WorldWideScience

Sample records for polarized sum frequency

  1. Quantitative Surface Chirality Detection with Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy: Twin Polarization Angle Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Feng; Xu, Yanyan; Guo, Yuan; Liu, Shi-lin; Wang, Hongfei

    2009-01-01

    Here we report a novel twin polarization angle (TPA) approach in the quantitative chirality detection with the surface sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS). Generally, the achiral contribution dominates the surface SFG-VS signal, and the pure chiral signal is usually two or three orders of magnitude smaller. Therefore, it has been difficult to make quantitative detection and analysis of the chiral contributions to the surface SFG-VS signal. In the TPA method, by varying together the polarization angles of the incoming visible light and the sum frequency signal at fixed s or p polarization of the incoming infrared beam, the polarization dependent SFG signal can give not only direct signature of the chiral contribution in the total SFG-VS signal, but also the accurate measurement of the chiral and achiral components in the surface SFG signal. The general description of the TPA method is presented and the experiment test of the TPA approach is also presented for the SFG-VS from the S- and R-limonene chiral liquid surfaces. The most accurate degree of chiral excess values thus obtained for the 2878 cm -1 spectral peak of the S- and R-limonene liquid surfaces are (23.7±0.4)% and (25.4±1.3)%, respectively.

  2. Circularly polarized infrared and visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy: Vibrational optical activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Sangheon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2005-01-01

    Vibrational optical activity spectroscopies utilizing either circularly polarized ir or circularly polarized visible beams were theoretically investigated by considering the infrared and visible sum-frequency-generation (IV-SFG) schemes. In addition to the purely electric dipole-allowed chiral component of the IV-SFG susceptibility, the polarizability-electric quadrupole hyperpolarizability term also contributes to the vibrationally resonant IV-SFG susceptibility. The circular-intensity-difference signal is shown to be determined by the interferences between the all-electric dipole-allowed chiral component and the polarizability-electric-dipole or electric-dipole-electric-quadrupole Raman optical activity tensor components. The circularly polarized SFG methods are shown to be potentially useful coherent spectroscopic tools for determining absolute configurations of chiral molecules in condensed phases

  3. Polarization entanglement of sum-frequency photons: A tool to probe the Markovian limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Victor; Chelli, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    The article addresses the possibility of entanglement-specific infrared-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. In the case of an anisotropic interface, it is possible to employ SSS and PSS polarizations to detect responses not only specific to χY Y Y and χX Y Y nonlinearities, but also to higher-order χ(Y Y Y )(X Y Y ) and χ(X Y Y )(Y Y Y ) nonlinearities. Using quantum mechanical studies of the rhenium complex [Re (OH) 3(CO) 3] as a molecular model, we demonstrate that if such complexes would form an anisotropic orientational distribution at a surface, under the considered geometry and the polarization settings, we may prepare quantum correlated C =O vibrational states to emit polarization-entangled photons. Accordingly, we explore the possibility of a polarization-measurement protocol to extract spectral signatures of the entangled states. The response would be informative on intramolecular interactions. As a result, we discuss the possible practical implications in probing dynamics at interfaces, and different opportunities in the preparation of entangled vibrational states of quantified fidelity.

  4. Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellin, M.J.; Biwer, B.M.; Schauer, M.W.; Frye, J.M.; Gruen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are increasingly being used as in situ surface probes. These techniques are coherent and inherently surface sensitive by the nature of the mediums response to intense laser light. Here we will review these two techniques using aqueous corrosion as an example problem. Aqueous corrosion of technologically important materials such as Fe, Ni and Cr proceeds from a reduced metal surface with layer by layer growth of oxide films mitigated by compositional changes in the chemical makeup of the growing film. Passivation of the metal surface is achieved after growth of only a few tens of atomic layers of metal oxide. Surface Second Harmonic Generation and a related nonlinear laser technique, Sum Frequency Generation have demonstrated an ability to probe the surface composition of growing films even in the presence of aqueous solutions. 96 refs., 4 figs

  5. Quantum Mechanical Calculations of Vibrational Sum-Frequency-Generation (SFG) Spectra of Cellulose: Dependence of the CH and OH Peak Intensity on the Polarity of Cellulose Chains within the SFG Coherence Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M; Chen, Xing; Weiss, Philip A; Jensen, Lasse; Kim, Seong H

    2017-01-05

    Vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy is capable of selectively detecting crystalline biopolymers interspersed in amorphous polymer matrices. However, the spectral interpretation is difficult due to the lack of knowledge on how spatial arrangements of crystalline segments influence SFG spectra features. Here we report time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of cellulose crystallites in intimate contact with two different polarities: parallel versus antiparallel. TD-DFT calculations reveal that the CH/OH intensity ratio is very sensitive to the polarity of the crystallite packing. Theoretical calculations of hyperpolarizability tensors (β abc ) clearly show the dependence of SFG intensities on the polarity of crystallite packing within the SFG coherence length, which provides the basis for interpretation of the empirically observed SFG features of native cellulose in biological systems.

  6. Volume sums of polar Blaschke–Minkowski homomorphisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we establish Minkowski and Aleksandrov–Fenchel type inequalities for the volume sum of polars of Blaschke–Minkowski homomorphisms. Keywords. Blaschke–Minkowski homomorphism; volume differences; volume sum; projection body operator. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 52A40, 52A30. 1.

  7. Sum frequency generation for surface vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.H.; Guyot-Sionnest, P.; Shen, Y.R.

    1987-01-01

    Surface vibrational spectroscopy is one of the best means for characterizing molecular adsorbates. For this reason, many techniques have been developed in the past. However, most of them suffer from poor sensitivity, low spectral and temporal resolution, and applications limited to vacuum solid interfaces. Recently, the second harmonic generation (SHG) technique was proved repeatedly to be a simple but versatile surface probe. It is highly sensitive and surface specific; it is also capable of achieving high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. Being an optical technique, it can be applied to any interface accessible by light. The only serious drawback is its lack of molecular selectivity. An obvious remedy is the extension of the technique to IR-visible sum frequency generation (SFG). Surface vibrational spectroscopy with submonolayer sensitivity is then possible using SFG with the help of a tunable IR laser. The authors report here an SFG measurement of the C-H stretch vibration of monolayers of molecules at air-solid and air-liquid interfaces

  8. Sum-frequency nonlinear Cherenkov radiation generated on the boundary of bulk medium crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Cao, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Ren, Huaijin; Deng, Xuewei; Chen, Xianfeng

    2015-12-14

    We demonstrated experimentally a method to generate the sum-frequency Nonlinear Cherenkov radiation (NCR) on the boundary of bulk medium by using two synchronized laser beam with wavelength of 1300 nm and 800 nm. It is also an evidence that the polarization wave is always confined to the boundary. Critical conditions of surface sum-frequency NCR under normal and anomalous dispersion condition is discussed.

  9. Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... We present our studies on dual wavelength operation using a single Nd:YVO4 crystal and its intracavity sum frequency generation by considering the influence of the thermal lensing effect on the performance of the laser. A KTP crystal cut for type-II phase matching was used for intracavity sum frequency ...

  10. Sum-frequency generation echo and grating from interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The work addresses spectroscopy of fourth-order Sum Frequency Generation Echo and Grating responses as an experimental tool to study structure and dynamics at interfaces. First, it addresses experimental geometry to extract background-free fourth-order Echo and Grating responses. Further, the article provides the analytical expressions of the response functions for these nonlinearities. The derived expressions are used to model the χ (4) two-dimensional spectral responses of a hydrated methyl acetate, which resembles a hydrated carbonyl moiety at the polar outer side of a phospholipid membrane. Orientation, transition dipole moments, and Raman tensors are obtained from the results of classical and quantum calculations, respectively. The numerical studies for the nonlinear responses under different polarization schemes and timings suggest the possibility of securely factoring of spectral contributions of χ YYYZX and χ YYYZY macroscopic susceptibilities. As such, the nonlinearities provide an experimental perspective on orientation of a generic (low-symmetry) molecular system at interfaces. Besides, the spectral properties of the tensors may reflect correlations of the in-plane and out-of-plane field components specific to the interface. For the case of a phospholipid membrane, the experiment would address in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy of hydrogen bonding and related dynamics

  11. Sum-frequency generation echo and grating from interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, Victor [Bereozovaya 2A, Konstantinovo, Moscow Region 140207 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-14

    The work addresses spectroscopy of fourth-order Sum Frequency Generation Echo and Grating responses as an experimental tool to study structure and dynamics at interfaces. First, it addresses experimental geometry to extract background-free fourth-order Echo and Grating responses. Further, the article provides the analytical expressions of the response functions for these nonlinearities. The derived expressions are used to model the χ{sup (4)} two-dimensional spectral responses of a hydrated methyl acetate, which resembles a hydrated carbonyl moiety at the polar outer side of a phospholipid membrane. Orientation, transition dipole moments, and Raman tensors are obtained from the results of classical and quantum calculations, respectively. The numerical studies for the nonlinear responses under different polarization schemes and timings suggest the possibility of securely factoring of spectral contributions of χ{sub YYYZX} and χ{sub YYYZY} macroscopic susceptibilities. As such, the nonlinearities provide an experimental perspective on orientation of a generic (low-symmetry) molecular system at interfaces. Besides, the spectral properties of the tensors may reflect correlations of the in-plane and out-of-plane field components specific to the interface. For the case of a phospholipid membrane, the experiment would address in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy of hydrogen bonding and related dynamics.

  12. Unidirectional ring-laser operation using sum-frequency mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A technique enforcing unidirectional operation of ring lasers is proposed and demonstrated. The approach relies on sum-frequency mixing between a single-pass laser and one of the two counterpropagating intracavity fields of the ring laser. Sum-frequency mixing introduces a parametric loss for the...... where lossless second-order nonlinear materials are available. Numerical modeling and experimental demonstration of parametric-induced unidirectional operation of a diode-pumped solid-state 1342 nm cw ring laser are presented.......A technique enforcing unidirectional operation of ring lasers is proposed and demonstrated. The approach relies on sum-frequency mixing between a single-pass laser and one of the two counterpropagating intracavity fields of the ring laser. Sum-frequency mixing introduces a parametric loss...

  13. Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... petition leading to instability in the output sum frequency power and ... Nd:YVO4 crystal has been identified as one of the promising laser materials for diode ... very important to achieve small laser mode size as well as proper ...

  14. Dynamical local field, compressibility, and frequency sum rules for quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The finite temperature dynamical response function including the dynamical local field is derived within a quasiparticle picture for interacting one-, two-, and three-dimensional Fermi systems. The correlations are assumed to be given by a density-dependent effective mass, quasiparticle energy shift, and relaxation time. The latter one describes disorder or collisional effects. This parametrization of correlations includes local-density functionals as a special case and is therefore applicable for density-functional theories. With a single static local field, the third-order frequency sum rule can be fulfilled simultaneously with the compressibility sum rule by relating the effective mass and quasiparticle energy shift to the structure function or pair-correlation function. Consequently, solely local-density functionals without taking into account effective masses cannot fulfill both sum rules simultaneously with a static local field. The comparison to the Monte Carlo data seems to support such a quasiparticle picture

  15. Frequency dependent polarization in blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernsson, C.I.

    1984-10-01

    It is argued that the intrinsic frequency dependent polarization in blazars finds its most straightforward explanations in terms of a single rather than a multicomponent sourcemodel. In order to reproduce the observations, under the assumption that the emission mechanism is optically thin synchrotron radiation, both a well ordered magnetic field and an electron distribution with a sharp break or cuttoff are necessary. Non-uniform pitch angle distribution and/or environments where synchrotron losses are important are both conducive to producing strong frequency dependent polarization. Reasons are put forth as to why such conditions ar expected to occur in blazars. Two specific models are discussed in detail and it is shown that they are both able to produce strong frequency dependent polarization, even when the spectral index changes by a small amount only. (orig.)

  16. Orientations of nonlocal vibrational modes from combined experimental and theoretical sum frequency spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, Hilary M.; Chen, Shunli; Fu, Li; Upshur, Mary Alice; Rudshteyn, Benjamin; Thomson, Regan J.; Wang, Hong-Fei; Batista, Victor S.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2017-09-01

    Inferring molecular orientations from vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra is challenging in polarization combinations that result in low signal intensities, or when the local point group symmetry approximation fails. While combining experiments with density functional theory (DFT) could overcome this problem, the scope of the combined method has yet to be established. Here, we assess its feasibility of determining the distributions of molecular orientations for one monobasic ester, two epoxides and three alcohols at the vapor/fused silica interface. We find that molecular orientations of nonlocal vibrational modes cannot be determined using polarization-resolved SFG measurements alone.

  17. Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Na [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-02-13

    Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers.

  18. Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Na

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers

  19. Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Hydrogenation Reactions on Platinum Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krier, James M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-08-31

    Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is used to characterize intermediate species of hydrogenation reactions on the surface of platinum nanoparticle catalysts. In contrast to other spectroscopy techniques which operate in ultra-high vacuum or probe surface species after reaction, SFG collects information under normal conditions as the reaction is taking place. Several systems have been studied previously using SFG on single crystals, notably alkene hydrogenation on Pt(111). In this thesis, many aspects of SFG experiments on colloidal nanoparticles are explored for the first time. To address spectral interference by the capping agent (PVP), three procedures are proposed: UV cleaning, H2 induced disordering and calcination (core-shell nanoparticles). UV cleaning and calcination physically destroy organic capping while disordering reduces SFG signal through a reversible structural change by PVP.

  20. Sum frequency generation for studying plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roke, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Interaction of a plasma with a surface results in chemical and physical restructuring of the surface as well as the plasma in the vicinity of the surface. Studying such a reorganization of the atoms and molecules in the surface layer requires optical tools that can penetrate the plasma environment. At the same time, surface specificity is required. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) is an optical method that fulfills these requirements. SFG has been developed into a surface specific probe during the eighties and nineties. Nowadays SFG is routinely applied in the research of complex interfaces. In such experiments, liquid/gas, solid/gas, solid/liquid, or liquid/liquid interfaces are probed, and the chemical surface composition, orientational distribution, order and chirality can be retrieved. An application to investigate plasma-wall interactions is feasible too.

  1. Sensibility to Changes of Vibrational Modes of Excited Electron: Sum Frequency Signals Versus Difference Frequency Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Anna; Liang Xianting

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a two electronic level system with vibrational modes coupled to a Brownian oscillator bath. The difference frequency generation (DFG) signals and sum frequency generation (SFG) signals are calculated. It is shown that, for the same model, the SFG signals are more sensitive than the DFG signals to the changes of the vibrational modes of the electronic two-level system. Because the SFG conversion efficiency can be improved by using the time-delay method, the findings in this paper predict that the SFG spectrum may probe the changes of the microstructure more effectively. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  2. Theoretical study of sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy on limonene surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ren-Hui; Liu, Hao; Jing, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Bo-Yang; Shi, Qiang; Wei, Wen-Mei

    2014-01-01

    By combining molecule dynamics (MD) simulation and quantum chemistry computation, we calculate the surface sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS) of R-limonene molecules at the gas-liquid interface for SSP, PPP, and SPS polarization combinations. The distributions of the Euler angles are obtained using MD simulation, the ψ-distribution is between isotropic and Gaussian. Instead of the MD distributions, different analytical distributions such as the δ-function, Gaussian and isotropic distributions are applied to simulate surface SFVS. We find that different distributions significantly affect the absolute SFVS intensity and also influence on relative SFVS intensity, and the δ-function distribution should be used with caution when the orientation distribution is broad. Furthermore, the reason that the SPS signal is weak in reflected arrangement is discussed

  3. Theoretical study of sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy on limonene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ren-Hui, E-mail: zrh@iccas.ac.cn; Liu, Hao; Jing, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Bo-Yang; Shi, Qiang [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Wei, Wen-Mei [Department of Chemistry, College of Basic Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China)

    2014-03-14

    By combining molecule dynamics (MD) simulation and quantum chemistry computation, we calculate the surface sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS) of R-limonene molecules at the gas-liquid interface for SSP, PPP, and SPS polarization combinations. The distributions of the Euler angles are obtained using MD simulation, the ψ-distribution is between isotropic and Gaussian. Instead of the MD distributions, different analytical distributions such as the δ-function, Gaussian and isotropic distributions are applied to simulate surface SFVS. We find that different distributions significantly affect the absolute SFVS intensity and also influence on relative SFVS intensity, and the δ-function distribution should be used with caution when the orientation distribution is broad. Furthermore, the reason that the SPS signal is weak in reflected arrangement is discussed.

  4. High-order sum and difference-frequency generation in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.K.; Perry, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation provides a new method for generating coherent, XUV radiation. These harmonics are characterized by a rapid, pertubative drop at low orders, followed by a broad plateau extending to photon energies of 150 eV in the lighter, rare gas atoms. An experimentally observed limit coincides with the theoretical limit for harmonic generation in neutral atoms given by the expression E c (eV)=IP(0)+3U p (I), where E c is the energy cutoff of the harmonic plateau, IP(O) is the field-free ionization potential and U p is the electron quiver energy at the maximum intensity, I seen by the atom. As part of an effort to develop this technique into a general purpose XUV source, extensive work to understand the phase-matching between the harmonic and driving fields, and the resulting effect on the conversion efficiency, angular distribution and spectral brightness has been undertaken at several. Though, certain aspects of the harmonically generated radiation such as the polarization, relative strength of a given harmonic, and the plateau extent, are defined by the single atom-field interaction. Specifically, the single-atom harmonic spectrum is determined primarily by the interaction of a driven, quasi-free electron with the atomic potential. Using two, independent fields one can affect the electron motion by controlling the relative strength, polarization, and phase of the fields and alter the harmonic spectrum. In this paper we discuss initial, two-color experiments where we drive the atom with two fields of different frequencies: 1053 nm (1ω) and 526 nm (2ω). In addition to the higher, odd harmonics, we observe sets of three additional peaks that we attribute to sum and difference-frequency generation between the two fields. By controlling the relative polarization between the two fields we can control the relative strength of the harmonic and mixing components, as well as the polarization of the output XUV photon

  5. Lindhard's polarization parameter and atomic sum rules in the local plasma approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Apell, P.; Oddershede, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the effects of Lindhard polarization parameter, χ, on the sum rule, Sp, within the local plasma approximation (LPA) as well as on the logarithmic sum rule Lp = dSp/dp, in both cases for the system in an initial excited state. We show results for a hydrogenic atom with nuc......In this work, we analyze the effects of Lindhard polarization parameter, χ, on the sum rule, Sp, within the local plasma approximation (LPA) as well as on the logarithmic sum rule Lp = dSp/dp, in both cases for the system in an initial excited state. We show results for a hydrogenic atom...... in terms of a screened charge Z* for the ground state. Our study shows that by increasing χ, the sum rule for p0 it increases, and the value p=0 provides the normalization/closure relation which remains fixed to the number of electrons for the same initial state. When p is fixed...

  6. Quantitative spectral and orientational analysis in surface sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Fei; Gan, Wei; Lu, Rong; Rao, Yi; Wu, Bao-Hua

    Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) has been proven to be a uniquely effective spectroscopic technique in the investigation of molecular structure and conformations, as well as the dynamics of molecular interfaces. However, the ability to apply SFG-VS to complex molecular interfaces has been limited by the ability to abstract quantitative information from SFG-VS experiments. In this review, we try to make assessments of the limitations, issues and techniques as well as methodologies in quantitative orientational and spectral analysis with SFG-VS. Based on these assessments, we also try to summarize recent developments in methodologies on quantitative orientational and spectral analysis in SFG-VS, and their applications to detailed analysis of SFG-VS data of various vapour/neat liquid interfaces. A rigorous formulation of the polarization null angle (PNA) method is given for accurate determination of the orientational parameter D = /, and comparison between the PNA method with the commonly used polarization intensity ratio (PIR) method is discussed. The polarization and incident angle dependencies of the SFG-VS intensity are also reviewed, in the light of how experimental arrangements can be optimized to effectively abstract crucial information from the SFG-VS experiments. The values and models of the local field factors in the molecular layers are discussed. In order to examine the validity and limitations of the bond polarizability derivative model, the general expressions for molecular hyperpolarizability tensors and their expression with the bond polarizability derivative model for C3v, C2v and C∞v molecular groups are given in the two appendixes. We show that the bond polarizability derivative model can quantitatively describe many aspects of the intensities observed in the SFG-VS spectrum of the vapour/neat liquid interfaces in different polarizations. Using the polarization analysis in SFG-VS, polarization selection rules or

  7. On the twist-2 contributions to polarized structure functions and new sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Kochelev, N.

    1996-03-01

    The twist-2 contributions to the polarized structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering are calculated including the exchange of weak bosons and using both the operator product expansion and the covariant parton model. A new relation between two structure functions leading to a sequence of new sum rules is found. The light quark mass corrections to the structure functions are derived in lowest order QCD. (orig.)

  8. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts: Disordering versus Removal of Organic Capping

    KAUST Repository

    Krier, James M.; Michalak, William D.; Baker, L. Robert; An, Kwangjin; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work with nanoparticle catalysts shows that size and shape control on the nanometer scale influences reaction rate and selectivity. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying heterogeneous

  9. Implementation of bright six-partite entanglement by coupled intracavity sum frequency generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Le; Liu, Yuzhu; Zhang, Yanan; Wu, Hongyan; Gong, Chengxuan; Zhang, Ruofan; Zhang, Houyuan; Fan, JingYu

    2018-04-01

    Bright six-partite continuous-variable (CV) entanglement generated by the coupled intracavity sum frequency generation is investigated. The entanglement characteristics of reflected pump fields and the output sum frequency fields are discussed theoretically in symmetric and asymmetric cases by applying van Loock and Furusawa criteria for multipartite CV entanglement. Such compact tunable multipartite CV entanglement, generated from an experimentally feasible coupled system, could be used in integrated quantum communication and networks.

  10. Scaling laws and sum rules for the B-mode polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the microwave background polarization anisotropies is investigated when the stochastic Faraday rate is stationary, random and Markovian. The scaling properties of the polarization power spectra and of their nonlinear combinations are scrutinized as a function of the comoving frequency. It is argued that each frequency channel of a given experiment measuring simultaneously the E-mode and the B-mode spectra can be analyzed in this framework with the aim of testing the physical origin of the polarization in a model-independent perspective.

  11. Determination of the Bjorken Sum and Strong Coupling from Polarized Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, G; Altarelli, Guido; Ball, Richard D.; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We present a NLO perturbative analysis of all available data on the polarized structure function g_1(x,Q^2) with the aim of making a quantitative test of the validity of the Bjorken sum rule, of measuring \\alpha_s, and of deriving helicity fractions. We take particular care over the small x extrapolation, since it is now known that Regge behaviour is unreliable at perturbative scales. For fixed \\alpha_s we find that if all the most recent data are included g_A=1.18\\pm0.09, confirming the Bjorken sum rule at the 8% level. We further show that the value of \\alpha_s is now reasonably well constrained by scaling violations in the structure function data, despite the fact that it cannot yet be reliably fixed by the value of the Bjorken sum: our final result is \\alpha_s(m_Z) = 0.120+0.010-0.008. We also confirm earlier indications of a sizeable positive gluon polarization in the nucleon.

  12. Sum frequency generation of CO on (III) and polycrystalline platinum electrode surfaces: Evidence for SFG invisible surface CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldelli, S.; Markovic, N.; Ross, P.; Shen, Y.R.; Somorjai, G.

    1999-10-21

    The vibrational spectroscopy sum frequency generation (SFG) is used to investigate the adsorption of carbon monoxide on the single crystal (111) and polycrystalline platinum surfaces. By varying the frequency and polarization of the light beams, different surface species of CO species are probed. SFG signal intensities for different polarization indicate that adsorbed CO polarizability is significantly perturbed from the gas-phase molecule. The SFG signal of CO disappears well below the main oxidation potential of CO to CO{sub 2}. The disappearance of the CO signal is interpreted as a transformation in the CO layer to a state which is invisible to SFG. The invisible state is suggested to be CO with the bond axis nearly parallel to the platinum surface.

  13. The α3S corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for polarized electro-production and to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, S.A.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica; Vermaseren, J.A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The next-next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule for deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering and to the Bjorken sum rule for polarized electron-nucleon scattering have been computed. This involved the proper treatment of γ 5 inside the loop integrals with dimensional regularization. It is found that the difference between the two sum rules are entirely due to a class of 6 three loop graphs and is of the order of 1% of the leading QCD term. Hence the Q 2 behavior of both sum rules should be the same if the physics is described adequately by the lower order terms of perturbative QCD. (author). 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  14. Singly-resonant sum frequency generation of visible light in a semiconductor disk laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Schlosser, P.J.; Hastie, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a generic approach for visible light generation is presented. It is based on sum frequency generation between a semiconductor disk laser and a solid-state laser, where the frequency mixing is achieved within the cavity of the semiconductor disk laser using a singlepass of the solid......-state laser light. This exploits the good beam quality and high intra-cavity power present in the semiconductor disk laser to achieve high conversion efficiency. Combining sum frequency mixing and semiconductor disk lasers in this manner allows in principle for generation of any wavelength within the visible...

  15. Generation and tunable enhancement of a sum-frequency signal in lithium niobate nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, Anton; Reig Escalé, Marc; Grange, Rachel

    2017-02-01

    Recent developments in the fabrication of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) structures down to the nanoscale opens up novel applications of this versatile material in nonlinear optics. Current nonlinear optical studies in sub-micron waveguides are mainly restricted to the generation of second and third harmonics. In this work, we demonstrate the generation and waveguiding of the sum-frequency generation (SFG) signal in a single LiNbO3 nanowire with a cross-section of 517 nm  ×  654 nm. Furthermore, we enhance the guided SFG signal 17.9 times by means of modal phase matching. We also display tuning of the phase-matched wavelength by varying the nanowire cross-section and changing the polarization of the incident laser. The results prove that LiNbO3 nanowires can be successfully used for nonlinear wave-mixing applications and assisting the miniaturization of optical devices. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J Phys D. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Rachel Grange was selected by the Editorial Board of J Phys D as an Emerging Leader.

  16. Infrared renormalons and the relations between the Gross-Llewellyn Smith and the Bjorken polarized and unpolarized sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataev, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the infrared renormalon calculus indicates that the QCD theoretical expressions for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule and for the Bjorken polarized and unpolarized ones contain an identical negative twist-4 1/Q 2 correction. This observation is supported by the consideration of the results of calculations of the corresponding twist-4 matrix elements. Together with the indication of the similarity of perturbative QCD contributions to these three sum rules, this observation leads to simple new theoretical relations between the Gross-Llewellyn Smith and Bjorken polarized and unpolarized sum rules in the energy region Q 2 ≥ 1 GeV 2 . The validity of this relation is checked using concrete experimental data for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith and Bjorken polarized sum rules [ru

  17. Frequency dependence of polarization phase difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Rao, Y.S.; Wang, J.R.

    1993-09-01

    Polarimetric AIRSAR data of July 13, 1990 acquired over Mahatango watershed area was processed for the identification of corn fields an forested areas. Polarization Phase Difference (PPD) values were computed for the corn fields at P-, L- and C- bands and studied as a function of frequency. The results compare well with the model calculations at 24 deg. incidence angle where as the locations of corn fields were computed to be at 35 deg. incidence angle. The discrepancy is attributed to lack of accurate ground truth and the undulating topography of the corn fields. Another study reported here deals with the usefulness of Polarization Index (PI) for the study of vegetation. PI was found to be dependent on frequency for corn fields where as for forest trees no such dependence was noticed. PI HH,HV is more useful parameter compared to PI HH,VV even for the study of corn fields. (author). 19 refs, 7 figs

  18. Giant enhancement of sum-frequency yield by surface-plasmon excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, E. W. M.; Vrehen, Q. H. F.; Eliel, E. R.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Valieva, E. V.; Kuzik, L. A.; Petrov, J. E.; Sychugov, V. A.; van der Meer, A. F. G.

    1999-01-01

    We show experimentally that the radiation generated in infrared-visible sum-frequency mixing at an air-silver interface can be greatly enhanced when the visible input beam excites a surface plasmon-polariton at the interface. With either a prism or a grating used to couple the visible radiation with

  19. Studies of Interfacial Regions by Sum-Frequency Generation with a Free-Electron Laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eliel, E. R.; van der Ham, E. W. M.; Vrehen, Q. H. F.; Thooft, G. W.; Barmentlo, M.; Auerhammer, J. M.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; van Amersfoort, P. W.

    1995-01-01

    The use of a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) allows the study of (non)linear optical properties of materials over unsurpassed large spectral intervals. As an example, we report on the use of a FEL as the infrared source in spectroscopic infrared-visible Sum-Frequency Generation (SFG). Employing the

  20. Theory of sum-frequency generation spectroscopy of adsorbed molecules using the density matrix method-broadband vibrational sum-frequency generation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, M; Ueba, H; Wolf, M

    2005-01-01

    A generalized theory of frequency- and time-resolved vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy of adsorbates at surfaces is presented using the density matrix formalism. Our theoretical treatment is specifically aimed at addressing issues that accompany the relatively novel SFG approach using broadband infrared pulses. The ultrashort duration of these pulses makes them ideally suited for time-resolved investigations, for which we present a complete theoretical treatment. A second key characteristic of these pulses is their large bandwidth and high intensity, which allow for highly non-linear effects, including vibrational ladder climbing of surface vibrations. We derive general expressions relating the density matrix to SFG spectra, and apply these expressions to specific experimental results by solving the coupled optical Bloch equations of the density matrix elements. Thus, we can theoretically reproduce recent experimentally demonstrated hot band SFG spectra using femtosecond broadband infrared excitation of carbon monoxide (CO) on a Ru(001) surface

  1. A new sum rule relating the deep-inelastic polarized structure function to the cross section of photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretune, Susumu

    1993-01-01

    A sum rule which relates the deep-inelastic polarized structure function g 1 p (x,Q 2 ) to the cross section of photoproduction, (σ 3/2 -σ 1/2 ), is derived. This rule makes it possible to compare the integral of g 1 p (x,Q 2 ) with the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule without worrying about contributions from higher twist terms. Further this sum rule shows that there may exist a dynamical mechanism which relates the low energy region to the high energy one. It is conjectured that the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the vacuum is the origin of this mechanism. (author)

  2. Sum frequency generation image reconstruction: Aliphatic membrane under spherical cap geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, Victor [Bereozovaya 2A, Konstantinovo, Moscow Region 140207 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-07

    The article explores an opportunity to approach structural properties of phospholipid membranes using Sum Frequency Generation microscopy. To establish the principles of sum frequency generation image reconstruction in such systems, at first approach, we may adopt an idealistic spherical cap uniform assembly of hydrocarbon molecules. Quantum mechanical studies for decanoic acid (used here as a representative molecular system) provide necessary information on transition dipole moments and Raman tensors of the normal modes specific to methyl terminal – a typical moiety in aliphatic (and phospholipid) membranes. Relative degree of localization and frequencies of the normal modes of methyl terminals make nonlinearities of this moiety to be promising in structural analysis using Sum Frequency Generation imaging. Accordingly, the article describes derivations of relevant macroscopic nonlinearities and suggests a mapping procedure to translate amplitudes of the nonlinearities onto microscopy image plane according to geometry of spherical assembly, local molecular orientation, and optical geometry. Reconstructed images indicate a possibility to extract local curvature of bilayer envelopes of spherical character. This may have practical implications for structural extractions in membrane systems of practical relevance.

  3. Probing a molecular electronic transition by two-colour sum-frequency generation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, C.; Dreesen, L.; Nihonyanagi, S.; Masuda, T.; Kondo, T.; Mani, A.A.; Uosaki, K.; Thiry, P.A.; Peremans, A.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that a new emerging technique, two-colour sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, can be used to probe the molecular electronic properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). In the CH spectral range (2800-3200 cm -1 ), we show that the sum-frequency generation signal of a porphyrin alkanethiol derivative adsorbed on Pt(1 1 1) reaches a maximum intensity at ∼435 nm SFG wavelength. This wavelength corresponds to the porphyrin moiety specific π-π* molecular electronic transition which is called the Soret or B band. This resonant behaviour is not observed for 1-dodecanethiol SAMs, which are devoid of molecular electronic transition in the investigated visible spectral range

  4. Highly efficient single-pass sum frequency generation by cascaded nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2015-01-01

    , despite differences in the phase relations of the involved fields. An unprecedented 5.5 W of continuous-wave diffraction-limited green light is generated from the single-pass sum frequency mixing of two diode lasers in two periodically poled nonlinear crystals (conversion efficiency 50%). The technique......The cascading of nonlinear crystals has been established as a simple method to greatly increase the conversion efficiency of single-pass second-harmonic generation compared to a single-crystal scheme. Here, we show for the first time that the technique can be extended to sum frequency generation...... is generally applicable and can be applied to any combination of fundamental wavelengths and nonlinear crystals....

  5. Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopic study of crystalline cellulose in biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong H.; Lee, Christopher M.; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Yong Bum; Xi, Xiaoning

    2013-09-01

    The noncentrosymmetry requirement of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy allows selective detection of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls and lignocellulose biomass without spectral interferences from hemicelluloses and lignin. In addition, the phase synchronization requirement of the SFG process allows noninvasive investigation of spatial arrangement of crystalline cellulose microfibrils in the sample. This paper reviews how these principles are applied to reveal structural information of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls and biomass.

  6. Large enhancement of deuteron polarization with frequency modulated microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arik, S; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin,; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birda, I G; Birsa, R; Bjrkholm, P; Bonner, B E; de Botton, N; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bressan, A; Brullc, A; Buchanan, J; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Chen, J P; Clement, J; Clocchiatti, M; Corcoran, M D; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Deshpande, S; Dalla Torre, A; Van Dantzig, R; Dhawan, S; Dulya, C; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Day, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, B; Garabatos, C; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Giorgi, M; von Goeler, E; Goloutvin, Igor A; Gómez, A; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gülmez, E; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, D; von Harrach, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; De Jong, M; Kabu, E M; Kageya, T; Kaiser, R; Karev, A; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T J; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kishi, A; Kisselev, Yu; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Kukhtin, V; Kyynarinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Lau, V; Krivokhijinea, K; Layda, T; Le Go, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; López-Ponte, S; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B; McCarthy, J S; van Middelkoop, K; Medved, G; Miller, D; Mitchell, J; Mori, K; Moromisato, J; Mutchler, G S; Nagaitsev, A; Nassalski, J; Naumann, Lutz; Neganov, B; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J E J; Ogawa, A; Okumi, S; Ozben, C S; Penzo, Aldo L; Pérez, C A; Perrot-Kunne, F; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, D; Peshekhonov, H; Pretz, J; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Reyhancan, I; Rieubland, Jean Michel; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, E; Rondon, O; Ropelewski, Leszek; Rosado, A; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Salvato, G; Sandacz, A; Sanders, D; Savin, I; Schiavon, Paolo; Schüler, K P; Segel, R; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y; Sergeev, S; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Smirnov, G; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stuhrmann, H; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Thiel, W; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, R; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Willumeit, R; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Yañez, A; Zanetti, A M; Zhao, J; Zamiatin, N I

    1996-01-01

    We report a large enhancement of 1.7 in deuteron polarization up to values of 0.6 due to frequency modulation of the polarizing microwaves in a two liters polarized target using the method of dynamic nuclear polarization. This target was used during a deep inelastic polarized muon-deuteron scattering experiment at CERN. Measurements of the electron paramagnetic resonance absorption spectra show that frequency modulation gives rise to additional microwave absorption in the spectral wings. Although these results are not understood theoretically, they may provide a useful testing ground for the deeper understanding of dynamic nuclear polarization.

  7. Toward a simple molecular understanding of sum frequency generation at air-water interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah-Vanhoucke, Joyce; Smith, Jared D.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2009-01-13

    Second-order vibrational spectroscopies successfully isolate signals from interfaces, but they report on intermolecular structure in a complicated and indirect way. Here we adapt a perspective on vibrational response developed for bulk spectroscopies to explore the microscopic fluctuations to which sum frequency generation (SFG), a popular surface-specific measurement, is most sensitive. We focus exclusively on inhomogeneous broadening of spectral susceptibilities for OH stretching of HOD as a dilute solute in D{sub 2}O. Exploiting a simple connection between vibrational frequency shifts and an electric field variable, we identify several functions of molecular orientation whose averages govern SFG. The frequency-dependence of these quantities is well captured by a pair of averages, involving alignment of OH and OD bonds with the surface normal at corresponding values of the electric field. The approximate form we obtain for SFG susceptibility highlights a dramatic sensitivity to the way a simulated liquid slab is partitioned for calculating second-order response.

  8. Efficient generation of 509 nm light by sum-frequency mixing between two tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawfieq, Mahmoud; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a concept for visible laser sources based on sum-frequency generation of beam com- bined tapered diode lasers. In this specific case, a 1.7 W sum-frequency generated green laser at 509 nm is obtained, by frequency adding of 6.17 W from a 978 nm tapered diode laser with 8.06 W from...... a 1063 nm tapered diode laser, inside a periodically poled MgO doped lithium niobate crystal. This corresponds to an optical to optical conversion ef fi ciency of 12.1%. As an example of potential applica- tions, the generated nearly diffraction-limited green light is used for pumping a Ti:sapphire laser......, thus demonstrating good beam quality and power stability. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 226 mW (CW) and 185 mW (mode-locked) at 1.7 W green pump power. The optical spectrum emitted by the mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser shows a spectral width of about 54 nm...

  9. Photon wave function formalism for analysis of Mach–Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritboon, Atirach, E-mail: atirach.3.14@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112 (Thailand); Daengngam, Chalongrat, E-mail: chalongrat.d@psu.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112 (Thailand); Pengpan, Teparksorn, E-mail: teparksorn.p@psu.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112 (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon wave function similar to the matter wave function that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon wave function formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach–Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon wave function formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.

  10. Nonlinear beam clean-up using resonantly enhanced sum-frequency mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Emir; Pedersen, Christian; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of improving the beam quality and obtaining high conversion efficiency in nonlinear sum-frequency generation. A 765 nm beam from an external cavity tapered diode laser is single-passed through a nonlinear crystal situated in the high intracavity field of a 1342 nm N......:YVO4 laser, generating a SFG beam at 488 nm. The ECDL have MH^2=1.9 and MV^2=2.4 and the solid-state laser has M^2...

  11. All-solid-state continuous-wave doubly resonant all-intracavity sum-frequency mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, H M; Heine, F; Huber, G; Halldórsson, T

    1997-10-01

    A new resonator design for doubly resonant continuous-wave intracavity sum-frequency mixing is presented. We generated 212 mW of coherent radiation at 618 nm by mixing the radiation of a 1080-nm Nd(3+):YAlO(3) laser and a 1444-nm Nd(3+):YAG laser. Two different mixing resonator setups and several nonlinear-optical crystals were investigated. So far output is limited by unequal performance of the two fundamental lasers and coating problems of the nonlinear crystals.

  12. Photon wave function formalism for analysis of Mach–Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritboon, Atirach; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Pengpan, Teparksorn

    2016-01-01

    Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon wave function similar to the matter wave function that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon wave function formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach–Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon wave function formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.

  13. Conformation, orientation and interaction in molecular monolayers: A surface second harmonic and sum frequency generation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superfine, R.; Huang, J.Y.; Shen, Y.R.

    1988-12-01

    We have used sum frequency generation (SFG) to study the order in a silane monolayer before and after the deposition of a coadsorbed liquid crystal monolayer. We observe an increase in the order of the chain of the silane molecule induced by the interpenetration of the liquid crystal molecules. By using second harmonic generation (SHG) and SFG, we have studied the orientation and conformation of the liquid crystal molecule on clean and silane coated glass surfaces. On both surfaces, the biphenyl group is tilted by 70 degree with the alkyl chain end pointing away from the surface. The shift in the C-H stretch frequencies in the coadsorbed system indicates a significant interaction between molecules. 9 refs., 3 figs

  14. Optical sum-frequency generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Kowligy, Abijith S; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate sum-frequency generation between a telecom wavelength and the Rb D2 line, achieved through natural phase matching in a nonlinear whispering gallery mode resonator. Due to the strong optical field confinement and ultra high Q of the cavity, the process saturates already at sub-mW pump peak power, at least two orders of magnitude lower than in existing waveguide-based devices. The experimental data are in agreement with the nonlinear dynamics and phase matching theory based on spherical geometry. Our experimental and theoretical results point toward a new platform for manipulating the color and quantum states of light waves for applications such as atomic memory based quantum networking and logic operations with optical signals. (paper)

  15. Combined IR-Raman vs vibrational sum-frequency heterospectral correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandra; Beutier, Clémentine; Hore, Dennis K.

    2018-06-01

    Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy is a valuable probe of surface structure, particularly when the same molecules are present in one of the adjacent bulk solid or solution phases. As a result of the non-centrosymmetric requirement of SFG, the signal generated is a marker of the extent to which the molecules are ordered in an arrangement that breaks the up-down symmetry at the surface. In cases where the accompanying changes in the bulk are of interest in understanding and interpreting the surface structure, simultaneous analysis of the bulk IR absorption or bulk Raman scattering is helpful, and may be used in heterospectral surface-bulk two-dimensional correlation. We demonstrate that, in such cases, generating a new type of bulk spectrum that combines the IR and Raman amplitudes is a better candidate than the individual IR and Raman spectra for the purpose of correlation with the SFG signal.

  16. Combining total internal reflection sum frequency spectroscopy spectral imaging and confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeyer, Edward S; Sterling, Sarah M; Gunewardene, Mudalige S; Hess, Samuel T; Neivandt, David J; Mason, Michael D

    2015-01-27

    Understanding surface and interfacial lateral organization in material and biological systems is critical in nearly every field of science. The continued development of tools and techniques viable for elucidation of interfacial and surface information is therefore necessary to address new questions and further current investigations. Sum frequency spectroscopy (SFS) is a label-free, nonlinear optical technique with inherent surface specificity that can yield critical organizational information on interfacial species. Unfortunately, SFS provides no spatial information on a surface; small scale heterogeneities that may exist are averaged over the large areas typically probed. Over the past decade, this has begun to be addressed with the advent of SFS microscopy. Here we detail the construction and function of a total internal reflection (TIR) SFS spectral and confocal fluorescence imaging microscope directly amenable to surface investigations. This instrument combines, for the first time, sample scanning TIR-SFS imaging with confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  17. Simulation and Automation of Microwave Frequency Control in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization for Solid Polarized Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Gonaduwage; Johnson, Ian; Keller, Dustin

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is used in most of the solid polarized target scattering experiments. Those target materials must be irradiated using microwaves at a frequency determined by the difference in the nuclear Larmor and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) frequencies. But the resonance frequency changes with time as a result of radiation damage. Hence the microwave frequency should be adjusted accordingly. Manually adjusting the frequency can be difficult, and improper adjustments negatively impact the polarization. In order to overcome these difficulties, two controllers were developed which automate the process of seeking and maintaining the optimal frequency: one being a standalone controller for a traditional DC motor and the other a LabVIEW VI for a stepper motor configuration. Further a Monte-Carlo simulation was developed which can accurately model the polarization over time as a function of microwave frequency. In this talk, analysis of the simulated data and recent improvements to the automated system will be presented. DOE.

  18. Frequency and Polarization Diversity Jamming of Communications in Urban Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulama, Tuncay

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate how to exploit frequency and polarization techniques in reducing the effects of jamming against UAV relay communication links in an urban warfare environment...

  19. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O.

    1995-01-01

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength λ=8.5 μm suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length Nλ. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users' experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 μm have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up

  20. Sum frequency generation spectroscopy of tetraalkylphosphonium ionic liquids at the air-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalber-Johnstone, Chariz; Adamová, Gabriela; Plechkova, Natalia V.; Bahrami, Maryam; Ghaed-Sharaf, Tahereh; Ghatee, Mohammad Hadi; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Baldelli, Steven

    2018-05-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is a nonlinear vibrational spectroscopic technique used in the study of interfaces, due to its unique ability to distinguish surface molecules that have preferential ordering compared to the isotropic bulk. Here, a series of alkyltrioctylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids, systematically varied by cation structure, were characterized at the air-liquid interface by SFG. The effect on surface structure resulting from molecular variation (i.e., addition of cyano- and methoxy-functional groups) of the cation alkyl chain was investigated. SFG spectra in the C—H stretching region (2750-3100 cm-1) for [P8 8 8 n][Cl], where n = 4, 5, 8, 10, 12, or 14, showed characteristic changes as the alkyl chain length was increased. Spectral profiles for n = 4, 5, 8, or 10 appeared similar; however, when the fourth alkyl chain was sufficiently long (as in the case of n = 12 or n = 14), abrupt changes occurred in the spectra. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of a slab of each ionic liquid (with n = 8, 10, or 12) confirmed gauche defects, with enhancement for the long alkyl chain and an abrupt increase of gauche occurrence from n = 8 to n = 10. A comparison of the tilt angle distribution from the simulation and the SFG analysis show a broad distribution of angles. Using experimental SFG spectra in conjunction with MD simulations, a comprehensive molecular picture at the surface of this unique class of liquids is presented.

  1. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts: Disordering versus Removal of Organic Capping

    KAUST Repository

    Krier, James M.

    2012-08-23

    Recent work with nanoparticle catalysts shows that size and shape control on the nanometer scale influences reaction rate and selectivity. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying heterogeneous catalysis because it enables the observation of surface intermediates during catalytic reactions. To control the size and shape of catalytic nanoparticles, an organic ligand was used as a capping agent to stabilize nanoparticles during synthesis. However, the presence of an organic capping agent presents two major challenges in SFG and catalytic reaction studies: it blocks a significant fraction of active surface sites and produces a strong signal that prevents the detection of reaction intermediates with SFG. Two methods for cleaning Pt nanoparticles capped with poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) are examined in this study: solvent cleaning and UV cleaning. Solvent cleaning leaves more PVP intact and relies on disordering with hydrogen gas to reduce the SFG signal of PVP. In contrast, UV cleaning depends on nearly complete removal of PVP to reduce SFG signal. Both UV and solvent cleaning enable the detection of reaction intermediates by SFG. However, solvent cleaning also yields nanoparticles that are stable under reaction conditions, whereas UV cleaning results in aggregation during reaction. The results of this study indicate that solvent cleaning is more advantageous for studying the effects of nanoparticle size and shape on catalytic selectivity by SFG vibrational spectroscopy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Structure and orientation of interfacial proteins determined by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy: method and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shuji; Wei, Feng; Li, Hongchun; Tian, Kangzhen; Luo, Yi

    2013-01-01

    In situ and real-time characterization of molecular structures and orientation of proteins at interfaces is essential to understand the nature of interfacial protein interaction. Such work will undoubtedly provide important clues to control biointerface in a desired manner. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) has been demonstrated to be a powerful technique to study the interfacial structures and interactions at the molecular level. This paper first systematically introduced the methods for the calculation of the Raman polarizability tensor, infrared transition dipole moment, and SFG molecular hyperpolarizability tensor elements of proteins/peptides with the secondary structures of α-helix, 310-helix, antiparallel β-sheet, and parallel β-sheet, as well as the methodology to determine the orientation of interfacial protein secondary structures using SFG amide I spectra. After that, recent progresses on the determination of protein structure and orientation at different interfaces by SFG-VS were then reviewed, which provides a molecular-level understanding of the structures and interactions of interfacial proteins, specially understanding the nature of driving force behind such interactions. Although this review has focused on analysis of amide I spectra, it will be expected to offer a basic idea for the spectral analysis of amide III SFG signals and other complicated molecular systems such as RNA and DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolentsev, Nikolay; Chen, Yixing; Roke, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.roke@epfl.ch [Laboratory for Fundamental Biophotonics (LBP), Institute of Bioengineering (IBI), School of Engineering STI, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jena, Kailash C. [Laboratory for Fundamental Biophotonics (LBP), Institute of Bioengineering (IBI), School of Engineering STI, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, 140001 (India); Brown, Matthew A. [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-11-14

    The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena.

  4. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, Nikolay; Chen, Yixing; Jena, Kailash C.; Brown, Matthew A.; Roke, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena.

  5. Elucidation of Compression-Induced Surface Crystallization in Amorphous Tablets Using Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Pei T; Novakovic, Dunja; Saarinen, Jukka; Van Landeghem, Stijn; Peltonen, Leena; Laaksonen, Timo; Isomäki, Antti; Strachan, Clare J

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of compression on the crystallization behavior in amorphous tablets using sum frequency generation (SFG) microscopy imaging and more established analytical methods. Tablets containing neat amorphous griseofulvin with/without excipients (silica, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were prepared. They were analyzed upon preparation and storage using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SFG microscopy. Compression-induced crystallization occurred predominantly on the surface of the neat amorphous griseofulvin tablets, with minimal crystallinity being detected in the core of the tablets. The presence of various types of excipients was not able to mitigate the compression-induced surface crystallization of the amorphous griseofulvin tablets. However, the excipients affected the crystallization rate of amorphous griseofulvin in the core of the tablet upon compression and storage. SFG microscopy can be used in combination with ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and SEM to understand the crystallization behaviour of amorphous tablets upon compression and storage. When selecting excipients for amorphous formulations, it is important to consider the effect of the excipients on the physical stability of the amorphous formulations.

  6. Small Molecules and Sum Frequency Generation Probes of Nanoparticulate TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane

    2006-03-01

    Anatase TiO2 is known to photo catalytically mineralize a wide variety of pollutants and pathogens, both airborne and in aqueous solution. One of the major benefits of basing water treatment systems on TiO2 is that it is environmentally benign and so non toxic that it is used as a colorant in creamy salad dressing. The primary impediment to wide spread implementation of a TiO2 based system for water decontamination is that the quantum efficiency in contact with condense phase water is less than 5%. Since the quantum efficiency for destruction of airborne materials is greater than 80%, the potential for increased efficiency is very real. To convert the potential to practice, the oxidation mechanism needs to be more fully understood. We will report on the results of using a nonlinear optical spectroscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) as an in situ probe of interactions at the TiO2 surface. Results suggest that the dominant oxidation mechanism converts from a direct to an indirect mechanism as the water content (vapor pressure) increases. This presentation will discuss the probe technique as well as the results.

  7. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolentsev, Nikolay; Chen, Yixing; Roke, Sylvie; Jena, Kailash C.; Brown, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena

  8. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy of planar phosphatidylethanolamine hybrid bilayer membranes under water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kett, Peter J N; Casford, Michael T L; Davies, Paul B

    2010-06-15

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has been used to study the structure of phosphatidylethanolamine hybrid bilayer membranes (HBMs) under water at ambient temperatures. The HBMs were formed using a modified Langmuir-Schaefer technique and consisted of a layer of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) physisorbed onto an octadecanethiol (ODT) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) at a series of surface pressures from 1 to 40 mN m(-1). The DPPE and ODT were selectively deuterated so that the contributions to the SFG spectra from the two layers could be determined separately. SFG spectra in both the C-H and C-D stretching regions confirmed that a monolayer of DPPE had been adsorbed to the ODT SAM and that there were gauche defects within the alkyl chains of the phospholipid. On adsorption of a layer of DPPE, methylene modes from the ODT SAM were detected, indicating that the phospholipid had partially disordered the alkanethiol monolayer. SFG spectra recorded in air indicated that removal of water from the surface of the HBM resulted in disruption of the DPPE layer and the formation of phospholipid bilayers.

  9. Sum-Frequency-Generation-Based Laser Sidebands for Tunable Femtosecond Raman Spectroscopy in the Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangdong Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS is an emerging molecular structural dynamics technique for functional materials characterization typically in the visible to near-IR range. To expand its applications we have developed a versatile FSRS setup in the ultraviolet region. We use the combination of a narrowband, ~400 nm Raman pump from a home-built second harmonic bandwidth compressor and a tunable broadband probe pulse from sum-frequency-generation-based cascaded four-wave mixing (SFG-CFWM laser sidebands in a thin BBO crystal. The ground state Raman spectrum of a laser dye Quinolon 390 in methanol that strongly absorbs at ~355 nm is systematically studied as a standard sample to provide previously unavailable spectroscopic characterization in the vibrational domain. Both the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra can be collected by selecting different orders of SFG-CFWM sidebands as the probe pulse. The stimulated Raman gain with the 402 nm Raman pump is >21 times larger than that with the 550 nm Raman pump when measured at the 1317 cm−1 peak for the aromatic ring deformation and ring-H rocking mode of the dye molecule, demonstrating that pre-resonance enhancement is effectively achieved in the unique UV-FSRS setup. This added tunability in the versatile and compact optical setup enables FSRS to better capture transient conformational snapshots of photosensitive molecules that absorb in the UV range.

  10. Theoretical vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy of water near lipid and surfactant monolayer interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S.; Gruenbaum, S. M.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, 1101 University Ave., University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Understanding the structure of water near cell membranes is crucial for characterizing water-mediated events such as molecular transport. To obtain structural information of water near a membrane, it is useful to have a surface-selective technique that can probe only interfacial water molecules. One such technique is vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. As model systems for studying membrane headgroup/water interactions, in this paper we consider lipid and surfactant monolayers on water. We adopt a theoretical approach combining molecular dynamics simulations and phase-sensitive VSFG to investigate water structure near these interfaces. Our simulated spectra are in qualitative agreement with experiments and reveal orientational ordering of interfacial water molecules near cationic, anionic, and zwitterionic interfaces. OH bonds of water molecules point toward an anionic interface leading to a positive VSFG peak, whereas the water hydrogen atoms point away from a cationic interface leading to a negative VSFG peak. Coexistence of these two interfacial water species is observed near interfaces between water and mixtures of cationic and anionic lipids, as indicated by the presence of both negative and positive peaks in their VSFG spectra. In the case of a zwitterionic interface, OH orientation is toward the interface on the average, resulting in a positive VSFG peak.

  11. Efficient generation of continuous-wave yellow-orange light using sum-frequency in periodically poled KTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Johansson, Sandra; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    We present highly efficient sum-frequency generation between two CW 1064 and 1342 nm laser lines of two Nd:YVO4 lasers using periodically poled KTP. This is an all solid-state light source in the yellow-orange spectral range....

  12. Determining In Situ Protein Conformation and Orientation from the Amide-I Sum-Frequency Generation Spectrum: Theory and Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, S.J.; van Dijk, C.N.; Torres Knoop, A.; Backus, E.H.G.; Campen, R.K.; Bonn, M.; Woutersen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectra of the amide-I band of proteins can give detailed insight into biomolecular processes near membranes. However, interpreting these spectra in terms of the conformation and orientation of a protein can be difficult, especially in the case of complex

  13. Multimodal Broadband Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (MM-BB-V-SFG) Spectrometer and Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Huang, Shixin; Kim, Seong H

    2016-01-14

    A broadband sum frequency generation (BB-SFG) spectrometer with multimodal (MM) capabilities was constructed, which could be routinely reconfigured for tabletop experiments in reflection, transmission, and total internal reflection (TIR) geometries, as well as microscopic imaging. The system was constructed using a Ti:sapphire amplifier (800 nm, pulse width = 85 fs, repetition rate = 2 kHz), an optical parameter amplification (OPA) system for production of broadband IR pulses tunable between 1000 and 4000 cm(-1), and two Fabry-Pérot etalons arranged in series for production of narrowband 800 nm pulses. The key feature allowing the MM operation was the nearly collinear alignment of the visible (fixed, 800 nm) and infrared (tunable, 1000-4000 cm(-1)) pulses which were spatially separated. Physical insights discussed in this paper include the comparison of spectral bandwidth produced with 40 and 85 fs pump beams, the improvement of spectral resolution using etalons, the SFG probe volume in bulk analysis, the normalization of SFG signals, the stitching of multiple spectral segments, and the operation in different modes for air/liquid and adsorbate/solid interfaces, bulk samples, as well as spectral imaging combined with principle component analysis (PCA). The SFG spectral features obtained with the MM-BB-SFG system were compared with those obtained with picosecond-scanning-SFG system and high-resolution BB-SFG system (HR-BB-SFG) for dimethyl sulfoxide, α-pinene, and various samples containing cellulose (purified commercial products, Cladophora cell wall, cotton and flax fibers, and onion epidermis cell wall).

  14. Atmospheric pressure reaction cell for operando sum frequency generation spectroscopy of ultrahigh vacuum grown model catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiaz, Matteo; Pramhaas, Verena; Li, Xia; Rameshan, Christoph; Rupprechter, Günther

    2018-04-01

    A new custom-designed ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber coupled to a UHV and atmospheric-pressure-compatible spectroscopic and catalytic reaction cell is described, which allows us to perform IR-vis sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy during catalytic (kinetic) measurements. SFG spectroscopy is an exceptional tool to study vibrational properties of surface adsorbates under operando conditions, close to those of technical catalysis. This versatile setup allows performing surface science, SFG spectroscopy, catalysis, and electrochemical investigations on model systems, including single crystals, thin films, and deposited metal nanoparticles, under well-controlled conditions of gas composition, pressure, temperature, and potential. The UHV chamber enables us to prepare the model catalysts and to analyze their surface structure and composition by low energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy, respectively. Thereafter, a sample transfer mechanism moves samples under UHV to the spectroscopic cell, avoiding air exposure. In the catalytic cell, SFG spectroscopy and catalytic tests (reactant/product analysis by mass spectrometry or gas chromatography) are performed simultaneously. A dedicated sample manipulation stage allows the model catalysts to be examined from LN2 temperature to 1273 K, with gaseous reactants in a pressure range from UHV to atmospheric. For post-reaction analysis, the SFG cell is rapidly evacuated and samples are transferred back to the UHV chamber. The capabilities of this new setup are demonstrated by benchmark results of CO adsorption on Pt and Pd(111) single crystal surfaces and of CO adsorption and oxidation on a ZrO2 supported Pt nanoparticle model catalyst grown by atomic layer deposition.

  15. Sum-frequency spectroscopic studies: I. Surface melting of ice, II. Surface alignment of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Surface vibrational spectroscopy via infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) has been established as a useful tool to study the structures of different kinds of surfaces and interfaces. This technique was used to study the (0001) face of hexagonal ice (Ih). SFG spectra in the O-H stretch frequency range were obtained at various sample temperatures. For the vapor(air)/ice interface, the degree of orientational order of the dangling OH bonds at the surface was measured as a function of temperature. Disordering sets in around 200 K and increases dramatically with temperature, which is strong evidence of surface melting of ice. For the other ice interfaces (silica/OTS/ice and silica/ice), a similar temperature dependence of the hydrogen bonded OH stretch peak was observed; the free OH stretch mode, however, appears to be different from that of the vapor (air)/ice interface due to interactions at the interfaces. The technique was also used to measure the orientational distributions of the polymer chains on a rubbed polyvinyl alcohol surface. Results show that the polymer chains at the surface appear to be well aligned by rubbing, and the adsorbed liquid crystal molecules are aligned, in turn, by the surface polymer chains. A strong correlation exists between the orientational distributions of the polymer chains and the liquid crystal molecules, indicating that the surface-induced bulk alignment of a liquid crystal film by rubbed polymer surfaces is via an orientational epitaxy-like mechanism. This thesis also contains studies on some related issues that are crucial to the above applications. An experiment was designed to measure SFG spectra in both reflection and transmission. The result confirms that SFG in reflection is generally dominated by the surface contribution. Another issue is the motional effect due to fast orientational motion of molecules at a surface or interface. Calculations show that the effect is significant if the molecular orientation varies

  16. A novel iris patterns matching algorithm of weighted polar frequency correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weijie; Jiang, Linhua

    2014-11-01

    Iris recognition is recognized as one of the most accurate techniques for biometric authentication. In this paper, we present a novel correlation method - Weighted Polar Frequency Correlation(WPFC) - to match and evaluate two iris images, actually it can also be used for evaluating the similarity of any two images. The WPFC method is a novel matching and evaluating method for iris image matching, which is complete different from the conventional methods. For instance, the classical John Daugman's method of iris recognition uses 2D Gabor wavelets to extract features of iris image into a compact bit stream, and then matching two bit streams with hamming distance. Our new method is based on the correlation in the polar coordinate system in frequency domain with regulated weights. The new method is motivated by the observation that the pattern of iris that contains far more information for recognition is fine structure at high frequency other than the gross shapes of iris images. Therefore, we transform iris images into frequency domain and set different weights to frequencies. Then calculate the correlation of two iris images in frequency domain. We evaluate the iris images by summing the discrete correlation values with regulated weights, comparing the value with preset threshold to tell whether these two iris images are captured from the same person or not. Experiments are carried out on both CASIA database and self-obtained images. The results show that our method is functional and reliable. Our method provides a new prospect for iris recognition system.

  17. Effect of surface structure on catalytic reactions: A sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, Keith R.

    2001-01-01

    In the results discussed above, it is clear that Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) is a unique tool that allows the detection of vibrational spectra of adsorbed molecules present on single crystal surfaces under catalytic reaction conditions. Not only is it possible to detect active surface intermediates, it is also possible to detect spectator species which are not responsible for the measured turnover rates. By correlating high-pressure SFG spectra under reaction conditions and gas chromatography (GC) kinetic data, it is possible to determine which species are important under reaction intermediates. Because of the flexibility of this technique for studying surface intermediates, it is possible to determine how the structures of single crystal surfaces affect the observed rates of catalytic reactions. As an example of a structure insensitive reaction, ethylene hydrogenation was explored on both Pt(111) and Pt(100). The rates were determined to be essentially the same. It was observed that both ethylidyne and di-(sigma) bonded ethylene were present on the surface under reaction conditions on both crystals, although in different concentrations. This result shows that these two species are not responsible for the measured turnover rate, as it would be expected that one of the two crystals would be more active than the other, since the concentration of the surface intermediate would be different on the two crystals. The most likely active intermediates are weakly adsorbed molecules such as(pi)-bonded ethylene and ethyl. These species are not easily detected because their concentration lies at the detection limit of SFG. The SFG spectra and GC data essentially show that ethylene hydrogenation is structure insensitive for Pt(111) and Pt(100). SFG has proven to be a unique and excellent technique for studying adsorbed species on single crystal surfaces under high-pressure catalytic reactions. Coupled with kinetic data obtained from gas chromatography measurements, it can

  18. Simulation of Terahertz Frequency Sources. Polar-Optical Phonon Enhancement of Harmonic Generation in Schottky Diodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelmont, Boris

    2002-01-01

    ... polar optical vibration frequency When a high frequency input signal is applied to a frequency multiplier device polar-optical phonons can enhance the non-linearities inherent in this device, enabling...

  19. In situ speciation of the functional groups at mineral/electrolyte interfaces by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floersheimer, M.; Kruse, K.; Klenze, R.; Kim, J.I. [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fanghaenel, Th. [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, D-69120, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to describe surface reactivity and adsorption/desorption processes on the molecular level, a large number of functional groups has been postulated. In most cases, however, a direct proof for the existence of these species in real aquatic environment is lacking because it is difficult to obtain chemical analytical information in situ under electrolyte with interface selectivity. Here we apply interface selective sum frequency (SF) vibrational spectroscopy to study the (001) and (110) surfaces of sapphire ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) under water between pH 4 and 12. This work is part of an ongoing fundamental study of the sorption mechanism of actinides on single crystals faces of sapphire by various experimental and theoretical techniques. Sapphire is used as a simple model for natural clay minerals and related iron phases. In the O-H stretch region of the infrared spectrum between 2800 and 4000 cm{sup -1}, we observe a surprisingly large number of 8 SF bands in total. Two of them are due to the polar ordered water film near the mineral surface which is well known from various aquatic interfaces. The other bands originate from up to 6 different aluminol species or from specifically [1] bound water molecules. The prominent peak of the (001) surface (SF intensity maximum at 3690 cm{sup -1}), we attribute to an OH species bridging two [1-4] aluminium atoms. At the (110) surface, the concentration of this species is considerably smaller. Another aluminol species that can be detected at the (001) and the (110) surface (signal maximum near 3450 cm{sup -1}) exhibits O-H bonds which are almost parallel to the interface plane. This species is probably the in-plane aluminol group predicted in recent molecular dynamics calculations [4]. SF spectroscopy allows us also to measure the absolute polar orientation of the water molecules adjacent to the mineral surface. The inversion of the molecules polar orientation upon alteration of the p

  20. Direct comparison of phase-sensitive vibrational sum frequency generation with maximum entropy method: case study of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Alex G F; Samson, Jean-Sebastièn; Hua, Wei; Huang, Zishuai; Chen, Xiangke; Allen, Heather C; Roke, Sylvie

    2011-12-14

    We present a direct comparison of phase sensitive sum-frequency generation experiments with phase reconstruction obtained by the maximum entropy method. We show that both methods lead to the same complex spectrum. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each of these methods, analyzing possible sources of experimental and analytical errors. A simulation program for maximum entropy phase reconstruction is available at: http://lbp.epfl.ch/. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  1. Study of confinement and sliding friction of fluids using sum frequency generation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjundiah, Kumar

    2007-12-01

    Friction and wear are important technologically. Tires on wet roads, windshield wipers and human joints are examples where nanometer-thick liquids are confined between flexible-rigid contact interfaces. Fundamental understanding of the structure of these liquids can assist in the design of products such as artificial joints and lubricants for Micro-electromechanical systems [MEMS]. Prior force measurements have suggested an increase in apparent viscosity of confined liquid and sometimes solid-like responses. But, these have not given the state of molecules under confinement. In the present study, we have used a surface sensitive, non-linear optical technique (infrared-visible sum frequency generation spectroscopy [SFG]) to investigate molecular structure at hidden interfaces. SFG can identify chemical groups, concentration and orientation of molecules at an interface. A friction cell was developed to study sliding of a smooth elastomeric lens against a sapphire surface. Experiments were done with dry sliding as well as lubricated sliding in the presence of linear alkane liquids. SFG spectra at the alkane/sapphire interface revealed ordering of the confined alkane molecules. These were more ordered than alkane liquid, but less ordered than alkane crystal. Cooling of the confined alkane below its melting temperature [TM] led to molecular orientation that was different from that of bulk crystal next to a sapphire surface. Molecules were oriented with their symmetry axis parallel to the surface normal. In addition, the melting temperature [Tconf] under confinement for a series of linear alkanes (n =15--27) showed a surprising trend. Intermediate molecular weights showed melting point depression. The T conf values suggested that melting started at the alkane/sapphire interface. In another investigation, confinement of water between an elastomeric PDMS lens and sapphire was studied. SFG spectra at the sapphire/water/PDMS interface revealed a heterogeneous morphology. The

  2. Influence of collision frequency on neoclassical polarization current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, K; Wilson, H R

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic theory for the evolution of magnetic islands is considered in a tokamak plasma, in both the low (ν i i >> εω) collision frequency limits (ν i is the ion collision frequency, ε is the inverse aspect ratio and ω is the island propagation frequency in the E x B rest frame). The calculation of the bootstrap current perturbation in the presence of a magnetic island is reviewed, and is confirmed to be independent of ω and the collision frequency regime. The neoclassical polarization current perturbation is calculated in the two collision frequency limits (within the banana regime). The result in the collisional limit is in agreement with a fluid theory. The effect of collisions in the 'dissipation layer' at the trapped/passing boundary is also considered, for ν i i /εω] 1/2 , where r is a weak logarithmic function of √ν i /εω.

  3. Single-frequency blue light generation by single-pass sum-frequency generation in a coupled ring cavity tapered laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    A generic approach for generation of tunable single frequency light is presented. 340 mW of near diffraction limited, single-frequency, and tunable blue light around 459 nm is generated by sum-frequency generation (SFG) between two tunable tapered diode lasers. One diode laser is operated in a ring...... cavity and another tapered diode laser is single-passed through a nonlinear crystal which is contained in the coupled ring cavity. Using this method, the single-pass conversion efficiency is more than 25%. In contrast to SFG in an external cavity, the system is entirely self-stabilized with no electronic...

  4. FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION OF POLARIZED LIGHT IN THE Λ-TYPE MULTI-TERM POLARIZED ATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, R. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Sainz, R. Manso [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-06-20

    We study the effects of Rayleigh and Raman scattering on the formation of polarized spectral lines in a Λ-type multi-term atom. We fully take into account the partial redistribution of frequency and the presence of atomic polarization in the lower states of the atomic model. Problems that can be modeled with this formalism include, for example, the formation of the Ca ii H–K and IR triplet, the analogous system of Ba ii, and the Ly β –H α system of hydrogenic ions.

  5. Effects of cations and cholesterol with sphingomyelin membranes investigated by high-resolution broadband sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Feng, Rong-juan; Li, Yi-yi; Liu, Ming-hua; Guo, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Sphingomyelin(SM) is specifically enriched in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. Its molecular structure is compose by N-acyl-Derythro-sphingosylphosphorylcholine. The function of the SM related to membrane signaling and protein trafficking are relied on the interactions of the SM, cations, cholesterol and proteins. In this report, the interaction of three different nature SMs, cations and cholesterol at air/aqueous interfaces studied by high-resolution broadband sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, respectively. Our results shed lights on understanding the relationship between SMs monolayer, cholesterol and Cations.

  6. All-solid-state quasi-CW yellow laser with intracavity self-Raman conversion and sum frequency generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kananovich, A; Grabtchikov, A; Orlovich, V; Demidovich, A; Danailov, M

    2010-01-01

    Quasi continuous-wave (qCW) yellow emission (pulse duration 5 ms, repetition rate 20 Hz) at 559 nm is demonstrated through intracavity sum frequency generation (SFG) of Stokes and fundamental fields in Nd:YVO 4 diode pumped self-Raman laser for the first time. Average in pulse output power at 559 nm was 0.47 W for 22 W of pump power, which corresponds to 2.1% of diode-to-yellow efficiency. The pulsed mode of operation was due to diode pump modulation and was used to reduce thermal stress of the crystal

  7. POLARIZED LINE FORMATION WITH LOWER-LEVEL POLARIZATION AND PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supriya, H. D.; Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Ravindra, B. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034 (India); Stenflo, J. O. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-09-10

    In the well-established theories of polarized line formation with partial frequency redistribution (PRD) for a two-level and two-term atom, it is generally assumed that the lower level of the scattering transition is unpolarized. However, the existence of unexplained spectral features in some lines of the Second Solar Spectrum points toward a need to relax this assumption. There exists a density matrix theory that accounts for the polarization of all the atomic levels, but it is based on the flat-spectrum approximation (corresponding to complete frequency redistribution). In the present paper we propose a numerical algorithm to solve the problem of polarized line formation in magnetized media, which includes both the effects of PRD and the lower level polarization (LLP) for a two-level atom. First we derive a collisionless redistribution matrix that includes the combined effects of the PRD and the LLP. We then solve the relevant transfer equation using a two-stage approach. For illustration purposes, we consider two case studies in the non-magnetic regime, namely, the J {sub a} = 1, J {sub b} = 0 and J {sub a} = J {sub b} = 1, where J {sub a} and J {sub b} represent the total angular momentum quantum numbers of the lower and upper states, respectively. Our studies show that the effects of LLP are significant only in the line core. This leads us to propose a simplified numerical approach to solve the concerned radiative transfer problem.

  8. Second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation for surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.H.; Guyot-Sionnest, P.; Shen, Y.R.

    1987-07-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) has now been well established as a versatile surface-sensitive probe. It has been used to study electrochemical processes at electrode surfaces, molecular adsorption and desorption at metal and semiconductor surfaces, orientational phase transition of molecular monolayers on water, surface reconstruction and epitaxial growth, and so on. More recently, it has been employed as a tool to monitor monolayer polymerization and other surface reactions, to probe polar order of molecules at interfaces, and to measure molecular nonlinearity. While most surface techniques are restricted to the solid/vacuum environment, SHG is applicable to nearly all interfaces as long as the interfaces are accessible by light. In addition, SHG has the advantages of being capable of in-situ measurements with high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions

  9. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy and Kinetic Study of 2-Methylfuran and 2,5-Dimethylfuran Hydrogenation over 7 nm Platinum Cubic Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Aliaga, Cesar; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Alayoglu, Selim; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2011-01-01

    Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements obtained from gas chromatography were used to study the adsorption and hydrogenation of 2-methylfuran (MF) and 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) over cubic Pt nanoparticles of 7 nm

  10. Sum-frequency generation from molecular monolayers using 14 μm radiation from the FELIX free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Ham, E.W.M.; Vrehen, Q.H.F.; Eliel, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    Sum-frequency generation (SFG) has developed into a widely applied tool for study of surfaces and interfaces where molecules are present. It combines the surface specificity of a second-order nonlinear optical technique with the power of a spectroscopic method, and it can be used under widely varying experimental conditions ranging from UHV to electrochemical cells. The important characteristic of SFG is that it allows one to study the average spatial orientation of a molecular bond in a monolayer of molecules at an interface. Until recently SFG measurements were confined to the frequency interval Y μ > 1700 cm -1 because of a lack of suitable laser sources at wave-lengths λ > 6 μm. So for most molecules only a few vibrational modes and thus intramolecular bonds can be studied. We have developed a universal sum-frequency spectrometer around the FELIX free-electron law that covers the complete molecular fingerprint since we can generate any IR wavelength between 2.75 and 110 fμ at the FELIX facility. We have used this setup for a series of exploratory SFG experiments in a frequency range that was hitherto unexplored in the study of molecular monolayers. We have studied thiol monolayers chemisorbed on a variety of noble metals (Au, Ag, Pt) where we focussed on the C-S stretch vibration at ν = 702 cm -1 (λ = 14.3 μm). We have found spectroscopic features revealing the presence of both the trane and gauche conformers of the adsorbed molecules. The present measurements open a whole new wavelength range for nonlinear optical studies of interfaces

  11. Phase distortions in sum- and difference-frequency mixing in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.V.; Bowers, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    We show that if two waves are incident on a quadratically nonlinear crystal, with the third wave generated entirely within the crystal, a phase-velocity mismatch (Δk ≠ 0) leads to intensity-dependent phase shifts of the generated wave only if there is walk-off, linear absorption, or significant diffraction of at least one of the waves as well as significant energy exchange among the waves. The result is frequency broadening and wave-front distortion of the generated wave. Although the induced phase distortions are usually quite small, they may be significant in applications that require high spectral resolution or pointing accuracy

  12. A new approach to sum frequency generation of single-frequency blue light in a coupled ring cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic approach for the generation of tunable single-frequency light and demonstrate generation of more than 300 mW tunable light around 460 nm. One tapered diode laser is operated in a coupled ring cavity containing the nonlinear crystal and another tapered diode laser is sent thro...... through the nonlinear crystal in a single pass. A high conversion efficiency of more than 25 % of the single-pass laser is enabled by the high circulating power in the coupled cavity. The system is entirely self-stabilized with no need for electronic locking....

  13. Collective excitations of strongly coupled bilayer charged Bose liquids in the third-frequency-moment sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tas, Murat; Tanatar, B.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the collective excitation modes of strongly coupled bilayer charged Bose systems. We employ the dielectric matrix formulation to study the correlation effects within the random-phase approximation (RPA), the self consistent field approximation Singwi, Tosi, Land, and Sjoelander (STLS), and the quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA), which satisfies the third-frequency-moment ( 3 >) sum rule. We find that the QLCA predicts a long-wavelength correlation-induced energy gap in the out-of-phase plasmon mode, similar to the situation in electronic bilayer systems. The energy gap and the plasmon density of states are studied as a function of interlayer separation and coupling parameter r s . The results should be helpful for experimental investigations

  14. Salt Effects on Surface Structures of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers (PEMs) Investigated by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Aimin; Matsusaki, Michiya; Qiao, Lin; Akashi, Mitsuru; Ye, Shen

    2016-04-26

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was employed to investigate the surface structures of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) constructed by sequentially alternating adsorption of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). It was found that the surface structures and surface charge density of the as-deposited PEMs of PDDA/PSS significantly depend on the concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl) present in the polyelectrolyte solutions. Furthermore, it was found that the surface structure of the as-deposited PEMs is in a metastable state and will reach the equilibrium state by diffusion of the polyelectrolyte chain after an aging process, resulting in a polyelectrolyte mixture on the PEM surfaces.

  15. Quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy and comparison with other analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, Anna L; Lee, Christopher; Bradley, Laura C; Schreiner, Edward P; Park, Yong Bum; Shin, Heenae; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong H

    2012-07-01

    The non-centrosymmetry requirement of sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy allows the detection and quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulose biomass without spectral interferences from hemicelluloses and lignin. This paper shows a correlation between the amount of crystalline cellulose in biomass and the SFG signal intensity. Model biomass samples were prepared by mixing commercially available cellulose, xylan, and lignin to defined concentrations. The SFG signal intensity was found sensitive to a wide range of crystallinity, but varied non-linearly with the mass fraction of cellulose in the samples. This might be due to the matrix effects such as light scattering and absorption by xylan and lignin, as well as the non-linear density dependence of the SFG process itself. Comparison with other techniques such as XRD, FT-Raman, FT-IR and NMR demonstrate that SFG can be a complementary and sensitive tool to assess crystalline cellulose in biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Total internal reflection sum-frequency generation spectroscopy and dense gold nanoparticles monolayer: a route for probing adsorbed molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourillon, Gerard; Dreesen, Laurent; Volcke, Cedric; Sartenaer, Yannick; Thiry, Paul A; Peremans, Andre

    2007-01-01

    We show that sum-frequency generation spectroscopy performed in the total internal reflection configuration (TIR-SFG) combined with a dense gold nanoparticles monolayer allows us to study, with an excellent signal to noise ratio and high signal to background ratio, the conformation of adsorbed molecules. Dodecanethiol (DDT) was used as probe molecules in order to assess the potentialities of the approach. An enhancement of more than one order of magnitude of the SFG signals arising from the adsorbed species is observed with the TIR geometry compared to the external reflection one while the SFG non-resonant contribution remains the same for both configurations. Although further work is required to fully understand the origin of the SFG process on nanoparticles, our work opens new possibilities for studying nanostructures

  17. Selective detection of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls with sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, Anna L; Bradley, Laura C; Veres, Brandon D; Schreiner, Edward P; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Junyeong; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong H

    2011-07-11

    The selective detection of crystalline cellulose in biomass was demonstrated with sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy. SFG is a second-order nonlinear optical response from a system where the optical centrosymmetry is broken. In secondary plant cell walls that contain mostly cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin with varying concentrations, only certain vibration modes in the crystalline cellulose structure can meet the noninversion symmetry requirements. Thus, SFG can be used to detect and analyze crystalline cellulose selectively in lignocellulosic biomass without extraction of noncellulosic species from biomass or deconvolution of amorphous spectra. The selective detection of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass is not readily achievable with other techniques such as XRD, solid-state NMR, IR, and Raman analyses. Therefore, the SFG analysis presents a unique opportunity to reveal the cellulose crystalline structure in lignocellulosic biomass.

  18. Characterization of polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour by sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opdahl, Aric; Koffas, Telly S; Amitay-Sadovsky, Ella; Kim, Joonyeong; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2004-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour, specifically to study the relationships between the surface properties of polymers and their bulk compositions and the environment to which the polymer is exposed. The combination of SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM has been used to study surface segregation behaviour of polyolefin blends at the polymer/air and polymer/solid interfaces. SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM experiments have also been performed to characterize the properties of polymer/liquid and polymer/polymer interfaces, focusing on hydrogel materials. A method was developed to study the surface properties of hydrogel contact lens materials at various hydration conditions. Finally, the effect of mechanical stretching on the surface composition and surface mechanical behaviour of phase-separated polyurethanes, used in biomedical implant devices, has been studied by both SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM. (topical review)

  19. Wetting effect on optical sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra of D-glucose, D-fructose, and sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Hoang Chi; Li, Hongyan; Miyauchi, Yoshihiro; Mizutani, Goro; Fujita, Naoko; Nakamura, Yasunori

    2015-03-01

    We report a sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy study of D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose in the Csbnd H stretching vibration regime. Wetting effect on the SFG spectra was investigated. The SFG spectrum of D-glucose changed from that of α-D-glucose into those of α-D-glucose monohydrate by wetting. The SFG spectra showed evidence of a small change of β-D-fructopyranose into other anomers by wetting. SFG spectra of sucrose did not change by wetting. Assignments of the vibrational peaks in the SFG spectra of the three sugars in the dry and wet states were performed in the Csbnd H stretching vibration region near 3000 cm-1.

  20. Experimental evidence for an optical interference model for vibrational sum frequency generation on multilayer organic thin film systems. I. Electric dipole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Brien, Daniel B.; Massari, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) applied to organic thin film systems, a significant challenge to data analysis is in the accurate description of optical interference effects. Herein, we provide experimental evidence that a model recently developed in our lab provides an accurate description of this phenomenon. We studied the organic small molecule N,N′-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide vapor deposited as a thickness gradient on silicon wafer substrates with two oxide thicknesses and two surface preps. VSFG data were obtained using the ssp and the sps polarization combinations in the imide carbonyl stretching region as a function of organic thickness. In this first of two reports, the data are modeled and interpreted within the ubiquitous electric dipole approximation for VSFG. The intrinsic sample responses are parameterized during the fitting routines while optical interference effects are simply calculated from the model using known refractive indices, thin film thicknesses, and beam angles. The results indicate that the thin film model provides a good description of optical interferences, indicating that interfacial terms are significant. Inconsistencies between the fitting results within the bounds of the electric dipole response motivate deliberation for additional effects to be considered in the second report

  1. Experimental evidence for an optical interference model for vibrational sum frequency generation on multilayer organic thin film systems. I. Electric dipole approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel B; Massari, Aaron M

    2015-01-14

    In the field of vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) applied to organic thin film systems, a significant challenge to data analysis is in the accurate description of optical interference effects. Herein, we provide experimental evidence that a model recently developed in our lab provides an accurate description of this phenomenon. We studied the organic small molecule N,N'-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide vapor deposited as a thickness gradient on silicon wafer substrates with two oxide thicknesses and two surface preps. VSFG data were obtained using the ssp and the sps polarization combinations in the imide carbonyl stretching region as a function of organic thickness. In this first of two reports, the data are modeled and interpreted within the ubiquitous electric dipole approximation for VSFG. The intrinsic sample responses are parameterized during the fitting routines while optical interference effects are simply calculated from the model using known refractive indices, thin film thicknesses, and beam angles. The results indicate that the thin film model provides a good description of optical interferences, indicating that interfacial terms are significant. Inconsistencies between the fitting results within the bounds of the electric dipole response motivate deliberation for additional effects to be considered in the second report.

  2. Experimental evidence for an optical interference model for vibrational sum frequency generation on multilayer organic thin film systems. I. Electric dipole approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Brien, Daniel B.; Massari, Aaron M., E-mail: massari@umn.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota—Twin Cities, 207 Pleasant Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-01-14

    In the field of vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) applied to organic thin film systems, a significant challenge to data analysis is in the accurate description of optical interference effects. Herein, we provide experimental evidence that a model recently developed in our lab provides an accurate description of this phenomenon. We studied the organic small molecule N,N′-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide vapor deposited as a thickness gradient on silicon wafer substrates with two oxide thicknesses and two surface preps. VSFG data were obtained using the ssp and the sps polarization combinations in the imide carbonyl stretching region as a function of organic thickness. In this first of two reports, the data are modeled and interpreted within the ubiquitous electric dipole approximation for VSFG. The intrinsic sample responses are parameterized during the fitting routines while optical interference effects are simply calculated from the model using known refractive indices, thin film thicknesses, and beam angles. The results indicate that the thin film model provides a good description of optical interferences, indicating that interfacial terms are significant. Inconsistencies between the fitting results within the bounds of the electric dipole response motivate deliberation for additional effects to be considered in the second report.

  3. Two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (2D SFG) reveals structure and dynamics of a surface-bound peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaser, Jennifer E.; Skoff, David R.; Ho, Jia-Jung; Joo, Yongho; Serrano, Arnaldo L.; Steinkruger, Jay D.; Gopalan, Padma; Gellman, Samuel H.; Zanni, Martin T.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-bound polypeptides and proteins are increasingly used to functionalize inorganic interfaces such as electrodes, but their structural characterization is exceedingly difficult with standard technologies. In this paper, we report the first two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (2D SFG) spectra of a peptide monolayer, which is collected by adding a mid-IR pulse shaper to a standard femtosecond SFG spectrometer. On a gold surface, standard FTIR spectroscopy is inconclusive about the peptide structure because of solvation-induced frequency shifts, but the 2D lineshapes, anharmonic shifts, and lifetimes obtained from 2D SFG reveal that the peptide is largely α-helical and upright. Random coil residues are also observed, which do not themselves appear in SFG spectra due to their isotropic structural distribution, but which still absorb infrared light and so can be detected by cross-peaks in 2D SFG spectra. We discuss these results in the context of peptide design. Because of the similar way in which the spectra are collected, these 2D SFG spectra can be directly compared to 2D IR spectra, thereby enabling structural interpretations of surface-bound peptides and biomolecules based on the well-studied structure/2D IR spectra relationships established from soluble proteins. PMID:24372101

  4. Study of the Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid - ag Electrified Interface on the CO_{2} Electroreduction by Sum Frequency Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Rey, Natalia; Dlott, Dana

    2017-06-01

    Imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) have been used as a promising system to improve the CO_{2} electroreduction at lower overpotential than other organic or aqueous electrolytes^{1}. Although the detailed mechanism of the CO_{2} electroreduction on Ag has not been elucidated yet, we have developed a methodology to study the electrified interface during the CO_{2} electroreduction using sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy in combination with cyclic voltammetry^{2}. In this work, we tuned the composition of imidazolium-based ILs by exchanging the anion or the functional groups of the imidazolium. We use the nonresonant SFG (NR-SFG) to study the IL-Ag interface and resonant SFG (RES-SFG) to identify the CO adsorbed on the electrode and monitor the Stark shift as a function of cell potential. In previous studies on CO_{2} electroreduction in the IL: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluorborate (EMIM-BF_{4}) on Ag, we showed three events occurred at the same potential (-1.33 V vs. Ag/AgCl): the current associated with CO_{2} electroreduction increased, the Stark shift of the adsorbed atop CO doubled in magnitude and the EMIM-BF_{4} underwent a structural transition^{3}. In addition, we also observed how the structural transition of the EMIM-BF_{4} electrolyte shift to lower potentials when the IL is mixed with water. It is known that water enhances the CO_{2} electroreduction producing more CO^{4}. Moreover, the CO is adsorbed in multi-bonded and in atop sites when more water is present in the electrolyte. ^{1}Lau, G. P. S.; Schreier, M.; Vasilyev, D.; Scopelliti, R.; Grätzel, M.; Dyson, P. J., New Insights into the Role of Imidazolium-Based Promoters for the Electroreduction of CO_{2} on a Silver Electrode. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 7820-7823. ^{2}Garcia Rey, N.; Dlott, D. D., Studies of Electrochemical Interfaces by Broadband Sum Frequency Generation. J. Electroanal. Chem. 2016. DOI:10.1016/j.jelechem.2016.12.023. ^{3}Garcia Rey, N.; Dlott, D. D

  5. Nonlinear optical response of a gold surface in the visible range: A study by two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. I. Experimental determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstein, L; Revel, A; Humbert, C; Busson, B

    2018-04-07

    We experimentally determine the effective nonlinear second-order susceptibility of gold over the visible spectral range. To reach that goal, we probe by vibrational two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy the methyl stretching region of a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer adsorbed on a gold film. The sum-frequency generation spectra show a remarkable shape reversal when the visible probe wavelength is tuned from 435 to 705 nm. After correcting from Fresnel effects, the methyl stretching vibrations serve as an internal reference, allowing to extract the dispersion of the absolute phase and relative amplitude of the effective nonlinear optical response of gold in the visible range.

  6. Cooperative Effects of Zwitterionic-Ionic Surfactant Mixtures on the Interfacial Water Structure Revealed by Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuecong; Yang, Fangyuan; Chen, Shunli; Zhu, Xuefeng; Wang, Chuanyi

    2018-05-08

    Cooperative effects of a series of equimolar binary zwitterionic-ionic surfactant mixtures on the interfacial water structure at the air-water interfaces have been studied by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS). For zwitterionic surfactant palmityl sulfobetaine (SNC 16 ), anionic surfactant sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS), and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with the same length of alkyl chain, significantly enhanced ordering of interfacial water molecules was observed for the zwitterionic-anionic surfactant mixtures SNC 16 -SHS, indicating that SNC 16 interacts more strongly with SHS than with CTAB because of the strong headgroup-headgroup electrostatic attraction for SNC 16 -SHS. Meanwhile, the SFG amplitude ratio of methyl and methylene symmetric stretching modes was used to verify the stronger interaction between SNC 16 and SHS. The conformational order indicator increased from 0.64 for SNC 16 to 7.17 for SNC 16 -SHS but only 0.94 for SNC 16 -CTAB. In addition, another anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was introduced to study the influence of chain-chain interaction. Decreased SFG amplitude of interfacial water molecules for SNC 16 -SDS was observed. Therefore, both the headgroup-headgroup electrostatic interaction and chain-chain van der Waals attractive interaction of the surfactants play an important role in enhancing the ordering of interfacial water molecules. The results provided experimental and theoretical bases for practical applications of the surfactants.

  7. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Solid-Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holinga IV, George Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the interfacial properties of several amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at the hydrophilic polystyrene solid-liquid and the hydrophobic silica solid-liquid interfaces. The influence of experimental geometry on the sensitivity and resolution of the SFG vibrational spectroscopy technique was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. SFG was implemented to investigate the adsorption and organization of eight individual amino acids at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces under physiological conditions. Biointerface studies were conducted using a combination of SFG and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) comparing the interfacial structure and concentration of two amino acids and their corresponding homopeptides at two model liquid-solid interfaces as a function of their concentration in aqueous solutions. The influence of temperature, concentration, equilibration time, and electrical bias on the extent of adsorption and interfacial structure of biomolecules were explored at the liquid-solid interface via QCM and SFG. QCM was utilized to quantify the biological activity of heparin functionalized surfaces. A novel optical parametric amplifier was developed and utilized in SFG experiments to investigate the secondary structure of an adsorbed model peptide at the solid-liquid interface.

  8. Facet-specific interaction between methanol and TiO2 probed by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deheng; Li, Yadong; Liu, Xinyi; Cao, Yue; Gao, Yi; Shen, Y Ron; Liu, Wei-Tao

    2018-04-24

    The facet-specific interaction between molecules and crystalline catalysts, such as titanium dioxides (TiO 2 ), has attracted much attention due to possible facet-dependent reactivity. Using surface-sensitive sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy, we have studied how methanol interacts with different common facets of crystalline TiO 2 , including rutile(110), (001), (100), and anatase(101), under ambient temperature and pressure. We found that methanol adsorbs predominantly in the molecular form on all of the four surfaces, while spontaneous dissociation into methoxy occurs preferentially when these surfaces become defective. Extraction of Fermi resonance coupling between stretch and bending modes of the methyl group in analyzing adsorbed methanol spectra allows determination of the methanol adsorption isotherm. The isotherms obtained for the four surfaces are nearly the same, yielding two adsorbed Gibbs free energies associated with two different adsorption configurations singled out by ab initio calculations. They are ( i ) ∼-20 kJ/mol for methanol with its oxygen attached to a low-coordinated surface titanium, and ( ii ) ∼-5 kJ/mol for methanol hydrogen-bonded to a surface oxygen and a neighboring methanol molecule. Despite similar adsorption energetics, the Fermi resonance coupling strength for adsorbed methanol appears to depend sensitively on the surface facet and coverage.

  9. Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy of lipid bilayers at repetition rates up to 100 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudas, Freeda; Mero, Mark; Kneipp, Janina; Heiner, Zsuzsanna

    2018-03-01

    Broadband vibrational sum-frequency generation (BB-VSFG) spectroscopy has become a well-established surface analytical tool capable of identifying the orientation and structure of molecular layers. A straightforward way to boost the sensitivity of the technique could be to increase the laser repetition rate beyond that of standard BB-VSFG spectrometers, which rely on Ti:sapphire lasers operating at repetition rates of 1-5 kHz. Nevertheless, possible thermally induced artifacts in the vibrational spectra due to higher laser average powers are unexplored. Here, we discuss laser power induced temperature accumulation effects that distort the BB-VSFG spectra of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine at an interface between two transparent phases at repetition rates of 5, 10, 50, and 100 kHz at constant pulse energy. No heat-induced distortions were found in the spectra, suggesting that the increase in the laser repetition rate provides a feasible route to an improved signal-to-noise ratio or shorter data acquisition times in BB-VSFG spectroscopy for thin films on transparent substrates. The results have implications for future BB-VSFG spectrometers pushing the detection limit for molecular layers with low surface coverage.

  10. Adsorption of 1- and 2-butylimidazoles at the copper/air and steel/air interfaces studied by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casford, Michael T L; Davies, Paul B

    2012-07-24

    The structure of thin films of 1- and 2-butylimidazoles adsorbed on copper and steel surfaces under air was examined using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy in the ppp and ssp polarizations. Additionally, the SFG spectra of both isomers were recorded at 55 °C at the liquid imidazole/air interface for reference. Complementary bulk infrared, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), and Raman spectra of both imidazoles were recorded for assignment purposes. The SFG spectra in the C-H stretching region at the liquid/air interface are dominated by resonances from the methyl end group of the butyl side chain of the imidazoles, indicating that they are aligned parallel or closely parallel to the surface normal. These are also the most prominent features in the SFG spectra on copper and steel. In addition, both the ppp and ssp spectra on copper show resonances from the C-H stretching modes of the imidazole ring for both isomers. The ring C-H resonances are completely absent from the spectra on steel and at the liquid/air interface. The relative intensities of the SFG spectra can be interpreted as showing that, on copper, under air, both butylimidazoles are adsorbed with their butyl side chains perpendicular to the interface and with the ring significantly inclined away from the surface plane and toward the surface normal. The SFG spectra of both imidazoles on steel indicate an orientation where the imidazole rings are parallel or nearly parallel to the surface. The weak C-H resonances from the ring at the liquid/air interface suggest that the tilt angle of the ring from the surface normal at this interface is significantly greater than it is on copper.

  11. Surface and buried interfacial structures of epoxy resins used as underfills studied by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Anne V; Holden, Brad; Kristalyn, Cornelius; Fuller, Mike; Wilkerson, Brett; Chen, Zhan

    2011-05-01

    Flip chip technology has greatly improved the performance of semiconductor devices, but relies heavily on the performance of epoxy underfill adhesives. Because epoxy underfills are cured in situ in flip chip semiconductor devices, understanding their surface and interfacial structures is critical for understanding their adhesion to various substrates. Here, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to study surface and buried interfacial structures of two model epoxy resins used as underfills in flip chip devices, bisphenol A digylcidyl ether (BADGE) and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE). The surface structures of these epoxies were compared before and after cure, and the orientations of their surface functional groups were deduced to understand how surface structural changes during cure may affect adhesion properties. Further, the effect of moisture exposure, a known cause of adhesion failure, on surface structures was studied. It was found that the BADGE surface significantly restructured upon moisture exposure while the BDDGE surface did not, showing that BADGE adhesives may be more prone to moisture-induced delamination. Lastly, although surface structure can give some insight into adhesion, buried interfacial structures more directly correspond to adhesion properties of polymers. SFG was used to study buried interfaces between deuterated polystyrene (d-PS) and the epoxies before and after moisture exposure. It was shown that moisture exposure acted to disorder the buried interfaces, most likely due to swelling. These results correlated with lap shear adhesion testing showing a decrease in adhesion strength after moisture exposure. The presented work showed that surface and interfacial structures can be correlated to adhesive strength and may be helpful in understanding and designing optimized epoxy underfill adhesives.

  12. Nanoscale chemical and mechanical characterization of thin films:sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy at buriedinterfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweskin, Sasha Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy was used to characterize interfaces pertinent to current surface engineering applications, such as thin film polymers and novel catalysts. An array of advanced surface science techniques like scanning probe microscopy (SPM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gas chromatography (GC) and electron microscopy were used to obtain experimental measurements complementary to SFG data elucidating polymer and catalyst surface composition, surface structure, and surface mechanical behavior. Experiments reported in this dissertation concentrate on three fundamental questions: (1) How does the interfacial molecular structure differ from that of the bulk in real world applications? (2) How do differences in chemical environment affect interface composition or conformation? (3) How do these changes correlate to properties such as mechanical or catalytic performance? The density, surface energy and bonding at a solid interface dramatically alter the polymer configuration, physics and mechanical properties such as surface glass transition, adhesion and hardness. The enhanced sensitivity of SFG at the buried interface is applied to three systems: a series of acrylates under compression, the compositions and segregation behavior of binary polymer polyolefin blends, and the changes in surface structure of a hydrogel as a function of hydration. In addition, a catalytically active thin film of polymer coated nanoparticles is investigated to evaluate the efficacy of SFG to provide in situ information for catalytic reactions involving small mass adsorption and/or product development. Through the use of SFG, in situ total internal reflection (TIR) was used to increase the sensitivity of SFG and provide the necessary specificity to investigate interfaces of thin polymer films and nanostructures previously considered unfeasible. The dynamic nature of thin film surfaces is examined and it is found that the non

  13. Coupled-cluster sum-frequency generation nonlinear susceptibilities of methyl (CH3) and methylene (CH2) groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsassi Feugmo, Conrard Giresse; Liégeois, Vincent; Champagne, Benoît

    2017-11-15

    The first vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra based on molecular properties calculated at the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) level of approximation have been simulated for interfacial model alkyl chains, providing benchmark data for comparisons with approximate methods, including density functional theory (DFT). The approach proceeds in three steps. In the first two steps, the molecular spectral properties are determined: the vibrational normal modes and frequencies and then the derivatives of the dipole moment and of the polarizability with respect to the normal coordinates. These derivatives are evaluated with a numerical differentiation approach, of which the accuracy was monitored using Romberg's procedure. Then, in the last step, a three-layer model is employed to evaluate the macroscopic second-order nonlinear optical responses and thereby the simulated SFG spectra of the alkyl interface. Results emphasize the following facts: (i) the dipole and polarizability derivatives calculated at the DFT level with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional can differ, with respect to CCSD, by as much as ±10 to 20% and ±20 to 50% for the CH 3 and CH 2 vibrations, respectively; (ii) these differences are enhanced when considering the SFG intensities as well as their variations as a function of the experimental configuration (ppp versus ssp) and as a function of the tilt and rotation angles, defining the orientation of the alkyl chain at the interface; (iii) these differences originate from both the vibrational normal coordinates and the Cartesian derivatives of the dipole moment and polarizability; (iv) freezing the successive fragments of the alkyl chain strongly modifies the SFG spectrum and enables highlighting the delocalization effects between the terminal CH 3 group and its neighboring CH 2 units; and finally (v) going from the free chain to the free methyl model, and further to C 3v constraints on leads to large variations of two ratios

  14. Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Hui Feng; Zhao, Jie; Dai, Jun Yan; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Liu Xi; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2018-05-01

    We propose a strategy to convert a linearly polarized wave from a single point source to an orbital angular momentum (OAM) wave by arbitrary polarization via an anisotropic frequency selective surface (FSS) in the microwave frequency. By tailoring the geometries of FSS elements, reflection-phases in x and y polarizations are engineered and encoded independently, which allows us to design the eventual polarization state of the generated OAM vortex beam by elaborately selecting individual coding sequences for each polarization. Two types of FSSs are designed and experimentally characterized to demonstrate the capability of OAM generation with circular and linear polarizations, respectively, showing excellent performance in a wide bandwidth from 14 to 16 GHz. This method provides opportunities for polarization multiplexing in microwave OAM communication systems.

  15. Adler function and Bjorken polarized sum rule: Perturbation expansions in powers of the S U (Nc) conformal anomaly and studies of the conformal symmetry limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetič, Gorazd; Kataev, A. L.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a new form of analytical perturbation theory expansion in the massless S U (Nc) theory, for the nonsinglet part of the e+e--annihilation to hadrons Adler function Dn s and of the Bjorken sum rule of the polarized lepton-hadron deep-inelastic scattering Cns B j p, and demonstrate its validity at the O (αs4)-level at least. It is a two-fold series in powers of the conformal anomaly and of S U (Nc) coupling αs. Explicit expressions are obtained for the {β }-expanded perturbation coefficients at O (αs4) level in MS ¯ scheme, for both considered physical quantities. Comparisons of the terms in the {β }-expanded coefficients are made with the corresponding terms obtained by using extra gluino degrees of freedom, or skeleton-motivated expansion, or Rδ-scheme motivated expansion in the Principle of Maximal Conformality. Relations between terms of the {β }-expansion for the Dn s- and Cns B j p-functions, which follow from the conformal symmetry limit and its violation, are presented. The relevance to the possible new analyses of the experimental data for the Adler function and Bjorken sum rule is discussed.

  16. Polarization squeezing and entanglement produced by a frequency doubler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchhave, Preben

    2003-01-01

    The quantum mechanical polarization properties of a nondegenerate second harmonic generator, where a nonlinear type II crystal is placed inside a cavity, are investigated theoretically. We demonstrate the possibility of strong squeezing of the continuous Stokes parameters as well as strong...... entanglement between them....

  17. Rydberg atoms in circular polarization: Classical stabilization in optical frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chism, Will; Reichl, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the classical dynamics of the Rydberg atom in circularly polarized laser fields, restricted to the two-dimensional plane of polarization. We use a Poincare surface of section to study nonlinear resonance structures for optical frequency driving fields. We demonstrate the existence and morphology of these structures as the laser intensity transitions from moderate to intense

  18. Correlation of zero-point energy with molecular structure and molecular forces. 3. Approximation for H/D isotope shifts and linear frequency sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, T.; Ishida, T.

    1984-01-01

    The approximation methods for the zero-point energy (ZPE) previously developed using the Lanczo's tau method have been applied to the shifts in ZPE due to hydrogen isotope substitutions. Six types of approximation methods have been compared and analyzed on the basis of a weighing function Ω(lambda) varies as lambda/sup k/ and the actual eigenvalue shift spectra. The method generated by the most general optimzation treatment yields a predictable and generally satisfactory precision of the order of 1% or better. A linear frequency sum rule has been derived, which approximately holds for the sets of isotopic molecules which satisfy the second-order frequency sum rule. 19 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  19. Efficient near diffraction limited blue light source by sum-frequency mixing of a BAL and a solid-state laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Knud Palmelund; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    and slow axis of the diode, respectively. The BAL output beam is single-passed through a periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) crystal placed in an intra-cavity beam waist of a 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 laser, resulting in 100 mW of sum-frequency generated blue output power. This corresponds to a power conversion......Sum-frequency mixing of an 808 nm broad area laser (BAL) with a build-in grating structure for spectral control and a 1064 nm solid-state laser is experimentally investigated. The spectrally improved 20 mu m wide BAL can deliver up to 700 mW of output power with an M-2 of 1.4 and 5.3 in the fast...

  20. Efficient concept for generation of diffraction-limited green light by sum-frequency generation of spectrally combined tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hasler, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the power of visible diode laser systems in an efficient manner, we propose spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation. We show that this approach, in comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, can enhance the available power signific......In order to increase the power of visible diode laser systems in an efficient manner, we propose spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation. We show that this approach, in comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, can enhance the available power...... significantly. By combining two distributed Bragg reflector tapered diode lasers we achieve a 2.5–3.2 fold increase in power and a maximum of 3.9 W of diffraction-limited green light. At this power level, green diode laser systems have a high application potential, e.g., within the biomedical field. Our concept...

  1. Characterisation of the membrane affinity of an isoniazide peptide conjugate by tensiometry, atomic force microscopy and sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy, using a phospholipid Langmuir monolayer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katalin; Pénzes, Csanád Botond; Schnöller, Donát; Horváti, Kata; Bosze, Szilvia; Hudecz, Ferenc; Keszthelyi, Tamás; Kiss, Eva

    2010-10-07

    Tensiometry, sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to assess the cell penetration ability of a peptide conjugate of the antituberculotic agent isoniazide. Isoniazide was conjugated to peptide (91)SEFAYGSFVRTVSLPV(106), a functional T-cell epitope of the immunodominant 16 kDa protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a simple but versatile model of the cell membrane a phospholipid Langmuir monolayer at the liquid/air interface was used. Changes induced in the structure of the phospholipid monolayer by injection of the peptide conjugate into the subphase were followed by tensiometry and sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. The drug penetrated lipid films were transferred to a solid support by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, and their structures were characterized by atomic force microscopy. Peptide conjugation was found to strongly enhance the cell penetration ability of isoniazide.

  2. Dual-band and high-efficiency polarization converter based on metasurfaces at microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajun; Xia, Song; Shi, Hongyu; Zhang, Anxue; Xu, Zhuo

    2016-06-01

    We present a dual-band and high-efficiency polarization converter in microwave regime. The proposed converter can convert a linearly polarized wave to its cross-polarized wave for two distinct bands: Ku (11.5-20.0 GHz) and Ka (28.8-34.0 GHz). It can also convert the linearly polarized wave to a circularly polarized wave at four other frequencies. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulation results for both frequency bands. The polarization conversion ratio is above 0.94 for the Ku-band and 0.90 for the Ka-band. Furthermore, the converter can achieve dual-band and high-efficiency polarization conversion over angles of incidence up to 45°. The converter is also polarization-selective in that only the x- and y-polarized waves can be converted. The physical mechanism of the dual-band polarization conversion effect is interpreted via decomposed electric field components that couple with different plasmon resonance modes of the structure.

  3. Effects of Second-Order Sum- and Difference-Frequency Wave Forces on the Motion Response of a Tension-Leg Platform Considering the Set-down Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Tang, Yougang; Li, Yan; Cai, Runbo

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a study on the motion response of a tension-leg platform (TLP) under first- and second-order wave forces, including the mean-drift force, difference and sum-frequency forces. The second-order wave force is calculated using the full-field quadratic transfer function (QTF). The coupled effect of the horizontal motions, such as surge, sway and yaw motions, and the set-down motion are taken into consideration by the nonlinear restoring matrix. The time-domain analysis with 50-yr random sea state is performed. A comparison of the results of different case studies is made to assess the influence of second-order wave force on the motions of the platform. The analysis shows that the second-order wave force has a major impact on motions of the TLP. The second-order difference-frequency wave force has an obvious influence on the low-frequency motions of surge and sway, and also will induce a large set-down motion which is an important part of heave motion. Besides, the second-order sum-frequency force will induce a set of high-frequency motions of roll and pitch. However, little influence of second-order wave force is found on the yaw motion.

  4. On Polarization and Frequency Dependence of Diffuse Indoor Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    The room electromagnetics (RE) theory describes the radio propagation in a single room assuming diffuse scat- tering. A main characteristic is the exponential power-delay profile (PDP) decaying with the so-called reverberation time (RT) parameter, depending only on the wall area, the volume...... of the room and an absorption coefficient. The PDP is independent on the location in the room, except for the arrival time. Based on measurements in a room with a spherical array of 16 dual- polarized wideband horn antennas, the current work studies how the RE parameters depend on the receiver (Rx) antenna...

  5. Low-frequency (0.7-7.4 mHz geomagnetic field fluctuations at high latitude: frequency dependence of the polarization pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cafarella

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of the polarization pattern of low-frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations (0.7-7.4 mHz covering the entire 24-h interval was performed at the Antarctic station Terra Nova Bay (80.0°S geomagnetic latitude throughout 1997 and 1998. The results show that the polarization pattern exhibits a frequency dependence, as can be expected from the frequency dependence of the latitude where the coupling between the magnetospheric compressional mode and the field line resonance takes place. The polarization analysis of single pulsation events shows that wave packets with different polarization sense, depending on frequency, can be simultaneously observed.

  6. Spectrally efficient polarization multiplexed direct-detection OFDM system without frequency gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chia-Chien; Zeng, Wei-Siang; Lin, Chun-Ting

    2016-01-25

    We experimentally demonstrate a spectrally efficient direct-detection orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (DD-OFDM) system. In addition to polarization-division multiplexing, removing the frequency gap further improves the spectral efficiency of the OFDM system. The frequency gap between a reference carrier and OFDM subcarriers avoids subcarrier-to-subcarrier beating interference (SSBI) in traditional DD-OFDM systems. Without dynamic polarization control, the resulting interference after square-law direct detection in the proposed gap-less system is polarization-dependent and composed of linear inter-carrier interference (ICI) and nonlinear SSBI. Thus, this work proposes an iterative multiple-input multiple-output detection scheme to remove the mixed polarization-dependent interference. Compared to the previous scheme, which only removes ICI, the proposed scheme can further eliminate SSBI to achieve the improvement of ∼ 7 dB in signal-to-noise ratio. Without the need for polarization control, we successfully utilize 7-GHz bandwidth to transmit a 39.5-Gbps polarization multiplexed OFDM signal over 100 km.

  7. A Tunable CW Orange Laser Based on a Cascaded MgO:PPLN Single-Pass Sum-Frequency Generation Module

    OpenAIRE

    Dismas K. Choge; Huai-Xi Chen; Bao-Lu Tian; Yi-Bin Xu; Guang-Wei Li; Wan-Guo Liang

    2018-01-01

    We report an all-solid-state continuous wave (CW) tunable orange laser based on cascaded single-pass sum-frequency generation with fundamental wavelengths at 1545.7 and 975.2 nm using two quasi-phase-matched (QPM) MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystals. Up to 10 mW of orange laser is generated in the cascaded module corresponding to a 10.4%/W nonlinear conversion efficiency. The orange output showed a temperature tuning rate of ~0.05 nm/°C, and the beam quality (M2) ...

  8. Correlation of molecular conformation with adhesion at AlOx/poly (ethylene terephthalate) interface studied by sum-frequency generation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamae, Takayuki; Nozoye, Hisakazu

    2004-01-01

    The interface between AlO x and poly(ethylene terephthalate) has been investigated by sum-frequency generation (SFG). A considerable improvement in adhesion strength was achieved by short time Ar plasma modification. The increase of the adhesion strength shows good correlation with the increase of the SFG peak strength. By depositing AlO x , the increase of SFG intensities and appearance of a new peak are observed, indicating the formation of a C=O···Al bond at the interface. Surface-modification and interfacial adhesion property are discussed

  9. Dynamic nuclear polarization by frequency modulation of a tunable gyrotron of 260GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dongyoung; Soundararajan, Murari; Cuanillon, Philippe; Braunmueller, Falk; Alberti, Stefano; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    An increase in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) signal intensity is obtained with a tunable gyrotron producing frequency modulation around 260GHz at power levels less than 1W. The sweep rate of frequency modulation can reach 14kHz, and its amplitude is fixed at 50MHz. In water/glycerol glassy ice doped with 40mM TEMPOL, the relative increase in the DNP enhancement was obtained as a function of frequency-sweep rate for several temperatures. A 68 % increase was obtained at 15K, thus giving a DNP enhancement of about 80. By employing λ/4 and λ/8 polarizer mirrors, we transformed the polarization of the microwave beam from linear to circular, and achieved an increase in the enhancement by a factor of about 66% for a given power. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Capturing inhomogeneous broadening of the -CN stretch vibration in a Langmuir monolayer with high-resolution spectra and ultrafast vibrational dynamics in sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Luis; Wang, Hong-fei

    2013-08-01

    While in principle the frequency-domain and time-domain spectroscopic measurements should generate identical information for a given molecular system, the inhomogeneous character of surface vibrations in sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) studies has only been studied with time-domain SFG-VS by mapping the decay of the vibrational polarization using ultrafast lasers, this due to the lack of SFG vibrational spectra with high enough spectral resolution and accurate enough lineshape. Here, with the recently developed high-resolution broadband SFG-VS (HR-BB-SFG-VS) technique, we show that the inhomogeneous lineshape can be obtained in the frequency-domain for the anchoring CN stretch of the 4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface, and that an excellent agreement with the time-domain SFG free-induction-decay can be established. We found that the 8CB CN stretch spectrum consists of a single peak centered at 2234.00 ± 0.01 cm-1 with a total linewidth of 10.9 ± 0.3 cm-1 at half maximum. The Lorentzian contribution accounts only for 4.7 ± 0.4 cm-1 to this width and the Gaussian (inhomogeneous) broadening for as much as 8.1 ± 0.2 cm-1. Polarization analysis of the -CN spectra showed that the -CN group is tilted 57° ± 2° from the surface normal. The large heterogeneity in the -CN spectrum is tentatively attributed to the -CN group interactions with the interfacial water molecules penetrated/accommodated into the 8CB monolayer, a unique phenomenon for the nCB Langmuir monolayers reported previously.

  11. NOLM-based all-optical 40 Gbit/s format conversion through sum-frequency generation (SFG) in a PPLN waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang

    2005-11-01

    A novel all-optical format conversion scheme from NRZ to RZ based on sum-frequency generation (SFG) in a periodically poled LiNbO 3 (PPLN) waveguide is proposed, using a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM). The conversion mechanism relies on the combination of attenuation and nonlinear phase shift induced on the clockwise signal field during the SFG process. The SFG between pump, and co- and counter- propagating signals in the PPLN waveguide are numerically studied, showing that counter-propagating SFG can be ignored when quasi-phase matching (QPM) for SFG during co-propagating interaction. The nonlinear phase shift induced on the clockwise signal field is analyzed in detail, showing that it is more effective to yield large values for nonlinear phase shift when appropriately phase mismatched for the SFG process. Two tuning schemes are proposed depend on whether the sum-frequency wavelength is variable or fixed. It is found that the latter has a rather wide 3dB signal conversion bandwidth approximately 154nm. Finally, the influence of reversible process of SFG is discussed and the optimum arrangement of pump and signal peak powers is theoretically demonstrated. The result shows that proper power arrangement, pump width, and waveguide length are necessary for achieving a good conversion effect.

  12. Intrinsic Chirality and Prochirality at Air/R-(+)- and S-(-)-Limonene Interfaces: Spectral Signatures with Interference Chiral Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Zhehao; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-06-04

    We report in this work detailed measurements on the chiral and achiral sum-frequency vibrational spectra in the C-H stretching vibration region (2800-3050cm-1) of the air/liquid interfaces of R-limonene and S-limonene, using the recently developed high-resolution broadband sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS). The achiral SFG spectra of R-limonene and S-limonene, as well as the equal amount (50/50) racemic mixture show that the enantiomers are with the same interfacial orientations. The interference chiral SFG spectra of the limonene enantiomers exhibit spectral signature from chiral response of the Cα-H stretching mode, and spectral signature from prochiral response of the CH2 asymmetric stretching mode, respectively. The chiral spectral feature of the Cα-H stretching mode changes sign from R-limonene to S-limonene, and disappears for the 50/50 racemic mixture. While the prochiral spectral feature of the CH2 asymmetric stretching mode is the same for R-limonene and S-limonene, and also surprisingly remains the same for the 50/50 racemic mixture. These results provided detail information in understanding the structure and chirality of molecular interfaces, and demonstrated the sensitivity and potential of SFG-VS as unique spectroscopic tool for chirality characterization and chiral recognition at the molecular interface.

  13. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of 1,3-Butadiene Hydrogenation on 4 nm Pt@SiO 2 , Pd@SiO 2 , and Rh@SiO 2 Core–Shell Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Krier, James M.; Michalak, William D.; Cai, Xiaojun; Carl, Lindsay; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2015-01-01

    NPs (Stöber encapsulation) prepared by colloidal synthesis. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was performed to correlate surface intermediates observed in situ with reaction selectivity. It is shown that calcination is effective

  14. LABORATORY FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION FUNCTION FOR THE POLARIZED Λ-TYPE THREE-TERM ATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, R. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Manso Sainz, R. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-12-20

    We present the frequency redistribution function for a polarized three-term atom of the Λ-type in the collisionless regime, and we specialize it to the case where both the initial and final terms of the three-state transition are metastable (i.e., with infinitely sharp levels). This redistribution function represents a generalization of the well-known R {sub II} function to the case where the lower terms of the transition can be polarized and carry atomic coherence, and it can be applied to the investigation of polarized line formation in tenuous plasmas, where collisional rates may be low enough that anisotropy-induced atomic polarization survives even in the case of metastable levels.

  15. Waveguide elliptic polarizers for ECH at down-shifted frequencies on PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doane, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    ECH experiments on PLT with resonance frequencies of 80 to 90 GHz at the plasma center use 60 GHz extraordinary mode (X-mode) propagation at 30 0 from the toroidal field. Efficient excitation of this mode requires elliptic polarization of the incident wave at the plasma edge. On PLT the elliptic polarization is achieved outside the vacuum vessel in an elliptically deformed section of circular waveguide propagating TM11, a mode that is intermediate between TE01 and HE11 (which has an ideal radiation pattern). The squeeze and orientation of the TM11 polarizer are adjusted to compensate both for the birefringence of a corrugated bend propagating HE11 and for a flat mirror inside PLT that reverses the sense of rotation of the polarization. 11 refs., 8 figs

  16. Development of a distributed polarization-OTDR to measure two vibrations with the same frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yun; Wang, Feng; Wang, Xiangchuan; Zhang, Mingjiang; Zhou, Ling; Sun, Zhenqing; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-08-01

    A polarization optical time-domain reflectometer (POTDR) can distributedly measure the vibration of fiber by detecting the vibration induced polarization variation only with a polarization analyzer. It has great potential in the monitoring of the border intrusion, structural healthy, anti-stealing of pipeline and so on, because of its simple configuration, fast response speed and distributed measuring ability. However, it is difficult to distinguish two vibrations with the same frequency for POTDR because the signal induced by the first vibration would bury the other vibration induced signal. This paper proposes a simple method to resolve this problem in POTDR by analyzing the phase of the vibration induced signal. The effectiveness of this method in distinguishing two vibrations with the same frequency for POTDR is proved by simulation.

  17. Planck intermediate results. XXII. Frequency dependence of thermal emission from Galactic dust in intensity and polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, J. F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2015-01-01

    )% from 353 to 70 GHz. We discuss this result within the context of existing dust models. The decrease in p could indicate differences in polarization efficiency among components of interstellar dust (e.g., carbon versus silicate grains). Our observational results provide inputs to quantify and optimize......Planck has mapped the intensity and polarization of the sky at microwave frequencies with unprecedented sensitivity. We use these data to characterize the frequency dependence of dust emission. We make use of the Planck 353 GHz I, Q, and U Stokes maps as dust templates, and cross-correlate them...... of the cosmic microwave background. We use a mask that focuses our analysis on the diffuse interstellar medium at intermediate Galactic latitudes. We determine the spectral indices of dust emission in intensity and polarization between 100 and 353 GHz, for each sky patch. Both indices are found to be remarkably...

  18. High‐frequency induced polarization measurements of hydrocarbon‐bearing rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burtman, Vladimir; Endo, Masashi; Zhdanov, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated induced polarization (IP) effects in hydrocarbon‐bearing artificial rocks at frequencies greater than 100 Hz. We have examined the instrumental and electrode phase responses of Zonge International's complex resistivity (CR) system, and optimized the performance of the Zonge s......, and suggest the necessity to account for IP effects in the interpretations of electromagnetic data, particularly in induction logging data....

  19. Multiphoton processes in the field of two-frequency circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, An

    1997-01-01

    The authors solve Dirac's equation for an electron in the field of a two-frequency plane electromagnetic wave, deriving general formulae for the probabilities of radiation of a photon by the electron, and for the probabilities for pair production by a photon when the two-frequency wave is circularly polarized. In contrast to the case of a monochromatic-plane electromagnetic wave, when an electron is in the field of a two-frequency circularly polarized wave, besides the absorption of multiphotons and emission of simple harmonics of the individual waves, stimulated multiphoton emission processes and various composite harmonic-photon emission processes are occurred: when a high-energy photon is in a such a field, multiphoton processes also follow the pair production processes

  20. Stable Single Polarization, Single Frequency, and Linear Cavity Er-Doped Fiber Laser Using a Saturable Absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Yan Feng-Ping; Peng Wan-Jing; Feng Su-Chun; Feng Ting; Tan Si-Yu; Liu Peng

    2013-01-01

    A simple approach for stable single polarization, single frequency, and linear cavity erbium doped fiber laser is proposed and demonstrated. A Fabry—Pérot filter, polarizer and saturable absorber are used together to ensure stable single frequency, single polarization operation. The optical signal-to-noise ratio of the laser is approximately 57 dB, and the Lorentz linewidth is 13.9 kHz. The polarization state of the laser with good stability is confirmed and the degree of polarization is >99%

  1. Circularly polarized harmonic generation by intense bicircular laser pulses: electron recollision dynamics and frequency dependent helicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Mauger, François; Yuan, Kai-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations for one and two electron cyclic molecules {{{H}}}nq+ exposed to intense bichromatic circularly polarized laser pulses of frequencies {ω }1 and {ω }2, such that {ω }1/{ω }2={n}1/{n}2 (integer) produce circularly polarized high order harmonics with a cut-off recollision maximum energy at and greater than the linear polarization law (in atomic units) {N}m{ω }1={I}p+3.17{U}p, where I p is the ionization potential and {U}p={(2{E}0)}2/4{ω }2 is the ponderomotive energy defined by the field E 0 (intensity I={{cE}}02/8π ) from each pulse and mean frequency ω =({ω }1+{ω }2)/2 . An electron recollision model in a rotating frame at rotating frequency {{Δ }}ω =({ω }1-{ω }2)/2 predicts this simple result as a result of recollision dynamics in a combination of bichromatic circularly polarized pulses. The harmonic helicities and their intensities are shown to depend on compatible symmetries of the net pulse electric fields with that of the molecules.

  2. Dynamic nuclear polarization using frequency modulation at 3.34 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovav, Y; Feintuch, A; Vega, S; Goldfarb, D

    2014-01-01

    During dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments polarization is transferred from unpaired electrons to their neighboring nuclear spins, resulting in dramatic enhancement of the NMR signals. While in most cases this is achieved by continuous wave (cw) irradiation applied to samples in fixed external magnetic fields, here we show that DNP enhancement of static samples can improve by modulating the microwave (MW) frequency at a constant field of 3.34 T. The efficiency of triangular shaped modulation is explored by monitoring the (1)H signal enhancement in frozen solutions containing different TEMPOL radical concentrations at different temperatures. The optimal modulation parameters are examined experimentally and under the most favorable conditions a threefold enhancement is obtained with respect to constant frequency DNP in samples with low radical concentrations. The results are interpreted using numerical simulations on small spin systems. In particular, it is shown experimentally and explained theoretically that: (i) The optimal modulation frequency is higher than the electron spin-lattice relaxation rate. (ii) The optimal modulation amplitude must be smaller than the nuclear Larmor frequency and the EPR line-width, as expected. (iii) The MW frequencies corresponding to the enhancement maxima and minima are shifted away from one another when using frequency modulation, relative to the constant frequency experiments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CW light sources at the 589 nm sodium D2 line by sum-frequency mixing of diode pumped neodymium lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Y F; Lu, J; Xu, L J; Sun, G C; Zhao, Z M; Gao, X; Lin, J Q

    2010-01-01

    We present a laser architecture to obtain continuous-wave (CW) light sources at the 589 nm sodium D2 line. A 808 nm diode-pumped a Nd:YLiF 4 (Nd:YLF) crystal emitting at 1053 nm. A part of the pump power was then absorbed by the Nd:YLF crystal. The remaining was used to pump a Nd:YAG crystal emitting at 1338 nm. Intracavity sum-frequency mixing at 1053 and 1338 nm was then realized in a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) crystal to reach the yellow-orange radiation. We obtained a CW output power of 235 mW at 589 nm with a pump laser diode emitting 17.8 W at 808 nm

  4. Diode-pumped quasi-three-level Nd:GdV O4–Nd:YAG sum-frequency laser at 464 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We report a laser architecture to obtain continuous-wave (cw) blue radiation at 464 nm. A 808 nm diode pumped a Nd:GdV O 4 crystal emitting at 912 nm. A part of the pump power was then absorbed by the Nd:GdV O 4 crystal. The remainder was used to pump a Nd:YAG crystal emitting at 946 nm. Intracavity sum-frequency mixing at 912 and 946 nm was then realized in a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) crystal to produce blue radiation. We obtained a cw output power of 1.52 W at 464 nm with a pump laser diode emitting 18.4 W at 808 nm. (letter)

  5. Sum frequency generation and catalytic reaction studies of the removal of the organic capping agents from Pt nanoparticles by UV-ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, Cesar; Park, Jeong Y.; Yamada, Yusuke; Lee, Hyun Sook; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-12-10

    We report the structure of the organic capping layers of platinum colloid nanoparticles and their removal by UV-ozone exposure. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFGVS) studies identify the carbon-hydrogen stretching modes on poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and tetradecyl tributylammonium bromide (TTAB)-capped platinum nanoparticles. We found that the UV-ozone treatment technique effectively removes the capping layer on the basis of several analytical measurements including SFGVS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The overall shape of the nanoparticles was preserved after the removal of capping layers, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SFGVS of ethylene hydrogenation on the clean platinum nanoparticles demonstrates the existence of ethylidyne and di-{sigma}-bonded species, indicating the similarity between single-crystal and nanoparticle systems.

  6. Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, J; She, C-Y; Williams, B P; Vance, J D; Acott, P E; Kawahara, T D

    2009-04-01

    With two cw single-mode Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 and 1319 nm and a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, 11 mW of 2 kHz/100 ms bandwidth single-mode tunable 589 nm cw radiation has been detected using single-pass sum-frequency generation. The demonstrated conversion efficiency is approximately 3.2%[W(-1) cm(-1)]. This compact solid-state light source has been used in a solid-state-dye laser hybrid sodium fluorescence lidar transmitter to measure temperatures and winds in the upper atmosphere (80-105 km); it is being implemented into the transmitter of a mobile all-solid-state sodium temperature and wind lidar under construction.

  7. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) for complex molecular surfaces and interfaces: Spectral lineshape measurement and analysis plus some controversial issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Fei

    2016-12-01

    Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) was first developed in the 1980s and it has been proven a uniquely sensitive and surface/interface selective spectroscopic probe for characterization of the structure, conformation and dynamics of molecular surfaces and interfaces. In recent years, there have been many progresses in the development of methodology and instrumentation in the SFG-VS toolbox that have significantly broadened the application to complex molecular surfaces and interfaces. In this review, after presenting a unified view on the theory and methodology focusing on the SFG-VS spectral lineshape, as well as the new opportunities in SFG-VS applications with such developments, some of the controversial issues that have been puzzling the community are discussed. The aim of this review is to present to the researchers and students interested in molecular surfaces and interfacial sciences up-to-date perspectives complementary to the existing textbooks and reviews on SFG-VS.

  8. Experimental demonstration of wavelength conversion between ps-pulses based on cascaded sum- and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) in LiNbO3 waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang; Lou, Chuanhong; Sun, Qizhen

    2005-09-01

    All-optical wavelength conversion between ps-pulses based on cascaded sum- and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) waveguides. The signal pulse with 40-GHz repetition rate and 1.57- ps pulse width is adopted. The converted idler wavelength can be tuned from 1527.4 to 1540.5nm as the signal wavelength is varied from 1561.9 to 1548.4nm. No obvious changes of the pulse shape and width, also no chirp are observed in the converted idler pulse. The results imply that single-to-multiple channel wavelength conversions can be achieved by appropriately tuning the two pump wavelengths.

  9. IR visible sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of Biphenyl-3 methylene thiol monolayer on gold and silver: effect of the visible wavelength on the SFG spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, C.; Dreesen, L.; Mani, A. A.; Caudano, Y.; Lemaire, J.-J.; Thiry, P. A.; Peremans, A.

    2002-04-01

    We measured IR-visible sum-frequency generation spectra of CH 3-(C 6H 4) 2-(CH 2) 3-S-H (Biphenyl-3) self-assembled monolayers on a silver and a gold substrate. For the latter substrate, we observed different interference patterns between the resonant signal of the CH vibration and the non-resonant contribution of the substrate as a function of the visible beam wavelength. The non-linear response of the gold substrate is enhanced around 480 nm corresponding to the s-d interband transition. Such effect is not observed for the silver substrate the interband transition of which is located out of the investigated visible spectral range of 450-700 nm.

  10. Amine Chemistry at Aqueous Interfaces: The Study of Organic Amines in Neutralizing Acidic Gases at an Air/Water Surface Using Vibrational Sum Frequency Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, L.; Wren, S. N.; Valley, N. A.; Richmond, G.

    2014-12-01

    Small organic bases have been measured in atmospheric samples, with their sources ranging from industrial processing to animal husbandry. These small organic amines are often highly soluble, being found in atmospheric condensed phases such as fogwater and rainwater. Additionally, they display acid-neutralization ability often greater than ammonia, yet little is known regarding their kinetic and thermodynamic properties. This presentation will describe the molecular level details of a model amine system at the vapor/liquid interface in the presence of acidic gas. We find that this amine system shows very unique properties in terms of its bonding, structure, and orientation at aqueous surfaces. The results of our studies using a combination of computation, vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy, and surface tension will report the properties inherent to these atmospherically relevant species at aqueous surfaces.

  11. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy and Kinetic Study of 2-Methylfuran and 2,5-Dimethylfuran Hydrogenation over 7 nm Platinum Cubic Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Aliaga, Cesar

    2011-04-28

    Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements obtained from gas chromatography were used to study the adsorption and hydrogenation of 2-methylfuran (MF) and 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) over cubic Pt nanoparticles of 7 nm average size, synthesized by colloidal methods and cleaned by ultraviolet light and ozone treatment. Reactions carried out at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of 20-120 °C produced dihydro and tetrahydro species, as well as ring-opening products (alcohols) and ring-cracking products, showing high selectivity toward ring opening throughout the entire temperature range. The aromatic rings (MF and DMF) adsorbed parallel to the nanoparticle surface. Results yield insight into various surface reaction intermediates and the reason for the significantly lower selectivity for ring cracking in DMF hydrogenation compared to MF hydrogenation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Intrinsic chirality and prochirality at Air/R-(+)- and S-(-)-limonene interfaces: spectral signatures with interference chiral sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Zhe-Hao; Wang, Hong-Fei

    2014-09-01

    We report in this work detailed measurements of the chiral and achiral sum-frequency vibrational spectra in the C-H stretching vibration region (2800-3050 cm(-1)) of the air/liquid interfaces of R-(+)-limonene and S-(-)-limonene, using the recently developed high-resolution broadband sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS). The achiral SFG spectra of R-limonene and S-limonene, as well as the RS racemic mixture (50/50 equal amount mixture), show that the corresponding molecular groups of the R and S enantiomers are with the same interfacial orientations. The interference chiral SFG spectra of the limonene enantiomers exhibit a spectral signature from the chiral response of the Cα-H stretching mode, and a spectral signature from the prochiral response of the CH(2) asymmetric stretching mode, respectively. The chiral spectral feature of the Cα-H stretching mode changes sign from R-(+)-limonene to S-(-)-limonene surfaces, and disappears for the RS racemic mixture surface. While the prochiral spectral feature of the CH(2) asymmetric stretching mode is the same for R-(+)-limonene and S-(-)-limonene surfaces, and also surprisingly remains the same for the RS racemic mixture surface. Therefore, the structures of the R-(+)-limonene and the S-(-)-limonene at the liquid interfaces are nevertheless not mirror images to each other, even though the corresponding groups have the same tilt angle from the interfacial normal, i.e., the R-(+)-limonene and the S-(-)-limonene at the surface are diastereomeric instead of enantiomeric. These results provide detailed information in understanding the structure and chirality of molecular interfaces and demonstrate the sensitivity and potential of SFG-VS as a unique spectroscopic tool for chirality characterization and chiral recognition at the molecular interface. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Catalyzed hydrogenation of nitrogen and ethylene on metal (Fe, Pt) single crystal surfaces and effects of coadsorption: A sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, Staffan Per Gustav [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    High-pressure catalytic reactions and associated processes, such as adsorption have been studied on a molecular level on single crystal surfaces. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy together with Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Gas Chromatography (GC) were used to investigate the nature of species on catalytic surfaces and to measure the catalytic reaction rates. Special attention has been directed at studying high-pressure reactions and in particular, ammonia synthesis in order to identify reaction intermediates and the influence of adsorbates on the surface during reaction conditions. The adsorption of gases N2, H2, O2 and NH3 that play a role in ammonia synthesis have been studied on the Fe(111) crystal surface by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy using an integrated Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV)/high-pressure system. SFG spectra are presented for the dissociation intermediates, NH2 (~3325 cm-1) and NH (~3235 cm-1) under high pressure of ammonia (200 Torr) on the clean Fe(111) surface. Addition of 0.5 Torr of oxygen to 200 Torr of ammonia does not significantly change the bonding of dissociation intermediates to the surface. However, it leads to a phase change of nearly 180° between the resonant and non-resonant second order non-linear susceptibility of the surface, demonstrated by the reversal of the SFG spectral features. Heating the surface in the presence of 200 Torr ammonia and 0.5 Torr oxygen reduces the oxygen coverage, which can be seen from the SFG spectra as another relative phase change of 180°. The reduction of the oxide is also supported by Auger electron spectroscopy. The result suggests that the phase change of the spectral features could serve as a sensitive indicator of the chemical environment of the adsorbates.

  14. Spectrally- and Time-Resolved Sum Frequency Generation (STiR-SFG): a new tool for ultrafast hydrogen bond dynamics at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderskii, Alexander; Bordenyuk, Andrey; Weeraman, Champika

    2006-03-01

    The recently developed spectrally- and time-resolved Sum Frequency Generation (STiR-SFG) is a surface-selective 3-wave mixing (IR+visible) spectroscopic technique capable of measuring ultrafast spectral evolution of vibrational coherences. A detailed description of this measurement will be presented, and a noniterative method or deconvolving the laser pulses will be introduced to obtain the molecular response function. STiR-SFG, combined with the frequency-domain SFG spectroscopy, was applied to study hydrogen bonding dynamics at aqueous interfaces (D2O/CaF2). Spectral dynamics of the OD-stretch on the 50-150 fs time scale provides real-time observation of ultrafast H-bond rearrangement. Tuning the IR wavelength to the blue or red side of the OD-stretch transition, we selectively monitor the dynamics of different sub-ensembles in the distribution of the H-bond structures. The blue-side excitation (weaker H-bonding) shows monotonic red-shift of the OD-frequency. In contrast, the red-side excitation (stronger H-bonding structures) produces a blue-shift and a recursion, which may indicate the presence of an underdamped intermolecular mode of interfacial water. Effect of electrolyte concentration on the H-bond dynamics will be discussed.

  15. Frequency-agile gyrotron for electron decoupling and pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Faith J.; Saliba, Edward P.; Albert, Brice J.; Alaniva, Nicholas; Sesti, Erika L.; Gao, Chukun; Golota, Natalie C.; Choi, Eric J.; Jagtap, Anil P.; Wittmann, Johannes J.; Eckardt, Michael; Harneit, Wolfgang; Corzilius, Björn; Th. Sigurdsson, Snorri; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2018-04-01

    We describe a frequency-agile gyrotron which can generate frequency-chirped microwave pulses. An arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) within the NMR spectrometer controls the microwave frequency, enabling synchronized pulsed control of both electron and nuclear spins. We demonstrate that the acceleration of emitted electrons, and thus the microwave frequency, can be quickly changed by varying the anode voltage. This strategy results in much faster frequency response than can be achieved by changing the potential of the electron emitter, and does not require a custom triode electron gun. The gyrotron frequency can be swept with a rate of 20 MHz/μs over a 670 MHz bandwidth in a static magnetic field. We have already implemented time-domain electron decoupling with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) magic angle spinning (MAS) with this device. In this contribution, we show frequency-swept DNP enhancement profiles recorded without changing the NMR magnet or probe. The profile of endofullerenes exhibits a DNP profile with a <10 MHz linewidth, indicating that the device also has sufficient frequency stability, and therefore phase stability, to implement pulsed DNP mechanisms such as the frequency-swept solid effect. We describe schematics of the mechanical and vacuum construction of the device which includes a novel flanged sapphire window assembly. Finally, we discuss how commercially available continuous-wave gyrotrons can potentially be converted into similar frequency-agile high-power microwave sources.

  16. Polarized-photon frequency filter in double-ferromagnetic barrier silicene junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantngarm, Peerasak; Yamada, Kou [Domain of Mechanical Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Gunma (Japan); Soodchomshom, Bumned, E-mail: Bumned@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2017-05-01

    We present an analytical study of effects from circularly polarized light illumination on controlling spin-valley currents in a dual ferromagnetic-gated silicene. Two different perpendicular electric fields are applied into the ferromagnetic (FM) gates and the photo-irradiated normal (NM) area between the gates. One parallel (P) and two anti-parallel (AP) configurations of exchange fields applied along with chemical potential to the gates are used in this investigation. Interestingly, the studied junction might give rise to polarized-photon frequency filter. Spin-valley filtering can be achieved at the off-resonant frequency region with appropriate direction of electric fields and the configuration of exchange fields (AP-1 or AP-2). Under the photo irradiation, this study found that tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) is controllable to achieve giant magnetoresistance (GMR) by adjusting electric fields or chemical potentials. Our study suggests the potential of photo-sensing devices in spin-valleytronics realm. - Highlights: • Photon-frequency control of spin-valley currents in silicene is investigated. • Complete photon frequency filtering effect is predicted. • Giant magnetoresistance induced by polarized photon is also found. • The junction is applicable for photo-sensing devices in spin-valleytronics realm.

  17. Assessing the high frequency behavior of non-polarizable electrodes for spectral induced polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsamad, Feras; Florsch, Nicolas; Schmutz, Myriam; Camerlynck, Christian

    2016-12-01

    During the last decades, the usage of spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements in hydrogeology and detecting environmental problems has been extensively increased. However, the physical mechanisms which are responsible for the induced polarization response over the usual frequency range (typically 1 mHz to 10-20 kHz) require better understanding. The phase shift observed at high frequencies is sometimes attributed to the so-called Maxwell-Wagner polarization which takes place when charges cross an interface. However, SIP measurements of tap water show a phase shift at frequencies higher than 1 kHz, where no Maxwell-Wagner polarization may occur. In this paper, we enlighten the possible origin of this phase shift and deduce its likely relationship with the types of the measuring electrodes. SIP Laboratory measurements of tap water using different types of measuring electrodes (polarizable and non-polarizable electrodes) are carried out to detect the origin of the phase shift at high frequencies and the influence of the measuring electrodes types on the observed complex resistivity. Sodium chloride is used to change the conductivity of the medium in order to quantify the solution conductivity role. The results of these measurements are clearly showing the impact of the measuring electrodes type on the measured phase spectrum while the influence on the amplitude spectrum is negligible. The phenomenon appearing on the phase spectrum at high frequency (> 1 kHz) whatever the electrode type is, the phase shows an increase compared to the theoretical response, and the discrepancy (at least in absolute value) increases with frequency, but it is less severe when medium conductivity is larger. Additionally, the frequency corner is shifted upward in frequency. The dependence of this phenomenon on the conductivity and the measuring electrodes type (electrode-electrolyte interface) seems to be due to some dielectric effects (as an electrical double layer of small

  18. Summing skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.D.; Weiss, C.; Wirzba, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Skyrme model has the same high density behavior as a free quark gas. However, the inclusion of higher-order terms spoils this agreement. We consider the all-order sum of a class of chiral invariant Lagrangians of even order in L μ suggested by Marleau. We prove Marleau's conjecture that these terms are of second order in the derivatives of the chiral angle for the hedgehog case and show the terms are unique under the additional condition that, for each order, the identity map on the 3-sphere S 3 (L) is a solution. The general form of the summation can be restricted by physical constraints leading to stable results. Under the assumption that the Lagrangian scales like the non-linear sigma model at low densities and like the free quark gas at high densities, we prove that a chiral phase transition must occur. (orig.)

  19. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  20. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  1. Adding a dimension to the infrared spectra of interfaces using heterodyne detected 2D sum-frequency generation (HD 2D SFG) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Laaser, Jennifer E; Mehlenbacher, Randy D; Zanni, Martin T

    2011-12-27

    In the last ten years, two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy has become an important technique for studying molecular structures and dynamics. We report the implementation of heterodyne detected two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (HD 2D SFG) spectroscopy, which is the analog of 2D infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy, but is selective to noncentrosymmetric systems such as interfaces. We implement the technique using mid-IR pulse shaping, which enables rapid scanning, phase cycling, and automatic phasing. Absorptive spectra are obtained, that have the highest frequency resolution possible, from which we extract the rephasing and nonrephasing signals that are sometimes preferred. Using this technique, we measure the vibrational mode of CO adsorbed on a polycrystalline Pt surface. The 2D spectrum reveals a significant inhomogenous contribution to the spectral line shape, which is quantified by simulations. This observation indicates that the surface conformation and environment of CO molecules is more complicated than the simple "atop" configuration assumed in previous work. Our method can be straightforwardly incorporated into many existing SFG spectrometers. The technique enables one to quantify inhomogeneity, vibrational couplings, spectral diffusion, chemical exchange, and many other properties analogous to 2D IR spectroscopy, but specifically for interfaces.

  2. Tunable, continuous-wave, ultraviolet source based on intracavity sum-frequency-generation in an optical parametric oscillator using BiB₃O₆.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kavita; Kumar, S Chaitanya; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2013-10-21

    We report a continuous-wave (cw) source of tunable radiation across 333-345 nm in the ultraviolet (UV) using bismuth triborate, BiB₃O₆ (BIBO) as the nonlinear gain material. The source is based on internal sum-frequency-generation (SFG) in a cw singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped at 532 nm. The compact tunable source employs a 30-mm-long MgO:sPPLT crystal as the OPO gain medium and a 5-mm-long BIBO crystal for intracavity SFG of the signal and pump, providing up to 21.6 mW of UV power at 339.7 nm, with >15 mW over 64% of the SFG tuning range. The cw OPO is also tunable across 1158-1312 nm in the idler, delivering as much as 1.7 W at 1247 nm, with >1W over 65% of the tuning range. The UV output at maximum power exhibits passive power stability better than 3.4% rms and frequency stability of 193 GHz over more than one minute.

  3. Characterization of the molecular structure and mechanical properties of polymer surfaces and protein/polymer interfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffas, Telly Stelianos [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other complementary surface-sensitive techniques have been used to study the surface molecular structure and surface mechanical behavior of biologically-relevant polymer systems. SFG and AFM have emerged as powerful analytical tools to deduce structure/property relationships, in situ, for polymers at air, liquid and solid interfaces. The experiments described in this dissertation have been performed to understand how polymer surface properties are linked to polymer bulk composition, substrate hydrophobicity, changes in the ambient environment (e.g., humidity and temperature), or the adsorption of macromolecules. The correlation of spectroscopic and mechanical data by SFG and AFM can become a powerful methodology to study and engineer materials with tailored surface properties. The overarching theme of this research is the interrogation of systems of increasing structural complexity, which allows us to extend conclusions made on simpler model systems. We begin by systematically describing the surface molecular composition and mechanical properties of polymers, copolymers, and blends having simple linear architectures. Subsequent chapters focus on networked hydrogel materials used as soft contact lenses and the adsorption of protein and surfactant at the polymer/liquid interface. The power of SFG is immediately demonstrated in experiments which identify the chemical parameters that influence the molecular composition and ordering of a polymer chain's side groups at the polymer/air and polymer/liquid interfaces. In general, side groups with increasingly greater hydrophobic character will be more surface active in air. Larger side groups impose steric restrictions, thus they will tend to be more randomly ordered than smaller hydrophobic groups. If exposed to a hydrophilic environment, such as water, the polymer chain will attempt to orient more of its hydrophilic groups to

  4. 2D heterodyne-detected sum frequency generation study on the ultrafast vibrational dynamics of H{sub 2}O and HOD water at charged interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Ken-ichi; Singh, Prashant C. [Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nihonyanagi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei, E-mail: tahei@riken.jp [Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ultrafast Spectroscopy Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Shoichi [Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2015-06-07

    Two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) spectroscopy is applied to study the ultrafast vibrational dynamics of water at positively charged aqueous interfaces, and 2D HD-VSFG spectra of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/water interfaces in the whole hydrogen-bonded OH stretch region (3000 cm{sup −1} ≤ ω{sub pump} ≤ 3600 cm{sup −1}) are measured. 2D HD-VSFG spectrum of the CTAB/isotopically diluted water (HOD-D{sub 2}O) interface exhibits a diagonally elongated bleaching lobe immediately after excitation, which becomes round with a time constant of ∼0.3 ps due to spectral diffusion. In contrast, 2D HD-VSFG spectrum of the CTAB/H{sub 2}O interface at 0.0 ps clearly shows two diagonal peaks and their cross peaks in the bleaching region, corresponding to the double peaks observed at 3230 cm{sup −1} and 3420 cm{sup −1} in the steady-state HD-VSFG spectrum. Horizontal slices of the 2D spectrum show that the relative intensity of the two peaks of the bleaching at the CTAB/H{sub 2}O interface gradually change with the change of the pump frequency. We simulate the pump-frequency dependence of the bleaching feature using a model that takes account of the Fermi resonance and inhomogeneity of the OH stretch vibration, and the simulated spectra reproduce the essential features of the 2D HD-VSFG spectra of the CTAB/H{sub 2}O interface. The present study demonstrates that heterodyne detection of the time-resolved VSFG is critically important for studying the ultrafast dynamics of water interfaces and for unveiling the underlying mechanism.

  5. A Fabry-Pérot interferometer with wire-grid polarizers as beamsplitters at terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, H.; Lancaster, A. J.; Konoplev, I. V.; Doucas, G.; Aryshev, A.; Shevelev, M.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Huggard, P. G.

    2018-03-01

    The design of a compact Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPi) and results of the experimental studies carried out using the device are presented. Our FPi uses freestanding wire-grid polarizers (WGPs) as beamsplitters and is suitable for use at terahertz (THz) frequencies. The FPi was studied at the LUCX facility, KEK, Japan, and an 8 MeV linear electron accelerator was used to generate coherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The FPi was designed to be easy to align and reposition for experiments at linear accelerator facilities. All of the components used were required to have a flat or well understood frequency response in the THz range. The performance of the FPi with WGPs was compared to that of a Michelson interferometer and the FPi is seen to perform well. The effectiveness of the beamsplitters used in the FPi is also investigated. Measurements made with the FPi using WGPs, the preferred beamsplitters, are compared to measurements made with the FPi using silicon wafers as alternative beamsplitters. The FPi performs well with both types of beamsplitter in the frequency range used (0.3-0.5 THz). The successful measurements taken with the FPi demonstrate a compact and adaptable interferometer that is capable of analyzing THz radiation over a broad frequency range. The scheme is particularly well suited for polarization studies of THz radiation produced in an accelerator environment.

  6. Frequency splitting of polarization eigenmodes in microscopic Fabry–Perot cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uphoff, Manuel; Brekenfeld, Manuel; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    We study the frequency splitting of the polarization eigenmodes of the fundamental transverse mode in CO 2 laser-machined, high-finesse optical Fabry–Perot cavities and investigate the influence of the geometry of the cavity mirrors. Their highly reflective surfaces are typically not rotationally symmetric but have slightly different radii of curvature along two principal axes. We observe that the eccentricity of such elliptical mirrors lifts the degeneracy of the polarization eigenmodes. The impact of the eccentricity increases for smaller radii of curvature. A model derived from corrections to the paraxial resonator theory is in excellent agreement with the measurements, showing that geometric effects are the main source of the frequency splitting of polarization modes for the type of microscopic cavity studied here. By rotating one of the mirrors around the cavity axis, the splitting can be tuned. In the case of an identical differential phase shift per mirror, it can even be eliminated, despite a nonvanishing eccentricity of each mirror. We expect our results to have important implications for many experiments in cavity quantum electrodynamics, where Fabry–Perot cavities with small mode volumes are required. (paper)

  7. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies of solid-vacuum, solid-air and solid-liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, Saskia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Electron based surface probing techniques can provide detailed information about surface structure or chemical composition in vacuum environments. The development of new surface techniques has made possible in situ molecular level studies of solid-gas interfaces and more recently, solid-liquid interfaces. The aim of this dissertation is two-fold. First, by using novel sample preparation, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and other traditional ultra high vacuum (UHV) techniques are shown to provide new information on the insulator/vacuum interface. The surface structure of the classic insulator NaCl has been determined using these methods. Second, using sum frequency generation (SFG) surface specific vibrational spectroscopy studies were performed on both the biopolymer/air and electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The surface structure and composition of polyetherurethane-silicone copolymers were determined in air using SFG, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SFG studies of the electrode (platinum, gold and copper)/electrolyte interface were performed as a function of applied potential in an electrochemical cell.

  8. Self-assembled organic monolayers on gold nanoparticles: A study by sum-frequency generation combined with UV-vis spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbert, C. [LURE, CNRS-UMR 130, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Ba-hat t. 209D, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France) and Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Moleculaire de Surface, University of Namur, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)]. E-mail: christophe.humbert@fundp.ac.be; Busson, B. [LURE, CNRS-UMR 130, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Ba-hat t. 209D, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Abid, J.-P. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie Physique et Analytique, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Six, C. [LURE, CNRS-UMR 130, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Ba-hat t. 209D, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Girault, H.H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie Physique et Analytique, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Tadjeddine, A. [LURE, CNRS-UMR 130, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Ba-hat t. 209D, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2005-05-20

    We use sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG) in the infrared 2800-3000 cm{sup -1} spectral range and UV-vis spectroscopy (transmission) in the 450-650 nm spectral range in order to characterize vibrational and electronic properties of various interfaces composed of organic monolayers adsorbed on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with 19 nm average diameter. SFG signal is observed for AuNPs films deposited on glass substrates using the following silane intermediates: 3-(aminopropyl) triethoxysilane and 3-(mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane. The density of AuNPs and their aggregates are measured with a scanning electron microscope. For the samples showing a strong well-defined surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we also observe an enhancement of their non-linear optical properties. Furthermore, the SFG measurements show that 1-dodecanethiol films are rather well ordered on specific AuNPs substrates. In this way, the presence of the SFG signal, which comes from both the bulk electronic s-d interband transition and the vibrational states of the adsorbed molecules, depends on a SPR process. This phenomenon is evidenced on the AuNPs by the incident visible beam located at 532 nm, i.e. near the SPR energy maximum of these interfaces. These results open the door to experiments involving macromolecular and biological materials networks deposited on ultrathin metal electrodes in a controlled electrochemical environment.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of aromatic self-assembled monolayers containing methylene and ethyleneglycol entities by means of sum-frequency generation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, L.; Sartenaer, Y.; Peremans, A.; Thiry, P.A.; Humbert, C.; Grugier, J.; Marchand-Brynaert, J.

    2006-01-01

    We use infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy in order to investigate the adsorption properties on Pt(111) of molecules having CH 3 -C 6 H 4 -(O-CH 2 -CH 2 ) n -O-(CH 2 ) m -SH as general chemical formula. We synthesized three molecules defined by the values m = 5 n = 4, m = 11 n = 4, m = 11 n = 8 and characterized them by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Thanks to spectroscopic measurements, we show that these molecules build self-assembled monolayers on Pt(111). First, the weak SFG signals arising from the ad-layer indicate low order and surface coverage of the substrate by these molecules. Next, the vibrational fingerprints of the aforementioned molecules are determined between 2825 and 3125 cm - 1 and the observed SFG spectral features are ascribed on the basis of the analysis of shorter and simpler molecules (1-dodecanethiol, 4-methylbenzenethiol and CH 3 -C 6 H 4 -O-(CH 2 ) 11 -SH) also adsorbed on Pt(111). The occurrence of methylene vibration modes indicates a significant amount of chain defects whatever the n and m numbers are. Finally, the identification of a particular vibration mode, characteristic of the aromatic ring, enables us to qualitatively discuss the effect of the number of methylene and ethylene glycol entities on its orientation. More precisely, higher these numbers, more tilted (with respect to the substrate normal) the aromatic ring plane is

  10. Water Orientation at Ceramide/Water Interfaces Studied by Heterodyne-Detected Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Adhikari, Aniruddha

    2016-10-10

    Lipid/water interaction is essential for many biological processes. The water structure at the nonionic lipid interface remains little known, and there is no scope of a priori prediction of water orientation at nonionic interfaces, either. Here, we report our study combining advanced nonlinear spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation on the water orientation at the ceramide/water interface. We measured χ spectrum in the OH stretch region of ceramide/isotopically diluted water interface using heterodyne-detected vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy and found that the interfacial water prefers an overall hydrogen-up orientation. Molecular dynamics simulation indicates that this preferred hydrogen-up orientation of water is determined by a delicate balance between hydrogen-up and hydrogen-down orientation induced by lipid-water and intralipid hydrogen bonds. This mechanism also suggests that water orientation at neutral lipid interfaces depends highly on the chemical structure of the lipid headgroup, in contrast to the charged lipid interfaces where the net water orientation is determined solely by the charge of the lipid headgroup.

  11. Studies of Heterogeneously Catalyzed Liquid-Phase Alcohol Oxidation on Platinum bySum-frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy and Reaction Rate Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Christopher [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Compared to many branches of chemistry, the molecular level study of catalytically active surfaces is young. Only with the invention of ultrahigh vacuum technology in the past half century has it been possible to carry out experiments that yield useful molecular information about the reactive occurrences at a surface. The reason is two-fold: low pressure is necessary to keep a surface clean for an amount of time long enough to perform an experiment, and most atomic scale techniques that are surface speci c (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, etc.) cannot be used at ambient pressures, because electrons, which act as chemical probes in these techniques, are easily scattered by molecules. Sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is one technique that can provide molecular level information from the surface without the necessity for high vacuum. Since the advent of SFG as a surface spectroscopic tool it has proved its worth in the studies of surface catalyzed reactions in the gas phase, with numerous reactions in the gas phase having been investigated on a multitude of surfaces. However, in situ SFG characterization of catalysis at the solid-liquid interface has yet to be thoroughly pursued despite the broad interest in the use of heterogeneous catalysts in the liquid phase as replacements for homogeneous counterparts. This work describes an attempt to move in that direction, applying SFG to study the solid-liquid interface under conditions of catalytic alcohol oxidation on platinum.

  12. Vibrational Dynamics of Interfacial Water by Free Induction Decay Sum Frequency Generation (FID-SFG) at the Al2O3(1120)/H2O Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Borguet, Eric

    2014-02-06

    The dephasing dynamics of a vibrational coherence may reveal the interactions of chemical functional groups with their environment. To investigate this process at a surface, we employ free induction decay sum frequency generation (FID-SFG) to measure the time that it takes for free OH stretch oscillators at the charged (pH ≈ 13, KOH) interface of alumina/water (Al2O3/H2O) to lose their collective coherence. By employing noncollinear optical parametric amplification (NOPA) technology and nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy, we showed that the single free OH peak actually corresponds to two distinct oscillators oriented opposite to each other and measured the total dephasing time, T2, of the free OH stretch modes at the Al2O3/H2O interface with a sub-40 fs temporal resolution. Our results suggested that the free OH oscillators associated with interfacial water dephase on the time scale of 89.4 ± 6.9 fs, whereas the homogeneous dephasing of interfacial alumina hydroxyls is an order of magnitude slower.

  13. Two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (2D SFG) spectroscopy: summary of principles and its application to amyloid fiber monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ayanjeet; Ho, Jia-Jung; Serrano, Arnaldo L; Skoff, David R; Zhang, Tianqi; Zanni, Martin T

    2015-01-01

    By adding a mid-infrared pulse shaper to a sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectrometer, we have built a 2D SFG spectrometer capable of measuring spectra analogous to 2D IR spectra but with monolayer sensitivity and SFG selection rules. In this paper, we describe the experimental apparatus and provide an introduction to 2D SFG spectroscopy to help the reader interpret 2D SFG spectra. The main aim of this manuscript is to report 2D SFG spectra of the amyloid forming peptide FGAIL. FGAIL is a critical segment of the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP or amylin) that aggregates in people with type 2 diabetes. FGAIL is catalyzed into amyloid fibers by many types of surfaces. Here, we study the structure of FGAIL upon deposition onto a gold surface covered with a self-assembled monolayer of methyl-4-mercaptobenzoate (MMB) that produces an ester coating. FGAIL deposited on bare gold does not form ordered layers. The measured 2D SFG spectrum is consistent with amyloid fiber formation, exhibiting both the parallel (a+) and perpendicular (a-) symmetry modes associated with amyloid β-sheets. Cross peaks are observed between the ester stretches of the coating and the FGAIL peptides. Simulations are presented for two possible structures of FGAIL amyloid β-sheets that illustrate the sensitivity of the 2D SFG spectra to structure and orientation. These results provide some of the first molecular insights into surface catalyzed amyloid fiber structure.

  14. Self-assembled organic monolayers on gold nanoparticles: A study by sum-frequency generation combined with UV-vis spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, C.; Busson, B.; Abid, J.-P.; Six, C.; Girault, H.H.; Tadjeddine, A.

    2005-01-01

    We use sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG) in the infrared 2800-3000 cm -1 spectral range and UV-vis spectroscopy (transmission) in the 450-650 nm spectral range in order to characterize vibrational and electronic properties of various interfaces composed of organic monolayers adsorbed on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with 19 nm average diameter. SFG signal is observed for AuNPs films deposited on glass substrates using the following silane intermediates: 3-(aminopropyl) triethoxysilane and 3-(mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane. The density of AuNPs and their aggregates are measured with a scanning electron microscope. For the samples showing a strong well-defined surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we also observe an enhancement of their non-linear optical properties. Furthermore, the SFG measurements show that 1-dodecanethiol films are rather well ordered on specific AuNPs substrates. In this way, the presence of the SFG signal, which comes from both the bulk electronic s-d interband transition and the vibrational states of the adsorbed molecules, depends on a SPR process. This phenomenon is evidenced on the AuNPs by the incident visible beam located at 532 nm, i.e. near the SPR energy maximum of these interfaces. These results open the door to experiments involving macromolecular and biological materials networks deposited on ultrathin metal electrodes in a controlled electrochemical environment

  15. Hydrogenation of the alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde, and Prenal over Pt Single Crystals: A Kinetic and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliewer, C.J.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2008-11-26

    Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to study the surface reaction intermediates during the hydrogenation of three {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal, over Pt(111) at Torr pressures (1 Torr aldehyde, 100 Torr hydrogen) in the temperature range of 295K to 415K. SFG-VS data showed that acrolein has mixed adsorption species of {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-trans, {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-cis as well as highly coordinated {eta}{sub 3} or {eta}{sub 4} species. Crotonaldehyde adsorbed to Pt(111) as {eta}{sub 2} surface intermediates. SFG-VS during prenal hydrogenation also suggested the presence of the {eta}{sub 2} adsorption species, and became more highly coordinated as the temperature was raised to 415K, in agreement with its enhanced C=O hydrogenation. The effect of catalyst surface structure was clarified by carrying out the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde over both Pt(111) and Pt(100) single crystals while acquiring the SFG-VS spectra in situ. Both the kinetics and SFG-VS showed little structure sensitivity. Pt(100) generated more decarbonylation 'cracking' product while Pt(111) had a higher selectivity for the formation of the desired unsaturated alcohol, crotylalcohol.

  16. Phase transition behaviors of the supported DPPC bilayer investigated by sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Heng-Liang; Tong, Yujin; Peng, Qiling; Li, Na; Ye, Shen

    2016-01-21

    The phase transition behaviors of a supported bilayer of dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-choline (DPPC) have been systematically evaluated by in situ sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). By using an asymmetric bilayer composed of per-deuterated and per-protonated monolayers, i.e., DPPC-d75/DPPC and a symmetric bilayer of DPPC/DPPC, we were able to probe the molecular structural changes during the phase transition process of the lipid bilayer by SFG spectroscopy. It was found that the DPPC bilayer is sequentially melted from the top (adjacent to the solution) to bottom leaflet (adjacent to the substrate) over a wide temperature range. The conformational ordering of the supported bilayer does not decrease (even slightly increases) during the phase transition process. The conformational defects in the bilayer can be removed after the complete melting process. The phase transition enthalpy for the bottom leaflet was found to be approximately three times greater than that for the top leaflet, indicating a strong interaction of the lipids with the substrate. The present SFG and AFM observations revealed similar temperature dependent profiles. Based on these results, the temperature-induced structural changes in the supported lipid bilayer during its phase transition process are discussed in comparison with previous studies.

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL-FREQUENCY DUAL-POLARIZED DOPPLER RADAR (D3R) IFLOODS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual-frequency Dual-polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) IFloodS data set contain radar reflectivity and doppler velocity measurements. The D3R...

  18. The temporal and spatial variations of low frequency geomagnetic pulsations at polar cusp and cap latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimenova, N.; Kozyreva, O.V.; Francia, P.; Villante, U.

    1999-01-01

    Geomagnetic field measurements at two Antarctic are compared during two weeks in the local summer (January 1-15, 1992). Low frequency (0.6 mHz) pulsations are observed at each station near local magnetic noon. The same wave packets appear in some case also at the other station, although with a significant attenuation, more clearly in the morning sector; the wave show a near noon reversal of the polarization sense from counterclockwise in the morning to clockwise in the afternoon indicating a westward and an eastward propagation, respectively

  19. The temporal and spatial variations of low frequency geomagnetic pulsations at polar cusp and cap latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bitterly

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic field measurements at two Antarctic stations are compared during two weeks in the local summer (January 1-15, 1992. Low frequency (0.6-6 mHz pulsations are observed at each station near local magnetic noon. The same wave packets appear in some cases also at the other station, although with a significant attenuation, more clearly in the morning sector; the waves show a near noon reversal of the polarization sense from counter-clockwise in the morning to clockwise in the afternoon indicating a westward and an eastward propagation, respectively.

  20. Anomalous high-frequency wave activity flux preceding anomalous changes in the Northern polar jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mototaka; Kadota, Minoru; Yamane, Shozo

    2010-05-01

    show anomalous acceleration or deceleration of U in the polar region, accompanied by anomalies of the opposite sign in the subtropics throughout the troposphere and stratosphere. The anomalies are conspicuously large in the polar stratosphere. The composited anomalous Z and U in the preceding and following months indicate that these large anomalies in dZ and dU occur when the polar troposphere and stratosphere are relaxing back toward the climatology from strongly anomalous states that closely resemble the positive and negative phases of the NAM. In this process of relaxation, the atmosphere actually overshoots the climatology and develops anomalies of the sign opposite to those existed initially. The anomalous wave activity flux exhibit strong signals of anomalous upward (downward) propagation of high-frequency waves in the North Atlantic storm track from the bottom of the atmosphere, penetrating up to the stratosphere, when the polar jet is anomalously strong (weak) in the preceding month. The anomalous horizontal wave activity flux shows anomalous eastward (westward) flux emanating from the North Atlantic storm track when the polar jet is anomalously strong (weak) in the preceding month. These patterns suggest that anomalous high-frequency waves originating from the North Atlantic storm track in the lower troposphere contribute to the destruction of both phases of the NAM. However, the anomalous flux divergence is very noisy everywhere due to the noisiness of the advective horizontal flux, making it difficult to ascertain the role of the high-frequency transients in the destruction of the NAM.

  1. Up to 30 mW of broadly tunable CW green-to-orange light, based on sum-frequency mixing of Cr4+:forsterite and Nd:YVO4 lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; McWilliam, Allan; G. Leburn, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Efficient generation of continuous-wave (CW) tunable light in the yellow region is reported. The method is based on sum-frequency mixing of a tunable Cr4+:forsterite laser with a Nd:YVO4 laser. A periodically poled lithium niobate crystal was placed intra-cavity in a Nd:YVO4 laser, and the Cr4...

  2. Microwave frequency tuning in heterogeneous spin torque oscillator with perpendicular polarizer: A macrospin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoomeeswaran, H.; Vivek, T.; Sabareesan, P.

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we have theoretically devised a Spin Torque Nano Oscillator (STNO) with perpendicular polarizer using macro spin model. The devised spin valve structure is heterogeneous (i.e.) it is made of two different ferromagnetic materials [Co and its alloy CoFeB]. The dynamics of magnetization provoked by spin transfer torque is studied numerically by solving the famous Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski [LLGS] equation. The results are obtained for the perpendicular polarizer and for that particular out of plane orientation we vary the free layer angle from 10° to 90°. The obtained results are highly appealing, because frequency range is available in all the tilt angles of free layer and it is exceptionally tunable in all free layer tilt angles with zero applied field. Moreover, the utmost operating frequency of about 83.3 GHz and its corresponding power of 4.488 µW/mA2/GHz is acquired for the free layer tilt angle θ = 90° with the solid applied current density of 10 × 1010 A/m2. Also, our device emits high quality factor of about 396, which is remarkably desirable for making devices. These pioneering results provides a significant development for future spintronic based devices.

  3. Circularly Polarized S Band Dual Frequency Square Patch Antenna Using Glass Microfiber Reinforced PTFE Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samsuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circularly polarized (CP dual frequency cross-shaped slotted patch antenna on 1.575 mm thick glass microfiber reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE composite material substrate is designed and fabricated for satellite applications. Asymmetric cross-shaped slots are embedded in the middle of the square patch for CP radiation and four hexagonal slots are etched on the four sides of the square patch for desired dual frequency. Different substrate materials have been analysed to achieve the desired operating band. The experimental results show that the impedance bandwidth is approximately 30 MHz (2.16 GHz to 2.19 GHz for lower band and 40 MHz (3.29 GHz to 3.33 GHz for higher band with an average peak gain of 6.59 dBiC and 5.52 dBiC, respectively. Several optimizations are performed to obtain the values of the antenna physical parameters. Moreover, the proposed antenna possesses compactness, light weight, simplicity, low cost, and circularly polarized. It is an attractive candidate for dual band satellite antennas where lower band can be used for uplink and upper band can be used for downlink.

  4. Hydration of Sulphobetaine (SB) and Tetra(ethylene glycol) (EG4)-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers Studied by Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M. Jeanette; Weidner, Tobias; McCrea, Keith; Castner, David G.; Ratner, Buddy D.

    2010-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is used to study the surface and the underlying substrate of both homogeneous and mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 11-mercaptoundecyl-1-sulphobetainethiol (HS(CH2)11N+(CH3)2(CH2)3SO3−, SB) and 1-mercapto-11-undecyl tetra(ethylene glycol) (HS(CH2)11O(CH2CH2O)4OH, EG4) with an 11-mercapto-1-undecanol (HS(CH2)11OH, MCU) diluent. SFG results on the C–H region of the dry and hydrated SAMs gave an in situ look into the molecular orientation and suggested an approach to maximize signal-to-noise ratio on these difficult to analyze hydrophilic SAMs. Vibrational fingerprint studies in the 3000–3600 cm−1 spectral range for the SAMs exposed serially to air, water, and deuterated water revealed that a layer of tightly-bound structured water was associated with the surface of a non-fouling monolayer but was not present on a hydrophobic N-undecylmercaptan (HS(CH2)10CH3, UnD) control. The percentage of water retained upon submersion in D2O correlated well with the relative amount of protein that was previously shown to absorb onto the monolayers. These results provide evidence supporting the current theory regarding the role of a tightly-bound vicinal water layer in the protein resistance of a non-fouling group. PMID:19639981

  5. Discovery of deep and shallow trap states from step structures of rutile TiO2 vicinal surfaces by second harmonic and sum frequency generation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Miyauchi, Yoshihiro; Mizutani, Goro

    2011-01-01

    In this report, local electronic structures of steps and terraces on rutile TiO 2 single crystal faces were studied by second harmonic and sum frequency generation (SHG/SFG) spectroscopy. We attained selective measurement of the local electronic states of the step bunches formed on the vicinal (17 18 1) and (15 13 0) surfaces using a recently developed step-selective probing technique. The electronic structures of the flat (110)-(1x1) (the terrace face of the vicinal surfaces) and (011)-(2x1) surfaces were also discussed. The SHG/SFG spectra showed that step structures are mainly responsible for the formation of trap states, since significant resonances from the trap states were observed only from the vicinal surfaces. We detected deep hole trap (DHT) states and shallow electron trap (SET) states selectively from the step bunches on the vicinal surfaces. Detailed analysis of the SHG/SFG spectra showed that the DHT and SET states are more likely to be induced at the top edges of the step bunches than on their hillsides. Unlike the SET states, the DHT states were observed only at the step bunches parallel to [1 1 1][equivalent to the step bunches formed on the (17 18 1) surface]. Photocatalytic activity for each TiO 2 sample was also measured through methylene blue photodegradation reactions and was found to follow the sequence: (110) < (17 18 1) < (15 13 0) < (011), indicating that steps along [0 0 1] are more reactive than steps along [1 1 1]. This result implies that the presence of the DHT states observed from the step bunches parallel to [1 1 1] did not effectively contribute to the methylene blue photodegradation reactions.

  6. Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy on metals, oxides, and oxide-supported metal particles; Summenfrequenzerzeugungsspektroskopie an Metallen, Oxiden und oxidgetraegerten Metallpartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumer, Andreas

    2010-06-21

    This thesis focuses on 4 different model systems of surface science. The experimental techniques used for the measurements include sum frequency generation (SFG), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), infrared adsorption spectrosocopy (IRAS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). By using SFG, measurements could be performed up to a pressure of 50 mbar. The systems under investigation were: CO on Pt(111), water on Ag(001) and on MgO/Ag(001), CO on Au/MgO/Ag(001), and CO on Au-Pd/MgO/Ag(001). The system of CO on Pt(111) exhibits a two peak-pattern under certain pressure and temperature conditions which has not been studied so far. Various experiments helped to elucidate the origin of this distinct behaviour. The measurements of water on Ag(001) and MgO/Ag(001) show that on MgO, water first adsorbs as a monolayer with a following multilayer, whereas on Ag(001) it adsorbs as a multilayer from the beginning. The monolayer can be studied below the multilayer and some resonances can be identified. For the case of Au/MgO/Ag(001), STM shows that the growth mode of Au depends on the thickness of the supporting MgO film, which can not be seen with spectroscopic methods. For mixed Au-Pd particles on MgO/Ag(001) a clear difference in the adsorption behaviour between pure metal particles and mixed particles can be seen, which is explained by an interaction between these metals. Annealing the mixed particles to 600 K leads to a segregation of the metals, where the Au atoms diffuse to the shell and the Pd atoms make up the core. The results of all these measurements are discussed in the light of recent publications. (orig.)

  7. POLARIZED LINE FORMATION IN MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MEDIA. III. HANLE EFFECT WITH PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N.

    2011-01-01

    In two previous papers, we solved the polarized radiative transfer (RT) equation in multi-dimensional (multi-D) geometries with partial frequency redistribution as the scattering mechanism. We assumed Rayleigh scattering as the only source of linear polarization (Q/I, U/I) in both these papers. In this paper, we extend these previous works to include the effect of weak oriented magnetic fields (Hanle effect) on line scattering. We generalize the technique of Stokes vector decomposition in terms of the irreducible spherical tensors T K Q , developed by Anusha and Nagendra, to the case of RT with Hanle effect. A fast iterative method of solution (based on the Stabilized Preconditioned Bi-Conjugate-Gradient technique), developed by Anusha et al., is now generalized to the case of RT in magnetized three-dimensional media. We use the efficient short-characteristics formal solution method for multi-D media, generalized appropriately to the present context. The main results of this paper are the following: (1) a comparison of emergent (I, Q/I, U/I) profiles formed in one-dimensional (1D) media, with the corresponding emergent, spatially averaged profiles formed in multi-D media, shows that in the spatially resolved structures, the assumption of 1D may lead to large errors in linear polarization, especially in the line wings. (2) The multi-D RT in semi-infinite non-magnetic media causes a strong spatial variation of the emergent (Q/I, U/I) profiles, which is more pronounced in the line wings. (3) The presence of a weak magnetic field modifies the spatial variation of the emergent (Q/I, U/I) profiles in the line core, by producing significant changes in their magnitudes.

  8. High-Pressure Catalytic Reactions of C6 Hydrocarbons on PlatinumSingle-Crystals and nanoparticles: A Sum Frequency Generation VibrationalSpectroscopic and Kinetic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratlie, Kaitlin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic reactions of cyclohexene, benzene, n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, and 1-hexene on platinum catalysts were monitored in situ via sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC). SFG is a surface specific vibrational spectroscopic tool capable of monitoring submonolayer coverages under reaction conditions without gas-phase interference. SFG was used to identify the surface intermediates present during catalytic processes on Pt(111) and Pt(100) single-crystals and on cubic and cuboctahedra Pt nanoparticles in the Torr pressure regime and at high temperatures (300K-450K). At low pressures (<10-6 Torr), cyclohexene hydrogenated and dehydrogenates to form cyclohexyl (C6H11) and π-allyl C6H9, respectively, on Pt(100). Increasing pressures to 1.5 Torr form cyclohexyl, π-allyl C6H9, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene, illustrating the necessity to investigate catalytic reactions at high-pressures. Simultaneously, GC was used to acquire turnover rates that were correlated to reactive intermediates observed spectroscopically. Benzene hydrogenation on Pt(111) and Pt(100) illustrated structure sensitivity via both vibrational spectroscopy and kinetics. Both cyclohexane and cyclohexene were produced on Pt(111), while only cyclohexane was formed on Pt(100). Additionally, π-allyl c-C6H9 was found only on Pt(100), indicating that cyclohexene rapidly dehydrogenates on the (100) surface. The structure insensitive production of cyclohexane was found to exhibit a compensation effect and was analyzed using the selective energy transfer (SET) model. The SET model suggests that the Pt-H system donates energy to the E2u mode of free benzene, which leads to catalysis. Linear C6 (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, and 1-hexene) hydrocarbons were also investigated in the presence and absence of excess hydrogen on Pt

  9. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Studies on ModelPeptide Adsorption at the Hydrophobic Solid-Water and HydrophilicSolid-Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, Roger L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been used to study the interfacial structure of several polypeptides and amino acids adsorbed to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces under a variety of experimental conditions. Peptide sequence, peptide chain length, peptide hydrophobicity, peptide side-chain type, surface hydrophobicity, and solution ionic strength all affect an adsorbed peptide's interfacial structure. Herein, it is demonstrated that with the choice of simple, model peptides and amino acids, surface specific SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be a powerful tool to elucidate the interfacial structure of these adsorbates. Herein, four experiments are described. In one, a series of isosequential amphiphilic peptides are synthesized and studied when adsorbed to both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. On hydrophobic surfaces of deuterated polystyrene, it was determined that the hydrophobic part of the peptide is ordered at the solid-liquid interface, while the hydrophilic part of the peptide appears to have a random orientation at this interface. On a hydrophilic surface of silica, it was determined that an ordered peptide was only observed if a peptide had stable secondary structure in solution. In another experiment, the interfacial structure of a model amphiphilic peptide was studied as a function of the ionic strength of the solution, a parameter that could change the peptide's secondary structure in solution. It was determined that on a hydrophobic surface, the peptide's interfacial structure was independent of its structure in solution. This was in contrast to the adsorbed structure on a hydrophilic surface, where the peptide's interfacial structure showed a strong dependence on its solution secondary structure. In a third experiment, the SFG spectra of lysine and proline amino acids on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces were obtained by using a different experimental geometry that increases the SFG signal

  10. Investigation into constant envelope orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for polarization-division multiplexing coherent optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Ding, Ding

    2017-09-01

    Benefiting from the high spectral efficiency and low peak-to-average power ratio, constant envelope orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique in coherent optical communication. Polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) has been employed as an effective way to double the transmission capacity in the commercial 100 Gb/s PDM-QPSK system. We investigated constant envelope OFDM together with PDM. Simulation results show that the acceptable maximum launch power into the fiber improves 10 and 6 dB for 80- and 320-km transmission, respectively (compared with the conventional PDM OFDM system). The maximum reachable distance of the constant envelope OFDM system is able to reach 800 km, and even 1200 km is reachable if an ideal erbium doped fiber amplifier is employed.

  11. Dual-Polarization, Multi-Frequency Antenna Array for use with Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in common aperture antenna technology were employed to utilize its proprietary genetic algorithmbased modeling tools in an effort to develop, build, and test a dual-polarization array for Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) applications. Final program results demonstrate the ability to achieve a lightweight, thin, higher-gain aperture that covers the desired spectral band. NASA employs various passive microwave and millimeter-wave instruments, such as spectral radiometers, for a range of remote sensing applications, from measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, to cosmic background emission. These instruments such as the HIRAD, SFMR (Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer), and LRR (Lightweight Rainfall Radiometer), provide unique data accumulation capabilities for observing sea surface wind, temperature, and rainfall, and significantly enhance the understanding and predictability of hurricane intensity. These microwave instruments require extremely efficient wideband or multiband antennas in order to conserve space on the airborne platform. In addition, the thickness and weight of the antenna arrays is of paramount importance in reducing platform drag, permitting greater time on station. Current sensors are often heavy, single- polarization, or limited in frequency coverage. The ideal wideband antenna will have reduced size, weight, and profile (a conformal construct) without sacrificing optimum performance. The technology applied to this new HIRAD array will allow NASA, NOAA, and other users to gather information related to hurricanes and other tropical storms more cost effectively without sacrificing sensor performance or the aircraft time on station. The results of the initial analysis and numerical design indicated strong potential for an antenna array that would satisfy all of the design requirements for a replacement HIRAD array. Multiple common aperture antenna methodologies were employed to achieve exceptional gain over the entire

  12. Joint compensation scheme of polarization crosstalk, intersymbol interference, frequency offset, and phase noise based on cascaded Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Yang, Yanfu; Xiang, Qian; Zhou, Zhongqing; Yao, Yong

    2018-02-01

    A joint compensation scheme based on cascaded Kalman filter is proposed, which can implement polarization tracking, channel equalization, frequency offset, and phase noise compensation simultaneously. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only compensate multiple channel impairments simultaneously but also improve the polarization tracking capacity and accelerate the convergence speed. The scheme has up to eight times faster convergence speed compared with radius-directed equalizer (RDE) + Max-FFT (maximum fast Fourier transform) + BPS (blind phase search) and can track up polarization rotation 60 times and 15 times faster than that of RDE + Max-FFT + BPS and CMMA (cascaded multimodulus algorithm) + Max-FFT + BPS, respectively.

  13. A stable wavelength-tunable single frequency and single polarization linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, T; Yan, F P; Li, Q; Peng, W J; Tan, S Y; Feng, S C; Wen, X D; Liu, P

    2013-01-01

    We report the configuration and operation of a wavelength-tunable single frequency and single polarization erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with a stable and high optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) laser output. A narrow-band fiber Bragg grating (NBFBG), a FBG-based Fabry–Perot (FP) filter, a polarization controller (PC) and an unpumped erbium-doped fiber (EDF) as a saturable absorber (SA) are employed to realize stable single frequency lasing operation. An all-fiber polarizer (AFP) is introduced to suppress mode hopping and ensure the single polarization mode operation. By adjusting the length of the NBFBG using a stress adjustment module (SAM), four stable single frequency and single polarization laser outputs at wavelengths of 1544.946, 1545.038, 1545.118 and 1545.182 nm are obtained. At room temperature, performance with an OSNR of larger than 60 dB, power fluctuation of less than 0.04 dB, wavelength variation of less than 0.01 nm for about 5 h measurement, and degree of polarization (DOP) of close to 100% has been experimentally demonstrated for the fiber laser operating at these four wavelengths. (paper)

  14. Measuring the spin polarization of alkali-metal atoms using nuclear magnetic resonance frequency shifts of noble gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel method of measuring the spin polarization of alkali-metal atoms by detecting the NMR frequency shifts of noble gases. We calculated the profile of 87Rb D1 line absorption cross sections. We then measured the absorption profile of the sample cell, from which we calculated the 87Rb number densities at different temperatures. Then we measured the frequency shifts resulted from the spin polarization of the 87Rb atoms and calculated its polarization degrees at different temperatures. The behavior of frequency shifts versus temperature in experiment was consistent with theoretical calculation, which may be used as compensative signal for the NMRG closed-loop control system.

  15. Support Effects in Catalysis Studied by in-situ Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy and in-situ X-Ray Spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Griffin John

    Kinetic measurements are paired with in-situ spectroscopic characterization tools to investigate colloidally based, supported Pt catalytic model systems in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which metal and support work in tandem to dictate activity and selectivity. The results demonstrate oxide support materials, while inactive in absence of Pt nanoparticles, possess unique active sites for the selective conversion of gas phase molecules when paired with an active metal catalyst. In order to establish a paradigm for metal-support interactions using colloidally synthesized Pt nanoparticles the ability of the organic capping agent to inhibit reactivity and interaction with the support must first be assessed. Pt nanoparticles capped by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), and those from which the PVP is removed by UV light exposure, are investigated for two reactions, the hydrogenation of ethylene and the oxidation of methanol. It is shown that prior to PVP removal the particles are moderately active for both reactions. Following removal, the activity for the two reactions diverges, the ethylene hydrogenation rate increases 10-fold, while the methanol oxidation rate decreases 3-fold. To better understand this effect the capping agent prior to, and the residual carbon remaining after UV treatment are probed by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. Prior to removal no major differences are observed when the particles are exposed to alternating H2 and O2 environments. When the PVP is removed, carbonaceous fragments remain on the surface that dynamically restructure in H2 and O2. These fragments create a tightly bound shell in an oxygen environment and a porous coating of hydrogenated carbon in the hydrogen environment. Reaction rate measurements of thermally cleaned PVP and oleic acid capped particles show this effect to be independent of cleaning method or capping agent. In all this demonstrates the ability of the capping agent to mediate nanoparticle catalysis

  16. Unusual polarity-dependent patterns in a bent-core nematic liquid crystal under low-frequency ac field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ying; Zhou, Meng-jie; Xu, Ming-Ya; Salamon, Péter; Éber, Nándor; Buka, Ágnes

    2015-04-01

    Electric-field-induced patterns of diverse morphology have been observed over a wide frequency range in a recently synthesized bent-core nematic (BCN) liquid crystal. At low frequencies (up to ∼25 Hz), the BCN exhibited unusual polarity-dependent patterns. When the amplitude of the ac field was enhanced, these two time-asymmetrical patterns turned into time-symmetrical prewavylike stripes. At ac frequencies in the middle-frequency range (∼50-3000 Hz), zigzag patterns were detected whose obliqueness varied with the frequency. Finally, if the frequency was increased above 3 kHz, the zigzag pattern was replaced by another, prewavylike pattern, whose threshold voltage depended on the frequency; however, the wave vector did not. For a more complete characterization, material parameters such as elastic constants, dielectric permittivities, and the anisotropy of the diamagnetic susceptibility were also determined.

  17. Optimized fan-shaped chiral metamaterial as an ultrathin narrow-band circular polarizer at visible frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yizhuo; Wang, Xinghai; Ingram, Whitney; Ai, Bin; Zhao, Yiping

    2018-04-01

    Chiral metamaterials have the great ability to manipulate the circular polarizations of light, which can be utilized to build ultrathin circular polarizers. Here we build a narrow-band circular polarizer at visible frequencies based on plasmonic fan-shaped chiral nanostructures. In order to achieve the best optical performance, we systematically investigate how different fabrication factors affect the chiral optical response of the fan-shaped chiral nanostructures, including incident angle of vapor depositions, nanostructure thickness, and post-deposition annealing. The optimized fan-shaped nanostructures show two narrow bands for different circular polarizations with the maximum extinction ratios 7.5 and 6.9 located at wavelength 687 nm and 774 nm, respectively.

  18. Comptonization of low-frequency radiation in accretion disks Angular distribution and polarization of hard X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suniaev, R.A.; Titarchuk, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical consideration is given to the comptonization of photons and its effects on the radiation emitted from accretion disks of compact X-ray sources, such as black holes and neutron stars. Attention is given to the photon distribution during escape from the disk, the angular distribution of hard radiation from the disk, the polarization of hard radiation and the electron temperature distribution over the optical depth. It is shown that the hard radiation spectrum is independent of the low-frequency photon source distribution. The angular distribution and polarization of the outgoing X-rays are a function of the optical depth. A Thomson approximation is used to estimate the angular distribution of the hard radiation and the polarization over the disk. The polarization results are compared with OSO-8 satellite data for Cyg X-1 and show good agreement at several energy levels. 17 references

  19. Reflecting and Polarizing Properties of Conductive Fabrics in Ultra-High Frequency Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kiprijanovič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The system based on ultra-wide band (UWB signals was employed for qualitative estimation of attenuating, reflecting and polarizing properties of conductive fabrics, capable to prevent local static charge accumulation. Pulsed excitation of triangle monopole antenna of 6.5 cm height by rectangular electric pulses induced radiation of UWB signals with spectral density of power having maximum in ultra-high frequency (UHF range. The same antenna was used for the radiated signal receiving. Filters and amplifiers of different passband were employed to divide UHF range into subranges of 0.3-0.55 GHz, 0.55-1 GHz, 1-2 GHz and 2-4 GHz bands. The free space method, when conductive fabric samples of 50x50 cm2 were placed between transmitting and receiving antennas, was used to imitate a practical application. Received wideband signals corresponding to the defined range were detected by unbiased detectors. The fabrics made of two types of warps, containing different threads with conductive yarns, were investigated. It was estimated attenuation and reflective properties of the fabrics when electric field is collinear or perpendicular to thread direction. In the UHF range it was revealed good reflecting properties of the fabrics containing metallic component in the threads. The system has advantages but not without a certain shortcoming. Adapting it for specific tasks should lead to more effective usage, including yet unused properties of the UWB signals.

  20. Plasmas in saline solutions sustained using rectified ac voltages: polarity and frequency effects on the discharge behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Hungwen; Hsu Chengche

    2012-01-01

    In this work, three major problems, namely severe electrode damage, poor plasma stability and excess power consumption, arising in ac-driven plasmas in saline solutions are solved using a rectified power source. Diagnostic studies on the effects of power source polarity and frequency on the plasma behaviour are performed. Examination of I-V characteristics and temporally resolved light emission shows that the polarity significantly influences the current amplitude when the plasma exists, while the frequency alters the bubble dynamics, which in turn affects the plasma ignition voltage. When the plasma is driven by a rectified ac power source, the electrode erosion is reduced substantially. With a low frequency, moderate applied voltage and positively rectified ac power source (e.g. 100 Hz and 350 V), a stable plasma is ignited in nearly every power cycle. (paper)

  1. High-efficiency and multi-frequency polarization converters based on graphene metasurface with twisting double L-shaped unit structure array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xiao, Xiaofei; Chang, Linzi; Wang, Congyun; Zhao, Deping

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a high-efficiency and tunable dual-frequency reflective polarization converter composed of graphene metasurface with twisting double L-shaped unit is firstly realized. Numerical results demonstrate that the device can convert a linearly polarized wave to its cross-polarized wave, and meantime it can also convert to a circularly polarized wave. Subsequently, one thickness of 500 nm SiO2 layer sandwiched by two graphene metasurfaces with similar pattern is stacked on the top of the two-layered structure, a four-frequency efficient reflective polarization converters is realized. Above all, those working frequencies can also be dynamically tuned within a large frequency range by adjusting the Fermi energy of the graphene, without reoptimizing and refabricating the nanostructures, which paves a novel way toward developing a controllable polarization converter for mid-infrared applications.

  2. Detecting Changing Polarization Structures in Sagittarius A* with High Frequency VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Broderick, Avery E.; Loeb, Abraham; Rogers, Alan E. E.

    2009-12-01

    Sagittarius A* is the source of near infrared, X-ray, radio, and (sub)millimeter emission associated with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center. In the submillimeter regime, Sgr A* exhibits time-variable linear polarization on timescales corresponding to errors. Although the source-integrated linear polarization fraction in the models is typically only a few percent, the linear polarization fraction on small angular scales can be much higher, enabling the detection of changes in the polarimetric structure of Sgr A* on a wide variety of baselines. The shortest baselines track the source-integrated linear polarization fraction, while longer baselines are sensitive to polarization substructures that are beam-diluted by connected-element interferometry. The detection of periodic variability in source polarization should not be significantly affected even if instrumental polarization terms cannot be calibrated out. As more antennas are included in the (sub)millimeter-VLBI array, observations with full polarization will provide important new diagnostics to help disentangle intrinsic source polarization from Faraday rotation effects in the accretion and outflow region close to the black hole event horizon.

  3. Composite Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we extend the previous results of Chap. 2 to the more general case of composite finite sums. We describe what composite finite sums are and how their analysis can be reduced to the analysis of simple finite sums using the chain rule. We apply these techniques, next, on numerical integration and on some identities of Ramanujan.

  4. Composite Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    In this chapter, we extend the previous results of Chap. 2 to the more general case of composite finite sums. We describe what composite finite sums are and how their analysis can be reduced to the analysis of simple finite sums using the chain rule. We apply these techniques, next, on numerical integration and on some identities of Ramanujan.

  5. Polarization switching detection method using a ferroelectric liquid crystal for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock frequency stabilization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzik, Grzegorz; Rzepka, Janusz; Abramski, Krzysztof M

    2015-04-01

    We present a concept of the polarization switching detection method implemented for frequency-stabilized lasers, called the polarization switching dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (PSDAVLL) technique. It is a combination of the well-known dichroic atomic vapor laser lock method for laser frequency stabilization with a synchronous detection system based on the surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal (SSFLC).The SSFLC is a polarization switch and quarter wave-plate component. This technique provides a 9.6 dB better dynamic range ratio (DNR) than the well-known two-photodiode detection configuration known as the balanced polarimeter. This paper describes the proposed method used practically in the VCSEL laser frequency stabilization system. The applied PSDAVLL method has allowed us to obtain a frequency stability of 2.7×10⁻⁹ and a reproducibility of 1.2×10⁻⁸, with a DNR of detected signals of around 81 dB. It has been shown that PSDAVLL might be successfully used as a method for spectra-stable laser sources.

  6. Propagation of low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations in Antarctica: comparison between two polar cap stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santarelli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a statistical analysis of the coherence and phase difference of low frequency geomagnetic fluctuations between two Antarctic stations, Mario Zucchelli Station (geographic coordinates: 74.7° S, 164.1° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S, 307.7° E and Scott Base (geographic coordinates: 77.8° S 166.8° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S 326.5° E, both located in the polar cap. Due to the relative position of the stations, whose displacement is essentially along a geomagnetic parallel, the phase difference analysis allows to determine the direction of azimuthal propagation of geomagnetic fluctuations. The results show that coherent fluctuations are essentially detectable around local geomagnetic midnight and, in a minor extent, around noon; moreover, the phase difference reverses in the night time hours, indicating a propagation direction away from midnight, and also around local geomagnetic noon, indicating a propagation direction away from the subsolar point. The nigh time phase reversal is more clear for southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, suggesting a relation with substorm activity.

    The introduction, in this analysis, of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions, gave interesting results, indicating a relation with substorm activity during nighttime hours.

    We also conducted a study of three individual pulsation events in order to find a correspondence with the statistical behaviour. In particular, a peculiar event, characterized by quiet magnetospheric and northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, shows a clear example of waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic noon; two more events, occurring during southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, in one case even during a moderate storm, show waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic midnight.

  7. Propagation of low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations in Antarctica: comparison between two polar cap stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santarelli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a statistical analysis of the coherence and phase difference of low frequency geomagnetic fluctuations between two Antarctic stations, Mario Zucchelli Station (geographic coordinates: 74.7° S, 164.1° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S, 307.7° E and Scott Base (geographic coordinates: 77.8° S 166.8° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S 326.5° E, both located in the polar cap. Due to the relative position of the stations, whose displacement is essentially along a geomagnetic parallel, the phase difference analysis allows to determine the direction of azimuthal propagation of geomagnetic fluctuations. The results show that coherent fluctuations are essentially detectable around local geomagnetic midnight and, in a minor extent, around noon; moreover, the phase difference reverses in the night time hours, indicating a propagation direction away from midnight, and also around local geomagnetic noon, indicating a propagation direction away from the subsolar point. The nigh time phase reversal is more clear for southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, suggesting a relation with substorm activity. The introduction, in this analysis, of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions, gave interesting results, indicating a relation with substorm activity during nighttime hours. We also conducted a study of three individual pulsation events in order to find a correspondence with the statistical behaviour. In particular, a peculiar event, characterized by quiet magnetospheric and northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, shows a clear example of waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic noon; two more events, occurring during southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, in one case even during a moderate storm, show waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic midnight.

  8. DETECTING CHANGING POLARIZATION STRUCTURES IN SAGITTARIUS A* WITH HIGH FREQUENCY VLBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, Vincent L; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Rogers, Alan E. E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Broderick, Avery E [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Loeb, Abraham [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard University, Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Sagittarius A* is the source of near infrared, X-ray, radio, and (sub)millimeter emission associated with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center. In the submillimeter regime, Sgr A* exhibits time-variable linear polarization on timescales corresponding to <10 Schwarzschild radii of the presumed 4 x 10{sup 6} M {sub sun} black hole. In previous work, we demonstrated the potential for total-intensity (sub)millimeter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to detect time-variable-and periodic-source structure changes in the Sgr A* black hole system using nonimaging analyses. Here, we extend this work to include full polarimetric VLBI observations. We simulate full-polarization (sub)millimeter VLBI data of Sgr A* using a hot spot model that is embedded within an accretion disk, with emphasis on nonimaging polarimetric data products that are robust against calibration errors. Although the source-integrated linear polarization fraction in the models is typically only a few percent, the linear polarization fraction on small angular scales can be much higher, enabling the detection of changes in the polarimetric structure of Sgr A* on a wide variety of baselines. The shortest baselines track the source-integrated linear polarization fraction, while longer baselines are sensitive to polarization substructures that are beam-diluted by connected-element interferometry. The detection of periodic variability in source polarization should not be significantly affected even if instrumental polarization terms cannot be calibrated out. As more antennas are included in the (sub)millimeter-VLBI array, observations with full polarization will provide important new diagnostics to help disentangle intrinsic source polarization from Faraday rotation effects in the accretion and outflow region close to the black hole event horizon.

  9. DETECTING CHANGING POLARIZATION STRUCTURES IN SAGITTARIUS A* WITH HIGH FREQUENCY VLBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Rogers, Alan E. E.; Broderick, Avery E.; Loeb, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Sagittarius A* is the source of near infrared, X-ray, radio, and (sub)millimeter emission associated with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center. In the submillimeter regime, Sgr A* exhibits time-variable linear polarization on timescales corresponding to 6 M sun black hole. In previous work, we demonstrated the potential for total-intensity (sub)millimeter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to detect time-variable-and periodic-source structure changes in the Sgr A* black hole system using nonimaging analyses. Here, we extend this work to include full polarimetric VLBI observations. We simulate full-polarization (sub)millimeter VLBI data of Sgr A* using a hot spot model that is embedded within an accretion disk, with emphasis on nonimaging polarimetric data products that are robust against calibration errors. Although the source-integrated linear polarization fraction in the models is typically only a few percent, the linear polarization fraction on small angular scales can be much higher, enabling the detection of changes in the polarimetric structure of Sgr A* on a wide variety of baselines. The shortest baselines track the source-integrated linear polarization fraction, while longer baselines are sensitive to polarization substructures that are beam-diluted by connected-element interferometry. The detection of periodic variability in source polarization should not be significantly affected even if instrumental polarization terms cannot be calibrated out. As more antennas are included in the (sub)millimeter-VLBI array, observations with full polarization will provide important new diagnostics to help disentangle intrinsic source polarization from Faraday rotation effects in the accretion and outflow region close to the black hole event horizon.

  10. Three-dimensional polarization characteristics of magnetic variations in the Pc 5 frequency range at conjugate areas near L=4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; MaClennan, C.G.

    1975-01-01

    By using magnetic data measured at a network of stations extending from L approx. 3.2 to L approx. 4.4 and at a station in the conjugate area, ellipticities in the three orthogonal planes (H-D, H-Z, and D-Z) for the frequency range 2-5 mHz were computed continuously by the cross-spectral matrix method over 10 days with various levels of magnetic activity. The ellipticity diagrams in the H-D plane show that, except for the time interval during the main phase of a major magnetic storm, the sense of polarization reverses every day across local noon, with a left-hand polarization observed during local morning hours and a right-hand polarization observed during local evening hours, regardless of the level of magnetic activity. The second reversal of the sense of polarization occurs generally around approx. 2000 LT. The ellipticity diagrams in the H-Z plane show a predominantly clockwise polarization throughout the day, while the diurnal variation of the ellipticity in the D-Z plane tends to be confused. As to the latitude dependence of the wave phase, it is found that the D component oscillations are almost in phase at all latitudes, while the H component oscillations have advanced phase shifts at the lower-latitude stations. As to the conjugate dependence of wave phase, it is found that the D component oscillations are almost out of phase, while the H component oscillations are almost in phase atthe conjugate pair stations. These polarization characteristics are discussed in terms of external driving sources coupling to the shear Alfven waves of the local resonant field lines. Possible energy sources of Pc 5 waves are also discussed on the basis of the local time dependence of the sense of polarization

  11. Polarized Line Formation in Arbitrary Strength Magnetic Fields Angle-averaged and Angle-dependent Partial Frequency Redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560 034 (India); Stenflo, J. O., E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in, E-mail: stenflo@astro.phys.ethz.ch [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere leave their fingerprints in the polarized spectrum of the Sun via the Hanle and Zeeman effects. While the Hanle and Zeeman effects dominate, respectively, in the weak and strong field regimes, both these effects jointly operate in the intermediate field strength regime. Therefore, it is necessary to solve the polarized line transfer equation, including the combined influence of Hanle and Zeeman effects. Furthermore, it is required to take into account the effects of partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in scattering when dealing with strong chromospheric lines with broad damping wings. In this paper, we present a numerical method to solve the problem of polarized PRD line formation in magnetic fields of arbitrary strength and orientation. This numerical method is based on the concept of operator perturbation. For our studies, we consider a two-level atom model without hyperfine structure and lower-level polarization. We compare the PRD idealization of angle-averaged Hanle–Zeeman redistribution matrices with the full treatment of angle-dependent PRD, to indicate when the idealized treatment is inadequate and what kind of polarization effects are specific to angle-dependent PRD. Because the angle-dependent treatment is presently computationally prohibitive when applied to realistic model atmospheres, we present the computed emergent Stokes profiles for a range of magnetic fields, with the assumption of an isothermal one-dimensional medium.

  12. Ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective linear-to-circular polarization converter based on metasurface at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yannan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jiao; Akwuruoha, Charles Nwakanma; Cao, Weiping

    2017-10-30

    The polarization conversion of electromagnetic (EM) waves, especially linear-to-circular (LTC) polarization conversion, is of great significance in practical applications. In this study, we propose an ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective LTC polarization converter based on a metasurface in the terahertz regime. It consists of periodic unit cells, each cell of which is formed by a double split resonant square ring, dielectric layer, and fully reflective gold mirror. In the frequency range of 0.60 - 1.41 THz, the magnitudes of the reflection coefficients reach approximately 0.7, and the phase difference between the two orthogonal electric field components of the reflected wave is close to 90° or -270°. The results indicate that the relative bandwidth reaches 80% and the efficiency is greater than 88%, thus, ultra-wideband high-efficiency LTC polarization conversion has been realized. Finally, the physical mechanism of the polarization conversion is revealed. This converter has potential applications in antenna design, EM measurement, and stealth technology.

  13. LOW-FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS OF LINEARLY POLARIZED STRUCTURES IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM NEAR THE SOUTH GALACTIC POLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenc, E.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sun, X. H.; Sadler, E. M.; Callingham, J. R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Willis, A. G. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, BC (Canada); Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Carroll, P. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bell, M. E.; Briggs, F. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Bernardi, G. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Bowman, J. D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Oliveira-Costa, A. de; Dillon, J. S. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarkanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Emrich, D. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); and others

    2016-10-10

    We present deep polarimetric observations at 154 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), covering 625 deg{sup 2} centered on α = 0{sup h}and δ = −27°. The sensitivity available in our deep observations allows an in-band, frequency-dependent analysis of polarized structure for the first time at long wavelengths. Our analysis suggests that the polarized structures are dominated by intrinsic emission but may also have a foreground Faraday screen component. At these wavelengths, the compactness of the MWA baseline distribution provides excellent snapshot sensitivity to large-scale structure. The observations are sensitive to diffuse polarized emission at ∼54′ resolution with a sensitivity of 5.9 mJy beam{sup −1} and compact polarized sources at ∼2.′4 resolution with a sensitivity of 2.3 mJy beam{sup −1} for a subset (400 deg{sup 2}) of this field. The sensitivity allows the effect of ionospheric Faraday rotation to be spatially and temporally measured directly from the diffuse polarized background. Our observations reveal large-scale structures (∼1°–8° in extent) in linear polarization clearly detectable in ∼2 minute snapshots, which would remain undetectable by interferometers with minimum baseline lengths of >110 m at 154 MHz. The brightness temperature of these structures is on average 4 K in polarized intensity, peaking at 11 K. Rotation measure synthesis reveals that the structures have Faraday depths ranging from −2 to 10 rad m{sup −2} with a large fraction peaking at approximately +1 rad m{sup −2}. We estimate a distance of 51 ± 20 pc to the polarized emission based on measurements of the in-field pulsar J2330–2005. We detect four extragalactic linearly polarized point sources within the field in our compact source survey. Based on the known polarized source population at 1.4 GHz and non-detections at 154 MHz, we estimate an upper limit on the depolarization ratio of 0.08 from 1.4 GHz to 154 MHz.

  14. A hybrid polarization-selective atomic sensor for radio-frequency field detection with a passive resonant-cavity field amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David A.; Paradis, Eric G.; Raithel, Georg

    2018-01-01

    We present a hybrid atomic sensor that realizes radio-frequency electric field detection with intrinsic field amplification and polarization selectivity for robust high-sensitivity field measurement. The hybrid sensor incorporates a passive resonator element integrated with an atomic vapor cell that provides amplification and polarization selectivity for detection of incident radio-frequency fields. The amplified intra-cavity radio-frequency field is measured by atoms using a quantum-optical ...

  15. Blue and Orange Two-Color CW Laser Based on Single-Pass Second-Harmonic and Sum-Frequency Generation in MgO:PPLN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dismas K. Choge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a compact blue and orange-two color continuous wave laser source emitting at 487 nm and from 597.4 to 600.3 nm, respectively. The temperature tunable coherent orange radiation is achieved by frequency mixing 974 nm laser diode (LD and a C-band amplified spontaneous emission laser source while the temperature insensitive blue radiation is generated by second-order quasi-phase-matching frequency doubling of 974 nm LD. We implement the simultaneous nonlinear processes in a single magnesium oxide doped periodically poled lithium niobate bulk crystal without the need of an aperiodic design.

  16. Observation of sum-frequency-generation-induced cascaded four-wave mixing using two crossing femtosecond laser pulses in a 0.1 mm beta-barium-borate crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Zhu, Liangdong; Fang, Chong

    2012-09-15

    We demonstrate the simultaneous generation of multicolor femtosecond laser pulses spanning the wavelength range from UV to near IR in a 0.1 mm Type I beta-barium borate crystal from 800 nm fundamental and weak IR super-continuum white light (SCWL) pulses. The multicolor broadband laser pulses observed are attributed to two concomitant cascaded four-wave mixing (CFWM) processes as corroborated by calculation: (1) directly from the two incident laser pulses; (2) by the sum-frequency generation (SFG) induced CFWM process (SFGFWM). The latter signal arises from the interaction between the frequency-doubled fundamental pulse (400 nm) and the SFG pulse generated in between the fundamental and IR-SCWL pulses. The versatility and simplicity of this spatially dispersed multicolor self-compressed laser pulse generation offer compact and attractive methods to conduct femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy and time-resolved multicolor spectroscopy.

  17. Transient, polarity-dependent dielectric response in a twisted nematic liquid crystal under very low frequency excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, K S

    2015-09-01

    The electric Freedericksz transition is a second-order quadratic effect, which, in a planarly aligned nematic liquid crystal layer, manifests above a threshold field as a homogeneous symmetric distortion with maximum director-tilt in the midplane. We find that, upon excitation by a low frequency (wave field, the instability becomes spatially and temporally varying. This is demonstrated using calamitic liquid crystals, initially in the 90°-twisted planar configuration. The distortion occurs close to the negative electrode following each polarity switch and, for low-voltage amplitudes, decays completely in time. We use the elastically favorable geometry of Brochard-Leger walls to establish the location of maximum distortion. Thus, at successive polarity changes, the direction of extension of both annular and open walls switches between the alignment directions at the two substrates. For high voltages, this direction is largely along the midplane director, while remaining marginally oscillatory. These results are broadly understood by taking into account the time-varying and inhomogeneous field conditions that prevail soon after the polarity reverses. Polarity dependence of the instability is traced to the formation of intrinsic double layers that lead to an asymmetry in field distribution in the presence of an external bias. Momentary field elevation near the negative electrode following a voltage sign reversal leads to locally enhanced dielectric and gradient flexoelectric torques, which accounts for the surface-like phenomenon observed at low voltages. These spatiotemporal effects, also found earlier for other instabilities, are generic in nature.

  18. Polarity-sensitive transient patterned state in a twisted nematic liquid crystal driven by very low frequency fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, K S; Kumar, Pramoda; Kumar, M Vijay

    2013-02-01

    We report, for a rodlike nematic liquid crystal with small positive dielectric and conductivity anisotropies, and in the 90°-twisted configuration, low frequency (wave electric field generated Carr-Helfrich director modulation appearing transiently over a few seconds at each polarity reversal and vanishing almost completely under steady field conditions. Significantly, the instability is polarity sensitive, with the maximum distortion localized in the vicinity of the negative electrode, rather than in the midplane of the layer. This is revealed by the wave vector alternating in the two halves of the driving cycle between the alignment directions at the two substrates. Besides the Carr-Helfrich mechanism, quadrupolar flexoelectric polarization arising under electric field gradient is strongly indicated as being involved in the development of the transient periodic order. Similar transient instability is also observed in other nematic compounds with varying combinations of dielectric and conductivity anisotropies, showing its general nature. The study also deals with various characteristics of the electro-optic effect that emerge from the temporal variation of optical response for different driving voltages, frequencies, and temperatures.

  19. Frequency modulation of high-order harmonic generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicun; Zheng, Yinghui; Ge, Xiaochun; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin

    2016-08-08

    We have experimentally investigated the frequency modulation of high-order harmonics in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field consisting of a mid-infrared 1800nm fundamental pulse and its second harmonic pulse. It is demonstrated that the high harmonic spectra can be fine-tuned as we slightly change the relative delay of the two-color laser pulses. By analyzing the relative frequency shift of each harmonic at different two-color delays, the nonadiabatic spectral shift induced by the rapid variation of the intensity-dependent intrinsic dipole phase can be distinguished from the blueshift induced by the change of the refractive index during self-phase modulation (SPM). Our comprehensive analysis shows that the frequency modulation pattern is a reflection of the average emission time of high-order harmonic generation (HHG), thus offering a simple method to fine-tune the spectra of the harmonics on a sub-cycle time scale.

  20. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  1. Simple Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    We will begin our treatment of summability calculus by analyzing what will be referred to, throughout this book, as simple finite sums. Even though the results of this chapter are particular cases of the more general results presented in later chapters, they are important to start with for a few reasons. First, this chapter serves as an excellent introduction to what summability calculus can markedly accomplish. Second, simple finite sums are encountered more often and, hence, they deserve special treatment. Third, the results presented in this chapter for simple finite sums will, themselves, be used as building blocks for deriving the most general results in subsequent chapters. Among others, we establish that fractional finite sums are well-defined mathematical objects and show how various identities related to the Euler constant as well as the Riemann zeta function can actually be derived in an elementary manner using fractional finite sums.

  2. Electronuclear sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenhoevel, H.; Drechsel, D.; Weber, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Generalized sum rules are derived by integrating the electromagnetic structure functions along lines of constant ratio of momentum and energy transfer. For non-relativistic systems these sum rules are related to the conventional photonuclear sum rules by a scaling transformation. The generalized sum rules are connected with the absorptive part of the forward scattering amplitude of virtual photons. The analytic structure of the scattering amplitudes and the possible existence of dispersion relations have been investigated in schematic relativistic and non-relativistic models. While for the non-relativistic case analyticity does not hold, the relativistic scattering amplitude is analytical for time-like (but not for space-like) photons and relations similar to the Gell-Mann-Goldberger-Thirring sum rule exist. (Auth.)

  3. Over 8 W high peak power UV laser with a high power Q-switched Nd:YVO4 oscillator and the compact extra-cavity sum-frequency mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, X P; Liu, Q; Gong, M; Wang, D S; Fu, X

    2009-01-01

    A 8.2 W UV laser was reported with the compact extra-cavity sum-frequency mixing. The IR fundamental frequency source was a high power and high beam quality Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 oscillator. 38 W fundamental frequency laser at 1064 nm was obtained at the pulse repetition rate of 450 kHz with the beam quality factors of M 2 x = 1.27, M 2 y = 1.21. The type I and type II phase-matched LBO crystals were used as the extra-cavity frequency doubling and mixing crystals respectively. At 38 kHz, 8.2 W UV laser at 355 nm was achieved with the pulse duration of 8 ns corresponding to the pulse peak power as high as 27 kW, and the optical-optical conversion efficiency from IR to UV was 25.6%. The output characteristics of the IR and the harmonic generations varying with the pulse repetition rate were also investigated detailedly

  4. Semantic Features, Perceptual Expectations, and Frequency as Factors in the Learning of Polar Spatial Adjective Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunckley, Candida J. Lutes; Radtke, Robert C.

    Two semantic theories of word learning, a perceptual complexity hypothesis (H. Clark, 1970) and a quantitative complexity hypothesis (E. Clark, 1972) were tested by teaching 24 preschoolers and 16 college students CVC labels for five polar spatial adjective concepts having single word representations in English, and for three having no direct…

  5. Study of a polarized proton source for a cyclotron using a high frequency transition (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirion, J.; Beurtey, R.; Papineau, A.

    1961-01-01

    The authors have developed an experimental unit yielding a jet of hydrogen or deuterium atoms in which the protons and deutons are polarized. By use of the 'adiabatic passage' method a proton polarisation approaching 100 per cent is assured. (authors) [fr

  6. Polarization effects in two-colour ionization of atomic hydrogen with incommensurable frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cionga, A.

    1993-01-01

    The angular distribution of ejected electrons for two-colour ionization of atomic hydrogen are studied using an approach which takes into account the radiative corrections to both bound and the continuum states. One considers the ionization process in which one high-frequency photon has enough energy to ionize the atom, meanwhile, one extra-photon is exchanged between atomic system and the low-frequency field. We focus our attention to the case of two incommensurable frequencies. (Author)

  7. Design of frequency-encoded data-based optical master-slave-JK flip-flop using polarization switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sumana; Mandal, Dhoumendra; Mandal, Mrinal Kanti; Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2017-06-01

    An optical data processing and communication system provides enormous potential bandwidth and a very high processing speed, and it can fulfill the demands of the present generation. For an optical computing system, several data processing units that work in the optical domain are essential. Memory elements are undoubtedly essential to storing any information. Optical flip-flops can store one bit of optical information. From these flip-flop registers, counters can be developed. Here, the authors proposed an optical master-slave (MS)-JK flip-flop with the help of two-input and three-input optical NAND gates. Optical NAND gates have been developed using semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). The nonlinear polarization switching property of an SOA has been exploited here, and it acts as a polarization switch in the proposed scheme. A frequency encoding technique is adopted for representing data. A specific frequency of an optical signal represents a binary data bit. This technique of data representation is helpful because frequency is the fundamental property of a signal, and it remains unaltered during reflection, refraction, absorption, etc. throughout the data propagation. The simulated results enhance the admissibility of the scheme.

  8. Sums and Gaussian vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yurinsky, Vadim Vladimirovich

    1995-01-01

    Surveys the methods currently applied to study sums of infinite-dimensional independent random vectors in situations where their distributions resemble Gaussian laws. Covers probabilities of large deviations, Chebyshev-type inequalities for seminorms of sums, a method of constructing Edgeworth-type expansions, estimates of characteristic functions for random vectors obtained by smooth mappings of infinite-dimensional sums to Euclidean spaces. A self-contained exposition of the modern research apparatus around CLT, the book is accessible to new graduate students, and can be a useful reference for researchers and teachers of the subject.

  9. An efficient continuous-wave 591 nm light source based on sum-frequency mixing of a diode pumped Nd:GdVO4–Nd:CNGG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y D; Liu, J H

    2013-01-01

    We report a laser architecture to obtain continuous-wave (CW) yellow-orange light sources at the 591 nm wavelength. An 808 nm diode pumped a Nd:GdVO 4 crystal emitting at 1063 nm. A part of the pump power was then absorbed by the Nd:CNGG crystal. The remaining pump power was used to pump a Nd:CNGG crystal emitting at 1329 nm. Intracavity sum-frequency mixing at 1063 and 1329 nm was then realized in a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) crystal to reach the yellow-orange radiation. We obtained a CW output power of 494 mW at 591 nm with a pump laser diode emitting 17.8 W at 808 nm. (paper)

  10. High-Frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in the Nuclear Rotating Frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrar, C. T.; Hall, D. A.; Gerfen, G. J.

    2000-01-01

    A proton dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR signal enhancement (ϵ) close to thermal equilibrium, ϵ = 0.89, has been obtained at high field (B0 = 5 T, νepr = 139.5 GHz) using 15 mM trityl radical in a 40:60 water/glycerol frozen solution at 11 K. The electron-nuclear polarization transfer...... is performed in the nuclear rotating frame with microwave irradiation during a nuclear spin-lock pulse. The growth of the signal enhancement is governed by the rotating frame nuclear spin–lattice relaxation time (T1ρ), which is four orders of magnitude shorter than the nuclear spin–lattice relaxation time (T1n......). Due to the rapid polarization transfer in the nuclear rotating frame the experiment can be recycled at a rate of 1/T1ρ and is not limited by the much slower lab frame nuclear spin–lattice relaxation rate (1/T1n). The increased repetition rate allowed in the nuclear rotating frame provides an effective...

  11. The Transfer of Resonance Line Polarization with Partial Frequency Redistribution in the General Hanle–Zeeman Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, E. Alsina; Bueno, J. Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Belluzzi, L., E-mail: ealsina@iac.es [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, CH-6605 Locarno Monti (Switzerland)

    2017-02-10

    The spectral line polarization encodes a wealth of information about the thermal and magnetic properties of the solar atmosphere. Modeling the Stokes profiles of strong resonance lines is, however, a complex problem both from a theoretical and computational point of view, especially when partial frequency redistribution (PRD) effects need to be taken into account. In this work, we consider a two-level atom in the presence of magnetic fields of arbitrary intensity (Hanle–Zeeman regime) and orientation, both deterministic and micro-structured. Working within the framework of a rigorous PRD theoretical approach, we have developed a numerical code that solves the full non-LTE radiative transfer problem for polarized radiation, in one-dimensional models of the solar atmosphere, accounting for the combined action of the Hanle and Zeeman effects, as well as for PRD phenomena. After briefly discussing the relevant equations, we describe the iterative method of solution of the problem and the numerical tools that we have developed and implemented. We finally present some illustrative applications to two resonance lines that form at different heights in the solar atmosphere, and provide a detailed physical interpretation of the calculated Stokes profiles. We find that magneto-optical effects have a strong impact on the linear polarization signals that PRD effects produce in the wings of strong resonance lines. We also show that the weak-field approximation has to be used with caution when PRD effects are considered.

  12. Molecular-level mechanisms of vibrational frequency shifts in a polar liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Christine M; Thompson, Ward H

    2011-06-16

    A molecular-level analysis of the origins of the vibrational frequency shifts of the CN stretching mode in neat liquid acetonitrile is presented. The frequency shifts and infrared spectrum are calculated using a perturbation theory approach within a molecular dynamics simulation and are in good agreement with measured values reported in the literature. The resulting instantaneous frequency of each nitrile group is decomposed into the contributions from each molecule in the liquid and by interaction type. This provides a detailed picture of the mechanisms of frequency shifts, including the number of surrounding molecules that contribute to the shift, the relationship between their position and relative contribution, and the roles of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions. These results provide insight into what information is contained in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra about the environment of the probed vibrational mode. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k largest...... sums among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u. For this problem we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm. Secondly, we consider the problem of selecting a subarray storing the k’th largest sum. For this problem we prove a time bound of Θ(n · max {1,log(k/n)}) by describing...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  14. High Frequency Backscatter from the Polar and Auroral E-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Victoriya V.

    The Earth's ionosphere contains collisional and partially-ionized plasma. The electric field, produced by the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind, drives the plasma bulk motion, also known as convection, in the F-region of the ionosphere. It can also destabilize the plasma in the E-region, producing irregularities or waves. Intermediate-scale waves with wavelengths of hundreds of meters can cause scintillation and fading of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, whereas the small-scale waves (lambda Network (SuperDARN). The theoretical part of this work focuses on symmetry properties of the general dispersion relation that describes wave propagation in the collisional plasma in the two-stream and gradient-drift instability regimes. The instability growth rate and phase velocity are examined under the presence of a background parallel electric field, whose influence is demonstrated to break the spatial symmetry of the wave propagation patterns. In the observational part of this thesis, a novel dual radar setup is used to examine E-region irregularities in the magnetic polar cap by probing the E-region along the same line from opposite directions. The phase velocity analysis together with raytracing simulations demonstrated that, in the polar cap, the radar backscatter is primarily controlled by the plasma density conditions. In particular, when the E-region layer is strong and stratified, the radar backscatter properties are controlled by the convection velocity, whereas for a tilted E-layer, the height and aspect angle conditions are more important. Finally, the fundamental dependence of the E-region irregularity phase velocity on the component of the plasma convection is investigated using two new SuperDARN radars at high southern latitudes where plasma convection estimates are accurately deduced from all SuperDARN radars in the southern hemisphere. Statistical analysis is presented showing that the predominance of the

  15. Dual-Frequency, Dual-Polarization Microstrip Antenna Development for High-Resolution, Airborne SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Johan; Skou, N.

    2000-01-01

    synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. The dual-frequency array concept adopted relies on the use of probe-fed perforated, stacked patches for L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz). Inside these perforations probe-fed, wideband stacked microstrip patches for C-band (4.9-5.7 GHz) are placed. Measured impedance and radiation...

  16. Frequency and Angular Resolution for Measuring, Presenting and Predicting Loudspeaker Polar Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staffeldt, Henrik; Seidel, Felicity

    1996-01-01

    and approved by the AES Standards Committee. The work is a continuation of AES project AES-X07 and is presented to provide background for Call for Comment on Draft AES-5id-xxxx. AES information document for Room acoustics and sound reinforcement systems - Loudspeaker modeling and measurement - Frequency...

  17. Multiparty symmetric sum types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...

  18. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  19. Magneto-optical polarization rotation in a ladder-type atomic system for tunable offset locking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parniak, Michał, E-mail: michal.parniak@fuw.edu.pl; Leszczyński, Adam; Wasilewski, Wojciech [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-04-18

    We demonstrate an easily tunable locking scheme for stabilizing frequency-sum of two lasers on a two-photon ladder transition based on polarization rotation in warm rubidium vapors induced by magnetic field and circularly polarized drive field. Unprecedented tunability of the two-photon offset frequency is due to strong splitting and shifting of magnetic states in external field. In our experimental setup, we achieve two-photon detuning of up to 700 MHz.

  20. Wavelet based comparison of high frequency oscillations in the geodetic and fluid excitation functions of polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, W.; Popinski, W.; Niedzielski, T.

    2011-10-01

    It has been already shown that short period oscillations in polar motion, with periods less than 100 days, are very chaotic and are responsible for increase in short-term prediction errors of pole coordinates data. The wavelet technique enables to compare the geodetic and fluid excitation functions in the high frequency band in many different ways, e.g. by looking at the semblance function. The waveletbased semblance filtering enables determination the common signal in both geodetic and fluid excitation time series. In this paper the considered fluid excitation functions consist of the atmospheric, oceanic and land hydrology excitation functions from ECMWF atmospheric data produced by IERS Associated Product Centre Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam. The geodetic excitation functions have been computed from the combined IERS pole coordinates data.

  1. Temperature dependence of low-frequency polarized Raman scattering spectra in TlInS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paucar, Raul; Wakita, Kazuki [Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Shim, YongGu; Mimura, Kojiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka (Japan); Alekperov, Oktay; Mamedov, Nazim [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-06-15

    In this work, we examined phase transitions in the layered ternary thallium chalcogenide TlInS{sub 2} by studying the temperature dependence of polarized Raman spectra with the aid of the Raman confocal microscope system. The Raman spectra were measured over the temperature range of 77-320 K (which includes the range of successive phase transitions) in the low-frequency region of 35-180 cm{sup -1}. The optical phonons that showed strong temperature dependence were identified as interlayer vibrations related to phase transitions, while the phonons that showed weak temperature dependence were identified as intralayer vibrations. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. System for simultaneously measuring 6DOF geometric motion errors using a polarization maintaining fiber-coupled dual-frequency laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cunxing; Feng, Qibo; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yuqiong

    2016-03-21

    A novel method for simultaneously measuring six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) geometric motion errors is proposed in this paper, and the corresponding measurement instrument is developed. Simultaneous measurement of 6DOF geometric motion errors using a polarization maintaining fiber-coupled dual-frequency laser is accomplished for the first time to the best of the authors' knowledge. Dual-frequency laser beams that are orthogonally linear polarized were adopted as the measuring datum. Positioning error measurement was achieved by heterodyne interferometry, and other 5DOF geometric motion errors were obtained by fiber collimation measurement. A series of experiments was performed to verify the effectiveness of the developed instrument. The experimental results showed that the stability and accuracy of the positioning error measurement are 31.1 nm and 0.5 μm, respectively. For the straightness error measurements, the stability and resolution are 60 and 40 nm, respectively, and the maximum deviation of repeatability is ± 0.15 μm in the x direction and ± 0.1 μm in the y direction. For pitch and yaw measurements, the stabilities are 0.03″ and 0.04″, the maximum deviations of repeatability are ± 0.18″ and ± 0.24″, and the accuracies are 0.4″ and 0.35″, respectively. The stability and resolution of roll measurement are 0.29″ and 0.2″, respectively, and the accuracy is 0.6″.

  3. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of 1,3-Butadiene Hydrogenation on 4 nm Pt@SiO 2 , Pd@SiO 2 , and Rh@SiO 2 Core–Shell Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Krier, James M.

    2015-01-14

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. 1,3-Butadiene (1,3-BD) hydrogenation was performed on 4 nm Pt, Pd, and Rh nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 shells at 20, 60, and 100 °C. The core-shells were grown around polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated NPs (Stöber encapsulation) prepared by colloidal synthesis. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was performed to correlate surface intermediates observed in situ with reaction selectivity. It is shown that calcination is effective in removing PVP, and the SFG signal can be generated from the metal surface. Using SFG, it is possible to compare the surface vibrational spectrum of Pt@SiO2 (1,3-BD is hydrogenated through multiple paths and produces butane, 1-butene, and cis/trans-2-butene) to Pd@SiO2 (1,3-BD favors one path and produces 1-butene and cis/trans-2-butene). In contrast to Pt@SiO2 and Pd@SiO2, SFG and kinetic experiments of Rh@SiO2 show a permanent accumulation of organic material.

  4. Adler Function, DIS sum rules and Crewther Relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikov, P.A.; Chetyrkin, K.G.; Kuehn, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The current status of the Adler function and two closely related Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) sum rules, namely, the Bjorken sum rule for polarized DIS and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule are briefly reviewed. A new result is presented: an analytical calculation of the coefficient function of the latter sum rule in a generic gauge theory in order O(α s 4 ). It is demonstrated that the corresponding Crewther relation allows to fix two of three colour structures in the O(α s 4 ) contribution to the singlet part of the Adler function.

  5. sumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    sumé. L'activité traduisant est un processus très compliqué qui exige la connaissance extralinguistique chez le traducteur. Ce travail est basé sur la traduction littéraire. La traduction littéraire consistedes textes littéraires que comprennent la poésie, le théâtre, et la prose. La traduction littéraire a quelques problèmes ...

  6. Oscillating Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    In this chapter, we use the theory of summability of divergent series, presented earlier in Chap. 4, to derive the analogs of the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula for oscillating sums. These formulas will, in turn, be used to perform many remarkable deeds with ease. For instance, they can be used to derive analytic expressions for summable divergent series, obtain asymptotic expressions of oscillating series, and even accelerate the convergence of series by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, we will prove the notable fact that, as far as the foundational rules of summability calculus are concerned, summable divergent series behave exactly as if they were convergent.

  7. Oscillating Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we use the theory of summability of divergent series, presented earlier in Chap. 4, to derive the analogs of the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula for oscillating sums. These formulas will, in turn, be used to perform many remarkable deeds with ease. For instance, they can be used to derive analytic expressions for summable divergent series, obtain asymptotic expressions of oscillating series, and even accelerate the convergence of series by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, we will prove the notable fact that, as far as the foundational rules of summability calculus are concerned, summable divergent series behave exactly as if they were convergent.

  8. Features of the low-frequency polarization response in the region of the ferroelectric phase transition in multiferroic TbMnO.sub.3./sub.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trepakov, Vladimír; Kvyatkovskii, O.E.; Savinov, Maxim; Dejneka, Alexandr; Wang, X.; Cheong, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 10 (2016), s. 2021-2026 ISSN 1063-7834 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : low-frequency * polarization response * ferroelectric, phase * transition * multiferroic * TbMnO 3 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2016

  9. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface: Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste

  10. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface:Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using SumFrequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy,and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Diana Christine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste.

  11. Broader energy distribution of CO adsorbed at polycrystalline Pt electrode in comparison with that at Pt(111) electrode in H_2SO_4 solution confirmed by potential dependent IR/visible double resonance sum frequency generation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shuo; Noguchi, Hidenori; Uosaki, Kohei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical SFG spectroscopy is an efficient in situ probe of electronic structure at electrochemical interface. • Electrooxidation performances of CO adsorbed on polycrystalline Pt and Pt(111) electrodes were compared. • The enhanced SFG signal of CO on Pt electrodes was observed due to a vibrational-electronic double resonance effect. • The broader energy distribution of 5sa state of CO on polycrystalline Pt than on Pt(111) is proved by SFG results. - Abstract: Electrochemical cyclic voltammetry and potential dependent double resonance sum frequency generation (DR-SFG) spectroscopy were performed on CO adsorbed on polycrystalline Pt and Pt(111) electrodes in H_2SO_4 solution to examine the effect of substrate on the electronic structure of CO. The dependence of SFG intensity on potential and visible energy for atop CO band was observed on both polycrystalline and single crystalline Pt electrodes. Enhancement of the SFG intensity was determined to be a direct result of a surface electronic resonance of the visible/SF light with the electronic transition from Fermi level of Pt to the 5σ_a anti-bonding state of adsorbed CO, in agreement with previous results. Interestingly, when compared to the Pt(111) electrode, the distribution width of the intensity enhancement region on polycrystalline Pt is broader than on Pt(111). This suggests that the energy distribution of the 5σ_a state of CO on polycrystalline Pt surface is broader than that on Pt(111) due to the complex surface structure of the polycrystalline Pt electrode.

  12. Femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy at surfaces: Second-harmonic probing of hole burning at the Si(111)7x7 surface and Fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, John Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The high temporal resolution and broad bandwidth of a femtosecond laser system are exploited in a pair of nonlinear optical studies of surfaces. The dephasing dynamics of resonances associated with the adatom dangling bonds of the Si(111)7 x 7 surface are explored by transient second-harmonic hole burning, a process that can be described as a fourth-order nonlinear optical process. Spectral holes produced by a 100 fs pump pulse at about 800 nm are probed by the second harmonic signal of a 100 fs pulse tunable around 800 nm. The measured spectral holes yield homogeneous dephasing times of a few tens of femtoseconds. Fits with a Lorentzian spectral hole centered at zero probe detuning show a linear dependence of the hole width on pump fluence, which suggests that charge carrier-carrier scattering dominates the dephasing dynamics at the measured excitation densities. Extrapolation of the deduced homogeneous dephasing times to zero excitation density yields an intrinsic dephasing time of ∼ 70 fs. The presence of a secondary spectral hole indicates that scattering of the surface electrons with surface optical phonons at 570 cm -1 occurs within the first 200 fs after excitation. The broad bandwidth of femtosecond IR pulses is used to perform IR-visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy. By implementing a Fourier-transform technique, we demonstrate the ability to obtain sub-laser-bandwidth spectral resolution. FT-SFG yields a greater signal when implemented with a stretched visible pulse than with a femtosecond visible pulse. However, when compared with multichannel spectroscopy using a femtosecond IR pulse but a narrowband visible pulse, Fourier-transform SFG is found to have an inferior signal-to-noise ratio. A mathematical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio illustrates the constraints on the Fourier-transform approach

  13. Femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy at surfaces: Second-harmonic probing of hole burning at the Si(111)7x7 surface and fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, John Andrew [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-11-24

    The high temporal resolution and broad bandwidth of a femtosecond laser system are exploited in a pair of nonlinear optical studies of surfaces. The dephasing dynamics of resonances associated with the adatom dangling bonds of the Si(111)7 x 7 surface are explored by transient second-harmonic hole burning, a process that can be described as a fourth-order nonlinear optical process. Spectral holes produced by a 100 fs pump pulse at about 800 nm are probed by the second harmonic signal of a 100 fs pulse tunable around 800 nm. The measured spectral holes yield homogeneous dephasing times of a few tens of femtoseconds. Fits with a Lorentzian spectral hole centered at zero probe detuning show a linear dependence of the hole width on pump fluence, which suggests that charge carrier-carrier scattering dominates the dephasing dynamics at the measured excitation densities. Extrapolation of the deduced homogeneous dephasing times to zero excitation density yields an intrinsic dephasing time of {approx} 70 fs. The presence of a secondary spectral hole indicates that scattering of the surface electrons with surface optical phonons at 570 cm-1 occurs within the first 200 fs after excitation. The broad bandwidth of femtosecond IR pulses is used to perform IR-visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy. By implementing a Fourier-transform technique, we demonstrate the ability to obtain sub-laser-bandwidth spectral resolution. FT-SFG yields a greater signal when implemented with a stretched visible pulse than with a femtosecond visible pulse. However, when compared with multichannel spectroscopy using a femtosecond IR pulse but a narrowband visible pulse, Fourier-transform SFG is found to have an inferior signal-to-noise ratio. A mathematical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio illustrates the constraints on the Fourier-transform approach.

  14. The Subset Sum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Andreas; Nicosia, Gaia; Pferschy, Ulrich; Schauer, Joachim

    2014-03-16

    In this work we address a game theoretic variant of the Subset Sum problem, in which two decision makers (agents/players) compete for the usage of a common resource represented by a knapsack capacity. Each agent owns a set of integer weighted items and wants to maximize the total weight of its own items included in the knapsack. The solution is built as follows: Each agent, in turn, selects one of its items (not previously selected) and includes it in the knapsack if there is enough capacity. The process ends when the remaining capacity is too small for including any item left. We look at the problem from a single agent point of view and show that finding an optimal sequence of items to select is an [Formula: see text]-hard problem. Therefore we propose two natural heuristic strategies and analyze their worst-case performance when (1) the opponent is able to play optimally and (2) the opponent adopts a greedy strategy. From a centralized perspective we observe that some known results on the approximation of the classical Subset Sum can be effectively adapted to the multi-agent version of the problem.

  15. Counting Triangles to Sum Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.

  16. Using Squares to Sum Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTemple, Duane

    2010-01-01

    Purely combinatorial proofs are given for the sum of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2] = n(n + 1) (2n + 1) / 6, and the sum of sums of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2]) + ... + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2]) = n(n + 1)[superscript 2]…

  17. Polarization Nonlinear Optics of Quadratically Nonlinear Azopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konorov, S.O.; Akimov, D.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Petrov, A.N.; Alfimov, M.V.; Yakimanskii, A.V.; Smirnov, N.N.; Ivanova, V.N.; Kudryavtsev, V.V.; Podshivalov, A.A.; Sokolova, I.M.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The polarization properties of second harmonic and sum-frequency signals generated by femtosecond laser pulses in films of polymers containing covalent groups of an azobenzothiazole chromophore polarized by an external electric field are investigated. It is shown that the methods of polarization nonlinear optics make it possible to determine the structure of oriented molecular dipoles and reveal important properties of the motion of collectivized πelectrons in organic molecules with strong optical nonlinearities. The polarization measurements show that the tensor of quadratic nonlinear optical susceptibility of chromophore fragments oriented by an external field in macromolecules of the noted azopolymers has a degenerate form. This is indicative of a predominantly one-dimensional character of motion of collectivized π electrons along an extended group of atoms in such molecules

  18. Premium Pricing of Liability Insurance Using Random Sum Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi

    2017-01-01

    Premium pricing is one of important activities in insurance. Nonlife insurance premium is calculated from expected value of historical data claims. The historical data claims are collected so that it forms a sum of independent random number which is called random sum. In premium pricing using random sum, claim frequency distribution and claim severity distribution are combined. The combination of these distributions is called compound distribution. By using liability claim insurance data, we ...

  19. Least square regularized regression in sum space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Li; Chen, Di-Rong; Li, Han-Xiong; Liu, Lu

    2013-04-01

    This paper proposes a least square regularized regression algorithm in sum space of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs) for nonflat function approximation, and obtains the solution of the algorithm by solving a system of linear equations. This algorithm can approximate the low- and high-frequency component of the target function with large and small scale kernels, respectively. The convergence and learning rate are analyzed. We measure the complexity of the sum space by its covering number and demonstrate that the covering number can be bounded by the product of the covering numbers of basic RKHSs. For sum space of RKHSs with Gaussian kernels, by choosing appropriate parameters, we tradeoff the sample error and regularization error, and obtain a polynomial learning rate, which is better than that in any single RKHS. The utility of this method is illustrated with two simulated data sets and five real-life databases.

  20. The structure of oleamide films at the aluminum/oil interface and aluminum/air interface studied by Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (RAIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casford, Michael T L; Davies, Paul B

    2009-08-01

    The structure of oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) films on aluminum has been investigated by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Three different film deposition strategies were investigated: (i) films formed by equilibrium adsorption from oleamide solutions in oil, (ii) Langmuir-Blodgett films cast at 1 and 25 mN m(-1), (iii) thick spin-cast films. Both L-B and spin-cast films were examined in air and under oil. The adsorbate formed in the 1 mN m(-1) film in air showed little orientational order. For this film, the spectroscopic results and the ellipsometric thickness point to a relatively conformationally disordered monolayer that is oriented principally in the plane of the interface. Direct adsorption to the metal interface from oil results in SFG spectra of oleamide that are comparable to those observed for the 1 mN m(-1) L-B film in air. In contrast, SFG and RAIRS results for the 25 mN m(-1) film in air and SFG spectra of the spin-cast film in air both show strong conformational ordering and orientational alignment normal to the interface. The 25 mN m(-1) film has an ellipsometric thickness almost twice that of the 1 mN m(-1) L-B film. Taken in combination with the spectroscopic results, this is indicative of a well packed monolayer in air in which the hydrocarbon chain is in an essentially defect-free extended conformation with the methyl terminus oriented away from the surface. A similar structure is also deduced for the surface of the spin-cast film in air. Upon immersion of the 25 mN m(-1) L-B film in oil the SFG spectra show that this film rapidly adopts a relatively disordered structure similar to that seen for the 1 mN m(-1) L-B film in air. Immersion of the spin-cast film in oil results in the gradual disordering of the amide film over a period of several days until the observed spectra become essentially identical to those observed for direct adsorption of oleamide from oil.

  1. In-situ Studies of the Reactions of Bifunctional and Heterocyclic Molecules over Noble Metal Single Crystal and Nanoparticle Catalysts Studied with Kinetics and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliewer, Christopher J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-06-30

    Sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in combination with gas chromatography (GC) was used in-situ to monitor surface bound reaction intermediates and reaction selectivities for the hydrogenation reactions of pyrrole, furan, pyridine, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal over Pt(111), Pt(100), Rh(111), and platinum nanoparticles under Torr reactant pressures and temperatures of 300K to 450K. The focus of this work is the correlation between the SFG-VS observed surface bound reaction intermediates and adsorption modes with the reaction selectivity, and how this is affected by catalyst structure and temperature. Pyrrole hydrogenation was investigated over Pt(111) and Rh(111) single crystals at Torr pressures. It was found that pyrrole adsorbs to Pt(111) perpendicularly by cleaving the N-H bond and binding through the nitrogen. However, over Rh(111) pyrrole adsorbs in a tilted geometry binding through the {pi}-aromatic orbitals. A surface-bound pyrroline reaction intermediate was detected over both surfaces with SFG-VS. It was found that the ring-cracking product butylamine is a reaction poison over both surfaces studied. Furan hydrogenation was studied over Pt(111), Pt(100), 10 nm cubic platinum nanoparticles and 1 nm platinum nanoparticles. The product distribution was observed to be highly structure sensitive and the acquired SFG-VS spectra reflected this sensitivity. Pt(100) exhibited more ring-cracking to form butanol than Pt(111), while the nanoparticles yielded higher selectivities for the partially saturated ring dihydrofuran. Pyridine hydrogenation was investigated over Pt(111) and Pt(100). The α-pyridyl surface adsorption mode was observed with SFG-VS over both surfaces. 1,4-dihydropyridine was seen as a surface intermediate over Pt(100) but not Pt(111). Upon heating the surfaces to 350K, the adsorbed pyridine changes to a flat-lying adsorption mode. No evidence was found for the pyridinium cation. The hydrogenation of the

  2. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl; Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-07

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (F{sub rep}) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest F{sub rep} was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  3. Use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization, multi-angle airborne radars for class discrimination in a southern temperature forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, N. C.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of radar scatterometers for discrimination and characterization of natural vegetation was investigated. Backscatter measurements were acquired with airborne multi-frequency, multi-polarization, multi-angle radar scatterometers over a test site in a southern temperate forest. Separability between ground cover classes was studied using a two-class separability measure. Very good separability is achieved between most classes. Longer wavelength is useful in separating trees from non-tree classes, while shorter wavelength and cross polarization are helpful for discrimination among tree classes. Using the maximum likelihood classifier, 50% overall classification accuracy is achieved using a single, short-wavelength scatterometer channel. Addition of multiple incidence angles and another radar band improves classification accuracy by 20% and 50%, respectively, over the single channel accuracy. Incorporation of a third radar band seems redundant for vegetation classification. Vertical transmit polarization is critically important for all classes.

  4. Premium Pricing of Liability Insurance Using Random Sum Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiati Dwi Kartikasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Premium pricing is one of important activities in insurance. Nonlife insurance premium is calculated from expected value of historical data claims. The historical data claims are collected so that it forms a sum of independent random number which is called random sum. In premium pricing using random sum, claim frequency distribution and claim severity distribution are combined. The combination of these distributions is called compound distribution. By using liability claim insurance data, we analyze premium pricing using random sum model based on compound distribution

  5. 15 W high OSNR kHz-linewidth linearly-polarized all-fiber single-frequency MOPA at 1.6 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changsheng; Guan, Xianchao; Zhao, Qilai; Lin, Wei; Li, Can; Gan, Jiulin; Qian, Qi; Feng, Zhouming; Yang, Zhongmin; Xu, Shanhui

    2018-05-14

    A 1603 nm high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) kHz-linewidth linearly-polarized all-fiber single-frequency master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) is demonstrated. To suppress the amplified spontaneous emission from Yb 3+ /Er 3+ ions with the customized filters and optimize the length of the double cladding active fiber, an over 15 W stable single-longitudinal-mode laser is achieved with an OSNR of >70 dB. A measured laser linewidth of 4.5 kHz and a polarization-extinction ratio of >23 dB are obtained at the full output power. This L-band high-power single-frequency MOPA is promising for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy and pumping of Tm 3+ -doped or Tm 3+ /Ho 3+ co-doped laser.

  6. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  7. Single input state, single–mode fiber–based polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging by eigenpolarization referencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippok, Norman; Villiger, Martin; Jun, Chang–Su; Bouma, Brett E.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber–based polarization sensitive OFDI is more challenging than free–space implementations. Using multiple input states, fiber–based systems provide sample birefringence information with the benefit of a flexible sample arm but come at the cost of increased system and acquisition complexity, and either reduce acquisition speed or require increased acquisition bandwidth. Here we show that with the calibration of a single polarization state, fiber–based configurations can approach the conceptual simplicity of traditional free–space configurations. We remotely control the polarization state of the light incident at the sample using the eigenpolarization states of a wave plate as a reference, and determine the Jones matrix of the output fiber. We demonstrate this method for polarization sensitive imaging of biological samples. PMID:25927775

  8. Neutrino mass sum-rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Asan

    2018-03-01

    Neutrino mass sum-rele is a very important research subject from theoretical side because neutrino oscillation experiment only gave us two squared-mass differences and three mixing angles. We review neutrino mass sum-rule in literature that have been reported by many authors and discuss its phenomenological implications.

  9. Credal Sum-Product Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maua, Denis Deratani; Cozman, Fabio Gagli; Conaty, Diarmaid; de Campos, Cassio P.

    2017-01-01

    Sum-product networks are a relatively new and increasingly popular class of (precise) probabilistic graphical models that allow for marginal inference with polynomial effort. As with other probabilistic models, sum-product networks are often learned from data and used to perform classification.

  10. Sums of squares of integers

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, Carlos J

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Prerequisites Outline of Chapters 2 - 8 Elementary Methods Introduction Some Lemmas Two Fundamental Identities Euler's Recurrence for Sigma(n)More Identities Sums of Two Squares Sums of Four Squares Still More Identities Sums of Three Squares An Alternate Method Sums of Polygonal Numbers Exercises Bernoulli Numbers Overview Definition of the Bernoulli Numbers The Euler-MacLaurin Sum Formula The Riemann Zeta Function Signs of Bernoulli Numbers Alternate The von Staudt-Clausen Theorem Congruences of Voronoi and Kummer Irregular Primes Fractional Parts of Bernoulli Numbers Exercises Examples of Modular Forms Introduction An Example of Jacobi and Smith An Example of Ramanujan and Mordell An Example of Wilton: t (n) Modulo 23 An Example of Hamburger Exercises Hecke's Theory of Modular FormsIntroduction Modular Group ? and its Subgroup ? 0 (N) Fundamental Domains For ? and ? 0 (N) Integral Modular Forms Modular Forms of Type Mk(? 0(N);chi) and Euler-Poincare series Hecke Operators Dirichlet Series and ...

  11. Broadband photonic single sideband frequency up-converter based on the cross polarization modulation effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier for radio-over-fiber systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Jong-In

    2014-01-13

    A broadband photonic single sideband (SSB) frequency up-converter based on the cross polarization modulation (XPolM) effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An optical radio frequency (RF) signal in the form of an optical single sideband (OSSB) is generated by the photonic SSB frequency up-converter to solve the power fading problem caused by fiber chromatic dispersion. The generated OSSB RF signal has almost identical optical carrier power and optical sideband power. This SSB frequency up-conversion scheme shows an almost flat electrical RF power response as a function of the RF frequency in a range from 31 GHz to 75 GHz after 40 km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission. The photonic SSB frequency up-conversion technique shows negligible phase noise degradation. The phase noise of the up-converted RF signal at 49 GHz for an offset of 10 kHz is -93.17 dBc/Hz. Linearity analysis shows that the photonic SSB frequency up-converter has a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) value of 79.51 dB · Hz(2/3).

  12. On second order effects in a galvanic cell : Part I. Polarization by a sine wave modulated high frequency current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, F. van der; Sluyters-Rehbach, M.; Sluyters, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented concerning the application of a high-frequency alternating current, amplitude modulated by a low-frequency sine wave, to a galvanic cell. Based on the correlation with the faradaic rectification technique, expressions are given for the low-frequency demodulation

  13. Tight bounds on angle sums of nonobtuse simplices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brandts, J.; Cihangir, A.; Křížek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 267, 15 September (2015), s. 397-408 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nonobtuse simplex * angle sum s * spherical geometry * polar simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0096300315002155

  14. Novel Microstrip Patch Antennas with Frequency Agility, Polarization Reconfigurability, Dual Null Steering Capability and Phased Array Antenna with Beam Steering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhani, Behrouz

    Nowadays the wireless communication technology is playing an important role in our daily life. People use wireless devices not only as a conventional communication device but also as tracking and navigation tool, web browsing tool, data storage and transfer tool and so for many other reasons. Based on the user demand, wireless communication engineers try to accommodate as many as possible wireless systems and applications in a single device and therefore, creates a multifunctional device. Antenna, as an integral part of any wireless communication systems, should also be evolved and adjusted with development of wireless transceiver systems. Therefore multifunctional antennas have been introduced to support and enhance the functionality on modern wireless systems. The main focus and contribution of this thesis is design of novel multifunctional microstrip antennas with frequency agility, polarization reconfigurablity, dual null steering capability and phased array antenna with beam steering performance. In this thesis, first, a wide bandwidth(1.10 GHz to 1.60 GHz) right-handed circularly polarized (RHCP) directional antenna for global positioning system (GPS) satellite receive application has been introduced which covers all the GPS bands starting from L1 to L5. This design consists of two crossed bow-tie dipole antennas fed with sequentially phase rotated feed network backed with an artificial high impedance surface (HIS) structure to generate high gain directional radiation patterns. This design shows good CP gain and axial ratio (AR) and wide beamwidth performance. Although this design has good radiation quality, the size and the weight can be reduced as future study. In the second design, a frequency agile antenna was developed which also covers the L-band (L1 to L5) satellite communication frequencies. This frequency agile antenna was designed and realized by new implementation of varactor diodes in the geometry of a circular patch antenna. Beside wide frequency

  15. Proximinality in generalized direct sums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darapaneni Narayana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider proximinality and transitivity of proximinality for subspaces of finite codimension in generalized direct sums of Banach spaces. We give several examples of Banach spaces where proximinality is transitive among subspaces of finite codimension.

  16. Lower Hybrid Frequency Range Waves Generated by Ion Polarization Drift Due to Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Analysis of an Event Observed by the Van Allen Probe B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Boardsen, S.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Sibeck, D.; Chen, S.; Breneman, A.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze a wave event that occurred near noon between 07:03 and 07:08 UT on 23 February 2014 detected by the Van Allen Probes B spacecraft, where waves in the lower hybrid frequency range (LHFR) and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are observed to be highly correlated, with Pearson correlation coefficient of approximately 0.86. We assume that the correlation is the result of LHFR wave generation by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of the EMIC waves. To check this assumption the drift velocities of electrons and H+, He+, and O+ ions in the measured EMIC wave electric field were modeled. Then the LHFR wave linear instantaneous growth rates for plasma with these changing drift velocities and different plasma compositions were calculated. The time distribution of these growth rates, their frequency distribution, and the frequency dependence of the ratio of the LHFR wave power spectral density (PSD)parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic eld to the total PSD were found. These characteristics of the growth rates were compared with the corresponding characteristics of the observed LHFR activity. Reasonable agreement between these features and the strong correlation between EMIC and LHFR energy densities support the assumption that the LHFR wave generation can be caused by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of an EMIC wave.

  17. 'Sum rules' for preequilibrium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1981-03-01

    Evidence that suggests a correct relationship between the optical transmission matrix, P, and the several correlation widths, gamma sub(n), found in nsmission matrix, P, and the several correlation widths, n, found in multistep compound (preequilibrium) nuclear reactions, is presented. A second sum rule is also derived within the shell model approach to nuclear reactions. Indications of the potential usefulness of the sum rules in preequilibrium studies are given. (Author) [pt

  18. Sum rules in classical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper derives sum rules associated with the classical scattering of two particles. These sum rules are the analogs of Levinson's theorem in quantum mechanics which provides a relationship between the number of bound-state wavefunctions and the energy integral of the time delay of the scattering process. The associated classical relation is an identity involving classical time delay and an integral over the classical bound-state density. We show that equalities between the Nth-order energy moment of the classical time delay and the Nth-order energy moment of the classical bound-state density hold in both a local and a global form. Local sum rules involve the time delay defined on a finite but otherwise arbitrary coordinate space volume S and the bound-state density associated with this same region. Global sum rules are those that obtain when S is the whole coordinate space. Both the local and global sum rules are derived for potentials of arbitrary shape and for scattering in any space dimension. Finally the set of classical sum rules, together with the known quantum mechanical analogs, are shown to provide a unified method of obtaining the high-temperature expansion of the classical, respectively the quantum-mechanical, virial coefficients

  19. Spectral sum rules and magneto-roton as emergent graviton in fractional quantum Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkar, Siavash; Nguyen, Dung X.; Son, Dam T. [Enrico Fermi Institute, James Franck Institute and Department of Physics,University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2016-01-05

    We consider gapped fractional quantum Hall states on the lowest Landau level when the Coulomb energy is much smaller than the cyclotron energy. We introduce two spectral densities, ρ{sub T}(ω) and ρ̄{sub T}(ω), which are proportional to the probabilities of absorption of circularly polarized gravitons by the quantum Hall system. We prove three sum rules relating these spectral densities with the shift S, the q{sup 4} coefficient of the static structure factor S{sub 4}, and the high-frequency shear modulus of the ground state μ{sub ∞}, which is precisely defined. We confirm an inequality, first suggested by Haldane, that S{sub 4} is bounded from below by |S−1|/8. The Laughlin wavefunction saturates this bound, which we argue to imply that systems with ground state wavefunctions close to Laughlin’s absorb gravitons of predominantly one circular polarization. We consider a nonlinear model where the sum rules are saturated by a single magneto-roton mode. In this model, the magneto-roton arises from the mixing between oscillations of an internal metric and the hydrodynamic motion. Implications for experiments are briefly discussed.

  20. Small sum privacy and large sum utility in data publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ada Wai-Chee; Wang, Ke; Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing; Wang, Jia; Jiang, Minhao

    2014-08-01

    While the study of privacy preserving data publishing has drawn a lot of interest, some recent work has shown that existing mechanisms do not limit all inferences about individuals. This paper is a positive note in response to this finding. We point out that not all inference attacks should be countered, in contrast to all existing works known to us, and based on this we propose a model called SPLU. This model protects sensitive information, by which we refer to answers for aggregate queries with small sums, while queries with large sums are answered with higher accuracy. Using SPLU, we introduce a sanitization algorithm to protect data while maintaining high data utility for queries with large sums. Empirical results show that our method behaves as desired. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-Frequency Oscillations and Transport Processes Induced by Multiscale Transverse Structures in the Polar Wind Outflow: A Three-Dimensional Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Supriya B.; Gavrishchaka, Valeriy V.

    1999-01-01

    Multiscale transverse structures in the magnetic-field-aligned flows have been frequently observed in the auroral region by FAST and Freja satellites. A number of multiscale processes, such as broadband low-frequency oscillations and various cross-field transport effects are well correlated with these structures. To study these effects, we have used our three-dimensional multifluid model with multiscale transverse inhomogeneities in the initial velocity profile. Self-consistent-frequency mode driven by local transverse gradients in the generation of the low field-aligned ion flow and associated transport processes were simulated. Effects of particle interaction with the self-consistent time-dependent three-dimensional wave potential have been modeled using a distribution of test particles. For typical polar wind conditions it has been found that even large-scale (approximately 50 - 100 km) transverse inhomogeneities in the flow can generate low-frequency oscillations that lead to significant flow modifications, cross-field particle diffusion, and other transport effects. It has also been shown that even small-amplitude (approximately 10 - 20%) short-scale (approximately 10 km) modulations of the original large-scale flow profile significantly increases low-frequency mode generation and associated cross-field transport, not only at the local spatial scales imposed by the modulations but also on global scales. Note that this wave-induced cross-field transport is not included in any of the global numerical models of the ionosphere, ionosphere-thermosphere, or ionosphere-polar wind. The simulation results indicate that the wave-induced cross-field transport not only affects the ion outflow rates but also leads to a significant broadening of particle phase-space distribution and transverse particle diffusion.

  2. Sum rules for collisional processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.

    1991-01-01

    We derive level-to-configuration sum rules for dielectronic capture and for collisional excitation and ionization. These sum rules give the total transition rate from a detailed atomic level to an atomic configuration. For each process, we show that it is possible to factor out the dependence on continuum-electron wave functions. The remaining explicit level dependence of each rate is then obtained from the matrix element of an effective operator acting on the bound orbitals only. In a large class of cases, the effective operator reduces to a one-electron monopole whose matrix element is proportional to the statistical weight of the level. We show that even in these cases, nonstatistical level dependence enters through the dependence of radial integrals on continuum orbitals. For each process, explicit analytic expressions for the level-to-configuration sum rules are given for all possible cases. Together with the well-known J-file sum rule for radiative rates [E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University Press, Cambridge, 1935)], the sum rules offer a systematic and efficient procedure for collapsing high-multiplicity configurations into ''effective'' levels for the purpose of modeling the population kinetics of ionized heavy atoms in plasma

  3. Single-Layer, Dual-Port, Dual-Band, and Orthogonal-Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Array with Low Frequency Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-layer, dual-port, dual-band, and dual circularly polarized (CP microstrip array is designed for satellite communication in this paper. The operating frequencies are 8.2 and 8.6 GHz with a very low ratio of 1.05. First, a rectangular patch element is fed through microstrip lines at two orthogonal edges to excite two orthogonal dominant modes of TM01 and TM10. The very low frequency ratio can be realized with high polarization isolations. Then, a 2-by-2 dual-band dual-CP subarray is constructed by two independent sets of sequentially rotated (SR feed structures. An 8-by-8 array is designed on the single-layer thin substrate. Finally, by utilizing one-to-four power dividers and semirigid coaxial cables, a 16-by-16 array is developed to achieve higher gain. Measured results show that the 16-by-16 array has 15 dB return loss (RL bandwidths of 4.81% and 6.75% and 3 dB axial ratio (AR bandwidths of 2.84% and 1.57% in the lower and the upper bands, respectively. Isolations of 18.6 dB and 19.4 dB and peak gains of 25.1 dBic and 25.6 dBic are obtained at 8.2 and 8.6 GHz, respectively.

  4. Corrections to “Change Detection in Full and Dual Polarization, Single- and Multi-Frequency SAR Data”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Skriver, Henning

    2017-01-01

    of obtaining a smaller value of the test statistic are given. In a case study airborne EMISAR C- and L-band SAR images from the spring of 1998 covering agricultural fields and wooded areas near Foulum, Denmark, are used in single- and bi-frequency, bi-temporal change detection with full and dual polarimetry...

  5. Polarizability sum rules in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llanta, E.; Tarrach, R.

    1978-01-01

    The well founded total photoproduction and the, assumed subtraction free, longitudinal photoproduction polarizability sum rules are checked in QED at the lowest non-trivial order. The first one is shown to hold, whereas the second one turns out to need a subtraction, which makes its usefulness for determining the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons quite doubtful. (Auth.)

  6. Cosmic-ray sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays; we show how they can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments, and to constrain specific models.

  7. Sum rules for neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.; Martemyanov, B.V.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Sum rules for neutrino oscillations are obtained. The derivation of the general form of the s matrix for two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) (where lsub(i)sup(-)e, μ, tau, ... are initial leptons with flavor i and lsub(k)sup(+-) is final lepton) is presented. The consideration of two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) gives the possibility to take into account neutrino masses and to obtain the expressions for the oscillating cross sections. In the case of Dirac and left-handed Majorana neutrino is obtained the sum rule for the quantities 1/Vsub(K)σ(lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+-)), (where Vsub(K) is a velocity of lsub(K)). In the left-handed Majorana neutrino case there is an additional antineutrino admixture leading to lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+) process. Both components (neutrino and antineutrino) oscillate independently. The sums Σsub(K)1/Vsub(k)σ(lsub(i)sup(-) - lsub(K)sup(+-) then oscillate due to the presence of left-handed antineutrinos and right-handed neutrinos which do not take part in weak interactions. If right-handed currents are added sum rules analogous to considered above may be obtained. All conclusions are valid in the general case when CP is not conserved [ru

  8. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series: For Kids from Five to Fifteen. Zurab Silagadze. General Article Volume 20 Issue 9 September 2015 pp 822-843. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Dispersion relations and sum rules for natural optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomaz, M.T.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1981-06-01

    Dispersion relations and sum rules are derived for the complex rotatory power of an arbitrary linear (nonmagnetic) isotropic medium showing natural optical activity. Both previously known dispersion relations and sum rules as well as new ones are obtained. It is shown that the Rosenfeld-Condon dispersion formula is inconsistent with the expected asymptotic behavior at high frequencies. A new dispersion formula based on quantum eletro-dynamics removes this inconsistency; however, it still requires modification in the low-frequency limit. (Author) [pt

  10. Methods for the analysis of complex fluorescence decays: sum of Becquerel functions versus sum of exponentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Filipe; Fedorov, Alexander; Baleizão, Carlos; Berberan-Santos, Mário N; Valeur, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Ensemble fluorescence decays are usually analyzed with a sum of exponentials. However, broad continuous distributions of lifetimes, either unimodal or multimodal, occur in many situations. A simple and flexible fitting function for these cases that encompasses the exponential is the Becquerel function. In this work, the applicability of the Becquerel function for the analysis of complex decays of several kinds is tested. For this purpose, decays of mixtures of four different fluorescence standards (binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures) are measured and analyzed. For binary and ternary mixtures, the expected sum of narrow distributions is well recovered from the Becquerel functions analysis, if the correct number of components is used. For ternary mixtures, however, satisfactory fits are also obtained with a number of Becquerel functions smaller than the true number of fluorophores in the mixture, at the expense of broadening the lifetime distributions of the fictitious components. The quaternary mixture studied is well fitted with both a sum of three exponentials and a sum of two Becquerel functions, showing the inevitable loss of information when the number of components is large. Decays of a fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment, known to be represented by unimodal and broad continuous distributions (as previously obtained by the maximum entropy method), are also measured and analyzed. It is concluded that these distributions can be recovered by the Becquerel function method with an accuracy similar to that of the much more complex maximum entropy method. It is also shown that the polar (or phasor) plot is not always helpful for ascertaining the degree (and kind) of complexity of a fluorescence decay. (paper)

  11. AUTOMATED WETLAND DELINEATION FROM MULTI-FREQUENCY AND MULTI-POLARIZED SAR IMAGES IN HIGH TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Moser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is one of the main challenges posed by the changing climate. Especially in semi-arid regions where water reservoirs are filled during the very short rainy season, but have to store enough water for the extremely long dry season, the intelligent handling of water resources is vital. This study focusses on Lac Bam in Burkina Faso, which is the largest natural lake of the country and of high importance for the local inhabitants for irrigated farming, animal watering, and extraction of water for drinking and sanitation. With respect to the competition for water resources an independent area-wide monitoring system is essential for the acceptance of any decision maker. The following contribution introduces a weather and illumination independent monitoring system for the automated wetland delineation with a high temporal (about two weeks and a high spatial sampling (about five meters. The similarities of the multispectral and multi-polarized SAR acquisitions by RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X are studied as well as the differences. The results indicate that even basic approaches without pre-classification time series analysis or post-classification filtering are already enough to establish a monitoring system of prime importance for a whole region.

  12. 338 Résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISONIC

    sumé. Cardisoma armatum, est une espèce de crabe de terre rencontrée en Afrique de l'ouest en particulier en ... optique suite au traitement histologique ont permis la mise en évidence de quelques critères d'identification de l'espèce et ...... En Côte d'Ivoire il n'est pas rare de voir durant les saisons propices. Cardisoma ...

  13. The nucleon axial isoscalar coupling constant and the Bjorken sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.M.; Ioffe, B.L.; Kogan, Ya.I.

    1984-01-01

    The nucleon coupling constant with the axial isoscalar current entering the Bjorken sum rule for the deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons on a polarized target is calculated in nonperturbative QCD. The result, gsub(A)sup(s) approximately 0.5, is about a factor of two smaller as compared to that of the SU(6) symmetric quark model

  14. Meteor radar observations of vertically propagating low-frequency inertia-gravity waves near the southern polar mesopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, I.-S.; Lee, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Jee, G.; Kim, Y.-H.; Choi, H.-J.; Chun, H.-Y.; Kim, Y. H.

    2017-04-01

    Vertically propagating low-frequency inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) are retrieved from meteor radar winds observed at King Sejong Station (KSS: 62.22°S, 58.78°W), Antarctica. IGW horizontal winds extracted from temporal band-pass filtering in regular time-height bins show the frequent occurrence of IGWs with the downward phase progression and the counterclockwise rotation of their horizontal wind vectors with time (i.e., upward energy propagation) near the mesopause region throughout the whole year of 2014. The vertical wavelengths of the observed IGWs roughly range from 14 km to more than 20 km, which is consistent with previous observational studies on the mesospheric IGWs over Antarctica. Stokes parameters and rotary spectra computed from the hodographs of the IGW horizontal wind components reveal that the intrinsic frequencies of the upward propagating IGWs are |f|-3|f| with seasonal variations of the relative predominance between |f|-2|f| and 2|f|-3|f|, where f is the Coriolis parameter at KSS. The hodograph analysis also indicates that the N-S propagation is dominant in austral summer, while the NE-SW propagation is pronounced in austral winter. The propagation direction is discussed in relation to the generation of IGWs due to dynamical imbalances occurring in the tropospheric and stratospheric jet flow systems. Ray tracing results indicate that the N-S propagation in summer may be due to the jet flow systems roughly north of KSS and the NE-SW propagation in winter may be either the SW propagation from the jet flow systems northeast of KSS or the NE propagation (around the South Pole) from the south of Australia and Southern Indian and Pacific Oceans.

  15. Experimental check of the GDH sum rule at MAMI and ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimmer, J.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental check of the GDH sum rule is being performed at the tagged photon facilities of the electron accelerators MAMI (Mainz) and ELSA (Bonn), using circularly polarized photons impinging on a longitudinally polarized proton target, together with detector systems covering almost the whole solid angle range. Results from the MAMI experiment for the double polarized total photoabsorption cross section in the low energy region (200 MeV < Eγ < 800 MeV) will be shown together with their contribution to the GDH sum rule. Furthermore first results from the ELSA experiment in the higher energy region (680 MeV < Eγ < 1900 MeV) will be presented

  16. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  17. The Sum of the Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gross, Fridolin; Green, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Systems biologists often distance themselves from reductionist approaches and formulate their aim as understanding living systems “as a whole”. Yet, it is often unclear what kind of reductionism they have in mind, and in what sense their methodologies offer a more comprehensive approach. To addre......-up”. Specifically, we point out that system-level properties constrain lower-scale processes. Thus, large-scale modeling reveals how living systems at the ​same time ​ are ​more and ​less than the sum of the parts....

  18. Lattice sums then and now

    CERN Document Server

    Borwein, J M; McPhedran, R C

    2013-01-01

    The study of lattice sums began when early investigators wanted to go from mechanical properties of crystals to the properties of the atoms and ions from which they were built (the literature of Madelung's constant). A parallel literature was built around the optical properties of regular lattices of atoms (initiated by Lord Rayleigh, Lorentz and Lorenz). For over a century many famous scientists and mathematicians have delved into the properties of lattices, sometimes unwittingly duplicating the work of their predecessors. Here, at last, is a comprehensive overview of the substantial body of

  19. Alkyl chain interaction at the surface of room temperature ionic liquids: systematic variation of alkyl chain length (R = C(1)-C(4), C(8)) in both cation and anion of [RMIM][R-OSO(3)] by sum frequency generation and surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cherry S; Baldelli, Steven

    2009-01-29

    The gas-liquid interface of halide-free 1,3-dialkylimidazolium alkyl sulfates [RMIM][R-OSO(3)] with R chain length from C(1)-C(4) and C(8) has been studied systematically using the surface-specific sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and surface tension measurements. From the SFG spectra, vibrational modes from the methyl group of both cation and anion are observed for all ionic liquid samples considered in the present study. These results suggest the presence of both ions at the gas-liquid interface, which is further supported by surface tension measurements. Surface tension data show a decreasing trend as the alkyl chain in the imidazolium cation is varied from methyl to butyl chain, with a specific anion. A similar trend is observed when the alkyl chain of the anion is modified and the cation is fixed.

  20. Statistical sums of strings on hyperellyptic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, D.; Morozov, A.

    1987-01-01

    Contributions of hyperellyptic surfaces to statistical sums of string theories are presented. Available results on hyperellyptic surface give the apportunity to check factorization of three-loop statsum. Some remarks on the vanishing statistical sum are presented

  1. Polarized line formation with J-state interference in the presence of magnetic fields: A Heuristic treatment of collisional frequency redistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smitha, H.N.; Nagendra, K.N.; Sampoorna, M.; Stenflo, J.O.

    2013-01-01

    An expression for the partial frequency redistribution (PRD) matrix for line scattering in a two-term atom, which includes the J-state interference between its fine structure line components is derived. The influence of collisions (both elastic and inelastic) and an external magnetic field on the scattering process is taken into account. The lower term is assumed to be unpolarized and infinitely sharp. The linear Zeeman regime in which the Zeeman splitting is much smaller than the fine structure splitting is considered. The inelastic collision rates between the different levels are included in our treatment. We account for the depolarization caused by the collisions coupling the fine structure states of the upper term, but neglect the polarization transfer between the fine structure states. When the fine structure splitting goes to zero, we recover the redistribution matrix that represents the scattering on a two-level atom (which exhibits only m-state interference—namely the Hanle effect). The way in which the multipolar index of the scattering atom enters into the expression for the redistribution matrix through the collisional branching ratios is discussed. The properties of the redistribution matrix are explored for a single scattering process for a L=0→1→0 scattering transition with S=1/2 (a hypothetical doublet centered at 5000 Å and 5001 Å). Further, a method for solving the Hanle radiative transfer equation for a two-term atom in the presence of collisions, PRD, and J-state interference is developed. The Stokes profiles emerging from an isothermal constant property medium are computed. -- Highlights: ► Polarized partial frequency redistribution matrix (PRDM) for two-term atom is derived. ► PRDM includes collisions heuristically and magnetic fields in linear Zeeman regime. ► A method to include this PRDM into the radiative transfer equation is presented. ► The transfer equation is solved both for the magnetic and non-magnetic cases. ► The

  2. Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

    2010-01-01

    Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.

  3. The molecular orientation of CO on Pd(1 1 1): a polarization-dependent SFG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletto, Paolo; Unterhalt, Holger; Rupprechter, Günther

    2003-01-01

    The molecular orientation of carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pd(1 1 1) was examined by sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy utilizing different polarization combinations of the visible and SFG light. This allows to determine the CO tilt angle with respect to the substrate, provided that a proper optical model for the interface can be defined. It is demonstrated that it is essential to invoke the βaac hyperpolarizability into the analysis and that polarization-dependent SFG of CO/Pd(1 1 1) yields information on βaac/ βccc rather than the tilt angle.

  4. The DHG sum rule measured with medium energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, K.; Ardashev, K.; Babusci, D.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the nucleon has many important features that are yet to be uncovered. Of current interest is the nucleon spin-structure which can be measured by doing double-polarization experiments with photon beams of medium energies (0.1 to 2 GeV). One such experiment uses dispersion relations, applied to the Compton scattering amplitude, to relate measurement of the total reaction cross section integrated over the incident photon energy to the nucleon anomalous magnetic moment. At present, no single facility spans the entire range of photon energies necessary to test this sum rule. The Laser-Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) facility will measure the double-polarization observables at photon energies between 0.15--0.47 MeV. Either the SPring8 facility, the GRAAL facility (France), or Jefferson Laboratory could make similar measurements at higher photon energies. A high-precision measurement of the spin-polarizability and the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule is now possible with the advent of high-polarization solid HD targets at medium energy polarized photon facilities such as LEGS, GRAAL and SPring8. Other facilities with lower polarization in either the photon beam or target (or both) are also pursuing these measurements because of the high priority associated with this physics. The Spin-asymmetry (SASY) detector that will be used at LEGS has been briefly outlined in this paper. The detector efficiencies have been explored with simulations studies using the GEANT software, with the result that both charged and uncharged pions can be detected with a reasonable efficiency (> 30%) over a large solid angle. Tracking with a TPC, which will be built at LEGS over the next few years, will improve the capabilities of these measurements

  5. Highly efficient deep ultraviolet generation by sum-frequency mixing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultraviolet laser radiation; walk-off compensation; third harmonic generation; nonlinear optical material. ... Because of its large birefringence, BBO crystal permits the generation of UV radiation near 200 nm by THG ... A, B and C are three different configurations for THG, A – Single crystal, B – two crystals (B2 and B3 in.

  6. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  7. Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S K

    2011-07-06

    How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine

  8. Sum rules for quasifree scattering of hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    The areas d σ /d Ω of fitted quasifree scattering peaks from bound nucleons for continuum hadron-nucleus spectra measuring d2σ /d Ω d ω are converted to sum rules akin to the Coulomb sums familiar from continuum electron scattering spectra from nuclear charge. Hadronic spectra with or without charge exchange of the beam are considered. These sums are compared to the simple expectations of a nonrelativistic Fermi gas, including a Pauli blocking factor. For scattering without charge exchange, the hadronic sums are below this expectation, as also observed with Coulomb sums. For charge exchange spectra, the sums are near or above the simple expectation, with larger uncertainties. The strong role of hadron-nucleon in-medium total cross sections is noted from use of the Glauber model.

  9. Extremum uncertainty product and sum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, C L; Kumar, S [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi. Dept. of Physics

    1978-01-01

    The extremum product states and sum states of the uncertainties in non-commuting observables have been examined. These are illustrated by two specific examples of harmonic oscillator and the angular momentum states. It shows that the coherent states of the harmonic oscillator are characterized by the minimum uncertainty sum <(..delta..q)/sup 2/>+<(..delta..p)/sup 2/>. The extremum values of the sums and products of the uncertainties of the components of the angular momentum are also obtained.

  10. QCD Sum Rules, a Modern Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Colangelo, Pietro; Colangelo, Pietro; Khodjamirian, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    An introduction to the method of QCD sum rules is given for those who want to learn how to use this method. Furthermore, we discuss various applications of sum rules, from the determination of quark masses to the calculation of hadronic form factors and structure functions. Finally, we explain the idea of the light-cone sum rules and outline the recent development of this approach.

  11. Decompounding random sums: A nonparametric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    Observations from sums of random variables with a random number of summands, known as random, compound or stopped sums arise within many areas of engineering and science. Quite often it is desirable to infer properties of the distribution of the terms in the random sum. In the present paper we...... review a number of applications and consider the nonlinear inverse problem of inferring the cumulative distribution function of the components in the random sum. We review the existing literature on non-parametric approaches to the problem. The models amenable to the analysis are generalized considerably...

  12. Sum rules in the response function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1990-01-01

    Sum rules in the response function method are studied in detail. A sum rule can be obtained theoretically by integrating the imaginary part of the response function over the excitation energy with a corresponding energy weight. Generally, the response function is calculated perturbatively in terms of the residual interaction, and the expansion can be described by diagrammatic methods. In this paper, we present a classification of the diagrams so as to clarify which diagram has what contribution to which sum rule. This will allow us to get insight into the contributions to the sum rules of all the processes expressed by Goldstone diagrams. (orig.)

  13. Some Finite Sums Involving Generalized Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kılıç

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By considering Melham's sums (Melham, 2004, we compute various more general nonalternating sums, alternating sums, and sums that alternate according to (−12+1 involving the generalized Fibonacci and Lucas numbers.

  14. Where Does Latin "Sum" Come From?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Martti A.

    1977-01-01

    The derivation of Latin "sum,""es(s),""est" from Indo-European "esmi,""est,""esti" involves methodological problems. It is claimed here that the development of "sum" from "esmi" is related to the origin of the variation "est-st" (less than"esti"). The study is primarily concerned with this process, but chronological suggestions are also made. (CHK)

  15. Compound sums and their applications in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Helmers (Roelof); B. Tarigan

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCompound sums arise frequently in insurance (total claim size in a portfolio) and in accountancy (total error amount in audit populations). As the normal approximation for compound sums usually performs very badly, one may look for better methods for approximating the distribution of a

  16. Gauss Sum Factorization with Cold Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilowski, M.; Wendrich, T.; Mueller, T.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M.; Jentsch, Ch.; Schleich, W. P.

    2008-01-01

    We report the first implementation of a Gauss sum factorization algorithm by an internal state Ramsey interferometer using cold atoms. A sequence of appropriately designed light pulses interacts with an ensemble of cold rubidium atoms. The final population in the involved atomic levels determines a Gauss sum. With this technique we factor the number N=263193

  17. Shapley Value for Constant-sum Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelnitskaya, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    It is proved that Young's axiomatization for the Shapley value by marginalism, efficiency, and symmetry is still valid for the Shapley value defined on the class of nonnegative constant-sum games and on the entire class of constant-sum games as well. To support an interest to study the class of

  18. Superconvergent sum rules for the normal reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, K.; Zimerman, A.H.; Villani, A.

    1976-05-01

    Families of superconvergent relations for the normal reflectivity function are written. Sum rules connecting the difference of phases of the reflectivities of two materials are also considered. Finally superconvergence relations and sum rules for magneto-reflectivity in the Faraday and Voigt regimes are also studied

  19. Sums and products of sets and estimates of rational trigonometric sums in fields of prime order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garaev, Mubaris Z [National Autonomous University of Mexico, Institute of Mathematics (Mexico)

    2010-11-16

    This paper is a survey of main results on the problem of sums and products of sets in fields of prime order and their applications to estimates of rational trigonometric sums. Bibliography: 85 titles.

  20. Current algebra sum rules for Reggeons

    CERN Document Server

    Carlitz, R

    1972-01-01

    The interplay between the constraints of chiral SU/sub 2/*SU/sub 2/ symmetry and Regge asymptotic behaviour is investigated. The author reviews the derivation of various current algebra sum rules in a study of the reaction pi + alpha to pi + beta . These sum rules imply that all particles may be classified in multiplets of SU/sub 2/*SU/sub 2/ and that each of these multiplets may contain linear combinations of an infinite number of physical states. Extending his study to the reaction pi + alpha to pi + pi + beta , he derives new sum rules involving commutators of the axial charge with the reggeon coupling matrices of the rho and f Regge trajectories. Some applications of these new sum rules are noted, and the general utility of these and related sum rules is discussed. (17 refs).

  1. Study of QCD medium by sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, S [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

    1998-08-01

    Though it has no analogue in condensed matter physics, the thermal QCD sum rules can, nevertheless, answer questions of condensed matter type about the QCD medium. The ingredients needed to write such sum rules, viz. the operator product expansion and the spectral representation at finite temperature, are reviewed in detail. The sum rules are then actually written for the case of correlation function of two vector currents. Collecting information on the thermal average of the higher dimension operators from other sources, we evaluate these sum rules for the temperature dependent {rho}-meson parameters. Possibility of extracting more information from the combined set of all sum rules from different correlation functions is also discussed. (author) 30 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Coloring sums of extensions of certain graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Kok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We recall that the minimum number of colors that allow a proper coloring of graph $G$ is called the chromatic number of $G$ and denoted $\\chi(G$. Motivated by the introduction of the concept of the $b$-chromatic sum of a graph the concept of $\\chi'$-chromatic sum and $\\chi^+$-chromatic sum are introduced in this paper. The extended graph $G^x$ of a graph $G$ was recently introduced for certain regular graphs. This paper furthers the concepts of $\\chi'$-chromatic sum and $\\chi^+$-chromatic sum to extended paths and cycles. Bipartite graphs also receive some attention. The paper concludes with patterned structured graphs. These last said graphs are typically found in chemical and biological structures.

  3. Sum Rules, Classical and Quantum - A Pedagogical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, William; Smith, David Y.

    2014-03-01

    Sum rules in the form of integrals over the response of a system to an external probe provide general analytical tools for both experiment and theory. For example, the celebrated f-sum rule gives a system's plasma frequency as an integral over the optical-dipole absorption spectrum regardless of the specific spectral distribution. Moreover, this rule underlies Smakula's equation for the number density of absorbers in a sample in terms of the area under their absorption bands. Commonly such rules are derived from quantum-mechanical commutation relations, but many are fundamentally classical (independent of ℏ) and so can be derived from more transparent mechanical models. We have exploited this to illustrate the fundamental role of inertia in the case of optical sum rules. Similar considerations apply to sum rules in many other branches of physics. Thus, the ``attenuation integral theorems'' of ac circuit theory reflect the ``inertial'' effect of Lenz's Law in inductors or the potential energy ``storage'' in capacitors. These considerations are closely related to the fact that the real and imaginary parts of a response function cannot be specified independently, a result that is encapsulated in the Kramers-Kronig relations. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. Polarization Utilization in Radar Target Reconstruction: C-Wide (Multi-Frequency) Band Relationship of a Target’s Characteristic Operators with Its Unique Set of Natural Eigenfrequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-14

    the left half of the s- plane . These are representation independent. We shall be interested in these poles only. These poles are the complex...on the Left Half Plane Asymptotic Behavior of the SEM Expansion of Surface Currents, Published in Special Issue on the Singularity Expansion Method...precisely, the polarization chart is an orthogonal projection of the Poincare Sphere on a plane , having polar coordinates p= cos (2-) and

  5. A New Sum Analogous to Gauss Sums and Its Fourth Power Mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to use the analytic methods and the properties of Gauss sums to study the computational problem of one kind of new sum analogous to Gauss sums and give an interesting fourth power mean and a sharp upper bound estimate for it.

  6. SUM-RULES FOR MAGNETIC DICHROISM IN RARE-EARTH 4F-PHOTOEMISSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    THOLE, BT; VANDERLAAN, G

    1993-01-01

    We present new sum rules for magnetic dichroism in spin polarized photoemission from partly filled shells which give the expectation values of the orbital and spin magnetic moments and their correlations in the ground state. We apply this to the 4f photoemission of rare earths, where the

  7. Zero-Sum Flows in Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, S.; Khosrovshahi, G.B.; Mofidi, A.

    2010-07-01

    Let D be a t-(v, k, λ) design and let N i (D), for 1 ≤ i ≤ t, be the higher incidence matrix of D, a (0, 1)-matrix of size (v/i) x b, where b is the number of blocks of D. A zero-sum flow of D is a nowhere-zero real vector in the null space of N 1 (D). A zero-sum k-flow of D is a zero-sum flow with values in {±,...,±(k-1)}. In this paper we show that every non-symmetric design admits an integral zero-sum flow, and consequently we conjecture that every non-symmetric design admits a zero-sum 5-flow. Similarly, the definition of zero-sum flow can be extended to N i (D), 1 ≤ i ≤ t. Let D = t-(v,k, (v-t/k-t)) be the complete design. We conjecture that N t (D) admits a zero-sum 3-flow and prove this conjecture for t = 2. (author)

  8. Fixed mass and scaling sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, B.F.L.

    1975-01-01

    Using the correspondence principle (continuity in dynamics), the approach of Keppell-Jones-Ward-Taha to fixed mass and scaling current algebraic sum rules is extended so as to consider explicitly the contributions of all classes of intermediate states. A natural, generalized formulation of the truncation ideas of Cornwall, Corrigan, and Norton is introduced as a by-product of this extension. The formalism is illustrated in the familiar case of the spin independent Schwinger term sum rule. New sum rules are derived which relate the Regge residue functions of the respective structure functions to their fixed hadronic mass limits for q 2 → infinity. (Auth.)

  9. Difference frequency generation spectroscopy as a vibrational optical activity measurement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sangheon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-03-19

    Vibrational optical activity (VOA) of chiral molecules in condensed phases can be studied by using vibrational circular dichroism and Raman optical activity measurement techniques. Recently, IR-vis sum frequency generation has shown to be an alternative VOA measurement method. Such a three-wave-mixing method employing a polarization modulation technique can be a potentially useful VOA measurement tool. Here, a theoretical description of difference frequency generation (DFG) employing circularly polarized visible radiations is presented. Frequency scanning to obtain a VOA-DFG spectrum is achieved by controlling the difference between the two electronically nonresonant incident radiation frequencies. If the two incident beams are linearly polarized and their polarization directions are perpendicular to each other, one can selectively measure the all-electric-dipole-allowed chiral component of the DFG susceptibility. In addition, by using circularly polarized beams and taking the DFG difference intensity signal, which is defined as the difference between left and right circularly polarized DFG signals, additional chiral susceptibility components originating from the electric quadrupole transition can be measured. The DFG as a novel VOA measurement technique for solution samples containing chiral molecules will therefore be a useful coherent spectroscopic tool for determining absolute configuration of chiral molecules in condensed phases.

  10. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Machado

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nem sempre os temas candentes da investigação, numa determinada área do conhecimento, são colocados de maneira orgânica e organizada para o conjunto dos pesquisadores que sobre eles se debruçam. Quase nunca as edições cientí­cas, que se propõem a torná-los acessí­veis a seus leitores, conseguem harmonizá-los sem correr os riscos de aproximações indevidas. A única forma de não incorrer em equí­vocos perigosos é assumir a idiossincrasia do temário diversificado que constitui o campo em questão. O leitor que ora inicia seu diálogo com este sétimo número de Galáxia não deve tomar esse preâmbulo por alerta, mas sim como tentativa de a revista manter a coerência face a seu compromisso de ser porta-voz dos temas e problemas da comunicação e da cultura pelo prisma das teorias semióticas que orientam o olhar dos vários colaboradores que encontram neste espaço uma tribuna aberta ao trânsito das diferenças. Basta um relance pelo sumário desta edição para que tal armação possa ser confirmada. Os textos que constituem o Fórum, respeitadas as singularidades, tratam de temas que são caros para as abordagens da comunicação e da semiótica na cultura. Temos o privilégio de publicar o texto inédito em português de Jakob von Uexküll em que o autor apresenta sua teoria da Umwelt, caracterizando formulações da biossemiótica sobre o signi.cado do entorno ou do espaço circundante, que são valiosas para compreender a percepção, a interação, o contexto, a informação, os códigos em ambientes de semiose. De um outro lugar - aquele modulado pela lógica da linguagem - Lucrécia Ferrara perscruta o campo conceitual que entende o design não pelo viés da operatividade, mas como processo semiótico-cognitivo. A outra ponta deste que pode ser um triálogo nos é dado pela comunicologia de Vilém Flusser. Para Michael Hanke, Flusser foi um dos grandes teóricos a investigar a importância da mí­dia para os

  11. A fast summation method for oscillatory lattice sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Ryan; Gimbutas, Zydrunas; Greengard, Leslie; Rokhlin, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    We present a fast summation method for lattice sums of the type which arise when solving wave scattering problems with periodic boundary conditions. While there are a variety of effective algorithms in the literature for such calculations, the approach presented here is new and leads to a rigorous analysis of Wood's anomalies. These arise when illuminating a grating at specific combinations of the angle of incidence and the frequency of the wave, for which the lattice sums diverge. They were discovered by Wood in 1902 as singularities in the spectral response. The primary tools in our approach are the Euler-Maclaurin formula and a steepest descent argument. The resulting algorithm has super-algebraic convergence and requires only milliseconds of CPU time.

  12. A Bayesian analysis of QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    A new technique has recently been developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. This approach has the virtue of being able to directly generate the spectral function of a given operator, without the need of making an assumption about its specific functional form. To investigate whether useful results can be extracted within this method, we have first studied the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results show a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed ρ-meson mass, which is in agreement with earlier QCD sum rules studies and suggests that the Maximum Entropy Method is a strong tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.

  13. Sum rules for nuclear collective excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, O.

    1978-07-01

    Characterizations of the response function and of integral properties of the strength function via a moment expansion are discussed. Sum rule expressions for the moments in the RPA are derived. The validity of these sum rules for both density independent and density dependent interactions is proved. For forces of the Skyrme type, analytic expressions for the plus one and plus three energy weighted sum rules are given for isoscalar monopole and quadrupole operators. From these, a close relationship between the monopole and quadrupole energies is shown and their dependence on incompressibility and effective mass is studied. The inverse energy weighted sum rule is computed numerically for the monopole operator, and an upper bound for the width of the monopole resonance is given. Finally the reliability of moments given by the RPA with effective interactions is discussed using simple soluble models for the hamiltonian, and also by comparison with experimental data

  14. 3He electron scattering sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.E.; Tornow, V.

    1982-01-01

    Electron scattering sum rules for 3 He are derived with a realistic ground-state wave function. The theoretical results are compared with the experimentally measured integrated cross sections. (author)

  15. Sum formulas for reductive algebraic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Kulkarni, Upendra

    2008-01-01

    \\supset V^1 \\cdots \\supset V^r = 0$. The sum of the positive terms in this filtration satisfies a well known sum formula. If $T$ denotes a tilting module either for $G$ or $U_q$ then we can similarly filter the space $\\Hom_G(V,T)$, respectively $\\Hom_{U_q}(V,T)$ and there is a sum formula for the positive...... terms here as well. We give an easy and unified proof of these two (equivalent) sum formulas. Our approach is based on an Euler type identity which we show holds without any restrictions on $p$ or $l$. In particular, we get rid of previous such restrictions in the tilting module case....

  16. Gaussian sum rules for optical functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimel, I.

    1981-12-01

    A new (Gaussian) type of sum rules (GSR) for several optical functions, is presented. The functions considered are: dielectric permeability, refractive index, energy loss function, rotatory power and ellipticity (circular dichroism). While reducing to the usual type of sum rules in a certain limit, the GSR contain in general, a Gaussian factor that serves to improve convergence. GSR might be useful in analysing experimental data. (Author) [pt

  17. Structural relations between nested harmonic sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2008-07-01

    We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)

  18. Structural relations between nested harmonic sums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2008-07-15

    We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)

  19. The Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    We present the most recent data on the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule obtained from the combined BEBC Narrow Band Neon and GGM-PS Freon neutrino/antineutrino experiments. The data for the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule as a function of q 2 suggest a smaller value for the QCD coupling constant parameter Λ than is obtained from the analysis of the higher moments. (author)

  20. Electronuclear sum rules for the lightest nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efros, V.D.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the model-independent longitudinal electronuclear sum rules for nuclei with A = 3 and A = 4 have an accuracy on the order of a percent in the traditional single-nucleon approximation with free nucleons for the nuclear charge-density operator. This makes it possible to test this approximation by using these sum rules. The longitudinal sum rules for A = 3 and A = 4 are calculated using the wave functions of these nuclei corresponding to a large set of realistic NN interactions. The values of the model-independent sum rules lie in the range of values calculated by this method. Model-independent expressions are obtained for the transverse sum rules for nuclei with A = 3 and A = 4. These sum rules are calculated using a large set of realistic wave functions of these nuclei. The contribution of the convection current and the changes in the results for different versions of realistic NN forces are given. 29 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Transition sum rules in the shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Johnson, Calvin W.

    2018-03-01

    An important characterization of electromagnetic and weak transitions in atomic nuclei are sum rules. We focus on the non-energy-weighted sum rule (NEWSR), or total strength, and the energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR); the ratio of the EWSR to the NEWSR is the centroid or average energy of transition strengths from an nuclear initial state to all allowed final states. These sum rules can be expressed as expectation values of operators, which in the case of the EWSR is a double commutator. While most prior applications of the double commutator have been to special cases, we derive general formulas for matrix elements of both operators in a shell model framework (occupation space), given the input matrix elements for the nuclear Hamiltonian and for the transition operator. With these new formulas, we easily evaluate centroids of transition strength functions, with no need to calculate daughter states. We apply this simple tool to a number of nuclides and demonstrate the sum rules follow smooth secular behavior as a function of initial energy, as well as compare the electric dipole (E 1 ) sum rule against the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn version. We also find surprising systematic behaviors for ground-state electric quadrupole (E 2 ) centroids in the s d shell.

  2. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability: a useful assessment tool of linearly polarized near-infrared irradiation to stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yukihiro; Takano, Hideyuki; Kani, Koichi; Matsumoto, Fumihiro; Motegi, Katsumi; Aota, Keiko; Yamamura, Yoshiko; Omori, Mayuko; Tomioka, Shigemasa; Azuma, Masayuki

    2013-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by the following subjective complaints without distinct organic changes: burning sensation in mouth or chronic pain of tongue. BMS is also known as glossodynia; both terms are used equivalently in Japan. Although the real cause of BMS is still unknown, it has been pointed out that BMS is related to some autonomic abnormality, and that stellate ganglion near-infrared irradiation (SGR) corrects the autonomic abnormality. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is expected to be useful for assessing autonomic abnormality. This study investigated whether frequency analysis of HRV could reveal autonomic abnormality associated with BMS, and whether autonomic changes were corrected after SGR. Eight subjects received SGR; the response to SGR was assessed by frequency analysis of HRV. No significant difference of autonomic activity concerning low-frequency (LF) norm, high-frequency (HF) norm, and low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) was found between SGR effective and ineffective groups. Therefore, we proposed new parameters: differential normalized low frequency (D LF norm), differential normalized high frequency (D HF norm), and differential low-frequency/high-frequency (D LF/HF), which were defined as differentials between original parameters just before and after SGR. These parameters as indexes of responsiveness of autonomic nervous system (ANS) revealed autonomic changes in BMS, and BMS seems to be related to autonomic instability rather than autonomic imbalance. Frequency analysis of HRV revealed the autonomic instability associated with BMS and enabled tracing of autonomic changes corrected with SGR. It is suggested that frequency analysis of HRV is very useful in follow up of BMS and for determination of the therapeutic efficacy of SGR. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL POLARIZATION RADIOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual Polarization Radiometer GCPEx dataset provides brightness temperature measurements at frequencies 90 GHz (not polarized) and 150 GHz...

  4. Expansion around half-integer values, binomial sums, and inverse binomial sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinzierl, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    I consider the expansion of transcendental functions in a small parameter around rational numbers. This includes in particular the expansion around half-integer values. I present algorithms which are suitable for an implementation within a symbolic computer algebra system. The method is an extension of the technique of nested sums. The algorithms allow in addition the evaluation of binomial sums, inverse binomial sums and generalizations thereof

  5. Fast fundamental frequency estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    Modelling signals as being periodic is common in many applications. Such periodic signals can be represented by a weighted sum of sinusoids with frequencies being an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. Due to its widespread use, numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the funda...

  6. Cross polarization with phase and amplitude modulation of radio frequency fields in NMR-experiments with sample rotation at magic angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvinskij, S.V.; Chizhik, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    One analyzes cross polarization of nuclei within a rotating system of coordinates as applied to the NMR-experiments with a specimen rotation under the magic angle. One worded a concept of simultaneous phase and amplitude modulation according to which the Hamiltonian form of the restored dipole interaction persisted if inversion of difference of radiofrequency field amplitudes occurred simultaneously with phase inversion. One presents a theoretical substantiation in terms of the average Hamiltonian theory. The concept is demonstrated both experimentally and by means of numerical analysis for a number of special cases. Phase periodic inversion in cross polarized experiments is shown to result into practically important advantage of suppression of interactions of chemical shift and influence of effects of coarse adjustment of radiofrequency field parameters [ru

  7. Three-photon polarization ququarts: polarization, entanglement and Schmidt decompositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, M V; Miklin, N I

    2015-01-01

    We consider polarization states of three photons, propagating collinearly and having equal given frequencies but with arbitrary distributed horizontal or vertical polarizations of photons. A general form of such states is a superposition of four basic three-photon polarization modes, to be referred to as the three-photon polarization ququarts (TPPQ). All such states can be considered as consisting of one- and two-photon parts, which can be entangled with each other. The degrees of entanglement and polarization, as well as the Schmidt decomposition and Stokes vectors of TPPQ are found and discussed. (paper)

  8. QCD sum rules in a Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    A novel technique is developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. The main advantage of this approach lies in its ability of directly generating the spectral function of a given operator. This is done without the need of making an assumption about the specific functional form of the spectral function, such as in the 'pole + continuum' ansatz that is frequently used in QCD sum rule studies. Therefore, with this method it should in principle be possible to distinguish narrow pole structures form continuum states. To check whether meaningful results can be extracted within this approach, we have first investigated the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results exhibit a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed ρ-meson mass, which agrees with earlier QCD sum rules studies and shows that the Maximum Entropy Method is a useful tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.

  9. A bayesian approach to QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    QCD sum rules are analyzed with the help of the Maximum Entropy Method. We develop a new technique based on the Bayesion inference theory, which allows us to directly obtain the spectral function of a given correlator from the results of the operator product expansion given in the deep euclidean 4-momentum region. The most important advantage of this approach is that one does not have to make any a priori assumptions about the functional form of the spectral function, such as the 'pole + continuum' ansatz that has been widely used in QCD sum rule studies, but only needs to specify the asymptotic values of the spectral function at high and low energies as an input. As a first test of the applicability of this method, we have analyzed the sum rules of the ρ-meson, a case where the sum rules are known to work well. Our results show a clear peak structure in the region of the experimental mass of the ρ-meson. We thus demonstrate that the Maximum Entropy Method is successfully applied and that it is an efficient tool in the analysis of QCD sum rules. (author)

  10. Vacuum structure and QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The method of the QCD sum rules was and still is one of the most productive tools in a wide range of problems associated with the hadronic phenomenology. Many heuristic ideas, computational devices, specific formulae which are useful to theorists working not only in hadronic physics, have been accumulated in this method. Some of the results and approaches which have originally been developed in connection with the QCD sum rules can be and are successfully applied in related fields, as supersymmetric gauge theories, nontraditional schemes of quarks and leptons, etc. The amount of literature on these and other more basic problems in hadronic physics has grown enormously in recent years. This volume presents a collection of papers which provide an overview of all basic elements of the sum rule approach and priority has been given to the works which seemed most useful from a pedagogical point of view

  11. Experimental results of the betatron sum resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.

    1993-06-01

    The experimental observations of motion near the betatron sum resonance, ν x + 2ν z = 13, are presented. A fast quadrupole (Panofsky-style ferrite picture-frame magnet with a pulsed power supplier) producing a betatron tune shift of the order of 0.03 at rise time of 1 μs was used. This quadrupole was used to produce betatron tunes which jumped past and then crossed back through a betatron sum resonance line. The beam response as function of initial betatron amplitudes were recorded turn by turn. The correlated growth of the action variables, J x and J z , was observed. The phase space plots in the resonance frame reveal the features of particle motion near the nonlinear sum resonance region

  12. Inverse-moment chiral sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golowich, E.; Kambor, J.

    1996-01-01

    A general class of inverse-moment sum rules was previously derived by the authors in a chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) study at two-loop order of the isospin and hypercharge vector-current propagators. Here, we address the evaluation of the inverse-moment sum rules in terms of existing data and theoretical constraints. Two kinds of sum rules are seen to occur: those which contain as-yet undetermined O(q 6 ) counterterms and those free of such quantities. We use the former to obtain phenomenological evaluations of two O(q 6 ) counterterms. Light is shed on the important but difficult issue regarding contributions of higher orders in the ChPT expansion. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  13. Systematics of strength function sum rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin W. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expects sum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Furthermore, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive or negative (attractive.

  14. Vacuum structure and QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The method of the QCD sum rules was and still is one of the most productive tools in a wide range of problems associated with the hadronic phenomenology. Many heuristic ideas, computational devices, specific formulae which are useful to theorists working not only in hadronic physics, have been accumulated in this method. Some of the results and approaches which have been originally developed in connection with the QCD sum rules can be and are successfully applied in related fields, such as supersymmetric gauge theories, nontraditional schemes of quarks and leptons, etc. The amount of literature on these and other more basic problems in hadronic physics has grown enormously in recent years. This collection of papers provides an overview of all basic elements of the sum rule approach. Priority has been given to those works which seemed most useful from a pedagogical point of view

  15. On the Computation of Correctly Rounded Sums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Peter; Lefevre, Vincent; Louvet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study of some basic blocks needed in the design of floating-point summation algorithms. In particular, in radix-2 floating-point arithmetic, we show that among the set of the algorithms with no comparisons performing only floating-point additions/subtractions, the 2Sum...... algorithm introduced by Knuth is minimal, both in terms of number of operations and depth of the dependency graph. We investigate the possible use of another algorithm, Dekker's Fast2Sum algorithm, in radix-10 arithmetic. We give methods for computing, in radix 10, the floating-point number nearest...... the average value of two floating-point numbers. We also prove that under reasonable conditions, an algorithm performing only round-to-nearest additions/subtractions cannot compute the round-to-nearest sum of at least three floating-point numbers. Starting from an algorithm due to Boldo and Melquiond, we also...

  16. Sum rules for the quarkonium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnel, A.; Caprasse, H.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of the radial Schroedinger equation we derive in a very simple way sum rules relating the potential to physical quantities such as the energy eigenvalues and the square of the lth derivative of the eigenfunctions at the origin. These sum rules contain as particular cases well-known results such as the quantum version of the Clausius theorem in classical mechanics as well as Kramers's relations for the Coulomb potential. Several illustrations are given and the possibilities of applying them to the quarkonium systems are considered

  17. Integrals of Lagrange functions and sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baye, Daniel, E-mail: dbaye@ulb.ac.be [Physique Quantique, CP 165/82, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, CP 229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-09-30

    Exact values are derived for some matrix elements of Lagrange functions, i.e. orthonormal cardinal functions, constructed from orthogonal polynomials. They are obtained with exact Gauss quadratures supplemented by corrections. In the particular case of Lagrange-Laguerre and shifted Lagrange-Jacobi functions, sum rules provide exact values for matrix elements of 1/x and 1/x{sup 2} as well as for the kinetic energy. From these expressions, new sum rules involving Laguerre and shifted Jacobi zeros and weights are derived. (paper)

  18. Gravitational waves from nonlinear couplings of radial and polar nonradial modes in relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passamonti, Andrea; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Nagar, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    The postbounce oscillations of newly-born relativistic stars are expected to lead to gravitational-wave emission through the excitation of nonradial oscillation modes. At the same time, the star is oscillating in its radial modes, with a central density variation that can reach several percent. Nonlinear couplings between radial oscillations and polar nonradial modes lead to the appearance of combination frequencies (sums and differences of the linear mode frequencies). We study such combination frequencies using a gauge-invariant perturbative formalism, which includes bilinear coupling terms between different oscillation modes. For typical values of the energy stored in each mode we find that gravitational waves emitted at combination frequencies could become detectable in galactic core-collapse supernovae with advanced interferometric or wideband resonant detectors

  19. Comparison of the Polar S810i monitor and the ECG for the analysis of heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.M. Vanderlei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV at rest and during exercise using a temporal series obtained with the Polar S810i monitor and a signal from a LYNX® signal conditioner (BIO EMG 1000 model with a channel configured for the acquisition of ECG signals. Fifteen healthy subjects aged 20.9 ± 1.4 years were analyzed. The subjects remained at rest for 20 min and performed exercise for another 20 min with the workload selected to achieve 60% of submaximal heart rate. RR series were obtained for each individual with a Polar S810i instrument and with an ECG analyzed with a biological signal conditioner. The HRV indices (rMSSD, pNN50, LFnu, HFnu, and LF/HF were calculated after signal processing and analysis. The unpaired Student t-test and intraclass correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the values analyzed by means of the two devices for HRV at rest and during exercise. The intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated satisfactory correlation between the values obtained by the devices at rest (pNN50 = 0.994; rMSSD = 0.995; LFnu = 0.978; HFnu = 0.978; LF/HF = 0.982 and during exercise (pNN50 = 0.869; rMSSD = 0.929; LFnu = 0.973; HFnu = 0.973; LF/HF = 0.942. The calculation of HRV values by means of temporal series obtained from the Polar S810i instrument appears to be as reliable as those obtained by processing the ECG signal captured with a signal conditioner.

  20. Pentaquarks in QCD Sum Rule Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues da Silva, R.; Matheus, R.D.; Navarra, F.S.; Nielsen, M.

    2004-01-01

    We estimate the mass of recently observed pentaquak staes Ξ- (1862) and Θ+(1540) using two kinds of interpolating fields, containing two highly correlated diquarks, in the QCD sum rule approach. We obtained good agreement with the experimental value, using standard continuum threshold

  1. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly...

  2. Summing threshold logs in a parton shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2016-05-01

    When parton distributions are falling steeply as the momentum fractions of the partons increases, there are effects that occur at each order in α s that combine to affect hard scattering cross sections and need to be summed. We show how to accomplish this in a leading approximation in the context of a parton shower Monte Carlo event generator.

  3. On Learning Ring-Sum-Expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Simon, H. -U.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of learning ring-sum-expansions from examples is studied. Ring-sum-expansions (RSE) are representations of Boolean functions over the base {#123;small infinum, (+), 1}#125;, which reflect arithmetic operations in GF(2). k-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions containing only monomials...... of length at most k:. term-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions having at most I: monomials. It is shown that k-RSE, k>or=1, is learnable while k-term-RSE, k>2, is not learnable if RPnot=NP. Without using a complexity-theoretical hypothesis, it is proven that k-RSE, k>or=1, and k-term-RSE, k>or=2 cannot...... be learned from positive (negative) examples alone. However, if the restriction that the hypothesis which is output by the learning algorithm is also a k-RSE is suspended, then k-RSE is learnable from positive (negative) examples only. Moreover, it is proved that 2-term-RSE is learnable by a conjunction...

  4. Stark resonances: asymptotics and distributional Borel sum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliceti, E.; Grecchi, V.; Maioli, M.

    1993-01-01

    We prove that the Stark effect perturbation theory of a class of bound states uniquely determines the position and the width of the resonances by Distributional Borel Sum. In particular the small field asymptotics of the width is uniquely related to the large order asymptotics of the perturbation coefficients. Similar results apply to all the ''resonances'' of the anharmonic and double well oscillators. (orig.)

  5. Fibonacci Identities via the Determinant Sum Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We use the sum property for determinants of matrices to give a three-stage proof of an identity involving Fibonacci numbers. Cassini's and d'Ocagne's Fibonacci identities are obtained at the ends of stages one and two, respectively. Catalan's Fibonacci identity is also a special case.

  6. Summing threshold logs in a parton shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2016-10-05

    When parton distributions are falling steeply as the momentum fractions of the partons increases, there are effects that occur at each order in α{sub s} that combine to affect hard scattering cross sections and need to be summed. We show how to accomplish this in a leading approximation in the context of a parton shower Monte Carlo event generator.

  7. Demonstration of a Quantum Nondemolition Sum Gate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshikawa, J.; Miwa, Y.; Huck, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The sum gate is the canonical two-mode gate for universal quantum computation based on continuous quantum variables. It represents the natural analogue to a qubit C-NOT gate. In addition, the continuous-variable gate describes a quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction between the quadrature...

  8. Sum rule approach to nuclear vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.

    1983-01-01

    Velocity field of various collective states is explored by using sum rules for the nuclear current. It is shown that an irrotational and incompressible flow model is applicable to giant resonance states. Structure of the hydrodynamical states is discussed according to Tomonaga's microscopic theory for collective motions. (author)

  9. Generalizations of some zero sum theorems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let G be an abelian group of order n, written additively. The Davenport constant D(G) is defined to be the smallest natural number t such that any sequence of length t over G has a non-empty subsequence whose sum is zero. Another combinatorial invariant E(G). (known as the EGZ constant) is the smallest natural number t ...

  10. Succinct partial sums and fenwick trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Christiansen, Anders Roy; Prezza, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    We consider the well-studied partial sums problem in succint space where one is to maintain an array of n k-bit integers subject to updates such that partial sums queries can be efficiently answered. We present two succint versions of the Fenwick Tree – which is known for its simplicity...... and practicality. Our results hold in the encoding model where one is allowed to reuse the space from the input data. Our main result is the first that only requires nk + o(n) bits of space while still supporting sum/update in O(logbn)/O(blogbn) time where 2 ≤ b ≤ log O(1)n. The second result shows how optimal...... time for sum/update can be achieved while only slightly increasing the space usage to nk + o(nk) bits. Beyond Fenwick Trees, the results are primarily based on bit-packing and sampling – making them very practical – and they also allow for simple optimal parallelization....

  11. Quantitative Interpretation of Polarization SFG Vibrational Spectra of Air/Methanol Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Zhang, Wen-kai; Gan, Wei; Cui, Zhi-feng; Wang, Hong-fei

    2006-06-01

    Even though in IR and Raman spectra of liquid methanol there is always an apparent feature for the asymmetric stretching mode of the CH3 group around 2970 cm-1, this feature has not been observed in the Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in any polarizations from the air/methanol interface. Here we present a treatment based on a corrected bond additivity model to quantitatively interpret the SFG-VS of the air/methanol interface from the IR and Raman spectra of liquid methanol.

  12. NMR dispersion measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Cox, S.F.J.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring dynamic nuclear polarization from the NMR dispersive susceptibility is examined. Two prototype instruments are tested in a polarized proton target using organic target material. The more promising employs a tunnel diode oscillator, inside the target cavity, and should provide a precise polarization measurement working at a frequency far enough from the main resonance for the disturbance of the measured polarization to be negligible. Other existing methods for measuring target polarization are briefly reviewed. (author)

  13. Study of a polarized proton source for a cyclotron using a high frequency transition (1961); Etude d'une source de protons polarises utilisant une transition haute frequence pour un cyclotron (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirion, J; Beurtey, R; Papineau, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The authors have developed an experimental unit yielding a jet of hydrogen or deuterium atoms in which the protons and deutons are polarized. By use of the 'adiabatic passage' method a proton polarisation approaching 100 per cent is assured. (authors) [French] Les auteurs ont mis au point un ensemble experimental permettant d'obtenir un jet d'atomes d'hydrogene ou de deuterium, dans lequel les protons et les deutons sont polarises. Grace a la methode du 'passage adiabatique' une polarisation de protons voisine de 100 pour cent est obtenue. (auteurs)

  14. Polarization-multiplexing ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongfeng, Shi; Jiamin, Zhang; Jian, Huang; Yingjian, Wang; Kee, Yuan; Kaifa, Cao; Chenbo, Xie; Dong, Liu; Wenyue, Zhu

    2018-03-01

    A novel technique for polarization-multiplexing ghost imaging is proposed to simultaneously obtain multiple polarimetric information by a single detector. Here, polarization-division multiplexing speckles are employed for object illumination. The light reflected from the objects is detected by a single-pixel detector. An iterative reconstruction method is used to restore the fused image containing the different polarimetric information by using the weighted sum of the multiplexed speckles based on the correlation coefficients obtained from the detected intensities. Next, clear images of the different polarimetric information are recovered by demultiplexing the fused image. The results clearly demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  15. What can we learn from polarized structure function data?

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ball, Richard D.; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano

    1997-04-20

    We summarise the perturbative QCD analysis of the structure function data for g_1 from longitudinally polarized deep inelastic scattering from proton, deuteron and neutron targets, with particular emphasis on testing sum rules, determining helicity fractions, and extracting the strong coupling from both scaling violations and the Bjorken sum rule.

  16. QCD contributions to vacuum polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, L.J.; Rubinstein, H.R.; Yazaki, S.

    1980-01-01

    We have computed to lowest non-trivial order the perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the vacuum polarization from all currents up to and including spin 2 ++ . These expressions are important, for example to evaluate QCD sum rules for heavy and light quark systems as shown by Shifman, Vainshtein and Zakharov. Most of the known ones are verified, one slightly changed, and many new ones are displayed. (orig.)

  17. Sum rules application to reflectometry of X-ray resonant radiation for magnetic multilayer investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smekhova, A.G.; Andreeva, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    One elaborated the general formalism on the basis of which one derived the clear expressions for reflection factors of X-ray radiation with a circular polarization from medium magnetized both within surface plane and within reflection plane both for grazing angles and for high grazing angles. The asymmetry of reflection spectra for right- and left-polarized radiation is shown to depend both on nondiagonal components of a susceptibility tensor and on other components in contrast to absorption spectra, so the sum rule to determine the orbital and the spin magnetic moments can not be applied directly to the experimental spectra of reflection [ru

  18. Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok

    2013-11-01

    We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA.

  19. Geometric optimization and sums of algebraic functions

    KAUST Repository

    Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new optimization technique that yields the first FPTAS for several geometric problems. These problems reduce to optimizing a sum of nonnegative, constant description complexity algebraic functions. We first give an FPTAS for optimizing such a sum of algebraic functions, and then we apply it to several geometric optimization problems. We obtain the first FPTAS for two fundamental geometric shape-matching problems in fixed dimension: maximizing the volume of overlap of two polyhedra under rigid motions and minimizing their symmetric difference. We obtain the first FPTAS for other problems in fixed dimension, such as computing an optimal ray in a weighted subdivision, finding the largest axially symmetric subset of a polyhedron, and computing minimum-area hulls.

  20. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  1. Old tensor mesons in QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, T.M.; Shifman, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Tensor mesons f, A 2 and A 3 are analyzed within the framework of QCD sum rules. The effects of gluon and quark condensate is accounted for phenomenologically. Accurate estimates of meson masses and coupling constants of the lowest-lying states are obtained. It is shown that the masses are reproduced within theoretical uncertainty of about 80 MeV. The coupling of f meson to the corresponding quark current is determined. The results are in good aqreement with experimental data [ru

  2. Disjoint sum forms in reliability theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anrig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure function f of a binary monotone system is assumed to be known and given in a disjunctive normal form, i.e. as the logical union of products of the indicator variables of the states of its subsystems. Based on this representation of f, an improved Abraham algorithm is proposed for generating the disjoint sum form of f. This form is the base for subsequent numerical reliability calculations. The approach is generalized to multivalued systems. Examples are discussed.

  3. Singlet axial constant from QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belitskij, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the singlet axial form factor of the proton for small momentum transferred in the framework of QCD sum rules using the interpolating nucleon current which explicitly accounts for the gluonic degrees of freedom. As the result we come to the quantitative prediction of the singlet axial constant. It is shown that the bilocal power corrections play the most important role in the analysis. 21 refs., 3 figs

  4. Beautiful mesons from QCD spectral sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narison, S.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the beautiful meson from the point of view of the QCD spectral sum rules (QSSR). The bottom quark mass and the mixed light quark-gluon condensates are determined quite accurately. The decay constant f B is estimated and we present some arguments supporting this result. The decay constants and the masses of the other members of the beautiful meson family are predicted. (orig.)

  5. A 2-categorical state sum model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratin, Aristide, E-mail: abaratin@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Freidel, Laurent, E-mail: lfreidel@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Str. N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    It has long been argued that higher categories provide the proper algebraic structure underlying state sum invariants of 4-manifolds. This idea has been refined recently, by proposing to use 2-groups and their representations as specific examples of 2-categories. The challenge has been to make these proposals fully explicit. Here, we give a concrete realization of this program. Building upon our earlier work with Baez and Wise on the representation theory of 2-groups, we construct a four-dimensional state sum model based on a categorified version of the Euclidean group. We define and explicitly compute the simplex weights, which may be viewed a categorified analogue of Racah-Wigner 6j-symbols. These weights solve a hexagon equation that encodes the formal invariance of the state sum under the Pachner moves of the triangulation. This result unravels the combinatorial formulation of the Feynman amplitudes of quantum field theory on flat spacetime proposed in A. Baratin and L. Freidel [Classical Quantum Gravity 24, 2027–2060 (2007)] which was shown to lead after gauge-fixing to Korepanov’s invariant of 4-manifolds.

  6. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  7. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  8. n-Alkane adsorption to polar silica surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindza, Michael R; Ding, Feng; Fourkas, John T; Walker, Robert A

    2010-03-21

    The structures of medium-length n-alkane species (C(8)-C(11)) adsorbed to a hydrophilic silica/vapor interface were examined using vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy. Experiments sampling out-of-plane orientation show a clear pattern in vibrational band intensities that implies chains having primarily all-trans conformations lying flat along the interface. Further analysis shows that the methylene groups of the alkane chains have their local symmetry axes directed into and away from the surface. Spectra acquired under different polarization conditions interlock to reinforce this picture of interfacial structure and organization. Variation in signal intensities with chain length suggests that correlation between adsorbed monomers weakens with increasing chain length. This result stands in contrast with alkane behavior at neat liquid/vapor interfaces where longer length alkanes show considerably more surface induced ordering than short chain alkanes.

  9. Nonlinear optical polarization analysis in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Garth J

    2017-01-01

    This rigorous yet accessible guide presents a molecular-based description of nonlinear optical polarization analysis of chemical and biological assemblies. It includes discussion of the most common nonlinear optical microscopy and interfacial measurements used for quantitative analysis, specifically second harmonic generation (SHG), two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF), vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy/stimulated Raman spectroscopy (CARS/SRS). A linear algebra mathematical framework is developed, allowing step-wise systematic connections to be made between the observable measurements and the molecular response. Effects considered include local field corrections, the molecular orientation distribution, rotations between the molecular frame, the local frame and the laboratory frame, and simplifications from molecular and macromolecular symmetry. Specific examples are provided throughout the book, working from the common and relatively simple case studies ...

  10. Separation of radiation from two sources from their known radiated sum field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for complete and exact separation of the radiated fields of two sources (at the same frequency) from the knowledge of their radiated sum field. The two sources can be arbitrary but it must be possible to enclose the sources inside their own non-intersecting minimum...

  11. Resource allocation via sum-rate maximization in the uplink of multi-cell OFDMA networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Dawy, Zaher

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider maximizing the sum rate in the uplink of a multi-cell orthogonal frequency-division multiple access network. The problem has a non-convex combinatorial structure and is known to be NP-hard. Because of the inherent

  12. A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic for amplitude, polarization, and wavenumber measurements of ion cyclotron range-of frequency fields on ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoukov, R.; Bobkov, V.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic has been installed on an ASDEX Upgrade tokamak to characterize ion cyclotron range-of frequency (ICRF) wave generation and interaction with magnetized plasma. The diagnostic consists of a field-aligned array of B-dot probes, oriented to measure fast and slow ICRF wave fields and their field-aligned wavenumber (k // ) spectrum on the low field side of ASDEX Upgrade. A thorough description of the diagnostic and the supporting electronics is provided. In order to compare the measured dominant wavenumber of the local ICRF fields with the expected spectrum of the launched ICRF waves, in-air near-field measurements were performed on the newly installed 3-strap ICRF antenna to reconstruct the dominant launched toroidal wavenumbers (k tor ). Measurements during a strap current phasing scan in tokamak discharges reveal an upshift in k // as strap phasing is moved away from the dipole configuration. This result is the opposite of the k tor trend expected from in-air near-field measurements; however, the near-field based reconstruction routine does not account for the effect of induced radiofrequency (RF) currents in the passive antenna structures. The measured exponential increase in the local ICRF wave field amplitude is in agreement with the upshifted k // , as strap phasing moves away from the dipole configuration. An examination of discharges heated with two ICRF antennas simultaneously reveals the existence of beat waves at 1 kHz, as expected from the difference of the two antennas’ operating frequencies. Beats are observed on both the fast and the slow wave probes suggesting that the two waves are coupled outside the active antennas. Although the new diagnostic shows consistent trends between the amplitude and the phase measurements in response to changes applied by the ICRF antennas, the disagreement with the in-air near-field measurements remains. An electromagnetic model is currently under development to address this issue

  13. A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic for amplitude, polarization, and wavenumber measurements of ion cyclotron range-of frequency fields on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoukov, R.; Bobkov, V.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2015-11-01

    A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic has been installed on an ASDEX Upgrade tokamak to characterize ion cyclotron range-of frequency (ICRF) wave generation and interaction with magnetized plasma. The diagnostic consists of a field-aligned array of B-dot probes, oriented to measure fast and slow ICRF wave fields and their field-aligned wavenumber (k//) spectrum on the low field side of ASDEX Upgrade. A thorough description of the diagnostic and the supporting electronics is provided. In order to compare the measured dominant wavenumber of the local ICRF fields with the expected spectrum of the launched ICRF waves, in-air near-field measurements were performed on the newly installed 3-strap ICRF antenna to reconstruct the dominant launched toroidal wavenumbers (ktor). Measurements during a strap current phasing scan in tokamak discharges reveal an upshift in k// as strap phasing is moved away from the dipole configuration. This result is the opposite of the ktor trend expected from in-air near-field measurements; however, the near-field based reconstruction routine does not account for the effect of induced radiofrequency (RF) currents in the passive antenna structures. The measured exponential increase in the local ICRF wave field amplitude is in agreement with the upshifted k//, as strap phasing moves away from the dipole configuration. An examination of discharges heated with two ICRF antennas simultaneously reveals the existence of beat waves at 1 kHz, as expected from the difference of the two antennas' operating frequencies. Beats are observed on both the fast and the slow wave probes suggesting that the two waves are coupled outside the active antennas. Although the new diagnostic shows consistent trends between the amplitude and the phase measurements in response to changes applied by the ICRF antennas, the disagreement with the in-air near-field measurements remains. An electromagnetic model is currently under development to address this issue.

  14. Remark on the computation of mode sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Theodore J.; Olsson, M. G.; Schmidt, Jeffrey R.

    2000-01-01

    The computation of mode sums of the types encountered in basic quantum field theoretic applications is addressed with an emphasis on their expansions into functions of distance that can be interpreted as potentials. We show how to regularize and calculate the Casimir energy for the continuum Nambu-Goto string with massive ends as well as for the discrete Isgur-Paton non-relativistic string with massive ends. As an additional example, we examine the effect on the interquark potential of a constant Kalb-Ramond field strength interacting with a QCD string. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  15. Sum rules in extended RPA theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, S.; Lipparini, E.

    1988-01-01

    Different moments m k of the excitation strength function are studied in the framework of the second RPA and of the extended RPA in which 2p2h correlations are explicitly introduced into the ground state by using first-order perturbation theory. Formal properties of the equations of motion concerning sum rules are derived and compared with those exhibited by the usual 1p1h RPA. The problem of the separation of the spurious solutions in extended RPA calculations is also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Playing a zero-sum game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Supreme audit institutions (SAIs) are fundamental institutions in liberal democracies as they enable control of the exercise of state power. In order to maintain this function, SAIs must enjoy a high level of independence. Moreover, SAIs are increasingly expected to be also relevant for government...... and the execution of its policies by way of performance auditing. This article examines how and why the performance auditing of the Danish SAI pursues independence and relevance. It is argued that, in general, the simultaneous pursuit of independence and relevance is highly challenging and amounts to a zero-sum or...

  17. Nuclear Symmetry Energy with QCD Sum Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K.S.; Lee, S.H.

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the nucleon self-energies in an isospin asymmetric nuclear matter using QCD sum rule. Taking the difference of these for the neutron and proton enables us to express an important part of the nuclear symmetry energy in terms of local operators. Calculating the operator product expansion up to mass dimension six operators, we find that the main contribution to the difference comes from the iso-vector scalar and vector operators, which is reminiscent to the case of relativistic mean field type theories where mesons with aforementioned quantum numbers produce the difference and provide the dominant mechanism for nuclear symmetry energy. (author)

  18. An Improved Isotropic Periodic Sum Method That Uses Linear Combinations of Basis Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Kazuaki Z.

    2012-11-13

    Isotropic periodic sum (IPS) is a technique that calculates long-range interactions differently than conventional lattice sum methods. The difference between IPS and lattice sum methods lies in the shape and distribution of remote images for long-range interaction calculations. The images used in lattice sum calculations are identical to those generated from periodic boundary conditions and are discretely positioned at lattice points in space. The images for IPS calculations are "imaginary", which means they do not explicitly exist in a simulation system and are distributed isotropically and periodically around each particle. Two different versions of the original IPS method exist. The IPSn method is applied to calculations for point charges, whereas the IPSp method calculates polar molecules. However, both IPSn and IPSp have their advantages and disadvantages in simulating bulk water or water-vapor interfacial systems. In bulk water systems, the cutoff radius effect of IPSn strongly affects the configuration, whereas IPSp does not provide adequate estimations of water-vapor interfacial systems unless very long cutoff radii are used. To extend the applicability of the IPS technique, an improved IPS method, which has better accuracy in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems has been developed and named the linear-combination-based isotropic periodic sum (LIPS) method. This improved IPS method uses linear combinations of basis potentials. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of bulk water and water-vapor interfacial systems to evaluate the accuracy of the LIPS method. For bulk water systems, the LIPS method has better accuracy than IPSn in estimating thermodynamic and configurational properties without the countercharge assumption, which is used for IPSp. For water-vapor interfacial systems, LIPS has better accuracy than IPSp and properly estimates thermodynamic and configurational properties. In conclusion, the LIPS method can successfully estimate

  19. An Improved Isotropic Periodic Sum Method That Uses Linear Combinations of Basis Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Kazuaki Z.; Narumi, Tetsu; Suh, Donguk; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Isotropic periodic sum (IPS) is a technique that calculates long-range interactions differently than conventional lattice sum methods. The difference between IPS and lattice sum methods lies in the shape and distribution of remote images for long-range interaction calculations. The images used in lattice sum calculations are identical to those generated from periodic boundary conditions and are discretely positioned at lattice points in space. The images for IPS calculations are "imaginary", which means they do not explicitly exist in a simulation system and are distributed isotropically and periodically around each particle. Two different versions of the original IPS method exist. The IPSn method is applied to calculations for point charges, whereas the IPSp method calculates polar molecules. However, both IPSn and IPSp have their advantages and disadvantages in simulating bulk water or water-vapor interfacial systems. In bulk water systems, the cutoff radius effect of IPSn strongly affects the configuration, whereas IPSp does not provide adequate estimations of water-vapor interfacial systems unless very long cutoff radii are used. To extend the applicability of the IPS technique, an improved IPS method, which has better accuracy in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems has been developed and named the linear-combination-based isotropic periodic sum (LIPS) method. This improved IPS method uses linear combinations of basis potentials. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of bulk water and water-vapor interfacial systems to evaluate the accuracy of the LIPS method. For bulk water systems, the LIPS method has better accuracy than IPSn in estimating thermodynamic and configurational properties without the countercharge assumption, which is used for IPSp. For water-vapor interfacial systems, LIPS has better accuracy than IPSp and properly estimates thermodynamic and configurational properties. In conclusion, the LIPS method can successfully estimate

  20. Statistical sum of bosonic string, compactified on an orbifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Ol'shanetskij, M.

    1986-01-01

    Expression for statistical sum of bosonic string, compactified on a singular orbifold, is presented. All the information about the orbifold is encoded the specific combination of theta-functions, which the statistical sum is expressed through

  1. Robinson's radiation damping sum rule: Reaffirmation and extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    Robinson's radiation damping sum rule is one of the classic theorems of accelerator physics. Recently Orlov has claimed to find serious flaws in Robinson's proof of his sum rule. In view of the importance of the subject, I have independently examined the derivation of the Robinson radiation damping sum rule. Orlov's criticisms are without merit: I work through Robinson's derivation and demonstrate that Orlov's criticisms violate well-established mathematical theorems and are hence not valid. I also show that Robinson's derivation, and his damping sum rule, is valid in a larger domain than that treated by Robinson himself: Robinson derived his sum rule under the approximation of a small damping rate, but I show that Robinson's sum rule applies to arbitrary damping rates. I also display more concise derivations of the sum rule using matrix differential equations. I also show that Robinson's sum rule is valid in the vicinity of a parametric resonance.

  2. A new generalization of Hardy–Berndt sums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4,11,18]. Berndt and Goldberg [4] found analytic properties of these sums and established infinite trigonometric series representations for them. The most important properties of Hardy–. Berndt sums are reciprocity theorems due to Berndt [3] ...

  3. Isospin sum rules for inclusive cross-sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotelli, P.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic analysis of isospin sum rules is presented for the distribution functions of strong, electromagnetic weak inclusive processes. The general expression for these sum rules is given and some new examples are presented.

  4. Measuring fluorescence polarization with a dichrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, John C

    2017-09-01

    A method for obtaining fluorescence polarization data from an instrument designed to measure circular and linear dichroism is compared with a previously reported approach. The new method places a polarizer between the sample and a detector mounted perpendicular to the direction of the incident beam and results in determination of the fluorescence polarization ratio, whereas the previous method does not use a polarizer and yields the fluorescence anisotropy. A similar analysis with the detector located axially with the excitation beam demonstrates that there is no frequency modulated signal due to fluorescence polarization in the absence of a polarizer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Measurement of the Neutron (3He) Spin Structure at Low Q2 and the Extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn Sum Rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kominis, Ioannis [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of E-94010, an experiment at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) designed to study the spin structure of the neutron at low momentum transfer, and to test the “extended” Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule. The first experiment of its kind, it was performed in experimental Hall-A of TJNAF using a new polarized 3He facility. It has recently been shown that the GDH sum rule and the Bjorken sum rule are both special examples of a more general sum rule that applies to polarized electron scattering off nucleons. This generalized sum rule, due to Ji and Osborne, reduces to the GDH sum rule at Q2 = 0 and to the Bjorken sum rule at Q2 >> 1 GeV2. By studying the Q2 evolution of the extended GDH sum, one learns about the transition from quark-like behavior to hadronic-like behavior. We measured inclusive polarized cross sections by scattering high energy polarized electrons off the new TJNAF polarized 3He target with both longitudinal and transverse target orientations. The high density 3He target, based on optical pumping and spin exchange, was used as an effective neutron target. The target maintained a polarization of about 35% at beam currents as high as 151tA. We describe the precision 3He polarimetry leading to a systematic uncertainty of the target polarization of 4% (relative). A strained GaAs photocathode was utilized in the polarized electron gun, which provided an electron beam with a polarization of about 70%, known to 3% (relative). By using six different beam energies (between 0.86 and 5.06 GeV) and a fixed scattering angle of 15.5°, a wide kinematic coverage was achieved, with 0.02 GeV2< Q2 <1 GcV2 and 0.5 GeV< W < 2.5 GeV for the squared momentum transfer and invariant mass, respectively. From the measured cross sections we extract the 3He spin structure functions g$3 He

  6. Ionic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  7. QCD sum-rules for V-A spectral functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, J.; Mathur, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Borel transformation technique of Shifman et al is used to obtain QCD sum-rules for V-A spectral functions. In contrast to the situation in the original Weinberg sum-rules and those of Bernard et al, the problem of saturating the sum-rules by low lying resonances is brought under control. Furthermore, the present sum-rules, on saturation, directly determine useful phenomenological parameters

  8. 7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining cumulative sum values. 42.132 Section 42... Determining cumulative sum values. (a) The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum sampling plans for AQL's... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to...

  9. Deriving the Normalized Min-Sum Algorithm from Cooperative Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaofei

    2006-01-01

    The normalized min-sum algorithm can achieve near-optimal performance at decoding LDPC codes. However, it is a critical question to understand the mathematical principle underlying the algorithm. Traditionally, people thought that the normalized min-sum algorithm is a good approximation to the sum-product algorithm, the best known algorithm for decoding LDPC codes and Turbo codes. This paper offers an alternative approach to understand the normalized min-sum algorithm. The algorithm is derive...

  10. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  11. Bulk stress auto-correlation function in simple liquids-sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankeshwar, K.; Bhandari, R.; Pathak, K.N.

    1990-10-01

    Expressions for the zeroth, second and fourth frequency sum rules of the bulk stress auto correlation function have been derived. The exact expressions involve static correlation function up to four particles. Because of the non availability of any information about static quadruplet correlation function we use a low order decoupling approximation for this. In this work, we have obtained, separately, the sum rules for the different mechanism of momentum transfer in the fluids. The results are expected to be useful in the study of bulk viscosity of the fluids. (author). 9 refs

  12. Gottfried sum rule and mesonic exchanges in deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptari, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent NMC data on the experimental value of the Gottfried Sum are discussed. It is shown that the Gottfried Sum is sensitive to the nuclear structure corrections, viz. themesonic exchanges and binding effects. A new estimation of the Gottfried Sum is given. The obtained result is close to the quark-parton prediction of 1/3. 11 refs.; 2 figs

  13. Extremal extensions for the sum of nonnegative selfadjoint relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassi, Seppo; Sandovici, Adrian; De Snoo, Henk; Winkler, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The sum A + B of two nonnegative selfadjoint relations (multivalued operators) A and B is a nonnegative relation. The class of all extremal extensions of the sum A + B is characterized as products of relations via an auxiliary Hilbert space associated with A and B. The so-called form sum extension

  14. Moments of the weighted sum-of-digits function | Larcher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weighted sum-of-digits function is a slight generalization of the well known sum-of-digits function with the difference that here the digits are weighted by some weights. So for example in this concept also the alternated sum-of-digits function is included. In this paper we compute the first and the second moment of the ...

  15. 7 CFR 1726.205 - Multiparty lump sum quotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiparty lump sum quotations. 1726.205 Section 1726....205 Multiparty lump sum quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number of... basis of written lump sum quotations, the borrower will select the supplier or contractor based on the...

  16. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  17. Polarized quark distributions in bound nucleon and polarized EMC effect in Thermodynamical Bag Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesamurthy, Kuppusamy, E-mail: udckgm@sify.co [Research Department of Physics, Urumu Dhanalakshmi College, Trichy 620019 (India); Sambasivam, Raghavan, E-mail: udcsam@sify.co [Research Department of Physics, Urumu Dhanalakshmi College, Trichy 620019 (India)

    2011-04-15

    The polarized parton distribution functions (PDFs) and nuclear structure functions are evaluated by the phenomenological Thermodynamical Bag Model for nuclear media {sup 7}Li and {sup 27}Al. The Fermi statistical distribution function which includes the spin degree of freedom is used in this statistical model. We predict a sizeable polarized EMC effect. The results of quark spin sum and axial coupling constant of bound nucleons are compared with theoretical predictions of modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model by Bentz et al.

  18. Study by polarized muon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Experiments by using polarized muon beam are reported. The experiments were performed at Berkeley, U.S.A., and at Vancouver, Canada. The muon spin rotation is a useful method for the study of the spin polarization of conductive electrons in paramagnetic Pd metal. The muon Larmor frequency and the relaxation time can be obtained by measuring the time distribution of decay electrons of muon-electron process. The anomalous depolarization of negative muon spin rotation in the transitional metal was seen. The circular polarization of the negative muon X-ray was measured to make clear this phenomena. The experimental results show that the anomalous depolarization is caused at the 1-S-1/2 state. For the purpose to obtain the strong polarization of negative muon, a method of artificial polarization is proposed, and the test experiments are in progress. The study of the hyperfine structure of mu-mesic atoms is proposed. The muon capture rate was studied systematically. (Kato, T.)

  19. Spin structure of the neutron ({sup 3}He) and the Bjoerken sum rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meziani, Z.E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A first measurement of the longitudinal asymmetry of deep-inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from a polarized {sup 3}He target at energies ranging from 19 to 26 GeV has been performed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The spin-structure function of the neutron g{sub 1}{sup n} has been extracted from the measured asymmetries. The Quark Parton Model (QPM) interpretation of the nucleon spin-structure function is examined in light of the new results. A test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule (E-J) on the neutron is performed at high momentum transfer and found to be satisfied. Furthermore, combining the proton results of the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) and the neutron results of E-142, the Bjoerken sum rule test is carried at high Q{sup 2} where higher order Perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (PQCD) corrections and higher-twist corrections are smaller. The sum rule is saturated to within one standard deviation.

  20. Sum rules for charge transition density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul' karov, I S [Tashkentskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1979-01-01

    The form factors of the quadrupole and octupole oscillations of the /sup 12/C nucleus are compared with the predictions of the sum rules for the charge transition density (CTD). These rules allow one to obtain various CTDs which contain the components k: r/sup lambda + 2k-2/rho(r) and r/sup lambda + 2k-1)(drho(r)/dr) (k = 0, 1, 2...) and can be applied to analyze the inelastic scattering of high energy particles by nuclei. It is shown that the CTD under consideration have different radius dependence and describe the data essentially better (though ambiguously) than the Tassy and Steinwedel-Jensen models do. Recurrence formulas are derived for the ratios of the higher-order transition matrix elements and CTD. These formulas can be used to predict the CTD behavior for highly excited nuclear states.

  1. Neutron matter within QCD sum rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bao-Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2018-05-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of pure neutron matter (PNM) is studied in QCD sum rules (QCDSRs ). It is found that the QCDSR results on the EOS of PNM are in good agreement with predictions by current advanced microscopic many-body theories. Moreover, the higher-order density terms in quark condensates are shown to be important to describe the empirical EOS of PNM in the density region around and above nuclear saturation density although they play a minor role at subsaturation densities. The chiral condensates in PNM are also studied, and our results indicate that the higher-order density terms in quark condensates, which are introduced to reasonably describe the empirical EOS of PNM at suprasaturation densities, tend to hinder the appearance of chiral symmetry restoration in PNM at high densities.

  2. On sum rules for charge transition density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul'karov, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    The form factors of the quadrupole and octupole oscillations of the 12 C nucleus are compared with the predictions of the sum rules for the charge transition density (CTD). These rules allow to obtain various CTD which contain the components k: rsup(lambda+2k-2)rho(r) and rsup(lambda+2k-1)(drho(r)/dr) (k=0, 1, 2...) and can be applied to analyze the inelastic scattering of high energy particles by nuclei. It is shown that the CTD under consideration have different radius dependence and describe the data essentially better (though ambiguously) than the Tassy and Steinwedel-Jensen models do. The recurrent formulas are derived for the ratios of the higher order transition matrix elements and CTD. These formulas can be used to predict the CTD behaviour for highly excited nuclear states

  3. Sum rules for four-spinon dynamic structure factor in XXX model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Lakhal, B.; Abada, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of the antiferromagnetic spin 12 Heisenberg quantum spin chain (XXX model), we estimate the contribution of the exact four-spinon dynamic structure factor S 4 by calculating a number of sum rules the total dynamic structure factor S is known to satisfy exactly. These sum rules are: the static susceptibility, the integrated intensity, the total integrated intensity, the first frequency moment and the nearest-neighbor correlation function. We find that the contribution of S 4 is between 1% and 2.5%, depending on the sum rule, whereas the contribution of the exact two-spinon dynamic structure factor S 2 is between 70% and 75%. The calculations are numerical and Monte Carlo based. Good statistics are obtained

  4. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  5. Polarized photoproduction from nuclear targets with arbitrary spin and relation to deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoodbhoy, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad

    1990-01-01

    Inclusive photo-production from polarized targets of arbitrary spin is analyzed by using multipoles. The Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule, which was originally fromulated for spin-1/2 targets, is generalized to all spins and multipoles, and shown to have some interesting consequences. Measurements to test the new rules, or to derive nuclear structure information from them, could be incorporated into existing plans at electron accelerator facilities. Finally, the possible relevance of these generalized sum rules to sum rules measurable in polarized lepton-polarized target deep inelastic inclusive scattering is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Some polarization features of solar microwave bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uralov, A M; Nefed' ev, V P [AN SSSR, Irkutsk. Sibirskij Inst. Zemnogo Magnetizma Ionosfery i Rasprostraneniya Radiovoln

    1977-01-01

    Consequences of the thermal microwave burst model proposed earlier have been considered. According to the model the centimeter burst is generated at the heat propagation to the upper atmosphere. The polarization features of the burst are explained: a change of the polarization sign in a frequency range, a rapid change of the polarization sign in the development of a burst at a fixed frequency, a lack of time coincidence of the moments of the burst maximum of the polarization and of the total flux. From the model the consequences are obtained, which are still not confirmed by experiment. An ordinary-type wave prevails in the burst radiation, in the course of which the polarization degree falls on the ascending branch of bursts development. At the change of the polarization sign at the fixed frequency prior to the sign change an ordinary-type wave should be present in excess and later an extreordinary type wave.

  7. Experimental check of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule for H1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutz, H.; Drachenfels, W. von; Frommberger, F.; Hillert, W.; Klein, F.; Menze, D.; Rohlof, C.; Schoch, B.; Helbing, K.; Speckner, T.; Zeitler, G.; Anton, G.; Bock, A.; Godo, M.; Kiel, B.; Michel, T.; Naumann, J.; Krimmer, J.; Grabmayr, P.; Sauer, M.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time we checked the fundamental Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule for the proton experimentally in the photon energy range from 0.2-2.9 GeV with the tagged photon facilities at MAMI (Mainz) and ELSA (Bonn). New data of the doubly polarized total cross section difference are presented in the energy range from 1.6 to 2.9 GeV. The contribution to the GDH integral from 0.2-2.9 GeV yields [254±5(stat)±12(syst)] μb with negative contributions in the Regge regime at photon energies above 2.1 GeV. This trend supports the validity of the GDH sum rule

  8. Evaluation of the convolution sum involving the sum of divisors function for 22, 44 and 52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntienjem Ebénézer

    2017-04-01

    \\end{array} $ where αβ = 22, 44, 52, is evaluated for all natural numbers n. Modular forms are used to achieve these evaluations. Since the modular space of level 22 is contained in that of level 44, we almost completely use the basis elements of the modular space of level 44 to carry out the evaluation of the convolution sums for αβ = 22. We then use these convolution sums to determine formulae for the number of representations of a positive integer by the octonary quadratic forms a(x12+x22+x32+x42+b(x52+x62+x72+x82, $a\\,(x_{1}^{2}+x_{2}^{2}+x_{3}^{2}+x_{4}^{2}+b\\,(x_{5}^{2}+x_{6}^{2}+x_{7}^{2}+x_{8}^{2},$ where (a, b = (1, 11, (1, 13.

  9. The Asymptotic Joint Distribution of Self-Normalized Censored Sums and Sums of Squares

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Marjorie G.; Kuelbs, Jim; Weiner, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    Empirical versions of appropriate centering and scale constants for random variables which can fail to have second or even first moments are obtainable in various ways via suitable modifications of the summands in the partial sum. This paper discusses a particular modification, called censoring (which is a kind of winsorization), where the (random) number of summands altered tends to infinity but the proportion altered tends to zero as the number of summands increases. Some analytic advantage...

  10. Sum rules and constraints on passive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernland, A; Gustafsson, M; Luger, A

    2011-01-01

    A passive system is one that cannot produce energy, a property that naturally poses constraints on the system. A system in convolution form is fully described by its transfer function, and the class of Herglotz functions, holomorphic functions mapping the open upper half-plane to the closed upper half-plane, is closely related to the transfer functions of passive systems. Following a well-known representation theorem, Herglotz functions can be represented by means of positive measures on the real line. This fact is exploited in this paper in order to rigorously prove a set of integral identities for Herglotz functions that relate weighted integrals of the function to its asymptotic expansions at the origin and infinity. The integral identities are the core of a general approach introduced here to derive sum rules and physical limitations on various passive physical systems. Although similar approaches have previously been applied to a wide range of specific applications, this paper is the first to deliver a general procedure together with the necessary proofs. This procedure is described thoroughly and exemplified with examples from electromagnetic theory.

  11. Polarization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Brief review is presented of the high energy polarization study including experimental data and the theoretical descriptions. The mostimportant proposals at the biggest accelerators and the crucial technical developments are also listed which may become a main-line of spin physics. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  12. Polar Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  13. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Ahmed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Heimbeck, Martin S. [Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Pasquali, Matteo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: kono@rice.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ∼−30 dB with a low insertion loss (<0.5 dB) throughout a frequency range of 0.2–1.1 THz. In addition, we used a THz ellipsometer to measure the Müller matrix of the CNT-fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  14. Sum-rule analysis of long-wavelength excitations in electron liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Setsuo; Totsuji, Hiroo; Tange, Toshio; Pines, D.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of the plasma oscillations, the single-particle excitations and the collisional excitations in the classical one-component plasma are investigated in the long-wave-length domain with the aid of moment sum rules. The frequency moments of the dynamic form factor are calculated up to that term which involves the ternary correlation function. The dispersion in the plasma-wave frequency and the strengths of the single-particle and collisional excitations are computed over the thermodynamically stable domain of the plasma parameter, epsilon<=10. It is emphasized that inclusion of the collisional excitations plays a vital part in satisfying various moment-sum rules and in securing agreement with known boundary conditions such as the Vlasov description and molecular-dynamics computations. (auth.)

  15. Light cone sum rules in nonabelian gauge field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, S [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1981-03-24

    The author examines, in the context of nonabelian gauge field theory, the derivation of the light cone sum rules which were obtained earlier on the assumption of dominance of canonical singularity in the current commutator on the light cone. The retarded scaling functions appearing in the sum rules are numbers known in terms of the charges of the quarks and the number of quarks and gluons in the theory. Possible applications of the sum rules are suggested.

  16. On the Laplace transform of the Weinberg type sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narison, S.

    1981-09-01

    We consider the Laplace transform of various sum rules of the Weinberg type including the leading non-perturbative effects. We show from the third type Weinberg sum rules that 7.5 to 8.9 1 coupling to the W boson, while the second sum rule gives an upper bound on the A 1 mass (Msub(A 1 ) < or approx. 1.25 GeV). (author)

  17. On poisson-stopped-sums that are mixed poisson

    OpenAIRE

    Valero Baya, Jordi; Pérez Casany, Marta; Ginebra Molins, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Maceda (1948) characterized the mixed Poisson distributions that are Poisson-stopped-sum distributions based on the mixing distribution. In an alternative characterization of the same set of distributions here the Poisson-stopped-sum distributions that are mixed Poisson distributions is proved to be the set of Poisson-stopped-sums of either a mixture of zero-truncated Poisson distributions or a zero-modification of it. Peer Reviewed

  18. Inclusive sum rules and spectra of neutrons at the ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron spectra in pp collisions at ISR energies are studied in the framework of sum rules for inclusive processes. The contributions of protons, π- and E- mesons to the energy sum rule are calculated at √5 = 53 GeV. It is shown by means of this sum rule that the spectra of neutrons at the ISR are in contradiction with the spectra of other particles also measured at the ISR

  19. Singular f-sum rule for superfluid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    The validity and applicability to inelastic neutron scattering of a singular f-sum rule for superfluid helium, proposed by Griffin to explain the rhosub(s) dependence in S(k, ω) as observed by Woods and Svensson, are examined in the light of similar sum rules rigorously derived for anharmonic crystals and Bose liquids. It is concluded that the singular f-sum rules are only of microscopic interest. (Auth,)

  20. Compound Poisson Approximations for Sums of Random Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Serfozo, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    We show that a sum of dependent random variables is approximately compound Poisson when the variables are rarely nonzero and, given they are nonzero, their conditional distributions are nearly identical. We give several upper bounds on the total-variation distance between the distribution of such a sum and a compound Poisson distribution. Included is an example for Markovian occurrences of a rare event. Our bounds are consistent with those that are known for Poisson approximations for sums of...

  1. Coulomb sum rules in the relativistic Fermi gas model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Dang, G.; L'Huillier, M.; Nguyen Giai, Van.

    1986-11-01

    Coulomb sum rules are studied in the framework of the Fermi gas model. A distinction is made between mathematical and observable sum rules. Differences between non-relativistic and relativistic Fermi gas predictions are stressed. A method to deduce a Coulomb response function from the longitudinal response is proposed and tested numerically. This method is applied to the 40 Ca data to obtain the experimental Coulomb sum rule as a function of momentum transfer

  2. QCD sum rules and applications to nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, T.D.; Xuemin, J.

    1994-12-01

    Applications of QCD sum-rule methods to the physics of nuclei are reviewed, with an emphasis on calculations of baryon self-energies in infinite nuclear matter. The sum-rule approach relates spectral properties of hadrons propagating in the finite-density medium, such as optical potentials for quasinucleons, to matrix elements of QCD composite operators (condensates). The vacuum formalism for QCD sum rules is generalized to finite density, and the strategy and implementation of the approach is discussed. Predictions for baryon self-energies are compared to those suggested by relativistic nuclear physics phenomenology. Sum rules for vector mesons in dense nuclear matter are also considered. (author)

  3. An electrophysiological signature of summed similarity in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Marieke K; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R; Kahana, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth electrode recordings and scalp electroencephalography. On each experimental trial, participants judged whether a test face had been among a small set of recently studied faces. Consistent with summed-similarity theory, participants' tendency to endorse a test item increased as a function of its summed similarity to the items on the just-studied list. To characterize this behavioral effect of summed similarity, we successfully fit a summed-similarity model to individual participant data from each experiment. Using the parameters determined from fitting the summed-similarity model to the behavioral data, we examined the relation between summed similarity and brain activity. We found that 4-9 Hz theta activity in the medial temporal lobe and 2-4 Hz delta activity recorded from frontal and parietal cortices increased with summed similarity. These findings demonstrate direct neural correlates of the similarity computations that form the foundation of several major cognitive theories of human recognition memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Model dependence of energy-weighted sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    The contribution of the nucleon-nucleon interaction to energy-weighted sum rules for electromagnetic multipole transitions is investigated. It is found that only isoscalar electric transitions might have model-independent energy-weighted sum rules. For these transitions, explicit momentum and angular momentum dependence of the nuclear force give rise to corrections to the sum rule which are found to be negligibly small, thus confirming the model independence of these specific sum rules. These conclusions are unaffected by correlation effects. (author)

  5. Testing proton spin models with polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    We review models for spin-weighted parton distributions in a proton. Sum rules involving the nonsinglet components of the structure function xg 1 p help narrow the range of parameters in these models. The contribution of the γ 5 anomaly term depends on the size of the integrated polarized gluon distribution and experimental predictions depend on its size. We have proposed three models for the polarized gluon distributions, whose range is considerable. These model distributions give an overall range is considerable. These model distributions give an overall range of parameters that can be tested with polarized beam experiments. These are discussed with regard to specific predictions for polarized beam experiments at energies typical of UNK

  6. A Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Structure Functions Using a Polarized HE-3 Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes a precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure function, g 1 n (x). The measurement was made by the E154 collaboration at SLAC using a longitudinally polarized, 48.3 GeV electron beam, and a 3 He target polarized by spin exchange with optically pumped rubidium. A target polarization as high as 50% was achieved. The elements of the experiment which pertain to the polarized 3 He target will be described in detail in this thesis. To achieve a precision measurement, it has been necessary to minimize the systematic error from the uncertainty in the target parameters. All of the parameters of the target have been carefully measured, and the most important parameters of the target have been measured using multiple techniques. The polarization of the target was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and has been calibrated using both proton NMR and by measuring the shift of the Rb Zeeman resonance frequency due to the 3 He polarization. The fraction of events which originated in the 3 He, as measured by the spectrometers, has been determined using a physical model of the target and the spectrometers. It was also measured during the experiment using a variable pressure 3 He reference cell in place of the polarized 3 He target. The spin dependent structure function g 1 n (z) was measured in the Bjorken x range of 0.014 2 of 5 (GeV/c) 2 . One of the primary motivations for this experiment was to test the Bjorken sum rule. Because the experiment had smaller statistical errors and a broader kinematic coverage than previous experiments, the behavior of the spin structure function g 1 n (x) could be studied in detail at low values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. It was found that g 1 n (x) has a strongly divergent behavior at low values of x, calling into question the methods commonly used to extrapolate the value of g 1 n (x) to low x. The precision of the measurement made by the E154 collaboration at SLAC puts a tighter

  7. A Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Structure Functions Using a Polarized HE-3 Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T

    2003-11-05

    This thesis describes a precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure function, g{sub 1}{sup n}(x). The measurement was made by the E154 collaboration at SLAC using a longitudinally polarized, 48.3 GeV electron beam, and a {sup 3}He target polarized by spin exchange with optically pumped rubidium. A target polarization as high as 50% was achieved. The elements of the experiment which pertain to the polarized {sup 3}He target will be described in detail in this thesis. To achieve a precision measurement, it has been necessary to minimize the systematic error from the uncertainty in the target parameters. All of the parameters of the target have been carefully measured, and the most important parameters of the target have been measured using multiple techniques. The polarization of the target was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and has been calibrated using both proton NMR and by measuring the shift of the Rb Zeeman resonance frequency due to the {sup 3}He polarization. The fraction of events which originated in the {sup 3}He, as measured by the spectrometers, has been determined using a physical model of the target and the spectrometers. It was also measured during the experiment using a variable pressure {sup 3}He reference cell in place of the polarized {sup 3}He target. The spin dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}(z) was measured in the Bjorken x range of 0.014 < x < 0.7 with an average Q{sup 2} of 5 (GeV/c){sup 2}. One of the primary motivations for this experiment was to test the Bjorken sum rule. Because the experiment had smaller statistical errors and a broader kinematic coverage than previous experiments, the behavior of the spin structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) could be studied in detail at low values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. It was found that g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) has a strongly divergent behavior at low values of x, calling into question the methods commonly used to extrapolate the value of g

  8. Direct and reverse inclusions for strongly multiple summing operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and strongly multiple summing operators under the assumption that the range has finite cotype. Keywords. .... multiple (q, p)-summing, if there exists a constant C ≥ 0 such that for every choice of systems (x j i j )1≤i j ≤m j ...... Ideals and their Applications in Theoretical Physics (1983) (Leipzig: Teubner-Texte) pp. 185–199.

  9. 29 CFR 4044.75 - Other lump sum benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sum benefits. The value of a lump sum benefit which is not covered under § 4044.73 or § 4044.74 is equal to— (a) The value under the qualifying bid, if an insurer provides the benefit; or (b) The present value of the benefit as of the date of distribution, determined using reasonable actuarial assumptions...

  10. Lattice QCD evaluation of baryon magnetic moment sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinweber, D.B.

    1991-05-01

    Magnetic moment combinations and sum rules are evaluated using recent results for the magnetic moments of octet baryons determined in a numerical simulation of quenched QCD. The model-independent and parameter-free results of the lattice calculations remove some of the confusion and contradiction surrounding past magnetic moment sum rule analyses. The lattice results reveal the underlying quark dynamics investigated by magnetic moment sum rules and indicate the origin of magnetic moment quenching for the non-strange quarks in Σ. In contrast to previous sum rule analyses, the magnetic moments of nonstrange quarks in Ξ are seen to be enhanced in the lattice results. In most cases, the spin-dependent dynamics and center-of-mass effects giving rise to baryon dependence of the quark moments are seen to be sufficient to violate the sum rules in agreement with experimental measurements. In turn, the sum rules are used to further examine the results of the lattice simulation. The Sachs sum rule suggests that quark loop contributions not included in present lattice calculations may play a key role in removing the discrepancies between lattice and experimental ratios of magnetic moments. This is supported by other sum rules sensitive to quark loop contributions. A measure of the isospin symmetry breaking in the effective quark moments due to quark loop contributions is in agreement with model expectations. (Author) 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Luttinger and Hubbard sum rules: are they compatible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matho, K.

    1992-01-01

    A so-called Hubbard sum rule determines the weight of a satellite in fermionic single-particle excitations with strong local repulsion (U→∞). Together with the Luttinger sum rule, this imposes two different energy scales on the remaining finite excitations. In the Hubbard chain, this has been identified microscopically as being due to a separation of spin and charge. (orig.)

  12. Chain hexagonal cacti with the extremal eccentric distance sum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hui; Yu, Guihai

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric distance sum (EDS), which can predict biological and physical properties, is a topological index based on the eccentricity of a graph. In this paper we characterize the chain hexagonal cactus with the minimal and the maximal eccentric distance sum among all chain hexagonal cacti of length n, respectively. Moreover, we present exact formulas for EDS of two types of hexagonal cacti.

  13. A sum rule description of giant resonances at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.; Quentin, P.; Brack, M.

    1983-01-01

    A generalization of the sum rule approach to collective motion at finite temperature is presented. The m 1 and msub(-1) sum rules for the isovector dipole and the isoscalar monopole electric modes have been evaluated with the modified SkM force for the 208 Pb nucleus. The variation of the resulting giant resonance energies with temperature is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong

    2012-01-01

    Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…

  15. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ramanujan expansions; average order; error terms; sum-of-divisors functions; Jordan's totient functions. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 11N37, 11A25, 11K65. 1. Introduction. The theory of Ramanujan sums and Ramanujan expansions has emerged from the seminal article [10] of Ramanujan. In 1918 ...

  16. 28 CFR 523.16 - Lump sum awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... satisfactory performance of an unusually hazardous assignment; (c) An act which protects the lives of staff or... TRANSFER COMPUTATION OF SENTENCE Extra Good Time § 523.16 Lump sum awards. Any staff member may recommend... award is calculated. No seniority is accrued for such awards. Staff may recommend lump sum awards of...

  17. Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincare iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation w.r.t. the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.

  18. On contribution of instantons to nucleon sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.; Kochelev, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of instantons to nucleon QCD sum rules is obtained. It is shown that this contribution does provide stabilization of the sum rules and leads to formation of a nucleon as a bound state of quarks in the instanton field. 17 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from {+-}1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincare iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation w.r.t. the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.

  20. Sum formula for SL2 over imaginary quadratic number fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokvenec-Guleska, H.

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is generalization of the classical sum formula of Bruggeman and Kuznetsov to the upper half-space H3. The derivation of the preliminary sum formula involves computation of the inner product of two specially chosen Poincar´e series in two different ways: the spectral

  1. An electrophysiological signature of summed similarity in visual working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.

    Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory

  2. Faraday effect revisited: sum rules and convergence issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2010-01-01

    This is the third paper of a series revisiting the Faraday effect. The question of the absolute convergence of the sums over the band indices entering the Verdet constant is considered. In general, sum rules and traces per unit volume play an important role in solid-state physics, and they give...

  3. Semiempirical search for oxide superconductors based on bond valence sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Fukushima, N.; Niu, H.; Ando, K.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between crystal structures and electronic states of layered transition-metal oxides are analyzed in the light of bond valence sums. Correlations between the superconducting transition temperature T c and the bond-valence-sum parameters are investigated for the high-T c cuprate compounds. Possibility of making nonsuperconducting oxides superconducting is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Johannes Kepler University, Altenbergerstraße 69, A-4040, Linz (Austria); Blümlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen–Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.

  5. Harmonic sums, polylogarithms, special numbers, and their generalizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablinger, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    In these introductory lectures we discuss classes of presently known nested sums, associated iterated integrals, and special constants which hierarchically appear in the evaluation of massless and massive Feynman diagrams at higher loops. These quantities are elements of stuffle and shuffle algebras implying algebraic relations being widely independent of the special quantities considered. They are supplemented by structural relations. The generalizations are given in terms of generalized harmonic sums, (generalized) cyclotomic sums, and sums containing in addition binomial and inverse-binomial weights. To all these quantities iterated integrals and special numbers are associated. We also discuss the analytic continuation of nested sums of different kind to complex values of the external summation bound N.

  6. Evaluation of the multi-sums for large scale problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C.

    2012-02-01

    A big class of Feynman integrals, in particular, the coefficients of their Laurent series expansion w.r.t. the dimension parameter ε can be transformed to multi-sums over hypergeometric terms and harmonic sums. In this article, we present a general summation method based on difference fields that simplifies these multi--sums by transforming them from inside to outside to representations in terms of indefinite nested sums and products. In particular, we present techniques that assist in the task to simplify huge expressions of such multi-sums in a completely automatic fashion. The ideas are illustrated on new calculations coming from 3-loop topologies of gluonic massive operator matrix elements containing two fermion lines, which contribute to the transition matrix elements in the variable flavor scheme. (orig.)

  7. Harmonic sums, polylogarithms, special numbers, and their generalizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    In these introductory lectures we discuss classes of presently known nested sums, associated iterated integrals, and special constants which hierarchically appear in the evaluation of massless and massive Feynman diagrams at higher loops. These quantities are elements of stuffle and shuffle algebras implying algebraic relations being widely independent of the special quantities considered. They are supplemented by structural relations. The generalizations are given in terms of generalized harmonic sums, (generalized) cyclotomic sums, and sums containing in addition binomial and inverse-binomial weights. To all these quantities iterated integrals and special numbers are associated. We also discuss the analytic continuation of nested sums of different kind to complex values of the external summation bound N.

  8. Evaluation of the multi-sums for large scale problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.; Hasselhuhn, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation

    2012-02-15

    A big class of Feynman integrals, in particular, the coefficients of their Laurent series expansion w.r.t. the dimension parameter {epsilon} can be transformed to multi-sums over hypergeometric terms and harmonic sums. In this article, we present a general summation method based on difference fields that simplifies these multi--sums by transforming them from inside to outside to representations in terms of indefinite nested sums and products. In particular, we present techniques that assist in the task to simplify huge expressions of such multi-sums in a completely automatic fashion. The ideas are illustrated on new calculations coming from 3-loop topologies of gluonic massive operator matrix elements containing two fermion lines, which contribute to the transition matrix elements in the variable flavor scheme. (orig.)

  9. CAMAC programmable-control frequency synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumaguzin, T.Kh.; Vyazovkin, D.E.; Nazirov, Eh.P.; Tuktarov, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Synthesizer allows to set frequency with 0.015% accuracy and to scan it with variable step. Frequency controlled divider with further summing-up of divided frequency with fundamental one is used in synthesizer, and it has allowed to use digit of the input code and to obtain 3-4 MHz frequency range. Variation of operation flowsheet in the other frequency range is possible. K-155 and K-531 series microcircuits were used during development

  10. Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    18 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-outlined polygons on a frost-covered surface in the south polar region of Mars. In summer, this surface would not be bright and the polygons would not have dark outlines--these are a product of the presence of seasonal frost. Location near: 77.2oS, 204.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  11. PIPER and Polarized Galactic Foregrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David

    2009-01-01

    In addition to probing inflationary cosmology, PIPER will measure the polarized dust emission from the Galaxy. PIPER will be capable of full (I,0,U,V) measurement over four frequency bands ' These measurements will provide insight into the physics of dust grains and a probe of the Galactic magnetic field on large and intermediate scales.

  12. Polarization of a periodic solar microwave burst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, P [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica

    1976-09-01

    No fluctuations in polarization have been found during a 7 GHz solar burst showing 17s periodic pulses in intensity. Polarization effects can be produced by the propagation media in the active centre, which are not affected directly by the burst source, but situated more deeply than the observed heights at that microwave frequency.

  13. The End of Academia?: From "Cogito Ergo Sum" to "Consumo Ergo Sum" Germany and Malaysia in Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kim-Hui,; Har, Wai-Mun

    2008-01-01

    The lack of academic and thinking culture is getting more worried and becomes a major challenge to our academia society this 21st century. Few directions that move academia from "cogito ergo sum" to "consumo ergo sum" are actually leading us to "the end of academia". Those directions are: (1) the death of dialectic;…

  14. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Pliocene geomagnetic polarity epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Cox, A.; Doell, Richard R.; Gromme, C.S.

    1967-01-01

    A paleomagnetic and K-Ar dating study of 44 upper Miocene and Pliocene volcanic units from the western United States suggests that the frequency of reversals of the earth's magnetic field during Pliocene time may have been comparable with that of the last 3.6 m.y. Although the data are too limited to permit the formal naming of any new polarity epochs or events, four polarity transitions have been identified: the W10 R/N boundary at 3.7 ?? 0.1 m.y., the A12 N/R boundary at 4.9 ?? 0.1 m.y., the W32 N/R boundary at 9.0 ?? 0.2m.y., and the W36 R/N boundary at 10.8 ?? 0.3 - 1.0 m.y. The loss of absolute resolution of K-Ar dating in older rocks indicates that the use of well defined stratigraphic successions to identify and date polarity transitions will be important in the study of Pliocene and older reversals. ?? 1967.

  16. Zero-sum bias: perceived competition despite unlimited resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel V Meegan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students’ grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed.

  17. Zero-sum bias: perceived competition despite unlimited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Daniel V

    2010-01-01

    Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party) when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students' grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed.

  18. Harmonic sums and polylogarithms generated by cyclotomic polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The computation of Feynman integrals in massive higher order perturbative calculations in renormalizable Quantum Field Theories requires extensions of multiply nested harmonic sums, which can be generated as real representations by Mellin transforms of Poincare-iterated integrals including denominators of higher cyclotomic polynomials. We derive the cyclotomic harmonic polylogarithms and harmonic sums and study their algebraic and structural relations. The analytic continuation of cyclotomic harmonic sums to complex values of N is performed using analytic representations. We also consider special values of the cyclotomic harmonic polylogarithms at argument x=1, resp., for the cyclotomic harmonic sums at N{yields}{infinity}, which are related to colored multiple zeta values, deriving various of their relations, based on the stuffle and shuffle algebras and three multiple argument relations. We also consider infinite generalized nested harmonic sums at roots of unity which are related to the infinite cyclotomic harmonic sums. Basis representations are derived for weight w=1,2 sums up to cyclotomy l=20. (orig.)

  19. Measurement sum theory and application - Application to low level measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puydarrieux, S.; Bruel, V.; Rivier, C.; Crozet, M.; Vivier, A.; Manificat, G.; Thaurel, B.; Mokili, M.; Philippot, B.; Bohaud, E.

    2015-09-01

    In laboratories, most of the Total Sum methods implemented today use substitution or censure methods for nonsignificant or negative values, and thus create biases which can sometimes be quite large. They are usually positive, and generate, for example, becquerel (Bq) counting or 'administrative' quantities of materials (= 'virtual'), thus artificially falsifying the records kept by the laboratories under regulatory requirements (environment release records, waste records, etc.). This document suggests a methodology which will enable the user to avoid such biases. It is based on the following two fundamental rules: - The Total Sum of measurement values must be established based on all the individual measurement values, even those considered non-significant including the negative values. Any modification of these values, under the pretext that they are not significant, will inevitably lead to biases in the accumulated result and falsify the evaluation of its uncertainty. - In Total Sum operations, the decision thresholds are arrived at in a similar way to the approach used for uncertainties. The document deals with four essential aspects of the notion of 'measurement Total Sums': - The expression of results and associated uncertainties close to Decision Thresholds, and Detection or Quantification Limits, - The Total Sum of these measurements: sum or mean, - The calculation of the uncertainties associated with the Total Sums, - Result presentation (particularly when preparing balance sheets or reports, etc.) Several case studies arising from different situations are used to illustrate the methodology: environmental monitoring reports, release reports, and chemical impurity Total Sums for the qualification of a finished product. The special case of material balances, in which the measurements are usually all significant and correlated (the covariance term cannot then be ignored) will be the subject of a future second document. This

  20. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  1. Light cone sum rules for single-pion electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, S.

    1978-01-01

    Light cone dispersion sum rules (of low energy and superconvergence types) are derived for nucleon matrix elements of the commutator involving electromagnetic and divergence of axial vector currents. The superconvergence type sum rules in the fixed mass limit are rewritten without requiring the knowledge of Regge subtractions. The retarded scaling functions occurring in these sum rules are evaluated within the framework of quark light cone algebra of currents. Besides a general consistency check of the framework underlying the derivation, the author infers, on the basis of crude evaluation of scaling functions, an upper limit of 100 MeV for the bare mass of nonstrange quarks. (Auth.)

  2. Parity of Θ+(1540) from QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Su Houng; Kim, Hungchong; Kwon, Youngshin

    2005-01-01

    The QCD sum rule for the pentaquark Θ + , first analyzed by Sugiyama, Doi and Oka, is reanalyzed with a phenomenological side that explicitly includes the contribution from the two-particle reducible kaon-nucleon intermediate state. The magnitude for the overlap of the Θ + interpolating current with the kaon-nucleon state is obtained by using soft-kaon theorem and a separate sum rule for the ground state nucleon with the pentaquark nucleon interpolating current. It is found that the K-N intermediate state constitutes only 10% of the sum rule so that the original claim that the parity of Θ + is negative remains valid

  3. The Eccentric-distance Sum of Some Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    P, Padmapriya; Mathad, Veena

    2017-01-01

    Let $G = (V,E)$ be a simple connected graph. Theeccentric-distance sum of $G$ is defined as$\\xi^{ds}(G) =\\ds\\sum_{\\{u,v\\}\\subseteq V(G)} [e(u)+e(v)] d(u,v)$, where $e(u)$ %\\dsis the eccentricity of the vertex $u$ in $G$ and $d(u,v)$ is thedistance between $u$ and $v$. In this paper, we establish formulaeto calculate the eccentric-distance sum for some graphs, namelywheel, star, broom, lollipop, double star, friendship, multi-stargraph and the join of $P_{n-2}$ and $P_2$.

  4. The eccentric-distance sum of some graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmapriya P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Let $G = (V,E$ be a simple connected graph. Theeccentric-distance sum of $G$ is defined as$\\xi^{ds}(G =\\ds\\sum_{\\{u,v\\}\\subseteq V(G} [e(u+e(v] d(u,v$, where $e(u$ %\\dsis the eccentricity of the vertex $u$ in $G$ and $d(u,v$ is thedistance between $u$ and $v$. In this paper, we establish formulaeto calculate the eccentric-distance sum for some graphs, namelywheel, star, broom, lollipop, double star, friendship, multi-stargraph and the join of $P_{n-2}$ and $P_2$.

  5. Neutrino mass sum rules and symmetries of the mass matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrlein, Julia [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Spinrath, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China)

    2017-05-15

    Neutrino mass sum rules have recently gained again more attention as a powerful tool to discriminate and test various flavour models in the near future. A related question which has not yet been discussed fully satisfactorily was the origin of these sum rules and if they are related to any residual or accidental symmetry. We will address this open issue here systematically and find previous statements confirmed. Namely, the sum rules are not related to any enhanced symmetry of the Lagrangian after family symmetry breaking but they are simply the result of a reduction of free parameters due to skillful model building. (orig.)

  6. Moessbauer sum rules for use with synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation sources with millivolt resolution has opened new prospects for exploring dynamics of complex systems with Moessbauer spectroscopy. Early Moessbauer treatments and moment sum rules are extended to treat inelastic excitations measured in synchrotron experiments, with emphasis on the unique new conditions absent in neutron scattering and arising in resonance scattering: prompt absorption, delayed emission, recoil-free transitions and coherent forward scattering. The first moment sum rule normalizes the inelastic spectrum. New sum rules obtained for higher moments include the third moment proportional to the second derivative of the potential acting on the Moessbauer nucleus and independent of temperature in the the harmonic approximation

  7. Derivation of sum rules for quark and baryon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongardt, K.

    1978-01-01

    In an analogous way to the Weinberg sum rules, two spectral-function sum rules for quark and baryon fields are derived by means of the concept of lightlike charges. The baryon sum rules are valid for the case of SU 3 as well as for SU 4 and the one-particle approximation yields a linear mass relation. This relation is not in disagreement with the normal linear GMO formula for the baryons. The calculated masses of the first resonance states agree very well with the experimental data

  8. Adler-Weisberger sum rule for WLWL→WLWL scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, T.N.

    1991-01-01

    We analyse the Adler-Weisberger sum rule for W L W L →W L W L scattering. We find that at some energy, the W L W L total cross section must be large to saturate the sum rule. Measurements at future colliders would be needed to check the sum rule and to obtain the decay rates Γ(H→W L W L , Z L Z L ) which would be modified by the existence of a P-wave vector meson resonance in the standard model with strongly interacting Higgs sector or in technicolour models. (orig.)

  9. A toolbox for Harmonic Sums and their analytic continuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [RISC, J. Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Bluemlein, Johannes [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The package HarmonicSums implemented in the computer algebra system Mathematica is presented. It supports higher loop calculations in QCD and QED to represent single-scale quantities like anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients. The package allows to reduce general harmonic sums due to their algebraic and different structural relations. We provide a general framework for these reductions and the explicit representations up to weight w=8. For the use in experimental analyzes we also provide an analytic formalism to continue the harmonic sums form their integer arguments into the complex plane, which includes their recursions and asymptotic representations. The main ideas are illustrated by specific examples.

  10. Polar crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makosinski, S.

    1981-01-01

    In many applications polar cranes have to be repeatedly positioned with high accuracy. A guidance system is disclosed which has two pairs of guides. Each guide consists of two rollers carried by a sheave rotatable mounted on the crane bridge, the rollers being locatable one on each side of a guideway, e.g. the circular track on which the bridge runs. The pairs of guides are interconnected by respective rope loops which pass around and are locked to the respective pairs of sheaves in such a manner that movement of one guide results in equal movement of the other guide in a sense to maintain the repeatability of positioning of the centre of the bridge. A hydraulically-linked guide system is also described. (author)

  11. Application of Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with high-frequency modulation polarization for the direct determination of aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, manganese, nickel, lead, and thallium in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Natalya B; Solovyev, Nikolay D; Ivanenko, Anatoly A; Ganeev, Alexander A

    2012-10-01

    Determination of aluminum (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and thallium (Tl) concentrations in human blood using high-frequency modulation polarization Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was performed. No sample digestion was used in the current study. Blood samples were diluted with deionized water or 0.1 % (m/v) Triton X-100 solution for Tl. Dilution factors ranged from 1/5 per volume for Be and Tl to 1/20 per volume for Cd and Pb. For Tl, Cd, and Hg, noble metals (gold, platinum, rhodium, etc.) were applied as surface modifiers. To mitigate chloride interference, 2 % (m/v) solution of NH(4)NO(3) was used as matrix modifier for Tl and Ni assessment. The use of Pd(NO(3))(2) as oxidative modifier was necessary for blood Hg and Tl measurement. Validation of the methods was performed by analyzing two-level reference material Seronorm. The precision of the designed methods as relative SD was between 4 and 12 % (middle of a dynamic range) depending on the element. For additional validation, spiked blood samples were analyzed. Limits of detection (LoDs, 3σ, n = 10) for undiluted blood samples were 2.0 μg L(-1) for Al, 0.08 μg L(-1) for Be, 0.10 μg L(-1) for Cd, 2.2 μg L(-1) for Cr, 7 μg L(-1) for Hg, 0.4 μg L(-1) for Mn, 2.3 μg L(-1) for Ni, 3.4 μg L(-1) for Pb, and 0.5 μg L(-1) for Tl. The LoDs achieved allowed determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb at both toxic and background levels. Be, Hg, and Tl could be reliably measured at toxic levels only. The methods developed are used for clinical diagnostics and biological monitoring of work-related exposure.

  12. Spin flipping a stored polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caussyn, D.D.; Derbenev, Y.S.; Ellison, T.J.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E.J.; von Przewoski, B.; Blinov, B.B.; Chu, C.M.; Courant, E.D.; Crandell, D.A.; Kaufman, W.A.; Krisch, A.D.; Nurushev, T.S.; Phelps, R.A.; Ratner, L.G.; Wong, V.K.; Ohmori, C.

    1994-01-01

    We recently studied the spin flipping of a vertically polarized, stored 139-MeV proton beam. To flip the spin, we induced an rf depolarizing resonance by sweeping our rf solenoid magnet's frequency through the resonance frequency. With multiple spin flips, we found a polarization loss of 0.0000±0.0005 per spin flip under the best conditions; this loss increased significantly for small changes in the conditions. Minimizing the depolarization during each spin flip is especially important because frequent spin flipping could significantly reduce the systematic errors in stored polarized-beam experiments

  13. Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new 'constituent quark model' sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the α=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the α=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.

  14. A simple derivation of new sum rules of Bessel functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Dipace, A.

    1985-01-01

    In this note it is exploited a recently suggested technique to get simple expressions for a class of sum rules of Bessel functions appearing in plasma physics; their relevance to the numerical evaluation of the Turkin function is also discussed

  15. Asymptotic distribution of products of sums of independent random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    integrable random variables (r.v.) are asymptotically log-normal. This fact ... the product of the partial sums of i.i.d. positive random variables as follows. .... Now define ..... by Henan Province Foundation and Frontier Technology Research Plan.

  16. QCD sum rules and applications to nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T D [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Inst. for Nuclear Theory; Furnstahl, R J [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Griegel, D K [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Xuemin, J

    1994-12-01

    Applications of QCD sum-rule methods to the physics of nuclei are reviewed, with an emphasis on calculations of baryon self-energies in infinite nuclear matter. The sum-rule approach relates spectral properties of hadrons propagating in the finite-density medium, such as optical potentials for quasinucleons, to matrix elements of QCD composite operators (condensates). The vacuum formalism for QCD sum rules is generalized to finite density, and the strategy and implementation of the approach is discussed. Predictions for baryon self-energies are compared to those suggested by relativistic nuclear physics phenomenology. Sum rules for vector mesons in dense nuclear matter are also considered. (author). 153 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Effectiveness evaluation of contingency sum as a risk management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... manage risks prone projects have adopted several methods, one of which is contingency sum. ... initial project cost, cost overrun and percentage allowed for contingency.

  18. Power sums of fibonacci and Lucas numbers | Chu | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucas numbers are established, which include, as special cases, four for-mulae for odd power sums of Melham type on Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, obtained recently by Ozeki and Prodinger (2009). Quaestiones Mathematicae 34(2011), 75- ...

  19. Tracking polar lows in CLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, M.; Storch, H. von [Inst. for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany); Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Polar lows are severe cyclones in sub-polar oceans sized beyond the resolved scale of existing global reanalysis products. We used the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses data to drive a regional climate model (CLM) in order to reproduce finer resolved atmospheric fields over the North Atlantic over a two year period. In these fields we detected polar lows by means of a detection algorithm based on a spatial digital bandpass filter. CLM was run in two different ways, the conventional way and with additionally prescribing the analysed large scale situation. The resulting temporal and spatial distributions of polar lows between the different simulations are compared. A reasonable seasonal cycle and spatial distribution was found for all simulations. A lower number of polar lows in the spectral nudged simulation indicates a closer vicinity to reality. Higher temporal and spatial variability between the conventional simulations suggest a more random generation of polar lows. Frequency distributions of track-lengths reveal shorter tracks when nudging is applied. Maximum wind speeds reveal only minor, insignificant differences between all runs and are higher in conventional mode. (orig.)

  20. Polarizing neutron by light-irradiated graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We study the spin orientation of the neutron scattered by light-irradiated graphene and calculate the average value of spin z-component of the neutron in terms of a generating functional technique. Our calculation results indicate that there is a remarkable neutron polarization effect when a neutron penetrates graphene irradiated by a circularly polarized light. We analyse the dynamical source of generating this effect from the aspect of photon-mediated interaction between the neutron spin and valley pseudospin. By comparing with the polarization induced by a magnetic field, we find that this polarization may be equivalent to the one led by a magnetic field of several hundred Teslas if the photon frequency is in the X-ray frequency range. This provides an approach of polarizing neutrons. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)