct search for scalar and tensor couplings in weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodek, Kazimierz

    2012-09-01

    The Standard Model (SM) predictions of T-violation for weak decays of systems built up of u and d quarks are by 7 to 10 orders of magnitude lower than the experimental accuracies attainable at present. It is a general presumption that time reversal phenomena are caused by a tiny admixture of exotic interaction terms. Therefore, weak decays provide a favorable testing ground in a search for such feeble forces. Physics with very slow, polarized neutrons has a great potential in this respect. An experiment seeking for small deviations from the SM in two observables, N and R, that are for the first time addressed experimentally in free neutron decay and that are exclusively sensitive to real and imaginary parts of the same linear combination of the scalar and tensor interaction coupling constants has been completed at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. The analysis of the experimental data has been completed recently leading to, among others, the best direct constraint for the imaginary part of the R-parity violating MSSM contribution. The success of the applied technique results in a new project devoted to the simultaneous measurement of seven correlation coefficients: H, L, N, R, S, U and V. Five of them (H, L, S, U and V) have never before been measured in weak decays. Such a systematic exploration of the transverse electron polarization will generate from the neutron decay alone a complete set of constraints for the real and imaginary parts of the weak scalar and tensor interactions on the level of 5 × 10-4 or better.

  13. Stimulated wave of polarization in a one-dimensional Ising chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Khitrin, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    It is demonstrated that in a one-dimensional Ising chain with nearest-neighbor interactions, irradiated by a weak resonant transverse field, a stimulated wave of flipped spins can be triggered by a flip of a single spin. This analytically solvable model illustrates mechanisms of quantum amplification and quantum measurement

  14. Measurement of transverse emittance at the source of spin-polarized electrons at the S-DALINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, Christian; Barday, Roman; Bonnes, Uwe; Eichhorn, Ralf; Enders, Joachim; Hessler, Christoph; Patalakha, Oleksandr; Platz, Markus; Poltoratska, Yuliya; Rick, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Ackermann, Wolfgang; Mueller, Wolfgang F.O.; Steiner, Bastian; Weiland, Thomas [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A new injector concept for 100 keV spin-polarized electrons (SPIN) at the S-DALINAC has been developed. The transverse emittance was measured for beam characterization. The emittance is a quantity concerning the quality of the beam, describing the phase space area. Determination of the emittance requires measurement of the beam profile and knowledge of the focal length of a beam focussing device. A wire scanner unit consisting of two 50 {mu}m diameter tungsten wires is used for the beam-profile measurement. Data analysis is performed by fitting a gaussian model distribution to estimate the 1{sigma} beam radius. Each determined beam width is correlated to the corresponding focal length of a magnetic lens, and a parabola fit is applied to calculate the parameters of the {sigma}-matrix. The square root of the determinant of the {sigma}-matrix defines the emittance. The results of the calculation are presented and the emittance is compared to theoretical estimates.

  15. Alfvén wave propagation through a moderate-amplitude transverse inhomogeneity in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgogno, D.; Laveder, D.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.

    2016-01-01

    Parallel propagation of a plane Alfvén wave in a moderate-amplitude Gaussian-shaped transverse inhomogeneity is studied numerically using a fluid model retaining low-frequency kinetic effects. It is shown that in such a situation, common in the solar wind where elongated pressure-balanced structures are frequently observed, phase mixing competes with wave focusing, in contrast with coronal loops or auroral regions where sharp gradients present at the edges of the inhomogeneities make phase mixing dominant. Some understanding about this competition is provided by a model based on an envelope formalism. Depending on the magnitude of the Alfvén wavelength and of the inhomogeneity transverse scale relative to the ion inertial length, various regimes can develop, ranging from the formation of localized gradients when phase mixing dominates to the development of an intense magnetic filament when focusing is stronger, with a different efficiency for the generation of magnetosonic and kinetic Alfvén waves. Electron parallel heating and parallel electric field generation are also briefly discussed.

  16. Depth of anisotropy in the North American craton from surface wave polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, V.; Pettersen, O.

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of P-wave traveltimes has shown the the North American craton is characterized by a coherent pattern of anisotropy with significant dip of the fast axis in some regions. The depth distribution of the anisotropy is however little constrained by P-wave analysis, limiting the geodynamical interpretation of the model. Surface wave polarizations are very sensitive to dip of anisotropy and can provide the missing depth-constraint to the model. We present an analysis of surface wave polarizations recorded at a number of stations on the North American craton. We show that the frequency range in which we do not observe polarization anomalies implies that the dipping anisotropy is not located in the upper part of the lithosphere.

  17. Rac1 regulates neuronal polarization through the WAVE complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahirovic, Sabina; Hellal, Farida; Neukirchen, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    the physiological function of Rac1 in neuronal development, we have generated a conditional knock-out mouse, in which Rac1 is ablated in the whole brain. Rac1-deficient cerebellar granule neurons, which do not express other Rac isoforms, showed impaired neuronal migration and axon formation both in vivo...... and in vitro. In addition, Rac1 ablation disrupts lamellipodia formation in growth cones. The analysis of Rac1 effectors revealed the absence of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) complex from the plasma membrane of knock-out growth cones. Loss of WAVE...... function inhibited axon growth, whereas overexpression of a membrane-tethered WAVE mutant partially rescued axon growth in Rac1-knock-out neurons. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of the WAVE complex effector Arp2/3 also reduced axon growth. We propose that Rac1 recruits the WAVE complex...

  18. Single-spin asymmetry in electro-production of {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} pairs from a transversely polarized proton target at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiao-Rui

    2008-10-15

    In this thesis, the measurement of an azimuthal amplitude of the asymmetry in the lepto-production of {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} pairs at the HERMES experiment is reported. The experiment was carried out at DESY in Germany, utilizing the longitudinally polarized 27.6 GeV electron/positron beam of the HERA storage ring in combination with a longitudinally or transversely polarized gaseous target internal to the beam pipe. For the present measurement, the transversely polarized proton target was used and the beam polarization was averaged out in order to measure the asymmetry A{sub UT}. A Ring Imaging Cerenkov (RICH) detector allows the precise identification of pions, kaons and protons over essentially the entire momentum range of the experiment. The asymmetry A{sub UT} for {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} pair production was measured for the first time in the world by HERMES. The amplitudes are extracted as functions of different kinematic variables, which can facilitate the comparison with the theoretical models and the extraction of transversity with combination of the measurement of the dihadron fragmentation function. (orig.)

  19. Transversity 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Vincenzo; Ratcliffe, Philip G.

    Introduction. Purpose and status of the Italian Transversity Project / F. Bradamante -- Opening lecture. Transversity / M. Anselmino -- Experimental lectures. Azimuthal single-spin asymmetries from polarized and unpolarized hydrogen targets at HERMES / G. Schnell (for the HERMES Collaboration). Collins and Sivers asymmetries on the deuteron from COMPASS data / I. Horn (for the COMPASS Collaboration). First measurement of interference fragmentation on a transversely polarized hydrogen target / P. B. van der Nat (for the HERMES Collaboration). Two-hadron asymmetries at the COMPASS experiment / A. Mielech (for the COMPASS Collaboration). Measurements of chiral-odd fragmentation functions at Belle / R. Seidl ... [et al.]. Lambda asymmetries / A. Ferrero (for the COMPASS Collaboration). Transverse spin at PHENIX: results and prospects / C. Aidala (for the PHENIX Collaboration). Transverse spin and RHIC / L. Bland. Studies of transverse spin effects at JLab / H. Avakian ... [et al.] (for the CLAS Collaboration). Neutron transversity at Jefferson Lab / J. P. Chen ... [et al.] (for the Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration). PAX: polarized antiproton experiments / M. Contalbrigo. Single and double spin N-N interactions at GSI / M. Maggiora (for the ASSIA Collaboration). Spin filtering in storage rings / N. N. Nikolaev & F. F. Pavlov -- Theory lectures. Single-spin asymmetries and transversity in QCD / S. J. Brodsky. The relativistic hydrogen atom: a theoretical laboratory for structure functions / X. Artru & K. Benhizia. GPD's and SSA's / M. Burkardt. Time reversal odd distribution functions in chiral models / A. Drago. Soffer bound and transverse spin densities from lattice QCD / M. Diehl ... [et al.]. Single-spin asymmetries and Qiu-Sterman effect(s) / A. Bacchetta. Sivers function: SIDIS data, fits and predictions / M. Anselmino ... [et al.]. Twist-3 effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering / M. Schlegel, K. Goeke & A. Metz. Quark and gluon Sivers functions / I

  20. Polarization-resolved characterization of plasmon waves supported by an anisotropic metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samusev, Anton; Mukhin, Ivan; Malureanu, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Optical metasurfaces have great potential to form a platform for manipulation of surface waves. A plethora of advanced surface-wave phenomena such as negative refraction, self-collimation and channeling of 2D waves can be realized through on-demand engineering of dispersion properties of a periodic...... metasurface. In this letter, we report on polarization-resolved measurement of dispersion of plasmon waves supported by an anisotropic metasurface. We demonstrate that a subdiffractive array of strongly coupled resonant plasmonic nanoparticles supports both TE and TM plasmon modes at optical frequencies...... polarization degree of freedom for surface waves, our results open new routes for designing planar on-chip devices for surface photonics....

  1. Coupling of flexural and longitudinal wave motion in a periodic structure with asymmetrically arranged transverse beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    as the distribution of motion displacements in each wave type. This is used for calculating the spatial variation of the forced harmonic responses of a semi-infinite periodic structure to point excitations by a longitudinal force and by a moment. Numerical simulations reveal the complicated wave coupling phenomena......In this paper we investigate the coupling of flexural and longitudinal wave motions in a waveguide with structural side branches attached at regular intervals. The analysis is based on periodic structure theory, and considers wave transmission in a fully tricoupled and semidefinite periodic...... assembly of beam-type elements or plane-wave transmission for normal incidence in a similar plate assembly. Receptances of a composite periodic element with offset resonant beams are derived and used for computing the frequency-dependent propagation constants of three coupled wave types as well...

  2. Polarized Microwave Background Technologies for Inflationary Gravitational Wave Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of primordial gravitational waves (PGWs) from the epoch of inflation is one of the next majors goals in cosmology. These PGWs leave a signature on the...

  3. Wave propagation in a transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic solid bar immersed in an inviscid fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Selvamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave propagation in a transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic solid bar immersed in an inviscid fluid is discussed within the frame work of linearized three dimensional theory of elasticity. Three displacement potential functions are introduced to uncouple the equations of motion, electric and magnetic induction. The frequency equations that include the interaction between the solid bar and fluid are obtained by the perfect slip boundary conditions using the Bessel functions. The numerical calculations are carried out for the non-dimensional frequency, phase velocity and attenuation coefficient by fixing wave number and are plotted as the dispersion curves. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple and can be applied to other bar of different cross section by using proper geometric relation.

  4. Influence of Incident Polarization State on Performance of Real-time Transverse Force Sensing using Stokes Parameters in Fiber Bragg Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Fu, Xinhao; Zhou, Hua; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Baofu; Cai, Guangyu; Guo, Yang

    2017-06-01

    Stokes parameters can be advantageously used to obtain real-time transverse force measurements with uniform FBGs. In this paper, we demonstrate here that the state of polarization (SOP) of incident light can be used to improve the performance of the sensor. The model and the simulations are presented. A 3-paddle fiber polarization controller was used to adjust the azimuth angle and ellipse angle of the light. The experimental results show the great influences of incident SOP on the sensitivity and linear range of the system, which is well agreed with the theoretical prediction. The highest sensitivity of 0.9475/kgf was obtained with good linearity.

  5. Raman backscattering of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves propagating along a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraghechi, B.; Willett, J.e.

    1979-01-01

    The stimulated Raman backscattering of an intense electromagnetic wave propagating in the extraordinary mode along a uniform, static magnetic field is considered. The dispersion relation for a homogeneous magnetized plasma in the presence of the circularly polarized pump waves is developed in the cold-plasma approximation with the pump frequency above the plasma frequency. Formulas are derived for the threshold νsub(OT) of the parametric instability and for the growth rate γ of the backscattered extraordinary wave and Langmuir wave. The effects of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation on νsub(0T) and γ are studied numerically. (author)

  6. Acoustic waves in transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser discharges: effect on performance and reduction techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    von Bergmann, HM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the influence of acoustic waves on the performance of high-repetition-rate TEA CO2 lasers. It is shown that acoustic waves generated inside the laser cavity lead to nonuniform discharges, resulting in a deterioration...

  7. The transverse spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artru, X. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this introduction, which is far from exhaustive, was to give an overview on the richness of transverse spin quantity and its differences in comparison with helicity. From the experimental point of view, the physics of quark transversity in deep inelastic reaction is still practically unexplored. This situation will certainly change rapidly, with planned experiments at DESY (HERMES), Brookhaven (RHIC) and CERN (COMPAS), but there is a long way before knowing the transversity distribution, {delta}q(x), as precisely as the helicity distribution, {delta}q(x), now. Unless polarized anti-proton beams become feasible, experiments probing quark transversity will rely mainly on 'quark polarimeters', like {lambda}'s or the Collins effect. These polarimeters will have to be calibrated at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. The Collins polarimeter will by the way allow the flavor decomposition of {delta}q(x), using mesons of various charging and strangeness. Quark polarimetry is by itself an interesting topic of non-perturbative QCD, and may teach us something about the breaking of chiral symmetry. Let us recall that, if chiral symmetry were unbroken, transversity would be undefined. The transversity physics program is not at all a 'remake' of the helicity one. Helicity and transversity probe rather different aspects of the hadron structure. Differences between {delta}q(x) and {delta}q(x) will reveal non-relativistic effects in the baryon wave function. Also {delta}q(x) does not couples to gluon distributions, thus it is free from anomaly. In that respect it is a more clean probe than {delta}q(x). In fact, the combination of helicity and transversity measurements will perhaps be the most interesting. Polarized parton densities taking only the helicity degree of freedom are almost 'classical'. Quantum aspects of spin correlations, like violation of Bell's inequality, can be found only when varying the spin quantification axis

  8. Circular Polarizations of Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae: A Clear Indication of Rapid Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Nakamura, Ko; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-04-15

    We propose to employ the circular polarization of gravitational waves emitted by core-collapse supernovae as an unequivocal indication of rapid rotation deep in their cores just prior to collapse. It has been demonstrated by three dimensional simulations that nonaxisymmetric accretion flows may develop spontaneously via hydrodynamical instabilities in the postbounce cores. It is not surprising, then, that the gravitational waves emitted by such fluid motions are circularly polarized. We show, in this Letter, that a network of the second generation detectors of gravitational waves worldwide may be able to detect such polarizations up to the opposite side of the Galaxy as long as the rotation period of the core is shorter than a few seconds prior to collapse.

  9. Polarization of concave domains by traveling wave pinning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Bialecki

    Full Text Available Pattern formation is one of the most fundamental yet puzzling phenomena in physics and biology. We propose that traveling front pinning into concave portions of the boundary of 3-dimensional domains can serve as a generic gradient-maintaining mechanism. Such a mechanism of domain polarization arises even for scalar bistable reaction-diffusion equations, and, depending on geometry, a number of stationary fronts may be formed leading to complex spatial patterns. The main advantage of the pinning mechanism, with respect to the Turing bifurcation, is that it allows for maintaining gradients in the specific regions of the domain. By linking the instant domain shape with the spatial pattern, the mechanism can be responsible for cellular polarization and differentiation.

  10. Seismic shear waves as Foucault pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Ruigrok, Elmer; Shiomi, Katsuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Earth's rotation causes splitting of normal modes. Wave fronts and rays are, however, not affected by Earth's rotation, as we show theoretically and with observations made with USArray. We derive that the Coriolis force causes a small transverse component for P waves and a small longitudinal component for S waves. More importantly, Earth's rotation leads to a slow rotation of the transverse polarization of S waves; during the propagation of S waves the particle motion behaves just like a Foucault pendulum. The polarization plane of shear waves counteracts Earth's rotation and rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The rotation rate is independent of the wave frequency and is purely geometric, like the Berry phase. Using the polarization of ScS and ScS2 waves, we show that the Foucault-like rotation of the S wave polarization can be observed. This can affect the determination of source mechanisms and the interpretation of observed SKS splitting.

  11. Nonplanar electrostatic shock waves in an opposite polarity dust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A rigorous theoretical investigation has been carried out on the propagation of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-acoustic shock waves (DASHWs) in a collisionless four-component unmagnetized dusty plasmasystem containing massive, micron-sized, positively and negatively charged inertial dust grains along with ...

  12. Impulsively Generated Wave Trains in Coronal Structures. II. Effects of Transverse Structuring on Sausage Waves in Pressurelesss Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Guo, Ming-Zhe; Yu, Hui; Chen, Shao-Xia

    2018-03-01

    Impulsively generated sausage wave trains in coronal structures are important for interpreting a substantial number of observations of quasi-periodic signals with quasi-periods of order seconds. We have previously shown that the Morlet spectra of these wave trains in coronal tubes depend crucially on the dispersive properties of trapped sausage waves, the existence of cutoff axial wavenumbers, and the monotonicity of the dependence of the axial group speed on the axial wavenumber in particular. This study examines the difference a slab geometry may introduce, for which purpose we conduct a comprehensive eigenmode analysis, both analytically and numerically, on trapped sausage modes in coronal slabs with a considerable number of density profiles. For the profile descriptions examined, coronal slabs can trap sausage waves with longer axial wavelengths, and the group speed approaches the internal Alfvén speed more rapidly at large wavenumbers in the cylindrical case. However, common to both geometries, cutoff wavenumbers exist only when the density profile falls sufficiently rapidly at distances far from coronal structures. Likewise, the monotonicity of the group speed curves depends critically on the profile steepness right at the structure axis. Furthermore, the Morlet spectra of the wave trains are shaped by the group speed curves for coronal slabs and tubes alike. Consequently, we conclude that these spectra have the potential for inferring the subresolution density structuring inside coronal structures, although their detection requires an instrumental cadence of better than ∼1 s.

  13. Effect of polarization force on large amplitude dust kinetic Alfvén waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Kohli, R.; Kaur, N.; Saini, N. S.

    2018-01-01

    Effect of polarization force on dust kinetic Alfvén waves (DKAWs) has been studied in this paper. We incorporated the effect of polarization in fluid model equations and derived the expression for Sagdeev pseudopotential. From the numerical analysis, it is seen that DKAWs are significantly affected by the variation of polarization force, plasma beta and Mach number. This study may be useful in understanding the formation of coherent nonlinear structures and diagnostics of dusts in laboratory as well as in space/astrophysical plasma environments.

  14. Polarization state of an inhomogenously refracted compressional-wave induced at interface between two anisotropic rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Lin; Li, Wenya; Zhao, Jie; Han, Yonglan; Liang, Meng; Ding, Pengfei; Zhao, Meishan

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the polarization states of an inhomogenously refracted P-wave induced from the interface of two anisotropic rocks. Two realistic physical models have been studied: Model-1 is an interface between anisotropic shale and Taylor sandstone; Model-2 is an interface between anisotropic shale and oil shale. For each model, an analytical expression of the polarization states was derived and its elliptical-polarization trajectory was examined. It is shown that an anomalous incident-angle leads not only to a sudden elliptical-polarization directional variation but also to an abrupt change in size and shape of its elliptical-polarization trajectory. The calculated results and analyses provide a theoretical base for the understandings of an anomalous incident-angle recently reported in the literature [e.g., Fa, Fa, Zhang, Ding, Gong, Li, Li, Tang, and Zhao (2015). Sci. Rep. 5, 12700].

  15. Parity-time symmetry optics for modal selection in transverse and longitudinal waves (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisty, Henri; Lupu, Anatole

    2017-05-01

    The evolving field of optics for information and communication is currently seeking directions to expand the data rates in all concerned devices, fiber-based or on chips. We describe here two possibilities where the new concept of PT-symmetry in optics [1,2] can be exploited to help high data rate operation, considering either transverse or longitudinal aspects of modal selection, and assuming that data are carried using precise modes. The first aspect is transverse multimode transport. In this case, a fiber or a waveguide carries a few modes, say 4 to 16, and at nodes, they have to undergo a demux/mux operation to add or drop a subset of them, as much as possible without affecting the others. We shall consider to this end the operation as described in ref. [3] : if a PT-symmetric "potential", which essentially consists of a transverse gain-loss profile with antisymmetry, is applied to a waveguide, it has a very different impact on the different modes and mode families in the waveguide. One can in particular find situations where only two modes of the passive waveguide to be analyzed may enter into a gain regime, and not the other ones. From this scheme and others [4], we will discuss what is the road left towards an actual device, either in dielectrics or in case plasmonics is envisioned [5], i.e. with rather constant losses, but the possible advantage of miniaturization. The second aspect is longitudinal mode selection. The special transport properties of PT-symmetric Bragg gratings are now well established. In order to be used within a data management system, attention has to be paid to the rejection rate of Bragg gratings, and to the flatness of their response in the targeted window. To this end, a slow modulation of both real and imaginary parts of the periodic pattern of the basically PT-symmetric waveguide can help, in the general spirit of "apodization", but now with more parameters. We will detail some aspects of the designs introduced in [6] , notably

  16. Physical modeling and analysis of P-wave attenuation anisotropy in transversely isotropic media

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zhu, Y.; Tsvankin, I.; Dewangan, P.; Van Wijk, K.

    phase attenuation coefficient A governed by the Thomsen- style attenuation-anisotropy parameters H9280Q and H9254Q. Whereas the symmetry axis of the angle-dependent coefficient Aprac- tically coincides with that of the velocity function, the magni- tude... and Tsvankin H208492004, 2006H20850 introduced Thomsen-style attenuation parameters H9280Q, H9254Q, and H9253Q de- rived from the Q-matrix for transversely isotropic H20849TIH20850 media and used the new notation to obtain simple approximations for the angle...

  17. Shock wave polarizations and optical metrics in the Born and the Born–Infeld electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minz, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.minz@alumni.tu-berlin.de [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Borzeszkowski, Horst-Heino von, E-mail: borzeszk@mailbox.tu-berlin.de [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Chrobok, Thoralf, E-mail: tchrobok@mailbox.tu-berlin.de [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Schellstede, Gerold, E-mail: schellst@physik.fu-berlin.de [ZARM (Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity), Universität Bremen, Am Fallturm, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    We analyze the behavior of shock waves in nonlinear theories of electrodynamics. For this, by use of generalized Hadamard step functions of increasing order, the electromagnetic potential is developed in a series expansion near the shock wave front. This brings about a corresponding expansion of the respective electromagnetic field equations which allows for deriving relations that determine the jump coefficients in the expansion series of the potential. We compute the components of a suitable gauge-normalized version of the jump coefficients given for a prescribed tetrad compatible with the shock front foliation. The solution of the first-order jump relations shows that, in contrast to linear Maxwell’s electrodynamics, in general the propagation of shock waves in nonlinear theories is governed by optical metrics and polarization conditions describing the propagation of two differently polarized waves (leading to a possible appearance of birefringence). In detail, shock waves are analyzed in the Born and Born–Infeld theories verifying that the Born–Infeld model exhibits no birefringence and the Born model does. The obtained results are compared to those ones found in literature. New results for the polarization of the two different waves are derived for Born-type electrodynamics.

  18. An Empirical Algorithm for Wave Retrieval from Co-Polarization X-Band SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizeng Shao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed an empirical algorithm for significant wave height (SWH retrieval from TerraSAR-X/TanDEM (TS-X/TD-X X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR co-polarization (vertical-vertical (VV and horizontal-horizontal (HH images. As the existing empirical algorithm at X-band, i.e., XWAVE, is applied for wave retrieval from HH-polarization TS-X/TD-X image, polarization ratio (PR has to be used for inverting wind speed, which is treated as an input in XWAVE. Wind speed encounters saturation in tropical cyclone. In our work, wind speed is replaced by normalized radar cross section (NRCS to avoiding using SAR-derived wind speed, which does not work in high winds, and the empirical algorithm can be conveniently implemented without converting NRCS in HH-polarization to NRCS in VV-polarization by using X-band PR. A total of 120 TS-X/TD-X images, 60 in VV-polarization and 60 in HH-polarization, with homogenous wave patterns, and the coincide significant wave height data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF reanalysis field at a 0.125° grid were collected as a dataset for tuning the algorithm. The range of SWH is from 0 to 7 m. We then applied the algorithm to 24 VV and 21 HH additional SAR images to extract SWH at locations of 30 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA National Data Buoy Center (NDBC buoys. It is found that the algorithm performs well with a SWH stander deviation (STD of about 0.5 m for both VV and HH polarization TS-X/TD-X images. For large wave validation (SWH 6–7 m, we applied the empirical algorithm to a tropical cyclone Sandy TD-X image acquired in 2012, and obtained good result with a SWH STD of 0.3 m. We concluded that the proposed empirical algorithm works for wave retrieval from TS-X/TD-X image in co-polarization without external sea surface wind information.

  19. Vector wave diffraction pattern of slits masked by polarizing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (7) where X = πud is the observation plane coordinate. If an analyser P(θ) is placed at the output side whose transmission axis makes an angle θ with the chosen x-axis, the vector wave amplitude obtained at the observation plane is then given by. F(u)WA = P(θ)F(u), where. P(θ) = ∣. ∣. ∣. ∣ cos2 θ sin θ cos θ sin θ cos θ.

  20. MODELING OBSERVED DECAY-LESS OSCILLATIONS AS RESONANTLY ENHANCED KELVIN–HELMHOLTZ VORTICES FROM TRANSVERSE MHD WAVES AND THEIR SEISMOLOGICAL APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolin, P.; De Moortel, I. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Yokoyama, T., E-mail: patrick.antolin@st-andrews.ac.uk [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-10-20

    In the highly structured solar corona, resonant absorption is an unavoidable mechanism of energy transfer from global transverse MHD waves to local azimuthal Alfvén waves. Due to its localized nature, direct detection of this mechanism is extremely difficult. Yet, it is the leading theory explaining the observed fast damping of the global transverse waves. However, at odds with this theoretical prediction are recent observations that indicate that in the low-amplitude regime such transverse MHD waves can also appear decay-less, a still unsolved phenomenon. Recent numerical work has shown that Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) often accompany transverse MHD waves. In this work, we combine 3D MHD simulations and forward modeling to show that for currently achieved spatial resolution and observed small amplitudes, an apparent decay-less oscillation is obtained. This effect results from the combination of periodic brightenings produced by the KHI and the coherent motion of the KHI vortices amplified by resonant absorption. Such an effect is especially clear in emission lines forming at temperatures that capture the boundary dynamics rather than the core, and reflects the low damping character of the local azimuthal Alfvén waves resonantly coupled to the kink mode. Due to phase mixing, the detected period can vary depending on the emission line, with those sensitive to the boundary having shorter periods than those sensitive to the loop core. This allows us to estimate the density contrast at the boundary.

  1. Precession of elastic waves in vibrating isotropic spheres and transversely isotropic cylinders subjected to inertial rotation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joubert, S

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available and Manufacturing TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC CYLINDER - 1 φ φ r z a x y Ω P P O u v w z ( )1 1 1 2 1 1 rrr rz rr zr r zrz zz rz u r r z r v r r z r w r r z r ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ ϕ ϕ σσ σ σ σ ρ ϕ σσ σ σ ρ ϕ σσ σ σ ρ ϕ... ∂ ∂ ∂ + + + − = ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂∂ ∂ + + + = ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂∂ ∂ + + + = ∂ ∂ ∂ && && && 6 CSIR Material Science and Manufacturing TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC CYLINDER - 2 ( )1 1 1 2 1 1 rrr rz rr zr r zrz zz rz u r r z r v r r z r w r r z r ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ ϕ ϕ σσ σ σ σ ρ ϕ σσ σ σ ρ ϕ σσ σ σ ρ ϕ...

  2. Covariant formulation of wave-particle interaction in a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, J.T.; Silva, L.O. [Grupo de Lasers e Plasmas, Centro de Electrodinamica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1096 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)

    1997-01-01

    We consider the interaction of relativistic charged particles with a perpendicular monochromatic wave of arbitrary amplitude in the presence of a static magnetic field. We introduce a covariant formulation based on a super-Hamiltonian and we study the energy-time phase plane. This formalism considerably simplifies the analysis of the problem and improves previous theoretical models. It is shown that the system dynamics for the monochromatic perturbation is quite different from the usual wave-packet perturbation: with the present formulation a finite stochastic web with three topologically distinct regions is observed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Dispersion and Polarization of Surface Waves Trapped in High Aspect Ratio Electrode Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laude, Vincent; Dühring, Maria Bayard; Moubchir, Hanane

    2007-01-01

    .Phys., 90(5):2492, 2001; Appl. Phys. Lett., 89:083515, 2006.) an experimental and theoretical analysis of the transduction of SAW under a metallic array of electrodes with a large aspect ratio on a piezoelectric substrate, whereby allowing the electrode height to become larger than one wavelength...... additional results on the polarization and the dispersion of the surface waves trapped by high aspect ratio electrode arrays. A finite element model, including periodic boundary conditions along the propagation direction and a perfectly matched layer (PML) to absorb waves away from the surface...... wave vector values....

  4. Polarization properties of Gendrin mode waves observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: observations and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Verkhoglyadova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We show a case of an outer zone magnetospheric electromagnetic wave propagating at the Gendrin angle, within uncertainty of the measurements. The chorus event occurred in a "minimum B pocket". For the illustrated example, the measured angle of wave propagation relative to the ambient magnetic field θkB was 58°±4°. For this event the theoretical Gendrin angle was 62°. Cold plasma model is used to demonstrate that Gendrin mode waves are right-hand circularly polarized, in excellent agreement with the observations.

  5. Circularly polarized few-optical-cycle solitons in the short-wave-approximation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblond, Herve [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers, EA 4464, Universite d' Angers, 2 Boulevard Lavoisier, F-49045 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Triki, Houria [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokhtar University, Post Office Box 12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Mihalache, Dumitru [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers, EA 4464, Universite d' Angers, 2 Boulevard Lavoisier, F-49045 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), 407 Atomistilor, RO-077125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientists, 54 Splaiul Independentei, RO-050094 Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-08-15

    We consider the propagation of few-cycle pulses (FCPs) beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation in media in which the dynamics of constituent atoms is described by a two-level Hamiltonian by taking into account the wave polarization. We consider the short-wave approximation, assuming that the resonance frequency of the two-level atoms is well below the inverse of the characteristic duration of the optical pulse. By using the reductive perturbation method (multiscale analysis), we derive from the Maxwell-Bloch-Heisenberg equations the governing evolution equations for the two polarization components of the electric field in the first order of the perturbation approach. We show that propagation of circularly polarized (CP) few-optical-cycle solitons is described by a system of coupled nonlinear equations, which reduces in the scalar case to the standard sine Gordon equation describing the dynamics of linearly polarized FCPs in the short-wave-approximation regime. By direct numerical simulations, we calculate the lifetime of CP FCPs, and we study the transition to two orthogonally polarized single-humped pulses as a generic route of their instability.

  6. Transverse kick in misaligned traveling wave structures driven at the fundamental mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-04-01

    Fabrication errors in traveling wave structures result in non-axisymmetric RF fields that couple to the rf drive at the fundamental mode frequency. The authors calculate the excitation of the dipole mode and the integrated effect on the beam, using the thin iris and small hole approximation

  7. Reflection moveout approximations for P-waves in a moderately anisotropic homogeneous tilted transverse isotropy layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pšenčík, Ivan; Farra, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 5 (2017), C175-C185 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05237S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : VTI media * velocity * seismic waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  8. ERRATUM: Propagating Waves Transverse to the Magnetic Field in a Solar Prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, B.; Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K.; Luna, M.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Toot, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Halpha lines), Sac Peak (in Ha, Hß, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ("Télescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires") with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D3 line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km/s, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.

  9. Research Note: The sensitivity of surface seismic P-wave data in transversely isotropic media to reflector depth

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-12-17

    The leading component of the high-frequency asymptotic description of the wavefield, given by the travel time, is governed by the eikonal equation. In anisotropic media, traveltime measurements from seismic experiments conducted along one surface cannot constrain the long-wavelength attribute of the medium along the orthogonal-to-the-surface direction, as anisotropy introduces an independent parameter controlling wave propagation in the orthogonal direction. Since travel times measured on the Earth\\'s surface in transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis are mainly insensitive to the absolute value of the anisotropic parameter responsible for relating these observations to depth δ, the travel time was perturbed laterally to investigate the traveltime sensitivity to lateral variations in δ. This formulation can be used to develop inversion strategies for lateral variations in δ in acoustic transversely isotropic media, as the surface-recorded data are sensitive to it even if the model is described by the normal moveout velocity and horizontal velocity, or the anellipticity parameter η. Numerical tests demonstrate the enhanced sensitivity of our data when the model is parameterised with a lateral change in δ.

  10. Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranen, Martti; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Malcuit, Michelle S.; Boyd, Robert W.

    1989-08-01

    We develop a semiclassical theory of the polarization properties of phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing. The theory includes the effects of saturation by the pump waves. We solve the density-matrix equations of motion in steady state for a nonlinear medium consisting of stationary atoms with a ground and excited state connected by two-photon transitions. As an illustration of the general results, we consider an S0-->S0 two-photon transition, which is known to lead to perfect polarization conjugation in the limit of third-order theory. We show that the fidelity of the polarization-conjugation process is degraded for excessively large pump intensities. The degradation can occur both due to transfer of population to the excited state and due to nonresonant Stark shifts. Theoretical results are compared to those of a recent experiment [Malcuit, Gauthier, and Boyd, Opt. Lett. 13, 663 (1988)].

  11. Unidirectional evanescent-wave coupling from circularly polarized electric and magnetic dipoles: An angular spectrum approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Michela F.; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Zayats, Anatoly V.; Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J.

    2017-06-01

    Unidirectional evanescent-wave coupling from circularly polarized dipole sources is one of the most striking types of evidence of spin-orbit interactions of light and an inherent property of circularly polarized dipoles. Polarization handedness self-determines propagation direction of guided modes. In this paper, we compare two different approaches currently used to describe this phenomenon: the first requires the evaluation of the coupling amplitude between dipole and waveguide modes, while the second is based on the calculation of the angular spectrum of the dipole. We present an analytical expression of the angular spectrum of dipole radiation, unifying the description for both electric and magnetic dipoles. The symmetries unraveled by the implemented formalism show the existence of specific terms in the dipole spectrum which can be recognized as being directly responsible for directional evanescent-wave coupling. This provides a versatile tool for both a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon and a fully controllable engineering of directionality of guided modes.

  12. Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs. Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of  ∼ 20–60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent  =  −3.2 and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of −2.9 and −2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.

  13. Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Pingping; Yue, Jia; Russell, James M., III; Siskind, David E.; Randall, Cora E.

    2018-01-01

    We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of ˜ 20-60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave) power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent = -3.2) and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of -2.9 and -2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.

  14. Radio wave propagation in the Martian polar deposits: models and implications for radar sounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyushin, Ya. A.

    In the present study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the northern polar ice sheet of Mars is considered Several different scenarios of the structure of the polar deposits and composition of the ice compatible with previously published observational data are proposed Both analytical and numerical simulations of ultra wide band chirp radar pulse propagating through the cap are performed Approximate approach based on the non-coherent theory of the radiative transfer in layered media has been applied to the problem of the propagation of radar pulses in the polar caps Both 1D and 2D and 3D geometry applicable to the orbital and landed radar instruments are studied The side clutter and phase distortions of the signal are also addressed analyzed The possibilities of retrieval of the geological information depending on transparency of the polar cap for radio waves are discussed If the polar cap is relatively transparent the echo from the base of the sheet should be clearly distinctive and interpretable in terms of basal topography of the cap In the case of moderate optical thickness coherent basal echo is corrupted by strong multiple scattering in the layered structure However some conclusions about basal conditions could be made from the signals for example the subglacial lakes may be detected Finally optically thick polar caps prevent any sounding of the base so only the medium itself can be characterized by GPR measurements e g the impurity content in the ice can be found Ilyushin Y A R Seu

  15. Effects of Medium Characteristics on Laser RCS of Airplane with E-Wave Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam El-Ocla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plane wave incidence should be postulated to have an authentic target detection. Practically, the plane wave is incapable usually of keeping its power in the far field especially when propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. Consequently, we assume an incident beam wave with a finite width around the target. In this work, we calculate numerically a laser radar cross section (LRCS of conducting targets having smooth cross sections with inflection points such as airplane in random media. Effects of fluctuations intensity of random media on the LRCS performance are studied in this paper. E-wave polarization (E-wave incidence is considered while the mean target size is approximately twice the wavelength.

  16. Visualizing the phenomena of wave interference, phase-shifting and polarization by interactive computer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Dirckx, Joris

    2015-09-01

    In this manuscript a computer based simulation is proposed for teaching concepts of interference of light (under the scheme of a Michelson interferometer), phase-shifting and polarization states. The user can change some parameters of the interfering waves, such as their amplitude and phase difference in order to graphically represent the polarization state of a simulated travelling wave. Regarding to the interference simulation, the user is able to change the wavelength and type of the interfering waves by selecting combinations between planar and Gaussian profiles, as well as the optical path difference by translating or tilting one of the two mirrors in the interferometer setup, all of this via a graphical user interface (GUI) designed in MATLAB. A theoretical introduction and simulation results for each phenomenon will be shown. Due to the simulation characteristics, this GUI can be a very good non-formal learning resource.

  17. Upper mantle anisotropy beneath Australia and Tahiti from P wave polarization: Implications for real-time earthquake location

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Fabrice R.,; Barruol, Guilhem; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Bokelmann, Goetz; Reymond, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    International audience; We report measurements of long-period P wave polarization (P pol) in Australia and Tahiti made by combining modeling of the polarization deviation and harmonic analysis. The analysis of the deviation of the horizontal polarization of the P wave as a function of event back azimuth may be used to obtain information about (1) sensor misorientation, (2) dipping discontinuities, (3) seismic anisotropy, and (4) velocity heterogeneities beneath a seismic station. The results ...

  18. The behavior of transverse waves in nonuniform solar flux tubes. II. Implications for coronal loop seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Goossens, Marcel, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-02-01

    The seismology of coronal loops using observations of damped transverse oscillations in combination with results from theoretical models is a tool to indirectly infer physical parameters in the solar atmospheric plasma. Existing seismology schemes based on approximations of the period and damping time of kink oscillations are often used beyond their theoretical range of applicability. These approximations assume that the variation of density across the loop is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the loop, but the results of the inversion problem often do not satisfy this preliminary hypothesis. Here, we determine the accuracy of the analytic approximations of the period and damping time, and the impact on seismology estimates when largely nonuniform loops are considered. We find that the accuracy of the approximations when used beyond their range of applicability is strongly affected by the form of the density profile across the loop, that is observationally unknown and so must be arbitrarily imposed as part of the theoretical model. The error associated with the analytic approximations can be larger than 50% even for relatively thin nonuniform layers. This error directly affects the accuracy of approximate seismology estimates compared to actual numerical inversions. In addition, assuming different density profiles can produce noncoincident intervals of the seismic variables in inversions of the same event. The ignorance about the true shape of density variation across the loop is an important source of error that may dispute the reliability of parameters seismically inferred assuming an ad hoc density profile.

  19. Transverse acoustic phonon anomalies at intermediate wave vectors in MgV2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T.; Roessli, B.; Stock, C.; Keller, T.; Schmalzl, K.; Bourdarot, F.; Georgii, R.; Ewings, R. A.; Perry, R. S.; Böni, P.

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic spinels (with chemical formula A X2O4 , with X a 3 d transition metal ion) that also have an orbital degeneracy are Jahn-Teller active and hence possess a coupling between spin and lattice degrees of freedom. At high temperatures, MgV2O4 is a cubic spinel based on V3 + ions with a spin S =1 and a triply degenerate orbital ground state. A structural transition occurs at TOO=63 K to an orbitally ordered phase with a tetragonal unit cell followed by an antiferromagnetic transition of TN=42 K on cooling. We apply neutron spectroscopy in single crystals of MgV2O4 to show an anomaly for intermediate wave vectors at TOO associated with the acoustic phonon sensitive to the shear elastic modulus (C11-C12)/2 . On warming, the shear mode softens for momentum transfers near close to half the Brillouin zone boundary, but recovers near the zone center. High resolution spin-echo measurements further illustrate a temporal broadening with increased temperature over this intermediate range of wave vectors, indicative of a reduction in phonon lifetime. A subtle shift in phonon frequencies over the same range of momentum transfers is observed with magnetic fields. We discuss this acoustic anomaly in context of coupling to orbital and charge fluctuations.

  20. Broadband asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves based on chiral metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Lincy; Yogesh, N.; Subramanian, V.

    2018-01-01

    The giant optical activity of chiral metamaterials (CMMs) holds great potential for tailoring the polarization state of an electromagnetic (EM) wave. In controlling the polarization state, the aspect of asymmetric transmission (AT), where a medium allows the EM radiation to pass through in one direction while restricting it in the opposite direction, adds additional degrees of freedom such as one-way channelling functionality. In this work, a CMM formed by a pair of mutually twisted slanted complementary metal strips is realized for broadband AT accompanied with cross-polarization (CP) conversion for linearly polarized EM waves. Numerically, the proposed ultra-thin (˜λ/42) CMM shows broadband AT from 8.58 GHz to 9.73 GHz (bandwidth of 1.15 GHz) accompanied with CP transmission magnitude greater than 0.9. The transmission and reflection spectra reveal the origin of the asymmetric transmission as the direction sensitive cross polarization conversion and anisotropic electric coupling occurring in the structure which is then elaborated with the surface current analysis and electric field distribution within the structure. An experiment is carried out to verify the broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM at microwave frequencies, and a reliable agreement between numerical and experimental results is obtained. Being ultra-thin, the reported broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM is useful for controlling radiation patterns in non-reciprocal EM devices and communication networks.

  1. Investigating Gravity Waves in Polar Mesospheric Clouds Using Tomographic Reconstructions of AIM Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, V. P.; Taylor, M. J.; Doyle, T. E.; Zhao, Y.; Pautet, P.-D.; Carruth, B. L.; Rusch, D. W.; Russell, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    This research presents the first application of tomographic techniques for investigating gravity wave structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) imaged by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument on the NASA AIM satellite. Albedo data comprising consecutive PMC scenes were used to tomographically reconstruct a 3-D layer using the Partially Constrained Algebraic Reconstruction Technique algorithm and a previously developed "fanning" technique. For this pilot study, a large region (760 × 148 km) of the PMC layer (altitude 83 km) was sampled with a 2 km horizontal resolution, and an intensity weighted centroid technique was developed to create novel 2-D surface maps, characterizing the individual gravity waves as well as their altitude variability. Spectral analysis of seven selected wave events observed during the Northern Hemisphere 2007 PMC season exhibited dominant horizontal wavelengths of 60-90 km, consistent with previous studies. These tomographic analyses have enabled a broad range of new investigations. For example, a clear spatial anticorrelation was observed between the PMC albedo and wave-induced altitude changes, with higher-albedo structures aligning well with wave troughs, while low-intensity regions aligned with wave crests. This result appears to be consistent with current theories of PMC development in the mesopause region. This new tomographic imaging technique also provides valuable wave amplitude information enabling further mesospheric gravity wave investigations, including quantitative analysis of their hemispheric and interannual characteristics and variations.

  2. Observation of nuclear spin waves in spin-polarized atomic hydrogen gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johson, B.R.; Denker, J.S.; Bigelow, N.; Levy, L.P.; Freed, J.H.; Lee, D.M.

    1984-04-23

    We have observed narrow, distinct resonances in the NMR spectrum of dilute spin-polarized atomic hydrogen gas (nroughly-equal10/sup 16/ atoms/cm/sup 3/). The dependence of the observed spectra on temperature, density, polarization, and magnetic field gradient is consistent with theoretical predictions for spin-wave excitations damped by diffusion. We have measured the parameter ..mu.., which is a measure of the importance of exchange effects in spin transport processes, and the diffusion coefficient D/sub 0/, both of which are in reasonable agreement with theory.

  3. Pitch Angle Scattering of Upgoing Electron Beams in Jupiter's Polar Regions by Whistler Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Clark, G.; Mauk, B. H.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The Juno spacecraft's Jupiter Energetic-particle Detector Instrument has observed field-aligned, unidirectional (upgoing) electron beams throughout most of Jupiter's entire polar cap region. The Waves instrument detected intense broadband whistler mode emissions occurring in the same region. In this paper, we investigate the pitch angle scattering of the upgoing electron beams due to interactions with the whistler mode waves. Profiles of intensity versus pitch angle for electron beams ranging from 2.53 to 7.22 Jovian radii show inconsistencies with the expected adiabatic invariant motion of the electrons. It is believed that the observed whistler mode waves perturb the electron motion and scatter them away from the magnetic field line. The diffusion equation has been solved by using diffusion coefficients which depend on the magnetic intensity of the whistler mode waves.

  4. Unpinning of rotating spiral waves in cardiac tissues by circularly polarized electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Pan, De-Bei; Li, Bing-Wei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Spiral waves anchored to obstacles in cardiac tissues may cause lethal arrhythmia. To unpin these anchored spirals, comparing to high-voltage side-effect traditional therapies, wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by the uniform electric field (UEF) has provided a low-voltage alternative. Here we provide a new approach using WEH induced by the circularly polarized electric field (CPEF), which has higher success rate and larger application scope than UEF, even with a lower voltage. And we also study the distribution of the membrane potential near an obstacle induced by CPEF to analyze its mechanism of unpinning. We hope this promising approach may provide a better alternative to terminate arrhythmia.

  5. Anomalous Tunneling of Spin Wave in Polar State of Spin-1 BEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Shohei; Ohashi, Yoji; Kato, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    We investigate tunneling properties of collective spin-wave excitations in the polar state of a spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Within the mean-field theory at T = 0, we show that when the condensate is in the critical supercurrent state, the spin wave mode exhibits perfect transmission through a nonmagnetic potential barrier in the low energy limit, unless the strength of a spin-independent interaction c o equals that of a spin-dependent interaction c o Such an anomalous tunneling behavior is absent in the case of a magnetic barrier. We also clarify a scaling law of the transmission probability as a function of the mode energy.

  6. Anomalous Tunneling of Spin Wave in Polar State of Spin-1 BEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Shohei; Kato, Yusuke; Ohashi, Yoji

    2012-12-01

    We investigate tunneling properties of collective spin-wave excitations in the polar state of a spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Within the mean-field theory at T = 0, we show that when the condensate is in the critical supercurrent state, the spin wave mode exhibits perfect transmission through a nonmagnetic potential barrier in the low energy limit, unless the strength of a spin-independent interaction co equals that of a spin-dependent interaction co Such an anomalous tunneling behavior is absent in the case of a magnetic barrier. We also clarify a scaling law of the transmission probability as a function of the mode energy.

  7. All-dielectric metasurface realizing giant asymmetric transmission for linearly polarized wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weikang; Kang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Chuan; Tang, Dengfei; Dong, Jianfeng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of chiral all-dielectric metasurface is demonstrated numerically to achieve giant asymmetric transmission (AT) in fiber communication region. The incoming polarized electromagnetic wave excites magnetic and electric resonances and the resonances in AT spectrum coincide with eigen frequencies of this structure. The all dielectric metasurface shows more excellent properties compared with its metal counterpart. AT is influenced significantly by material permittivity as well as unit cell period. The concept of all-dielectric metasurface offers a new way to manipulate electromagnetic waves and the phenomenon remains effective in other frequencies.

  8. Generation of neutron standing waves at total reflection of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.; Kozhevnikov, S.V.; Radu, F.; Kruijs, R.; Rekveldt, M.Th.

    1999-01-01

    The regime of neutron standing waves at reflection of polarized thermal neutrons from the structure glass/Cu (1000 A Angstrom)/Ti (2000 A Angstrom)/Co (60 A Angstrom)/Ti (300 A Angstrom) in a magnetic field directed at an angle to the sample plane is realized. The intensity of neutrons with a particular spin projection on the external magnetic field direction appears to be a periodic function of the neutron wavelength and the glancing angle of the reflected beam. It is shown that the neutron standing wave regime can be a very sensitive method for the determination of changes in the spatial position of magnetic noncollinear layers. (author)

  9. A trigger control system for COMPASS and a measurement of the transverse polarization of Λ and Ξ hyperons from quasi-real photo-production

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, B

    The Trigger Control System of the COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS distributes the first level trigger together with a unique event identifier and a very precise reference clock, that synchronizes the readout electronics, over a passive optical fiber network to 152 front-end modules. All signals are transmitted over a single optical fiber. The system in addition generates the readout dead-time and provides advanced management functions. The second part presents an analysis of the transverse polarization of L and X hyperons in quasi-real photo-production based on COMPASS data. Averaged over the whole kinematical range the L shows a significantly positive polarization of +3.38 ± 0.32(stat.) ± 0.13(sys.) %. The L exhibits a slightly negative polarization of −1.51 ± 0.39(stat.) ± 0.10(sys.) %. Both polarizations are studied in dependence on the kinematical variables xF, pT, y, and Q2. X− and X + are within the errors unpolarized.

  10. A trigger control system for COMPASS and a measurement of the transverse polarization of Λ and Ξ hyperons from quasi-real photo-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grube, B.

    2006-01-01

    The Trigger Control System of the COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS distributes the first level trigger together with a unique event identifier and a very precise reference clock, that synchronizes the readout electronics, over a passive optical fiber network to 152 front-end modules. All signals are transmitted over a single optical fiber. The system in addition generates the readout dead-time and provides advanced management functions. The second part presents an analysis of the transverse polarization of Λ and Ξ hyperons in quasi-real photo-production based on COMPASS data. Averaged over the whole kinematical range the Λ shows a significantly positive polarization of +3.38±0.32(stat.)±0.13(sys.)%. The anti Λ exhibits a slightly negative polarization of -1.51±0.39(stat.)±0.10(sys.)%. Both polarizations are studied in dependence on the kinematical variables x F , p T , y, and Q 2 . Ξ - and anti Ξ + are within the errors unpolarized. (Orig.)

  11. Electromagnetic excitation of anomalous acoustic waves in metals subjected to a transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, I.E.; Irklienko, T.I.; Korolyuk, A.P.; Fal'ko, V.L.; Khizhnyi, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were made of electromagnetic excitation of sound in a metal plate, characterized by a complex dispersion law in a magnetic field H perpendicular to the surface. Experiments were carried out on tungsten at frequencies ω/2π = 400-800 MHz in magnetic fields H ∼ 100-4,000 Oe. Acoustic vibrations of two types were excited: an acoustic normal mode traveling at the velocity of sound s 0 in the metal and an anomalous (fast) sound with a phase velocity equal to the Fermi velocity of the conduction electrons υ much-gt s 0 . The interaction between these two acoustic signals led to the following effects: (1) oscillations of the output acoustic signal in the magnetic field H with a constant period governed by ballistic transport of energy of the electromagnetic wave into the metal by specific electron groups; (2) resonant changes in the amplitude of these oscillations in a field H near a diamagnetic resonance at ω∼Ω (Ω = eH/mc); (3) an inversion of the acoustic signal lines due to a change in the frequency by an amount Δ line-integral ∼s 0 /2d (d is the plate thickness) and a periodic recovery of the line profiles with a period 2Δ line-integral. This theory is in good agreement with the experimental results

  12. Ultra-High-Speed Travelling Wave Protection of Transmission Line Using Polarity Comparison Principle Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional polarity comparison based travelling wave protection, using the initial wave information, is affected by initial fault angle, bus structure, and external fault. And the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave is ignored. Because of the protection tripping and malfunction, the further application of this protection principle is affected. Therefore, this paper presents an ultra-high-speed travelling wave protection using integral based polarity comparison principle. After empirical mode decomposition of the original travelling wave, the first-order intrinsic mode function is used as protection object. Based on the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of using travelling wave magnitude which contains polar information as direction criterion. And the paper integrates the direction criterion in a period after fault to avoid wave head detection failure. Through PSCAD simulation with the typical 500 kV transmission system, the reliability and sensitivity of travelling wave protection were verified under different factors’ affection.

  13. Polarization dependence of the spin-density-wave excitations in single-domain chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Roessli, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France); Sternlieb, B.J. [Brookhaven (United States); Lorenzo, E. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France); Werner, S.A. [Missouri (United States)

    1997-09-01

    A polarized neutron scattering experiment has been performed with a single-Q, single domain sample of chromium in a magnetic field of 4 T. It is confirmed that the longitudinal fluctuations are enhanced for small energy transfers and that the spin wave modes with {delta}S parallel to Q and {delta}S perpendicular to Q are similar. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  14. Wave normal angles of magnetospheric chorus emissions observed on the Polar spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haque, N.; Spasojevic, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Inan, U. S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 115, - (2010), A00F07/1-A00F07/12 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA301120601 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME 842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : chorus * wave normal * Polar spacecraft Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 3.303, year: 2010

  15. Restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and subwavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gawhary, Omar; Schilder, Nick J; Costa Assafrao, Alberto da; Pereira, Silvania F; Paul Urbach, H

    2012-01-01

    It was predicted a few years ago that a medium with negative index of refraction would allow for perfect imaging. Although no material has been found so far that behaves as a perfect lens, some experiments confirmed the theoretical predictions in the near-field, or quasi-static, regime where the behaviour of a negative index medium can be mimicked by a thin layer of noble metal, such as silver. These results are normally attributed to the excitation of surface plasmons in the metal, which only leads to the restoration of p-polarized evanescent waves. In this work, we show that the restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and, correspondingly, sub-wavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab are possible. Specifically, we show that at λ = 632 nm a thin layer of GaAs behaves as a superlens for s-polarized waves. Replacing the single-metal slab by a dielectric is not only convenient from a technical point of view, it being much easier to deposit and control the thickness and flatness of dielectric films than metal ones, but also invites us to re-think the connection between surface plasmon excitation and the theory of negative refraction. (paper)

  16. Wave influence on polar mesosphere summer echoes above Wasa: experimental and model studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dalin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive analysis of the wave activity in the Antarctic summer mesopause is performed using polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE measurements for December 2010–January 2011. The 2-day planetary wave is a statistically significant periodic oscillation in the power spectrum density of PMSE power. The strongest periodic oscillation in the power spectrum belongs to the diurnal solar tide; the semi-diurnal solar tide is found to be a highly significant harmonic oscillation as well. The inertial-gravity waves are extensively studied by means of PMSE power and wind components. The strongest gravity waves are observed at periods of about 1, 1.4, 2.5 and 4 h, with characteristic horizontal wavelengths of 28, 36, 157 and 252 km, respectively. The gravity waves propagate approximately in the west-east direction over Wasa (Antarctica. A detailed comparison between theoretical and experimental volume reflectivity of PMSE, measured at Wasa, is made. It is demonstrated that a new expression for PMSE reflectivity derived by Varney et al. (2011 is able to adequately describe PMSE profiles both in the magnitude and in height variations. The best agreement, within 30%, is achieved when mean values of neutral atmospheric parameters are utilized. The largest contribution to the formation and variability of the PMSE layer is explained by the ice number density and its height gradient, followed by wave-induced perturbations in buoyancy period and the turbulent energy dissipation rate.

  17. Wave influence on polar mesosphere summer echoes above Wasa: experimental and model studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, P.; Kirkwood, S.; Hervig, M.; Mihalikova, M.; Mikhaylova, D.; Wolf, I.; Osepian, A.

    2012-08-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the wave activity in the Antarctic summer mesopause is performed using polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) measurements for December 2010-January 2011. The 2-day planetary wave is a statistically significant periodic oscillation in the power spectrum density of PMSE power. The strongest periodic oscillation in the power spectrum belongs to the diurnal solar tide; the semi-diurnal solar tide is found to be a highly significant harmonic oscillation as well. The inertial-gravity waves are extensively studied by means of PMSE power and wind components. The strongest gravity waves are observed at periods of about 1, 1.4, 2.5 and 4 h, with characteristic horizontal wavelengths of 28, 36, 157 and 252 km, respectively. The gravity waves propagate approximately in the west-east direction over Wasa (Antarctica). A detailed comparison between theoretical and experimental volume reflectivity of PMSE, measured at Wasa, is made. It is demonstrated that a new expression for PMSE reflectivity derived by Varney et al. (2011) is able to adequately describe PMSE profiles both in the magnitude and in height variations. The best agreement, within 30%, is achieved when mean values of neutral atmospheric parameters are utilized. The largest contribution to the formation and variability of the PMSE layer is explained by the ice number density and its height gradient, followed by wave-induced perturbations in buoyancy period and the turbulent energy dissipation rate.

  18. Comment on `The azimuthal dependence of surface wave polarization in a slightly anisotropic medium' by T. Tanimoto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Valérie

    2004-10-01

    This comment points out that the simple azimuthal dependence of the polarization anomalies derived in a recent paper by Tanimoto may not be valid for the Love wave fundamental mode in oceanic or tectonic regions as a result of strong coupling with the first Rayleigh wave overtone. More generally, I also point out the fact that polarization anomalies reflect partly the anisotropy away from the station and that this usually complicates the azimuthal pattern observed at single stations.

  19. Barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions associated with planetary wave forcing of the northern stratospheric polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Castanheira, J. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    An analysis of the energy conversion of barotropic and baroclinic planetary waves for extended winter in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere is presented. The analysis is based on a three-dimensional normal mode expansion of the global circulation of the atmosphere (Castanheira et al. 2002; Liberato et al. 2007). This method allows separating the atmospheric circulation into planetary (Rossby) and inertio-gravity waves as well as characterising each type of wave by the respective zonal, meridional and vertical structures. The 3-D normal mode scheme further allows evaluating the contribution of each type of wave for the global total (i.e., kinetic + available potential) atmospheric energy. A brief overview of the normal mode energetics of the global atmospheric circulation is given, focusing on the energy conversions between barotropic and baroclinic components of different vertical and horizontal scales. The methodology is applied to the global NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Prediction / National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis data set, using extended winter (November to March) daily means of the horizontal wind components (u, v) and of the geopotential height, at the 17 standard pressure levels, with the spatial horizontal resolution available (2.5° regular grid) and spanning the period 1957-2008. Obtained results are then used to relate the variability of the stratospheric polar vortex to the variability of the energy of the forcing planetary waves. Barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions associated with planetary wave forcing of the northern winter polar vortex are finally analysed, during rapid stratospheric vortex decelerations and accelerations. Castanheira, J. M., H.-F. Graf, C. DaCamara, and A. Rocha, 2002: Using a physical reference frame to study global circulation variability. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 1490-1501. Liberato, M. L. R., J. M. Castanheira, L. da la Torre, C. C. DaCamara and L. Gimeno, 2007: Wave Energy Associated

  20. Wave influence on polar mesosphere summer echoes above Wasa. Experimental and model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalin, P.; Kirkwood, S.; Mihalikova, M.; Mikhaylova, D.; Wolf, I. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden); Hervig, M. [GATS Inc., Driggs, ID (United States); Osepian, A. [Polar Geophysical Institute, Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the wave activity in the Antarctic summer mesopause is performed using polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) measurements for December 2010-January 2011. The 2-day planetary wave is a statistically significant periodic oscillation in the power spectrum density of PMSE power. The strongest periodic oscillation in the power spectrum belongs to the diurnal solar tide; the semi-diurnal solar tide is found to be a highly significant harmonic oscillation as well. The inertial-gravity waves are extensively studied by means of PMSE power and wind components. The strongest gravity waves are observed at periods of about 1, 1.4, 2.5 and 4 h, with characteristic horizontal wavelengths of 28, 36, 157 and 252 km, respectively. The gravity waves propagate approximately in the west-east direction over Wasa (Antarctica). A detailed comparison between theoretical and experimental volume reflectivity of PMSE, measured at Wasa, is made. It is demonstrated that a new expression for PMSE reflectivity derived by Varney et al. (2011) is able to adequately describe PMSE profiles both in the magnitude and in height variations. The best agreement, within 30 %, is achieved when mean values of neutral atmospheric parameters are utilized. The largest contribution to the formation and variability of the PMSE layer is explained by the ice number density and its height gradient, followed by waveinduced perturbations in buoyancy period and the turbulent energy dissipation rate. (orig.)

  1. Wave disturbances in the polar ionosphere after a Vitim meteorite burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, V. D.; Ogloblina, O. F.; Tereshchenko, V. A.; Chernyakov, S. M.

    On September 24th, 2002, at 16:49 UT in the Mamsko-Chuisk region of the Irkutsk oblast of Russia it was a fall of a big meteorite. The fall was accompanied with light, acoustic, geomagnetic, seismic and mechanical phenomena which were recorded by ground and space means of observations. The meteorite has burst in the air at the altitude of 30 km with coordinates of the burst: 58.23 N, 113.46 E. After 17:00 UT there was recorded a sequence of small disturbances of the geomagnetic field and wavelike changes of amplitude of medium wave radioreflections at heights from 47 till 129 km in Tumanny (Murmansk oblast, Russia; 69.0 N, 35.7 E) which was situated at a distance of 4000 km from a place of the burst. It was gotten that after the burst three types of waves (magnetoacoustic, acoustic-gravitational and infraacoustic) spread in the polar mesosphere and lower ionosphere. Observable disturbances had periods of oscillations about 3-4, 5-6 and more than 9-10 minutes. A similarity characteristics of the wave indignations with analogous ones which were gotten earlier during investigations of effects of the Tungusk meteorite and the American space station "Skylab" falls and also a fact of a registration of a pressure wave on a net of microbarographs of PGI in Apatity permit to maintain that the source of the indignations in the polar ionosphere is the meteorite explosion. The hypothesis about wavequide spreading of atmospheric waves to large distance was confirmed.

  2. A transportable hybrid antenna-transmitter system for the generation of elliptically polarized waves for NVIS propagation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, Ben A.; Laanstra, Geert J.; van Maanen, Erik; Alsina-Pagès, Rosa M.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Slump, Cornelis H.; Schiphorst, Roelof

    2016-01-01

    For empirical research on Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) characteristic wave propagation, a beacon transmitter system is needed that can be programmed to emit precisely defined elliptically and circularly polarized waves at high elevation angles. This paper proposes a novel hybrid

  3. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  4. Transverse Field Dispersion in the Generalized Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation: Four Wave Mixing in a Higher Order Mode Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Cheng, Ji; Xu, Chris

    2013-01-01

    An improved version of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived, which takes into account the correct dispersion of the transverse field distribution. The new improved version of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is verified to give the same results as the standard...... implementation for a simple single mode soliton propagation example. As opposed to the standard implementation, the new implementation is able to reproduce pulsed four wave mixing observed experimentally in a higher order mode fiber....

  5. Rogue waves driven by polarization instabilities in a long ring fiber oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, S. A.; Kbashi, Hani; Sergeyev, Sergey

    2017-05-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical results of a study of a complex nonlinear polarization dynamics in a passively self-mode-locked erbium-doped fiber oscillator implemented in a ring configuration and operating near lasing threshold. The theoretical model consists of seven coupled non-linear equations and takes into account both orthogonal states of polarizations in the fiber. The experiment confirmed the existence of seven eigenfrequencies, predicted by the model due to polarization instability near lasing threshold. By adjusting the state of polarization of the pump and in-cavity birefringence we changed some eigenfrequencies from being different (non-degenerate state) to matching (degenerate state). The non-degenerate states of oscillator lead to the L-shaped probability distribution function and true rogue wave regime with a positive dominant Lyapunov exponent value between 1.4 and 2.6. Small detuning from partially degenerate case also leads to L-shaped probability distribution function with the tail trespassing eight standard deviations threshold, giving periodic patterns of pulses along with positive dominant Lyapunov exponent of a filtered signal between 0.6 and 3.2. The partial degeneration, in turn, guides to quasi-symmetric distribution and the value of dominant Lyapunov exponent of 42 which is a typical value for systems with a source of the strongly nonhomogeneous external noise.

  6. The MaCWAVE program to study gravity wave influences on the polar mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Goldberg

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically was a highly coordinated rocket, ground-based, and satellite program designed to address gravity wave forcing of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT. The MaCWAVE program was conducted at the Norwegian Andøya Rocket Range (ARR, 69.3° N in July 2002, and continued at the Swedish Rocket Range (Esrange, 67.9° N during January 2003. Correlative instrumentation included the ALOMAR MF and MST radars and RMR and Na lidars, Esrange MST and meteor radars and RMR lidar, radiosondes, and TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite measurements of thermal structures. The data have been used to define both the mean fields and the wave field structures and turbulence generation leading to forcing of the large-scale flow. In summer, launch sequences coupled with ground-based measurements at ARR addressed the forcing of the summer mesopause environment by anticipated convective and shear generated gravity waves. These motions were measured with two 12-h rocket sequences, each involving one Terrier-Orion payload accompanied by a mix of MET rockets, all at ARR in Norway. The MET rockets were used to define the temperature and wind structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Terrier-Orions were designed to measure small-scale plasma fluctuations and turbulence that might be induced by wave breaking in the mesosphere. For the summer series, three European MIDAS (Middle Atmosphere Dynamics and Structure rockets were also launched from ARR in coordination with the MaCWAVE payloads. These were designed to measure plasma and neutral turbulence within the MLT. The summer program exhibited a number of indications of significant departures of the mean wind and temperature structures from ``normal" polar summer conditions, including an unusually warm mesopause and a slowing of the formation of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE and noctilucent clouds (NLC. This

  7. Continuous wave protocol for simultaneous polarization and optical detection of P1-center electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, E. J.; Carvajal, B.; Samarth, N.

    2018-01-01

    The ready optical detection and manipulation of bright nitrogen vacancy center spins in diamond plays a key role in contemporary quantum information science and quantum metrology. Other optically dark defects such as substitutional nitrogen atoms (`P1 centers') could also become potentially useful in this context if they could be as easily optically detected and manipulated. We develop a relatively straightforward continuous wave protocol that takes advantage of the dipolar coupling between nitrogen vacancy and P1 centers in type 1b diamond to detect and polarize the dark P1 spins. By combining mutual spin flip transitions with radio frequency driving, we demonstrate the simultaneous optical polarization and detection of the electron spin resonance of the P1 center. This technique should be applicable to detecting and manipulating a broad range of dark spin populations that couple to the nitrogen vacancy center via dipolar fields, allowing for quantum metrology using these spin populations.

  8. Four-wave mixing using polarization grating induced thermal grating in liquids exhibiting circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, J.A.; Tong, W.G. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Chandler, D.W.; Rahn, L.A. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

    1995-04-01

    A novel four-wave mixing technique for the detection of circular dichroism in optically active liquid samples is demonstrated. When two cross-polarized laser beams are crossed at a small angle in a circular dichroic liquid a weak thermal grating is produced with a phase depending on the sign of the circular dichroism. The authors show that the polarization of one of the beams can be modified to allow coherent interference with an intensity-grating induced thermal grating. A probe beam scattering from the composite grating results in a signal that reveals the sign and magnitude of the circular dichroism. The use of this technique to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of scattered light and laser intensity noise is discussed.

  9. Scalable Background-Limited Polarization-Sensitive Detectors for mm-wave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostem, Karwan; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe A.; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin L.; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Marriage, Tobias A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report on the status and development of polarization-sensitive detectors for millimeter-wave applications. The detectors are fabricated on single-crystal silicon, which functions as a low-loss dielectric substrate for the microwave circuitry as well as the supporting membrane for the Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. The orthomode transducer (OMT) is realized as a symmetric structure and on-chip filters are employed to define the detection bandwidth. A hybridized integrated enclosure reduces the high-frequency THz mode set that can couple to the TES bolometers. An implementation of the detector architecture at Q-band achieves 90% efficiency in each polarization. The design is scalable in both frequency coverage, 30-300 GHz, and in number of detectors with uniform characteristics. Hence, the detectors are desirable for ground-based or space-borne instruments that require large arrays of efficient background-limited cryogenic detectors.

  10. Polarized Kink Waves in Magnetic Elements: Evidence for Chromospheric Helical Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangalini, M.; Giannattasio, F. [INAF-OAR National Institute for Astrophysics, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone (RM) (Italy); Erdélyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Jafarzadeh, S. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Consolini, G.; Ermolli, I. [INAF-IAPS National Institute for Astrophysics, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Criscuoli, S. [NSO, National Solar Observatory, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F., E-mail: marco.stangalini@inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95125 Catania (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, new high spatial resolution observations of the Sun's atmosphere have revealed the presence of a plethora of small-scale magnetic elements down to the resolution limit of the current cohort of solar telescopes (∼100–120 km on the solar photosphere). These small magnetic field concentrations, due to the granular buffeting, can support and guide several magnetohydrodynamic wave modes that would eventually contribute to the energy budget of the upper layers of the atmosphere. In this work, exploiting the high spatial and temporal resolution chromospheric data acquired with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope, and applying the empirical mode decomposition technique to the tracking of the solar magnetic features, we analyze the perturbations of the horizontal velocity vector of a set of chromospheric magnetic elements. We find observational evidence that suggests a phase relation between the two components of the velocity vector itself, resulting in its helical motion.

  11. Evaluation of polarization of embedded piezoelectrics by the thermal wave method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchaneck, Gunnar; Eydam, Agnes; Hu, Wenguo; Kranz, Burkhart; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Gerlach, Gerald

    2012-09-01

    This work demonstrates the benefit of the thermal wave method for the evaluation of the polarization state of embedded piezoelectrics. Two types of samples were investigated: A low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC)/lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensor-actuator and a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator. At modulation frequencies below 10 Hz, the pyroelectric response was governed by thermal losses to the embedding layers. Here, the sample behavior was described by a harmonically heated piezoelectric plate exhibiting heat losses to the environment characterized by a single thermal relaxation time.

  12. Bistable states of TM polarized non-linear waves guided by symmetric layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, D.

    1985-04-01

    Dispersion relations for TM polarized non-linear waves propagating in a symmetric single film optical waveguide are derived. The system consists of a layer of thickness d with dielectric constant epsilon 1 bounded at two sides by a non-linear medium characterized by the diagonal dielectric tensor epsilon 11 =epsilon 22 =epsilon 0 , epsilon 33 =epsilon 0 +α|E 3 | 2 , where E 3 is the normal electric field component. For sufficiently large d/lambda (lambda is the wavelength) we predict bistable states of both symmetric and antisymmetric modes provided that the power flow is the control parameter. (author)

  13. Degenerate four-wave mixing and polarization spectroscopy in NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Luigi; Fantoni, Roberta; Giorgi, Mariano

    2002-05-01

    Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) and polarization spectroscopy (PS) have been used to detect traces of nitric dioxide in a static cell at room temperature and in a small flame from a laboratory Bunsen burner. The high resolution spectrum of the Douglas-Huber band has been recorded with both techniques. The role played by population and thermal gratings in the DFWM case has been investigated under various experimental conditions. PS measurements performed with 'orientation' and 'alignment' configurations allowed to resolve NO2 composite spectral features.

  14. Role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun; Shu, Weixing; Fan, Dianyuan

    2010-01-01

    We establish a general vector field model to describe the role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space. As an analogy of the mechanical Magnus effect, the circularly polarized wave packet in our model acts as the rotating ball, and its rotation direction depends on the polarization state. Based on this model, we demonstrate the existence of an optical polarization-dependent Magnus effect which is significantly different from the conventional optical Magnus e...

  15. The MaCWAVE program to study gravity wave influences on the polar mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Goldberg

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically was a highly coordinated rocket, ground-based, and satellite program designed to address gravity wave forcing of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT. The MaCWAVE program was conducted at the Norwegian Andøya Rocket Range (ARR, 69.3° N in July 2002, and continued at the Swedish Rocket Range (Esrange, 67.9° N during January 2003. Correlative instrumentation included the ALOMAR MF and MST radars and RMR and Na lidars, Esrange MST and meteor radars and RMR lidar, radiosondes, and TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite measurements of thermal structures. The data have been used to define both the mean fields and the wave field structures and turbulence generation leading to forcing of the large-scale flow. In summer, launch sequences coupled with ground-based measurements at ARR addressed the forcing of the summer mesopause environment by anticipated convective and shear generated gravity waves. These motions were measured with two 12-h rocket sequences, each involving one Terrier-Orion payload accompanied by a mix of MET rockets, all at ARR in Norway. The MET rockets were used to define the temperature and wind structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Terrier-Orions were designed to measure small-scale plasma fluctuations and turbulence that might be induced by wave breaking in the mesosphere. For the summer series, three European MIDAS (Middle Atmosphere Dynamics and Structure rockets were also launched from ARR in coordination with the MaCWAVE payloads. These were designed to measure plasma and neutral turbulence within the MLT. The summer program exhibited a number of indications of significant departures of the mean wind and temperature structures from ``normal" polar summer conditions, including an unusually warm mesopause and

  16. Fermi wave vector for the partially spin-polarized composite-fermion Fermi sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Jain, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The fully spin-polarized composite-fermion (CF) Fermi sea at the half-filled lowest Landau level has a Fermi wave vector kF*=√{4 π ρe } , where ρe is the density of electrons or composite fermions, supporting the notion that the interaction between composite fermions can be treated perturbatively. Away from ν =1 /2 , the area is seen to be consistent with kF*=√{4 π ρe } for ν 1 /2 , where ρh is the density of holes in the lowest Landau level. This result is consistent with particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level. We investigate in this article the Fermi wave vector of the spin-singlet CF Fermi sea (CFFS) at ν =1 /2 , for which particle-hole symmetry is not a consideration. Using the microscopic CF theory, we find that for the spin-singlet CFFS the Fermi wave vectors for up- and down-spin CFFSs at ν =1 /2 are consistent with kF*↑,↓=√{4 π ρe↑,↓ } , where ρe↑=ρe↓=ρe/2 , which implies that the residual interactions between composite fermions do not cause a nonperturbative correction for spin-singlet CFFS either. Our results suggest the natural conjecture that for arbitrary spin polarization the CF Fermi wave vectors are given by kF*↑=√{4 π ρe↑ } and kF*↓=√{4 π ρe↓ } .

  17. ACCELERATING WAVES IN POLAR CORONAL HOLES AS SEEN BY EIS AND SUMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G. R.; Banerjee, D.; Teriaca, L.; Solanki, S.; Imada, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present EIS/Hinode and SUMER/SOHO observations of propagating disturbances detected in coronal lines in inter-plume and plume regions of a polar coronal hole. The observation was carried out on 2007 November 13 as part of the JOP196/HOP045 program. The SUMER spectroscopic observation gives information about fluctuations in radiance and on both resolved (Doppler shift) and unresolved (Doppler width) line-of-sight velocities, whereas EIS 40'' wide slot images detect fluctuations only in radiance but maximize the probability of overlapping field of view between the two instruments. From distance-time radiance maps, we detect the presence of propagating waves in a polar inter-plume region with a period of 15-20 minutes and a propagation speed increasing from 130 ± 14 km s -1 just above the limb to 330 ± 140 km s -1 around 160'' above the limb. These waves can be traced to originate from a bright region of the on-disk part of the coronal hole where the propagation speed is in the range of 25 ± 1.3 to 38 ± 4.5 km s -1 , with the same periodicity. These on-disk bright regions can be visualized as the base of the coronal funnels. The adjacent plume region also shows the presence of propagating disturbances with the same range of periodicity but with propagation speeds in the range of 135 ± 18 to 165 ± 43 km s -1 only. A comparison between the distance-time radiance map of the two regions indicates that the waves within the plumes are not observable (may be getting dissipated) far off-limb, whereas this is not the case in the inter-plume region. A correlation analysis was also performed to find out the time delay between the oscillations at several heights in the off-limb region, finding results consistent with those from the analysis of the distance-time maps. To our knowledge, this result provides first spectroscopic evidence of the acceleration of propagating disturbances in the polar region close to the Sun (within 1.2 R/R sun ), which provides clues to the

  18. Baryon spectroscopy with polarization observables from CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, Steffen [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The spectrum of nucleon excitations is dominated by broad and overlapping resonances. Polarization observables in photoproduction reactions are key in the study of these excitations. They give indispensable constraints to partial-wave analyses and help clarify the spectrum. A series of polarized photoproduction experiments have been performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). These measurements include data with linearly and circularly polarized tagged-photon beams, longitudinally and transversely polarized proton and deuterium targets, and recoil polarizations through the observation of the weak decay of hyperons. An overview of these studies and recent results will be given.

  19. Quantum mechanical systems interacting with different polarizations of gravitational waves in noncommutative phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anirban; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Saha, Swarup

    2018-02-01

    Owing to the extreme smallness of any noncommutative scale that may exist in nature, both in the spatial and momentum sector of the quantum phase space, a credible possibility of their detection lies in the gravitational wave (GW) detection scenario, where one effectively probes the relative length-scale variations ˜O [10-20-10-23] . With this motivation, we have theoretically constructed how a free particle and a harmonic oscillator will respond to linearly and circularly polarized gravitational waves if their quantum mechanical phase space has a noncommutative structure. We critically analyze the formal solutions which show resonance behavior in the responses of both free particle and HO systems to GW with both kind of polarizations. We discuss the possible implications of these solutions in detecting noncommutativity in a GW detection experiment. We use the currently available upper-bound estimates on various noncommutative parameters to anticipate the relative importance of various terms in the solutions. We also argue how the quantum harmonic oscillator system we considered here can be very relevant in the context of the resonant bar detectors of GW which are already operational.

  20. Eigenwave spectrum of surface acoustic waves on a rough self-affine fractal surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, George

    1994-01-01

    The propagation of a sound wave along a statistically rough solid-vacuum interface is investigated for the case of self-affine fractals. The wave-number relation ω=ω(k) is examined for the transverse polarized surface wave. The range of existence of this wave is analyzed as a function of the degree

  1. Polarization and Compressibility of Oblique Kinetic Alfvén Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunana, P.; Goldstein, M. L.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Laveder, D.; Zank, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that a complete description of the solar wind requires a kinetic description and that, particularly at sub-proton scales, kinetic effects cannot be ignored. It is nevertheless usually assumed that at scales significantly larger than the proton gyroscale rL , magnetohydrodynamics or its extensions, such as Hall-MHD and two-fluid models with isotropic pressures, provide a satisfactory description of the solar wind. Here we calculate the polarization and magnetic compressibility of oblique kinetic Alfvén waves and show that, compared with linear kinetic theory, the isotropic two-fluid description is very compressible, with the largest discrepancy occurring at scales larger than the proton gyroscale. In contrast, introducing anisotropic pressure fluctuations with the usual double-adiabatic (or CGL) equations of state yields compressibility values which are unrealistically low. We also show that both of these classes of fluid models incorrectly describe the electric field polarization. To incorporate linear kinetic effects, we use two versions of the Landau fluid model that include linear Landau damping and finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections. We show that Landau damping is crucial for correct modeling of magnetic compressibility, and that the anisotropy of pressure fluctuations should not be introduced without taking into account the Landau damping through appropriate heat flux equations. We also show that FLR corrections to all the retained fluid moments appear to be necessary to yield the correct polarization. We conclude that kinetic effects cannot be ignored even for krL Lt 1.

  2. Nonlinear waves in viscoelastic magnetized complex astroplasmas with polarized dust-charge variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papari Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonextensive nonthermal magnetized viscoelastic astrofluid, compositionally containing nonthermal electrons and ions together with massive polarized dust micro-spherical grains of variable electric charge, is allowed to endure weakly nonlinear perturbation around its equilibrium. The nonextensivity originating from the large-scale non-local effects is included via the Tsallis thermo-statistical distribution laws describing the lighter species. Assuming the equilibrium as a homogeneous hydrostatic one, the dust polarization effects are incorporated via the conventional homogeneous polarization force law. The perturbed fluid model evolves as a unique conjugate pair of coupled extended Korteweg-de Vries (e-KdV equations. A constructed numerical tapestry shows the collective excitations of a new pair of distinct classes of nonlinear mode structures in new parametric space. The first family indicates periodic electrostatic compressive eigenmodes in the form of soliton-chains. Likewise, the second one reveals gravitational rarefactive solitary patterns. Their microphysical multi-parametric dependencies of the eigen-patterns are illustratively analyzed and bolstered. The paper ends up with some promising implications and applications in the astro-cosmo-plasmic context of wave-induced accretive triggering processes responsible for gravitationally bounded (gravito-condensed astro-structure formation, such as stellesimals, planetsimals, etc.

  3. Nonlinear waves in viscoelastic magnetized complex astroplasmas with polarized dust-charge variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Papari; Karmakar, Pralay Kumar

    2018-01-01

    A nonextensive nonthermal magnetized viscoelastic astrofluid, compositionally containing nonthermal electrons and ions together with massive polarized dust micro-spherical grains of variable electric charge, is allowed to endure weakly nonlinear perturbation around its equilibrium. The nonextensivity originating from the large-scale non-local effects is included via the Tsallis thermo-statistical distribution laws describing the lighter species. Assuming the equilibrium as a homogeneous hydrostatic one, the dust polarization effects are incorporated via the conventional homogeneous polarization force law. The perturbed fluid model evolves as a unique conjugate pair of coupled extended Korteweg-de Vries (e-KdV) equations. A constructed numerical tapestry shows the collective excitations of a new pair of distinct classes of nonlinear mode structures in new parametric space. The first family indicates periodic electrostatic compressive eigenmodes in the form of soliton-chains. Likewise, the second one reveals gravitational rarefactive solitary patterns. Their microphysical multi-parametric dependencies of the eigen-patterns are illustratively analyzed and bolstered. The paper ends up with some promising implications and applications in the astro-cosmo-plasmic context of wave-induced accretive triggering processes responsible for gravitationally bounded (gravito-condensed) astro-structure formation, such as stellesimals, planetsimals, etc.

  4. A Study of the use of a Crystal as a `Quarter-Wave Plate' to Produce High Energy Circularly Polarized Photons

    CERN Multimedia

    Kononets, I

    2002-01-01

    %NA59 %title\\\\ \\\\We present a proposal to study the use of a crystal as a `quarter-wave plate' to produce high energy circularly polarized photons, starting from unpolarized electrons. The intention is to generate linearly polarized photons by letting electrons pass a crystalline target, where they interact coherently with the lattice nuclei. The photon polarization is subsequently turned into circular polarization after passing another crystal, which acts as a `quarter-wave plate'.

  5. Influence of tides and gravity waves on layering processes in the polar summer mesopause region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hoffmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE have been studied at Andenes (69° N, 16° E, Norway, using VHF radar observations since 1994. One remarkable feature of these observations is the fact that {during 50% of the time,} the radar echoes occur in the form of two or more distinct layers. In the case of multiple PMSE layers, statistical analysis shows that the lower layer occurs at a mean height of ~83.4 km, which is almost identical to the mean height of noctilucent clouds (NLC derived from observation with the ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar at the same site. To investigate the layering processes microphysical model simulations under the influence of tidal and gravity waves were performed. In the presence of long period gravity waves, these model investigations predict an enhanced formation of multiple PMSE layer structures, where the lower layer is a consequence of the occurrence of the largest particles at the bottom of the ice cloud. This explains the coincidence of the lowermost PMSE layers and NLC. During periods with enhanced amplitudes of the semidiurnal tide, the observed NLC and PMSE show pronounced tidal structures comparable to the results of corresponding microphysical simulations. At periods with short period gravity waves there is a tendency for a decreasing occurrence of NLC and for variable weak PMSE structures.

  6. Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y., E-mail: k.bliokh@gmail.com [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nonlinear Physics Centre, RSPhysE, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Nori, Franco [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2015-08-26

    We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin  angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin–direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.

  7. A New Method for Simulating Power Flow Density Focused by a Silicon Lens Antenna Irradiated with Linearly Polarized THz Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Apriono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A terahertz system uses dielectric lens antennas for focusing and collimating beams of terahertz wave radiation. Linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation has been widely applied in the terahertz system. Therefore, an accurate method for analyzing the power flow density in the dielectric lens antenna irradiated with the linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation is important to design the terahertz systems. In optics, ray-tracing method has been used to calculate the power flow density by a number density of rays. In this study, we propose a method of ray-tracing combined with Fresnel’s transmission, including transmittance and polarization of the terahertz wave radiation to calculate power flow density in a Silicon lens antenna. We compare power flow density calculated by the proposed method with the regular ray-tracing method. When the Silicon lens antenna is irradiated with linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation, the proposed method calculates the power flow density more accurately than the regular ray-tracing.

  8. Human responses to wave slamming vibration on a polar supply and research vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, H; Bekker, A

    2018-02-01

    A polar supply and research vessel is pre-disposed to wave slamming which has caused complaints among crew and researchers regarding interference with sleep, equipment use and research activities. The present work undertook to survey passenger claims of sleep interference, disturbed motor tasks and equipment damage as a result of wave slamming during normal operations of this vessel. The hypothesis was investigated that whole-body vibration metrics from ISO 2631-1 are potentially suitable for the prediction of human slamming complaints. Full-scale acceleration measurements were performed and wave slamming events were subsequently identified from the human weighted acceleration time histories. A daily diary survey was also conducted to gather the human response. The vibration caused by wave slamming was found to be strongly correlated with sleep disturbances and activity interference. Sleep and equipment use were found to be the most affected parameters by slamming. Daily vibration dose values were determined by accumulating the vibration as a result of slamming over 24 h periods. This metric accounted for increased magnitudes and frequency of slamming incidents and proved to be the best metric to represent human responses to slamming vibration. The greatest percentage of activities affected by slamming related to sleep regardless of daily cumulative VDV magnitude. More than 50% of the recorded responses related to sleep when the daily cumulative VDV ranged between 8.0 m/s 1.75 -10.0 m/s 1.75 . The peak vertical vibration levels recorded on the vessel reach magnitudes which are associated with sleep disturbance in environments where acoustic noise is present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering from spin-density-wave modulation in chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    We present a polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering in pure chromium. Satellite reflections are observed at +/-Q and +/-2Q, where Q is the modulation wave vector of an itinerant spin-density-wave. The first and second harmonics are confirmed to have magnetic and charge origin, respectively, by means of polarimetry without using an analyzer crystal. This alternative technique eliminates intolerable intensity loss at an analyzer by utilizing the sample crystal also as an analyzer crystal

  10. Analysis of the Influence of a Uniform Hydrometeorological Formation on the Polarization Characteristics of an Electromagnetic Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalov, E. V.; Krivin, N. N.; Eshchenko, S. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    The influence of a homogeneous medium filled with water droplets on the polarization structure of electromagnetic waves propagating in it, emitted in series with horizontal and circular (e.g., right-handed) polarization, is considered. An approach is proposed for estimating the influence of the resulting transformation of the polarization structure on the magnitude of the modified radar reflectivity, based on the use of the functional dependence of the components of the Jones vector on the angle of ellipticity and the tilt angle of the polarization ellipse. A distinguishing feature of the proposed approach consists in the relationships calculated using it for determining the modified radar reflectivity, obtained for the case of backscattering by the medium, where the orientation of the polarization basis of the medium is different from that of the measurement basis. Estimates of the modified radar reflectivity have been obtained, allowing one to determine regions with elevated values of this parameter.

  11. Simulating propagation of decomposed elastic waves using low-rank approximate mixed-domain integral operators for heterogeneous transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Jiubing

    2014-08-05

    In elastic imaging, the extrapolated vector fields are decomposed into pure wave modes, such that the imaging condition produces interpretable images, which characterize reflectivity of different reflection types. Conventionally, wavefield decomposition in anisotropic media is costly as the operators involved is dependent on the velocity, and thus not stationary. In this abstract, we propose an efficient approach to directly extrapolate the decomposed elastic waves using lowrank approximate mixed space/wavenumber domain integral operators for heterogeneous transverse isotropic (TI) media. The low-rank approximation is, thus, applied to the pseudospectral extrapolation and decomposition at the same time. The pseudo-spectral implementation also allows for relatively large time steps in which the low-rank approximation is applied. Synthetic examples show that it can yield dispersionfree extrapolation of the decomposed quasi-P (qP) and quasi- SV (qSV) modes, which can be used for imaging, as well as the total elastic wavefields.

  12. Spin-wave dynamics in Invar Fe65Ni35 studied by small-angle polarized neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brück, E.H.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Deriglazov, V.V.; Okorokov, A.I.; Dijk van, N.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. Spin dynamics in Fe65Ni35 Invar alloy has been studied by left-right asymmetry of small-angle polarized neutron scattering below TC=485 K in external magnetic fields of H=0.05-0.25 T inclined relative to the incident beam. The spin-wave stiffness D and the damping & were obtained by

  13. New continuous wave infrared Ar-Xe laser at intermediate gas pressures pumped by a transverse RF discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udalov, Yu.B.; Peters, P.J.M.; Ilieva, M.B.; Heeman-Ilieva, M.B.; Ernst, F.H.J.; Ochkin, V.N.; Witteman, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    An atomic Xe laser with a transverse rf excitation has been operated in a cw mode in the intermediate pressure regime. The laser output spectrum consisted of 5 Xe lines with wavelengths of 2.03, 2.63, 2.65, 3.37, and 3.51 μm. The unoptimized total output power of 330 mW was obtained for a gas

  14. Mapped Chebyshev Pseudo-Spectral Method for Simulating the Shear Wave Propagation in the Plane of Symmetry of a Transversely Isotropic Viscoelastic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Bo; Brigham, John C.; McGough, Robert J.; Greenleaf, James F.; Urban, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    Shear wave elastography is a versatile technique that is being applied to many organs. However, in tissues that exhibit anisotropic material properties, special care must be taken to estimate shear wave propagation accurately and efficiently. A two-dimensional simulation method is implemented to simulate the shear wave propagation in the plane of symmetry in transversely isotropic viscoelastic media. The method uses a mapped Chebyshev pseudo-spectral method to calculate the spatial derivatives and an Adams-Bashforth-Moulton integrator with variable step sizes for time marching. The boundaries of the two-dimensional domain are surrounded by perfectly matched layers (PML) to approximate an infinite domain and minimize reflection errors. In an earlier work, we proposed a solution for estimating the apparent shear wave elasticity and viscosity of the spatial group velocity as a function of rotation angle through a low frequency approximation by a Taylor expansion. With the solver implemented in MATLAB, the simulated results in this paper match well with the theory. Compared to the finite element method (FEM) simulations we used before, the pseudo-spectral solver consumes less memory and is faster and achieves better accuracy. PMID:27221812

  15. Design and performance of dual-polarization lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter-wave polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrick, H.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Abitbol, M. H.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bryan, S.; Day, P.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Flanigan, D.; Leduc, H. G.; Limon, M.; Mauskopf, P.; Miller, A.; Tucker, C.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: Lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) are an attractive technology for millimeter-wave observations that require large arrays of extremely low-noise detectors. We designed, fabricated and characterized 64-element (128 LEKID) arrays of horn-coupled, dual-polarization LEKIDs optimized for ground-based CMB polarimetry. Our devices are sensitive to two orthogonal polarizations in a single spectral band centered on 150 GHz with Δν/ν = 0.2. The 65 × 65 mm square arrays are designed to be tiled into the focal plane of an optical system. We demonstrate the viability of these dual-polarization LEKIDs with laboratory measurements. Methods: The LEKID modules are tested with an FPGA-based readout system in a sub-kelvin cryostat that uses a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The devices are characterized using a blackbody and a millimeter-wave source. The polarization properties are measured with a cryogenic stepped half-wave plate. We measure the resonator parameters and the detector sensitivity, noise spectrum, dynamic range, and polarization response. Results: The resonators have internal quality factors approaching 1 × 106. The detectors have uniform response between orthogonal polarizations and a large dynamic range. The detectors are photon-noise limited above 1 pW of absorbed power. The noise-equivalent temperatures under a 3.4 K blackbody load are 80%. The entire array is multiplexed on a single readout line, demonstrating a multiplexing factor of 128. The array and readout meet the requirements for 4 arrays to be read out simultaneously for a multiplexing factor of 512. Conclusions: This laboratory study demonstrates the first dual-polarization LEKID array optimized specifically for CMB polarimetry and shows the readiness of the detectors for on-sky observations.

  16. Conversion of terahertz wave polarization at the boundary of a layered superconductor due to the resonance excitation of oblique surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averkov, Yu O; Yakovenko, V M; Yampol'skii, V A; Nori, Franco

    2012-07-13

    We predict a complete TM↔TE transformation of the polarization of terahertz electromagnetic waves reflected from a strongly anisotropic boundary of a layered superconductor. We consider the case when the wave is incident on the superconductor from a dielectric prism separated from the sample by a thin vacuum gap. The physical origin of the predicted phenomenon is similar to the Wood anomalies known in optics and is related to the resonance excitation of the oblique surface waves. We also discuss the dispersion relation for these waves, propagating along the boundary of the superconductor at some angle with respect to the anisotropy axis, as well as their excitation by the attenuated-total-reflection method.

  17. Impact of interfacial imperfection on transverse wave in a functionally graded piezoelectric material structure with corrugated boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Santan; Kumari, Richa

    2018-03-01

    The propagation behavior of Love-type wave in a corrugated functionally graded piezoelectric material layered structure has been taken into account. Concretely, the layered structure incorporates a corrugated functionally graded piezoelectric material layer imperfectly bonded to a functionally graded piezoelectric material half-space. An analytical treatment has been employed to determine the dispersion relation for both cases of electrically open condition and electrically short condition. The phase velocity of the Love-type wave has been computed numerically and its dependence on the wave number has been depicted graphically for a specific type of corrugated boundary surfaces for both said conditions. The crux of the study lies in the fact that the imperfect bonding of the interface, the corrugated boundaries present in the layer, and the material properties of the layer and the half-space strongly influence the phase velocity of the Love-type wave. It can be remarkably noted that the imperfect bonding of the interface reduces the phase velocity of the Love-type wave significantly. As a special case of the problem, it is noticed that the procured dispersion relation for both cases of electrically open and electrically short conditions is in accordance with the classical Love wave equation.

  18. Circular polarization of gravitational waves from non-rotating supernova cores: a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis of the circular polarization of gravitational-waves (GWs) using results from three-dimensional (3D), general relativistic (GR) core-collapse simulations of a non-rotating 15M⊙ star. For the signal detection, we perform a coherent network analysis taking into account the four interferometers of LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, VIRGO, and KAGRA. We focus on the Stokes V parameter, which directly characterizes the asymmetry of the GW circular polarization. We find that the amplitude of the GW polarization becomes bigger for our 3D-GR model that exhibits strong activity of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Our results suggest that the SASI-induced accretion flows to the proto-neutron star (PNS) lead to a characteristic, low-frequency modulation (100 ˜ 200 Hz) in both the waveform and the GW circular polarization. By estimating the signal-to-noise ratio of the GW polarization, we demonstrate that the detection horizon of the circular polarization extends by more than a factor of several times farther comparing to that of the GW amplitude. Our results suggest that the GW circular polarization, if detected, could provide a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics such as the SASI activity and the g-mode oscillation of the PNS.

  19. Measurement of the transverse polarization of $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ hyperons produced in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smith, Matthew; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-02-10

    The transverse polarization of $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar\\Lambda$ hyperons produced in proton--proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is measured. The analysis uses 760 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$ of minimum bias data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC in the year 2010. The measured transverse polarization averaged over Feynman $x_{\\rm F}$ from $5\\times 10^{-5}$ to 0.01 and transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}$ from 0.8 to 15 GeV is $-0.010 \\pm 0.005({\\rm stat}) \\pm 0.004({\\rm syst})$ for $\\Lambda$ and $0.002 \\pm 0.006({\\rm stat}) \\pm 0.004({\\rm syst})$ for $\\bar\\Lambda$. It is also measured as a function of $x_{\\rm F}$ and $p_{\\rm T}$, but no significant dependence on these variables is observed. Prior to this measurement, the polarization was measured at fixed-target experiments with center-of-mass energies up to about 40 GeV. The ATLAS results are compatible with the extrapolation of a fit from previous measurements to the $x_{\\rm F}$ range covered by this mesurement.

  20. Two-dimensional s-polarized solitary waves in plasmas. II. Stability, collisions, electromagnetic bursts, and post-soliton evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Arriaga, G.; Lefebvre, E.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of two-dimensional s-polarized solitary waves is investigated with the aid of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Instead of the usual excitation of the waves with a laser pulse, the PIC code was directly initialized with the numerical solutions from the fluid plasma model. This technique allows the analysis of different scenarios including the theoretical problems of the solitary wave stability and their collision as well as features already measured during laser-plasma experiments such as the emission of electromagnetic bursts when the waves reach the plasma-vacuum interface, or their expansion on the ion time scale, usually named post-soliton evolution. Waves with a single density depression are stable whereas multihump solutions decay to several waves. Contrary to solitons, two waves always interact through a force that depends on their relative phases, their amplitudes, and the distance between them. On the other hand, the radiation pattern at the plasma-vacuum interface was characterized, and the evolution of the diameter of different waves was computed and compared with the ''snow plow'' model.

  1. Analysis of non-axisymmetric wave propagation in a homogeneous piezoelectric solid circular cylinder of transversely isotropic material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available piezoelectric cylinder via the FEM. Their paper contains tables and graphs of dispersion curves for real and imaginary values of wavenumbers. Unfortunately the data contains a misprint in a scale factor for the dimensionless wave number, making it quite... will be shown that for complete solution 3N = ), 2 1i = − , ω is the angular frequency, and k is the wavenumber (real for propagating and imaginary or complex for evanescent waves). After substitution Eqn. (4) in (3) and further in (2) and (1...

  2. Robust Likelihoods for Inflationary Gravitational Waves from Maps of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Eric Ryan; Watts, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background provides a unique window into tensor perturbations from inflationary gravitational waves. Survey effects complicate the estimation and description of the power spectrum on the largest angular scales. The pixel-space likelihood yields parameter distributions without the power spectrum as an intermediate step, but it does not have the large suite of tests available to power spectral methods. Searches for primordial B-modes must rigorously reject and rule out contamination. Many forms of contamination vary or are uncorrelated across epochs, frequencies, surveys, or other data treatment subsets. The cross power and the power spectrum of the difference of subset maps provide approaches to reject and isolate excess variance. We develop an analogous joint pixel-space likelihood. Contamination not modeled in the likelihood produces parameter-dependent bias and complicates the interpretation of the difference map. We describe a null test that consistently weights the difference map. Excess variance should either be explicitly modeled in the covariance or be removed through reprocessing the data.

  3. Polarization-independent terahertz wave modulator based on graphene-silicon hybrid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang-Liang, Du; Quan, Li; Shao-Xian, Li; Fang-Rong, Hu; Xian-Ming, Xiong; Yan-Feng, Li; Wen-Tao, Zhang; Jia-Guang, Han

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose and demonstrate a broadband polarization-independent terahertz modulator based on graphene/silicon hybrid structure through a combination of continuous wave optical illumination and electrical gating. Under a pump power of 400 mW and the voltages ranging from -1.8 V to 1.4 V, modulation depths in a range of -23%-62% are achieved in a frequency range from 0.25 THz to 0.65 THz. The modulator is also found to have a transition from unidirectional modulation to bidirectional modulation with the increase of pump power. Combining the Raman spectra and Schottky current-voltage characteristics of the device, it is found that the large amplitude modulation is ascribed to the electric-field controlled carrier concentration in silicon with assistance of the graphene electrode and Schottky junction. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61565004), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Grant Nos. 2013GXNSFDA019002 and 2014GXNSFGA118003), the Guangxi Scientific Research and Technology Development Program, China (Grant No. 1598017-1), the Guilin Scientific Research and Technology Development Program, China (Grant Nos. 20140127-1 and 20150133-3), and the Special Funds for Distinguished Experts of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

  4. Investigating of short period gravity waves using multi-beam experiments above Andenes in the polar summer mesopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, Gunter; Sommer, Svenja; Chau, Jorge L.; Latteck, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    In summer 2013 the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) conducted a multi-beam scanning experiment using 65 different beam directions. These systematic scanning experiments are analysed with respect to gravity waves with periods from 4 minutes up to 8 hours using polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) as tracer. The gravity waves are investigated by decomposing the wind field into a mean wind and superimposed tidal components (diurnal, semidiurnal and terdiurnal). After subtracting these mean winds and tides we get a residuum wind dominated by the gravity waves with periods shorter than 8 hours. Using this approach we have been able to identified significant wave burst, with amplitudes as high as 50 m/s and 10-20 m/s for the horizontal and vertical wind components, respectively. In addition, we have identified events that indicate the development of KH-instabilities.

  5. 1.9 W continuous-wave single transverse mode emission from 1060 nm edge-emitting lasers with vertically extended lasing area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. J., E-mail: jarez.miah@tu-berlin.de; Posilovic, K.; Kalosha, V. P.; Rosales, R.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kettler, T. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); PBC Lasers GmbH, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Skoczowsky, D. [PBC Lasers GmbH, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Pohl, J.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-10-13

    High-brightness edge-emitting semiconductor lasers having a vertically extended waveguide structure emitting in the 1060 nm range are investigated. Ridge waveguide (RW) lasers with 9 μm stripe width and 2.64 mm cavity length yield highest to date single transverse mode output power for RW lasers in the 1060 nm range. The lasers provide 1.9 W single transverse mode optical power under continuous-wave (cw) operation with narrow beam divergences of 9° in lateral and 14° (full width at half maximum) in vertical direction. The beam quality factor M{sup 2} is less than 1.9 up to 1.9 W optical power. A maximum brightness of 72 MWcm{sup −2}sr{sup −1} is obtained. 100 μm wide and 3 mm long unpassivated broad area lasers provide more than 9 W optical power in cw operation.

  6. Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun

    2014-08-06

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  7. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  8. SWRT: A package for semi-analytical solutions of surface wave propagation, including mode conversion, across transversely aligned vertical discontinuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a suite of programs that implement decades-old algorithms for computation of seismic surface wave reflection and transmission coefficients at a welded contact between two laterally homogeneous quarter-spaces. For Love as well as Rayleigh waves, the algorithms are shown to be capable of modelling multiple mode conversions at a lateral discontinuity, which was not shown in the original publications or in the subsequent literature. Only normal incidence at a lateral boundary is considered so there is no Love–Rayleigh coupling, but incidence of any mode and coupling to any (other mode can be handled. The code is written in Python and makes use of SciPy's Simpson's rule integrator and NumPy's linear algebra solver for its core functionality. Transmission-side results from this code are found to be in good agreement with those from finite-difference simulations. In today's research environment of extensive computing power, the coded algorithms are arguably redundant but SWRT can be used as a valuable testing tool for the ever evolving numerical solvers of seismic wave propagation. SWRT is available via GitHub (https://github.com/arjundatta23/SWRT.git.

  9. SWRT: A package for semi-analytical solutions of surface wave propagation, including mode conversion, across transversely aligned vertical discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Arjun

    2018-03-01

    We present a suite of programs that implement decades-old algorithms for computation of seismic surface wave reflection and transmission coefficients at a welded contact between two laterally homogeneous quarter-spaces. For Love as well as Rayleigh waves, the algorithms are shown to be capable of modelling multiple mode conversions at a lateral discontinuity, which was not shown in the original publications or in the subsequent literature. Only normal incidence at a lateral boundary is considered so there is no Love-Rayleigh coupling, but incidence of any mode and coupling to any (other) mode can be handled. The code is written in Python and makes use of SciPy's Simpson's rule integrator and NumPy's linear algebra solver for its core functionality. Transmission-side results from this code are found to be in good agreement with those from finite-difference simulations. In today's research environment of extensive computing power, the coded algorithms are arguably redundant but SWRT can be used as a valuable testing tool for the ever evolving numerical solvers of seismic wave propagation. SWRT is available via GitHub (https://github.com/arjundatta23/SWRT.git).

  10. Measurement of Single Spin Asymmetry in 3He↑(e, e'K±)X from a Transversely Polarized 3He Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuxiang [Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei (China)

    2015-05-01

    Spin-dependent observables are a powerful tool to probe the internal structure of the nucleon and to study the dynamics of the strong interaction. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure has provided us with many exciting and often surprising results. The so-called "spin crisis" in the 1980s revealed the limitation of naive quark-parton models and led to a worldwide effort to study the nucleon spin structure. However, this effort has been focused mainly on the nucleon's longitudinal spin structure. Recently, when the pioneer work revealed the significant role that transverse spin plays in understanding the full structure of the nucleon and in understanding the dynamics of the strong interaction, the study of the transverse spin structure became the new focus of the worldwide effort. Jefferson Lab (JLab) is located at Newport News, VA, US. It is equipped with the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF) and four experimental halls: A, B, C and D. The accelerator can provide a continuous electron beam (2 ns beam bunch) with high polarization (up to ~ 90%) and high current (up to ~ 200μA) for fixed target experiments in all experimental halls. Hall A consists of two standard high-resolution spectrometers (HRS): left HRS (LHRS) and right HRS (RHRS). Another spectrometer, the BigBite spectrometer, can be installed on request by certain experiments. The experiment E06-010 ("Transversity Experiment") at JLab Hall A is the first measurement of the transverse spin structure of the neutron using a transversely polarized 3He target and a 5.89 GeV incident electron beam. The experiment measured target single spin asymmetries (SSA) and beam-target double-pin asymmetries (DSA) in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) processes. It also collected inclusive hadron (pion, kaon and proton) production data parasitically. The scattered electrons were detected in the BigBite spectrometer with

  11. Analysis of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric wave propagation in a homogeneous piezoelectric solid circular cylinder of transversely isotropic material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available . In (Siao et al., 1994) the authors solved the problem of wave propagation in a laminated piezoelectric cylinder via the FEM. Their paper contains tables and graphs of dispersion curves for real and imaginary values of wavenumbers. Unfortunately the data... the logarithm of modulus of determinant (37) on the mesh ( )1 2 1 2, , 1 1, , ; 2 1, ,j jk j N j Nω = =… … (Shatalov et al., 2009). In those points where the real and imaginary parts of determinant (37) are close to zero substantial negative spikes...

  12. Energy flow characteristics of vector X-Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The vector form of X-Waves is obtained as a superposition of transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized field components. It is shown that the signs of all components of the Poynting vector can be locally changed using carefully chosen complex amplitudes of the transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization components. Negative energy flux density in the longitudinal direction can be observed in a bounded region around the centroid; in this region the local behavior of the wave field is similar to that of wave field with negative energy flow. This peculiar energy flux phenomenon is of essential importance for electromagnetic and optical traps and tweezers, where the location and momenta of microand nanoparticles are manipulated by changing the Poynting vector, and in detection of invisibility cloaks. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

  13. Mechanically Reconfigurable Single-Arm Spiral Antenna Array for Generation of Broadband Circularly Polarized Orbital Angular Momentum Vortex Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Zhou, Xiaoxiao

    2018-03-23

    In this paper, a mechanically reconfigurable circular array with single-arm spiral antennas (SASAs) is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate broadband circularly polarized orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex waves in radio frequency domain. With the symmetrical and broadband properties of single-arm spiral antennas, the vortex waves with different OAM modes can be mechanically reconfigurable generated in a wide band from 3.4 GHz to 4.7 GHz. The prototype of the circular array is proposed, conducted, and fabricated to validate the theoretical analysis. The simulated and experimental results verify that different OAM modes can be effectively generated by rotating the spiral arms of single-arm spiral antennas with corresponding degrees, which greatly simplify the feeding network. The proposed method paves a reconfigurable way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves with spin angular momentum (SAM) in radio and microwave satellite communication applications.

  14. Transverse correlations in multiphoton entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jianming; Rubin, Morton H.; Shih Yanhua

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the transverse correlation in multiphoton entanglement. The generalization of quantum ghost imaging is extended to the N-photon state. The Klyshko's two-photon advanced-wave picture is generalized to the N-photon case

  15. Reconfigurable micromachined antenna with polarization diversity for mm-wave applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, Mai O.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a novel MEMS antenna with reconfigurable polarization operating at 60 GHz is presented. This antenna can provide vertical linear polarization, horizontal linear polarization, left hand circular polarization (LHCP), or right hand circular polarization (RHCP) based on the states of the switches present in the feeding network. The proposed antenna is characterized by having its radiating elements isolated from the feeding circuitry via a ground plane without the need for wafer bonding or hybrid integration. Such advantage results in good electric performance while maintains low fabrication cost. The antenna parameters are optimized using HFSS and the results are cross-validated using CST. The good agreement between the two simulators, confirms that the proposed antenna enjoys attractive radiation characteristics for all polarization senses. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Development of Multi-chroic Millimeter-wave Polarization Sensitive Detector Arrays

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improved measurements of the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) will improve our understanding of both cosmology and fundamental physics....

  17. Transversity of quarks in a nucleon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The transversity distribution of quarks in a nucleon is one of the three fundamental distributions, that characterize nucleon's properties in hard scattering processes at leading twist (twist 2). It measures the distribution of quark transverse spin in a nucleon polarized transverse to its (infinite) momentum. It is a chiral-odd ...

  18. Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grison

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 RE cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.

  19. Connections Between the Spring Breakup of the Southern Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air-sea Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Oman, Luke David; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Hurwitz, Margaret H.; Molod, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    A robust connection between the drag on surface-layer winds and the stratospheric circulation is demonstrated in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Specifically, an updated parameterization of roughness at the air-sea interface, in which surface roughness is increased for moderate wind speeds (4ms to 20ms), leads to a decrease in model biases in Southern Hemispheric ozone, polar cap temperature, stationary wave heat flux, and springtime vortex breakup. A dynamical mechanism is proposed whereby increased surface roughness leads to improved stationary waves. Increased surface roughness leads to anomalous eddy momentum flux convergence primarily in the Indian Ocean sector (where eddies are strongest climatologically) in September and October. The localization of the eddy momentum flux convergence anomaly in the Indian Ocean sector leads to a zonally asymmetric reduction in zonal wind and, by geostrophy, to a wavenumber-1 stationary wave pattern. This tropospheric stationary wave pattern leads to enhanced upwards wave activity entering the stratosphere. The net effect is an improved Southern Hemisphere vortex: the vortex breaks up earlier in spring (i.e., the spring late-breakup bias is partially ameliorated) yet is no weaker in mid-winter. More than half of the stratospheric biases appear to be related to the surface wind speed biases. As many other chemistry climate models use a similar scheme for their surface layer momentum exchange and have similar biases in the stratosphere, we expect that results from GEOSCCM may be relevant for other climate models.

  20. Influence of High Speed Repetition of Pulsed Streamer Discharge Produced by Polarity-Reversed Traveling Wave on NO Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Eiji; Kadowaki, Kazunori; Nishimoto, Sakae; Kitani, Isamu

    This paper describes experimental results of NO removal from a simulated exhausted gas using a barrier-type plasma reactor subjected to reciprocal traveling wave voltage pulses. A pulse-forming cable was charged and then grounded at one end without any resistance, so that a traveling wave reciprocated along the cable with a change in its polarity because the traveling wave was negatively reflected at the grounded-end. Transient discharge light between point-plane electrodes with a glass barrier was observed using a gated image-intensifier. Photographs of the transient discharge light indicated that many streamer channels extended widely in the gap at the initial stage in the voltage oscillation, while only an intense discharge channel was observed at the latter stage. NO removal tests were carried out using the reciprocal pulse generator and a coaxial plasma reactor with a cylindrical glass-barrier. Results indicated that the discharges at the first and the second polarity reversals contributed largely to the oxidation reaction from NO into NO2, whereas the contribution of the subsequent discharges in the latter stage to NO removal was small.

  1. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E.; Gimeno, B.; Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J.

    2014-01-01

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE 11 circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored

  2. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E. [Departamento de Comunicaciones-iTEAM, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gimeno, B. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo-ICMUV, Universitat de València c/Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J. [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Edificio de Desarrollo Empresarial 9B, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE{sub 11} circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored.

  3. Excitation of Self-Localized Spin-Wave Bullets by Spin-Polarized Current in In-Plane Magnetized Magnetic Nano-Contacts: A Micromagnetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-08

    excitation of microwave spin waves.3,10,11 The analytical theory of spin-wave excitation in magnetic nanocontacts by spin-polarized current performed...linear theory ,3 the propagating spin- wave mode excited at the threshold is a cylindrical spin- wave with the wave vector kL=1.2/Rc and frequency L... Oersted magnetic field, and/or by any other small interaction, neglected in the micromagnetic model. To make the excitation of subcritical modes12,15

  4. Novel porous fiber based on dual-asymmetry for low-loss polarization maintaining THz wave guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Habib, Selim; Hasanuzzaman, G.K.M.

    2016-01-01

    to achieve an ultra-high birefringence. Besides, only circular air holes have been used to represent the structure, which makes the fiber remarkably simple. The transmission characteristics have been numerically examined based on an efficient finite element method (FEM). The numerical results confirm a high......In this Letter, we suggest a novel kind of porous-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) (to the best of our knowledge) for efficient transportation of polarization maintaining (PM) terahertz (THz) waves. We introduce an asymmetry in both the porous-core and the porous-cladding of the structure...

  5. Analysis of the multi-component pseudo-pure-mode qP-wave inversion in vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2014-08-05

    Multi-parameter inversion in anisotropic media suffers from the inherent trade-off between the anisotropic parameters, even under the acoustic assumption. Multi-component data, often acquired nowadays in ocean bottom acquisition and land data, provide additional information capable of resolving anisotropic parameters under the acoustic approximation assumption. Based on Born scattering approximation, we develop formulas capable of characterizing the radiation patterns for the acoustic pseudo-pure mode P-waves. Though commonly reserved for the elastic fields, we use displacement fields to constrain the acoustic vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) representation of the medium. Using the asymptotic Green\\'s functions and a horizontal reflector we derive the radiation patterns for perturbations in the anisotropic media. The radiation pattern for the anellipticity parameter η is identically zero for the horizontal displacement. This allows us to dedicate this component to invert for velocity and δ. Computing the traveltime sensitivity kernels based on the unwrapped phase confirms the radiation patterns observations, and provide the model wavenumber behavior of the update.

  6. Visualization of Longitudinal and Transverse Components of Strongly Focused Optical Field by means of Photo-Reactive Azopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharitonov A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most important problems in modern photonics are fabrication, visualization and characterization of nanomaterials at optical frequencies. A number of optical techniques uses tightly focused laser beams to access longitudinal electromagnetic fields, which are directed towards the wave vector. In this Letter, the distribution of transverse and longitudinal optical fields in tightly focused laser beams, polarized in a new fashion, is investigated. Polarization dependent fingerprints of transverse and longitudinal optical fields are experimentally captured by means of photoinduced surface deformations in azobenzene polymer thin films.

  7. Helicons in uniform fields. I. Wave diagnostics with hodograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    The wave equation for whistler waves is well known and has been solved in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates, yielding plane waves and cylindrical waves. In space plasmas, waves are usually assumed to be plane waves; in small laboratory plasmas, they are often assumed to be cylindrical "helicon" eigenmodes. Experimental observations fall in between both models. Real waves are usually bounded and may rotate like helicons. Such helicons are studied experimentally in a large laboratory plasma which is essentially a uniform, unbounded plasma. The waves are excited by loop antennas whose properties determine the field rotation and transverse dimensions. Both m = 0 and m = 1 helicon modes are produced and analyzed by measuring the wave magnetic field in three dimensional space and time. From Ampère's law and Ohm's law, the current density and electric field vectors are obtained. Hodograms for these vectors are produced. The sign ambiguity of the hodogram normal with respect to the direction of wave propagation is demonstrated. In general, electric and magnetic hodograms differ but both together yield the wave vector direction unambiguously. Vector fields of the hodogram normal yield the phase flow including phase rotation for helicons. Some helicons can have locally a linear polarization which is identified by the hodogram ellipticity. Alternatively the amplitude oscillation in time yields a measure for the wave polarization. It is shown that wave interference produces linear polarization. These observations emphasize that single point hodogram measurements are inadequate to determine the wave topology unless assuming plane waves. Observations of linear polarization indicate wave packets but not plane waves. A simple qualitative diagnostics for the wave polarization is the measurement of the magnetic field magnitude in time. Circular polarization has a constant amplitude; linear polarization results in amplitude modulations.

  8. Transverse spin dependent azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2011-01-01

    In semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on a transversely polarized target eight target transverse spin-dependent azimuthal modulations are allowed. In the QCD parton model half of these asymmetries can be interpreted within the leading order approach and the other four are twist-three contributions. The first two leading twist asymmetries extracted by HERMES and COMPASS experiments are related: one to the transversity distribution and the Collins effect, the other to the Sivers distribution function. These results triggered a lot of interest in the past few years and allowed the first extractions of the transversity and the Sivers distribution functions of nucleon. The remaining six asymmetries were obtained by the COMPASS experiment using a 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and transversely polarized deuteron and proton targets. Here we review preliminary results from COMPASS proton data of 2007.

  9. Retrieving mesospheric winds and gravity waves using high resolution radar measurements of polar mesospheric summer echoes with MAARSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, G.; Sommer, S.; Schult, C.; Chau, J. L.; Latteck, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) located at the northern Norwegian island of Andøya (69.3 ° N, 16° E) observes polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) on a regular basis. This backscatter turned out to be an ideal tracer of atmospheric dynamics and to investigate the wind field at the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) at high spatial and temporal scales. MAARSY is dedicated to explore the polar mesosphere at such high resolution and employs an active phased array antenna with the capability to steer the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis, which permits to perform systematic scanning of PMSE and to investigate the horizontal structure of the backscatter. The radar also uses a 16 channel receiver system for interferometric applications e.g. mean angle of arrival analysis or coherent radar imaging. Here we present measurements using these features of MAARSY to study the wind field at the MLT applying sophisticated wind analysis algorithms such as velocity azimuth display or volume velocity processing to derive gravity wave parameters such as horizontal wave length, phase speed and propagation direction. Further, we compare the interferometrically corrected and uncorrected wind measurements to emphasize the importance to account for likely edge effects using PMSE as tracer of the dynamics. The observations indicate huge deviations from the nominal beam pointing direction at the upper and lower edges of the PMSE altering the wind analysis.

  10. Evolution of the helicity and transversity Transverse-Momentum-Dependent parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokudin, Alexei [JLAB; Bacchetta, Alessandro [INFN-PAVIA

    2013-07-01

    We examine the QCD evolution of the helicity and transversity parton distribution functions when including also their dependence on transverse momentum. Using an appropriate definition of these polarized transverse momentum distributions (TMDs), we describe their dependence on the factorization scale and rapidity cutoff, which is essential for phenomenological applications.

  11. Plasmonic Dimer Metamaterials and Metasurfaces for Polarization Control of Terahertz and Optical Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu

    2013-01-01

    We explore the capabilities of planar metamaterials and metasurfaces to control and transform the polarization of electromagnetic radiation, and present a detailed covariant multipole theory of dimer-based metamaterials. We show that various optical properties, such as optical activity, elliptical...... dichroism or polarization conversion can be achieved in metamaterials made of simple shapes, such as nanorods, just by varying their geometrical arrangement. By virtue of the Babinet principle, the proposed theory is extended to inverted structures (membranes) where rods are replaced by slots. Such free...

  12. Probing the ionization wave packet and recollision dynamics with an elliptically polarized strong laser field in the nondipole regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J.; Willenberg, B.; Daněk, J.; Mayer, B. W.; Phillips, C. R.; Gallmann, L.; Klaiber, M.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Keitel, C. H.; Keller, U.

    2018-01-01

    We explore ionization and rescattering in strong mid-infrared laser fields in the nondipole regime over the full range of polarization ellipticity. In three-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions (3D PMDs) measured with velocity map imaging spectroscopy, we observe the appearance of a sharp ridge structure along the major polarization axis. Within a certain range of ellipticity, the electrons in this ridge are clearly separated from the two lobes that commonly appear in the PMD with elliptically polarized laser fields. In contrast to the well-known lobes of direct electrons, the sharp ridge is created by Coulomb focusing of the softly recolliding electrons. These ridge electrons are directly related to a counterintuitive shift of the PMD peak opposite to the laser beam propagation direction when the dipole approximation breaks down. The ellipticity-dependent 3D PMDs give access to different ionization and recollision dynamics with appropriate filters in the momentum space. For example, we can extract information about the spread of the initial wave packet and the Coulomb momentum transfer of the rescattering electrons.

  13. [Transversal problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Mendoza, A; Solano Reina, E

    1990-04-01

    In this worn we introduce the alterations of the occlusion in the horizontal level or transversal problems, in which lateral crossed bites appear, either with or without a deviation of the medium line, underlying its differential diagnostic and guide lines treatment through several different clinic cases.

  14. MECHANISMS OF PRIMARY RECEPTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES OF OPTICAL RANGE AS A BIOPHYSICAL BASIS OF POLARIZED LIGHT THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Hulyar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An existence of separate functional system of electromagnetic balance regulation has been substantiated and a working conception of light puncture has been formulated. As a basis, there is a possibility to use the acupuncture points for input of biologically necessary electromagnetic waves into the system of their conductors in a body that might be considered as a transport facility for energy ofthe polarized electromagnetic waves. Zones-recipients are organs having an electromagnetic disbalance due to excess of biologically inadequate radiation and being the targets for peroxide oxidation, foremost, a body has the neurohormonal and immune regulatory systems. Electromagnetic stimulation or modification of functions of the zones-recipients determines achievement of therapeutic and useful effects, and their combination with local reparative processes allows attaining a clinical goal. We represent own and literary experimental data about development of physiological responses (analgesia, bronchospasm control, immune stimulation and inhibition of peroxide oxidation of lipids to BIOPTRON-light exposure on the acupuncture points or biologically active zones. We show the experimental facts in support of a hypothesis that a living organism can perceive an action of the electromagnetic waves of optical range not only via the visual system, but also through the off-nerve receptors (specific energy-sensitive proteins detecting critical changes of energy in cells and functioning as the "sensory" cell systems, as well as via the acupuncture points. This confirms an important role of the electromagnetic waves of optical range in providing normal vital functions of living organisms. A current approach to BIOPTRON light therapy consists in combined (local and system exposure of the electromagnetic waves within the biologically necessary range.

  15. Dorsal stress fibers, transverse actin arcs, and perinuclear actin fibers form an interconnected network that induces nuclear movement in polarizing fibroblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maninová, Miloslava; Vomastek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 20 (2016), s. 3676-3693 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06405S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : actin dorsal fibers * cell polarity * nuclear reorientation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.902, year: 2016

  16. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turduev, M.; Bor, E.; Kurt, H.

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a/λ  =  0.280 and a/λ  =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25λ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  17. Platform for Manipulating Polarization Modes Realized with Jones Vectors in MATHEMATICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Dae Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental conception in physics of the propagation of the electromagnetic wave polarization in matter is newly understood as the cardinal keyword in free-space quantum communication technology and cosmology in astrophysics. Interactive visualization of the propagation mechanism of polarized electromagnetism in a medium with its helicity has accordingly received attention from scientists exploiting the protocol of quantum key distribution (QKD to guarantee unconditional security in cryptography communication. We have provided a dynamic polarization platform for presenting the polarization modes of a transverse electromagnetic wave, converting the state of polarization through the arrangement of optical elements, using Jones vectors calculations in Methematica. The platform graphically simulates the mechanism of production and propagation of the polarized waves in a medium while satisfying Maxwell's equations.

  18. Silicon photonic thermometer operating on multiple polarizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    A silicon photonics optical thermometer simultaneously operating on the multiple polarizations is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Measured sensitivities are 86pm/°C and 48pm/°C for the transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations, respectively.......A silicon photonics optical thermometer simultaneously operating on the multiple polarizations is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Measured sensitivities are 86pm/°C and 48pm/°C for the transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations, respectively....

  19. Transverse Oscillations in Slender Ca ii H Fibrils Observed with Sunrise/SuFI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadeh, S. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Solanki, S. K.; Gafeira, R.; Noort, M. van; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Knölker, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Schmidt, W., E-mail: shahin.jafarzadeh@astro.uio.no [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    We present observations of transverse oscillations in slender Ca ii H fibrils (SCFs) in the lower solar chromosphere. We use a 1 hr long time series of high- (spatial and temporal-) resolution seeing-free observations in a 1.1 Å wide passband covering the line core of Ca ii H 3969 Å from the second flight of the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. The entire field of view, spanning the polarity inversion line of an active region close to the solar disk center, is covered with bright, thin, and very dynamic fine structures. Our analysis reveals the prevalence of transverse waves in SCFs with median amplitudes and periods on the order of 2.4 ± 0.8 km s{sup −1} and 83 ± 29 s, respectively (with standard deviations given as uncertainties). We find that the transverse waves often propagate along (parts of) the SCFs with median phase speeds of 9 ± 14 km s{sup −1}. While the propagation is only in one direction along the axis in some of the SCFs, propagating waves in both directions, as well as standing waves are also observed. The transverse oscillations are likely Alfvénic and are thought to be representative of magnetohydrodynamic kink waves. The wave propagation suggests that the rapid high-frequency transverse waves, often produced in the lower photosphere, can penetrate into the chromosphere with an estimated energy flux of ≈15 kW m{sup −2}. Characteristics of these waves differ from those reported for other fibrillar structures, which, however, were observed mainly in the upper solar chromosphere.

  20. Electrically switchable photonic liquid crystal devices for routing of a polarized light wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushnova, Irina I.; Melnikova, Elena A.; Tolstik, Alexei L.; Muravsky, Alexander A.

    2018-04-01

    The new mode of LC alignment based on photoalignment AtA-2 azo dye where the refractive interface between orthogonal orientations of the LC director exists without voltage and disappeared or changed with critical voltage has been proposed. The technology to fabricate electrically controlled liquid crystal elements for spatial separation and switching of linearly polarized light beams on the basis of the total internal reflection effect has been significantly improved. Its distinctive feature is the application of a composite alignment material comprising two sublayers of Nylon-6 and AtA-2 photoalignment azo dye offering patterned liquid crystal director orientation with high alignment quality value q = 0 . 998. The fabricated electrically controlled spatially structured liquid crystal devices enable implementation of propagation directions separation for orthogonally polarized light beams and their switching with minimal crosstalk.

  1. Illuminating "spin-polarized" Bloch wave-function projection from degenerate bands in decomposable centrosymmetric lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2018-03-01

    The combination of space inversion and time-reversal symmetries results in doubly degenerate Bloch states with opposite spin. Many lattices with these symmetries can be constructed by combining a noncentrosymmetric potential (lacking this degeneracy) with its inverted copy. Using simple models, we unravel the evolution of local spin splitting during this process of inversion symmetry restoration, in the presence of spin-orbit interaction and sublattice coupling. Importantly, through an analysis of quantum mechanical commutativity, we examine the difficulty of identifying states that are simultaneously spatially segregated and spin polarized. We also explain how surface-sensitive experimental probes (such as angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, or ARPES) of "hidden spin polarization" in layered materials are susceptible to unrelated spin splitting intrinsically induced by broken inversion symmetry at the surface.

  2. Electron-spin filter and polarizer in a standing light wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Sven

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate the theoretical feasibility of spin-dependent diffraction and spin polarization of an electron in two counterpropagating, circularly polarized laser beams. The spin dynamics appears in a two-photon process of the Kapitza-Dirac effect in the Bragg regime. We show the spin dependence of the diffraction process by comparison of the time evolution of spin-up and spin-down electrons in a relativistic quantum simulation. We further discuss the spin properties of the scattering by studying an analytically approximated solution of the time-evolution matrix. A classification scheme in terms of unitary or nonunitary propagation matrices is used for establishing a generalized and spin-independent description of the spin properties in the diffraction process.

  3. Transverse myelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, M.J.; Motaghedi, B.; Robitaille, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Transverse myelitis is a known complication of radiation treatment for carcinoma of the heat and neck. In a five year period, 1970 to 1975, 120 patients with head and neck cancer received radiation as part of their treatment in this hospital. A review of the records of these patients showed only two cases of myelitis, an incidence of about 2%. This paper reviews the clinical syndrome; treatment and preventive measures are discussed and a survey of the literature is presented

  4. Parametric decay of linearly polarized shear Alfvén waves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matteini, L.; Landi, S.; Del Zanna, L.; Velli, M.; Hellinger, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, October (2010), L20101/1-L20101/5 ISSN 0094-8276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : numerical simulation * Alfvén waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.505, year: 2010

  5. Comparison between two alternative approaches for the analysis of polarization evolution of EM waves in a nonuniform, fully anisotropic medium. A magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    A comparison is made between two alternative approaches for the analysis of polarization evolution of em waves in a magnetized plasma. The two approaches are the Coupled Wave-Equation Formalism (CWF) and the Stokes Vector Formalism (SVF). After brief descriptions of the two formalisms the correspondence between them is spelled out. The two formalisms are then compared and their relative advantages and limitations are discussed [it

  6. The EUMETSAT Polar System - Second Generation (EPS-SG) micro-wave imaging (MWI) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkov, B. R.; Accadia, C.; Klaes, D.; Canestri, A.; Cohen, M.

    2017-12-01

    The EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) will be followed by a second generation system called EPS-SG. This new family of missions will contribute to the Joint Polar System being jointly set up with NOAA in the timeframe 2020-2040. These satellites will fly, like Metop (EPS), in a sun synchronous, low earth orbit at 830 km altitude and 09:30 local time descending node, providing observations over the full globe with revisit times of 12 hours. EPS-SG consists of two different satellites configurations, the EPS-SGa series dedicated to IR and MW sounding, and the EPS-SGb series dedicated to microwave imaging and scatterometry. The EPS-SG family will consist of three successive launches of each satellite-type. The Microwave Imager (MWI) will be hosted on Metop-SGb series of satellites, with the primary objective of supporting Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) at regional and global scales. Other applications will be observation of surface parameters such as sea ice concentration and hydrology applications. The 18 MWI instrument frequencies range from 18.7 GHz to 183 GHz. All MWI channels up to 89 GHz will measure V- and H polarizations. The MWI was also designed to provide continuity of measurements for select heritage microwave imager channels (e.g. SSM/I, AMSR-E). The additional sounding channels such as the 50-55 and 118 GHz bands will provide additional cloud and precipitation information over sea and land. This combination of channels was successfully tested on the NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed - Microwave Sounder (NAST-M) airborne radiometer, and it is the first time that will be implemented in a conical scanning configuration in a single instrument. An overview of the EPS-SG programme and the MWI instrument will be presented.

  7. A model for the Lin-Shu type density-wave structure of our Galaxy: Line-of-sight and transverse-longitudinal velocities of 242 optically visible open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griv, E.; Jiang, I.-G.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the fourth in a series, we examine again one of the implications of the Lin-Shu density-wave theory, specifically, the noncircular systematic motion of the Galactic objects. Our previous investigation is extended by analyzing simultaneously both the line-of-sight and transversal velocities of a sample of open clusters for which velocities, distances and ages are available. The ordinary equations of the Oort-Lindblad theory of galactic differential rotation are used. The minor effects caused by the two-dimensional tightly-wound density waves are also taken into account. The published data of 242 currently known optically visible clusters having distances rsight and transversal along the Galactic longitude velocities are nearly equal. We argue that the resemblance of these Galactic wave structures is so remarkable that no doubt is felt as to the theory's truth with respect to these data. The results obtained allow us to conclude that several low-m trailing density-wave patterns with different number of spiral arms m (say, m=1, 2, 3, and 4), pitch angles (about 5o, 8o, 11o, and 14o, respectively) and amplitudes of the perturbed gravitational potential may coexist in the Galaxy. The latter suggests the asymmetric multiarm, not well-organized (``flocculent'') spiral structure of the system. In memory of Professors Alexei M. Fridman (1940-2010) and Chi Yuan (1937-2008)

  8. Discrete ordinate solution of the radiative transfer equation in the 'polarization normal wave representation'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, A.

    1991-01-01

    The transfer equations for normal waves in finite, inhomogeneous and plane-parallel magnetoactive media are solved using the discrete ordinate method. The physical process of absorption, emission, and multiple scattering are accounted for, and the medium may be forced both at the top and bottom boundary by anisotropic radiation as well as by internal anisotropic sources. The computational procedure is numerically stable for arbitrarily large optical depths, and the computer time is independent of optical thickness.

  9. On the partial-wave analysis of mesonic resonances decaying to multiparticle final states produced by polarized photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Carlos W.; Weygand, Dennis P.

    2014-04-01

    Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) using photon beams. In particular this report broadens this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

  10. On the Partial-Wave Analysis of Mesonic Resonances Decaying to Multiparticle Final States Produced by Polarized Photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Carlos W. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weygand, Dennis P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

  11. Deuteron transverse densities in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Chakrabarti, Dipankar [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Zhao, Xingbo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-05-15

    We investigate the transverse charge density in the longitudinally as well as transversely polarized deuteron using the recent empirical description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in the framework of holographic QCD. The predictions of the holographic QCD are compared with the results of a standard phenomenological parameterization. In addition, we evaluate GPDs and the gravitational form factors for the deuteron. The longitudinal momentum densities are also investigated in the transverse plane. (orig.)

  12. Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions are of significance for the analysis of azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, as well as for the overall physical understanding of the distribution of transversely polarized quarks in unpolarized hadrons. In this context we also ...

  13. Polarization Characteristics Inferred From the Radio Receiver Instrument on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danskin, Donald W.; Hussey, Glenn C.; Gillies, Robert G.; James, H. Gordon; Fairbairn, David T.; Yau, Andrew W.

    2018-02-01

    The Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) on the CAScade, Smallsat, and Ionospheric Polar Explorer/enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (CASSIOPE/e-POP) satellite was used to receive continuous wave and binary phase shift keyed transmissions from a high-frequency transmitter located in Ottawa, ON, Canada during April 2016 to investigate how the ionosphere affects the polarization characteristics of transionospheric high-frequency radio waves. The spacecraft orientation was continuously slewed to maintain the dipole orientation in a plane perpendicular to the direction toward the transmitter, enabling the first in situ planar polarization determination for continuous wave and binary phase shift keyed modulated radio waves from space at times when the wave frequency is at least 1.58 times the plasma frequency. The Stokes parameters and polarization characteristics were derived from the measured data and interpreted using an existing ray tracing model. For the southern part of the passes, the power was observed to oscillate between the two dipoles of RRI, which was attributed to Faraday rotation of the radio waves. For the first time, a reversal in the rate of change of orientation angle was observed where the minimum in modeled Faraday rotation occurred. The reversal point was poleward of the point of closest approach between the satellite and transmitter; this was explained by the variations of total electron content and component of magnetic field along the direction of propagation. The received signals show both quasi-longitudinal (QL) and quasi-transverse characteristics. South of the transmitter the QL regime is dominant. Around the reversal point, a combination of QL and quasi-transverse nature was observed.

  14. Transverse feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelis, K; Sladen, Jonathan P H; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    The aim of these MD's was to set up the transverse feedback for damping in both planes, and to test the charge normalization and gain compensation. The latter is intended to reduce the gain of the feedback for small oscillations in order to improve compatibility with the Q loop. All work was done with 2 x 4 bunches, family A. In the first two MD's the feedback was set up for damping in both planes with charge normalization. In the third, gain compensation was commissioned in the vertical plane with Qv' set to -2. It was found either to increase the level of the m = 0 mode or to leave it unchanged. Under these conditions 6mA total current was accumulated.

  15. Transverse damper

    CERN Document Server

    Höfle, W

    2012-01-01

    Plans for the operation of the transverse damper in 2012 at bunch spacings of 50 ns and 25 ns and at increased collision energy will be reviewed. The increased energy and the experience that will be gained at 25 ns are very important to define any upgrades that may be necessary for the high luminosity operation at 7 TeV after LS1. This means that the available parameter space must be probed in 2012 which in particular includes a higher feedback gain in the ramp and with colliding beams. Limits for the feedback gain for the current system will be outlined. The potential benefits of running with higher feedback gain for a better emittance preservation will be stressed and weighed against the operational difficulties and the potential impact of noise in the damper system. A plan for re-commissiong at 50 ns and 25 ns for operation at 4 TeV will be outlined.

  16. Wave-particle dualism in matter wave interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron interferometry is a unique tool for investigations in the field of particle-wave dualism because massive elementary particles behave like waves within the interferometer. The invention of perfect crystal neutron interferometers providing widely separated coherent beams stimulated a great variety of experiments with matter waves in the field of basic quantum mechanics. The phase of the spatial and spinor wave function become a measurable quantity and can be influenced individually. High degrees of coherence and high order interferences have been observed by this technique. The 4π-symmetry of a spinor wave function and the mutual modulation of nuclear and magnetic phase shifts have been measured in the past. Recent experiments dealt with polarized neutron beams, which are handled to realize the spin-superposition of two oppositionally polarized subbeams resulting in final polarization perpendicular to both initial beam polarizations. The different action on the coherent beams of static and dynamic flippers have been visualized. Monolithic multicrystal arrangements in Laue position can also be used to achieve an extremely high energy (10 -9 eV) or angular resolution (0.001 sec of arc). This feature is based on the Pendelloesung interference within the perfect crystal. A transverse coherence length up to 6.5 mm is deduced from single slit diffraction experiments. (Auth.)

  17. Monitoring the distributed impact wave on a concrete slab due to the traffic based on polarization dependence on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Xiaoyi; Zhang Chunshu; Li Wenhai; Eisa, M; El-Gamal, S; Benmokrane, B

    2008-01-01

    For the first time to our knowledge, distributed impact waves due to the highway traffic on concrete slabs reinforced with FRP bars are monitored in real time using stimulated Brillouin scattering. The impact wave is caused by the traffic passing on the highway pavement at high speed (>100 km h −1 ), which induced pressure on the concrete slabs, and in turn created a local birefringence change, leading to variation of the local state of polarization change (SOP). The pump and probe waves of the stimulated Brillouin scattering 'see' the SOP change and react with a decrease of the Brillouin gain or loss signal, when the pump and probe waves have the same input polarization state. The frequency difference between the pump and probe waves are locked at the static-strain-related Brillouin frequency. Optical fiber was embedded throughout the concrete pavement continuously reinforced with FRP bars in Highway 40 East, Montréal, Quebec to detect impact waves caused by cars and trucks passing on these pavements at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. A spatial resolution of 2 m was used over a sensing length of 300 m

  18. Computational modelling of electrocardiograms: repolarisation and T-wave polarity in the human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Daniel E; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, electrophysiologists, cardiologists and engineers have studied the electrical activity of the human heart to better understand rhythm disorders and possible treatment options. Although the depolarisation sequence of the heart is relatively well characterised, the repolarisation sequence remains a subject of great controversy. Here, we study regional and temporal variations in both depolarisation and repolarisation using a finite element approach. We discretise the governing equations in time using an unconditionally stable implicit Euler backward scheme and in space using a consistently linearised Newton-Raphson-based finite element solver. Through systematic parameter-sensitivity studies, we establish a direct relation between a normal positive T-wave and the non-uniform distribution of the controlling parameter, which we have termed refractoriness. To establish a healthy baseline model, we calibrate the refractoriness using clinically measured action potential durations at different locations in the human heart. We demonstrate the potential of our model by comparing the computationally predicted and clinically measured depolarisation and repolarisation profiles across the left ventricle. The proposed framework allows us to explore how local action potential durations on the microscopic scale translate into global repolarisation sequences on the macroscopic scale. We anticipate that our calibrated human heart model can be widely used to explore cardiac excitation in health and disease. For example, our model can serve to identify optimal pacing sites in patients with heart failure and to localise optimal ablation sites in patients with cardiac fibrillation.

  19. Electron-ion temperature ratio estimations in the summer polar mesosphere when subject to HF radio wave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, H.; La Hoz, C.; Havnes, O.; Rietveld, M.

    2014-10-01

    We have inferred the electron temperature enhancements above mesospheric altitudes under Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) conditions when the ionosphere is exposed to artificial HF radio wave heating. The proposed method uses the dependence of the radar cross section on the electron-to-ion temperature ratio to infer the heating factor from incoherent scatter radar (ISR) power measurements above 90 km. Model heating temperatures match our ISR estimations between 90 and 130 km with 0.94 Pearson correlation index. The PMSE strength measured by the MORRO MST radar is about 50% weaker during the heater-on period when the modeled electron-to-ion mesospheric temperature is approximately 10 times greater than the unperturbed value. No PMSE weakening is found when the mesospheric temperature enhancement is by a factor of three or less. The PMSE weakening and its absence are consistent with the modeled mesospheric electron temperatures. This consistency supports to the proposed method for estimating mesospheric electron temperatures achieved by independent MST and ISR radar measurements.

  20. Localized instability on the route to disorder in Faraday waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Itamar; Cohen, Gil; Fineberg, Jay

    2010-05-07

    We experimentally investigate how disorder comes about in parametrically excited waves on a fluid surface (Faraday waves). We find that the transition from an ordered pattern to disorder corresponding to "defect-mediated turbulence" is mediated by a spatially incoherent oscillatory phase. This phase consists of highly damped waves that propagate through the effectively elastic lattice defined by the pattern. They have a well-defined frequency, velocity, and transverse polarization. As these waves decay within a few lattice spaces, they are spatially and temporally uncorrelated at larger scales.

  1. Stability of strong electromagnetic waves in overdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiras, F.J. (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Electrodinamica)

    1982-04-01

    The stability against small perturbations of a class of exact wave solutions of the equations that describe an unmagnetized relativistic cold electron plasma is considered. The main feature of these nonlinear waves is a transverse circularly polarized electric field with periodic amplitude modulation in the longitudinal direction. Floquet's theory of linear differential equations with periodic coefficients is used to solve the perturbation equations and obtain the instability growth rates. Both an approximate solution for small modulation depth and a numerical treatment for arbitrary depth are presented. It is shown that the well-known small-wavenumber instability of the purely transverse circularly polarized waves of constant amplitude is reduced as the modulation depth increases from zero to its maximum allowed value.

  2. The polarization observables T, P, and H and their impact on γp→pπ0 multipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hartmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on the polarization observables T, P, and H for the reaction γp→pπ0 are reported. Compared to earlier data from other experiments, our data are more precise and extend the covered range in energy and angle substantially. The results were extracted from azimuthal asymmetries measured using a transversely polarized target and linearly polarized photons. The data were taken at the Bonn electron stretcher accelerator ELSA with the CBELSA/TAPS detector. Within the Bonn-Gatchina partial wave analysis, the new polarization data lead to a significant narrowing of the error band for the multipoles for neutral-pion photoproduction.

  3. Spin-wave dynamics in Invar Fe sub 6 sub 5 Ni sub 3 sub 5 alloy studied by small-angle polarized neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, S V; Deriglazov, V V; Okorokov, A I; Dijk, N H V; Brück, E; Klaasse, J C P; Eckerlebe, H; Kozik, G

    2002-01-01

    Spin dynamics in Fe sub 6 sub 5 Ni sub 3 sub 5 Invar alloy has been studied by left-right asymmetry of small-angle polarized neutron scattering below T sub C =485 K in external magnetic fields of H=0.05-0.25 T inclined relative to the incident beam. The spin-wave stiffness D and the damping GAMMA were obtained by fitting the antisymmetrical contribution to the scattering. The spin-wave stiffness extrapolated by a (T/T sub C) sup 5 sup / sup 2 law to T=0 K is D sub 0 =117+-2 meVA sup 2 , which is somewhat smaller than the spin-wave stiffness obtained by triple-axis spectrometry. (orig.)

  4. [Sensory and electrical responses in stimulation of the macula with short-wave (407-527 nm) linear polarized light (Haidinger polarization brushes)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodt, E; Tsuyama, Y; Kuba, M

    1994-04-01

    We investigated Haidinger's (1844) entoptic polarization brushes of the macula psychophysically and electrophysiologically during rotation of plane-polarized blue (projected to a polarization screen. Psychophysically the sensitivity of the brushes was highest between 470 and 490 nm, with a steep decrease at longer wavelengths. Increase of adaptive illumination (I) above 0.1 cd/m2 increased the increment threshold (delta I) of the brushes between 407 and 515 nm about equally (delta I/I = 0.9). Comparison of the action spectrum of different photoreceptors with the spectral sensitivity of Haidinger's brushes suggested synergistic contributions of blue, green and red photoreceptors. A decrease in visual acuity to 0.01 by plus lenses did not affect the light threshold of the brushes significantly, while blurring by Bangerter foils increased the threshold markedly (about eightfold at visual acuity of 0.01). Thus, the determination of threshold of Haidinger's brushes provides the means of investigating certain macular functions behind, and widely independent of, opacities of the ocular media. While no retinal potentials (ERG) were seen during rotation of the polarizer, we obtained cortical potentials (VEP) closely related to the appearance of Haidinger's brushes in response to rotation onset of blue polarized light. The potential derived from Oz+Ol+Or consisted of a phasic negative response after a peak latency of 295 +/- 34 ms (N 295). Similar responses were also obtained to medium and long wavelengths (extrinsic windmill rotation during foveal fixation at stimulus conditions closely related to Haidinger's brushes: 3 degrees field, 2 cy/rev, 2 cd/m2, contrast 0.15). Thus VEP recording permits the comparison of entoptic and extrinsic excitation of the macula.

  5. Capsize of polarization in dilute photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, Zhyrair; Hakhoumian, Arsen; Gasparian, Vladimir; Cuevas, Emilio

    2017-11-29

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, polarization rotation effects in dilute photonic crystals with transverse permittivity inhomogeneity perpendicular to the traveling direction of waves. A capsize, namely a drastic change of polarization to the perpendicular direction is observed in a one-dimensional photonic crystal in the frequency range 10 ÷ 140 GHz. To gain more insights into the rotational mechanism, we have developed a theoretical model of dilute photonic crystal, based on Maxwell's equations with a spatially dependent two dimensional inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity. We show that the polarization's rotation can be explained by an optical splitting parameter appearing naturally in Maxwell's equations for magnetic or electric fields components. This parameter is an optical analogous of Rashba like spin-orbit interaction parameter present in quantum waves, introduces a correction to the band structure of the two-dimensional Bloch states, creates the dynamical phase shift between the waves propagating in the orthogonal directions and finally leads to capsizing of the initial polarization. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  6. Investigation of Transverse Oscillation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the axial component of the blood velocity vector, which is a significant limitation when vessels nearly parallel to the skin surface are scanned. The transverse oscillation method (TO) overcomes this limitation by introducing a transverse oscillat......Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the axial component of the blood velocity vector, which is a significant limitation when vessels nearly parallel to the skin surface are scanned. The transverse oscillation method (TO) overcomes this limitation by introducing a transverse...... II. A virtual linear array transducer with center frequency 7 MHz and 128 active elements is created, and a virtual blood vessel of radius 6.4 mm is simulated. The performance of the TO method is found around an initial point in the parameter space. The parameters varied are: flow angle, transmit...... focus depth, receive apodization, pulse length, transverse wave length, number of emissions, signal to noise ratio, and type of echo canceling filter used. Using the experimental scanner RASMUS, the performance of the TO method is evaluated. An experimental flowrig is used to create laminar parabolic...

  7. Progress in the analysis of non-axisymmetric wave propagation in a homogeneous solid circular cylinder of a piezoelectric transversely isotropic material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Every, AG

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available at www.sciencedirect.com Physics Procedia 00 (2009) 000?000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia International Congress on Ultrasonics, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, January 2009 Progress in the analysis of non-axisymmetric wave propagation in a...

  8. Anti-Lambda Polarization in High Energy pp Collisions withPolarized Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qing-hua; Liang, Zuo-tang; Sichtermann, Ernst

    2005-11-06

    We study the polarization of the anti-Lambda particle in polarized high energy pp collisions at large transverse momenta. The anti-Lambda polarization is found to be sensitive to the polarization of the anti-strange sea of the nucleon. We make predictions using different parameterizations of the polarized quark distribution functions. The results show that the measurement of longitudinal anti-Lambda polarization can distinguish different parameterizations, and that similar measurements in the transversely polarized case can give some insights into the transversity distribution of the anti-strange sea of nucleon.

  9. Transversity GPD in photo- and electroproduction of two vectormesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enberg, Rikard; Pire, Bernard; Szymanowski, Lech

    2006-01-17

    The chiral-odd generalized parton distribution (GPD), or transversity GPD, of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the photo- or electroproduction of two vector mesons on a polarized nucleon target, {gamma}{sup (*)}N {yields} {rho}{sub 1}{rho}{sub 2}N', where {rho}{sub 1} is produced at large transverse momentum, {rho}{sub 2} is transversely polarized, and the mesons are separated by a large rapidity gap. We predict the cross section for this process for both transverse and longitudinal {rho}{sub 2} production. To this end we propose a model for the transversity GPDH{sub T}(x,{zeta},t), and give an estimate of the relative sizes of the transverse and longitudinal {rho}{sub 2}cross sections. We show that a dedicated experiment at high energy should be able to measure the transversity content of the proton.

  10. Fabrication of Proton-Exchange Waveguide Using Stoichiometric LiTaO3 for Guided Wave Electrooptic Modulators with Polarization-Reversed Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Murata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical waveguides were fabricated on z-cut stoichiometric LiTaO3 (SLT by using the proton-exchange method. The surface index change for the extraordinary ray on the SLT substrate resulting from the proton exchange was 0.017, which coincided well with congruent LiTaO3 substrates. The proton exchange coefficient in the SLT was 0.25×10−12 cm2/s. The application of the SLT waveguide to a quasi-velocity-matched travelling-wave electrooptic modulator with periodically polarization-reversed structure is also reported.

  11. Physics-based formula representations of high-latitude ionospheric outflows: H+ and O+ densities, flow velocities, and temperatures versus soft electron precipitation, wave-driven transverse heating, and solar zenith angle effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Zeng, W.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive systematic dynamic fluid kinetic (DyFK) model simulations are conducted to obtain advanced simulation-based formula representations of ionospheric outflow parameters, for possible use by global magnetospheric modelers. Under F10.7 levels of 142, corresponding to solar medium conditions, we obtain the H+ and O+ outflow densities, flow velocities, and perpendicular and parallel temperatures versus energy fluxes and characteristic energies of soft electron precipitation, wave spectral densities of ion transverse wave heating, and F region level solar zenith angle in the high-latitude auroral region. From the results of hundreds of DyFK simulations of auroral outflows for ranges of each of these driving agents, we depict the H+ and O+ outflow density and flow velocity parameters at 3 R E altitude at the ends of these 2-h simulation runs in spectrogram form versus various pairs of these influencing parameters. We further approximate these results by various distilled formula representations for the O+ and H+ outflow velocities, densities, and temperatures at 3 R E altitude, as functions of the above indicated four ``driver'' parameters. These formula representations provide insight into the physics of these driven outflows, and may provide a convenient set of tools to set the boundary conditions for ionospheric plasma sources in global magnetospheric simulations.

  12. Electromagnetic cloaking devices for TE and TM polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilotti, Filiberto; Tricarico, Simone; Vegni, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of an electromagnetic cloaking device working for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations. The theoretical approach to cloaking used here is inspired by the one presented by Alu and Engheta (2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 016623) for TM polarization. The case of TE polarization is firstly considered and, then, an actual inclusion-based cloak for TE polarization is also designed. In such a case, the cloak is made of a mu-near-zero (MNZ) metamaterial, as the dual counterpart of the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material that can be used for purely dielectric objects. The operation and the robustness of the cloaking device for the TE polarization is deeply investigated through a complete set of full-wave numerical simulations. Finally, the design and an application of a cloak operating for both TE and TM polarizations employing both magnetic inclusions and the parallel plate medium already used by Silveirinha et al (Phys. Rev. E 75 036603) are presented.

  13. Measurement of Charmonium Polarization with the LHCb Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yanxi

    In particle physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory used to describe the interaction of colored particles. Heavy quarkonium is the bound state of heavy quark and its anti-quark, and its production cross section and polarization can be used to test the theory models in the framework of QCD. The computation of the heavy quarkonium production cross section by color singlet mechanism (CSM) underestimates the experimental measurements, while results from the calculation of non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD) can describe experimental data very well. However, the NRQCD predicts that the $S$ wave heavy quarkonium is heavily transversely polarized in the large transverse momentum region, which is contrary to experimental observations. LHCb, dedicated for precision measurement in bottom and charm physics, is one of the experiments located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHCb detector, which is a forward region spectrometer covering the pseudo rapidity range 2-5, has fine particle reconstruction and identi...

  14. Magnetodynamic waves in the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Alexander I.

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes experiments to search for a variable magnetic field close to a rechargeable conductive flat plate and a ball in the air, as well as an experiment looking for a variable electric field near a rotating permanent magnet. It has been found that variable electric and magnetic fields do not induce each other within the measurement error. It means that rotary Maxwell's equations are not applicable in the near-field zone and the classical concept of displacement current in vacuum (air) has no physical meaning. A conclusion is made on the existence of transverse magnetodynamic waves. Statics and dynamics of the magnetic field near the permanent magnet rod are investigated experimentally. The methods to compute magnetodynamic waves from any source are presented. Four types of polarization of these waves are identified: linear, circular, toroidal and mixed. Concentration and deflection of magnetodynamic waves are observed on introducing inhomogeneity in the form of a ferrite rod into their propagation way, which is similar to diffraction in optics. Secondary magnetodynamic waves from the induced magnetic moments in atoms of ferrite are registered near its surface, which is like reflection in optics. Some ideas for observation of effects similar to dispersion and interference are presented for magnetodynamic waves. The structure and properties of electrodynamic, magnetodynamic and electromagnetic waves are discussed. The ideas of experiments to search for their unknown properties are described. In conclusion, technical applications of magnetodynamic waves such as magnetography, magnetic tomography and other are considered.

  15. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...

  16. General description of transverse mode Bessel beams and construction of basis Bessel fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia Jie; Wriedt, Thomas; Lock, James A.; Jiao, Yong Chang

    2017-07-01

    Based on an analysis of polarized Bessel beams using the Hertz vector potentials and the angular spectrum representation (ASR), a general description of transverse mode Bessel beams is proposed. As opposed to the cases of linearly and circularly polarized Bessel beams, the magnetic and electric fields of a Bessel beam in a transverse mode are orthogonal to each other. Both sets of fields together form a complete set of basis Bessel fields, in terms of which an arbitrary Bessel beam can be regarded as a linear combination. The completeness of the basis Bessel fields is analyzed from the perspectives of waveguide theory and vector wave functions. Decompositions of linearly polarized, circularly polarized, and circularly symmetric n-order Bessel beams in terms of basis Bessel fields are given. The results presented in this paper provide a fresh perspective on the description of Bessel beams, which are useful in casting insights into the experimental generation of Bessel beams and the interpretation of light scattering-related problems in practice.

  17. Energy density and energy flow of surface waves in a strongly magnetized graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2018-01-01

    General expressions for the energy density and energy flow of plasmonic waves in a two-dimensional massless electron gas (as a simple model of graphene) are obtained by means of the linearized magneto-hydrodynamic model and classical electromagnetic theory when a strong external magnetic field perpendicular to the system is present. Also, analytical expressions for the energy velocity, wave polarization, wave impedance, transverse and longitudinal field strength functions, and attenuation length of surface magneto-plasmon-polariton waves are derived, and numerical results are prepared.

  18. A pseudo-spectral method for the simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates using domain decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidler, Rolf, E-mail: rsidler@gmail.com [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Carcione, José M. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante 42c, 34010 Sgonico, Trieste (Italy); Holliger, Klaus [Center for Research of the Terrestrial Environment, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.

  19. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  20. Efeito das dimensões da seção transversal e da frequência do transdutor na velocidade de propagação de ondas de ultra-som na madeira Effect of the transversal section dimensions and transducer frequency on ultrasound wave propagation velocity in wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Julio Trinca

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Diversas pesquisas vêm sendo realizadas com o uso da velocidade de propagação de ondas de ultra-som como parâmetro para estimar propriedades mecânicas da madeira. Tendo em vista que essa velocidade pode ser influenciada pela forma da peça ensaiada, bem como pela frequência do transdutor utilizado no ensaio, conhecer essas fontes de influência é fator importante para a obtenção de resultados confiáveis. Durante estudo mais amplo sobre a influência da dimensão do corpo-de-prova em ensaios destrutivos de compressão paralela às fibras, os corpos-de-prova de 0,03 x 0,03 x 0,09 m e de 0,05 x 0,05 x 0,15 m foram também utilizados para avaliar a variação da velocidade de propagação de ondas de ultrassom em razão da dimensão da peça ensaiada. Para a avaliação da influência da frequência, os ensaios foram realizados com transdutores de onda longitudinal (compressão de 25 kHz, 45 kHz, 80 kHz, 100 kHz, 500 kHz e 1 MHz, em 119 corpos-de-prova de Pinus elliottii e 244 de Eucalyptus grandis. Os resultados indicaram que, em ambas as espécies, a seção transversal exerceu influência na propagação da onda de ultrassom e que a velocidade longitudinal foi fortemente afetada pela frequência do transdutor para frequências abaixo de 500 kHz, corroborando a importância de sempre se adotarem, nos ensaios, relações de comprimento de percurso/comprimento de onda superiores a 3,0.Several works use the ultrasound wave propagation velocity as the main parameter to determine the mechanical properties of wood. Since this velocity can be influenced by the specimen's dimension or by the transducer's frequency, this influence must be known to obtain reliable results. During research on the influence of specimen dimension on destructive testing of the compression parallel to the grain, 0.03 x 0.03 x 0.09 m and 0.05 x 0.05 x 0.15 m specimens were tested to evaluate the variation in wave propagation velocity as a function of specimen dimension

  1. Binary sub-wavelength diffractive lenses with long focal depth and high transverse resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Di; Ou, Pan; Feng, Li-Shuang; Hu, Shu-Ling; Zhang, Chun-Xi

    2008-12-08

    This study explores two-dimensional binary sub-wavelength diffractive lenses (BSDLs) for implementing long focal depth and high transverse resolution based on the rigorous electromagnetic theory and the finite-difference time-domain method. Focusing performances, such as the actual focal depth, the ratio between the focal depth of the designed BSDL and the focal depth of the conventional sub-wavelength lens and the spot size of the central lobe at the actual focal plane, for different f-numbers, have been studied in the case of TE incidence polarization wave. The rigorous numerical results indicate that the designed BSDLs indeed have long focal depth and high transverse resolution by modulating the binary sub-wavelength characteristic sizes. Because BSDLs have the ability for monolithic integration and can require only single step fabrication, the investigations may provide useful information for BSDLs' application in micro-optical systems. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America

  2. Signatures of mode conversion and kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jay R.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that resonant mode conversion of compressional MHD waves into kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause can explain the abrupt transition in wave polarization from compressional to transverse commonly observed during magnetopause crossings. The authors analyze magnetic field data for magnetopause crossings as a function of magnetic shear angle (defined as the angle between the magnetic fields in the magnetosheath and magnetosphere) and compare with the theory of resonant mode conversion. The data suggest that amplification in the transverse magnetic field component at the magnetopause is not significant up to a threshold magnetic shear angle. Above the threshold angle significant amplification results, but with weak dependence on magnetic shear angle. Waves with higher frequency are less amplified and have a higher threshold angle. These observations are qualitatively consistent with theoretical results obtained from the kinetic-fluid wave equations

  3. Spin-Hall conductivity and electric polarization in metallic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui

    2013-02-21

    We predict theoretically that when a normal metallic thin film (without bulk spin-orbit coupling, such as Cu or Al) is sandwiched by two insulators, two prominent effects arise due to the interfacial spin-orbit coupling: a giant spin-Hall conductivity due to the surface scattering and a transverse electric polarization due to the spin-dependent phase shift in the spinor wave functions.

  4. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S; Jopson, R M; Gnauck, A H; Dinu, M; Xie, C; Winzer, P J

    2014-03-24

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all-optical signal processing approach to generate WDM-PCTWs enables a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach where each idler is generated by a dedicated transmitter. Digital coherent superposition of the twin waves at the receiver enables more than doubled reach in a dispersion-managed transmission link. We further study the impact of polarization-mode dispersion on the performance gain brought by the phase-conjugated twin waves, showing a gain of ~3.8 dB in signal quality factors.

  5. Scattering of linearly polarized Bessel beams by dielectric spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoorian, Hamed

    2017-09-01

    The scattering of a Linearly Polarized Bessel Beam (LPBB) by an isotropic and homogenous dielectric sphere is investigated. Using analytical relation between the cylindrical and the spherical vector wave functions, all the closed- form analytical expressions, in terms of spherical wave-functions expansions, are derived for the scattered field. It is shown that in the case of conical angle of incident Bessel beam is equal to zero, the Linearly Polarized Bessel Beam becomes a plane wave and its scattering coefficients become the same as the expansion coefficients of plane wave in Mie theory. The transverse Cartesian and spherical components of the electric field, scattered by a sphere are shown in the z-plane for different cases, moreover the intensity of the incident Bessel beam and the effects of its conical angle on the scattered field and the field inside the sphere are investigated. To quantitatively study the scattering phenomenon and the variations of the fields inside and outside of the sphere, the scattering and absorption efficiencies are obtained for the scattering of the linearly-polarized Bessel beam, and are compared with those of the plane wave scattering.

  6. Noninterceptive transverse-beam measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.; Minerbo, G.N.; Mottershead, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Totally noninterceptive techniques for accurate measurement of transverse beam distributions are required for high-current continuous wave (cw) linacs, such as the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator. Sensors responding to visible radiation from beam interactions with residual gas and computer algorithms reconstructing spatial and phase space distributions have been implemented. This paper reports on early measurements of the beam from the injector of the prototype FMIT facility at Los Alamos. The first section indicates hardware setup and performance whereas the second section describes the data-processing software. The third section outlines the resultant measurements and further developments are discussed in the fourth section

  7. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all......-optical signal processing approach to generate WDM-PCTWs enables a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach where each idler is generated by a dedicated transmitter. Digital coherent superposition of the twin waves at the receiver enables more than doubled...

  8. Polarization characteristics of standing wave electromagnetic fields at the ionospheric Alfvén resonator lower harmonics: altitude profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prikner, Karel; Feygin, F. Z.; Raita, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2014), s. 338-341 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : ionospheric Alfvén resonator * EMIC waves * EISCAT measurements Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  9. Broadband asymmetric waveguiding of light without polarization limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Gu, Chendong; Hou, Bo; Lai, Yun; Li, Jensen; Chen, Huanyang

    2013-01-01

    Optical diodes are fundamental elements for optical computing and information processing. Attempts to realize such non-reciprocal propagation of light by breaking the time-reversal symmetry include using indirect interband photonic transitions, the magneto-optical effect, optical nonlinearity or photonic crystals. Alternatively, asymmetric reciprocal transmission of light has been proposed in photonic metamaterial structures for either circularly or linearly polarized waves. Here we employ the recent concept of gradient index metamaterials to demonstrate a waveguide with asymmetric propagation of light, independent of polarization. The device blocks both transverse electric and magnetic polarized modes in one direction but transmits them in the other for a broadband spectrum. Unlike previous works using chiral properties of metamaterials, our device is based on the principle of momentum symmetry breaking at interfaces with phase discontinuities. Experiments in the microwave region verify our findings, which may pave the way to feasible passive optical diodes.

  10. Effect of a radial space-charge field on the movement of particles in a magneto-static field and under the influence of a circularly polarized wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffa, A.

    1967-06-01

    The effect of a circularly polarized wave on a cylindrical plasma in a axial magnetostatic field and a radial space-charge field proportional to r is studied. Single particle motion is considered. The electrostatic field produces a shift in the cyclotron resonance frequency and,in case of high charge density, a radial movement of the off-resonance particles. In these conditions a radio-frequency-particle resonance is also possible called 'drift-resonance'. The drift resonance can be produced, with whistler mode, and may be employed in ion acceleration. Afterwards parametrical resonances produced by space-charge field oscillations and collisional limits of theory are studied. Cases in which ion acceleration is possible are considered on the basis of a quantitative analysis of results. (author) [fr

  11. The measurement of the gluon polarization by the production of hadron pairs with large transverse momenta in deep inelastic muon scattering on the nucleon; Die Messung der Gluonpolarisation durch die Produktion von Hadronpaaren mit grossen Transversalimpulsen in tiefinelastischer Myonstreuung am Nukleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Roman

    2009-09-05

    The spin structure of the nucleon is investigated at the COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS using polarized muons scattering off polarized nucleons. The contribution of the quarks to nucleon spin, as measured in the inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, is not sufficient to explain the spin of the nucleon. Thus it has to be clarified how the gluon polarization and the angular momenta of quarks and gluons contribute to the spin of the nucleon. Since the gluon polarization can only be estimated from the Q{sup 2}-dependence of inclusive deep inelastic asymmetries, a direct measurement of the gluon polarization is mandatory. The COMPASS collaboration determines the gluon polarization from cross section asymmetries in photon-gluon fusion processes using open charm production or the production of hadron pairs with large transverse momenta. This thesis presents a measurement of the gluon polarization using the COMPASS data of the years 2003 and 2004. The events with large virtuality, Q{sup 2}>1 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}, and hadron pairs with large transverse momenta, p perpendicular to > 0.7 GeV/c have been used in the analysis. The photon-nucleon asymmetry was determined by using a weighted double ratio method of the selected events. The cut on p perpendicular to > 0.7 GeV/c suppresses leading order processes, so that the obtained asymmetry can be directly linked to the gluon polarization, if the analyzing power and the photon-gluon fusion fraction is known. The measured value is very small and compatible with a vanishing gluon polarization. To avoid false asymmetries, which could be caused by a change of the detector acceptances double ratios were analyzed, where the cross section cancels, and only detector asymmetries remain. It is shown that the COMPASS spectrometer was stable during the time of data taking. For the computation of the analyzing power Monte Carlo events were generated using the LEPTO and the COMGeant software packages. In this context a good MC description

  12. Two-day Planetary Wave Impact on Austral Polar Mesopause Temperatures: as Revealed by a January Diminution in PMSE above Davis, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. J.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Murphy, D. J.; Holdsworth, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    A new characteristic of the austral summer polar mesopause as revealed by ground MST radar charged ice- aerosol echoes and satellite MLS temperature is reported, that is plausibly linked to the low-latitude easterly wind jet. Four consecutive seasons of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) and mesosphere temperature observations above Davis, Antarctica (geographic: 68.6°S; 78.0°N) exhibit an annual mid-January diminution in PMSE occurrence rate that is correlated with a simultaneous mesopause warming by several degrees. Interestingly, the corresponding mesosphere meridional wind field changes from equatorward to a poleward flow at these times. Although displaying some inter-annual variation in the peak onset time, the mid-January mesopause warming correlates with the peak in the line-of-sight meridional wind and temperature enhancements (both poleward and in altitude) associated with the low-latitude 2-day planetary wave (PW). Periodogram analyses of PMSE and Aura MLS temperatures show the dominance of 5- day PWs throughout the austral summer coupled with pronounced 2-day PWs evident from early January to mid-February. Zonal spectral analyses of Aura MLS temperature records reveal the high-latitude 2-day PWs have zonal wavenumber (s) with both westward (s = -2, -3) and eastward (s = 2, 3) spectral features consistent with the periodogram results. Our polar observations support the evolution of a myriad of prodigy PWs spawned from the westward 2-day PW (s = -3) activity, originating from the low-latitude easterly jet, albeit not previously linked to the reported mid-January diminution of PMSE at southern latitudes.

  13. Jordan Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, R. D.; Xicoténcatl, M. A.; Granados, V. D.

    2004-02-01

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  14. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, R D [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de IngenierIa y TecnologIas Avanzadas, IPN. Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Xicotencatl, M A [Departamento de Matematicas del Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF, 07000 (Mexico); Granados, V D [Escuela Superior de FIsica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-02-20

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  15. Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.

  16. Polarizing color filter based on a subwavelength metal-dielectric grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yan; Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Heng; Chen, Linsen

    2011-04-01

    We propose a polarizing color filter based on a one-dimensional subwavelength metal-dielectric grating combining the functions of a polarizer and a color filter. The proposed device consists of three parts: a substrate, a dielectric grating, and a metal grating. The effects of the dielectric grating and the metal grating are investigated in detail by rigorous coupled-wave analysis. Performance is enhanced effectively by utilizing a dielectric grating of high equivalent refractive index. Typical optimized structural parameters are obtained, in which more than 72.6% broadband transmission with >21 dB polarization extinction ratio are simultaneously achieved for a tricolor filter. For transverse electric (TE) polarized light, its reflection efficiency is more than 71.8% in the broad passband light range, which can be recycled by rotating the TE polarization in part into transverse magnetic polarization and reimpinging on the designed device to increase the total energy efficiency. Numerical results show that peak transmission efficiency (PTE) is increased by at least 12.9% using recycled TE-polarized light. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. `Number States' and `Pilot Waves' Hidden in Maxwell's Classical Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John E.

    2010-12-01

    Schrödingers equation with boundary conditions gives quantized energy states for electron waves, but Maxwell's wave equations have quantized states only by analogies with harmonic oscillators. This problem is addressed by a novel theory of wave-packets using diffracting Transverse Electric and Transverse Magnetic fields defined by axial H- and E-fields. All transverse fields and gradient operators can together be rotated about the propagation axis at frequencies, independent of the modal frequency. Without altering the axial fields, any helical motion propagates at the group velocity. This is quite different from single frequency helical modes (e.g. Laguerre Gaussian) travelling at the phase velocity. Reversing time and frequency, allows counter rotating helical solutions. These are referred to as adjoint or a fields that may interact and propagate with the classical causal reference or r fields. Overlapping and counter rotating r and a fields with slightly different frequencies interfere, leaving circular polarization states unaltered and creating a nodal structure in the transverse fields distinct from the nodal structure in the axial fields. Number states arise from requiring that transverse and axial nodes co-locate with integral spacings to form a wave-packet,. The a fields act as pilot waves for future potential positions of a quantized interaction between r and a fields. Uncertainty in the position of the overlap leads to conventional probabilistic quantum interpretations. The a fields are not fully determined until their detection with the r wave and this late determination can offer explanations for non-local entanglement.

  18. DESY: HERA polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization

  19. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves through polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplification enabling transmission over 4000-km dispersion-managed TWRS fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the first Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin waves, consisting of eight 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optical parametric amplifier, enabling more than doubled reach in dispersion-managed transmission...

  20. Radio wave propagation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field of the solar corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyakov, V.V.; Zlotnik, E.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    Various types of linear coupling between ordinary and extra-ordinary waves in the coronal plasma with the inhomogeneous magnetic field and the effect of this phenomenon upon the polarization characteristics of solar radio emission are considered. A qualitative analysis of the wave equation indicates that in a rarefied plasma the coupling effects can be displayed in a sufficiently weak magnetic field or at the angles between the magnetic field and the direction of wave propagation close enough to zero or π/2. The wave coupling parameter are found for these three cases. The radio wave propagation through the region with a quasi-transverse magnetic field and through the neutral current sheet is discussed more in detail. A qualitative picture of coupling in such a layer is supported by a numerical solution of the ''quasi-isotropic approximation'' equations. The role of the coupling effects in formation of polarization characteristics of different components of solar radio emission has been investigated. For cm wave range, the polarization is essentially dependent on the conditions in the region of the transverse magnetic field

  1. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...... non-linear fracture mechanics. The results indicated a good correlation between theory and tests. Furthermore, the model is suggested as theoretical base for determining load capacity of bonded anchorages with transverse pressure, in externally reinforced concrete structures....

  2. Polarized proton collider at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S.Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W.W. E-mail: mackay@bnl.govhttp://www.rhichome.bnl.gov/People/waldowaldo@bnl.gov; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.N

    2003-03-01

    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998, reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to {radical}s=500 GeV.

  3. Polarization in electron and proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1986-03-01

    One first introduces the concept of polarization for spin 1/2 particle beams and discusses properties of spin kinetics in a stationary magnetic field. Then the acceleration of polarized protons in synchrotrons is studied with emphasis on depolarization when resonances are crossed and on the cures for reducing it. Finally, transverse polarization of electrons in storage rings is discussed as an equilibrium between polarizing and depolarizing effects of synchrotron radiation. Means for obtaining longitudinal polarization are also treated

  4. A case study of gravity wave dissipation in the polar MLT region using sodium LIDAR and radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Takahashi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily concerned with an event observed from 16:30 to 24:30 UT on 29 October 2010 during a very geomagnetically quiet interval (Kp ≤ 1. The sodium LIDAR observations conducted at Tromsø, Norway (69.6° N, 19.2° E captured a clearly discernible gravity wave (GW signature. Derived vertical and horizontal wavelengths, maximum amplitude, apparent and intrinsic period, and horizontal phase velocity were about ~ 11.9 km, ~ 1.38 × 103 km, ~ 15 K, 4 h, ~ 7.7 h, and ~ 96 m s−1, respectively, between a height of 80 and 95 km. Of particular interest is a temporal development of the uppermost altitude that the GW reached. The GW disappeared around 95 km height between 16:30 and 21:00 UT, while after 21:00 UT the GW appeared to propagate to higher altitudes (above 100 km. We have evaluated three mechanisms (critical-level filtering, convective and dynamic instabilities for dissipations using data obtained by the sodium LIDAR and a meteor radar. It is found that critical-level filtering did not occur, and the convective and dynamic instabilities occurred on some occasions. MF radar echo power showed significant enhancements between 18:30 and 21:00 UT, and an overturning feature of the sodium mixing ratio was observed between 18:30 and 21:20 UT above about 95 km. From these results, we have concluded that the GW was dissipated by wave breaking and instabilities before 21:00 UT. We have also investigated the difference of the background atmosphere for the two intervals and would suggest that a probable cause of the change in the GW propagation was due to the difference in the temperature gradient of the background atmosphere above 94 km.

  5. Spatial profiles of electron and metastable atom densities in positive polarity fast ionization waves sustained in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherford, Brandon R.; Barnat, E. V.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3 × 10 9  cm s −1 , depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.

  6. Transverse beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N

    2006-01-01

    This contribution describes the transverse dynamics of particles in a synchrotron. It builds on other contributions to the General Accelerator School for definitions of transport matrices and lattice functions. After a discussion of the conservation laws which govern emittance, the effects of closed orbit distortion and other field errors are treated. A number of practical methods of measuring the transverse behaviour of particles are outlined.

  7. Fundamentals of wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2010-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.

  8. Topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shao-Yong; Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Huang, Hong-Bo

    2018-04-01

    Topological phononic insulators (TPnIs) show promise for application in the manipulation of acoustic waves for the design of low-loss transmission and perfectly integrated communication devices. Since solid phononic crystals exist as a transverse polarization mode and a mixed longitudinal-transverse polarization mode, the realization of topological edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is desirable to enhance the controllability of the edge waves in solid systems. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) solid/solid hexagonal-latticed phononic system that simultaneously supports the topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is investigated. Firstly, two pairs of two-fold Dirac cones, respectively corresponding to the out-of-plane and in-plane waves, are obtained at the same frequency by tuning the crystal parameters. Then, a strategy of zone folding is invoked to form double Dirac cones. By shrinking and expanding the steel scatterer, the lattice symmetry is broken, and band inversions induced, giving rise to an intriguing topological phase transition. Finally, the topologically protected edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves, which can be simultaneously located at the frequency range from 1.223 to 1.251 MHz, are numerically observed. Robust pseudospin-dependent elastic edge wave propagation along arbitrary paths is further demonstrated. Our results will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  9. Interplay among transversity induced asymmetries in hadron leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Montuenga, P.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesaro, G.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark several left-right asymmetries are possible for the hadrons in the jet. When only one unpolarized hadron is selected, it exhibits an azimuthal modulation known as Collins effect. When a pair of oppositely charged hadrons is observed, three asymmetries can be considered, a di-hadron asymmetry and two single hadron asymmetries. In lepton deep inelastic scattering on transversely polarized nucleons all these asymmetries are coupled with the transversity distribution. From the high statistics COMPASS data on oppositely charged hadron-pair production we have investigated for the first time the dependence of these three asymmetries on the difference of the azimuthal angles of the two hadrons. The similarity of transversity induced single and di-hadron asymmetries is discussed. A phenomenological analysis of the data allows to establish quantitative relationships among them, providing strong indication that the underlying fragmentation mechanisms are all driven ...

  10. The third post-Newtonian gravitational wave polarizations and associated spherical harmonic modes for inspiralling compact binaries in quasi-circular orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Faye, Guillaume; Iyer, Bala R; Sinha, Siddhartha

    2008-01-01

    The gravitational waveform (GWF) generated by inspiralling compact binaries moving in quasi-circular orbits is computed at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation to general relativity. Our motivation is two-fold: (i) to provide accurate templates for the data analysis of gravitational wave inspiral signals in laser interferometric detectors; (ii) to provide the associated spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition to facilitate comparison and match of the high post-Newtonian prediction for the inspiral waveform to the numerically-generated waveforms for the merger and ringdown. This extension of the GWF by half a PN order (with respect to previous work at 2.5PN order) is based on the algorithm of the multipolar post-Minkowskian formalism, and mandates the computation of the relations between the radiative, canonical and source multipole moments for general sources at 3PN order. We also obtain the 3PN extension of the source multipole moments in the case of compact binaries, and compute the contributions of hereditary terms (tails, tails-of-tails and memory integrals) up to 3PN order. The end results are given for both the complete plus and cross polarizations and the separate spin-weighted spherical harmonic modes

  11. Reflection and transmission of full-vector X-waves normally incident on dielectric half spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    The reflection and transmission of full-vector X-Waves incident normally on a planar interface between two lossless dielectric half-spaces are investigated. Full-vector X-Waves are obtained by superimposing transverse electric and magnetic polarization components, which are derived from the scalar X-Wave solution. The analysis of transmission and reflection is carried out via a straightforward but yet effective method: First, the X-Wave is decomposed into vector Bessel beams via the Bessel-Fourier transform. Then, the reflection and transmission coefficients of the beams are obtained in the spectral domain. Finally, the transmitted and reflected X-Waves are obtained via the inverse Bessel-Fourier transform carried out on the X-wave spectrum weighted with the corresponding coefficient. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Measurement of single-target spin asymmetries in the electroproduction of negative pions in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic reaction n(e,e'π-)X on a transversely polarized 3He target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Chiranjib [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2010-06-14

    The experiment E06010 measured the target single spin asymmetry (SSA) in the semiinclusive deep inelastic (SIDIS) n(e,e'π-)X reaction with a transversely polarized 3He target as an e ective neutron target. This is the very rst independent measurement of the neutron SSA, following the measurements at HERMES and COMPASS on the proton and the deuteron. The experiment acquired data in Hall A at Je erson Laboratory with a continuous electron beam of energy 5.9 GeV, probing the valence quark region, with x = 0.13 → 0.41, at Q2 = 1.31 → 3.1 GeV2. The two contributing mechanisms to the measured asymmetry, viz, the Collins effect and the Sivers effect can be realized through the variation of the asymmetry as a function of the Collins and Sivers angles. The neutron Collins and Sivers moments, associated with the azimuthal angular modulations, are extracted from the measured asymmetry for the very first time and are presented in this thesis. The kinematics of this experiment is comparable to the HERMES proton measurement. However, the COMPASS measurements on deuteron and proton are in the low-x region. The results of this experiment are crucial as the first step toward the extraction of quark transversity and Sivers distribution functions in SIDIS. With the existing results on proton and deuteron, these new results on neutron will provide powerful constraints on the transversity and Sivers distributions of both the u and d-quarks in the valence region.

  13. Effect of magnetic field on the propagation of quasi-transverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transverse waves in a nonlinear perfectly conducting nonhomogeneous elastic medium in the presence of a uniform magnetic field transverse to the direction of wave propagation. Different types of figures have been drawn to exhibit the distortion of ...

  14. Characteristics of volume polarization holography with linear polarization light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jinliang; Wu, An'an; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jue; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Volume polarization holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) photopolymer with linear polarized light is obtained. The characteristics of the volume polarization hologram are experimentally investigated. It is found that beyond the paraxial approximation the polarization states of the holographic reconstruction light are generally different from the signal light. Based on vector wave theoretical analyses and material properties, the special exposure condition for correctly holographic reconstruction is obtained and experimentally demonstrated.

  15. Noninterceptive transverse beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.; Minerbo, G.N.; Teel, L.E. Jr.; Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The transverse emittance properties of a high-current linear accelerator may be measured by using TV cameras sensitive to the visible radiation emitted following beam interactions with residual gas. This paper describes the TV system being used to measure emittances for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project

  16. COMPASS results on transverse spin asymmetries in two-hadron production in SIDIS

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at the CERN M2 beamline where the nucleon spin structure is investigated using a 160GeV/c polarized $\\mu^{+}$ beam and polarized solid state targets. The measurements of single spin asymme- tries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) on a transversely polarized target are an important part of the COMPASS physics program. A transversely polarized $^{6}$LiD (deuteron) target was used in 2002-2004. After taking the first data on a transversely polarized NH$_{3}$ (proton) target in 2007, a full year of data taking followed in 2010 to increase precision. In this contribution we present for the first time the results from the 2010 data for the azimuthal asymmetries in two-hadron production which allow to investigate the transversity distribution function coupled to the two-hadron interference fragmentation function (FF).

  17. Polarization Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fressengeas, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The physics of polarization optics *Polarized light propagation *Partially polarized light; DEA; After a brief introduction to polarization optics, this lecture reviews the basic formalisms for dealing with it: Jones Calculus for totally polarized light and Stokes parameters associated to Mueller Calculus for partially polarized light.

  18. [Review] Polarization and Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Sascha

    2014-02-01

    Polarization is a basic property of light and is fundamentally linked to the internal geometry of a source of radiation. Polarimetry complements photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging analyses of sources of radiation and has made possible multiple astrophysical discoveries. In this article I review (i) the physical basics of polarization: electromagnetic waves, photons, and parameterizations; (ii) astrophysical sources of polarization: scattering, synchrotron radiation, active media, and the Zeeman, Goldreich-Kylafis, and Hanle effects, as well as interactions between polarization and matter (like birefringence, Faraday rotation, or the Chandrasekhar-Fermi effect); (iii) observational methodology: on-sky geometry, influence of atmosphere and instrumental polarization, polarization statistics, and observational techniques for radio, optical, and X/γ wavelengths; and (iv) science cases for astronomical polarimetry: solar and stellar physics, planetary system bodies, interstellar matter, astrobiology, astronomical masers, pulsars, galactic magnetic fields, gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

  19. Baryon spectroscopy with polarization observables from CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, Steffen [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Meson photoproduction is an important tool in the study of baryon resonances. The spectrum of broad and overlapping nucleon excitations can be greatly clarified by use of polarization observables. The N* program at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) includes experimental studies with linearly and circularly polarized tagged photon beams, longitudinally and transversely polarized nucleon targets, and recoil polarizations. An overview of these experimental studies and recent results will be given.

  20. Rich eight-branch spectrum of the oblique propagating longitudinal waves in partially spin-polarized electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Pavel A.; Iqbal, Z.

    2016-03-01

    We consider the separate spin evolution of electrons and positrons in electron-positron and electron-positron-ion plasmas. We consider the oblique propagating longitudinal waves in these systems. Working in a regime of high-density n0˜1027cm-3 and high-magnetic-field B0=1010 G, we report the presence of the spin-electron acoustic waves and their dispersion dependencies. In electron-positron plasmas, similarly to the electron-ion plasmas, we find one spin-electron acoustic wave (SEAW) at the propagation parallel or perpendicular to the external field and two spin-electron acoustic waves at the oblique propagation. At the parallel or perpendicular propagation of the longitudinal waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas, we find four branches: the Langmuir wave, the positron-acoustic wave, and a pair of waves having spin nature, they are the SEAW and the wave discovered in this paper, called the spin-electron-positron acoustic wave (SEPAW). At the oblique propagation we find eight longitudinal waves: the Langmuir wave, the Trivelpiece--Gould wave, a pair of positron-acoustic waves, a pair of SEAWs, and a pair of SEPAWs. Thus, for the first time, we report the existence of the second positron-acoustic wave existing at the oblique propagation and the existence of SEPAWs.

  1. Macroscopic polarization in crystalline dielectrics: the geometric phase approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resta, R.

    1994-01-01

    The macroscopic electric polarization of a crystal is often defined as the dipole of a unit cell. In fact, such a dipole moment is ill defined, and the above definition is incorrect. Looking more closely, the quantity generally measured is differential polarization, defined with respect to a ''reference state'' of the same material. Such differential polarizations include either derivatives of the polarization (dielectric permittivity, Born effective charges, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity) or finite differences (ferroelectricity). On the theoretical side, the differential concept is basic as well. Owing to continuity, a polarization difference is equivalent to a macroscopic current, which is directly accessible to the theory as a bulk property. Polarization is a quantum phenomenon and cannot be treated with a classical model, particularly whenever delocalized valence electrons are present in the dielectric. In a quantum picture, the current is basically a property of the phase of the wave functions, as opposed to the charge, which is a property of their modulus. An elegant and complete theory has recently been developed by King-Smith and Vanderbilt, in which the polarization difference between any two crystal states--in a null electric field--takes the form of a geometric quantum phase. This gives a comprehensive account of this theory, which is relevant for dealing with transverse-optic phonons, piezoelectricity, and ferroelectricity. Its relation to the established concepts of linear-response theory is also discussed. Within the geometric phase approach, the relevant polarization difference occurs as the circuit integral of a Berry connection (or ''vector potential''), while the corresponding curvature (or ''magnetic field'') provides the macroscopic linear response

  2. Measurement of polarization amplitudes and $CP$ asymmetries in $B^0 \\to \\phi K^*(892)^0$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Caponio, Francesco; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jezabek, Marek; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Longstaff, Ian; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manzali, Matteo; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spinella, Franco; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teodorescu, Eliza; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Webber, Adam Dane; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    An angular analysis of the decay $B^0 \\to \\phi K^*(892)^0$ is reported based on a $pp$ collision data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the LHCb detector. The P-wave amplitudes and phases are measured with a greater precision than by previous experiments, and confirm about equal amounts of longitudinal and transverse polarization. The S-wave $K^+ \\pi^-$ and $K^+K^-$ contributions are taken into account and found to be significant. A comparison of the $B^0 \\to \\phi K^*(892)^0$ and $\\bar{B}^0 \\to \\phi \\bar{K}^*(892)^0$ results shows no evidence for direct CP violation in the rate asymmetry, in the triple-product asymmetries or in the polarization amplitudes and phases.

  3. Transverse Momentum Distributions of Electron in Simulated QED Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navdeep; Dahiya, Harleen

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we have studied the transverse momentum distributions (TMDs) for the electron in simulated QED model. We have used the overlap representation of light-front wave functions where the spin-1/2 relativistic composite system consists of spin-1/2 fermion and spin-1 vector boson. The results have been obtained for T-even TMDs in transverse momentum plane for fixed value of longitudinal momentum fraction x.

  4. Polarization-Dependent Multi-Functional Metamaterial as Polarization Filter, Transparent Wall and Circular Polarizer using Ring-Cross Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a polarization-dependent multi-functional metamaterial using ring-cross resonator. Based on the analysis of surface current distributions induced by different polarized incidence, we demonstrate that the proposed metamaterial serves as a polarization filter, a transparent wall and a circular polarizer under different polarization normal incidence. Additionally, parameter analyses on the control of resonance are discussed to complementally explain the physical origin. Simulated results show that the proposed metamaterial functions as a polarization filter eliminating the x-polarization wave at 10.1 GHz and y-polarization wave at 14.3 GHz, a transparent wall transmitting both x-polarized and y-polarized incident waves at 12.6 GHz, and a broadband circular polarizer converting the +45° polarized (-45° polarized incident wave to the left (right handed circularly polarized wave from 10.8 to 12.8 GHz, respectively. Measured results agree well with the simulation and validate the performance of the proposed multifunctional metamaterial.

  5. Large transverse momentum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1977-09-01

    It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references

  6. Wave equations for pulse propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, B.W.

    1987-06-24

    Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity. The memo discusses various ways of characterizing the polarization characteristics of plane waves, that is, of parameterizing a transverse unit vector, such as the Jones vector, the Stokes vector, and the Poincare sphere. It discusses the connection between macroscopically defined quantities, such as the intensity or, more generally, the Stokes parameters, and microscopic field amplitudes. The material presented here is a portion of a more extensive treatment of propagation to be presented separately. The equations presented here have been described in various books and articles. They are collected here as a summary and review of theory needed when treating pulse propagation.

  7. Kinetic Alfven Waves at the Magnetopause-Mode Conversion, Transport and Formation of LLBL; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay R. Johnson; C.Z. Cheng

    2002-01-01

    At the magnetopause, large amplitude, low-frequency (ULF), transverse MHD waves are nearly always observed. These waves likely result from mode conversion of compressional MHD waves observed in the magnetosheath to kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause where there is a steep gradient in the Alfven velocity[Johnson and Cheng, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24 (1997) 1423]. The mode-conversion process can explain the following wave observations typically found during satellite crossings of the magnetopause: (1) a dramatic change in wave polarization from compressional in the magnetosheath to transverse at the magnetopause, (2) an amplification of wave amplitude at the magnetopause, (3) a change in Poynting flux from cross-field in the magnetosheath to field-aligned at the magnetopause, and (4) a steepening in the wave power spectrum at the magnetopause. We examine magnetic field data from a set of ISEE1, ISEE2, and WIND magnetopause crossings and compare with the predictions of theoretical wave solutions based on the kinetic-fluid model with particular attention to the role of magnetic field rotation across the magnetopause. The results of the study suggest a good qualitative agreement between the observations and the theory of mode conversion to kinetic Alfven waves. Because mode-converted kinetic Alfven waves readily decouple particles from the magnetic field lines, efficient quasilinear transport (D(approx) 109m2/s) can occur. Moreover, if the wave amplitude is sufficiently large (Bwave/B0 and gt; 0.2) stochastic particle transport also occurs. This wave-induced transport can lead to significant heating and particle entry into the low latitude boundary layer across closed field lines.At the magnetopause, large amplitude, low-frequency (ULF), transverse MHD waves are nearly always observed. These waves likely result from mode conversion of compressional MHD waves observed in the magnetosheath to kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause where there is a steep gradient in

  8. Transverse tomography and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leer, J.W.H.

    1982-01-01

    This study was intended to delineate the indications for radiotherapy treatment-planning with the help of computerized axial tomography (C.T.) and transverse analog tomography (T.A.T.). Radiotherapy localisation procedures with the conventional method (simulator), with the CT-scanner and with the transverse analog tomograph (T.A.T., Simtomix, Oldelft) were compared. As criterium for evaluation differences in reconstruction drawing based on these methods were used. A certain method was judged ''superior'' to another if the delineation of the target volume was more accurate, if a better impression was gained of the site of (for irradiation) organs at risk, or if the localisation could only be performed with that method. The selected group of patients consisted of 120 patients for whom a reconstruction drawing in the transverse plane was made according to the treatment philosophy. In this group CT-assisted localisation was judged on 68 occasions superior to the conventional method. In a number of cases it was found that a ''standard'' change in a standard target volume, on the base of augmented anatomical knowledge, made the conventional method sufficient. The use of CT-scanner for treatment planning was estimated. For ca. 270/1000 new patients a CT-scan is helpful (diagnostic scan), for 140 of them the scan is necessary (planning scan). The quality of the anatomical information obtained with the T.A.T. does not yet fall within acceptable limits, but progress has been made. (Auth.)

  9. Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S.S., E-mail: Shoukryhassan@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Manchester Metropolitan University, Dept. of Computing, Maths. and Digital Technology, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Sharaby, Y.A., E-mail: Yasser_Sharaby@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Ali, M.F.M., E-mail: dr.mona.fathy@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics: Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: ajoshi@eiu.edu [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.

  10. Transverse Ising model with multi-impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xuchu; Yang, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    We study the transverse Ising spin model with spin-1 impurities under the exact solution. We develop a universal method to deal with the multi-impurity problem by introducing a displacement quantity in the wave function and get a recursive formula to simplify the calculation of the partition function. This allows us to rigorously determine the impurity effects for a specific distribution of impurity in the thermodynamic limit. The low temperature behaviors are governed by the interplay between host and impurity excitations, and the quantum critical fluctuations around the critical point of the transverse Ising model are tuned by the transverse field and the concentration of impurity. However the impurity effects are limited, which depends on the host–impurity exchange interaction and the coupling strength of impurities. - Highlights: • A universal method is proposed to exactly resolve the transverse Ising model with many impurities. • The phase diagram of the ground state is obtained for different impurity concentrations. • The thermodynamic properties can be determined rigorously by a recursive formula in the thermodynamic limit

  11. Measurement of transverse momentum dependent asymmetries with COMPASS experimental at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, Girisan

    2007-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment, which started running at the European Council for Nuclear Research, CERN, in Geneva in 2001, is currently investigating in a wide ranging programme the spin structure of the nucleon through deep-inelastic scattering (DIS). The experiment uses a polarized muon beam and a polarized deuterium target, which together allow access to all terms of the polarized DIS cross-section. Two of the most important functions which COMPASS is designed to full are a precision measurement of the gluon polarization ΔG and the investigation of the transverse spin effects, specially extracting the transverse polarized quark distribution functions Δ T q. In Semi-Inclusive DIS of polarized leptons on a transversely polarized target, eight azimuthal modulations appear in the cross-section. Within the QCD parton model, four azimuthal asymmetries can be interpreted at leading order, two of them being the Collins and Sivers asymmetries. The other two leading twist asymmetries are related to different transverse momentum dependent quark distribution functions. There are four additional asymmetries which can be interpreted as twist-three contributions. This thesis describes the analysis with the data taken with transverse spin configuration during the COMPASS beam-time 2002-2004, resulting in the extraction of the eight Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) asymmetries. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of transverse momentum dependent asymmetries with COMPASS experimental at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, Girisan

    2007-07-01

    The COMPASS experiment, which started running at the European Council for Nuclear Research, CERN, in Geneva in 2001, is currently investigating in a wide ranging programme the spin structure of the nucleon through deep-inelastic scattering (DIS). The experiment uses a polarized muon beam and a polarized deuterium target, which together allow access to all terms of the polarized DIS cross-section. Two of the most important functions which COMPASS is designed to full are a precision measurement of the gluon polarization {delta}G and the investigation of the transverse spin effects, specially extracting the transverse polarized quark distribution functions {delta}{sub T}q. In Semi-Inclusive DIS of polarized leptons on a transversely polarized target, eight azimuthal modulations appear in the cross-section. Within the QCD parton model, four azimuthal asymmetries can be interpreted at leading order, two of them being the Collins and Sivers asymmetries. The other two leading twist asymmetries are related to different transverse momentum dependent quark distribution functions. There are four additional asymmetries which can be interpreted as twist-three contributions. This thesis describes the analysis with the data taken with transverse spin configuration during the COMPASS beam-time 2002-2004, resulting in the extraction of the eight Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) asymmetries. (orig.)

  13. Dynamics of a charged particle in a circularly polarized travelling electromagnetic wave. Self-consistent model for the wave-particle dynamical interaction; Dynamique d'une particule chargee dans un champ electromagnetique polarise circulairement. Traitement auto-consistant de l'interaction entre plusieurs particules et l'onde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdier, A

    1999-07-01

    This work concerns mainly the dynamics of a charged particle in an electromagnetic wave. It is a first step in elaborating a more general model permitting to predict the wave-particle interaction. We show how deriving a first integral gives an idea on how to create an electron current in a cold electron plasma. We present results which can be used to test the 2D and 3D Vlasov-Maxwell codes being built up in CEA-DAM. These codes will allow the calcination of the magnetic field created by an electromagnetic wave like the one due to the inverse Faraday effect when a circularly polarized wave drives the electrons of a plasma into circular orbits. (author)

  14. TMD evolution and the Higgs transverse momentum distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; den Dunnen, Wilco J.

    The effect of the linear polarization of gluons on the transverse momentum distribution in Higgs production is studied within the framework of TMD factorization. For this purpose we consider the TMD evolution for general colorless scalar boson production, from the lower mass C-even scalar quarkonium

  15. The physics of transverse mode instability-induced nonlinear phase distortions in large area optical fiber amplifiers and their mitigation with applications in scaling of pulsed and continuous wave high-energy lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-13

    Technol.Lett.11, 39 (1999) 21. Y. Panbiharwala, C. S. Kumar, D. Venkitesh, and B. Srinivasan in International Conference on Fibre Optics and Photonics...24. Y. Panbiharwala, C. S. Kumar, D. Venkitesh, and B. Srinivasan in International Conference on Fibre Optics and Photonics, OSA Technical Digest...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0001 The physics of transverse mode instability-induced nonlinear phase distortions in large area optical fiber amplifiers and

  16. High-Q energy trapping of temperature-stable shear waves with Lamé cross-sectional polarization in a single crystal silicon waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, R.; Daruwalla, A.; Ayazi, F.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-port electrostatically driven silicon acoustic cavity is implemented that efficiently traps the energy of a temperature-stable eigen-mode with Lamé cross-sectional polarization. Dispersive behavior of propagating and evanescent guided waves in a ⟨100⟩-aligned single crystal silicon waveguide is used to engineer the acoustic energy distribution of a specific shear eigen-mode that is well known for its low temperature sensitivity when implemented in doped single crystal silicon. Such an acoustic energy trapping in the central region of the acoustic cavity geometry and far from substrate obviates the need for narrow tethers that are conventionally used for non-destructive and high quality factor (Q) energy suspension in MEMS resonators; therefore, the acoustically engineered waveguide can simultaneously serve as in-situ self-oven by passing large uniformly distributed DC currents through its body and without any concern about perturbing the mode shape or deforming narrow supports. Such a stable thermo-structural performance besides large turnover temperatures than can be realized in Lamé eigen-modes make this device suitable for implementation of ultra-stable oven-controlled oscillators. 78 MHz prototypes implemented in arsenic-doped single crystal silicon substrates with different resistivity are transduced by in- and out-of-plane narrow-gap capacitive ports, showing high Q of ˜43k. The low resistivity device shows an overall temperature-induced frequency drift of 200 ppm over the range of -20 °C to 80 °C, which is ˜15× smaller compared to overall frequency drift measured for the similar yet high resistivity device in the same temperature range. Furthermore, a frequency tuning of ˜2100 ppm is achieved in high resistivity device by passing 45 mA DC current through its body. Continuous operation of the device under such a self-ovenizing current over 10 days did not induce frequency instability or degradation in Q.

  17. Propagating wave in active region-loops, located over the solar disk observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Hou, Y. J.; Zhang, J.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: We aim to ascertain the physical parameters of a propagating wave over the solar disk detected by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Methods: Using imaging data from the IRIS and the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO), we tracked bright spots to determine the parameters of a propagating transverse wave in active region (AR) loops triggered by activation of a filament. Deriving the Doppler velocity of Si IV line from spectral observations of IRIS, we have determined the rotating directions of active region loops which are relevant to the wave. Results: On 2015 December 19, a filament was located on the polarity inversion line of the NOAA AR 12470. The filament was activated and then caused a C1.1 two-ribbon flare. Between the flare ribbons, two rotation motions of a set of bright loops were observed to appear in turn with opposite directions. Following the end of the second rotation, a propagating wave and an associated transverse oscillation were detected in these bright loops. In 1400 Å channel, there was bright material flowing along the loops in a wave-like manner, with a period of 128 s and a mean amplitude of 880 km. For the transverse oscillation, we tracked a given loop and determine the transverse positions of the tracking loop in a limited longitudinal range. In both of 1400 Å and 171 Å channels, approximately four periods are distinguished during the transverse oscillation. The mean period of the oscillation is estimated as 143 s and the displacement amplitude as between 1370 km and 690 km. We interpret these oscillations as a propagating kink wave and obtain its speed of 1400 km s-1. Conclusions: Our observations reveal that a flare associated with filament activation could trigger a kink propagating wave in active region loops over the solar disk. Movies associated to Figs. 1-4 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  18. Figures of transversality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I explore how prenatal screening is imbricated within state agendas, aspirations, and imaginings in contemporary Vietnam. In an effort to develop new ethnographic tropes for understanding the formation called "the state," I argue for a phenomenological take that emphasizes its...... affective and embodied aspects. Seeing the anomalous fetus as a "figure of transversality," as a critical focus for powerful imaginings and desires, I show how state–society relations in Vietnam are suffused by visceral affectivity and moral engagement. In the realm of reproduction, intense sentiments...... of anxiety, dread, desire, ambition, and hope tie together the state and its citizens, animating individual aspirations as well as national population policies....

  19. Acoustic reflection log in transversely isotropic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo Jarillo, G.; Markova, I.; Markov, M.

    2018-01-01

    We have calculated the waveforms of sonic reflection logging for a fluid-filled borehole located in a transversely isotropic rock. Calculations have been performed for an acoustic impulse source with the characteristic frequency of tens of kilohertz that is considerably less than the frequencies of acoustic borehole imaging tools. It is assumed that the borehole axis coincides with the axis of symmetry of the transversely isotropic rock. It was shown that the reflected wave was excited most efficiently at resonant frequencies. These frequencies are close to the frequencies of oscillations of a fluid column located in an absolutely rigid hollow cylinder. We have shown that the acoustic reverberation is controlled by the acoustic impedance of the rock Z = Vphρs for fixed parameters of the borehole fluid, where Vph is the velocity of horizontally propagating P-wave; ρs is the rock density. The methods of waveform processing to determine the parameters characterizing the reflected wave have been discussed.

  20. Polarization Observables T and F in the yp -> pi p Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    The theory that describes the interaction of quarks is Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), but how quarks are bound inside a nucleon is not yet well understood. Pion photoproduction experiments reveal important information about the nucleon excited states and the dynamics of the quarks within it and thus provide a useful tool to study QCD. Detailed information about this reaction can be obtained in experiments that utilize polarized photon beams and polarized targets. Pion photoproduction in the γρ -> π0ρ reaction has been measured in the FROST experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. In this experiment circularly polarized photons with electron-beam energies up to 3.082 GeV impinged on a transversely polarized frozen-spin target. Final-state protons were detected in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Results of the polarization observables T and F have been extracted. The data generally agree with predictions of present partial wave analyses, but also show marked differences. The data will constrain further partial wave analyses and improve the extraction of proton resonance properties.

  1. Scattering of inhomogeneous circularly polarized optical field and mechanical manifestation of the internal energy flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekshaev, A. Ya; Angelsky, O. V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Mie theory and on the incident beam model via superposition of two plane waves, we analyze numerically the momentum flux of the field scattered by a spherical, nonmagnetic microparticle placed within the spatially inhomogeneous circularly polarized paraxial light beam. The asymmetry...... between the forward- and backward-scattered momentum fluxes in the Rayleigh scattering regime appears due to the spin part of the internal energy flow in the incident beam. The transverse ponderomotive forces exerted on dielectric and conducting particles of different sizes are calculated and special...

  2. Projective geometry for polarization in geometric quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.; Dodson, C.T.J.

    1976-12-01

    It is important to know the extent to which the procedure of geometric quantization depends on a choice of polarization of the symplectic manifold that is the classical phase space. Published results have so far been restricted to real and transversal polarizations. Here we also consider these cases by presenting a formulation in terms of projective geometry. It turns out that there is a natural characterization of real transversal polarizations and maps among them using projective concepts. We give explicit constructions for Rsup(2n)

  3. Asymmetrical transverse structures in nonlinear interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Romanov, O G

    2003-01-01

    The work presents a novel type of optical instability, which leads to the spontaneous formation of a stationary or pulsating asymmetrical structure in the problem of interaction between two counterpropagating waves in a ring cavity with Kerr-like nonlinearity. Linear stability analysis of interferometer transmission stationary states enabled: (1) to mark out typical bifurcations for this system: self- and cross-modulational instabilities, (2) to determine the range of parameters for which the symmetry breaking of transverse structures and complex temporal behaviour of the light field could be observed. The predictions of linear stability analysis have been verified with numerical modelling of coupled-modes equations.

  4. Energy in a String Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2010-01-01

    When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed…

  5. A differentiated plane wave: its passage through a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H; Nye, J F

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating a monochromatic uniform plane electromagnetic wavefield with respect to its direction produces, from a field that is completely lacking in localized specific features, one that contains a straight vortex-like line, a ‘C-line’ of defined circular polarization. There is also a second separate C-line of opposite handedness; indeed, in a sense, a straight line of every polarization is realized. Because of its primitive construction it is analytically simple to study the passage of a differentiated wave obliquely through a plane interface into a medium of different refractive index, to trace its C-line. This was done in an earlier paper. Here we extend the method to passage through a parallel-sided transparent slab. There are multiple reflections within the slab, as in a Fabry–Pérot interferometer. The exiting wave, as a single differentiated plane wave, has a straight oblique C-line. Inside the slab, and in front of it, there is wave interference. The result is a coiled, helix-like, C-line in front of the slab and another inside it. The two coils wrap around separate hyperboloids of one sheet, like cooling towers. The emerging straight C-line is shifted (with respect to a C-line in a notional undisturbed incident plane wave) both in the plane of incidence and transversely to it, and the second C-line behaves similarly. The analysis is exact and could be extended in a straightforward way to a general stratified medium. (paper)

  6. Control of transversal instabilities in reaction-diffusion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Molnos, Sonja; Löber, Jakob; Totz, Jan Frederik; Engel, Harald

    2015-01-01

    In two-dimensional reaction-diffusion systems, local curvature perturbations in the shape of traveling waves are typically damped out and disappear in the course of time. If, however, the inhibitor diffuses much faster than the activator, transversal instabilities can arise, leading from flat to folded, spatio-temporally modulated wave shapes and to spreading spiral turbulence. For experimentally relevant parameter values, the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction (PBZR) does not exhib...

  7. Transverse section scanning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  8. Non-Linear Excitation of Ion Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Hirsfield, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The excitation of ion acoustic waves by nonlinear coupling of two transverse magnetic waves generated in a microwave cavity was investigated. Measurements of the wave amplitude showed good agreement with calculations based on the Vlasov equation.......The excitation of ion acoustic waves by nonlinear coupling of two transverse magnetic waves generated in a microwave cavity was investigated. Measurements of the wave amplitude showed good agreement with calculations based on the Vlasov equation....

  9. Dual circularly polarized broadside beam antenna based on metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, A.; Caminita, F.; Martini, E.; Ederra, I.; Teniente, J.; Iriarte, J. C.; Gonzalo, R.; Maci, S.

    2018-02-01

    Design details of a Ku band metasurface (MTS) antenna with dual circularly polarized (CP) broadside radiation is shown in this work. By means of the surface impedance tensor modulation, synchronized propagation of two transversal magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) surface waves (SWs) is ensured in the structure, which contribute to the radiation in broadside direction by the generation of a CP leaky wave. The structure is implemented by elliptical subwavelength metallic elements with a cross-shaped aperture in the center, printed on top of a thin substrate with high permittivity (AD1000 with a thickness of λ0/17). For the experimental validation, the MTS prototype has been excited employing an orthomode transducer composed by a metallic stepped septum inside an air-filled waveguide. Two orthogonal TE11 modes excited with ±90° phase shift in the feed couple with the TM and TE SWs supported by the MTS and generate RHCP or LHCP broadside beam. Experimental results are compared with the simulation predictions. Finally, conclusions are drawn.

  10. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency: Stereo observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Klecker, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Omidi, N. [Solana Scientific Inc., Solana Beach, CA 92075 (United States); Isenberg, P. A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Goldstein, M. L.; Figueroa-Viñas, A. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD 20771 (United States); Blanco-Cano, X., E-mail: lan.jian@nasa.gov [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-05-10

    Transverse, near-circularly polarized, parallel-propagating electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency were found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They could play an important role in heating and accelerating the solar wind. These low-frequency waves (LFWs) are intermittent but often occur in prolonged bursts lasting over 10 minutes, named 'LFW storms'. Through a comprehensive survey of them from Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory A using dynamic spectral wave analysis, we have identified 241 LFW storms in 2008, present 0.9% of the time. They are left-hand (LH) or right-hand (RH) polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, probably due to Doppler shift of the same type of waves or waves of intrinsically different polarities. In rare cases, the opposite polarities are observed closely in time or even simultaneously. Having ruled out interplanetary coronal mass ejections, shocks, energetic particles, comets, planets, and interstellar ions as LFW sources, we discuss the remaining generation scenarios: LH ion cyclotron instability driven by greater perpendicular temperature than parallel temperature or by ring-beam distribution, and RH ion fire hose instability driven by inverse temperature anisotropy or by cool ion beams. The investigation of solar wind conditions is compromised by the bias of the one-dimensional Maxwellian fit used for plasma data calibration. However, the LFW storms are preferentially detected in rarefaction regions following fast winds and when the magnetic field is radial. This preference may be related to the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in fast wind and the minimum in damping along the radial field.

  11. New results on transverse spin asymmetries from COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    One of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of transverse spin structure of nucleon via spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) of polarized leptons (and soon also Drell-Yan (DY) reactions with $\\pi^-$) off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and polarized $^6LiD$ and $NH_3$ targets and are foreseen with 190 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam on polarized $NH_3$. The experimental results obtained by COMPASS for azimuthal effects in SIDIS play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon and are widely used in theoretical analyses and global data fits. Future first ever polarized DY-data from COMPASS compared with SIDIS results will open a new chapter probing general principles of QCD TMD-formalism. In this review main focus will be given to the very recent COMPASS results obtained for...

  12. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  13. Plane waves in a thermally conducting viscous liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this paper is to investigate plane waves in a thermally conducting viscous liquid half-space with thermal relaxation times. There exist three basic waves, namely; thermal wave, longitudinal wave and transverse wave in a thermally conducting viscous liquid half-space. Reflection of plane waves from the free ...

  14. Polarized spectra calculation and continuous wave laser operation of Yb-doped disordered Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeqing; Chen, Aixi; You, Zhenyu; Tu, Chaoyang

    2015-12-01

    A notable disorder crystal Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal with Yb3+ ion doping concentration of 10 at.% was grown by the Czochralski method. The polarized absorption, polarized emission, and polarized gain cross sections were systematically calculated. The laser operations were investigated with Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystals cut along the a, b, and c crystallographic axes. The highest output power of 3.88 W was obtained by using the b-cut Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal, with a slope efficiency of 62%. Additionally, it was confirmed that the output laser spectra were largely dependent on the output coupler.

  15. Polarized spectra calculation and continuous wave laser operation of Yb-doped disordered Ca3La2(BO3)4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeqing; Chen, Aixi; You, Zhenyu; Tu, Chaoyang

    2015-01-01

    A notable disorder crystal Yb:Ca 3 La 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal with Yb 3+ ion doping concentration of 10 at.% was grown by the Czochralski method. The polarized absorption, polarized emission, and polarized gain cross sections were systematically calculated. The laser operations were investigated with Yb:Ca 3 La 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystals cut along the a, b, and c crystallographic axes. The highest output power of 3.88 W was obtained by using the b-cut Yb:Ca 3 La 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal, with a slope efficiency of 62%. Additionally, it was confirmed that the output laser spectra were largely dependent on the output coupler. (paper)

  16. Transverse target-spin asymmetry in exclusive electroproduction of {rho}{sup 0} mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreschler, Jeroen

    2008-10-15

    This thesis reports the first measurements of the asymmetry in exclusive {rho}{sup 0} electroproduction from a transversely polarized proton. The asymmetry was extracted from data taken by the HERMES experiment at DESY with a polarized internal hydrogen gas target and the 27.6 GeV electron (positron) beam of HERA. (orig.)

  17. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  18. Control of Domain Wall Polarity by Current Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaverbeke, A.; Bischof, A.; Allenspach, R.

    2008-09-01

    Direct observation of current-induced propagation of purely transverse magnetic domain walls with spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy is reported in Fe30Ni70 nanowires. After propagation, the domain walls keep their transverse nature but switch polarity in some cases. For uniform Ni70Fe30 wires, the effect is random and illustrates domain-wall propagation above the Walker threshold. In the case of Ni70Fe30/Fe wires, the transverse magnetization component in the wall is entirely determined by the polarity of the current pulse, an effect that is not reconciled by present theories even when taking into account the nonuniform Oersted field generated by the current.

  19. Transverse polarization in γZ, HZ production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the case of production, this observable can be used to probe a certain effective four-point + - CP-violating coupling, not accessible without TP. Effective CP-violating coupling does not contribute to this observable. A similar observable in production can be used to probe + - four-point ...

  20. Transverse polarization in γZ,HZ production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , which, for simplicity, we treat as constants. The terms containing V3 and A3 are CP violating, whereas the remaining are CP conserving. M is a parameter with dimensions of mass, put in to render the form factors dimensionless. We obtain, for ...

  1. Strain Imaging Using Terahertz Waves and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    polarization of incident EM waves by favoring the transmission of waves of a particular polarization. The interaction of some materials with incident...polarization of the waves after they have passed through the test material or object. Using the measured transmission intensity values, the...resolution. Shorter wavelength EM waves , such as visual light , have poor penetration ability but produce high-resolution images. However, the

  2. Research on generating various polarization-modes in polarized illumination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinping; Lin, Wumei; Fan, Zhenjie

    2013-08-01

    With the increase of the numerical aperture (NA), the polarization of light affects the imaging quality of projection lens more significantly. On the contrary, according to the mask pattern, the resolution of projection lens can be improved by using the polarized illumination. That is to say, using the corresponding polarized beam (or polarization-mode) along with the off-axis illumination will improve the resolution and the imaging quality of the of projection lens. Therefore, the research on the generation of various polarization modes and its conversion methods become more and more important. In order to realize various polarization modes in polarized illumination system, after read a lot of references, we provide a way that fitting for the illumination system with the wavelength of 193nm.Six polarization-modes and a depolarized mode are probably considered. Wave-plate stack is used to generate linearly polarization-mode, which have a higher degree polarization. In order to generate X-Y and Y-X polarization mode, the equipment consisting of four sectors of λ/2 wave plate was used. We combined 16 sectors of λ/2 wave plate which have different orientations of the "slow" axis to generate radial and azimuthal polarization. Finally, a multi-polarization control device was designed. Using the kind of multi-polarization control device which applying this method could help to choose the polarization modes conveniently and flexibility for the illumination system.

  3. Measurement of the polarized neutron—polarized 3He total cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, C. D.; Gould, C. R.; Haase, D. G.; Seely, M. L.; Huffman, P. R.; Roberson, N. R.; Tornow, W.; Wilburn, W. S.

    1995-05-01

    The first measurements of polarized neutron-polarized 3He scattering in the few MeV energy region are reported. The total cross section difference ΔσT for transversely polarized target and beam has been measured for neutron energies between 1.9 and 7.5 MeV. Comparison is made to predictions of ΔσT using various descriptions of the 4He continuum. A brute-force polarized target of solid 3He has been developed for these measurements. The target is 4.3×1022 atoms/cm2 thick and is polarized to 38% at 7 Telsa and 12 mK.

  4. Transverse momentum distributions inside the nucleon from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musch, Bernhard Ulrich

    2009-05-29

    Nucleons, i.e., protons and neutrons, are composed of quarks and gluons, whose interactions are described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), part of the standard model of particle physics. This work applies lattice QCD to compute quark momentum distributions in the nucleon. The calculations make use of lattice data generated on supercomputers that has already been successfully employed in lattice studies of spatial quark distributions (''nucleon tomography''). In order to be able to analyze transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, this thesis explores a novel approach based on non-local operators. One interesting observation is that the transverse momentum dependent density of polarized quarks in a polarized nucleon is visibly deformed. A more elaborate operator geometry is required to enable a quantitative comparison to high energy scattering experiments. First steps in this direction are encouraging. (orig.)

  5. Generating catalogs of transverse matching solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, G.; Busch, P.; Burns, M.

    1989-01-01

    Programs such as TRANSPORT or TRACE can find transverse beam matching solutions one at a time when given appropriate starting conditions. In the present work, an algorithm is described which rapidly finds a catalog of approximate transverse beam matching solutions. For a given initial beam, the algorithm finds the gradients of four quadrupole magnets such as to get four Twiss parameters (alpha and beta for horizontal and vertical planes) which are close to a set of desired values at the exit of a constant-energy beam line with no horizontal-vertical cross coupling and no space charge. The beam line may contain bending elements with edge corrections and other elements for which the r matrixes are known. The algorithm transforms the entrance and exit beam specifications to waist specifications, and uses the properties of waist-to-waist transport to reduce the problem from a four dimensional search to a two dimensional search. At the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator, transverse matching is important in the low-energy transport lines (0.75 MeV), where beams from the H + , H/sup /minus//, and polarized H/sup /minus// sources must be tailored for injection into the drift-tube linac; and in the transition region (100 MeV), where the beam from the drift-tube linac is injected into the side-coupled linac. Space charge has significant effects in the low-energy transport, but it is still valuable to get no-space-charge matching solutions as a starting point for solutions with space charge. 2 refs

  6. Single transverse spin asymmetry of forward neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, J.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the single transverse spin asymmetry A N (t), for inclusive neutron production in pp collisions at forward rapidities relative to the polarized proton in the energy range of RHIC. Absorptive corrections to the pion pole generate a relative phase between the spin-flip and nonflip amplitudes, leading to a transverse spin asymmetry which is found to be far too small to explain the magnitude of A N observed in the PHENIX experiment. A larger contribution, which does not vanish at high energies, comes from the interference of pion and a 1 -Reggeon exchanges. The unnatural parity of a 1 guarantees a substantial phase shift, although the magnitude is strongly suppressed by the smallness of diffractive πp→a 1 p cross section. We replace the Regge a 1 pole by the Regge cut corresponding to the πρ exchange in the 1 + S state. The production of such a state, which we treat as an effective pole a, forms a narrow peak in the 3π invariant mass distribution in diffractive πp interactions. The cross section is large, so one can assume that this state saturates the spectral function of the axial current and we can determine its coupling to nucleons via the partially conserved axial-vector-current constraint Goldberger-Treiman relation and the second Weinberg sum rule. The numerical results of the parameter-free calculation of A N are in excellent agreement with the PHENIX data.

  7. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, M; Baum, G; Doshita, N; Finger, M Jr; Gautheron, F; Goertz, St; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Hess, Ch; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Y; Koivuniemi, J; Kondo, K; Le Goff, J-M; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Srnka, A

    2006-01-01

    The spin structure of the nucleons is investigated in deep inelastic scattering of a polarized muon beam and a polarized nucleon target in the COMPASS experiment at CERN since 2001. To achieve high luminosities a large solid polarized target is used. The COMPASS polarized target consists of a high cooling power $^{3}$He/$^{4}$He dilution refrigerator capable to maintain working temperature of the target material at about 50mK, a superconducting solenoid and dipole magnet system for longitudinal and transversal magnetic field on the target material, respectively, target cells containing polarizable material, microwave cavities and high power microwave radiation systems for dynamic nuclear polarization and the nuclear magnetic resonance system for nuclear spin polarization measurements. During 2001–2004 experiments superconducting magnet system with opening angle $\\pm$69 mrad, polarized target holder with two target cells and corresponding microwave and NMR systems have been used. For the data taking from 200...

  8. Magnetization reversal of the transverse domain wall confined between two clusters of magnetic impurities in a ferromagnetic planar nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, D.; Leonel, S.A.; Coura, P.Z.; Sato, F.; Costa, B.V.; Vázquez, M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been used to investigate the polarity reversal of the transverse domain wall in rectangular magnetic nanowires and the stabilization of the domain wall position after occurring the polarity reversal. In order to control the wall position we have considered two clusters of magnetic impurities, identical and equidistant from the nanowire width axis. Traps of pinning and blocking for the transverse domain wall can be originated from magnetic impurities, consisting of a local variation of the exchange constant. Under suitable excitation amplitudes it is possible to switch the polarity of the transverse domain wall by applying a nanosecond axial magnetic field pulse in a fast and controllable way. - Highlights: • Traps for pinning and blocking transverse domain walls are proposed. • The traps consisting of localized modifications of the magnetic properties. • The wall polarity can be reversed in a fast and controllable way.

  9. Magnetization reversal of the transverse domain wall confined between two clusters of magnetic impurities in a ferromagnetic planar nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, D., E-mail: danilotoscano@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330 (Brazil); Leonel, S.A., E-mail: sidiney@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330 (Brazil); Coura, P.Z., E-mail: pablo@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330 (Brazil); Sato, F., E-mail: sjfsato@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036–330 (Brazil); Costa, B.V., E-mail: bvc@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30123–970 (Brazil); Vázquez, M., E-mail: mvazquez@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC. 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations have been used to investigate the polarity reversal of the transverse domain wall in rectangular magnetic nanowires and the stabilization of the domain wall position after occurring the polarity reversal. In order to control the wall position we have considered two clusters of magnetic impurities, identical and equidistant from the nanowire width axis. Traps of pinning and blocking for the transverse domain wall can be originated from magnetic impurities, consisting of a local variation of the exchange constant. Under suitable excitation amplitudes it is possible to switch the polarity of the transverse domain wall by applying a nanosecond axial magnetic field pulse in a fast and controllable way. - Highlights: • Traps for pinning and blocking transverse domain walls are proposed. • The traps consisting of localized modifications of the magnetic properties. • The wall polarity can be reversed in a fast and controllable way.

  10. Polarization measurement in the COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, K; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Gautheron, F; Görtz, S; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Le Goff, J M; Magnon, A; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Matsuda, T

    2004-01-01

    Continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to determine the target polarization in the COMPASS experiment. The system is made of the so-called Liverpool Q-meters, Yale-cards, and VME modules for data taking and system controlling. In 2001 the NMR coils were embedded in the target material, while in 2002 and 2003 the coils were mounted on the outer surface of the target cells to increase the packing factor of the material. Though the error of the measurement became larger with the outer coils than with the inner coils, we have performed stable measurements throughout the COMPASS run time for 3 years. The maximum polarization was +57% and -53% as the average in the target cells.

  11. On the tunneling of full-vector X-Waves through a slab under frustrated total reflection condition

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Tunneling of full-vector X-Waves through a dielectric slab under frustrated total reflection condition is investigated. Full-vector X-Waves are obtained by superimposing transverse electric and magnetic polarization components, which are derived from the scalar X-Wave solution. The analysis of reflection and transmission at the dielectric interfaces is carried out analytically in a straightforward fashion using vector Bessel beam expansion. Investigation of the fields propagating away from the farther end of the slab (transmitted fields) shows an advanced (superluminal) transmission of the X-Wave peak. Additionally, a similar advanced reflection is also observed. The apparent tunneling of the peak is shown to be due to the phase shift in the fields\\' spectra and not to be causally related to the incident peak. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in $p^\\uparrow+p$ at $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

    OpenAIRE

    STAR Collaboration; Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in $p^\\uparrow+p$ collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of five standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities eta>0.5, and for pair masses around the mass of the rho-meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p+p collisions. Compar...

  13. Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in p^{↑}+p at sqrt[s]=200  GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, X; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, X; Li, C; Li, W; Li, Z M; Li, Y; Li, X; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, Y G; Ma, G L; Ma, L; Ma, R; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, M K; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, X; Sun, Z; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Surrow, B; Svirida, N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A N; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, G; Wang, Y; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Y F; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, X P; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2015-12-11

    We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in p^{↑}+p collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of 5 standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities η>0.5, and for pair masses around the mass of the ρ meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p+p collisions.

  14. Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in p↑+p at √{s }=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, Z. M.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Y. F.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in p↑+p collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of 5 standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities η >0.5 , and for pair masses around the mass of the ρ meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p +p collisions.

  15. Rotating scanning polarization profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukup, J.; Green, P.W.; Holm, L.; Korkmaz, E.; Mullin, S.; Roy, G.; Stocki, a.T. [Dept. of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2N5 (Canada); Berdoz, A.R.; Birchal, J.; Campbell, J.R.; Hamian, A.A.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Reitzner, S.D.; Sekulovich, A.M.; van Oers, a.W.T.H. [Dept. of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Bowman, J.D.; Mischke, R.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Davis, C.A.; Healey, D.C.; Helmer, R.; Levy, C.D.P.; Schmor, a.P.W. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Titov, N.A.; Zelenskii, A.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, SU 117312 (Russian Federation)

    1995-05-05

    A polarimeter capable of determining transverse component polarization profile of the 222 MeV proton beam both in horizontal ({ital x}) and vertical ({ital y}) directions with faster than 1 Hz scanning frequency has been developed and built as part of the preparations in the TRIUMF Experiment 497 measuring the flavour conserving hadronic weak interaction (parity violation measurement). The design features and test performance results are presented. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  16. In-situ electron and ion measurements and observed gravity wave effects in the polar mesosphere during the MaCWAVE program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Croskey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Langmuir probe electron and ion measurements from four instrumented rockets flown during the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically program are reported. Two of the rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, in the summer of 2002. Electron scavenging by ice particulates produced reductions of the electron density in both sharp narrow (≈1–2 km layers and as a broad (≈13 km depletion. Small-scale irregularities were observed in the altitude regions of both types of electron depletion. The scale of the irregularities extended to wavelengths comparable to those used by ground-based radars in observing PMSE. In regions where ice particles were not present, analysis of the spectral signatures provided reasonable estimates of the energy deposition from breaking gravity waves. Two more instrumented rockets were flown from Esrange, Sweden, in January 2003. Little turbulence or energy deposition was observed during one flight, but relatively large values were observed during the other flight. The altitude distribution of the observed turbulence was consistent with observations of a semidiurnal tide and gravity wave instability effects as determined by ground-based lidar and radar measurements and by falling sphere measurements of the winds and temperatures (Goldberg et al., 2006; Williams et al., 2006.

  17. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  18. Plane waves in a thermally conducting viscous liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    MS received 29 April 2002; revised 17 July 2003. Abstract. The aim of this paper is to investigate plane waves in a thermally conducting viscous liquid half-space with thermal relaxation times. There exist three basic waves, namely; thermal wave, longitudinal wave and transverse wave in a thermally conducting viscous ...

  19. Measuring the flexoelectric coefficient of bulk barium titanate from a shock wave experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Taotao; Deng, Qian; Liang, Xu; Shen, Shengping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a phenomenon of polarization introduced by shock waves is experimentally studied. Although this phenomenon has been reported previously in the community of physics, this is the first time to link it to flexoelectricity, the coupling between electric polarization and strain gradients in dielectrics. As the shock waves propagate in a dielectric material, electric polarization is thought to be induced by the strain gradient at the shock front. First, we control the first-order hydrogen gas gun to impact and generate shock waves in unpolarized bulk barium titanate (BT) samples. Then, a high-precision oscilloscope is used to measure the voltage generated by the flexoelectric effect. Based on experimental results, strain elastic wave theory, and flexoelectric theory, a longitudinal flexoelectric coefficient of the bulk BT sample is calculated to be μ 11 = 17.33 × 10 - 6 C/m, which is in accord with the published transverse flexoelectric coefficient. This method effectively suppresses the majority of drawbacks in the quasi-static and low frequency dynamic techniques and provides more reliable results of flexoelectric behaviors.

  20. Coherent scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a polarized particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agre, M.Ya.; Rapoport, L.P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of the theory of coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves by a polarized atom or molecular system. Peculiarities of the angular distribution and polarization peculiarities of scattered radiation are discussed

  1. Transverse correlation: An efficient transverse flow estimator - initial results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Henze, Lasse; Kortbek, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Color flow mapping has become an important clinical tool, for diagnosing a wide range of vascular diseases. Only the velocity component along the ultrasonic beam is estimated, so to find the actual blood velocity, the beam to flow angle has to be known. Because of the unpredictable nature...... for estimating the transverse velocity component. The method measures the transverse velocity component by estimating the transit time of the blood between two parallel lines beamformed in receive. The method has been investigated using simulations performed with Field II. Using 15 emissions per estimate...

  2. First results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Gurnett

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report we present the first results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation. The four Cluster spacecraft were successfully placed in closely spaced, high-inclination eccentric orbits around the Earth during two separate launches in July – August 2000. Each spacecraft includes a wideband plasma wave instrument designed to provide high-resolution electric and magnetic field wave-forms via both stored data and direct downlinks to the NASA Deep Space Network. Results are presented for three commonly occurring magnetospheric plasma wave phenomena: (1 whistlers, (2 chorus, and (3 auroral kilometric radiation. Lightning-generated whistlers are frequently observed when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. Usually the same whistler can be detected by all spacecraft, indicating that the whistler wave packet extends over a spatial dimension at least as large as the separation distances transverse to the magnetic field, which during these observations were a few hundred km. This is what would be expected for nonducted whistler propagation. No case has been found in which a strong whistler was detected at one spacecraft, with no signal at the other spacecraft, which would indicate ducted propagation. Whistler-mode chorus emissions are also observed in the inner region of the magnetosphere. In contrast to lightning-generated whistlers, the individual chorus elements seldom show a one-to-one correspondence between the spacecraft, indicating that a typical chorus wave packet has dimensions transverse to the magnetic field of only a few hundred km or less. In one case where a good one-to-one correspondence existed, significant frequency variations were observed between the spacecraft, indicating that the frequency of the wave packet may be evolving as the wave propagates. Auroral kilometric radiation, which is an intense radio emission generated along the auroral field lines, is frequently observed over the polar regions. The

  3. First results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Gurnett

    Full Text Available In this report we present the first results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation. The four Cluster spacecraft were successfully placed in closely spaced, high-inclination eccentric orbits around the Earth during two separate launches in July – August 2000. Each spacecraft includes a wideband plasma wave instrument designed to provide high-resolution electric and magnetic field wave-forms via both stored data and direct downlinks to the NASA Deep Space Network. Results are presented for three commonly occurring magnetospheric plasma wave phenomena: (1 whistlers, (2 chorus, and (3 auroral kilometric radiation. Lightning-generated whistlers are frequently observed when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. Usually the same whistler can be detected by all spacecraft, indicating that the whistler wave packet extends over a spatial dimension at least as large as the separation distances transverse to the magnetic field, which during these observations were a few hundred km. This is what would be expected for nonducted whistler propagation. No case has been found in which a strong whistler was detected at one spacecraft, with no signal at the other spacecraft, which would indicate ducted propagation. Whistler-mode chorus emissions are also observed in the inner region of the magnetosphere. In contrast to lightning-generated whistlers, the individual chorus elements seldom show a one-to-one correspondence between the spacecraft, indicating that a typical chorus wave packet has dimensions transverse to the magnetic field of only a few hundred km or less. In one case where a good one-to-one correspondence existed, significant frequency variations were observed between the spacecraft, indicating that the frequency of the wave packet may be evolving as the wave propagates. Auroral kilometric radiation, which is an intense radio emission generated along the auroral field lines, is frequently observed over the polar regions. The

  4. Coherent states with elliptical polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Colavita, E.; Hacyan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Coherent states of the two dimensional harmonic oscillator are constructed as superpositions of energy and angular momentum eigenstates. It is shown that these states are Gaussian wave-packets moving along a classical trajectory, with a well defined elliptical polarization. They are coherent correlated states with respect to the usual cartesian position and momentum operators. A set of creation and annihilation operators is defined in polar coordinates, and it is shown that these same states ...

  5. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass

  6. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  7. Waves in Strong Centrifugal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    Dynamics of waves generated by scopes in gas centrifuges (GC) for isotope separation is considered. The centrifugal acceleration in the GC reaches values of the order of 106g. The centrifugal and Coriolis forces modify essentially the conventional sound waves. Three families of the waves with different polarization and dispersion exist in these conditions. Dynamics of the flow in the model GC Iguasu is investigated numerically. Comparison of the results of the numerical modeling of the wave dynamics with the analytical predictions is performed. New phenomena of the resonances in the GC is found. The resonances occur for the waves polarized along the rotational axis having the smallest dumping due to the viscosity.

  8. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  9. Effects of Transverse Magnetic Anisotropy on Current-Induced Spin Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Spin-polarized transport through bistable magnetic adatoms or single-molecule magnets (SMMs), which exhibit both uniaxial and transverse magnetic anisotropy, is considered theoretically. The main focus is on the impact of transverse anisotropy on transport characteristics and the adatom's/SMM's spin. In particular, we analyze the role of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in the mechanism of the current-induced spin switching, and show that the QTM phenomenon becomes revealed as resonan...

  10. Longitudinal and transverse pyroelectric effects in a chiral ferroelectric liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonskii, S. V., E-mail: yablonskii2005@yandex.ru; Bondarchuk, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Soto-Bustamante, E. A.; Romero-Hasler, P. N. [Universidad de Chile (Chile); Ozaki, M. [Osaka University, Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Yoshino, K. [Shimane Institute for Industrial Technology (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we compare the results of experimental investigations of longitudinal and transverse pyroelectric effects in a chiral ferroelectric crystal. In a transverse geometry, we studied freely suspended liquid-crystal films. In both geometries, samples exhibited bistability, demonstrating stable pyroelectric signals of different polarities at zero voltage. It is shown that a bistable cell based on a freely suspended film requires 40 times less energy expenditures as compared to the conventional sandwich-type cell.

  11. In-situ electron and ion measurements and observed gravity wave effects in the polar mesosphere during the MaCWAVE program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Croskey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Langmuir probe electron and ion measurements from four instrumented rockets flown during the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically program are reported. Two of the rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, in the summer of 2002. Electron scavenging by ice particulates produced reductions of the electron density in both sharp narrow (≈1–2 km layers and as a broad (≈13 km depletion. Small-scale irregularities were observed in the altitude regions of both types of electron depletion. The scale of the irregularities extended to wavelengths comparable to those used by ground-based radars in observing PMSE. In regions where ice particles were not present, analysis of the spectral signatures provided reasonable estimates of the energy deposition from breaking gravity waves.

    Two more instrumented rockets were flown from Esrange, Sweden, in January 2003. Little turbulence or energy deposition was observed during one flight, but relatively large values were observed during the other flight. The altitude distribution of the observed turbulence was consistent with observations of a semidiurnal tide and gravity wave instability effects as determined by ground-based lidar and radar measurements and by falling sphere measurements of the winds and temperatures (Goldberg et al., 2006; Williams et al., 2006.

  12. Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L + or - S to T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived.

  13. Solitary waves in particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Since space charge waves on a particle beam exhibit both dispersive and nonlinear character, solitary waves or solitons are possible. Dispersive, nonlinear wave propagation in high current beams is found to be similar to ion-acoustic waves in plasmas with an analogy between Debye screening and beam pipe shielding. Exact longitudinal solitary wave propagation is found for potentials associated with certain transverse distributions which fill the beam pipe. For weak dispersion, the waves satisfy the Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation, but for strong dispersion they exhibit breaking. More physically realizable distributions which do not fill the beam pipe are investigated and shown to also satisfy a KdV equation for weak dispersion if averaging over rapid transverse motion is physically justified. Scaling laws are presented to explore likely parameter regimes where these phenomena may be observed experimentally

  14. Single transverse mode protein laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Itir Bakis; Min, Kyungtaek; Umar, Muhammad; Bahmani Jalali, Houman; Begar, Efe; Conkar, Deniz; Firat Karalar, Elif Nur; Kim, Sunghwan; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2017-12-01

    Here, we report a single transverse mode distributed feedback (DFB) protein laser. The gain medium that is composed of enhanced green fluorescent protein in a silk fibroin matrix yields a waveguiding gain layer on a DFB resonator. The thin TiO2 layer on the quartz grating improves optical feedback due to the increased effective refractive index. The protein laser shows a single transverse mode lasing at the wavelength of 520 nm with the threshold level of 92.1 μJ/ mm2.

  15. Crova's Disc: A Way to Make Sound Waves "Visible."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Explained are the differences between and offered are examples of longitudinal and transverse sound waves. Described is the construction of the Crova's Disc, a device used in the teaching of the propagation and properties of sound waves. (DS)

  16. Architectures and assessment of next-generation CMB polarization instruments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cosmological inflation predicts a background of gravitational waves that imprint a characteristic polarized pattern on the CMB. This signal is degraded by...

  17. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  18. Measurement of the transverse spin correlations in the decay $Z \\rightarrow \\tau^+\\tau^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Alemany, R; Becker, U; Bazarko, A O; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, F; Turnbull, R M; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G

    1997-01-01

    For tau leptons produced in e^+e^- -> tau^+ tau^- interactions there are, in addition to the longitudinal spin correlations, two independent transverse spin correlations associated with the transverse (within the production plane) and normal (to the production plane) polarization components. A measurement of the transverse-transverse and transverse-normal tau spin correlations in the decay Z -> tau^+ tau^-, C_{TT} and C_{TN}, is presented based on the aplanarity angle of the decay products of both tau leptons. Using 80 pb^{-1} of data collected by ALEPH on the peak of the Z resonance, the results are C_{TT} = 1.06 +- 0.13 (stat) +- 0.05 (syst), and C_{TN} = 0.08 +- 0.13 (stat) +- 0.04 (syst). These values are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions, C_{TT} = 0.99 and C_{TN} = -0.01.

  19. Measurement of the transverse spin correlations in the decay Z -> τ+τ-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Coy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Becker, U.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R. M.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Spagnolo, P.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Choi, Y.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zobernig, G.

    1997-02-01

    For τ leptons produced in e+e- -> τ+τ- interactions there are, in addition to the longitudinal spin correlations, two independent transverse spin correlations associated with the transverse (within the production plane) and normal (to the production plane) polarization components. A measurement of the transverse-transverse and transverse-normal τ spin correlations in the decay Z -> τ+τ-, CTT and CTN, is presented based on the aplanarity angle of the decay products of both τ leptons. Using 80 pb-1 of data collected by ALEPH on the peak of the Z resonance, the results are CTT = 1.06 +/- 0.13 (stat) +/- 0.05 (syst), and CTN = 0.08 +/- 0.13 (stat) +/- 0.04 (syst). These values are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions, CTT = 0.99 and CTN = -0.01.

  20. An eastward propagating compressional Pc 5 wave observed by AMPTE/CCE in the postmidnight sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; McEntire, R.W.; Zanetti, L.J.; Lopez, R.E.; Kistler, L.M.; Ipavich, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Data from three instruments, the magnetometer, the charge-energy-mass spectrometer, and the medium-energy particle analyzer onboard the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft have been used to study a compressional Pc 5 wave observed at 1925-2200 UT on day 202 (July 21) of 1986 at a radial distance of ≅ 8 R E in the postmidnight sector near the beginning of minor geomagnetic activity. The wave exhibited harmonically related transverse and compressional magnetic oscillations, modulation of the flux of medium energy protons (E approx-gt 10 keV), and a large azimuthal wave number (m ∼ 65). These properties are similar to those of compressional Pc 5 waves observed previously at geostationary orbit. The unique observations associated with the CCE event are the occurrence in the postmidnight sector, the eastward (or sunward) propagation with respect to the spacecraft, and the left-handed polarization of the perturbed magnetic field. These are opposite to previous geostationary observations. The authors propose that the unique propagation and polarization are propagating westward in the plasma rest frame, appears to propagate eastward to the observer because the electric field drift velocity is larger than the wave phase velocity