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Sample records for polarized run began

  1. Polarization simulations in the RHIC run 15 lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    RHIC polarized proton Run 15 uses a new acceleration ramp optics, compared to RHIC Run 13 and earlier runs, in relation with electron-lens beam-beam compensation developments. The new optics induces different strengths in the depolarizing snake resonance sequence, from injection to top energy. As a consequence, polarization transport along the new ramp has been investigated, based on spin tracking simulations. Sample results are reported and discussed.

  2. RHIC FY15 pp Run RHIC and AGS polarization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adams, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The polarization information is important for the spin physics program in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). There are discrepancies between AGS and RHIC polarization measurements. First, the face value of AGS polarization is higher than RHIC ones in general. Second, the measured polarization profile (described by the profile ratio R) is stronger in AGS than in RHIC. This note analyzes the polarization data from FY15 pp run period. The results show that the differences between AGS and RHIC polarization measurements are reasonable, but the R value difference is puzzling. The difference between blue and yellow ring is worth of spin simulation to explain.

  3. How nuclear power began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowing, M.

    1987-01-01

    Many of the features of the story of nuclear power, both in nuclear weapons and nuclear power stations, derive from their timing. Usually, in the history of science the precise timing of discovery does not make much difference, but in the case of nuclear fission there was the coincidence that crucial discoveries were made and openly published in the same year, 1939, as the outbreak of the Second World War. It is these events of the 1930s and the early post-war era that are mainly discussed. However, the story began a lot earlier and even in the early 1900s the potential power within the atom had been foreseen by Soddy and Rutherford. In the 1930s Enrico Fermi and his team saw the technological importance of their discoveries and took out a patent on their process to produce artificial radioactivity from slow neutron beams. The need for secrecy because of the war, and the personal trusts and mistrusts run through the story of nuclear power. (UK)

  4. An overview of Booster and AGS Polarized Proton Operations during Run 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-10-11

    There were only a few differences in the setup between this year’s Polarized Proton run and the previous one (Run 15). Consequently, this note will focus on these differences as well as a few more notable studies done during the course of the run. This year, the Booster input intensity was kept around 7e11 for the majority of the run whereas in Run 15 it was kept around 9e11. It was lowered because there was some indication that the source polarization was higher with this lower input. Some of the polarization measurements that motivated this change will be discussed. Both the emittance and polarization on the AGS flattop show intensity dependence, thought to be related to the peak current, especially early in the AGS acceleration ramp. In Run 15, the AGS Rf was configured for h=8, but in this run h=6 was used to reduce the peak current and also to allow for the possibility of using a dual harmonic to reduce it further. Eventually, a dual harmonic configuration was used for the first 100 ms or so of the AGS acceleration cycle. Two cavities were set to h=12 and phased differently than the other 8 to accomplish this. Quad pumping was also used at Booster extraction to make the bunch injected into the AGS wider in order to match the dual harmonic bucket right at injection. This configuration, which was used for the majority of the run, will be described. Measurements of the intensity dependence of the transverse emittance and polarization with and without it will be compared.

  5. RHIC polarized proton-proton operation at 100 GeV in Run 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoefer, V.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atoian, G.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K. A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; D Ottavio, T.; Drees, K. A.; Dutheil, Y.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Gu, X.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Narayan, G.; Nemesure, S.; Pile, P.; Poblaguev, A.; Ranjbar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Schmidke, W. B.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; White, S.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The first part of RHIC Run 15 consisted of ten weeks of polarized proton on proton collisions at a beam energy of 100 GeV at two interaction points. In this paper we discuss several of the upgrades to the collider complex that allowed for improved performance. The largest effort consisted in commissioning of the electron lenses, one in each ring, which are designed to compensate one of the two beam-beam interactions experienced by the proton bunches. The e-lenses raise the per bunch intensity at which luminosity becomes beam-beam limited. A new lattice was designed to create the phase advances necessary for a beam-beam compensation with the e-lens, which also has an improved off-momentum dynamic aperture relative to previous runs. In order to take advantage of the new, higher intensity limit without suffering intensity driven emittance deterioration, other features were commissioned including a continuous transverse bunch-by-bunch damper in RHIC and a double harmonic RF cature scheme in the Booster. Other high intensity protections include improvements to the abort system and the installation of masks to intercept beam lost due to abort kicker pre-fires.

  6. Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.

  7. Running the running

    OpenAIRE

    Cabass, Giovanni; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}} = \\mathrm{d}\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ of the spectral index $n_{\\mathrm{s}}$ of primordial scalar fluctuations. We find $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s}=0.011\\pm0.010$ and $\\beta_\\mathrm{s}=0.027\\...

  8. B meson physics with polarized electron beams at linear colliders running at the Z0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, W.B.

    1988-12-01

    The expected large cross section for e + e - → Z 0 and subsequent decay to b/bar b/ quarks makes the Z 0 an attractive placeto pursue B meson physics. The cross section for b-quark production at the Z 0 is compared to resonance production at the Υ/sub 4s/ and Υ/sub 5s/. In addition the big electroweak asymmetries, thought to exist in Z 0 decays to b/bar b/ quarks with polarized electron beams, provide an outstanding handle for observation of such effects as B 0 - /bar B/ 0 mixing. In this paper, the feasibility of such measurements is investigated and, with relatively small samples of Z 0 's (a few hundred thousand), both B/sub d/ and B/sub s/ meson mixing are shown to be measurable. The subject of CP violation in neutral B mesons is discussed last, but presently such measurements seem to be out of reach. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  10. Before time began the Big Bang and the emerging universe

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    What is the origin of the universe? What was there before the universe appeared? We are currently witnessing a second Copernican revolution: neither our Earth and Sun, nor our galaxy, nor even our universe, are the end of all things. Beyond our world, in an endless multiverse, are innumerable other universes, coming and going, like ours or different. Fourteen billion years ago, one of the many bubbles constantly appearing and vanishing in the multiverse exploded to form our universe. The energy liberated in the explosion provided the basis for all the matter our universe now contains. But how could this hot, primordial plasma eventually produce the complex structure of our present world? Does not order eventually always lead to disorder, to an increase of entropy? Modern cosmology is beginning to find out how it all came about and where it all might lead. Before Time Began tells that story.

  11. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  12. The trail to Leduc began in the North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    2000-06-01

    A milestone event in the history of the petroleum industry in Canada occurred in 1914 with the expedition down the Mackenzie River by Dr. T. O. Bosworth, a British geologist, which rivals in importance two better known events, namely the Dingman No. 1 discovery which began disgorging wet gas at Turner Valley in 1914, and the beginning of the modern era with the discovery of oil at Leduc, Alberta in 1947. The Bosworth expedition was commissioned by two Calgary businessmen to investigate the petroleum potential of northern Alberta and beyond, and to stake the most promising claims. That Dr. Bosworth did not disappoint his sponsors is evident from his 70-page long report which he produced upon his return, indicating excellent exploration prospects in three general regions, namely the Mackenzie River between Old Fort Good Hope and Fort Norman, the Tar Springs District on the Great Slave Lake, and the Tar Sand District on the Athabasca River. Exploration was postponed by the exigencies of World War I, but Imperial Oil drilled on one of Bosworth's claims after the war ended and oil was found in 1920. Because of lack of infrastructure to get the oil to major markets, development was lagging until after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, when Norman Wells was developed with American help, primarily to supply oil to the Pacific Fleet. Imperial drilled, while construction crews built a 1,000-km oil pipeline over the Mackenzie Mountains to a newly constructed refiner in Whitehorse. Despite a total cost to the U.S. taxpayers of $134 million, the Canol project (as it was known) contributed little to the war effort. Total production was 1.98 million barrels of oil, of which 46,000 barrels were spilled along the poorly constructed pipeline. Refined petroleum product output was just 866,670 barrels. The appalling disposal and clean up practices eventually led to having the Whitehorse site declared an environmentally contaminated site in 1998. The Maxwell Tar Pit is

  13. Liquidity Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.; Perotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Can the risk of losses upon premature liquidation produce bank runs? We show how a unique run equilibrium driven by asset liquidity risk arises even under minimal fundamental risk. To study the role of illiquidity we introduce realistic norms on bank default, such that mandatory stay is triggered

  14. Ever Since the World Began: A Reading & Interview with Masha Tupitsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Tupitsyn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Writer and cultural critic Masha Tupitsyn is interviewed on her audio recording of her reading Ever Since This World Began, produced specially for this issue of continent. and adapted from her recently published Love Dog (Success and Failure out from Penny-Ante Editions.

  15. Ever Since the World Began: A Reading & Interview with Masha Tupitsyn

    OpenAIRE

    Masha Tupitsyn

    2013-01-01

    Writer and cultural critic Masha Tupitsyn is interviewed on her audio recording of her reading Ever Since This World Began, produced specially for this issue of continent. and adapted from her recently published Love Dog (Success and Failure) out from Penny-Ante Editions.

  16. Running Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Dalheimer, Matthias Kalle

    2006-01-01

    The fifth edition of Running Linux is greatly expanded, reflecting the maturity of the operating system and the teeming wealth of software available for it. Hot consumer topics such as audio and video playback applications, groupware functionality, and spam filtering are covered, along with the basics in configuration and management that always made the book popular.

  17. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  18. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2011-01-01

    The cross country running season has started well this autumn with two events: the traditional CERN Road Race organized by the Running Club, which took place on Tuesday 5th October, followed by the ‘Cross Interentreprises’, a team event at the Evaux Sports Center, which took place on Saturday 8th October. The participation at the CERN Road Race was slightly down on last year, with 65 runners, however the participants maintained the tradition of a competitive yet friendly atmosphere. An ample supply of refreshments before the prize giving was appreciated by all after the race. Many thanks to all the runners and volunteers who ensured another successful race. The results can be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/default.aspx CERN participated successfully at the cross interentreprises with very good results. The teams succeeded in obtaining 2nd and 6th place in the Mens category, and 2nd place in the Mixed category. Congratulations to all. See results here: http://www.c...

  19. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Chamizo

    2012-01-01

      On 17th January, as soon as the services were restored after the technical stop, sub-systems started powering on. Since then, we have been running 24/7 with reduced shift crew — Shift Leader and DCS shifter — to allow sub-detectors to perform calibration, noise studies, test software upgrades, etc. On 15th and 16th February, we had the first Mid-Week Global Run (MWGR) with the participation of most sub-systems. The aim was to bring CMS back to operation and to ensure that we could run after the winter shutdown. All sub-systems participated in the readout and the trigger was provided by a fraction of the muon systems (CSC and the central RPC wheel). The calorimeter triggers were not available due to work on the optical link system. Initial checks of different distributions from Pixels, Strips, and CSC confirmed things look all right (signal/noise, number of tracks, phi distribution…). High-rate tests were done to test the new CSC firmware to cure the low efficiency ...

  20. The first ep collider run and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desy, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    After successful machine commissioning in 1991, the new electron-proton collider HERA was ready to start the experimental program in spring last year. Data taking at the ZEUS and H1 experiments began on June 26. The energy of the colliding beams was E e =26.7 GeV and E p = 820 GeV, in accord with the design. The peak luminosity obtained so far was 2.2x10 29 cm -2 s -1 . Until the end of the experimental run in November 1992 an integrated luminosity of 33 nb -1 was delivered to the experiments. Future plans concerning ep operation focus on increasing the number of colliding bunches in order to approach the design goal for the luminosity of 1.5x10 31 cm -2 s -1 . In the electron ring, up to 60% transverse spin polarization have been achieved. It is planned to install a polarized gas target experiment (Hermes, approved as the 3rd HERA experiment) which will require an electron beam with about 50% longitudinal polarization. The machine modifications required for HERMES are scheduled for the 93/94 winter shut down. Furthermore, the possibilities of installing a fixed target experiment for b-quark physics in the proton ring are being studied

  1. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Rakness.

    2013-01-01

    After three years of running, in February 2013 the era of sub-10-TeV LHC collisions drew to an end. Recall, the 2012 run had been extended by about three months to achieve the full complement of high-energy and heavy-ion physics goals prior to the start of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), which is now underway. The LHC performance during these exciting years was excellent, delivering a total of 23.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, 6.2 fb–1 at 7 TeV, and 5.5 pb–1 at 2.76 TeV. They also delivered 170 μb–1 lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon and 32 nb–1 proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon. During these years the CMS operations teams and shift crews made tremendous strides to commission the detector, repeatedly stepping up to meet the challenges at every increase of instantaneous luminosity and energy. Although it does not fully cover the achievements of the teams, a way to quantify their success is the fact that that...

  2. And so it all began: A personal tribute to the man behind the scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Marialuisa

    2018-01-01

    At the time I began my scientific career as a PhD student under the supervision of Claudio Spitaleri, the Trojan Horse Method was still in its infancy. Like with any new-born idea, it took time and passion and effort to plant the early seeds that would eventually develop into a now well-established method in nuclear astrophysics research. Here, I offer my own recollection of those early years as a personal homage to Claudio's unique mix of human traits that shaped our professional relationship for many years since.

  3. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  4. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 29th September at 18h. The 5.5km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at http://cern.ch/club...

  5. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2012-01-01

      On Wednesday 14 March, the machine group successfully injected beams into LHC for the first time this year. Within 48 hours they managed to ramp the beams to 4 TeV and proceeded to squeeze to β*=0.6m, settings that are used routinely since then. This brought to an end the CMS Cosmic Run at ~Four Tesla (CRAFT), during which we collected 800k cosmic ray events with a track crossing the central Tracker. That sample has been since then topped up to two million, allowing further refinements of the Tracker Alignment. The LHC started delivering the first collisions on 5 April with two bunches colliding in CMS, giving a pile-up of ~27 interactions per crossing at the beginning of the fill. Since then the machine has increased the number of colliding bunches to reach 1380 bunches and peak instantaneous luminosities around 6.5E33 at the beginning of fills. The average bunch charges reached ~1.5E11 protons per bunch which results in an initial pile-up of ~30 interactions per crossing. During the ...

  6. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2012-01-01

      With the analysis of the first 5 fb–1 culminating in the announcement of the observation of a new particle with mass of around 126 GeV/c2, the CERN directorate decided to extend the LHC run until February 2013. This adds three months to the original schedule. Since then the LHC has continued to perform extremely well, and the total luminosity delivered so far this year is 22 fb–1. CMS also continues to perform excellently, recording data with efficiency higher than 95% for fills with the magnetic field at nominal value. The highest instantaneous luminosity achieved by LHC to date is 7.6x1033 cm–2s–1, which translates into 35 interactions per crossing. On the CMS side there has been a lot of work to handle these extreme conditions, such as a new DAQ computer farm and trigger menus to handle the pile-up, automation of recovery procedures to minimise the lost luminosity, better training for the shift crews, etc. We did suffer from a couple of infrastructure ...

  7. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities.

  8. Dating the period when intensive anthropogenic activity began to influence the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinxin; Gao, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqing; He, Jiabao; Wang, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    Dating the start of intensive anthropogenic influence on ecosystems is important for identifying the conditions necessary for ecosystem recovery. However, few studies have focused on determining when anthropogenic influences on wetland began through sedimentary archives. To fill this critical gap in our knowledge, combustion sources and emission intensities, reconstructed via black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in two wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. 14C provided age control for the sedimentary records. By combining previous sedimentary and archaeological studies, we attempt to date the beginning of intensive anthropogenic influences on the Sanjiang Plain. Our results showed that BC deposition fluxes increased from 0.02 to 0.7 g C/m2.yr during the last 10,000 years. An upward trend was apparent during the last 500 years. Before 1200 cal yr BP, human activities were minor, such that the wetland ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain before this period may represent the reference conditions that for the recovery of these wetlands. As the human population increased after 1200 cal yr BP, combustion sources changed and residential areas became a major source of BC and PAHs. In this way, the wetland ecosystem gradually became more heavily influenced by human activities. PMID:26907560

  9. A measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z0 production with polarized e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.

    1993-12-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider at SLAC is an e + e - collider running at √s ∼ M Z and has provided an electron beam with longitudinal polarization at the SLC interaction point. The 1992 polarized run data were taken with the SLD detector. The author presents here the measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A LR ) for the 1992 run. The polarized run began in May and ended in September of 1992 at a mean center-of-mass energy of 91.56 GeV. Tower hit information of the liquid argon calorimeter and endcap warm iron calorimeter pads were used for selecting hadronic Z 0 or tau pair events. The SLD detector collected about 11,000 events during this run. The magnitude of the longitudinal polarization of the electron beam was continuously measured by a polarimeter based on Compton scattering, and was monitored by a polarimeter based on Moller scattering. The luminosity-weighted average longitudinal polarization during the 1992 run was measured as 22.4 ± 0.6 (syst.)%. From these data, the value of A LR has been measured to be 0.102 ± 0.044 (stat.) ± 0.003 (syst.), corresponding to an effective electroweak mixing angle (sin 2 θ w eff ) of 0.2375 ± 0.0056 (stat.) ± 0.0004 (syst.). The error is dominated by the statistical error. This value of sin 2 θ w eff is in good agreement with existing measurements from other experiments. Studies of improvements in A LR event selection for future high-statistics runs are also discussed

  10. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  11. Polarized proton beams since the ZGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses research involving polarized proton beams since the ZGS's demise. He begins by reminding the attendee that in 1973 the ZGS accelerated the world's first high energy polarized proton beam; all in attendance at this meeting can be proud of this accomplishment. A few ZGS polarized proton beam experiments were done in the early 1970's; then from about 1976 until 1 October 1979, the majority of the ZGS running time was polarized running. A great deal of fundamental physics was done with the polarized beam when the ZGS ran as a dedicated polarized proton beam from about Fall 1977 until it shut down on 1 October 1979. The newly created polarization enthusiats then dispersed; some spread polarized seeds al over the world by polarizing beams elsewhere; some wound up running the High Energy and SSC programs at DOE

  12. Polar crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makosinski, S.

    1981-01-01

    In many applications polar cranes have to be repeatedly positioned with high accuracy. A guidance system is disclosed which has two pairs of guides. Each guide consists of two rollers carried by a sheave rotatable mounted on the crane bridge, the rollers being locatable one on each side of a guideway, e.g. the circular track on which the bridge runs. The pairs of guides are interconnected by respective rope loops which pass around and are locked to the respective pairs of sheaves in such a manner that movement of one guide results in equal movement of the other guide in a sense to maintain the repeatability of positioning of the centre of the bridge. A hydraulically-linked guide system is also described. (author)

  13. Polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    The book on 'polarized neutrons' is intended to inform researchers in condensed matter physics and chemistry of the diversity of scientific problems that can be investigated using polarized neutron beams. The contents include chapters on:- neutron polarizers and instrumentation, polarized neutron scattering, neutron polarization analysis experiments and precessing neutron polarization. (U.K.)

  14. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED PROTONS AT RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUANG, H.

    2002-01-01

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) ended its second year of operation in January 2002 with five weeks of polarized proton collisions. Polarized protons were successfully injected in both RHIC rings and maintained polarization during acceleration up to 100 GeV per ring using two Siberian snakes in each ring. This is the first time that polarized protons have been accelerated to 100 GeV. The machine performance and accomplishments during the polarized proton run will be reviewed. The plans for the next polarized proton run will be outlined

  15. The current revolution in column technology: how it began, where is it going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2012-03-09

    would eliminate the heat friction problems, and providing extra-column band broadening contributions smaller than 0.1 μL². Alternatively, a new generation of vHPLC systems with minimal extra-column contributions of less than 0.5 μL² could run 2.1mm I.D. columns if these latter were to be packed with high heat conductivity materials such as core-shell particles made with an alumina or gold core. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Constraints on the running of the running of the scalar tilt from CMB anisotropies and spectral distortions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabass, Giovanni; Valentino, Eleonora Di; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413315797; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}}

  17. Tomorrow Began Yesterday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the sixtiers was prepared by the previous historical period. The period after the World War II comprises a fundamental change of the world order – from a multipolar world to a confrontation of two superpowers and two ideological systems, and, at the same time, formation of a complex of international organizations on a global scale. In this context, the Soviet architecture made a sharp turn from Stalin’s Empire style to an extreme ascetism – the continuation of constructivism of the early XXth century. The Irkutsk architectural school, unlike the main flow of the 1960s, developed the style of Neo-Brutalism. The article draws parallels between Neo-Brutalism of the Irkutsk school and “a severe style” of the Soviet pictorial art of the same period.

  18. How life began.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, P

    1986-11-01

    Study of the origin of life has become a legitimate scientific inquiry, with an international, multidisciplinary membership and a cogent body of data. Experiments involving plausible early Earth conditions and biogeochemical analyses of carbonaceous meteorites imply a variety of available starting molecules. Biogeological evidence indicates microbial beginnings about 3800 million years (3.8 aeons) ago. By then the known universe had been in existence for perhaps 15 aeons and galaxies abundant for ten. Conditions suitable for the origin of life may require a long prior cosmic evolution. The natural origin of life on the early Earth is now widely agreed upon but not the pathways. The beginnings of catalysis, replication and a functional cell remain moot. Much discussion has centered on the templating role that crystals such as clays and zeolites might have played in prebiotic evolution. Recent discovery of the catalytic and replicative functions of RNA recommend it as the key molecule in the transition from chemical to biological evolution. Copyright © 1986. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. How nonimaging optics began

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Classical optics was traditionally the mapping of point sources by lenses, mirrors and occasionally holograms , i.e. making an image. The subject has had many famous scientists associated with it; Fermat, Huygens, Descartes, Hamilton just to name a few. By the mid 20th Century it was a well-developed field as exemplified by such luminaries as Walter T. Welford, Emil Wolf and many others. The theory of aberrations which addresses the imperfections of the mapping codified the state of the art. Then arose the need to collect energy, not just images. To the author's knowledge it can be traced back to WWII Germany with collection of infra-red radiation (the work by D. E. Williamson, was not published until 1952). The radiation collector, a simple right-circular cone, was a harbinger of things to come.

  20. Running and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Hansen, Pamela A

    2010-07-01

    The overall health benefits of cardiovascular exercise, such as running, are well established. However, it is also well established that in certain circumstances running can lead to overload injuries of muscle, tendon, and bone. In contrast, it has not been established that running leads to degeneration of articular cartilage, which is the hallmark of osteoarthritis. This article reviews the available literature on the association between running and osteoarthritis, with a focus on clinical epidemiologic studies. The preponderance of clinical reports refutes an association between running and osteoarthritis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. RHIC PC CNI POLARIMETER:STATUS AND PERFORMANCE from THE FIRST COLLIDER RUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JINNOUCHI, O.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; BLAND, L.C.; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; CADMAN, R.; DESHPANDE, A.D.; HAWAN, S.; FIELDS, D.E.; HUANG, H.; HUGHES, V.; IGO, G.; IMAI, K.; KANAVETS, V.P.; KIRYLUK, J.; KURITA, K.; LI, Z.; LOZOWSKI, W.; MACKAY, W.W.; MAKDISI, Y.; OGAWA, A.; RESCIA, S.; ROSER, T.; SAITO, N.; SPINKA, H.; SURROW, B.; SVIRIDA, D.N.; TOJO, J.; UNDERWOOD, D.; WOOD, J.

    2002-01-01

    Polarimeters using the proton carbon elastic scattering process in Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region were installed in two RHIC rings. Polarization measurements were successfully carried out with the high energy polarized proton beams for the first polarized pp collision run. The physics principles, performance, and polarization measurements are presented

  2. RHIC pC CNI Polarimeter: Status and Performance from the First Collider Run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinnouchi, O.; Tojo, J.; Alekseev, I.G.; Kanavets, V.P.; Svirida, D.N.; Bland, L.C.; Bravar, A.; Huang, H.; Li, Z.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Ogawa, A.; Rescia, S.; Roser, T.; Surrow, B.; Bunce, G.; Cadman, R.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.; Deshpande, A.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters using the proton carbon elastic scattering process in Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region were installed in two RHIC rings. Polarization measurements were successfully carried out with the high energy polarized proton beams for the first polarized pp collision run. The physics principles, performance, and polarization measurements are presented

  3. LHC Report: Positive ion run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The current LHC ion run has been progressing very well. The first fill with 358 bunches per beam - the maximum number for the year - was on Tuesday, 15 November and was followed by an extended period of steady running. The quality of the beam delivered by the heavy-ion injector chain has been excellent, and this is reflected in both the peak and the integrated luminosity.   The peak luminosity in ATLAS reached 5x1026 cm-2s-1, which is a factor of ~16 more than last year's peak of 3x1025 cm-2s-1. The integrated luminosity in each of ALICE, ATLAS and CMS is now around 100 inverse microbarn, already comfortably over the nominal target for the run. The polarity of the ALICE spectrometer and solenoid magnets was reversed on Monday, 28 November with the aim of delivering another sizeable amount of luminosity in this configuration. On the whole, the LHC has been behaving very well recently, ensuring good machine availability. On Monday evening, however, a faulty level sensor in the cooling towe...

  4. Electron run-away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    The run-away effect of electrons for the Coulomb scattering has been studied by Dricer, but the question for other scattering mechanisms is not yet studied. Meanwhile, if the scattering is quasielastic, a general criterion for the run-away may be formulated; in this case the run-away influence on the distribution function may also be studied in somewhat general and qualitative manner. (Auth.)

  5. Triathlon: running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  6. Overcoming the "Run" Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that it is not simply experiencing anxiety that affects mathematics performance but also how one responds to and regulates that anxiety (Lyons and Beilock 2011). Most people have faced mathematics problems that have triggered their "run response." The issue is not whether one wants to run, but rather…

  7. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  8. PRECIS Runs at IITM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. PRECIS Runs at IITM. Evaluation experiment using LBCs derived from ERA-15 (1979-93). Runs (3 ensembles in each experiment) already completed with LBCs having a length of 30 years each, for. Baseline (1961-90); A2 scenario (2071-2100); B2 scenario ...

  9. The LHCb Run Control

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Callot, O; Duval, P-Y; Franek, B; Frank, M; Galli, D; Gaspar, C; v Herwijnen, E; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P

    2010-01-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provid...

  10. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  11. Polarization developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist

  12. Symmetry in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, M H

    1986-03-14

    Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.

  13. The RHIC polarized H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenski, A., E-mail: zelenski@bnl.gov; Atoian, G.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H{sup −} ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H{sup −} ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC.

  14. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: "Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?". In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click "Yes" or "No" to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. RESULTS: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  15. Running Injury Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Johansen, Karen; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. Methods: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: “Which...... factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?”. In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click “Yes” or “No” to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. Results: A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included...

  16. The LHCb Run Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessio, F; Barandela, M C; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Sambade, A; Schwemmer, R; Somogyi, P [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Callot, O [LAL, IN2P3/CNRS and Universite Paris 11, Orsay (France); Duval, P-Y [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Franek, B [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Galli, D, E-mail: Clara.Gaspar@cern.c [Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  17. Neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firk, F.W.K.

    1976-01-01

    Some recent experiments involving polarized neutrons are discussed; they demonstrate how polarization studies provide information on fundamental aspects of nuclear structure that cannot be obtained from more traditional neutron studies. Until recently, neutron polarization studies tended to be limited either to very low energies or to restricted regions at higher energies, determined by the kinematics of favorable (p, vector n) and (d, vector n) reactions. With the advent of high intensity pulsed electron and proton accelerators and of beams of vector polarized deuterons, this is no longer the case. One has entered an era in which neutron polarization experiments are now being carried out, in a routine way, throughout the entire range from thermal energies to tens-of-MeV. The significance of neutron polarization studies is illustrated in discussions of a wide variety of experiments that include the measurement of T-invariance in the β-decay of polarized neutrons, a search for the effects of meson exchange currents in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron, the determination of quantum numbers of states in the fission of aligned 235 U and 237 Np induced by polarized neutrons, and the double- and triple-scattering of fast neutrons by light nuclei

  18. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  19. Tracking polar lows in CLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, M.; Storch, H. von [Inst. for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany); Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Polar lows are severe cyclones in sub-polar oceans sized beyond the resolved scale of existing global reanalysis products. We used the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses data to drive a regional climate model (CLM) in order to reproduce finer resolved atmospheric fields over the North Atlantic over a two year period. In these fields we detected polar lows by means of a detection algorithm based on a spatial digital bandpass filter. CLM was run in two different ways, the conventional way and with additionally prescribing the analysed large scale situation. The resulting temporal and spatial distributions of polar lows between the different simulations are compared. A reasonable seasonal cycle and spatial distribution was found for all simulations. A lower number of polar lows in the spectral nudged simulation indicates a closer vicinity to reality. Higher temporal and spatial variability between the conventional simulations suggest a more random generation of polar lows. Frequency distributions of track-lengths reveal shorter tracks when nudging is applied. Maximum wind speeds reveal only minor, insignificant differences between all runs and are higher in conventional mode. (orig.)

  20. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  1. Operation of the AGS polarized beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    A polarized proton physics run took place during January, 1988, at the Brookhaven AGS. It is the purpose of this paper to review the tune-up period preceding that run. This was the third such run at the AGS; the others occurred in June of 1984 and February of 1986. Some comparisons will be drawn among these. A thorough review of the history and hardware associated with the acceleration of polarized protons at the AGS can be found in the proceedings of the last meeting of this group at Protvino and will not be repeated here. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1996-01-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. The authors discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of the experiences in developing it. They also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  3. Fermilab DART run control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system

  4. Ionic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Ferroelectricity occurs in many different kinds of materials. Many of the technologically important solids, which are ferroelectric, can be classified as ionic. Any microscopic theory of ferroelectricity must contain a description of local polarization forces. We have collaborated in the development of a theory of ionic polarization which is quite successful. Its basic assumption is that the polarization is derived from the properties of the individual ions. We have applied this theory successfully to diverse subjects as linear and nonlinear optical response, phonon dispersion, and piezoelectricity. We have developed numerical methods using the local Density approximation to calculate the multipole polarizabilities of ions when subject to various fields. We have also developed methods of calculating the nonlinear hyperpolarizability, and showed that it can be used to explain light scattering experiments. This paper elaborates on this polarization theory

  5. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  6. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    In even the most experienced hands, an adequate physical examination of the ears can be difficult to perform because of common problems such as cerumen blockage of the auditory canal, an unco- operative toddler or an exasperated parent. The most common cause for a running ear in a child is acute purulent otitis.

  7. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  8. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  9. Performance of the SLC polarized electron source with high polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Alley, R.K.; Aoyagi, H.

    1993-04-01

    For the 1992 operating cycle of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC), the polarized electron source (PES) during its maiden run successfully met the pulse intensity and overall efficiency requirements of the SLC. However, the polarization of the bulk GaAs cathode was low (∼27%) and the pulse-to-pulse stability was marginal. We have shown that adequate charge for the SLC can be extracted from a strained layer cathode having P e ∼80% even though the quantum efficiency (QE) is - beam stability. The performance of the PES during the 1993 SLC operating cycle with these and other improvements is discussed

  10. Prospects for Antineutrino Running at MiniBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Wascko, M. O.

    2006-01-01

    MiniBooNE began running in antineutrino mode on 19 January, 2006. We describe the sensitivity of MiniBooNE to LSND-like nuebar oscillations and outline a program of antineutrino cross-section measurements necessary for the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. We describe three independent methods of constraining wrong-sign (neutrino) backgrounds in an antineutrino beam, and their application to the MiniBooNE antineutrino analyses.

  11. PolarTrack: Optical Outside-In Device Tracking that Exploits Display Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rädle, Roman; Jetter, Hans-Christian; Fischer, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    PolarTrack is a novel camera-based approach to detecting and tracking mobile devices inside the capture volume. In PolarTrack, a polarization filter continuously rotates in front of an off-the-shelf color camera, which causes the displays of observed devices to periodically blink in the camera feed....... The periodic blinking results from the physical characteristics of current displays, which shine polarized light either through an LC overlay to produce images or through a polarizer to reduce light reflections on OLED displays. PolarTrack runs a simple detection algorithm on the camera feed to segment...... displays and track their locations and orientations, which makes PolarTrack particularly suitable as a tracking system for cross-device interaction with mobile devices. Our evaluation of PolarTrack's tracking quality and comparison with state-of-the-art camera-based multi-device tracking showed a better...

  12. Running economy and energy cost of running with backpacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Volker; Cramer, Leoni; Heitkamp, Hans-Christian

    2018-05-02

    Running is a popular recreational activity and additional weight is often carried in backpacks on longer runs. Our aim was to examine running economy and other physiological parameters while running with a 1kg and 3 kg backpack at different submaximal running velocities. 10 male recreational runners (age 25 ± 4.2 years, VO2peak 60.5 ± 3.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed runs on a motorized treadmill of 5 minutes durations at three different submaximal speeds of 70, 80 and 90% of anaerobic lactate threshold (LT) without additional weight, and carrying a 1kg and 3 kg backpack. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, lactate and RPE were measured and analysed. Oxygen consumption, energy cost of running and heart rate increased significantly while running with a backpack weighing 3kg compared to running without additional weight at 80% of speed at lactate threshold (sLT) (p=0.026, p=0.009 and p=0.003) and at 90% sLT (p<0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001). Running with a 1kg backpack showed a significant increase in heart rate at 80% sLT (p=0.008) and a significant increase in oxygen consumption and heart rate at 90% sLT (p=0.045 and p=0.007) compared to running without additional weight. While running at 70% sLT running economy and cardiovascular effort increased with weighted backpack running compared to running without additional weight, however these increases did not reach statistical significance. Running economy deteriorates and cardiovascular effort increases while running with additional backpack weight especially at higher submaximal running speeds. Backpack weight should therefore be kept to a minimum.

  13. Polarization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Brief review is presented of the high energy polarization study including experimental data and the theoretical descriptions. The mostimportant proposals at the biggest accelerators and the crucial technical developments are also listed which may become a main-line of spin physics. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  14. Polar Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  15. Ubuntu Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Ubuntu for everyone! This popular Linux-based operating system is perfect for people with little technical background. It's simple to install, and easy to use -- with a strong focus on security. Ubuntu: Up and Running shows you the ins and outs of this system with a complete hands-on tour. You'll learn how Ubuntu works, how to quickly configure and maintain Ubuntu 10.04, and how to use this unique operating system for networking, business, and home entertainment. This book includes a DVD with the complete Ubuntu system and several specialized editions -- including the Mythbuntu multimedia re

  16. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohltmann, Ingo; Lehmann, Ralph; Rex, Markus

    2017-07-01

    The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx), HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect caused by the

  17. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  18. Underwater running device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Matsuo, Takashiro; Yoshida, Yoji

    1996-01-01

    An underwater running device for an underwater inspection device for detecting inner surfaces of a reactor or a water vessel has an outer frame and an inner frame, and both of them are connected slidably by an air cylinder and connected rotatably by a shaft. The outer frame has four outer frame legs, and each of the outer frame legs is equipped with a sucker at the top end. The inner frame has four inner frame legs each equipped with a sucker at the top end. The outer frame legs and the inner frame legs are each connected with the outer frame and the inner frame by the air cylinder. The outer and the inner frame legs can be elevated or lowered (or extended or contracted) by the air cylinder. The sucker is connected with a jet pump-type negative pressure generator. The device can run and move by repeating attraction and releasing of the outer frame legs and the inner frame legs alternately while maintaining the posture of the inspection device stably. (I.N.)

  19. Run scenarios for the linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Battaglia et al. email = crathbun@fnal.gov

    2002-01-01

    We have examined how a Linear Collider program of 1000 fb -1 could be constructed in the case that a very rich program of new physics is accessible at √s ≤ 500 GeV. We have examined possible run plans that would allow the measurement of the parameters of a 120 GeV Higgs boson, the top quark, and could give information on the sparticle masses in SUSY scenarios in which many states are accessible. We find that the construction of the run plan (the specific energies for collider operation, the mix of initial state electron polarization states, and the use of special e - e - runs) will depend quite sensitively on the specifics of the supersymmetry model, as the decay channels open to particular sparticles vary drastically and discontinuously as the underlying SUSY model parameters are varied. We have explored this dependence somewhat by considering two rather closely related SUSY model points. We have called for operation at a high energy to study kinematic end points, followed by runs in the vicinity of several two body production thresholds once their location is determined by the end point studies. For our benchmarks, the end point runs are capable of disentangling most sparticle states through the use of specific final states and beam polarizations. The estimated sparticle mass precisions, combined from end point and scan data, are given in Table VIII and the corresponding estimates for the mSUGRA parameters are in Table IX. The precision for the Higgs boson mass, width, cross-sections, branching ratios and couplings are given in Table X. The errors on the top quark mass and width are expected to be dominated by the systematic limits imposed by QCD non-perturbative effects. The run plan devotes at least two thirds of the accumulated luminosity near the maximum LC energy, so that the program would be sensitive to unexpected new phenomena at high mass scales. We conclude that with a 1 ab -1 program, expected to take the first 6-7 years of LC operation, one can do

  20. The design of the run Clever randomized trial: running volume, -intensity and running-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Parner, Erik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2016-04-23

    Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week follow-up. Healthy recreational runners between 18 and 65 years and with an average of 1-3 running sessions per week the past 6 months are included. Participants are randomized into two intervention groups: Running schedule-I and Schedule-V. Schedule-I emphasizes a progression in running intensity by increasing the weekly volume of running at a hard pace, while Schedule-V emphasizes a progression in running volume, by increasing the weekly overall volume. Data on the running performed is collected by GPS. Participants who sustain running-related injuries are diagnosed by a diagnostic team of physiotherapists using standardized diagnostic criteria. The members of the diagnostic team are blinded. The study design, procedures and informed consent were approved by the Ethics Committee Northern Denmark Region (N-20140069). The Run Clever trial will provide insight into possible differences in injury risk between running schedules emphasizing either running intensity or running volume. The risk of sustaining volume- and intensity-related injuries will be compared in the two intervention groups using a competing

  1. Barefoot running: biomechanics and implications for running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Allison R; Davis, Irene S

    2012-01-01

    Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, up to 79% of runners today get injured in a given year. As we evolved barefoot, examining this mode of running is insightful. Barefoot running encourages a forefoot strike pattern that is associated with a reduction in impact loading and stride length. Studies have shown a reduction in injuries to shod forefoot strikers as compared with rearfoot strikers. In addition to a forefoot strike pattern, barefoot running also affords the runner increased sensory feedback from the foot-ground contact, as well as increased energy storage in the arch. Minimal footwear is being used to mimic barefoot running, but it is not clear whether it truly does. The purpose of this article is to review current and past research on shod and barefoot/minimal footwear running and their implications for running injuries. Clearly more research is needed, and areas for future study are suggested.

  2. Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    18 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-outlined polygons on a frost-covered surface in the south polar region of Mars. In summer, this surface would not be bright and the polygons would not have dark outlines--these are a product of the presence of seasonal frost. Location near: 77.2oS, 204.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  3. Darlington up and running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Show, Don

    1993-01-01

    We've built some of the largest and most successful generating stations in the world. Nonetheless, we cannot take our knowledge and understanding of the technology for granted. Although, I do believe that we are getting better, building safer, more efficient plants, and introducing significant improvements to our existing stations. Ontario Hydro is a large and technically rich organization. Even so, we realize that partnerships with others in the industry are absolutely vital. I am thinking particularly of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. We enjoy a very close relationship with Aecl, and their support was never more important than during the N/A Investigations. In recent years, we've strengthened our relationship with Aecl considerably. For example, we recently signed an agreement with Aecl, making available all of the Darlington 900 MW e design. Much of the cooperation between Ontario Hydro and Aecl occurs through the CANDU Engineering Authority and the CANDU Owners Group (CO G). These organizations are helping both of US to greatly improve cooperation and efficiency, and they are helping ensure we get the biggest return on our CANDU investments. CO G also provides an important information network which links CANDU operators in Canada, here in Korea, Argentina, India, Pakistan and Romania. In many respects, it is helping to develop the strong partnerships to support CANDU technology worldwide. We all benefit in the long run form sharing information and resources

  4. Polarized proton acceleration at the BNL AGS, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.

    1988-01-01

    The present status of the polarized proton acceleration at the Brookhaven AGS is described. Some details regarding the tune-up and performance during the December 1987-January 1988 physics run are given. 2 refs., 4 figs

  5. How newspapers began to blog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2012-01-01

    of technologists (project managers, computer programers, information architects, etc.) that are increasingly integral to how legacy media organizations operate in a new and ever more convergent media environment under circumstances of great economic uncertainty, and discuss the wider implications for how we......In this article, I examine how ‘old’ media organizations develop ‘new’ media technologies by analyzing processes of technological innovation in two Danish newspaper companies that integrated blogs into their websites in very different ways in 2007. Drawing on concepts from science and technology...... studies and sociology and building on previous research on blogging by news media organizations, I analyze how the three different communities involved in the development process – journalists and managers, but also the often-overlooked community of technologists – articulated different versions of what...

  6. When the atomic age began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    2 December 1942, just twenty-five years ago, is the date most often proclaimed as marking the beginning of the atomic age. On that day Enrico Fermi's atomic 'pile' went critical - man had achieved the first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. This achievement is an outstanding example of how modern science can work. It had been predicted in theory, calculated in advance and finally realised through the work of large teams of scientists, headed by some of the most imaginative personalities of our century. The military aspects of man-made nuclear chain reaction still dominate our world today. However, within this quarter of a century, nuclear energy has also become significant as a source of power for peaceful purposes. By the end of another quarter of a century it will, according to the best forecasts we can make today, produce a major part of the electricity in the world. The control of nuclear fission was initiated by Fermi and his collaborators. It had a tremendous impact on politics, on concepts of warfare and finally on scientific progress for man's welfare. Fifteen years afterwards the International Atomic Energy Agency was created to promote the peaceful uses of the new technology and to assist in winning the advantages it offered for improving health and prosperity. Another of its great objects is to ensure, as far as possible, that nuclear materials intended for peaceful purposes shall not be diverted to military ends. The hope of the world must be that this, one day, will include all nuclear materials

  7. Strategic Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Adam; Kalai, Ehud

    2001-08-01

    In joint decision making, similarly minded people may take opposite positions. Consider the example of a marriage in which one spouse gives generously to charity while the other donates nothing. Such "polarization" may misrepresent what is, in actuality, a small discrepancy in preferences. It may be that the donating spouse would like to see 10% of their combined income go to charity each year, while the apparently frugal spouse would like to see 8% donated. A simple game-theoretic analysis suggests that the spouses will end up donating 10% and 0%, respectively. By generalizing this argument to a larger class of games, we provide strategic justification for polarization in many situations such as debates, shared living accommodations, and disciplining children. In some of these examples, an arbitrarily small disagreement in preferences leads to an arbitrarily large loss in utility for all participants. Such small disagreements may also destabilize what, from game-theoretic point of view, is a very stable equilibrium. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  9. Physiological demands of running during long distance runs and triathlons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausswirth, C; Lehénaff, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to identify the main metabolic factors which have an influence on the energy cost of running (Cr) during prolonged exercise runs and triathlons. This article proposes a physiological comparison of these 2 exercises and the relationship between running economy and performance. Many terms are used as the equivalent of 'running economy' such as 'oxygen cost', 'metabolic cost', 'energy cost of running', and 'oxygen consumption'. It has been suggested that these expressions may be defined by the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at a steady state (i.e. between 60 to 90% of maximal VO2) at a submaximal running speed. Endurance events such as triathlon or marathon running are known to modify biological constants of athletes and should have an influence on their running efficiency. The Cr appears to contribute to the variation found in distance running performance among runners of homogeneous level. This has been shown to be important in sports performance, especially in events like long distance running. In addition, many factors are known or hypothesised to influence Cr such as environmental conditions, participant specificity, and metabolic modifications (e.g. training status, fatigue). The decrease in running economy during a triathlon and/or a marathon could be largely linked to physiological factors such as the enhancement of core temperature and a lack of fluid balance. Moreover, the increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol at the end of these long exercise durations bear witness to the decrease in Cr values. The combination of these factors alters the Cr during exercise and hence could modify the athlete's performance in triathlons or a prolonged run.

  10. Polarized proton acceleration at the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    At the conclusion of polarized proton commissioning in February 1986, protons with an average polarization of 45%, momentum of 21.7 GeV/c, and intensity of 2 x 10 10 protons per pulse, were extracted to an external polarimeter at the Brookhaven AGS. In order to maintain this polarization, five intrinsic and nearly forty imperfection depolarizing resonances had to be corrected. An apparent interaction between imperfection and intrinsic resonances occurring at very nearly the same energy was observed and the correction of imperfection resonances using ''beat'' magnetic harmonics discovered in the previous AGS commissioning run was further confirmed

  11. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Modeling optical and UV polarization of AGNs. IV. Polarization timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Lobos, P. A.; Goosmann, R. W.; Marin, F.; Savić, D.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Optical observations cannot resolve the structure of active galactic nuclei (AGN), and a unified model for AGN was inferred mostly from indirect methods, such as spectroscopy and variability studies. Optical reverberation mapping allowed us to constrain the spatial dimension of the broad emission line region and thereby to measure the mass of supermassive black holes. Recently, reverberation was also applied to the polarized signal emerging from different AGN components. In principle, this should allow us to measure the spatial dimensions of the sub-parsec reprocessing media. Aim. We conduct numerical modeling of polarization reverberation and provide theoretical predictions for the polarization time lag induced by different AGN components. The model parameters are adjusted to the observational appearance of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. Methods: We modeled scattering-induced polarization and tested different geometries for the circumnuclear dust component. Our tests included the effects of clumpiness and different dust prescriptions. To further extend the model, we also explored the effects of additional ionized winds stretched along the polar direction, and of an equatorial scattering ring that is responsible for the polarization angle observed in pole-on AGN. The simulations were run using a time-dependent version of the STOKES code. Results: Our modeling confirms the previously found polarization characteristics as a function of the observer`s viewing angle. When the dust adopts a flared-disk geometry, the lags reveal a clear difference between type 1 and type 2 AGN. This distinction is less clear for a torus geometry where the time lag is more sensitive to the geometry and optical depth of the inner surface layers of the funnel. The presence of a scattering equatorial ring and ionized outflows increased the recorded polarization time lags, and the polar outflows smooths out dependence on viewing angle, especially for the higher optical depth of the

  13. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  14. Effective action and brane running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevik, Iver; Ghoroku, Kazuo; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2004-01-01

    We address the renormalized effective action for a Randall-Sundrum brane running in 5D bulk space. The running behavior of the brane action is obtained by shifting the brane position without changing the background and fluctuations. After an appropriate renormalization, we obtain an effective, low energy brane world action, in which the effective 4D Planck mass is independent of the running position. We address some implications for this effective action

  15. Asymmetric information and bank runs

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Chao

    2007-01-01

    It is known that sunspots can trigger panic-based bank runs and that the optimal banking contract can tolerate panic-based runs. The existing literature assumes that these sunspots are based on a publicly observed extrinsic randomizing device. In this paper, I extend the analysis of panic-based runs to include an asymmetric-information, extrinsic randomizing device. Depositors observe different, but correlated, signals on the stability of the bank. I find that if the signals that depositors o...

  16. How to run 100 meters ?

    OpenAIRE

    Aftalion, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    A paraitre dans SIAP; The aim of this paper is to bring a mathematical justification to the optimal way of organizing one's effort when running. It is well known from physiologists that all running exercises of duration less than 3mn are run with a strong initial acceleration and a decelerating end; on the contrary, long races are run with a final sprint. This can be explained using a mathematical model describing the evolution of the velocity, the anaerobic energy, and the propulsive force: ...

  17. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  18. Changes in Running Mechanics During a 6-Hour Running Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Nicola; Taboga, Paolo; Lazzer, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    To investigate changes in running mechanics during a 6-h running race. Twelve ultraendurance runners (age 41.9 ± 5.8 y, body mass 68.3 ± 12.6 kg, height 1.72 ± 0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874-m flat loops as possible in 6 h. Running speed, contact time (t c ), and aerial time (t a ) were measured in the first lap and every 30 ± 2 min during the race. Peak vertical ground-reaction force (F max ), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), vertical stiffness (k vert ), and leg stiffness (k leg ) were then estimated. Mean distance covered by the athletes during the race was 62.9 ± 7.9 km. Compared with the 1st lap, running speed decreased significantly from 4 h 30 min onward (mean -5.6% ± 0.3%, P running, reaching the maximum difference after 5 h 30 min (+6.1%, P = .015). Conversely, k vert decreased after 4 h, reaching the lowest value after 5 h 30 min (-6.5%, P = .008); t a and F max decreased after 4 h 30 min through to the end of the race (mean -29.2% and -5.1%, respectively, P running, suggesting a possible time threshold that could affect performance regardless of absolute running speed.

  19. CDF run II run control and online monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, T.; Ikado, K.; Badgett, W.; Chlebana, F.; Maeshima, K.; McCrory, E.; Meyer, A.; Patrick, J.; Wenzel, H.; Stadie, H.; Wagner, W.; Veramendi, G.

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss the CDF Run II Run Control and online event monitoring system. Run Control is the top level application that controls the data acquisition activities across 150 front end VME crates and related service processes. Run Control is a real-time multi-threaded application implemented in Java with flexible state machines, using JDBC database connections to configure clients, and including a user friendly and powerful graphical user interface. The CDF online event monitoring system consists of several parts: the event monitoring programs, the display to browse their results, the server program which communicates with the display via socket connections, the error receiver which displays error messages and communicates with Run Control, and the state manager which monitors the state of the monitor programs

  20. RHIC Proton Luminosity and Polarization Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The RHIC proton beam polarization can be improved by raising the Booster scraping, which also helps to reduce the RHIC transverse emittance, and therefore to improve the luminosity. By doing this, the beam-beam effect would be enhanced. Currently, the RHIC working point is constrained between 2/3 and 7/10, the 2/3 resonance would affect intensity and luminosity lifetime, and the working point close to 7/10 would enhance polarization decay in store. Run 2013 shows that average polarization decay is merely 1.8% in 8 hours, and most fills have the luminosity lifetime better than 14 hours, which is not a problem. Therefore, even without beam-beam correction, there is room to improve for RHIC polarization and luminosity. The key to push the Booster scraping is to raise the Booster input intensity; for that, two approaches can be used. The first is to extend the LINAC tank 9 pulse width, which has been successfully applied in run 2006. The second is to raise the source temperature, which has been successfully applied in run 2006 and run 2012.

  1. Analysis of failed ramps during the RHIC FY09 run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-15

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a versatile accelerator that supports operation with polarized protons of up to 250 GeV and ions with up to 100 GeV/nucleon. During any running period, various operating scenarios with different particle species, beam energies or accelerator optics are commissioned. In this report the beam commissioning periods for establishing full energy beams (ramp development periods) from the FY09 run are summarized and, for the purpose of motivating further developments, we analyze the reasons for all failed ramps.

  2. Analysis of failed ramps during the RHIC FY09 run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a versatile accelerator that supports operation with polarized protons of up to 250 GeV and ions with up to 100 GeV/nucleon. During any running period, various operating scenarios with different particle species, beam energies or accelerator optics are commissioned. In this report the beam commissioning periods for establishing full energy beams (ramp development periods) from the FY09 run are summarized and, for the purpose of motivating further developments, we analyze the reasons for all failed ramps.

  3. How to Run a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Lambert Review of Business-University Collaboration proposed a business model for universities in 2003. Pressure to change university governance to make it match the business model remains strong, and it is being most actively applied to Oxford and Cambridge. The Oxford and Cambridge governance debates (which began in the 1990s) open up the…

  4. Polarized neutrons for Australian scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Shane J.

    2005-01-01

    Polarized neutron scattering has been a feature at ANSTO's HIFAR research reactor since the first polarization analysis (PA) spectrometer Longpol began operation over 30 years ago. Since that time, we have improved performance of Longpol and added new capabilities in several reincarnations of the instrument. Most of the polarized neutron experiments have been in the fields of magnetism and superconductivity, and most of that research has involved PA. Now as we plan our next generation neutron beam facility, at the Replacement Research Reactor (RRR), we intend to continue the tradition of PA but with a far broader scope in mind. Our new capabilities will combine PA and energy analysis with both cold and thermal neutron source spectra. We will also provide capabilities for research with polarized neutrons in small-angle neutron scattering and in neutron reflectometry. The discussion includes a brief historical account of the technical developments with a summary of past and present applications of polarized neutrons at HIFAR, and an outline of the polarized neutron capabilities that will be included in the first suite of instruments, which will begin operation at the new reactor in 2006

  5. Nuclear polarization and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaettli, H.

    1985-01-01

    Different possibilities for the use of polarized nuclei in thermal neutron scattering on condensed matter are reviewed. Highly polarized nuclei are the starting point for studying dipolar magnetic order. Systematic measurement of spin-dependent scattering lengths is possible on samples with polarized nuclei. Highly polarized hydrogen should help to unravel complicated structures in chemistry and biology. The use of polarized proton targets as an energy-independent neutron polarizer in the thermal and epithermal region should be considered afresh. (author)

  6. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, Benard; Adderley, Philip; Brittian, Joshua; Clark, J.; Grames, Joseph; Hansknecht, John; McCarter, James; Stutzman, Marcy; Suleiman, Riad; Surles-law, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive RandD devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source RandD. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular?Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model?requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlate

  7. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  8. The status of polarization studies at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boege, M.

    1993-01-01

    In August 1992 a vertical electron beam polarization of nearly 60% at 26.7 GeV (spin tune=60.5) was obtained at HERA. This was achieved by optimizing the energy and orbit tunes and by applying harmonic corrections to the closed orbit. The polarization level was reproducible from fill to fill and the calibration of the Compton polarimeter was confirmed by measuring the polarization build up curve. The polarization measurements were made with currents of one to two milliamps. Much higher currents are expected for the 1993 luminosity run (∼ 30 mA were obtained in May 1993). The high polarization level was reproduced at high current. Further polarization studies in parallel with e-p operation are planned. In 1993/94 a pair of spin rotators will be installed in the East straight section so that longitudinal polarization is available at the East interaction point. Simulations with the spin tracking program SITROS are in qualitative agreement with the measurements. Calculations with SITROS show that longitudinal polarizations of up to 50% could then still be achieved

  9. Neutron polarization in polarized 3He targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.; Bernstein, A.M.; Chupp, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    Simple formulas for the neutron and proton polarizations in polarized 3 He targets are derived assuming (1) quasielastic final states; (2) no final-state interactions; (3) no meson-exchange currents; (4) large momentum transfers; (5) factorizability of 3 He SU(4) response-function components. Numerical results from a wide variety of bound-state solutions of the Faddeev equations are presented. It is found that this simple model predicts the polarization of neutrons in a fully polarized 3 He target to be 87%, while protons should have a slight residual polarization of -2.7%. Numerical studies show that this model works very well for quasielastic electron scattering

  10. Running continuous academic adoption programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tobias Alsted

    Running successful academic adoption programmes requires executive support, clear strategies, tactical resources and organisational agility. These two presentations will discuss the implementation of strategic academic adoption programs down to very concrete tool customisations to meet specific...

  11. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  12. Phthalate SHEDS-HT runs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inputs and outputs for SHEDS-HT runs of DiNP, DEHP, DBP. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Moreau, M., J. Leonard, K. Phillips, J. Campbell,...

  13. Performance of the polarized ion source POLIS used at the AGOR accelerator facility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, H.R.; Drentje, A.G.; Holt, R.J.; Miller, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of the KVI polarized ion source POLIS presently running on proton beams is discussed. The best polarization values which have been measured, are 70 +/-0.5 % and -56 +/-0.5 %. The asymmetry is due to 7 +/-1 % offset in polarization, which originates from state mixing in the magnetic

  14. A scheme to measure the polarization asymmetry at the Z pole in LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, A.

    1988-01-01

    If longitudinally polarized beams are available in the large electron-positron storage ring (LEP), it is shown that running with a specific sequence of polarized and depolarized bunches will allow both a measurement of the polarization asymmetry A LR and the absolute calibration of the polarimeters. The resulting accuracy that one can expect is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Polarized H- source development at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.; Hershcovitch, A.; Kponou, A.; Niinikoski, T.; Sluyters, T.

    1986-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source (PONI-1) now produces currents of 25-40 μA, and has operated reliably during polarized physics runs. A new polarized source, having as its goal mA's of H-vector, is now under development. An atomic hydrogen beam has been cooled to about 20 K with a forward flux of approx.10 19 atoms/s/sr. A superconducting solenoid having a calculated acceptance angle of 0.1 sr for the cold H 0 beam, is now being built. An ionizer for the resulting polarized H 0 beam based on resonant charge exchange of H 0 with D - , is being tested. 500 μA of H - have been produced by ionizing an unpolarized H 0 beam using this ionizer

  16. The re-emergence of the minimal running shoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Irene S

    2014-10-01

    The running shoe has gone through significant changes since its inception. The purpose of this paper is to review these changes, the majority of which have occurred over the past 50 years. Running footwear began as very minimal, then evolved to become highly cushioned and supportive. However, over the past 5 years, there has been a reversal of this trend, with runners seeking more minimal shoes that allow their feet more natural motion. This abrupt shift toward footwear without cushioning and support has led to reports of injuries associated with minimal footwear. In response to this, the running footwear industry shifted again toward the development of lightweight, partial minimal shoes that offer some support and cushioning. In this paper, studies comparing the mechanics between running in minimal, partial minimal, and traditional shoes are reviewed. The implications for injuries in all 3 conditions are examined. The use of minimal footwear in other populations besides runners is discussed. Finally, areas for future research into minimal footwear are suggested.

  17. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2003-04-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC11 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). Test run TC11 began on April 7, 2003, with startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until April 18, 2003, when a gasifier upset forced the termination of the test run. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,650 and 1,800 F at pressures from 160 to 200 psig during air-blown operations and around 135 psig during enriched-air operations. Due to a restriction in the oxygen-fed lower mixing zone (LMZ), the majority of the test run featured air-blown operations.

  18. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepost, R.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented

  19. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  20. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  1. Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.

    1994-01-01

    The author provides a summary of the proposed and published statistical (systematic) uncertainties from the world experiments on nucleon spin structure function integrals. By the time these programs are complete, there will be a vast resource of data on nucleon spin structure functions. Each program has quite different experimental approaches regarding the beams, targets, and spectrometers thus ensuring systematically independent tests of the spin structure function measurements. Since the field of spin structure function measurements began, there has been a result appearing approximately every five years. With advances in polarized target technology and high polarization in virtually all of the lepton beams, results are now coming out each year; this is a true signature of the growth in the field. Hopefully, the experiments will provide a consistent picture of nucleon spin structure at their completion. In summary, there are still many open questions regarding the internal spin structure of the nucleon. Tests of QCD via the investigation of the Bjorken sum rule is a prime motivator for the field, and will continue with the next round of precision experiments. The question of the origin of spin is still a fundamental problem. Researchers hope is that high-energy probes using spin will shed light on this intriguing mystery, in addition to characterizing the spin structure of the nucleon

  2. Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The author provides a summary of the proposed and published statistical (systematic) uncertainties from the world experiments on nucleon spin structure function integrals. By the time these programs are complete, there will be a vast resource of data on nucleon spin structure functions. Each program has quite different experimental approaches regarding the beams, targets, and spectrometers thus ensuring systematically independent tests of the spin structure function measurements. Since the field of spin structure function measurements began, there has been a result appearing approximately every five years. With advances in polarized target technology and high polarization in virtually all of the lepton beams, results are now coming out each year; this is a true signature of the growth in the field. Hopefully, the experiments will provide a consistent picture of nucleon spin structure at their completion. In summary, there are still many open questions regarding the internal spin structure of the nucleon. Tests of QCD via the investigation of the Bjorken sum rule is a prime motivator for the field, and will continue with the next round of precision experiments. The question of the origin of spin is still a fundamental problem. Researchers hope is that high-energy probes using spin will shed light on this intriguing mystery, in addition to characterizing the spin structure of the nucleon.

  3. Update of the Polar SWIFT model for polar stratospheric ozone loss (Polar SWIFT version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wohltmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polar SWIFT model is a fast scheme for calculating the chemistry of stratospheric ozone depletion in polar winter. It is intended for use in global climate models (GCMs and Earth system models (ESMs to enable the simulation of mutual interactions between the ozone layer and climate. To date, climate models often use prescribed ozone fields, since a full stratospheric chemistry scheme is computationally very expensive. Polar SWIFT is based on a set of coupled differential equations, which simulate the polar vortex-averaged mixing ratios of the key species involved in polar ozone depletion on a given vertical level. These species are O3, chemically active chlorine (ClOx, HCl, ClONO2 and HNO3. The only external input parameters that drive the model are the fraction of the polar vortex in sunlight and the fraction of the polar vortex below the temperatures necessary for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. Here, we present an update of the Polar SWIFT model introducing several improvements over the original model formulation. In particular, the model is now trained on vortex-averaged reaction rates of the ATLAS Chemistry and Transport Model, which enables a detailed look at individual processes and an independent validation of the different parameterizations contained in the differential equations. The training of the original Polar SWIFT model was based on fitting complete model runs to satellite observations and did not allow for this. A revised formulation of the system of differential equations is developed, which closely fits vortex-averaged reaction rates from ATLAS that represent the main chemical processes influencing ozone. In addition, a parameterization for the HNO3 change by denitrification is included. The rates of change of the concentrations of the chemical species of the Polar SWIFT model are purely chemical rates of change in the new version, whereas in the original Polar SWIFT model, they included a transport effect

  4. Colliding-beams polarized ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainor, T.A.; Douglas, J.G.; Badt, D.; Christiensen, C.; Herron, A.; Leach, D.; Olsen, J.; Osborne, J.L.; Zeps, V.

    1985-01-01

    This ion source was to be purchased from ANAC, Inc., a New Zealand-based supplier of beam optics hardware and atomic beam polarized ion sources in December 1982. Shortly before scheduled delivery ANAC went into receivership. During 1983 little work was done on the project as various steps were taken by us, first to get the ion source completed at ANAC, and then, failing that, to obtain the existing parts. In early 1984 we began work to finish the ion source in Seattle. The project is nearly complete, and this article presents progress to date. 2 refs

  5. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  6. Children's Fitness. Managing a Running Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, J. Scott; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1987-01-01

    A running program to increase the cardiovascular fitness levels of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children is described. Discussed are the running environment, implementation of a running program, feedback, and reinforcement. (MT)

  7. STANFORD: Highly polarized SLC electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Using specialized photocathodes made with 'strained' gallium arsenide, physicists at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) have generated electron beams with polarizations in excess of 60 percent a year ahead of schedule. Together with recent luminosity increases, this breakthrough will have a major impact on the physics output of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Beam polarization was almost tripled using photocathodes in which a gallium arsenide layer was grown epitaxially over a substrate of gallium arsenide phosphide. The mismatch between these two layers deforms the crystal structure and removes a degeneracy in the valence band structure, permitting selective optical pumping of one unique spin state. Whereas conventional gallium arsenide photocathodes are limited to 50 percent polarization because of this degeneracy (and realistic cathodes fall substantially below this theoretical limit), such strained crystal lattices have the potential to yield polarizations close to 100 percent. Polarization enhancement with strained lattices was first demonstrated in 1991 by a SLAC/Wisconsin/ Berkeley group (May 1991, page 6) with a 71 percent polarization in a laboratory experiment. More recently this group has achieved polarization in excess of 90 percent, reported last November at the Nagoya Spin Symposium. (In a complementary development, a Japanese KEK/ Nagoya/KEK obtains polarized beams using a 'superlattice' - May 1991, page 4.) The 1993 SLC run, the strained gallium arsenide photocathode technique's debut in an operating particle accelerator, has proved to be a resounding, unqualified success - as have physics experiments on the Z particles produced by the highly polarized beam. A conservative approach was called for, due to concerns about possible charge saturation effects. A relatively thick (0.3 micron) gallium arsenide layer was used for the photocathode in the SLC polarized electron source. With a titanium

  8. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    OpenAIRE

    David Hryvniak; Jay Dicharry; Robert Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Background: Running is becoming an increasingly popular activity among Americans with over 50 million participants. Running shoe research and technology has continued to advance with no decrease in overall running injury rates. A growing group of runners are making the choice to try the minimal or barefoot running styles of the pre-modern running shoe era. There is some evidence of decreased forces and torques on the lower extremities with barefoot running, but no clear data regarding how thi...

  9. Red light running camera assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the 2004-2007 period, the Mission Street SE and 25th Street SE intersection in Salem, Oregon showed relatively few crashes attributable to red light running (RLR) but, since a high number of RLR violations were observed, the intersection was ident...

  10. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  11. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  12. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard ... news is that many children whose parents had drug problems don't become addicted when they grow up. The chances of addiction are higher, but it doesn't have to ...

  13. Running codes through the web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Clark presented a report and demonstration of running atomic physics codes through the WWW. The atomic physics data is generated from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) codes that calculate electron impact excitation, ionization, photoionization, and autoionization, and inversed processes through detailed balance. Samples of Web interfaces, input and output are given in the report

  14. Scattering with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of neutron scattering, it was shown very soon that the use of polarized neutron beams brings much more information than usual scattering with unpolarized neutrons. We shall develop here the different scattering methods that imply polarized neutrons: 1) polarized beams without polarization analysis, the flipping ratio method; 2) polarized beams with a uniaxial polarization analysis; 3) polarized beams with a spherical polarization analysis. For all these scattering methods, we shall give examples of the physical problems which can been solved by these methods, particularly in the field of magnetism: investigation of complex magnetic structures, investigation of spin or magnetization densities in metals, insulators and molecular compounds, separation of magnetic and nuclear scattering, investigation of magnetic properties of liquids and amorphous materials and even, for non magnetic material, separation between coherent and incoherent scattering. (author)

  15. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  16. Techniques in polarization physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausnitzer, G.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the current status of the technical tools necessary to perform different kinds of polarization experiments is presented, and the absolute and relative accuracy with which data can be obtained is discussed. A description of polarized targets and sources of polarized fast neutrons is included. Applications of polarization techniques to other fields is mentioned briefly. (14 figures, 3 tables, 110 references) (U.S.)

  17. Polarized Moessbauer transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the emission, absorption and scattering of polarized gamma rays are reviewed for a general case of combined magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions; various possibilities of obtaining polarized gamma sources are described and examples are given of the applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with polarized gamma rays in solving problems of solid state physics. (A.K.)

  18. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  19. Calculation of polarization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-09-01

    Basically there are two areas of accelerator applications that involve beam polarization. One is the acceleration of a polarized beam (most likely a proton beam) in a synchrotron. Another concerns polarized beams in an electron storage ring. In both areas, numerical techniques have been very useful

  20. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  1. Running: Improving Form to Reduce Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Running is often perceived as a good option for "getting into shape," with little thought given to the form, or mechanics, of running. However, as many as 79% of all runners will sustain a running-related injury during any given year. If you are a runner-casual or serious-you should be aware that poor running mechanics may contribute to these injuries. A study published in the August 2015 issue of JOSPT reviewed the existing research to determine whether running mechanics could be improved, which could be important in treating running-related injuries and helping injured runners return to pain-free running.

  2. Run-off from roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the run-off from roof material a roof has been constructed with two different slopes (30 deg C and 45 deg C). Beryllium-7 and caesium-137 has been used as tracers. Considering new roof material the pollution removed by runoff processes has been shown to be very different for various roof materials. The pollution is much more easily removed from silicon-treated material than from porous red-tile roof material. Caesium is removed more easily than beryllium. The content of caesium in old roof materials is greater in red-tile than in other less-porous materials. However, the measured removal from new material does not correspond to the amount accumulated in the old. This could be explained by weathering and by saturation effects. This last effect is probably the more important. The measurements on old material indicates a removal of 44-86% of the caesium pollution by run-off, whereas the measurement on new showed a removal of only 31-50%. It has been demonstrated that the pollution concentration in the run-off water could be very different from that in rainwater. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIO-F-423-DK(SD) under contract No. BIO-F-423-81-F. (author)

  3. Better in the long run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last week, the Chamonix workshop once again proved its worth as a place where all the stakeholders in the LHC can come together, take difficult decisions and reach a consensus on important issues for the future of particle physics. The most important decision we reached last week is to run the LHC for 18 to 24 months at a collision energy of 7 TeV (3.5 TeV per beam). After that, we’ll go into a long shutdown in which we’ll do all the necessary work to allow us to reach the LHC’s design collision energy of 14 TeV for the next run. This means that when beams go back into the LHC later this month, we’ll be entering the longest phase of accelerator operation in CERN’s history, scheduled to take us into summer or autumn 2011. What led us to this conclusion? Firstly, the LHC is unlike any previous CERN machine. Because it is a cryogenic facility, each run is accompanied by lengthy cool-down and warm-up phases. For that reason, CERN’s traditional &...

  4. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  5. Running jobs in the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, A; Stagni, F; Garcia, M Ubeda

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously 'in the vacuum' rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  6. Acceleration of polarized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1992-05-01

    The spin kinetics of polarized beams in circular accelerators is reviewed in the case of spin-1/2 particles (electrons and protons) with emphasis on the depolarization phenomena. The acceleration of polarized proton beams in synchrotrons is described together with the cures applied to reduce depolarization, including the use of 'Siberian Snakes'. The in-situ polarization of electrons in storage rings due to synchrotron radiation is studied as well as depolarization in presence of ring imperfections. The applications of electron polarization to accurately calibrate the rings in energy and to use polarized beams in colliding-beam experiments are reviewed. (author) 76 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  7. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  8. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  9. Run Clever - No difference in risk of injury when comparing progression in running volume and running intensity in recreational runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Background/aim: The Run Clever trial investigated if there was a difference in injury occurrence across two running schedules, focusing on progression in volume of running intensity (Sch-I) or in total running volume (Sch-V). It was hypothesised that 15% more runners with a focus on progression...... in volume of running intensity would sustain an injury compared with runners with a focus on progression in total running volume. Methods: Healthy recreational runners were included and randomly allocated to Sch-I or Sch-V. In the first eight weeks of the 24-week follow-up, all participants (n=839) followed...... participants received real-time, individualised feedback on running intensity and running volume. The primary outcome was running-related injury (RRI). Results: After preconditioning a total of 80 runners sustained an RRI (Sch-I n=36/Sch-V n=44). The cumulative incidence proportion (CIP) in Sch-V (reference...

  10. Observations of Running Penumbral Waves Emerging in a Sunspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, T. G.; Wenda, Cao; Jiangtao, Su; Jie, Chen; Xinjie, Mao; Yuanyong, Deng; Robert, Erdélyi

    2018-01-01

    We present results from the investigation of 5 minute umbral oscillations in a single-polarity sunspot of active region NOAA 12132. The spectra of TiO, Hα, and 304 Å are used for corresponding atmospheric heights from the photosphere to lower corona. Power spectrum analysis at the formation height of Hα – 0.6 Å to the Hα center resulted in the detection of 5 minute oscillation signals in intensity interpreted as running waves outside the umbral center, mostly with vertical magnetic field inclination >15°. A phase-speed filter is used to extract the running wave signals with speed v ph > 4 km s‑1, from the time series of Hα – 0.4 Å images, and found twenty-four 3 minute umbral oscillatory events in a duration of one hour. Interestingly, the initial emergence of the 3 minute umbral oscillatory events are noticed closer to or at umbral boundaries. These 3 minute umbral oscillatory events are observed for the first time as propagating from a fraction of preceding running penumbral waves (RPWs). These fractional wavefronts rapidly separate from RPWs and move toward the umbral center, wherein they expand radially outwards suggesting the beginning of a new umbral oscillatory event. We found that most of these umbral oscillatory events develop further into RPWs. We speculate that the waveguides of running waves are twisted in spiral structures and hence the wavefronts are first seen at high latitudes of umbral boundaries and later at lower latitudes of the umbral center.

  11. LHCb siliicon detectors: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition and first experience of Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Rinnert, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector includes a high precision tracking system consisting of a silicon-strip vertex detector (VELO) surrounding the pp interaction region, a large- area silicon-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet (TT), and three stations of silicon- strip detectors (IT) and straw drift tubes placed downstream (OT). The operational transition of the silicon detectors VELO, TT and IT from LHC Run 1 to Run 2 and first Run 2 experiences will be presented. During the long shutdown of the LHC the silicon detectors have been maintained in a safe state and operated regularly to validate changes in the control infrastructure, new operational procedures, updates to the alarm systems and monitoring software. In addition, there have been some infrastructure related challenges due to maintenance performed in the vicinity of the silicon detectors that will be discussed. The LHCb silicon dete...

  12. Workshop on polarized neutron filters and polarized pulsed neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi

    2004-07-01

    The workshop was held in KEK by thirty-three participants on April 26, 2004. The polarized neutron filter method was only discussed. It consists of three parts; the first part was discussed on the polarized neutron methods, the second part on the polarized neutron experiments and the third on the pulse neutron spectrometer and polarized neutron experiments. The six papers were presented such as the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, neutron polarization by proton polarized filter, soft master and neutron scattering, polarized neutron in solid physics, polarization experiments by chopper spectroscope and neutron polarization system in superHRPD. (S.Y.)

  13. Antarctic-Wide Array of High-Resolution Ice Core Records Reveals Pervasive Lead Pollution Began in 1889 and Persists Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, J. R.; Maselli, O. J.; Sigl, M.; Vallelonga, P.; Neumann, Thomas Allen; Anschutz, H.; Bales, R. C.; Curran, M. A. J.; Das, S. B.; Edwards, R.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Interior Antarctica is among the most remote places on Earth and was thought to be beyond the reach of human impacts when Amundsen and Scott raced to the South Pole in 1911. Here we show detailed measurements from an extensive array of 16 ice cores quantifying substantial toxic heavy metal lead pollution at South Pole and throughout Antarctica by 1889 - beating polar explorers by more than 22 years. Unlike the Arctic where lead pollution peaked in the 1970s, lead pollution in Antarctica was as high in the early 20th century as at any time since industrialization. The similar timing and magnitude of changes in lead deposition across Antarctica, as well as the characteristic isotopic signature of Broken Hill lead found throughout the continent, suggest that this single emission source in southern Australia was responsible for the introduction of lead pollution into Antarctica at the end of the 19th century and remains a significant source today. An estimated 660 t of industrial lead have been deposited over Antarctica during the past 130 years as a result of mid-latitude industrial emissions, with regional-to-global scale circulation likely modulating aerosol concentrations. Despite abatement efforts, significant lead pollution in Antarctica persists into the 21st century.

  14. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  15. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  16. HTML 5 up and running

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Mark

    2010-01-01

    If you don't know about the new features available in HTML5, now's the time to find out. This book provides practical information about how and why the latest version of this markup language will significantly change the way you develop for the Web. HTML5 is still evolving, yet browsers such as Safari, Mozilla, Opera, and Chrome already support many of its features -- and mobile browsers are even farther ahead. HTML5: Up & Running carefully guides you though the important changes in this version with lots of hands-on examples, including markup, graphics, and screenshots. You'll learn how to

  17. Inequality in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2014-05-23

    This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Electroweak processes at Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Spalla, Margherita; Sestini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We present a summary of the studies of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at LHC after the first year of data taking of Run2, focusing on possible results to be achieved with the analysis of full 2015 and 2016 data. We discuss the measurements of W and Z boson production, with particular attention to the precision determination of basic Standard Model parameters, and the study of multi-boson interactions through the analysis of boson-boson final states. This work is the result of the collaboration between scientists from the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments.

  19. Running gratings in photoconductive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T.; Lyuksyutov, S. F.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the three-dimensional version of a standard photorefractive model (STPM), we obtain a reduced compact Set of equations for an electric field based on the assumption of a quasi-steady-state fast recombination. The equations are suitable for evaluation of a current induced by running...... gratings at small-contrast approximation and also are applicable for the description of space-charge wave domains. We discuss spatial domain and subharmonic beam formation in bismuth silicon oxide (BSO) crystals in the framework of the small-contrast approximation of STPM. The experimental results...

  20. Google Wave Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrate, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Catch Google Wave, the revolutionary Internet protocol and web service that lets you communicate and collaborate in realtime. With this book, you'll understand how Google Wave integrates email, instant messaging (IM), wiki, and social networking functionality into a powerful and extensible platform. You'll also learn how to use its features, customize its functions, and build sophisticated extensions with Google Wave's open APIs and network protocol. Written for everyone -- from non-techies to ninja coders -- Google Wave: Up and Running provides a complete tour of this complex platform. You'

  1. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  2. Multiphoton polarization Bremsstrahlung effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovinskij, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    A general approach to induced polarization effects was formulated on the basis of theory of many particles in a strong periodic field. Correlation with the perturbation theory is shown and the types of effective polarization potentials both for isolated atoms and ions, and for ions in plasma, are provided. State of art in the theory of forced polarization Bremsstrahlung effect is analyzed and some outlooks for further experimental and theoretical studies are outlined [ru

  3. How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomas, Kim

    2005-01-01

    How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

  4. Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, Stephen M.; Laux, Sara; Kuivila, Thomas; Hass, Daniel; Joy, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial. Hypothesis: Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes. Study Design: Randomized crossover trial. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a different type of footwear: traditional running shoes with a heavily cushioned heel, minimalist running shoes with minimal heel cushioning, and barefoot (socked). High-speed photography was used to determine foot strike, ground contact time, knee angle, and stride cadence with each footwear type. Results: Runners had more rearfoot strikes in traditional shoes (87%) compared with minimalist shoes (67%) and socked (40%) (P = 0.03). Ground contact time was longest in traditional shoes (265.9 ± 10.9 ms) when compared with minimalist shoes (253.4 ± 11.2 ms) and socked (250.6 ± 16.2 ms) (P = 0.005). There was no difference between groups with respect to knee angle (P = 0.37) or stride cadence (P = 0.20). When comparing running socked to running with minimalist running shoes, there were no differences in measures of running efficiency. Conclusion: When compared with running in traditional, cushioned shoes, both barefoot (socked) running and minimalist running shoes produce greater running efficiency in some experienced runners, with a greater tendency toward a midfoot or forefoot strike and a shorter ground contact time. Minimalist shoes closely approximate socked running in the 4 measurements performed. Clinical Relevance: With regard to running efficiency and biomechanics, in some runners, barefoot (socked) and minimalist footwear are preferable to traditional running shoes. PMID:26131304

  5. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, James, Jr.; Dabney, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Instrument measures polarization characteristics of Earth at three wavelengths. Airborne Laser Polarization Sensor (ALPS) measures optical polarization characteristics of land surface. Designed to be flown at altitudes of approximately 300 m to minimize any polarizing or depolarizing effects of intervening atmosphere and to look along nadir to minimize any effects depending on look angle. Data from measurements used in conjunction with data from ground surveys and aircraft-mounted video recorders to refine mathematical models used in interpretation of higher-altitude polarimetric measurements of reflected sunlight.

  6. Polarization of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Linear polarization of starlight may be produced by electron scattering in the extended atmospheres of early type stars. Techniques are investigated for the measurement and interpretation of this polarization. Polarimetric observations were made of twelve visual double star systems in which at least one member was a B type star as a means of separating the intrinsic stellar polarization from the polarization produced in the interstellar medium. Four of the double stars contained a Be star. Evidence for intrinsic polarization was found in five systems including two of the Be systems, one double star with a short period eclipsing binary, and two systems containing only normal early type stars for which emission lines have not been previously reported. The interpretation of these observations in terms of individual stellar polarizations and their wavelength dependence is discussed. The theoretical basis for the intrinsic polarization of early type stars is explored with a model for the disk-like extended atmospheres of Be stars. Details of a polarimeter for the measurement of the linear polarization of astronomical point sources are also presented with narrow band (Δ lambda = 100A) measurements of the polarization of γ Cas from lambda 4000 to lambda 5800

  7. Polarization at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs

  8. Source of polarized ions for the JINR accelerator complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. S.; Donets, D. E.; Fimushkin, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kutuzova, L. V.; Prokofichev, Yu V.; Shutov, V. B.; Turbabin, A. V.; Zubets, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    The JINR atomic beam type polarized ion source is described. Results of tests of the plasma ionizer with a storage cell and of tuning of high frequency transition units are presented. The source was installed in a linac injector hall of NUCLOTRON in May 2016. The source has been commissioned and used in the NUCLOTRON runs in 2016 and February - March 2017. Polarized and unpolarized deuteron beams were produced as well as polarized protons for acceleration in the NUCLOTRON. Polarized deuteron beam with pulsed current up to 2 mA has been produced. Deuteron beam polarization of 0.6-0.9 of theoretical values for different modes of high frequency transition units operation has been measured with the NUCLOTRON ring internal polarimeter for the accelerated deuteron and proton beams.

  9. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  10. ATLAS inner detector: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition, and first experience from Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Dobos, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system, the Inner Detector, built using different technologies, silicon planar sensors (pixel and micro-strip) and gaseous drift- tubes, all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. For the LHC Run II, the system has been upgraded; taking advantage of the long showdown, the Pixel Detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point and the increase of Luminosity that LHC will face in Run-2, a new read-out chip within CMOS 130nm and two different silicon sensor pixel technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. SCT and TRT systems consolidation was also carri...

  11. Adding run history to CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Sharon M.; Eick, Christoph F.

    1991-01-01

    To debug a C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) program, certain 'historical' information about a run is needed. It would be convenient for system builders to have the capability to request such information. We will discuss how historical Rete networks can be used for answering questions that help a system builder detect the cause of an error in a CLIPS program. Moreover, the cost of maintaining a historical Rete network is compared with that for a classical Rete network. We will demonstrate that the cost for assertions is only slightly higher for a historical Rete network. The cost for handling retraction could be significantly higher; however, we will show that by using special data structures that rely on hashing, it is also possible to implement retractions efficiently.

  12. Robotic Bipedal Running : Increasing disturbance rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, J.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to increase the understanding of the human running gait. The understanding of the human running gait is essential for the development of devices, such as prostheses and orthoses, that enable disabled people to run or that enable able people to

  13. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hryvniak

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Prior studies have found that barefoot running often changes biomechanics compared to shod running with a hypothesized relationship of decreased injuries. This paper reports the result of a survey of 509 runners. The results suggest that a large percentage of this sample of runners experienced benefits or no serious harm from transitioning to barefoot or minimal shoe running.

  14. TRANSVERSELY POLARIZED Λ PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BORER, D.

    2000-01-01

    Transversely polarized Λ production in hard scattering processes is discussed in terms of a leading twist T-odd fragmentation function which describes the fragmentation of an unpolarized quark into a transversely polarized Λ. We focus on the properties of this function and its relevance for the RHIC and HERMES experiments

  15. Our Polar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2009-01-01

    The study of polar exploration is fascinating and offers students insights into the history, culture, and politics that affect the developing sciences at the farthest ends of Earth. Therefore, the authors think there is value in incorporating polar exploration accounts within modern science classrooms, and so they conducted research to test their…

  16. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  17. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  18. Measuring c-quark polarization in W+c samples at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kats, Yevgeny

    2016-01-01

    The process $pp \\to W^-c$ produces polarized charm quarks. The polarization is expected to be partly retained in $\\Lambda_c$ baryons when those form in the $c$-quark hadronization. We argue that it will likely be possible for ATLAS and CMS to measure the $\\Lambda_c$ polarization in the $W$+$c$ samples in Run 2 of the LHC. This can become the first measurement ever of a longitudinal polarization of charm quarks. Its results will provide a unique input to the understanding of polarization transfer in fragmentation. They will also allow applying the same measurement technique to other (e.g., new physics) samples of charm quarks in which the polarization is a priori unknown. The proposed analysis is similar to the ATLAS and CMS measurements of the $W$+$c$ cross section in the 7 TeV run that used reconstructed $D$-meson decays for charm tagging.

  19. The HERA polarimeter and the first observation of electron spin polarization at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.; Bremer, H.D.; Boege, M.; Brinkmann, R.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kaiser, H.; Klanner, R.; Lewin, H.C.; Meyners, N.; Vogel, W.; Brueckner, W.; Buescher, C.; Dueren, M.; Gaul, H.G.; Muecklich, A.; Neunreither, F.; Rith, K.; Scholz, C.; Steffens, E.; Veltri, M.; Wander, W.; Zapfe, K.; Zetsche, F.; Chapman, M.; Milner, R.; Coulter, K.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Haeusser, O.; Henderson, R.; Levy, P.; Vetterli, M.; Gressmann, H.; Janke, T.; Micheel, B.; Westphal, D.; Kaiser, R.; Losev, L.; Nowak, W.D.

    1992-10-01

    Electron spin polarizations of about 8% were observed at HERA in November 1991. In runs during 1992 utilizing special orbit corrections, polarization values close to 60% have been achieved. In this paper the polarimeter, the machine conditions, the data analysis, the first results and plans for future measurements are described. (orig.)

  20. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Damask, Jay N

    2005-01-01

    The strong investments into optical telecommunications in the late 1990s resulted in a wealth of new research, techniques, component designs, and understanding of polarization effects in fiber. Polarization Optics in Telecommunications brings together recent advances in the field to create a standard, practical reference for component designers and optical fiber communication engineers. Beginning with a sound foundation in electromagnetism, the author offers a dissertation of the spin-vector formalism of polarization and the interaction of light with media. Applications discussed include optical isolators, optical circulators, fiber collimators, and a variety of applied waveplate and prism combinations. Also included in an extended discussion of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent loss (PDL), their representation, behavior, statistical properties, and measurement. This book draws extensively from the technical and patent literature and is an up-to-date reference for researchers and c...

  1. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  2. Young Researchers Engaged in Educational Outreach to Increase Polar Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, M.; Baeseman, J.; Xavier, J.; Kaiser, B.; Vendrell-Simon, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) grew out of the 4th International Polar Year (IPY-4) 2007-08 and is an international and interdisciplinary organization of over 1200 undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere from more than 40 countries. Our aims are to stimulate interdisciplinary and international research collaborations, and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education and outreach. As potentially one of the major legacies of IPY-4, APECS members have been at the forefront of increasing scientific knowledge and public interest in the polar regions, centered around global climate change, and enhancing scientific understanding, media attention, primary and secondary school (K-12) educational programs, undergraduate institutions, and public literacy campaigns. Research and Educational Outreach activities by APECS members during IPY-4 have improved both our understanding and the communication of all aspects of the Polar Regions and the importance of their broader global connections. APECS National Committees have run Polar Contests where young researchers partnered with teachers and students to develop curriculum and activities to share their research, have participated in many field based communication exchanges and are mentoring youth to pursue careers in science, and enhancing the public perception of scientists through photo, video and museum exhibits. In cooperation with the IPY Teachers Network and the IPY IPO, APECS is developing a polar education resource book that will feature education and outreach activities by young researchers, as well as provide examples of classroom activities for teachers to incorporate polar literacy into their curriculum and a How-To guide for researchers interested in conducting education and outreach. As young researchers interactively share their excitement and

  3. First results from SLD with polarized electron beam at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fero, M.J.

    1992-12-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) has been modified to collide a longitudinally polarized electron beam with the unpolarized positron beam. We review the beginning of polarized beam running at the SLC, and report on the measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A LR ) made with a sample of 10,224 Z decays collected over the course of the 1992 run. The average beam polarization for this set of Z decays was 22.4 ± 0.6%(syst.). A LR was measured to be 0.100 ± 0.044(stat.) ± 0.004(syst.). From this measurement, the weak mixing angle defined at the Z boson pole is determined to be sin 2 θ eff W = 0.2378 ± 0.0056 ± 0.0005

  4. Mathematical analysis of running performance and world running records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Thibault, G

    1989-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an empirical model relating human running performance to some characteristics of metabolic energy-yielding processes using A, the capacity of anaerobic metabolism (J/kg); MAP, the maximal aerobic power (W/kg); and E, the reduction in peak aerobic power with the natural logarithm of race duration T, when T greater than TMAP = 420 s. Accordingly, the model developed describes the average power output PT (W/kg) sustained over any T as PT = [S/T(1 - e-T/k2)] + 1/T integral of T O [BMR + B(1 - e-t/k1)]dt where S = A and B = MAP - BMR (basal metabolic rate) when T less than TMAP; and S = A + [Af ln(T/TMAP)] and B = (MAP - BMR) + [E ln(T/TMAP)] when T greater than TMAP; k1 = 30 s and k2 = 20 s are time constants describing the kinetics of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively, at the beginning of exercise; f is a constant describing the reduction in the amount of energy provided from anaerobic metabolism with increasing T; and t is the time from the onset of the race. This model accurately estimates actual power outputs sustained over a wide range of events, e.g., average absolute error between actual and estimated T for men's 1987 world records from 60 m to the marathon = 0.73%. In addition, satisfactory estimations of the metabolic characteristics of world-class male runners were made as follows: A = 1,658 J/kg; MAP = 83.5 ml O2.kg-1.min-1; 83.5% MAP sustained over the marathon distance. Application of the model to analysis of the evolution of A, MAP, and E, and of the progression of men's and women's world records over the years, is presented.

  5. Progression in Running Intensity or Running Volume and the Development of Specific Injuries in Recreational Runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Rasmussen, Sten; Sørensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    -training. Participants were randomized to one of two running schedules: Schedule Intensity(Sch-I) or Schedule Volume(Sch-V). Sch-I progressed the amount of high intensity running (≥88% VO2max) each week. Sch-V progressed total weekly running volume. Global positioning system watch or smartphone collected data on running...

  6. Running Club - Nocturne des Evaux

    CERN Multimedia

    Running club

    2017-01-01

    Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux

  7. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  8. Daytime Running Lights. Public Consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    The Road Safety Authority is considering the policy options available to promote the use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL), including the possibility of mandating the use of DRL on all vehicles. An EC Directive would make DRL mandatory for new vehicles from 2011 onwards and by 2024 it is predicted that due to the natural replacement of the national fleet, almost all vehicles would be equipped with DRL. The RSA is inviting views on introducing DRL measures earlier, whereby all road vehicles would be required to use either dipped head lights during hours of daylight or dedicated DRL from next year onwards. The use of DRL has been found to enhance the visibility of vehicles, thereby increasing road safety by reducing the number and severity of collisions. This paper explores the benefits of DRL and the implications for all road users including pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. In order to ensure a comprehensive consideration of all the issues, the Road Safety Authority is seeking the views and advice of interested parties.

  9. Polar bears at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, S.; Rosentrater, L.; Eid, P.M. [WWF International Arctic Programme, Oslo (Norway)

    2002-05-01

    Polar bears, the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, spend much of their lives on the arctic sea ice. This is where they hunt and move between feeding, denning, and resting areas. The world population, estimated at 22,000 bears, is made up of 20 relatively distinct populations varying in size from a few hundred to a few thousand animals. About 60 per cent of all polar bears are found in Canada. In general, the status of this species is stable, although there are pronounced differences between populations. Reductions in the extent and thickness of sea ice has lead the IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group to describe climate change as one of the major threats facing polar bears today. Though the long-term effects of climate change will vary in different areas of the Arctic, impacts on the condition and reproductive success of polar bears and their prey are likely to be negative. Longer ice-free periods resulting from earlier break-up of sea ice in the spring and later formation in the fall is already impacting polar bears in the southern portions of their range. In Canada's Hudson Bay, for example, bears hunt on the ice through the winter and into early summer, after which the ice melts completely, forcing bears ashore to fast on stored fat until freeze-up in the fall. The time bears have on the ice to hunt and build up their body condition is cut short when the ice melts early. Studies from Hudson Bay show that for every week earlier that ice break-up occurs, bears will come ashore 10 kg lighter and in poorer condition. It is likely that populations of polar bears dividing their time between land and sea will be severely reduced and local extinctions may occur as greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and sea ice melts. Expected changes in regional weather patterns will also impact polar bears. Rain in the late winter can cause maternity dens to collapse before females and cubs have departed, thus exposing occupants to the elements and to predators. Such

  10. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  11. GUIDE FOR POLARIZED NEUTRONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, V.L.; Aichroth, R.W.

    1962-12-01

    The plane of polarization of a beam of polarized neutrons is changed by this invention, and the plane can be flipped back and forth quicitly in two directions in a trouble-free manner. The invention comprises a guide having a plurality of oppositely directed magnets forming a gap for the neutron beam and the gaps are spaced longitudinally in a spiral along the beam at small stepped angles. When it is desired to flip the plane of polarization the magnets are suitably rotated to change the direction of the spiral of the gaps. (AEC)

  12. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  13. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. The representation of neutron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron beam polarization representation is discussed under the headings; transfer matrices, coherent parity violation for neutrons, neutron spin rotation in helical magnetic fields, polarization and interference. (UK)

  15. Monitoring of the tensor polarization of high energy deuteron beams; Monitoring tenzornoj polyarizatsii dejtronnykh puchkov vysokoj ehnergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolin, L S; Litvinenko, A G; Pilipenko, Yu K; Reznikov, S G; Rukoyatkin, P A; Fimushkin, V V

    1998-12-01

    The method of determining the tensor component of high energy polarized deuteron beams, based on measuring of the tensor analyzing power in the deuteron stripping reaction, is discussed. This method is convenient for monitoring during long time runs on the tensor polarized deuteron beams. The method was tested in the 5-days run at the LHE JINR accelerator with the 3 and 9 GeV/c tensor polarized deuterons. The results made it possible to estimate the beam polarization stability in time 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Ressenya a Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Expósito i Amagat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ressenya a Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015, 302 pp., 80 il·ls., ISBN: 978-84-608-3423-6 Review to  Henry Ettinghausen, How the Press Began. The Pre-Periodical Printed News in Early Modern Europe, A Coruña, SIELAE – Facultad de Filología, Universidade da Coruña, 2015, 302 pp., 80 il·ls., ISBN: 978-84-608-3423-6

  17. Interferometric polarization control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Novak, Giles

    2006-01-01

    We develop the Jones and Mueller matrices for structures that allow control of the path length difference between two linear orthogonal polarizations and consider the effect of placing multiple devices in series. Specifically, we find that full polarization modulation (measurement of Stokes Q, U, and V) can be achieved by placing two such modulators in series if the relative angles of the beam-splitting grids with respect to the analyzer orientation are appropriately chosen. Such a device has several potential advantages over a spinning wave plate modulator for measuring astronomical polarization in the far infrared through millimeter: (i) The use of small, linear motions eliminates the need for cryogenic rotational bearings; (ii) the phase flexibility allows measurement of circular as well as linear polarization; and (iii) this architecture allows for both multiwavelength and broadband modulation. We also present initial laboratory results

  18. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  19. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  20. [Physiological differences between cycling and running].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Grégoire

    2009-08-05

    This review compares the differences in systemic responses (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, heart rate and economy) and in underlying mechanisms of adaptation (ventilatory and hemodynamic and neuromuscular responses) between cycling and running. VO2max is specific to the exercise modality. Overall, there is more physiological training transfer from running to cycling than vice-versa. Several other physiological differences between cycling and running are discussed: HR is different between the two activities both for maximal and sub-maximal intensities. The delta efficiency is higher in running. Ventilation is more impaired in cycling than running due to mechanical constraints. Central fatigue and decrease in maximal strength are more important after prolonged exercise in running than in cycling.

  1. Design of ProjectRun21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Camma; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Participation in half-marathon has been steeply increasing during the past decade. In line, a vast number of half-marathon running schedules has surfaced. Unfortunately, the injury incidence proportion for half-marathoners has been found to exceed 30% during 1-year follow......-up. The majority of running-related injuries are suggested to develop as overuse injuries, which leads to injury if the cumulative training load over one or more training sessions exceeds the runners' load capacity for adaptive tissue repair. Owing to an increase of load capacity along with adaptive running...... the association between running experience or running pace and the risk of running-related injury. METHODS: Healthy runners using Global Positioning System (GPS) watch between 18 and 65 years will be invited to participate in this 14-week prospective cohort study. Runners will be allowed to self-select one...

  2. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  3. No More Polarization, Please!

    OpenAIRE

    Reinholt, Mia

    2006-01-01

    The organizational science literature on motivation has for long been polarized into two main positions; the organizational economic position focusing on extrinsic motivation and the organizational behavior position emphasizing intrinsic motivation. With the rise of the knowledge economy and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on mot...

  4. Inertial polarization of dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Zavodovsky, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    It was proved that accelerated motion of a linear dielectric causes its polarization. Accelerated translational motion of a dielectric's plate leads to the positive charge of the surface facing the direction of motion. Metal plates of a capacitor were used to register polarized charges on a dielectric's surface. Potential difference between the capacitor plates is proportional to acceleration, when acceleration is constant potential difference grows with the increase of a dielectric's area, o...

  5. Should the Air Force Teach Running Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    barefoot running, and gait training techniques. Current research indicates efficiencies in running with a forefoot or midfoot- strike gait, and a...recent retrospective study showed a lower injury rate in forefoot - strike runners as compared with heel- strike runners. However, there are no...barefoot-like” fashion and allows a forefoot or midfoot- strike gait, as opposed to the heel- strike gait style often seen with traditional running

  6. The Polarization of Achernar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, D.

    2005-11-01

    Recent near-infrared measurements of the angular diameter of Achernar (the bright Be star alpha Eridani) with the ESO VLT interferometer have been interpreted as the detection of an extremely oblate photosphere, with a ratio of equatorial to polar radius of at least 1.56 ± 0.05 and a minor axis orientation of 39° ± 1° (from North to East). The optical linear polarization of this star during an emission phase in 1995 September was 0.12 ± 0.02% at position angle 37° ± 8° (in equatorial coordinates), which is the direction of the projection of the rotation axis on the plane of the sky according to the theory of polarization by electron scattering in an equatorially flattened circumstellar disk. These two independent determinations of the orientation of the rotation axis are therefore in agreement. The observational history of correlations between Hα emission and polarization as found in the literature is that of a typical Be star, with the exception of an interesting question raised by the contrast between Schröder's measurement of a small polarization perpendicular to the projected rotation axis in 1969--70 and Tinbergen's measurement of zero polarization in 1974.5, both at times when emission was reportedly absent.

  7. Fusion of a polarized projectile with a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christley, J.A.; Johnson, R.C.; Thompson, I.J.

    1995-01-01

    The fusion cross sections for a polarized target with both unpolarized and polarized projectiles are studied. Expressions for the observables are given for the case when both nuclei are polarized. Calculations for fusion of an aligned 165 Ho target with 16 O and polarized 7 Li beams are presented

  8. Running-in as an Engineering Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Jamari, Jamari

    2007-01-01

    Running-in is a process which can be found in daily lives. This phenomenon occurs after the start of the contact between fresh solid surfaces, resulting in changes in the surface topography, friction and wear. Before the contacting engineering solid surfaces reach a steady-state operation situation this running-n enhances the contact performance. Running-in is very complex and is a vast problem area. A lot of variable occurs in the running-in process, physically, mechanically or chemically. T...

  9. Run 2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a proton-proton centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV. During the years 2016 and 2017, LHC delivered an unprecedented amount of luminosity under the ever-increasing challenging conditions in terms of peak luminosity, pile-up and trigger rates. In this talk, the LHC running conditions and the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment in the course of Run 2 will be discussed, and the latest ATLAS detector and ATLAS trigger performance results from the Run 2 will be presented.

  10. How to run ions in the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Küchler, D; Manglunki, D; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    In the light of different running scenarios potential source improvements will be discussed (e.g. one month every year versus two month every other year and impact of the different running options [e.g. an extended ion run] on the source). As the oven refills cause most of the down time the oven design and refilling strategies will be presented. A test stand for off-line developments will be taken into account. Also the implications on the necessary manpower for extended runs will be discussed

  11. ATLAS detector performance in Run1: Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency during the Run 1 data taking period, recording respectively in 2011 and 2012 an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb-1 at √s = 7 TeV and 21.6 fb-1 at √s = 8TeV. The Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency, improving over the whole Run 1. This poster presents the Run 1 overall status and performance, LS1 works and Preparations for Run 2.

  12. PROTVINO: U-70's first long run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougorski, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Protvino 70 GeV proton synchrotron (U-70), commissioned in 1967, was for five years the world's largest proton machine. In all, more than 170 experiments at U-70 have been carried out, more than 50 being joint experiments with physicists from the European, USA and Japan laboratories. Under the Russian government, the Protvino Institute for High Energy Physics' high scientific authority was last year accorded the title of State Scientific Centre, denoting that it is the major laboratory in Russia carrying out a high energy physics programme actually in the country. In keeping with this status, U-70's traditional running schedule has been boosted. Before 1994, U-70 was scheduled for four or five runs, each of about 40 days, each year. Meanwhile a major upgrade of the IHEP machine had been launched. Among its main goals were the replacement of many U-70 systems to increase the proton beam intensity and the machine's operational reliability, to carry out a new physics programme at 70 GeV, and to obtain the beam conditions necessary for the big UNK machine under construction. The U-70 upgrade includes: total replacement of the goffered vacuum chamber by a smooth one; improvement of all 40 radiofrequency stations; design and construction of a new diagnostic and control system; and design and construction of a new 60 MeV radiofrequency linac to allow acceleration of negative hydrogen ions and charge exchange injection. At the same time U-70 was converted for longer running periods, with two longer runs per year with a summer break for maintenance, upgrades and installation. In 1994, despite the adverse financial situation which Russian science and particularly high energy physics is undergoing, the first stage of the U-70 upgrade was completed and, for the first time in IHEP's history, a three-month (October-December) run was scheduled. This run yielded the full harvest of expected data and all accelerator systems operated reliably under the

  13. The effect of graduated compression tights, compared with running shorts, on counter movement jump performance before and after submaximal running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg, Stuart; Sternlicht, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if wearing graduated compression tights, compared with loose fitting running shorts, would increase and or help sustain counter movement jump (CMJ) height after submaximal running. Fourteen competitive runners (6 women and 8 men) participated in this study. The subjects' mean (±SD) for age, height, body mass, percent body fat, resting heart rate, and maximal heart rate were 28.2 ± 14.0 years, 174.7 ± 8.6 cm, 70.2 ± 14.9 kg, 15.5 ± 8.1%, 67.2 ± 7.4 b.min, and 186.5 ± 9.5 b.min, respectively. During testing, subjects wore a Polar RS400 heart rate monitor. Each trial consisted of 15 minutes of continual treadmill running with 5 minutes performed at 50%, 70%, and 85% of the subject's heart rate reserve. Using a Vertec vertical leaper, each subject performed 3 CMJ, both pre- and postrun trials, with the mean value used to measure relative leg power. In addition to the CMJ height data, each subject rated their level of perceived exertion (RPE), and their comfort level, after the postrun trials. The mean postrun CMJ height in graduated compression tights of 60.3 ± 19.4 cm was significantly greater (at the p shorts of 57.7 ± 19.6 cm (4.5% increase). In addition, the subjects reported a significantly lower level of perceived exertion and greater comfort values while wearing the graduated compression tights. The results of the present study support the use of graduated compression tights for maintenance of lower limb muscle power after submaximal endurance running.

  14. VME online system of the Bonn polarized nucleon targets and polarization measurements on NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, W.

    1991-02-01

    The measurement of spin observables is the main purpose of the PHOENICS detector at the Bonn Electron Accelerator ELSA. Therefore a new frosen spin target was built allowing any spin orientation by means of two perpendicular holding fields and the use of a polarizing field up to 7 Tesla. With a vertical dilution refrigerator the polarization can be frozen at a temperature of 70 mK. This thesis describe a VME based control and monitor system for the various parts of this target. It mainly consists of a VIP processor together with different kinds of I/O and interface boards. Caused by its modular structure in hard- and software it can be easyly set up to control and monitor different hardware environments. A menu and command oriented user interface running on an ATARI computer allows a comfortable operation. Secondly the new NMR system is described in detail. It is based on the Liferpool module allowing a dispersion user interface running on an ATARI computer allows a comfortable operation. Secondly the new NMR system is described in detail. It is based on the Liverpool module allowing a dispersion free detection and a simple adjustment to different magnetic fields. A similar VME system takes care of all the necessary task for the polarization measurements. Fast optodecoupled analog I/O modules a e used as an interface to the NMR hardware. Finally the first measurements with this target are presented. Using NH 3 as target material and a polarizing field of 3.5 Tesla a proton polarization of +94% and -100% could be achieved. By lowering the magnetic field to 0.35 Tesla a superradiance effect was observed. (orig.)

  15. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  16. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowben, P A; Wu Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO 2 and Cr 2 O 3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. (viewpoint)

  17. Laser-driven polarized hydrogen and deuterium internal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    After completing comprehensive tests of the performance of the source with both hydrogen and deuterium gas, we began tests of a realistic polarized deuterium internal target. These tests involve characterizing the atomic polarization and dissociation fraction of atoms in a storage cell as a function of flow and magnetic field, and making direct measurements of the average nuclear tensor polarization of deuterium atoms in the storage cell. Transfer of polarization from the atomic electron to the nucleus as a result of D-D spin-exchange collisions was observed in deuterium, verifying calculations suggesting that high vector polarization in both hydrogen and deuterium can be obtained in a gas in spin temperature equilibrium without inducing RF transitions between the magnetic substates. In order to improve the durability of the system, the source glassware was redesigned to simplify construction and installation and eliminate stress points that led to frequent breakage. Improvements made to the nuclear polarimeter, which used the low energy 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction to analyze the tensor polarization of the deuterium, included installing acceleration lenses constructed of wire mesh to improve pumping conductance, construction of a new holding field coil, and elimination of the Wien filter from the setup. These changes substantially simplified operation of the polarimeter and should have reduced depolarization in collisions with the wall. However, when a number of tests failed to show an improvement of the nuclear polarization, it was discovered that extended operation of the system with a section of teflon as a getter for potassium caused the dissociation fraction to decline with time under realistic operating conditions, suggesting that teflon may not be a suitable material to eliminate potassium from the target. We are replacing the teflon surfaces with drifilm-coated ones and plan to continue tests of the polarized internal target in this configuration

  18. The evolution of tensor polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Lee, S.Y.; Ratner, L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the equation of motion for the vector polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization, the spin transfer matrix for spin tensor polarization is derived. The evolution equation for the tensor polarization is studied in the presence of an isolate spin resonance and in the presence of a spin rotor, or snake

  19. The polarization of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The present work is the review of polarization of fast neutrons and methods of polarization analysis. This also includes information about polarization of fast neutrons from first papers, which described polarization in the D(d,n) 3 He, 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be, and T(p,n) 3 He reactions. (authors)

  20. Calibration of the Fermilab E-704 polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report lists the final, best estimate of the target polarization P T as a function of time for all of the periods during which scattering data were (or may have been) collected. The information under ''RUN'' refers to Δσ L -runs. The notation ''sfs'' stands for ''start of frozen spin,'' ''efs'' for ''end of frozen spin,'' ''→ la'' for ''go to large-aperture'' target magnet position, and ''nla'' for ''not large-aperture'' position, i.e., the target magnet is in ''polarizing'' position. Where the ''NOTE'' column is blank it means that all standard frozen-spin conditions were in effect: the target temperature was reduced and the magnet was in large-aperture position. The timing marks were developed on the basis of three criteria: (1) the availability of direct NMR data, (2) the inclusion of major Target and Run boundaries, and (3) the arbitrary inclusion of enough ''minor'' Run boundaries to shorten large timing gaps. The sign of the P T -values is given in the NMR convention: (+) corresponds to predominant occupation of the Zeeman ground state (the ''thermal'' NMR-signals are considered positive). Since the target magnet field pointed upstream, (+) corresponds to target spin antiparallel to the beam momentum. The estimated uncertainty on P T is ±6.5% (2σ), and the estimated uncertainty on the ratio of values for the two signs of polarization, P T (+)/PT(-), is ±4.3% (2σ)

  1. Polarized particles in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Kondratenko, A.M.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Tumajkin, G.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams on the VEPP-2M and SPEAK storage rings are described. Possible methods of producing polarized particle beams in storage rings as well as method of polarization monitoring are counted. Considered are the processes of radiation polarization of electrons and positrons. It is shown, that to preserve radiation polarization the introduction of regions with a strong sign-variable magnetic field is recommended. Methods of polarization measurement are counted. It is suggested for high energies to use dependence of synchrotron radiation power on transverse polarization of electrons and positrons. Examples of using polarizability of colliding beams in storage rings are presented

  2. Polarized electrons at Jefferson laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously. Initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  3. Polarized Electrons at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson laboratory can deliver CW electron beams to three experimental halls simultaneously. A large fraction of the approved scientific program at the lab requires polarized electron beams. Many of these experiments, both polarized and unpolarized, require high average beam current as well. Since all electrons delivered to the experimental halls originate from the same cathode, delivery of polarized beam to a single hall requires using the polarized source to deliver beam to all experiments in simultaneous operation. The polarized source effort at Jefferson Lab is directed at obtaining very long polarized source operational lifetimes at high average current and beam polarization; at developing the capability to deliver all electrons leaving the polarized source to the experimental halls; and at delivering polarized beam to multiple experimental halls simultaneously.initial operational experience with the polarized source will be presented.

  4. Polarization: A Must for Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidal M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent realistic simulations confirm that the polarization of the fuel would improve significantly the DT fusion efficiency. We have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are related to the polarization persistence. The experimental polarization of DT fuel is a technological challenge. Possible paths for Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF and for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF are reviewed. For MCF, polarized gas can be used. For ICF, cryogenic targets are required. We consider both, the polarization of gas and the polarization of solid DT, emphasizing the Dynamic Nuclear polarization (DNP of HD and DT molecules.

  5. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of pre-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W

    2006-01-10

    Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. To assess the effect of pre-running, animals were allowed to run for 1h prior to a session of responding for sucrose and running. Results showed that, after pre-running, response rates in the later segments of the 30-s schedule decreased in the presence of a wheel-running stimulus and increased in the presence of a sucrose stimulus. Wheel-running rates were not affected. Analysis of mean post-reinforcement pauses (PRP) broken down by transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that pre-running lengthened pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling wheel running and shortened pauses in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. No effect was observed on local response rates. Changes in pausing in the presence of stimuli signaling the two reinforcers were consistent with a decrease in the reinforcing efficacy of wheel running and an increase in the reinforcing efficacy of sucrose. Pre-running decreased motivation to respond for running, but increased motivation to work for food.

  6. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  7. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyngeraa, T. S.; Pedersen, L. M.; Mantoni, T.; Belhage, B.; Rasmussen, L. S.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Pott, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA)

  8. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-09-20

    EnergyPlus is a new generation building performance simulation program offering many new modeling capabilities and more accurate performance calculations integrating building components in sub-hourly time steps. However, EnergyPlus runs much slower than the current generation simulation programs. This has become a major barrier to its widespread adoption by the industry. This paper analyzed EnergyPlus run time from comprehensive perspectives to identify key issues and challenges of speeding up EnergyPlus: studying the historical trends of EnergyPlus run time based on the advancement of computers and code improvements to EnergyPlus, comparing EnergyPlus with DOE-2 to understand and quantify the run time differences, identifying key simulation settings and model features that have significant impacts on run time, and performing code profiling to identify which EnergyPlus subroutines consume the most amount of run time. This paper provides recommendations to improve EnergyPlus run time from the modeler?s perspective and adequate computing platforms. Suggestions of software code and architecture changes to improve EnergyPlus run time based on the code profiling results are also discussed.

  9. Running with technology: Where are we heading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    technique- related information in run-training interfaces. From that finding, this paper presents three questions to be addressed by designers of future run-training interfaces. We believe that addressing these questions will support creation of expedient interfaces that improve runners’ technique...

  10. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  11. Performance evaluation and financial market runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a model in which performance evaluation causes runs by fund managers and results in asset fire sales. Performance evaluation nonetheless is efficient as it disciplines managers. Optimal performance evaluation combines absolute and relative components in order to make runs less

  12. Impact of Running Away on Girls' Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add…

  13. Teaching Bank Runs with Classroom Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenborg, Dieter; Kaplan, Todd; Miller, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Once relegated to cinema or history lectures, bank runs have become a modern phenomenon that captures the interest of students. In this article, the authors explain a simple classroom experiment based on the Diamond-Dybvig model (1983) to demonstrate how a bank run--a seemingly irrational event--can occur rationally. They then present possible…

  14. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  15. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  16. Long Run Relationship Between Agricultural Production And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to estimate the impact of agricultural production on the long run economic growth in Nigeria using the Vector Error Correction Methodology. The result shows that long run relationship exists between agricultural production and economic growth in Nigeria. Among the variables in the model, crop production ...

  17. Aligning the CMS Muon Chambers with the Muon Alignment System during an Extended Cosmic Ray Run

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; 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Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The alignment system for the muon spectrometer of the CMS detector comprises three independent subsystems of optical and analog position sensors. It aligns muon chambers with respect to each other and to the central silicon tracker. System commissioning at full magnetic field began in 2008 during an extended cosmic ray run. The system succeeded in tracking muon detector movements of up to 18 mm and rotations of several milliradians under magnetic forces. Depending on coordinate and subsystem, the system achieved chamber alignment precisions of 140-350 microns and 30-200 microradians. Systematic errors on displacements are estimated to be 340-590 microns based on comparisons with independent photogrammetry measurements.

  18. Study by polarized muon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Experiments by using polarized muon beam are reported. The experiments were performed at Berkeley, U.S.A., and at Vancouver, Canada. The muon spin rotation is a useful method for the study of the spin polarization of conductive electrons in paramagnetic Pd metal. The muon Larmor frequency and the relaxation time can be obtained by measuring the time distribution of decay electrons of muon-electron process. The anomalous depolarization of negative muon spin rotation in the transitional metal was seen. The circular polarization of the negative muon X-ray was measured to make clear this phenomena. The experimental results show that the anomalous depolarization is caused at the 1-S-1/2 state. For the purpose to obtain the strong polarization of negative muon, a method of artificial polarization is proposed, and the test experiments are in progress. The study of the hyperfine structure of mu-mesic atoms is proposed. The muon capture rate was studied systematically. (Kato, T.)

  19. The Bochum Polarized Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicherz, G.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Bochum 'Polarized Target' group develops the target material 6 LiD for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Several different materials like alcohols, alcanes and ammonia are under investigation. Solid State Targets are polarized in magnetic fields higher than B=2.5T and at temperatures below T=1K. For the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization process, paramagnetic centers are induced chemically or by irradiation with ionizing beams. The radical density is a critical factor for optimization of polarization and relaxation times at adequate magnetic fields and temperatures. In a high sensitive EPR--apparatus, an evaporator and a dilution cryostat with a continuous wave NMR--system, the materials are investigated and optimized. To improve the polarization measurement, the Liverpool NMR-box is modified by exchanging the fixed capacitor for a varicap diode which not only makes the tuning very easy but also provides a continuously tuned circuit. The dependence of the signal area upon the circuit current is measured and it is shown that it follows a linear function

  20. Orthopaedic Perspective on Barefoot and Minimalist Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jonathan; Neumann, Julie; Tao, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a movement toward barefoot and minimalist running. Advocates assert that a lack of cushion and support promotes a forefoot or midfoot strike rather than a rearfoot strike, decreasing the impact transient and stress on the hip and knee. Although the change in gait is theorized to decrease injury risk, this concept has not yet been fully elucidated. However, research has shown diminished symptoms of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and anterior knee pain after a transition to minimalist running. Skeptics are concerned that, because of the effects of the natural environment and the lack of a standardized transition program, barefoot running could lead to additional, unforeseen injuries. Studies have shown that, with the transition to minimalist running, there is increased stress on the foot and ankle and risk of repetitive stress injuries. Nonetheless, despite the large gap of evidence-based knowledge on minimalist running, the potential benefits warrant further research and consideration.

  1. Running injuries - changing trends and demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B

    2011-01-01

    Running injuries are common. Recently the demographic has changed, in that most runners in road races are older and injuries now include those more common in master runners. In particular, Achilles/calf injuries, iliotibial band injury, meniscus injury, and muscle injuries to the hamstrings and quadriceps represent higher percentages of the overall injury mix in recent epidemiologic studies compared with earlier ones. Evidence suggests that running mileage and previous injury are important predictors of running injury. Evidence-based research now helps guide the treatment of iliotibial band, patellofemoral syndrome, and Achilles tendinopathy. The use of topical nitroglycerin in tendinopathy and orthotics for the treatment of patellofemoral syndrome has moderate to strong evidence. Thus, more current knowledge about the changing demographics of runners and the application of research to guide treatment and, eventually, prevent running injury offers hope that clinicians can help reduce the high morbidity associated with long-distance running.

  2. ATLAS strip detector: Operational Experience and Run1 → Run2 transition

    CERN Document Server

    NAGAI, K; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS SCT operational experience and the detector performance during the RUN1 period of LHC will be reported. Additionally the preparation outward to RUN2 during the long shut down 1 will be mentioned.

  3. Excessive Progression in Weekly Running Distance and Risk of Running-related Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Study Design An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. Background It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance...... is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. Methods A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study...... period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. Results A total of 202 runners sustained a running...

  4. Modulus design multiwavelength polarization microscope for transmission Mueller matrix imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jialing; He, Honghui; Chen, Zhenhua; Wang, Ye; Ma, Hui

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a polarization microscope based on a commercial transmission microscope. We replace the halogen light source by a collimated LED light source module of six different colors. We use achromatic polarized optical elements that can cover the six different wavelength ranges in the polarization state generator (PSG) and polarization state analyzer (PSA) modules. The dual-rotating wave plate method is used to measure the Mueller matrix of samples, which requires the simultaneous rotation of the two quarter-wave plates in both PSG and PSA at certain angular steps. A scientific CCD detector is used as the image receiving module. A LabView-based software is developed to control the rotation angels of the wave plates and the exposure time of the detector to allow the system to run fully automatically in preprogrammed schedules. Standard samples, such as air, polarizers, and quarter-wave plates, are used to calibrate the intrinsic Mueller matrix of optical components, such as the objectives, using the eigenvalue calibration method. Errors due to the images walk-off in the PSA are studied. Errors in the Mueller matrices are below 0.01 using air and polarizer as standard samples. Data analysis based on Mueller matrix transformation and Mueller matrix polarization decomposition is used to demonstrate the potential application of this microscope in pathological diagnosis. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  5. Satisfying story of how it all began

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liddle, Andrew

    2004-12-01

    {sup N}ow this 'Big Bang' idea seemed to me to be unsatisfactory...for it is an irrational process that cannot be described in scientific terms.' With this rather derisory remark (or at least so intended) in a 1950 radio broadcast, Fred Hoyle named the theory that rivalled his steady-state theory. The Big Bang has subsequently become the dominant paradigm in attempts to understand our universe. It is also one of the dominant ways in which popular-science writing seeks to persuade people to part with their cash. Simon Singh has rapidly made a name for himself as one of the leading popularizers of science, with his previous books Fermat's Last Theorem and The Code Book bringing accessible science to a wide audience . Big Bang brings him to a much busier marketplace, where he must compete both with other science writers and with working scientists. (U.K.)

  6. The day the Internet age began

    CERN Multimedia

    Cerf, Vinton G

    2009-01-01

    Forty years ago today the first message was sent between computers on the ARPANET. Vinto G. Cerf, who was a principal programmer on the project, reflects on how our online world was shaped by its innovative origins. (2 pages)

  7. The Geneva conference - How it began

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-08-15

    The First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy had its origin in President Eisenhower's initiative of the early nineteen-fifties, when he proposed a concerted international effort to divert the power of the atom from warlike purposes into the service of peace. To the United Nations General Assembly in December 1953, he pledged the determination of the United States 'to help solve the fearful atomic dilemma - to devote its entire heart and mind to finding the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life'. The UN General Assembly in plenary session, in December 1954, unanimously and enthusiastically adopted a resolution which provided for the establishment of an International Atomic Energy Agency, and for the holding of an international technical conference of governments under the auspices of the United Nations. To prepare the way, an Advisory Committee was set up, consisting of representatives of Brazil, Canada, France, India, USSR, United Kingdom and USA. The result was the largest meeting that had been convened under the auspices of the United Nations; it was held from 8 to 25 August 1955 in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, where the necessary facilities were available for such a large multilingual conference. Thirty-eight governments submitted 1067 papers and 1428 participants attended. The conference was wide in scope, embracing all major aspects of the peaceful applications of atomic energy.

  8. The Geneva conference - How it began

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    The First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy had its origin in President Eisenhower's initiative of the early nineteen-fifties, when he proposed a concerted international effort to divert the power of the atom from warlike purposes into the service of peace. To the United Nations General Assembly in December 1953, he pledged the determination of the United States 'to help solve the fearful atomic dilemma - to devote its entire heart and mind to finding the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life'. The UN General Assembly in plenary session, in December 1954, unanimously and enthusiastically adopted a resolution which provided for the establishment of an International Atomic Energy Agency, and for the holding of an international technical conference of governments under the auspices of the United Nations. To prepare the way, an Advisory Committee was set up, consisting of representatives of Brazil, Canada, France, India, USSR, United Kingdom and USA. The result was the largest meeting that had been convened under the auspices of the United Nations; it was held from 8 to 25 August 1955 in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, where the necessary facilities were available for such a large multilingual conference. Thirty-eight governments submitted 1067 papers and 1428 participants attended. The conference was wide in scope, embracing all major aspects of the peaceful applications of atomic energy.

  9. Polarized source upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Rummel, R.L.; Carter, E.P.; Westerfeldt, C.R.; Lovette, A.W.; Edwards, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The decision was made this past year to move the Lamb-shift polarized ion source which was first installed in the laboratory in 1970. The motivation was the need to improve the flexibility of spin-axis orientation by installing the ion source with a new Wien-filter spin precessor which is capable of rotating physically about the beam axis. The move of the polarized source was accomplished in approximately two months, with the accelerator being turned off for experiments during approximately four weeks of this time. The occasion of the move provided the opportunity to rewire completely the entire polarized ion source frame and to rebuild approximately half of the electronic chassis on the source. The result is an ion source which is now logically wired and carefully documented. Beams obtained from the source are much more stable than those previously available

  10. Spin polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.; Hernadi, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    Several ground state properties of (electron) spin-polarized deuterium (D) such as the energy, single quasiparticle energies and lifetimes, Landau parameters and sound velocities are evaluated. The calculations begin with the Kolos-Wolneiwicz potential and use the Galitskii-FeynmanHartree-Fock (GFHF) approximation. The deuteron nucleas has spin I = 1, and spin states I/sub z/ = 1,0,-1. We explore D 1 , D 2 and D 3 in which, respectively, one spin state only is populated, two states are equally populated, and three states are equally populated. We find the GFHF describes D 1 well, but D 2 and D 3 less well. The Landau parameters, F/sub L/, are small compared to liquid 3 He and very small for doubly polarized D 1 (i.e. the F/sub L/ decrease with nuclear polarization)

  11. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Polarized electron sources for high energy accelerators took a significant step forward with the introduction of a new laser-driven photocathode source for the SLC in 1992. With an electron beam polarization of >80% and with ∼99% uptime during continuous operation, this source is a key factor in the success of the current SLC high-energy physics program. The SLC source performance is used to illustrate both the capabilities and the limitations of solid-state sources. The beam requirements for future colliders are similar to that of the SLC with the addition in most cases of multiple-bunch operation. A design for the next generation accelerator source that can improve the operational characteristics and at least minimize some of the inherent limitations of present sources is presented. Finally, the possibilities for producing highly polarized electron beams for high-duty-factor accelerators are discussed

  12. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......, to reconstruct the distribution of the Cole-Cole parameters of the earth. The accurate modeling of the transmitter waveform had a strong influence on the forward response, and we showed that the difference between a solution using a step response and a solution using the accurate modeling often is above 100...

  13. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  14. Rocker shoe, minimalist shoe, and standard running shoe : A comparison of running economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steven; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas

    Objectives: Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and

  15. Modelling Polar Self Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Sayar, Mehmet; Solis, Francisco J.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2001-03-01

    Recent experimental studies in our group have shown that self assembled thin films of noncentrosymmetric supramolecular objects composed of triblock rodcoil molecules exhibit finite polar order. These aggregates have both long range dipolar and short range Ising-like interactions. We study the ground state of a simple model with these competing interactions. We find that the competition between Ising-like and dipolar forces yield a periodic domain structure, which can be controlled by adjusting the force constants and film thickness. When the surface forces are included in the potential, the system exhibits a finite macroscopic polar order.

  16. The polar mesosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Ray; Murphy, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The mesosphere region, which lies at the edge of space, contains the coldest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, with summer temperatures as low as minus 130 °C. In this extreme environment ice aerosol layers have appeared since the dawn of industrialization—whose existence may arguably be linked to human influence—on yet another layer of the Earth's fragile atmosphere. Ground-based and space-based experiments conducted in the Arctic and Antarctic during the International Polar Year (IPY) aim to address limitations in our knowledge and to advance our understanding of thermal and dynamical processes at play in the polar mesosphere

  17. Imaging with Polarized Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kardjilov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their zero charge, neutrons are able to pass through thick layers of matter (typically several centimeters while being sensitive to magnetic fields due to their intrinsic magnetic moment. Therefore, in addition to the conventional attenuation contrast image, the magnetic field inside and around a sample can be visualized by detecting changes of polarization in a transmitted beam. The method is based on the spatially resolved measurement of the cumulative precession angles of a collimated, polarized, monochromatic neutron beam that traverses a magnetic field or sample.

  18. Polarization splitter and polarization rotator designs based on transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Werner, Douglas H

    2008-11-10

    The transformation optics technique is employed in this paper to design two optical devices - a two-dimensional polarization splitter and a three-dimensional polarization rotator for propagating beams. The polarization splitter translates the TM- and the TE-polarized components of an incident beam in opposite directions (i.e., shifted up or shifted down). The polarization rotator rotates the polarization state of an incoming beam by an arbitrary angle. Both optical devices are reflectionless at the entry and exit interfaces. Design details and full-wave simulation results are provided.

  19. Polarization Studies in Fast-Ion Beam Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabert, E

    2001-01-01

    In a historical review, the observations and the insight gained from polarization studies of fast ions interacting with solid targets are presented. These began with J. Macek's recognition of zero-field quantum beats in beam-foil spectroscopy as indicating alignment, and D.G. Ellis' density operator analysis that suggested the observability of orientation when using tilted foils. Lastly H. Winter's studies of the ion-beam surface interaction at grazing incidence yielded the means to produce a high degree of nuclear orientation in ion beams

  20. Biomechanics of running indicates endothermy in bipedal dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman; Allen, Vivian; Hutchinson, John R

    2009-11-11

    One of the great unresolved controversies in paleobiology is whether extinct dinosaurs were endothermic, ectothermic, or some combination thereof, and when endothermy first evolved in the lineage leading to birds. Although it is well established that high, sustained growth rates and, presumably, high activity levels are ancestral for dinosaurs and pterosaurs (clade Ornithodira), other independent lines of evidence for high metabolic rates, locomotor costs, or endothermy are needed. For example, some studies have suggested that, because large dinosaurs may have been homeothermic due to their size alone and could have had heat loss problems, ectothermy would be a more plausible metabolic strategy for such animals. Here we describe two new biomechanical approaches for reconstructing the metabolic rate of 14 extinct bipedal dinosauriforms during walking and running. These methods, well validated for extant animals, indicate that during walking and slow running the metabolic rate of at least the larger extinct dinosaurs exceeded the maximum aerobic capabilities of modern ectotherms, falling instead within the range of modern birds and mammals. Estimated metabolic rates for smaller dinosaurs are more ambiguous, but generally approach or exceed the ectotherm boundary. Our results support the hypothesis that endothermy was widespread in at least larger non-avian dinosaurs. It was plausibly ancestral for all dinosauriforms (perhaps Ornithodira), but this is perhaps more strongly indicated by high growth rates than by locomotor costs. The polarity of the evolution of endothermy indicates that rapid growth, insulation, erect postures, and perhaps aerobic power predated advanced "avian" lung structure and high locomotor costs.

  1. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R. Fletcher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting Erun are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics.

  2. The effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Bellenger, Clint R; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-03-01

    The effect of footwear on running economy has been investigated in numerous studies. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has synthesised the available literature and the effect of footwear on running performance is not known. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners, by reviewing controlled trials that compare different footwear conditions or compare footwear with barefoot. The Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), EMBASE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception up until April 2014. Included articles reported on controlled trials that examined the effects of footwear or footwear characteristics (including shoe mass, cushioning, motion control, longitudinal bending stiffness, midsole viscoelasticity, drop height and comfort) on running performance or running economy and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Of the 1,044 records retrieved, 19 studies were included in the systematic review and 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No studies were identified that reported effects on running performance. Individual studies reported significant, but trivial, beneficial effects on running economy for comfortable and stiff-soled shoes [standardised mean difference (SMD) beneficial effect on running economy for cushioned shoes (SMD = 0.37; P beneficial effect on running economy for training in minimalist shoes (SMD = 0.79; P beneficial effects on running economy for light shoes and barefoot compared with heavy shoes (SMD running was identified (P running economy. Certain models of footwear and footwear characteristics can improve running economy. Future research in footwear performance should include measures of running performance.

  3. COMPASS polarized Drell-Yan experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Doshita, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    The COMPASS II started at 2012 that includes polarized Drell-Yan program with a polarized solid target. The availability of pion beam provides an access to the Drell-Yan physics throughout the process where quark(target)-antiquark(beam) pair annihilates electromagnetically with a production of dilepton pair. Study of angular dependencies of the Drell-Yan process cross-section allows us to access to parton distribution functions (PDFs) or, more precisely, a convolutions of various PDFs. The transversely polarized target together with negative pion beam is an important feature of the COMPASS Drell-Yan experiment, that provides us with unique data on transverse momentum dependent (TMD) PDFs. After a plot run in 2014, the experiment has just started in 2015. The role of the Drell-Yan experiment at COMPASS in TMD PDFs study, with a comparison to semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiment, is described. The experimental set-up, the status of the data taking in 2015 and preliminary analysis results in the 2...

  4. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T

    2013-01-01

    for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  5. CMB constraints on running non-Gaussianity

    OpenAIRE

    Oppizzi, Filippo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Arroja, Frederico; Bartolo, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    We develop a complete set of tools for CMB forecasting, simulation and estimation of primordial running bispectra, arising from a variety of curvaton and single-field (DBI) models of Inflation. We validate our pipeline using mock CMB running non-Gaussianity realizations and test it on real data by obtaining experimental constraints on the $f_{\\rm NL}$ running spectral index, $n_{\\rm NG}$, using WMAP 9-year data. Our final bounds (68\\% C.L.) read $-0.3< n_{\\rm NG}

  6. Running Injuries During Adolescence and Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabak, Brian J; Snitily, Brian; Milani, Carlo J E

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of running among young athletes has significantly increased over the past few decades. As the number of children who participate in running increases, so do the potential number of injuries to this group. Proper care of these athletes includes a thorough understanding of the unique physiology of the skeletally immature athlete and common injuries in this age group. Treatment should focus on athlete education, modification of training schedule, and correction of biomechanical deficits contributing to injury. Early identification and correction of these factors will allow a safe return to running sports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ATLAS Strip Detector: Operational Experience and Run1-> Run2 Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, Koichi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Large hadron collider was operated very successfully during the Run1 and provided a lot of opportunities of physics studies. It currently has a consolidation work toward to the operation at $\\sqrt{s}=14 \\mathrm{TeV}$ in Run2. The ATLAS experiment has achieved excellent performance in Run1 operation, delivering remarkable physics results. The SemiConductor Tracker contributed to the precise measurement of momentum of charged particles. This paper describes the operation experience of the SemiConductor Tracker in Run1 and the preparation toward to the Run2 operation during the LS1.

  8. Electricity prices and fuel costs. Long-run relations and short-run dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the long-run relation and short-run dynamics between electricity prices and three fossil fuel prices - coal, natural gas and crude oil - using annual data for the U.S. for 1960-2007. The results suggest (1) a stable long-run relation between real prices for electricity and coal (2) Bi-directional long-run causality between coal and electricity prices. (3) Insignificant long-run relations between electricity and crude oil and/or natural gas prices. And (4) no evidence of asymmetries in the adjustment of electricity prices to deviations from equilibrium. A number of implications are addressed. (author)

  9. Polarized coincidence electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimann, R.L.

    1975-03-01

    A study is made of the inclusive electroproduction of single hadrons off a polarized target. Bjorken scaling laws and the hadron azimuthal distribution are derived from the quark parton model. The polarization asymmetries scale when the target spin is along the direction of the virtual photon, and (apart from significant exception) vanish for transverse spin. These results have a simple explanation; emphasis is given both to the general mathematical formalism and to intuitive physical reasoning. Through this framework other cases are considered: quarks with anomalous magnetic moment; renormalization group effects and asymptotic freedom; production of vector mesons (whose spin state is analysed by their decay); relation to large transverse momentum hadron production; and a covariant parton model calculation. Spin 0 partons and Regge singularities are also considered. All of these cases (apart from the last two) modify the pattern of conclusions. Vector meson production shows polarization enhancements in the density matrix element rhosub(0+); the renormalization group approach does not lead to any significant suppressions. They are also less severe in parton models for large Psub(T) hadrons, and are not supported by the covariantly formulated calculation. The origins of these differences are isolated and used to exemplify the sensitivity polarized hadron electroproduction has to delicate detail that is otherwise concealed. (author)

  10. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  11. Optical neutron polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A neutron wave will be refracted by an appropriately varying potential. Optical neutron polarizers use spatially varying, spin- dependent potentials to refract neutrons of opposite spin states into different directions, so that an unpolarized beam will be split into two beams of complementary polarization by such a device. This paper will concentrate on two methods of producing spin-dependent potentials which are particularly well-suited to polarizing cold neutron beams, namely thin-film structures and field-gradient techniques. Thin-film optical devices, such as supermirror multilayer structures, are usually designed to deviate only one spin-state, so that they offer the possibility of making insertion (transmission) polarizers. Very good supermirrors may now be designed and fabricated, but it is not always straightforward to design mirror-based devices which are useful in real (divergent beam) applications, and some practical configurations will be discussed. Field-gradient devices, which are usually based on multipolar magnets, have tended to be too expensive for general use, but this may change with new developments in superconductivity. Dipolar and hexapolar configurations will be considered, with emphasis on the focusing characteristics of the latter. 21 refs., 7 figs

  12. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  13. The polarized EMC effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas

    2007-02-01

    We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

  14. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

    1980-01-01

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  15. Spin-polarized photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Peter D.

    1997-01-01

    Spin-polarized photoemission has developed into a versatile tool for the study of surface and thin film magnetism. In this review, we examine the methodology of the technique and its application to a number of different problems, including both valence band and core level studies. After a detailed review of spin-polarization measurement techniques and the related experimental requirements we consider in detail studies of the bulk properties both above and below the Curie temperature. This section also includes a discussion of observations relating to unique metastable phases obtained via epitaxial growth. The application of the technique to the study of surfaces, both clean and adsorbate covered, is reviewed. The report then examines, in detail, studies of the spin-polarized electronic structure of thin films and the related interfacial magnetism. Finally, observations of spin-polarized quantum well states in non-magnetic thin films are discussed with particular reference to their mediation of the oscillatory exchange coupling in related magnetic multilayers. (author)

  16. Polarization of Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.

    1957-01-01

    The numerical results for the polarization of Bremsstrahlung are presented. The multiple scattering of electrons in the target is taken into account. The angular-and photon energy dependences are seen on the curves for an incident 25 MeV electron energy. (Author) [fr

  17. No More Polarization, Please!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mia Reinholt

    and the increasing levels of complexities it entails, such polarization is not fruitful in the attempt to explain motivation of organizational members. This paper claims that a more nuanced perspective on motivation, acknowledging the co-existence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the possible interaction...

  18. DESY: HERA polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization

  19. Polarized Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Roessli, B.; Böni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The technique of polarized neutron scattering is reviewed with emphasis on applications. Many examples of the usefulness of the method in various fields of physics are given like the determination of spin density maps, measurement of complex magnetic structures with spherical neutron polarimetry, inelastic neutron scattering and separation of coherent and incoherent scattering with help of the generalized XYZ method.

  20. DESY: HERA polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-03-15

    The new HERA electron-proton collider at DESY in Hamburg achieved the first luminosity for electron-proton collisions on 19 October last year. Only one month later, on 20 November, HERA passed another important milestone with the observation of transverse electron polarization.

  1. Graphics of polar figure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this work, is that starting from a data file coming from a spectra that has been softened, and of the one that have been generated its coordinates to project it in stereographic form, to create the corresponding polar figure making use of the Cyber computer of the ININ by means of the GRAPHOS package. This work only requires a Beta, Fi and Intensity (I) enter data file. It starts of the existence of a softened spectra of which have been generated already with these data, making use of some language that in this case was FORTRAN for the Cyber computer, a program is generated supported in the Graphos package that allows starting of a reading of the Beta, Fi, I file, to generate the points in a stereographic projection and that it culminates with the graph of the corresponding polar figure. The program will request the pertinent information that is wanted to capture in the polar figure just as: date, name of the enter file, indexes of the polar figure, number of levels, radio of the stereographic projection (cms.), crystalline system to which belongs the sample, name the neuter graph file by create and to add the own general data. (Author)

  2. Polarized light and optical measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, D N; Ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Polarized Light and Optical Measurement is a five-chapter book that begins with a self-consistent conceptual picture of the phenomenon of polarization. Chapter 2 describes a number of interactions of light and matter used in devising optical elements in polarization studies. Specific optical elements are given in Chapter 3. The last two chapters explore the measurement of the state of polarization and the various roles played in optical instrumentation by polarization and polarization-sensitive elements. This book will provide useful information in this field of interest for research workers,

  3. Common running musculoskeletal injuries among recreational half ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    probing the prevalence and nature of running musculoskeletal injuries in the 12 months preceding ... or agony, and which prevented them from physical activity for ..... injuries to professional football players: Developing the UEFA model.

  4. TEK twisted gradient flow running coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    We measure the running of the twisted gradient flow coupling in the Twisted Eguchi-Kawai (TEK) model, the SU(N) gauge theory on a single site lattice with twisted boundary conditions in the large N limit.

  5. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Budker, D.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Appelt, S.; Bouchard, L. S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ($\\sim$100 Hz) polarization reversal, and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  6. Characterization and Analysis of Ionic Zinc Alloy Running a Potential Dynamic Polarization in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaifol Samsu; Muhammad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is an active metal. The reactive nature of zinc allows it to be used for sacrificial anode in cathodic protection systems by electrically coupled to the protected metal. Zinc is especially well suited for cathodic protection on ships that move between salt water and harbors in brackish rivers or estuaries (1). Zinc anodes also are used to protect ballast tank, heat exchangers, and many mechanical components on ships, coastal power plants, and similar structures. Cathodic protective by zinc is used in sea water, brackish water, fresh water, and in some soil. The relative reactivity of zinc and its ability to attract oxidation to itself makes it an efficient sacrificial anode in cathodic protection (2). For example, cathodic protection of a buried pipeline can be achieved by connecting anodes made from zinc to the pipe. Zinc acts as the anode (negative terminus) by slowly corroding away as it passes electric current to the steel pipeline. When exposed to environment containing halide ions, of which the chloride (Cl-) is the most frequently encountered in service, the oxide film breaks down at specific points leading to the formation of pits on the zinc surface (3). (author)

  7. Run-2 Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Abner; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. With the large increase in collision energy with the LHC Run-2 (from 8TeV to 13 TeV) the sensitivity to heavy strongly produced SUSY particles (squarks and gluinos) increases tremendously. This talk presents recent ATLAS Run-2 searches for such particles in final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, and possibly light leptons.

  8. Running heavy-quark masses in DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Moch, S.

    2011-07-01

    We report on determinations of the running mass for charm quarks from deep-inelastic scattering reactions. The method provides complementary information on this fundamental parameter from hadronic processes with space-like kinematics. The obtained values are consistent with but systematically lower than the world average as published by the PDG. We also address the consequences of the running mass scheme for heavy-quark parton distributions in global fits to deep-inelastic scattering data. (orig.)

  9. The meaning of running away for girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. The meaning of running away as it emerged from the girls' descriptions of their lives prior to leaving home was that of survival - both psychological and physical. The girls' stories centered on their evolving experiences of alienation, loneliness and detachment, and the failure of significant relationships at home and outside of home to provide them with the support they needed. These experiences laid the ground for the "final moments" before leaving, when a feeling of "no alternative," a hope for a better future, and various particular triggers led the girls to the decision to leave home. Participants' insights about the dynamics leading to running-away center on the meaning of family relationships, particularly those with the mother, as constituting the girl's psychological home. The girls seemed to perceive running away as an inevitability, rather than a choice, and even portrayed the running away as "living suicide." Yet, their stories clearly demonstrate their ability to cope and the possession of strengths and skills that enabled them to survive in extremely difficult home situations. The findings of this research highlight the importance of improving services for reaching out and supporting girls who are on the verge of running away from home. Such services should be tailored to the needs of girls who experience extreme but often silenced distress at home, and should facilitate alternative solutions to the girls' plight other than running away. An understanding of the dynamics leading to running away from the girls' perspective has the potential to improve the efficacy of services provided by contributing to the creation of a caring, empowering, understanding and trustful professional

  10. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the π degree production at high p perpendicular and in the Λ (Σ degree), π ± , π degree production at large x F , and Δσ L (pp, bar pp) measurements. 18 refs

  11. NUCLEON POLARIZATION IN 3-BODY MODELS OF POLARIZED LI-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHELLINGERHOUT, NW; KOK, LP; COON, SA; ADAM, RM

    1993-01-01

    Just as He-3 --> can be approximately characterized as a polarized neutron target, polarized Li-6D has been advocated as a good isoscalar nuclear target for the extraction of the polarized gluon content of the nucleon. The original argument rests upon a presumed ''alpha + deuteron'' picture of Li-6,

  12. [Osteoarthritis from long-distance running?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, E; Wörtler, K; Imhoff, A

    2005-06-01

    Long distance running has become a fashionable recreational activity. This study investigated the effects of external impact loading on bone and cartilage introduced by performing a marathon race. Seven beginners were compared to six experienced recreational long distance runners and two professional athletes. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and knee before and after a marathon run. Coronal T1 weighted and STIR sequences were used. The pre MRI served as a baseline investigation and monitored the training effect. All athletes demonstrated normal findings in the pre run scan. All but one athlete in the beginner group demonstrated joint effusions after the race. The experienced and professional runners failed to demonstrate pathology in the post run scans. Recreational and professional long distance runners tolerate high impact forces well. Beginners demonstrate significant changes on the post run scans. Whether those findings are a result of inadequate training (miles and duration) warrant further studies. We conclude that adequate endurance training results in adaptation mechanisms that allow the athlete to compensate for the stresses introduced by long distance running and do not predispose to the onset of osteoarthritis. Significant malalignment of the lower extremity may cause increased focal loading of joint and cartilage.

  13. Running With an Elastic Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Michael S; Kota, Sridhar; Young, Aaron; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many lower limb robotic exoskeletons that have been tested for human walking, few devices have been tested for assisting running. It is possible that a pseudo-passive elastic exoskeleton could benefit human running without the addition of electrical motors due to the spring-like behavior of the human leg. We developed an elastic lower limb exoskeleton that added stiffness in parallel with the entire lower limb. Six healthy, young subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.3 m/s with and without the exoskeleton. Although the exoskeleton was designed to provide ~50% of normal leg stiffness during running, it only provided 24% of leg stiffness during testing. The difference in added leg stiffness was primarily due to soft tissue compression and harness compliance decreasing exoskeleton displacement during stance. As a result, the exoskeleton only supported about 7% of the peak vertical ground reaction force. There was a significant increase in metabolic cost when running with the exoskeleton compared with running without the exoskeleton (ANOVA, P exoskeletons for human running are human-machine interface compliance and the extra lower limb inertia from the exoskeleton.

  14. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, R M; Gallas, E J; Tseng, J C-L; Viegas, F; Vinek, E

    2011-01-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called 'runBrowser' makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on PHP and JavaScript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attributes, but also gives the user information at each stage about the relationship between the conditions chosen and the remaining conditions criteria available. When a set of COMA selections are complete, runBrowser produces a human readable report as well as an XML file in a standardized ATLAS format. This XML can be saved for later use or refinement in a future runBrowser session, shared with physics/detector groups, or used as input to ELSSI (event level Metadata browser) or other ATLAS run or event processing services.

  15. Source of spin polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.T.; Meier, F.A.; Siegmann, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of producing intense beams of polarized free electrons in which a semiconductor with a spin orbit split valence band and negative electron affinity is used as a photocathode and irradiated with circularly polarized light

  16. Linearly polarized photons at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, Holger [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the nucleon resonance regime in meson photoproduction, double polarization experiments are currently performed at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The experiments make use of a polarized target and circularly or linearly polarized photon beams. Linearly polarized photons are produced by coherent bremsstrahlung from an accurately aligned diamond crystal. The orientation of the crystal with respect to the electron beam is measured using the Stonehenge-Technique. Both, the energy of maximum polarization and the plane of polarization, can be deliberately chosen for the experiment. The linearly polarized beam provides the basis for the measurement of azimuthal beam asymmetries, such as {sigma} (unpolarized target) and G (polarized target). These observables are extracted in various single and multiple meson photoproduction channels.

  17. North Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  18. The HERMES polarized hydrogen and deuterium gas target in the HERA electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The HERMES hydrogen and deuterium nuclear-polarized gas targets have been in use since 1996 with the polarized electron beam of HERA at DESY to study the spin structure of the nucleon. Polarized atoms from a Stern-Gerlach Atomic Beam Source are injected into a storage cell internal to the HERA electron ring. Atoms diffusing from the center of the storage cell into a side tube are analyzed to determine the atomic fraction and the atomic polarizations. The atoms have a nuclear polarization, the axis of which is defined by an external magnetic holding field. The holding field was longitudinal during 1996-2000, and was changed to transverse in 2001. The design of the target is described, the method for analyzing the target polarization is outlined, and the performance of the target in the various running periods is presented

  19. The HERMES polarized hydrogen and deuterium gas target in the HERA electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Peking University, Beijing

    2004-08-01

    The HERMES hydrogen and deuterium nuclear-polarized gas targets have been in use since 1996 with the polarized electron beam of HERA at DESY to study the spin structure of the nucleon. Polarized atoms from a Stern-Gerlach Atomic Beam Source are injected into a storage cell internal to the HERA electron ring. Atoms diffusing from the center of the storage cell into a side tube are analyzed to determine the atomic fraction and the atomic polarizations. The atoms have a nuclear polarization, the axis of which is defined by an external magnetic holding field. The holding field was longitudinal during 1996-2000, and was changed to transverse in 2001. The design of the target is described, the method for analyzing the target polarization is outlined, and the performance of the target in the various running periods is presented. (orig.)

  20. Stanford polarized atomic beam target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavis, D.G.; Dunham, J.S.; Hugg, J.W.; Glavish, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    A polarized atomic beam source was used to produce an atomic hydrogen beam which was in turn used as a polarized proton target. A target density of 2 x 10'' atoms/cm 3 and a target polarization of 0.37 without the use of rf transitions were measured. These measurements indicate that a number of experiments are currently feasible with a variety of polarized target beams

  1. Three-photon polarization ququarts: polarization, entanglement and Schmidt decompositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, M V; Miklin, N I

    2015-01-01

    We consider polarization states of three photons, propagating collinearly and having equal given frequencies but with arbitrary distributed horizontal or vertical polarizations of photons. A general form of such states is a superposition of four basic three-photon polarization modes, to be referred to as the three-photon polarization ququarts (TPPQ). All such states can be considered as consisting of one- and two-photon parts, which can be entangled with each other. The degrees of entanglement and polarization, as well as the Schmidt decomposition and Stokes vectors of TPPQ are found and discussed. (paper)

  2. Polarization effects in hadron fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednicky, R.

    1984-01-01

    Hadron polarization (spin alignment) and polarization asymmetry are discussed in terms of the quark recombination model with the spin-orbit interaction taken into account. It is shown that predictions of this model are at least in qualitative agreement with experimental data. Various polarization mechanisms in terms of this model and the possibility of their checking are also discussed

  3. Radiative Forcing from Emissivity Response in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Feldman, D.; Huang, X.; Flanner, M.; Chen, X.; Yang, P.; Kuo, C.

    2016-12-01

    A detailed assessment of the radiative balance and its controlling factors in polar regions is a critical prerequisite for understanding and predicting the polar amplification of climate change. Accordingly, we investigate the role of infrared surface emissivity in polar regions as a potential feedback mechanism following Feldman et al, 2014. In this work, we investigate the climatic response of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with spectral emissivity values that are implemented in a physically consistent manner for non-vegetated surfaces. In a control model run where 1850 CO2 volume mixing ratio (vmr) is fixed, the updated spectral emissivity values are imposed for modified surface boundary conditions in the atmospheric model component. Climatic stability in the emergent globally averaged surface temperature is observed on decadal scales for an unforced (control) run. Analytic kernels representing the change in top of the atmosphere OLR given changes in emissivity are calculated on-line during the model runs, incorporating spatially and temporally varied humidity profiles impactful to transmission. Globally averaged kernels of the sensitivity of OLR to surface emissivity calculated for control and ramped CO2 runs exhibit temporal evolution with statistically significant differences in shape. Additionally, kernel and spectrally-averaged emissivity differences between monthly-averaged maps of control and ramped runs demonstrate a seasonal cycle. Similar to the treatment of cryosphere radiative forcing in Flanner et al, 2011, we define emissivity response as the product of the emissivity kernel and the change in month-to-month emissivity. At the end of 20th century, the 10-year emissivity forcing averaged at latitudes > 60°, is found to be negative (positive) in January (July), due to increasing (decreasing) sea-ice. These findings indicate that differences in surface emissivity between frozen and unfrozen surfaces decrease wintertime and increase summertime

  4. Detection of polar vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for monitoring for polar vapours in a gas consists of (i) a body member defining a passage through which a continuous stream of the gas passes; (ii) an ionising source associated with a region of the passage such that ionization of the gas stream takes place substantially only within the region and also any polar vapour molecules present therein will react with the gas formed to generate ion clusters; and (iii) an electrode for collecting ions carried by the gas stream, the electrode being positioned in the passage downstream of the region and separated from the region by a sufficient distance to ensure that no substantial number of the gas ions formed in said region remains in the gas stream at the collector electrode whilst ensuring that a substantial proportion of the ion clusters formed in the region does remain in the gas stream at the collector electrode. (author)

  5. Perspectives for polarized antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenisa, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Polarized antiprotons would open a new window in hadron physics providing access to a wealth of single and double spin observables in proton-antiproton interactions. The PAX Collaboration aims to perform the first ever measurement of the spin-dependence of the proton-antiproton cross section at the AD ring at CERN. The spin-dependence of the cross section could in principle be exploited by the spin-filtering technique for the production of a polarized antiproton beam. As a preparatory phase to the experimentation at AD, the PAX Collaboration has initiated a series of dedicated studies with protons at the COSY-ring in Juelich (Germany), aimed at the commissioning of the experimental apparatus and confirmation of the predictions for spin-filtering with protons.

  6. The Polar Cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtet, J.A.; Egeland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The upper atmosphere at high latitudes is often called the ''earth's window to outer space.'' Through various electrodynamic coupling processes, as well as direct transfer of particles, many of the geophysical effects displayed are direct manifestations of phenomena occurring in deep space. The high latitude ionosphere also exerts a feedback on the regions of the magnetosphere and atmosphere to which it is coupled. Of particular interest are the sections of the near space known as the Polar Cusp. A vast portion of the Earth's magnetic field envelope is electrically connected to these regions. This geometry results in a spatial mapping of the magnetospheric processes and a focusing on the ionosphere. In the Polar Cusps, the solar wind plasma also has direct access to the upper atmosphere

  7. Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nungesser, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  8. Polarized electrogowdy spacetimes censored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nungesser, Ernesto, E-mail: ernesto.nungesser@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-05-01

    A sketch of the proof of strong cosmic censorship is presented for a class of solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, those with polarized Gowdy symmetry. A key element of the argument is the observation that by means of a suitable choice of variables the central equations in this problem can be written in a form where they are identical to the central equations for general (i.e. non-polarized) vacuum Gowdy spacetimes. Using this it is seen that the results of Ringstroem on strong cosmic censorship in the vacuum case have implications for the Einstein-Maxwell case. Working out the geometrical meaning of these analytical results leads to the main conclusion.

  9. Polarization of lanthanum nucleus by dynamic polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshikazu; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Masuda, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Kimio

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been carried out concerning the application of a dynamic polarization method to polarizing lanthanum fluoride single crystal to be employed as target in experiments with time reversal invariance. The present report briefly outlines the dynamic polarization method and describes some preliminary studies carried out so far. Dynamic polarization is of particular importance because no techniques are currently available that can produce highly polarized static nucleus. Spin interaction between electrons and protons (nuclei) plays a major role in the dynamic polarization method. In a thermal equilibrium state, electrons are polarized almost completely while most protons are not polarized. Positively polarized proton spin is produced by applying microwave to this system. The most hopeful candidate target material is single crystal of LaF 3 containing neodymium because the crystal is chemically stable and easy to handle. The spin direction is of great importance in experiments with time reversal invariance. The spin of neutrons in the target can be cancelled by adjusting the external magnetic field applied to a frozen polarized target. In a frozen spin state, the polarity decreases slowly with a relaxation time that depends on the external magnetic field and temperature. (N.K.)

  10. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  11. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d- 3 He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs

  12. Polish polar research (outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Ludwik Birkenmajer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes Polish research and discoveries in the Arctic and the Antarctic since the 19th century. The author is a geologist and since 1956 has been engaged in scientific field research on Spitsbergen, Greenland and Antarctica (23 expeditions. For many years chairman of the Committee on Polar Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, he is now its Honorary Chairman.

  13. South Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    4 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a polgyon-cracked surface, into which deep, somewhat kidney-bean-shaped pits have formed. These are landscapes of the martian south polar residual cap. This view was captured during May 2005. Location near: 86.9oS, 5.1oW Image width: 1.5 km (0.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season Southern Spring

  14. Novel polar sedimentary porphyrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, W. G.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1989-11-01

    Two polar nickel porphyrins in Messel oil shale are shown to be the C 32 and C 30 components IIIa,b. In the sample examined, component IIIa is by far the major porphyrin alcohol and is present in an abundance similar to that of the major nickel alkyl porphyrin. These primary alcohols, which do not appear to be artifacts, are structurally related to alkyl porphyrins reported previously in Serpiano oil shale.

  15. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com

    2016-10-07

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge. - Highlights: • We investigated the polarization properties of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization. • We studied the evolution of transverse intensity profiles for the three components of these beams. • The intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components can reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  16. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run 1 and Prospects for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Mitani, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS tau trigger is designed to select hadronic decays of the tau leptons. Tau lepton plays an important role in Standard Model (SM) physics, such as in Higgs boson decays. Tau lepton is also important in beyond the SM (BSM) scenarios, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles, as they are often produced preferentially in these models. During the 2010-2012 LHC run (Run1), the tau trigger was accomplished successfully, which leads several rewarding results such as evidence for $H\\rightarrow \\tau\\tau$. From the 2015 LHC run (Run2), LHC will be upgraded and overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up) are expected to increase by a factor two. It will be challenging to control trigger rates while keeping interesting physics events. This paper summarized the tau trigger performance in Run1 and its prospects for Run2.

  17. Applications of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1993-01-01

    The additional spin degree of freedom of the neutron can be made use of in neutron scattering work in two fundamental ways: (a) directly for the identification of magnetic scattering effects and (b) indirectly as a spectroscopic tool for modulating and analysing beams. Although strong magnetic scattering contributions can often be studied by unpolarized neutrons, a fully unambiguous separation of nuclear and magnetic phenomena can only be achieved by the additional information provided by polarized neutrons, especially if one of the two kinds of contributions is weak compared to the other. In the most general case a sample with both magnetic and nuclear features can be characterized by as many as 16 independent dynamic correlation functions instead of the single well known S(q, ω) for non-magnetic nuclear scattering only. Polarization analysis in principle allows one to determine all these 16 functions. The indirect applications of polarized neutrons are also steadily gaining importance. The most widely used method of this kind, the application of Larmor precessions for high resolution energy analysis in Neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy opened up a whole new domain in inelastic neutron scattering which was not accessible to any other spectroscopic method with or without neutrons before. (author)

  18. Pliocene geomagnetic polarity epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Cox, A.; Doell, Richard R.; Gromme, C.S.

    1967-01-01

    A paleomagnetic and K-Ar dating study of 44 upper Miocene and Pliocene volcanic units from the western United States suggests that the frequency of reversals of the earth's magnetic field during Pliocene time may have been comparable with that of the last 3.6 m.y. Although the data are too limited to permit the formal naming of any new polarity epochs or events, four polarity transitions have been identified: the W10 R/N boundary at 3.7 ?? 0.1 m.y., the A12 N/R boundary at 4.9 ?? 0.1 m.y., the W32 N/R boundary at 9.0 ?? 0.2m.y., and the W36 R/N boundary at 10.8 ?? 0.3 - 1.0 m.y. The loss of absolute resolution of K-Ar dating in older rocks indicates that the use of well defined stratigraphic successions to identify and date polarity transitions will be important in the study of Pliocene and older reversals. ?? 1967.

  19. Not Just Running: Coping with and Managing Everyday Life through Road-Running

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Simon

    2014-01-01

    From the external form, running looks like running. Yet this alikeness masks a hugely divergent practice consisting of different movements, meanings and experiences. In this paper I wish to shed light upon some of these different ‘ways of running’ and in turn identify a range of the sometimes surprising, sometimes significant and sometimes banal benefits that road-running can gift its practitioners beyond simply exercise and physical fitness. Drawing on an innovative mapping and ethnographic ...

  20. π--induced single charge exchange on polarized 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Q.; Burleson, S.; Blanchard, T.

    1995-01-01

    Asymmetries, A y , for the (π - ,π 0 ) reaction on polarized 3 He were measured using the pion beam of the P3W channel at LAMPF. The π 0 were detected with the new Neutral Meson Spectrometer (NMS) in coincidence with recoiling tritons. The recoil detector consisted of scintillation-counter telescopes and a wire chamber that provided energy-loss and direction information, respectively. The polarized gaseous 3 He target developed at TRIUMF was modified and run with the use of two diode lasers. Polarizations were typically 50%. The A y taken at T π = 200 MeV between 60 and 105 degrees were found to be strongly angle-dependent. The results will be compared with the theoretical predictions

  1. Amplitude and polarization asymmetries in a ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, L. L.; Buholz, N. E.

    1971-01-01

    Asymmetric amplitude effects between the oppositely directed traveling waves in a He-Ne ring laser are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. These effects make it possible to detect angular orientations of an inner-cavity bar with respect to the plane of the ring cavity. The amplitude asymmetries occur when a birefringent bar is placed in the three-mirror ring cavity, and an axial magnetic field is applied to the active medium. A simplified theoretical analysis is performed by using a first order perturbation theory to derive an expression for the polarization of the active medium, and a set of self-consistent equations are derived to predict threshold conditions. Polarization asymmetries between the oppositely directed waves are also predicted. Amplitude asymmetries similar in nature to those predicted at threshold occur when the laser is operating in 12-15 free-running modes, and polarization asymmetry occurs simultaneously.

  2. Towards helium-3 neutron polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasset, F.

    1995-01-01

    With a large absorption cross-section entirely due to antiparallel spin capture, polarized helium-3 is presently the most promising broad-band polarizer for thermal and epithermal neutrons. Immediate interest was raised amongst the neutron community when a dense gaseous 3 He polarizer was used for the first time in 1988, on a pulsed neutron beam at Los Alamos. With 20 W of laser power on a 30 cm long, 8.6 atm target, 40% 3 He polarization was achieved in a recent polarized electron scattering experiment at SLAC. In this technique the 3 He nuclei are polarized directly at an appropriate high pressure through spin-exchange collisions with a thick, optically pumped rubidium vapor. A different and competitive approach is being presently developed at Mainz University in collaboration with ENS Paris and now the ILL. A discharge is established in pure 3 He at low pressure producing excited metastable atoms which can be optically pumped with infra-red light. Highly effective exchange collision with the atoms remaining in the ground state quickly produces 75% polarization at 1.5 mbar. A truly non-magnetic system then compresses the polarized gas up to several bars as required. The most recent machine comprises a two-stage glass-titanium compressor. In less than 1 h it can inflate a 100 cm 3 target cell with three bars of polarized gas. The very long relaxation times (several days) now being obtained at high pressure with a special metallic coating on the glass walls, the polarized cell can be detached and inserted in the neutron beam as polarizer. We expect 50% 3 He-polarization to be reached soon, allowing such filters to compete favorably with existing Heusler-crystal polarizers at thermal and short neutron wavelengths. It must be stressed that such a system based on a 3 He polarization factory able to feed several passive, transportable, polarizers is well matched to neutron scattering needs. (orig.)

  3. Recent experience in accelerating polarized beam at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    The most recent operation of the AGS for polarized protons occurred in December, 1987 and January, 1988. The primary purpose during this period was to tune up the accelerator as soon as possible and to provide a usable polarized beam for high energy physics. We succeeded in providing 1--2 /times/ 10 10 polarized protons per pulse at 18.5 GeV/c with an average polarization of 43 +- 3% and a peak of 52%. The conditions for this run differed in some respects from the previous run done in 1986. Due to problems with the main ring power supply, we were forced to use a back-up MG set which was only capable of 60% of the normal field rate of rise. This, of course enhanced the effect of the depolarizing resonances. A second difference was the fact that a complete horizontal and vertical realignment of the ring magnets was done during the 1987 summer shutdown. In addition, the fast pulsed quadrupole positions were readjusted with respect to the equilibrium orbit. It had been suspected that misalignment of these quads was responsible for large transverse emittance growth in both planes. We will look at the effects of these differences, but the bottom line is that the ''standard correction techniques'' worked as expected. 2 refs., 6 figs

  4. Students' Gender Stereotypes about Running in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Lin, Shuqiong; Gao, Zan; Francis, Xueying

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred forty-six students (132 boys, 114 girls) were tracked from fifth to eighth grades, and changes in gender stereotypes about running as a male sport, running performance, interest in running, and intention for future running participation were assessed. Results revealed that neither sex held gender stereotypes about running as a male…

  5. ALICE HLT Run 2 performance overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Lindenstruth, Volker; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    For the LHC Run 2 the ALICE HLT architecture was consolidated to comply with the upgraded ALICE detector readout technology. The software framework was optimized and extended to cope with the increased data load. Online calibration of the TPC using online tracking capabilities of the ALICE HLT was deployed. Offline calibration code was adapted to run both online and offline and the HLT framework was extended to support that. The performance of this schema is important for Run 3 related developments. An additional data transport approach was developed using the ZeroMQ library, forming at the same time a test bed for the new data flow model of the O2 system, where further development of this concept is ongoing. This messaging technology was used to implement the calibration feedback loop augmenting the existing, graph oriented HLT transport framework. Utilising the online reconstruction of many detectors, a new asynchronous monitoring scheme was developed to allow real-time monitoring of the physics performance of the ALICE detector, on top of the new messaging scheme for both internal and external communication. Spare computing resources comprising the production and development clusters are run as a tier-2 GRID site using an OpenStack-based setup. The development cluster is running continuously, the production cluster contributes resources opportunistically during periods of LHC inactivity.

  6. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, A Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in up to five times higher rates of processes of interest. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event processing farm. A few examples will be shown, such as the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy. Finally, the status of the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance during the 2015 run will be presented. (paper)

  7. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLosnegard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL•kg-1•min-1 participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis with subsequent criteria for interpreting the magnitude of correlation (r. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81 and a large correlation between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53 and double poling and running (r = 0.58. There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23, cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46, body mass (r = -0.09-0.46 and body height (r = 0.11-0.36. In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could only moderately be explained by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height and therefore we suggest that other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  8. The CMS trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2018-01-01

    During its second period of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of approximately 2$\\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realised by a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm.\\\\ In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has undergone a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT went through big improvements; in particular, new ap...

  9. Chaotic inflation with curvaton induced running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2014-01-01

    While dust contamination now appears as a likely explanation of the apparent tension between the recent BICEP2 data and the Planck data, we will here explore the consequences of a large running in the spectral index as suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration as an alternative explanation of the app......While dust contamination now appears as a likely explanation of the apparent tension between the recent BICEP2 data and the Planck data, we will here explore the consequences of a large running in the spectral index as suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration as an alternative explanation...... of the apparent tension, but which would be in conflict with prediction of the simplest model of chaotic inflation. The large field chaotic model is sensitive to UV physics, and the nontrivial running of the spectral index suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration could therefore, if true, be telling us some...... the possibility that the running could be due to some other less UV sensitive degree of freedom. As an example, we ask if it is possible that the curvature perturbation spectrum has a contribution from a curvaton, which makes up for the large running in the spectrum. We find that this effect could mask...

  10. Habitual Minimalist Shod Running Biomechanics and the Acute Response to Running Barefoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Nicholas; Darragh, Ian A J; Divekar, Nikhil V; Lamberts, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether habitual minimalist shoe runners present with purported favorable running biomechanithat reduce running injury risk such as initial loading rate. Eighteen minimalist and 16 traditionally cushioned shod runners were assessed when running both in their preferred training shoe and barefoot. Ankle and knee joint kinetics and kinematics, initial rate of loading, and footstrike angle were measured. Sagittal ankle and knee joint stiffness were also calculated. Results of a two-factor ANOVA presented no group difference in initial rate of loading when participants were running either shod or barefoot; however, initial loading rate increased for both groups when running barefoot (p=0.008). Differences in footstrike angle were observed between groups when running shod, but not when barefoot (minimalist:8.71±8.99 vs. traditional: 17.32±11.48 degrees, p=0.002). Lower ankle joint stiffness was found in both groups when running barefoot (p=0.025). These findings illustrate that risk factors for injury potentially differ between the two groups. Shoe construction differences do change mechanical demands, however, once habituated to the demands of a given shoe condition, certain acute favorable or unfavorable responses may be moderated. The purported benefits of minimalist running shoes in mimicking habitual barefoot running is questioned, and risk of injury may not be attenuated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Neural network-based run-to-run controller using exposure and resist thickness adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Shane; Barry, Ronan

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a run-to-run control algorithm using a feedforward neural network, trained using the backpropagation training method. The algorithm is used to predict the critical dimension of the next lot using previous lot information. It is compared to a common prediction algorithm - the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) and is shown to give superior prediction performance in simulations. The manufacturing implementation of the final neural network showed significantly improved process capability when compared to the case where no run-to-run control was utilised.

  12. The running pattern and its importance in running long-distance gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Hoffman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The running pattern is individual for each runner, regardless of distance. We can characterize it as the sum of the data of the runner (age, height, training time, etc. and the parameters of his run. Building the proper technique should focus first and foremost on the work of movement coordination and the power of the runner. In training the correct running steps we can use similar tools as working on deep feeling. The aim of this paper was to define what we can call a running pattern, what is its influence in long-distance running, and the relationship between the training technique and the running pattern. The importance of a running pattern in long-distance racing is immense, as the more distracted and departed from the norm, the greater the harm to the body will cause it to repetition in long run. Putting on training exercises that shape the technique is very important and affects the running pattern significantly.

  13. Transport of mass goods on the top run and bottom run of belt conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, D

    1977-06-01

    For combined coal winning from the collieries 'General Blumenthal' and 'Ewald Fortsetzung' a large belt conveyor plant was taken into operation which is able to transport 1360 tons/h in the top run and 300 tons/h of dirt in the bottom run. The different types of coal are transported separately in intermittent operation with the aid of bunker systems connected to the front and rear of the belt conveyor. Persons can be transported in the top run as well as in the bottom run.

  14. Review of polarized ammonium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tatsuo

    1987-01-01

    Recently, ammonia (NH 3 ) and deutron ammonia (ND 3 ), instead of conventional alcohol substances, have been used more frequently as a polarized target substance for experiments of polarization at high energy regions. This article reviews major features of the polarized (deutron) ammonia targets. The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNT) method is widely used in high energy polarization experiments. While only a low polarization degree of hydrogen nucleus of 1.7 percent can be obtained by the Brute force method, DNP can produce polarization as high as ∼ 90 percent (2.5 T, ∼ 200 mK). In 1979, ammonia was irradiated with radiations to form NH 2 free radicals, resulting in the achievement of a high polarization degree of greater than 90 percent (hydrogen). Since then, ammonia and deutron ammonia have increasingly been replacing alcohols including butanol. Irradiation of a target substance with radiations destroys the structure of the substance, leading to a decrease in polarization degree. However, ammonia produces unpaired electrons as a result of irradiation, allowing it to be highly resistant to radiation. This report also present some study results, including observations on effects of radiation on the polarization degree of a target, effects of annealing, and polarization of 14 N. A process for producing an ammonia target is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  15. A Si nanocube array polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghua; Jiang, Yingjie; Xing, Li; Yao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    We have proposed a full dielectric (silicon) nanocube array polarizer based on a silicon dioxide substrate. Each polarization unit column includes a plurality of equal spaced polarization units. By optimizing the length, the width, the height of the polarization units and the center distance of adjacent polarization unit (x direction and y direction), an extinction ratio (ER) of higher than 25dB was obtained theoretically when the incident light wavelength is 1550nm. while for applications of most polarization optical elements, ER above 10dB is enough. With this condition, the polarizer we designed can work in a wide wavelength range from 1509.31nm to 1611.51nm. Compared with the previous polarizer, we have introduced a polarizer which is a full dielectric device, which solves the problems of low efficiency caused by Ohmic loss and weak coupling. Furthermore, compared with the existing optical polarizers, our polarizer has the advantages of thin thickness, small size, light weight, and low processing difficulty, which is in line with the future development trend of optical elements.

  16. Polarization: A must for fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didelez J.-P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The complete polarization of DT fuel would increase the fusion reactivity by 50% in magnetic as well as in inertial confinements. The persistence of polarization in a fusion process could be tested, using a terawatt laser hitting a polarized HD target. The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse producing a 3He and a neutron in the final state. The angular distribution of the emitted neutrons and the change in the corresponding total Cross Section (CS can sign the polarization persistence. The polarization of solid H2, D2 or T2 Hydrogen isotopes is very difficult. However, it has been possible to polarize HD, a hetero-molecular form of Hydrogen, by static polarization, at very low temperature and very high field. The radioactivity of DT molecules forbids there high polarization by the static method, therefore one has to develop the Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP by RF transitions. The DNP of HD has been investigated in the past. The magnetic properties of HD and DT molecules are very similar, it is therefore expected that any polarization result obtained with HD could be extrapolated to DT.

  17. Beam polarization at the ILC. The physics impact and the accelerator solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurand, B. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Phys. Inst.; Bailey, I. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Cockcroft Inst.; Bartels, C. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (DE)] (and others)

    2009-03-15

    In this contribution accelerator solutions for polarized beams and their impact on physics measurements are discussed. Focus are physics requirements for precision polarimetry near the interaction point and their realization with polarized sources. Based on the ILC baseline programme as described in the Reference Design Report (RDR), recent developments are discussed and evaluated taking into account physics runs at beam energies between 100 GeV and 250 GeV, as well as calibration runs on the Z-pole and options as the 1 TeV upgrade and GigaZ. (orig.)

  18. Elite Polarization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Mullinix, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Elite polarization has reshaped American politics and is an increasingly salient aspect of news coverage within the United States. As a consequence, a burgeoning body of research attempts to unravel the effects of elite polarization on the mass public. However, we know very little about how...... polarization is communicated to the public by news media. We report the results of one of the first content analyses to delve into the nature of news coverage of elite polarization. We show that such coverage is predominantly critical of polarization. Moreover, we show that unlike coverage of politics focused...... on individual politicians, coverage of elite polarization principally frames partisan divisions as rooted in the values of the parties rather than strategic concerns. We build on these novel findings with two survey experiments exploring the influence of these features of polarization news coverage on public...

  19. The polarization of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It is insufficient to know coordinates and momentum to describe a state of a neutron. It is necessary to define a spin orientation. As far as it is known from quantum mechanics, a half spin has a projection in the positive direction or in the negative direction. The probability of both projections in an unpolarized beam is equal. If a direction exists, in which the projection is more probably then beam is called polarized in this direction. It is essential to know polarization of neutrons for characteristics of a neutron source, which is emitting it. The question of polarization of fast neutrons came up in 50's. The present work is the review of polarization of fast neutrons and methods of polarization analysis. This also includes information about polarization of fast neutrons from first papers, which described polarization in the D(d,n) 3 He, 7 Li (p,n) 7 Be, T(p,n) 3 He reactions. (authors)

  20. Is running associated with degenerative joint disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panush, R.S.; Schmidt, C.; Caldwell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the long-term effects, if any, of running on the musculoskeletal system. The authors compared the prevalence of degenerative joint disease among 17 male runners with 18 male nonrunners. Running subjects (53% marathoners) ran a mean of 44.8 km (28 miles)/wk for 12 years. Pain and swelling of hips, knees, ankles and feet and other musculoskeletal complaints among runners were comparable with those among nonrunners. Radiologic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of degeneration) also were without notable differences among groups. They did not find an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among the runners. Our observations suggest that long-duration, high-mileage running need to be associated with premature degenerative joint disease in the lower extremities

  1. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-01-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes

  2. Instrumental Variables in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, Gregory; Klemp, Marc Patrick Brag

    2017-01-01

    In the study of long-run economic growth, it is common to use historical or geographical variables as instruments for contemporary endogenous regressors. We study the interpretation of these conventional instrumental variable (IV) regressions in a general, yet simple, framework. Our aim...... quantitative implications for the field of long-run economic growth. We also use our framework to examine related empirical techniques. We find that two prominent regression methodologies - using gravity-based instruments for trade and including ancestry-adjusted variables in linear regression models - have...... is to estimate the long-run causal effect of changes in the endogenous explanatory variable. We find that conventional IV regressions generally cannot recover this parameter of interest. To estimate this parameter, therefore, we develop an augmented IV estimator that combines the conventional regression...

  3. The NLstart2run study: running related injuries in novice runners : Running related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Hardlopen is wereldwijd een populaire sport welke vaak wordt beoefend voor de positieve gezondheidseffecten. Er is echter een keerzijde. Hardlopers worden vaak geplaagd door blessures. Een probleem waar veelal beginners tegenaan lopen. Dit proefschrift beschrijft de NLstart2run studie, een onderzoek

  4. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  5. Luminosity Measurements at LHCb for Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Coombs, George

    2018-01-01

    A precise measurement of the luminosity is a necessary component of many physics analyses, especially cross-section measurements. At LHCb two different direct measurement methods are used to determine the luminosity: the “van der Meer scan” (VDM) and the “Beam Gas Imaging” (BGI) methods. A combined result from these two methods gave a precision of less than 2% for Run I and efforts are ongoing to provide a similar result for Run II. Fixed target luminosity is determined with an indirect method based on the single electron scattering cross-section.

  6. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  7. Running-mass inflation model and WMAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covi, Laura; Lyth, David H.; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Odman, Carolina J.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the observational constraints on the running-mass inflationary model, and, in particular, on the scale dependence of the spectral index, from the new cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements performed by WMAP and from new clustering data from the SLOAN survey. We find that the data strongly constraints a significant positive scale dependence of n, and we translate the analysis into bounds on the physical parameters of the inflaton potential. Looking deeper into specific types of interaction (gauge and Yukawa) we find that the parameter space is significantly constrained by the new data, but that the running-mass model remains viable

  8. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... Denmark (the Danish infrastructure manager). The statistical analysis of the data identifies the minimum running times and the scheduled running time supplements and investigates the evolution of train delays along given train paths. An improved allocation of time supplements would result in smaller...

  9. The design of the run Clever randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need...... evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running...... and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. METHODS/DESIGN: The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week...

  10. Short-run and long-run elasticities of import demand for crude oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinay, Galip

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to attempt to estimate the short-run and the long-run elasticities of demand for crude oil in Turkey by the recent autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. As a developing country, Turkey meets its growing demand for oil principally by foreign suppliers. Thus, the study focuses on modelling the demand for imported crude oil using annual data covering the period 1980-2005. The bounds test results reveal that a long-run cointegration relationship exists between the crude oil import and the explanatory variables: nominal price and income, but not in the model that includes real price in domestic currency. The long-run parameters are estimated through a long-run static solution of the estimated ARDL model, and then the short-run dynamics are estimated by the error correction model. The estimated models pass the diagnostic tests successfully. The findings reveal that the income and price elasticities of import demand for crude oil are inelastic both in the short run and in the long run

  11. Short-Run and Long-Run Elasticities of Diesel Demand in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hoon Yoo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the demand function for diesel in Korea covering the period 1986–2011. The short-run and long-run elasticities of diesel demand with respect to price and income are empirically examined using a co-integration and error-correction model. The short-run and long-run price elasticities are estimated to be −0.357 and −0.547, respectively. The short-run and long-run income elasticities are computed to be 1.589 and 1.478, respectively. Thus, diesel demand is relatively inelastic to price change and elastic to income change in both the short-run and long-run. Therefore, a demand-side management through raising the price of diesel will be ineffective and tightening the regulation of using diesel more efficiently appears to be more effective in Korea. The demand for diesel is expected to continuously increase as the economy grows.

  12. Change in running kinematics after cycling are related to alterations in running economy in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Jason; Green, Daniel; Saunders, Philo U; Blanch, Peter; Franettovich, Melinda; Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill

    2010-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cycling may influence neuromuscular control during subsequent running but the relationship between altered neuromuscular control and run performance in triathletes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if a 45 min high-intensity cycle influences lower limb movement and muscle recruitment during running and whether changes in limb movement or muscle recruitment are associated with changes in running economy (RE) after cycling. RE, muscle activity (surface electromyography) and limb movement (sagittal plane kinematics) were compared between a control run (no preceding cycle) and a run performed after a 45 min high-intensity cycle in 15 moderately trained triathletes. Muscle recruitment and kinematics during running after cycling were altered in 7 of 15 (46%) triathletes. Changes in kinematics at the knee and ankle were significantly associated with the change in VO(2) after cycling (precruitment in some triathletes and that changes in kinematics, especially at the ankle, are closely related to alterations in running economy after cycling. Copyright 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of fractions of inactive modules between Run1 and Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Motohashi, Kazuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Fraction of inactive modules for each component of the ATLAS pixel detector at the end of Run 1 and the beginning of Run 2. A similar plot which uses a result of functionality tests during LS1 can be found in ATL-INDET-SLIDE-2014-388.

  14. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, R.O.; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  15. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  16. Biomechanics of running indicates endothermy in bipedal dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Pontzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the great unresolved controversies in paleobiology is whether extinct dinosaurs were endothermic, ectothermic, or some combination thereof, and when endothermy first evolved in the lineage leading to birds. Although it is well established that high, sustained growth rates and, presumably, high activity levels are ancestral for dinosaurs and pterosaurs (clade Ornithodira, other independent lines of evidence for high metabolic rates, locomotor costs, or endothermy are needed. For example, some studies have suggested that, because large dinosaurs may have been homeothermic due to their size alone and could have had heat loss problems, ectothermy would be a more plausible metabolic strategy for such animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe two new biomechanical approaches for reconstructing the metabolic rate of 14 extinct bipedal dinosauriforms during walking and running. These methods, well validated for extant animals, indicate that during walking and slow running the metabolic rate of at least the larger extinct dinosaurs exceeded the maximum aerobic capabilities of modern ectotherms, falling instead within the range of modern birds and mammals. Estimated metabolic rates for smaller dinosaurs are more ambiguous, but generally approach or exceed the ectotherm boundary. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the hypothesis that endothermy was widespread in at least larger non-avian dinosaurs. It was plausibly ancestral for all dinosauriforms (perhaps Ornithodira, but this is perhaps more strongly indicated by high growth rates than by locomotor costs. The polarity of the evolution of endothermy indicates that rapid growth, insulation, erect postures, and perhaps aerobic power predated advanced "avian" lung structure and high locomotor costs.

  17. Coronal Polarization of Pseudostreamers and the Solar Polar Field Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmeler, L. A.; Guennou, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Gibson, S. E.; Auchere, F.

    2016-01-01

    The reversal of the solar polar magnetic field is notoriously hard to pin down due to the extreme viewing angle of the pole. In Cycle 24, the southern polar field reversal can be pinpointed with high accuracy due to a large-scale pseudostreamer that formed over the pole and persisted for approximately a year. We tracked the size and shape of this structure with multiple observations and analysis techniques including PROBA2/SWAP EUV images, AIA EUV images, CoMP polarization data, and 3D tomographic reconstructions. We find that the heliospheric field reversed polarity in February 2014, whereas in the photosphere, the last vestiges of the previous polar field polarity remained until March 2015. We present here the evolution of the structure and describe its identification in the Fe XII 1074nm coronal emission line, sensitive to the Hanle effect in the corona.

  18. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  19. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  20. Spin-polarized SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoto, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Development of highly effective evaluation technology of magnetic structures on a nanometric scale is a key to understanding spintronics and related phenomena. A high-resolution spin-polarized scanning electron microscope (spin SEM) developed recently is quite suitable for probing such nanostructures because of the capability of analyzing local magnetization vectors in three dimensions. Utilizing the spin SEM, a layered antiferromagnetic structure with the 1nm-alternation of bilayer-sheet magnetization has been successfully resolved. The real-space imaging with full analysis of the temperature-dependent magnetization vectors will be demonstrated. (author)

  1. Running and Osteoarthritis: Does Recreational or Competitive Running Increase the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Exercise, like running, is good for overall health and, specifically, our hearts, lungs, muscles, bones, and brains. However, some people are concerned about the impact of running on longterm joint health. Does running lead to higher rates of arthritis in knees and hips? While many researchers find that running protects bone health, others are concerned that this exercise poses a high risk for age-related changes to hips and knees. A study published in the June 2017 issue of JOSPT suggests that the difference in these outcomes depends on the frequency and intensity of running. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(6):391. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0505.

  2. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.

  3. Polarization recovery through scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Hilton B; Gigan, Sylvain; Brasselet, Sophie

    2017-09-01

    The control and use of light polarization in optical sciences and engineering are widespread. Despite remarkable developments in polarization-resolved imaging for life sciences, their transposition to strongly scattering media is currently not possible, because of the inherent depolarization effects arising from multiple scattering. We show an unprecedented phenomenon that opens new possibilities for polarization-resolved microscopy in strongly scattering media: polarization recovery via broadband wavefront shaping. We demonstrate focusing and recovery of the original injected polarization state without using any polarizing optics at the detection. To enable molecular-level structural imaging, an arbitrary rotation of the input polarization does not degrade the quality of the focus. We further exploit the robustness of polarization recovery for structural imaging of biological tissues through scattering media. We retrieve molecular-level organization information of collagen fibers by polarization-resolved second harmonic generation, a topic of wide interest for diagnosis in biomedical optics. Ultimately, the observation of this new phenomenon paves the way for extending current polarization-based methods to strongly scattering environments.

  4. Peculiarities of annihilation of polarized positronium in polarized media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silenko, A.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    Features of positronium annihilation (PA) in polarized media are investigated. Strong exchange interaction with nonpaired electrons of paramagnetic atoms essentially accelerates the PA in comparison with annihilation of free positrons. The value of the spin projection on the direction of polarized nonpaired electrons has essential effect on the orthopositronium lifetime and on the width of the gamma spectrum annihilation line. It is shown that these features of PA permit to use it for studying the paramagnetic polarization [ru

  5. Long-Run Neutrality and Superneutrality in an ARIMA Framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Mark E; Seater, John J

    1993-01-01

    The authors formalize long-run neutrality and long-run superneutrality in the context of a bivariate ARIMA model; show how the restrictions implied by long-run neutrality and long-run superneutrality depend on the orders of integration of the variables; apply their analysis to previous work, showing how that work is related to long-run neutrality and long-run superneutrality; and provide some new evidence on long-run neutrality and long-run superneutrality. Copyright 1993 by American Economic...

  6. Habituation contributes to the decline in wheel running within wheel-running reinforcement periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2005-02-28

    Habituation appears to play a role in the decline in wheel running within an interval. Aoyama and McSweeney [Aoyama, K., McSweeney, F.K., 2001. Habituation contributes to within-session changes in free wheel running. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 76, 289-302] showed that when a novel stimulus was presented during a 30-min interval, wheel-running rates following the stimulus increased to levels approximating those earlier in the interval. The present study sought to assess the role of habituation in the decline in running that occurs over a briefer interval. In two experiments, rats responded on fixed-interval 30-s schedules for the opportunity to run for 45 s. Forty reinforcers were completed in each session. In the first experiment, the brake and chamber lights were repeatedly activated and inactivated after 25 s of a reinforcement interval had elapsed to assess the effect on running within the remaining 20 s. Presentations of the brake/light stimulus occurred during nine randomly determined reinforcement intervals in a session. In the second experiment, a 110 dB tone was emitted after 25 s of the reinforcement interval. In both experiments, presentation of the stimulus produced an immediate decline in running that dissipated over sessions. No increase in running following the stimulus was observed in the first experiment until the stimulus-induced decline dissipated. In the second experiment, increases in running were observed following the tone in the first session as well as when data were averaged over several sessions. In general, the results concur with the assertion that habituation plays a role in the decline in wheel running that occurs within both long and short intervals. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Healthy Living Initiative: Running/Walking Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This study was grounded in the public health literature and the call for schools to serve as physical activity intervention sites. Its purpose was twofold: (a) to examine the daily distance covered by students in a before-school running/walking club throughout 1 school year and (b) to gain insights on the teachers perspectives of the club.…

  8. The QCD Running Coupling and its Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    2013-01-01

    In this lecture, after recalling the basic definitions and facts about the running coupling in QCD, I present a critical discussion of the methods for measuring $\\alpha_s$ and select those that appear to me as the most reliably precise

  9. Daytime running lights : its safety evidence revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Retrospective in-depth accident studies from several countries confirm that human perception errors are the main causal factor in road accidents. The share of accident types which are relevant for the effect of daytime running lights (DRL), such as overtaking and crossing accidents, in the total of

  10. 105-KE Basin Pilot Run design plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document identifies all design deliverables and procedures applicable to the 105-KE Basin Pilot Run. It also establishes a general design strategy, defines interface control requirements, and covers planning for mechanical, electrical, instrument/control system, and equipment installation design

  11. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00222798; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. A ...

  12. Collagen gene interactions and endurance running performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to complete any of the individual components (3.8 km swim, 180 km bike or 42.2 km run) of the 226 km event. The major ... may affect normal collagen fibrillogenesis and alter the mechanical properties of ... using a XP Thermal Cycler (Block model XP-G, BIOER Technology Co.,. Japan). ..... New insights into the function of.

  13. Jet physics at CDF Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonov, A.; /UC, Davis

    2004-12-01

    The latest results on jet physics at CDF are presented and discussed. Particular attention is paid to studies of the inclusive jet cross section using 177 pb{sup -1} of Run II data. Also discussed is a study of gluon and quark jet fragmentation.

  14. EMBL rescue package keeps bioinformatics centre running

    CERN Multimedia

    Abott, A

    1999-01-01

    The threat to the EBI arising from the EC refusal to fund its running costs seems to have been temporarily lifted. At a meeting in EMBL, Heidelberg, delegates agreed in principle to make up the shortfall of 5 million euros. A final decision will be taken at a special meeting of the EMBL council in March (1 page).

  15. Measuring the running top-quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenfeld, Ulrich; Uwer, Peter

    2010-06-01

    In this contribution we discuss conceptual issues of current mass measurements performed at the Tevatron. In addition we propose an alternative method which is theoretically much cleaner and to a large extend free from the problems encountered in current measurements. In detail we discuss the direct determination of the top-quark's running mass from the cross section measurements performed at the Tevatron. (orig.)

  16. Individualism, innovation, and long-run growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnichenko, Yuriy; Roland, Gerard

    2011-12-27

    Countries having a more individualist culture have enjoyed higher long-run growth than countries with a more collectivist culture. Individualist culture attaches social status rewards to personal achievements and thus, provides not only monetary incentives for innovation but also social status rewards, leading to higher rates of innovation and economic growth.

  17. Estimating Stair Running Performance Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro V. Ojeda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stair running, both ascending and descending, is a challenging aerobic exercise that many athletes, recreational runners, and soldiers perform during training. Studying biomechanics of stair running over multiple steps has been limited by the practical challenges presented while using optical-based motion tracking systems. We propose using foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs as a solution as they enable unrestricted motion capture in any environment and without need for external references. In particular, this paper presents methods for estimating foot velocity and trajectory during stair running using foot-mounted IMUs. Computational methods leverage the stationary periods occurring during the stance phase and known stair geometry to estimate foot orientation and trajectory, ultimately used to calculate stride metrics. These calculations, applied to human participant stair running data, reveal performance trends through timing, trajectory, energy, and force stride metrics. We present the results of our analysis of experimental data collected on eleven subjects. Overall, we determine that for either ascending or descending, the stance time is the strongest predictor of speed as shown by its high correlation with stride time.

  18. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...

  19. Daytime running lights : costs or benefits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.F.T.; Janssen, W.H.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.; Duistermaat, M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study deals with the possibility that road users in the vicinity of a vehicle with daytime running lights (DRL) would suffer from a decreased conspicuity because of (he presence of that vehicle. In an experiment the primary effects of DRL on the conspicuity of other road users were

  20. Running coupling constants of the Luttinger liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boose, D.; Jacquot, J.L.; Polonyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    We compute the one-loop expressions of two running coupling constants of the Luttinger model. The obtained expressions have a nontrivial momentum dependence with Landau poles. The reason for the discrepancy between our results and those of other studies, which find that the scaling laws are trivial, is explained

  1. Wave run-up on sandbag slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamnoon Rasmeemasmuang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On occasions, sandbag revetments are temporarily applied to armour sandy beaches from erosion. Nevertheless, an empirical formula to determine the wave run -up height on sandbag slopes has not been available heretofore. In this study a wave run-up formula which considers the roughness of slope surfaces is proposed for the case of sandbag slopes. A series of laboratory experiments on the wave run -up on smooth slopes and sandbag slopes were conducted in a regular-wave flume, leading to the finding of empirical parameters for the formula. The proposed empirical formula is applicable to wave steepness ranging from 0.01 to 0.14 and to the thickness of placed sandbags relative to the wave height ranging from 0.17 to 3.0. The study shows that the wave run-up height computed by the formula for the sandbag slopes is 26-40% lower than that computed by the formula for the smooth slopes.

  2. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Paul; Lammel, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment records and analyses proton-antiproton interactions at a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron started in April of this year. The duration of the run is expected to be over two years. One of the main data handling strategies of CDF for Run II is to hide all tape access from the user and to facilitate sharing of data and thus disk space. A disk inventory manager was designed and developed over the past years to keep track of the data on disk, to coordinate user access to the data, and to stage data back from tape to disk as needed. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager consists of a server process, a user and administrator command line interfaces, and a library with the routines of the client API. Data are managed in filesets which are groups of one or more files. The system keeps track of user access to the filesets and attempts to keep frequently accessed data on disk. Data that are not on disk are automatically staged back from tape as needed. For CDF the main staging method is based on the mt-tools package as tapes are written according to the ANSI standard

  3. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kozinc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased ground reaction forces, excessive foot pronation, hip internal rotation and hip adduction during stance phase being mentioned most often. However, evidence on interventions for lowering injury risk is limited, especially regarding exercise-based interventions. Biofeedback training for lowering ground reaction forces is one of the few methods proven to be effective. It seems that the best way to approach running injury prevention is through individualized treatment. Each athlete should be assessed separately and scanned for risk factors, which should be then addressed with specific exercises. This review provides an overview of most common running-related injuries, with a particular focus on risk factors, and emphasizes the problems encountered in preventing running-related injuries.

  4. The running athlete: Roentgenograms and remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, H.; Torg, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have put together an atlas of radiographs of almost every conceivable running injury to the foot, ankle, leg, knee, femur, groin, and spine. Text material is limited to legends which describe the figures, and the remedies listed are brief. The text indicates conservative versus surgical treatment and, in some instances, recommends a surgical procedure

  5. ATLAS Data Preparation in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. Online data quality uses a new hybrid software release that incorporates the latest offline data quality monitoring software for the online environment. This is used to provide fast feedback in the control room during a data acquisition (DAQ) run, via a histogram-based monitoring framework as well as the online Event Display. Data are sent to several streams for offline processing at the dedicated Tier-0 computing facility, including dedicated calibration streams and an "express" physics stream containing approximately 2% of the main physics stream. This express stream is processed as data arrives, allowing a first look at the offline data quality within hours of a run end. A prompt calibration loop starts once an ATLAS DAQ run ends, nominally defining a 48 hour period in which calibrations and alignments can be derived using the dedicated calibration and express streams. The bulk processing of the main physics stream starts on expi...

  6. The D0 run II trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Michigan State U.

    2004-01-01

    The D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron was upgraded for Run II. This upgrade included improvements to the trigger system in order to be able to handle the increased Tevatron luminosity and higher bunch crossing rates compared to Run I. The D0 Run II trigger is a highly exible system to select events to be written to tape from an initial interaction rate of about 2.5 MHz. This is done in a three-tier pipelined, buffered system. The first tier (level 1) processes fast detector pick-off signals in a hardware/firmware based system to reduce the event rate to about 1. 5kHz. The second tier (level 2) uses information from level 1 and forms simple Physics objects to reduce the rate to about 850 Hz. The third tier (level 3) uses full detector readout and event reconstruction on a filter farm to reduce the rate to 20-30 Hz. The D0 trigger menu contains a wide variety of triggers. While the emphasis is on triggering on generic lepton and jet final states, there are also trigger terms for specific final state signatures. In this document we describe the D0 trigger system as it was implemented and is currently operating in Run II

  7. Run-2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Winklmeier, Frank; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a pp centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV, and ATLAS has taken first data at this new energy. In this talk the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment during the 2-year shutdown 2013/2014 will be discussed, and first detector and trigger performance results from the Run-2 will be shown. In general, reconstruction algorithms of tracks, e/gamma, muons, taus, jets and flavour tag- ging have been improved for Run-2. The new reconstruction algorithms and their performance measured using the data taken in 2015 at sqrt(s)=13 TeV will be discussed. Reconstruction efficiency, isolation performance, transverse momentum resolution and momentum scales are measured in various regions of the detector and in momentum intervals enlarged with respect to those measured in the Run-1. This presentation will also give an overview of the upgrades to the ATLAS trigger system that have been implemented during the LHC shutdown in order to deal with the increased trigger rates (fact...

  8. SeaWinds - Oceans, Land, Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikScat satellite makes global radar measurements -- day and night, in clear sky and through clouds. The radar data over the oceans provide scientists and weather forecasters with information on surface wind speed and direction. Scientists also use the radar measurements directly to learn about changes in vegetation and ice extent over land and polar regions.This false-color image is based entirely on SeaWinds measurements obtained over oceans, land, and polar regions. Over the ocean, colors indicate wind speed with orange as the fastest wind speeds and blue as the slowest. White streamlines indicate the wind direction. The ocean winds in this image were measured by SeaWinds on September 20, 1999. The large storm in the Atlantic off the coast of Florida is Hurricane Gert. Tropical storm Harvey is evident as a high wind region in the Gulf of Mexico, while farther west in the Pacific is tropical storm Hilary. An extensive storm is also present in the South Atlantic Ocean near Antarctica.The land image was made from four days of SeaWinds data with the aid of a resolution enhancement algorithm developed by Dr. David Long at Brigham Young University. The lightest green areas correspond to the highest radar backscatter. Note the bright Amazon and Congo rainforests compared to the dark Sahara desert. The Amazon River is visible as a dark line running horizontally though the bright South American rain forest. Cities appear as bright spots on the images, especially in the U.S. and Europe.The image of Greenland and the north polar ice cap was generated from data acquired by SeaWinds on a single day. In the polar region portion of the image, white corresponds to the largest radar return, while purple is the lowest. The variations in color in Greenland and the polar ice cap reveal information about the ice and snow conditions present.NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth

  9. KINETIC CONSEQUENCES OF CONSTRAINING RUNNING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Mercer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that impact forces increase with running velocity as well as when stride length increases. Since stride length naturally changes with changes in submaximal running velocity, it was not clear which factor, running velocity or stride length, played a critical role in determining impact characteristics. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not stride length influences the relationship between running velocity and impact characteristics. Eight volunteers (mass=72.4 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.7 ± 0.1 m; age = 25 ± 3.4 years completed two running conditions: preferred stride length (PSL and stride length constrained at 2.5 m (SL2.5. During each condition, participants ran at a variety of speeds with the intent that the range of speeds would be similar between conditions. During PSL, participants were given no instructions regarding stride length. During SL2.5, participants were required to strike targets placed on the floor that resulted in a stride length of 2.5 m. Ground reaction forces were recorded (1080 Hz as well as leg and head accelerations (uni-axial accelerometers. Impact force and impact attenuation (calculated as the ratio of head and leg impact accelerations were recorded for each running trial. Scatter plots were generated plotting each parameter against running velocity. Lines of best fit were calculated with the slopes recorded for analysis. The slopes were compared between conditions using paired t-tests. Data from two subjects were dropped from analysis since the velocity ranges were not similar between conditions resulting in the analysis of six subjects. The slope of impact force vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 0.178 ± 0.16 BW/m·s-1; SL2.5: -0.003 ± 0.14 BW/m·s-1; p < 0.05. The slope of the impact attenuation vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 5.12 ± 2.88 %/m·s-1; SL2.5: 1.39 ± 1.51 %/m·s-1; p < 0.05. Stride length was an important factor

  10. Polarized tagged photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximon, L.C.; Ganz, Eric; Aniel, Thierry; Miniac, Arlette de.

    1982-03-01

    We consider in detail the differential cross section for polarized bremsstrahlung for angles and energies in the range of interest for a tagging system and derive a high energy, small angle approximation for this cross section. We use these approximations to determine the maxima and minima of the cross sections for these two polarization states, dσperpendicular and dσparallel, and to evaluate these cross sections at the extrema. It is shown that both dσperpendicular and dσparallel have a very sharp dip in the region of small momentum transfers. However, their behavior in the region of the dip, as a function of the azimuthal angle phi, is quite different over most of the photon spectrum. The cross section dσperpendicular behaves similarly to the cross section for unpolarized photons in that as phi increases, the sharp dip vanishes, the minimum fuses with the second maximum, and the cross section then has only a single maximum. In contrast, the sharp dip in the cross section dσparallel remains as phi increases. Coulomb corrections to the Born approximation are considered, and do not fill in these dips

  11. QSAT: The Satellite for Polar Plasma Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruda, Yoshihiro; Fujimoto, Akiko; Kurahara, Naomi; Hanada, Toshiya; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Cho, Mengu

    2009-04-01

    This paper introduces QSAT, the satellite for polar plasma observation. The QSAT project began in 2006 as an initiative by graduate students of Kyushu University, and has the potential to contribute greatly to IHY (International Heliophysical Year) by showing to the world the beauty, importance, and relevance of space science. The primary objectives of the QSAT mission are (1) to investigate plasma physics in the Earth’s aurora zone in order to better understand spacecraft charging, and (2) to conduct a comparison of the field-aligned current observed in orbit with ground-based observations. The QSAT project can provide education and research opportunities for students in an activity combining space sciences and satellite engineering. The QSAT satellite is designed to be launched in a piggyback fashion with the Japanese launch vehicle H-IIA. The spacecraft bus is being developed at the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics of Kyushu University with collaboration of Fukuoka Institute of Technology. Regarding the payload instruments, the Space Environment Research Center of Kyushu University is developing the magnetometers, whereas the Laboratory of Spacecraft Environment Interaction Engineering of Kyushu Institute of Technology is developing the plasma probes. We aim to be ready for launch in 2009 or later.

  12. The efficacy of downhill running as a method to enhance running economy in trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2018-06-01

    Running downhill, in comparison to running on the flat, appears to involve an exaggerated stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) due to greater impact loads and higher vertical velocity on landing, whilst also incurring a lower metabolic cost. Therefore, downhill running could facilitate higher volumes of training at higher speeds whilst performing an exaggerated SSC, potentially inducing favourable adaptations in running mechanics and running economy (RE). This investigation assessed the efficacy of a supplementary 8-week programme of downhill running as a means of enhancing RE in well-trained distance runners. Nineteen athletes completed supplementary downhill (-5% gradient; n = 10) or flat (n = 9) run training twice a week for 8 weeks within their habitual training. Participants trained at a standardised intensity based on the velocity of lactate turnpoint (vLTP), with training volume increased incrementally between weeks. Changes in energy cost of running (E C ) and vLTP were assessed on both flat and downhill gradients, in addition to maximal oxygen uptake (⩒O 2max). No changes in E C were observed during flat running following downhill (1.22 ± 0.09 vs 1.20 ± 0.07 Kcal kg -1  km -1 , P = .41) or flat run training (1.21 ± 0.13 vs 1.19 ± 0.12 Kcal kg -1  km -1 ). Moreover, no changes in E C during downhill running were observed in either condition (P > .23). vLTP increased following both downhill (16.5 ± 0.7 vs 16.9 ± 0.6 km h -1 , P = .05) and flat run training (16.9 ± 0.7 vs 17.2 ± 1.0 km h -1 , P = .05), though no differences in responses were observed between groups (P = .53). Therefore, a short programme of supplementary downhill run training does not appear to enhance RE in already well-trained individuals.

  13. Spin exchange in polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B. von; Meyer, H.O.; Balewski, J.; Doskow, J.; Ibald, R.; Pollock, R.E.; Rinckel, T.; Wellinghausen, A.; Whitaker, T.J.; Daehnick, W.W.; Haeberli, W.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Lorentz, B.; Rathmann, F.; Pancella, P.V.; Saha, Swapan K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the vector and tensor polarization of an atomic deuterium target as a function of the target density. The polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell. For this experiment, the atomic beam source was operated without rf transitions, in order to avoid complications from the unknown efficiency of these transitions. In this mode, the atomic beam is vector and tensor polarized and both polarizations can be measured simultaneously. We used a 1.2-cm-diam and 27-cm-long storage cell, which yielded an average target density between 3 and 9x10 11 at/cm 3 . We find that the tensor polarization decreases with increasing target density while the vector polarization remains constant. The data are in quantitative agreement with the calculated effect of spin exchange between deuterium atoms at low field

  14. High energy polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmanith, R.

    1987-01-01

    In nearly all high energy electron storage rings the effect of beam polarization by synchrotron radiation has been measured. The buildup time for polarization in storage rings is of the order of 10 6 to 10 7 revolutions; the spins must remain aligned over this time in order to avoid depolarization. Even extremely small spin deviations per revolution can add up and cause depolarization. The injection and the acceleration of polarized electrons in linacs is much easier. Although some improvements are still necessary, reliable polarized electron sources with sufficiently high intensity and polarization are available. With the linac-type machines SLC at Stanford and CEBAF in Virginia, experiments with polarized electrons will be possible

  15. Polarized proton collider at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S.Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W.W.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998, reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to √s=500 GeV

  16. A cryostat to hold frozen-spin polarized HD targets in CLAS: HDice-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, M.M., E-mail: mlowry@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Bass, C.D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); D' Angelo, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Universita' di Roma ‘Tor Vergata’, and INFN Sezione di Roma ‘Tor Vergata’, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Deur, A.; Dezern, G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Hanretty, C. [University of Virginia, 1400 University Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ho, D. [Carnegie-Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Kageya, T.; Kashy, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Khandaker, M. [Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, VA 23504 (United States); Laine, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Université Blaise Pascal, 34 Avenue Carnot, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); O' Connell, T. [University of Connecticut, 115 N Eagleville Road, Storrs-Mansfield, CT 06269 (United States); Pastor, O. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Peng, P. [University of Virginia, 1400 University Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Sandorfi, A.M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Sokhan, D. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Bat 100 – M053, Orsay 91406 (France); and others

    2016-04-11

    The design, fabrication, operation, and performance of a {sup 3/4}He dilution refrigerator and superconducting magnet system for holding a frozen-spin polarized hydrogen deuteride target in the Jefferson Laboratory CLAS detector during photon beam running is reported. The device operates both vertically (for target loading) and horizontally (for target bombardment). The device proves capable of maintaining a base temperature of 50 mK and a holding field of 1 T for extended periods. These characteristics enabled multi-month polarization lifetimes for frozen spin HD targets having proton polarization of up to 50% and deuteron up to 27%.

  17. A LABORATORY TEST FOR THE EXAMINATION OF ALACTIC RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Kibele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture. The required skill resembles the pushing movement of bobsleigh pilots at the start of a race. Subjects are asked to overcome this mechanical resistance and to cover as much distance as possible within a time period of 10 seconds. Fifteen male students (age: 27.7 ± 4.1 years, body height: 1.82 ± 0.46 m, body mass: 78.3 ± 6.7 kg participated in a study. As the resistance force was set to 134 N, subjects ran 35.4 ± 2.6 m on the average corresponding to a mean running velocity of 3.52 ± 0.25 m·s-1. The validity of the new test was examined by statistical inference with various measures related to alactic performance including a metabolic equivalent to estimate alactic capacity (2892 ± 525 mL O2, an estimate for the oxygen debt (2662 ± 315 ml, the step test by Margaria to estimate alactic energy flow (1691 ± 171 W, and a test to measure the maximal strength in the leg extensor muscles (2304 ± 351 N. The statistical evaluation showed that the new test is in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions for alactic performance. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the test criteria and the measures for alactic capacity (r = 0.79, p < 0.01 as well as alactic power (r = 0.77, p < 0.01. The testing procedure is easy to administer and it is best suited to evaluate the alactic capacity for bobsleigh pilots as well as for

  18. In search of new phenomena using polarization. HERA and ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helebrant, Christian

    2009-12-01

    The longitudinal polarization of leptons can be used as an important tool in the search for new phenomena at particle colliders. In the first part of this thesis a search for first generation leptoquarks at the H1 experiment is presented. During the HERA-2 runperiod polarized lepton beams were used. The analysis presented herein utilizes this fact in order to enhance the sensitivity to these chirally coupling leptoquarks. Since no evidence for their existence is found, exclusion limits depending on the mass and Yukawa coupling are calculated. This analysis can exclude leptoquarks coupling at electromagnetic strength up to masses of 280-300 GeV, depending on the leptoquark quantum numbers. A new domain of physics is expected to be open to the planned electron positron linear collider ILC, where polarized lepton beams will play an important role. In order to fully exploit its physics potential, the polarization will have to be measured with an as yet unequaled precision of 0.25%, which is expected to be limited by systematic effects, like the nonlinearity of the photodetectors employed. In the second part of this thesis several methods are tested with respect to their capability to resolve photodetector nonlinearities at the permille level, and checked for their long term stability. With some of the methods presented herein it will be possible to measure and correct photodetector nonlinearities at a running ILC experiment with the accuracy required in order to achieve the aimed precision of the polarization measurement. (orig.)

  19. STELLAR NUCLEI AND INNER POLAR DISKS IN LENTICULAR GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sil’chenko, Olga K., E-mail: olga@sai.msu.su [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Isaac Newton Institute, Chile, Moscow Branch (Chile)

    2016-09-01

    I analyze statistics of the stellar population properties for stellar nuclei and bulges of nearby lenticular galaxies in different environments by using panoramic spectral data of the integral-field spectrograph SAURON retrieved from the open archive of the Isaac Newton Group. I also estimate the fraction of nearby lenticular galaxies having inner polar gaseous disks by exploring the volume-limited sample of early-type galaxies of the ATLAS-3D survey. By inspecting the two-dimensional velocity fields of the stellar and gaseous components with the running tilted-ring technique, I have found seven new cases of inner polar disks. Together with those, the frequency of inner polar disks in nearby S0 galaxies reaches 10%, which is much higher than the frequency of large-scale polar rings. Interestingly, the properties of the nuclear stellar populations in the inner polar ring hosts are statistically the same as those in the whole S0 sample, implying similar histories of multiple gas-accretion events from various directions.

  20. STELLAR NUCLEI AND INNER POLAR DISKS IN LENTICULAR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sil’chenko, Olga K.

    2016-01-01

    I analyze statistics of the stellar population properties for stellar nuclei and bulges of nearby lenticular galaxies in different environments by using panoramic spectral data of the integral-field spectrograph SAURON retrieved from the open archive of the Isaac Newton Group. I also estimate the fraction of nearby lenticular galaxies having inner polar gaseous disks by exploring the volume-limited sample of early-type galaxies of the ATLAS-3D survey. By inspecting the two-dimensional velocity fields of the stellar and gaseous components with the running tilted-ring technique, I have found seven new cases of inner polar disks. Together with those, the frequency of inner polar disks in nearby S0 galaxies reaches 10%, which is much higher than the frequency of large-scale polar rings. Interestingly, the properties of the nuclear stellar populations in the inner polar ring hosts are statistically the same as those in the whole S0 sample, implying similar histories of multiple gas-accretion events from various directions.

  1. In search of new phenomena using polarization. HERA and ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helebrant, Christian

    2009-12-15

    The longitudinal polarization of leptons can be used as an important tool in the search for new phenomena at particle colliders. In the first part of this thesis a search for first generation leptoquarks at the H1 experiment is presented. During the HERA-2 runperiod polarized lepton beams were used. The analysis presented herein utilizes this fact in order to enhance the sensitivity to these chirally coupling leptoquarks. Since no evidence for their existence is found, exclusion limits depending on the mass and Yukawa coupling are calculated. This analysis can exclude leptoquarks coupling at electromagnetic strength up to masses of 280-300 GeV, depending on the leptoquark quantum numbers. A new domain of physics is expected to be open to the planned electron positron linear collider ILC, where polarized lepton beams will play an important role. In order to fully exploit its physics potential, the polarization will have to be measured with an as yet unequaled precision of 0.25%, which is expected to be limited by systematic effects, like the nonlinearity of the photodetectors employed. In the second part of this thesis several methods are tested with respect to their capability to resolve photodetector nonlinearities at the permille level, and checked for their long term stability. With some of the methods presented herein it will be possible to measure and correct photodetector nonlinearities at a running ILC experiment with the accuracy required in order to achieve the aimed precision of the polarization measurement. (orig.)

  2. Linear polarization of BY Draconis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.H.; Pfeiffer, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Linear polarization measurements are reported in four bandpasses for the flare star BY Dra. The red polarization is intrinsically variable at a confidence level greater than 99 percent. On a time scale of many months, the variability is not phase-locked to either a rotational or a Keplerian ephemeris. The observations of the three other bandpasses are useful principally to indicate a polarization spectrum rising toward shorter wavelengths

  3. Polarity in Mammalian Epithelial Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roignot, Julie; Peng, Xiao; Mostov, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarity is fundamental for the architecture and function of epithelial tissues. Epithelial polarization requires the intervention of several fundamental cell processes, whose integration in space and time is only starting to be elucidated. To understand what governs the building of epithelial tissues during development, it is essential to consider the polarization process in the context of the whole tissue. To this end, the development of three-dimensional organotypic cell culture model...

  4. The sensitivity of income polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at polarization and its components' sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show....... Increasing the accounting period confirms the reduction in inequality found for shorter periods, but polarization is virtually unchanged, because income group identification increases. Applying different equivalence scales does not change polarization ranking for different years, but identification ranks...

  5. Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2004-01-01

    Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting rf structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a dc-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%

  6. Calcaneus length determines running economy: implications for endurance running performance in modern humans and Neandertals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A; Armstrong, Hunter; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2011-03-01

    The endurance running (ER) hypothesis suggests that distance running played an important role in the evolution of the genus Homo. Most researchers have focused on ER performance in modern humans, or on reconstructing ER performance in Homo erectus, however, few studies have examined ER capabilities in other members of the genus Homo. Here, we examine skeletal correlates of ER performance in modern humans in order to evaluate the energetics of running in Neandertals and early Homo sapiens. Recent research suggests that running economy (the energy cost of running at a given speed) is strongly related to the length of the Achilles tendon moment arm. Shorter moment arms allow for greater storage and release of elastic strain energy, reducing energy costs. Here, we show that a skeletal correlate of Achilles tendon moment arm length, the length of the calcaneal tuber, does not correlate with walking economy, but correlates significantly with running economy and explains a high proportion of the variance (80%) in cost between individuals. Neandertals had relatively longer calcaneal tubers than modern humans, which would have increased their energy costs of running. Calcaneal tuber lengths in early H. sapiens do not significantly differ from those of extant modern humans, suggesting Neandertal ER economy was reduced relative to contemporaneous anatomically modern humans. Endurance running is generally thought to be beneficial for gaining access to meat in hot environments, where hominins could have used pursuit hunting to run prey taxa into hyperthermia. We hypothesize that ER performance may have been reduced in Neandertals because they lived in cold climates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Similar Running Economy With Different Running Patterns Along the Aerial-Terrestrial Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiana, Thibault; Gindre, Cyrille; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Gimenez, Philippe; Mourot, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    No unique or ideal running pattern is the most economical for all runners. Classifying the global running patterns of individuals into 2 categories (aerial and terrestrial) using the Volodalen method could permit a better understanding of the relationship between running economy (RE) and biomechanics. The main purpose was to compare the RE of aerial and terrestrial runners. Two coaches classified 58 runners into aerial (n = 29) or terrestrial (n = 29) running patterns on the basis of visual observations. RE, muscle activity, kinematics, and spatiotemporal parameters of both groups were measured during a 5-min run at 12 km/h on a treadmill. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 max) and peak treadmill speed (PTS) were assessed during an incremental running test. No differences were observed between aerial and terrestrial patterns for RE, V̇O 2 max, and PTS. However, at 12 km/h, aerial runners exhibited earlier gastrocnemius lateralis activation in preparation for contact, less dorsiflexion at ground contact, higher coactivation indexes, and greater leg stiffness during stance phase than terrestrial runners. Terrestrial runners had more pronounced semitendinosus activation at the start and end of the running cycle, shorter flight time, greater leg compression, and a more rear-foot strike. Different running patterns were associated with similar RE. Aerial runners appear to rely more on elastic energy utilization with a rapid eccentric-concentric coupling time, whereas terrestrial runners appear to propel the body more forward rather than upward to limit work against gravity. Excluding runners with a mixed running pattern from analyses did not affect study interpretation.

  8. Muscle injury after low-intensity downhill running reduces running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W; Green, Michael S; Doyle, J Andrew; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Corona, Benjamin T

    2014-05-01

    Contraction-induced muscle injury may reduce running economy (RE) by altering motor unit recruitment, lowering contraction economy, and disturbing running mechanics, any of which may have a deleterious effect on endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if RE is reduced 2 days after performing injurious, low-intensity exercise in 11 healthy active men (27.5 ± 5.7 years; 50.05 ± 1.67 VO2peak). Running economy was determined at treadmill speeds eliciting 65 and 75% of the individual's peak rate of oxygen uptake (VO2peak) 1 day before and 2 days after injury induction. Lower extremity muscle injury was induced with a 30-minute downhill treadmill run (6 × 5 minutes runs, 2 minutes rest, -12% grade, and 12.9 km·h(-1)) that elicited 55% VO2peak. Maximal quadriceps isometric torque was reduced immediately and 2 days after the downhill run by 18 and 10%, and a moderate degree of muscle soreness was present. Two days after the injury, steady-state VO2 and metabolic work (VO2 L·km(-1)) were significantly greater (4-6%) during the 65% VO2peak run. Additionally, postinjury VCO2, VE and rating of perceived exertion were greater at 65% but not at 75% VO2peak, whereas whole blood-lactate concentrations did not change pre-injury to postinjury at either intensity. In conclusion, low-intensity downhill running reduces RE at 65% but not 75% VO2peak. The results of this study and other studies indicate the magnitude to which RE is altered after downhill running is dependent on the severity of the injury and intensity of the RE test.

  9. A polarized alkali ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, R.; Tungate, G.; Bauer, B.; Egelhof, P.; Moebius, K.H.; Steffens, E.

    1978-01-01

    The beam foil technique has been applied to detect nuclear vector polarization of a 10 keV 23 Na + beam. The result was about 70% of the atomic beam polarization thus limiting the depolarization by the surface ionizer to at most 30%. In a Coulomb excitation experiment with a tensor polarized 42 MeV 23 Na 7+ beam an effect of 0.011 +- 0.003 was measured yielding a value of t 20 approx. 0.04 for the beam polarization. The depolarization during the acceleration process can be estimated to be about 0.8. (orig.) [de

  10. Polarization preservation in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The successful operation of a high energy polarized beam at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) with the concommitant development of depolarizing resonance correction techniques has led to the present project of commissioning such a beam at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). A description of the project was presented at the 1981 National Accelerator Conference. I would like to now present a more detailed description of how we plan to preserve the polarization during acceleration, and to present our game plan for tuning through some 50 resonances and reaching our goal of a 26 GeV polarized proton beam with greater than 60% polarization

  11. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2001-01-01

    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  12. The SLAC polarized electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.; Alley, R.; Frisch, J.

    1995-06-01

    The SLAC polarized electron source employs a photocathode DC high voltage gun with a loadlock and a YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system for colliding beam experiments or a flash lamp pumped Ti:sapphire laser for fixed target experiments. It uses a thin, strained GaAs(100) photocathode, and is capable of producing a pulsed beam with a polarization of ≥80% and a peak current exceeding 10 A. Its operating efficiency has reached 99%. The physics and technology of producing high polarization electron beams from a GaAs photocathode will be reviewed. The prospects of realizing a polarized electron source for future linear colliders will also be discussed

  13. DESIGN IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE RUNNING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the dynamic qualities of the mainline freight locomotives characterizing the safe motion in tangent and curved track sections at all operational speeds, one needs a whole set of studies, which includes a selection of the design scheme, development of the corresponding mathematical model of the locomotive spatial fluctuations, construction of the computer calculation program, conducting of the theoretical and then experimental studies of the new designs. In this case, one should compare the results with existing designs. One of the necessary conditions for the qualitative improvement of the traction rolling stock is to define the parameters of its running gears. Among the issues related to this problem, an important place is occupied by the task of determining the locomotive dynamic properties on the stage of projection, taking into account the selected technical solutions in the running gear design. Methodology. The mathematical modeling studies are carried out by the numerical integration method of the dynamic loading for the mainline locomotive using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles » («DYNRAIL». Findings. As a result of research for the improvement of locomotive running gear design it can be seen that the creation of the modern locomotive requires from engineers and scientists the realization of scientific and technical solutions. The solutions enhancing design speed with simultaneous improvement of the traction, braking and dynamic qualities to provide a simple and reliable design, especially the running gear, reducing the costs for maintenance and repair, low initial cost and operating costs for the whole service life, high traction force when starting, which is as close as possible to the ultimate force of adhesion, the ability to work in multiple traction mode and sufficient design speed. Practical Value. The generalization of theoretical, scientific and methodological, experimental studies aimed

  14. Noise induced stabilization of chaotic free-running laser diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virte, Martin, E-mail: mvirte@b-phot.org [Brussels Photonics Team, Department of Applied Physics and Photonics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we investigate theoretically the stabilization of a free-running vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser exhibiting polarization chaos dynamics. We report the existence of a boundary isolating the chaotic attractor on one side and a steady-state on the other side and identify the unstable periodic orbit playing the role of separatrix. In addition, we highlight a small range of parameters where the chaotic attractor passes through this boundary, and therefore where chaos only appears as a transient behaviour. Then, including the effect of spontaneous emission noise in the laser, we demonstrate that, for realistic levels of noise, the system is systematically pushed over the separating solution. As a result, we show that the chaotic dynamics cannot be sustained unless the steady-state on the other side of the separatrix becomes unstable. Finally, we link the stability of this steady-state to a small value of the birefringence in the laser cavity and discuss the significance of this result on future experimental work.

  15. runDM: Running couplings of Dark Matter to the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Panci, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    runDM calculates the running of the couplings of Dark Matter (DM) to the Standard Model (SM) in simplified models with vector mediators. By specifying the mass of the mediator and the couplings of the mediator to SM fields at high energy, the code can calculate the couplings at low energy, taking into account the mixing of all dimension-6 operators. runDM can also extract the operator coefficients relevant for direct detection, namely low energy couplings to up, down and strange quarks and to protons and neutrons.

  16. Dynamic nuclear polarization tests in some polymers for polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, B. van den; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; Bunyatova, E.I.

    1998-01-01

    The results of dynamic polarization tests in polyethylene (PE) and ethylene propylene copolymer (EPC), doped with the stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), are presented. Sizable proton polarizations have been achieved in a magnetic field of 2.5 T at a temperature below 0.3 K and 5T at 1 K

  17. 105-KE basin pilot run relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the bases for selecting the exact in-facility location for installation of process equipment to support pilot testing activities in the 105-KE Basin at the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. The 105-KE Basin was constructed during the early 1950s, as an integralcomponent of the 105-K East reactor building. Similar basins were provided in all Hanford weapons production reactor buildings to receive fuel elements discharged from the reactors and stage them for rail transport to 200 Area fuel reprocessing plants. The 105-KE reactor began operation in 1955. It was shut down in 1971. However, the 105-KE Basin was reactivated several years later to store spent fuel from the N-Reactor basin and permit its continued operation during outages at the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant in the 200E Area

  18. Polar measurements on profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, D.

    1985-03-01

    Wind tunnel models with a profile depth of t=0.5 m were measured in a laminar wind tunnel by the usual measuring processes. The profile resistance was determined by integration along the width of span. The smooth profiles were examined at Re=0.7/1.0 and 1.5 million. At Re=1.0 million, the position of the changeover points were determined with a stethoscope. Also at this Reynolds number measurements were taken with a trip wire of d=2 mm diameter, directly on the profile nose. The tables contain the co-ordinates of the profiles, the contours, the theoretical speed distributions for 4 different angles of attack, the csub(a)-csub(w) polar measurements and changeover points, and the torque coefficients around the t/4 point. (BR).

  19. Ultra-obligatory running among ultramarathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D; Krouse, Rhonna

    2018-01-01

    Participants in the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA) Study were asked to answer "yes" or "no" to the question "If you were to learn, with absolute certainty, that ultramarathon running is bad for your health, would you stop your ultramarathon training and participation?" Among the 1349 runners, 74.1% answered "no". Compared with those answering "yes", they were younger (p life meaning (p = 0.0002) scores on the Motivations of Marathoners Scales. Despite a high health orientation, most ultramarathon runners would not stop running if they learned it was bad for their health as it appears to serve their psychological and personal achievement motivations and their task orientation such that they must perceive enhanced benefits that are worth retaining at the risk of their health.

  20. CMS Computing Operations During Run1

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    During the first run, CMS collected and processed more than 10B data events and simulated more than 15B events. Up to 100k processor cores were used simultaneously and 100PB of storage was managed. Each month petabytes of data were moved and hundreds of users accessed data samples. In this presentation we will discuss the operational experience from the first run. We will present the workflows and data flows that were executed, we will discuss the tools and services developed, and the operations and shift models used to sustain the system. Many techniques were followed from the original computing planning, but some were reactions to difficulties and opportunities. In this presentation we will also address the lessons learned from an operational perspective, and how this is shaping our thoughts for 2015.

  1. Effects of intermittent hypoxia on running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, M; Gatterer, H; Faulhaber, M; Gerstgrasser, W; Schenk, K

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the effects of two 5-wk periods of intermittent hypoxia on running economy (RE). 11 male and female middle-distance runners were randomly assigned to the intermittent hypoxia group (IHG) or to the control group (CG). All athletes trained for a 13-wk period starting at pre-season until the competition season. The IHG spent additionally 2 h at rest on 3 days/wk for the first and the last 5 weeks in normobaric hypoxia (15-11% FiO2). RE, haematological parameters and body composition were determined at low altitude (600 m) at baseline, after the 5 (th), the 8 (th) and the 13 (th) week of training. RE, determined by the relative oxygen consumption during submaximal running, (-2.3+/-1.2 vs. -0.3+/-0.7 ml/min/kg, Ptraining phase. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  2. CMS computing operations during run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman, J; Artieda, J; Bagliese, G; Ballestero, D; Bansal, S; Bauerdick, L; Behrenhof, W; Belforte, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blyweert, S; Bonacorsi, D; Brew, C; Contreras, L; Cristofori, A; Cury, S; da Silva Gomes, D; Dolores Saiz Santos, M; Dost, J; Dykstra, D; Fajardo Hernandez, E; Fanzango, F; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Georges, A; Gi ffels, M; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Gowdy, S; Gutsche, O; Holzman, B; Janssen, X; Kaselis, R; Kcira, D; Kim, B; Klein, D; Klute, M; Kress, T; Kreuzer, P; Lahi , A; Larson, K; Letts, J; Levin, A; Linacre, J; Linares, J; Liu, S; Luyckx, S; Maes, M; Magini, N; Malta, A; Marra Da Silva, J; Mccartin, J; McCrea, A; Mohapatra, A; Molina, J; Mortensen, T; Padhi, S; Paus, C; Piperov, S; Ralph; Sartirana, A; Sciaba, A; S ligoi, I; Spinoso, V; Tadel, M; Traldi, S; Wissing, C; Wuerthwein, F; Yang, M; Zielinski, M; Zvada, M

    2014-01-01

    During the first run, CMS collected and processed more than 10B data events and simulated more than 15B events. Up to 100k processor cores were used simultaneously and 100PB of storage was managed. Each month petabytes of data were moved and hundreds of users accessed data samples. In this document we discuss the operational experience from this first run. We present the workflows and data flows that were executed, and we discuss the tools and services developed, and the operations and shift models used to sustain the system. Many techniques were followed from the original computing planning, but some were reactions to difficulties and opportunities. We also address the lessons learned from an operational perspective, and how this is shaping our thoughts for 2015.

  3. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events. ...

  4. Wave Run-up on the Zeebrugge Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Rouck, Julien; de Walle, Bjorn Van; Troch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full-scale wave run-up measurements have been carried out on the Zeebrugge rubble mound breakwater in the frame of the EU-funded OPTICREST project. Wave run-up has been measured by a run-up gauge and by a so-called spiderweb system. The dimensionless wave run-up value Ru2%Hm0 measured in Zeebrugg...

  5. 1987 DOE review: First collider run operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, S.; Crawford, J.; Dugan, G.

    1987-05-01

    This review covers the operations of the first run of the 1.8 TeV superconducting super collider. The papers enclosed cover: PBAR source status, fixed target operation, Tevatron cryogenic reliability and capacity upgrade, Tevatron Energy upgrade progress and plans, status of the D0 low beta insertion, 1.8 K and 4.7 K refrigeration for low-β quadrupoles, progress and plans for the LINAC and booster, near term and long term and long term performance improvements

  6. CERN Running Club – Sale of Items

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Running club

    2018-01-01

    The CERN Running Club is organising a sale of items  on 26 June from 11:30 – 13:00 in the entry area of Restaurant 2 (504 R-202). The items for sale are souvenir prizes of past Relay Races and comprise: Backpacks, thermos, towels, gloves & caps, lamps, long sleeve winter shirts and windproof vest. All items will be sold at 5 CHF.

  7. Analysis of Biomechanical Factors in Bend Running

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Zhang; Xinping You; Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Sprint running is the demonstration of comprehensive abilities of technology and tactics, under various conditions. However, whether it is just to allocate the tracks for short-distance athletes from different racetracks has been the hot topic. This study analyzes its forces, differences in different tracks and winding influences, in the aspects of sport biomechanics. The results indicate, many disadvantages exist in inner tracks, middle tracks are the best and outer ones are inferior to midd...

  8. Marathon Running for Amateurs: Benefits and Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Kapadia

    2017-01-01

    The habitual level of physical activity of the human race has significantly and abruptly declined in the last few generations due to technological developments. The professional societies and government health agencies have published minimum physical activity requirement guidelines to educate the masses about the importance of exercise and to reduce cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality at the population level. There is growing participation in marathon running by amateur, middle-aged c...

  9. Forecasting Long-Run Electricity Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Gregory; Borison, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Estimation of long-run electricity prices is extremely important but it is also very difficult because of the many uncertainties that will determine future prices, and because of the lack of sufficient historical and forwards data. The difficulty is compounded when forecasters ignore part of the available information or unnecessarily limit their thinking about the future. The authors present a practical approach that addresses these problems. (author)

  10. Run-to-Run Optimization Control Within Exact Inverse Framework for Scan Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Ivan L; Reinhall, Per G; Berg, Martin C; Chizeck, Howard J; Seibel, Eric J

    2017-09-01

    A run-to-run optimization controller uses a reduced set of measurement parameters, in comparison to more general feedback controllers, to converge to the best control point for a repetitive process. A new run-to-run optimization controller is presented for the scanning fiber device used for image acquisition and display. This controller utilizes very sparse measurements to estimate a system energy measure and updates the input parameterizations iteratively within a feedforward with exact-inversion framework. Analysis, simulation, and experimental investigations on the scanning fiber device demonstrate improved scan accuracy over previous methods and automatic controller adaptation to changing operating temperature. A specific application example and quantitative error analyses are provided of a scanning fiber endoscope that maintains high image quality continuously across a 20 °C temperature rise without interruption of the 56 Hz video.

  11. Financial Performance of Health Insurers: State-Run Versus Federal-Run Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A; McCue, Michael J; Palazzolo, Jennifer R

    2018-06-01

    Many insurers incurred financial losses in individual markets for health insurance during 2014, the first year of Affordable Care Act mandated changes. This analysis looks at key financial ratios of insurers to compare profitability in 2014 and 2013, identify factors driving financial performance, and contrast the financial performance of health insurers operating in state-run exchanges versus the federal exchange. Overall, the median loss of sampled insurers was -3.9%, no greater than their loss in 2013. Reduced administrative costs offset increases in medical losses. Insurers performed better in states with state-run exchanges than insurers in states using the federal exchange in 2014. Medical loss ratios are the underlying driver more than administrative costs in the difference in performance between states with federal versus state-run exchanges. Policy makers looking to improve the financial performance of the individual market should focus on features that differentiate the markets associated with state-run versus federal exchanges.

  12. Run-off from roofing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the runn-off from roof material, a roof has been constructed with two different slopes (30 deg. and 45 deg.). 7 Be and 137 Cs have been used as tracers. Considering new roof material, the pollution removed by run-off processes has been shown to be very different for various roof materials. The pollution is much more easily removed from silicon-treated material than from porous red-tile roof material. Cesium is removed more easily than beryllium. The content of cesium in old roof materials is greater in red-tile than in other less porous roof materials. However, the measured removal from new material does not correspond to the amount accumulated in the old. This could be explained by weathering and by saturation effects. The last effect is probably the more important. The measurements on old material indicate a removal of 44-86% of cesium pollution by run-off, whereas the measurement on new material showed a removal of only 31-50%. It has been demonstrated that the pollution concentration in run-off water could be very different from that in rainwater

  13. Metadata Aided Run Selection at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Buckingham, RM; The ATLAS collaboration; Tseng, JC-L; Viegas, F; Vinek, E

    2010-01-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale sci- entific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user in- terfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called “runBrowser” makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on php and javascript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions at...

  14. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Buckingham, RM; The ATLAS collaboration; Tseng, JC-L; Viegas, F; Vinek, E

    2011-01-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called “runBrowser” makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on php and javascript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attrib...

  15. Running vacuum cosmological models: linear scalar perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perico, E.L.D. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1371, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tamayo, D.A., E-mail: elduartep@usp.br, E-mail: tamayo@if.usp.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-08-01

    In cosmology, phenomenologically motivated expressions for running vacuum are commonly parameterized as linear functions typically denoted by Λ( H {sup 2}) or Λ( R ). Such models assume an equation of state for the vacuum given by P-bar {sub Λ} = - ρ-bar {sub Λ}, relating its background pressure P-bar {sub Λ} with its mean energy density ρ-bar {sub Λ} ≡ Λ/8π G . This equation of state suggests that the vacuum dynamics is due to an interaction with the matter content of the universe. Most of the approaches studying the observational impact of these models only consider the interaction between the vacuum and the transient dominant matter component of the universe. We extend such models by assuming that the running vacuum is the sum of independent contributions, namely ρ-bar {sub Λ} = Σ {sub i} ρ-bar {sub Λ} {sub i} . Each Λ i vacuum component is associated and interacting with one of the i matter components in both the background and perturbation levels. We derive the evolution equations for the linear scalar vacuum and matter perturbations in those two scenarios, and identify the running vacuum imprints on the cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as on the matter power spectrum. In the Λ( H {sup 2}) scenario the vacuum is coupled with every matter component, whereas the Λ( R ) description only leads to a coupling between vacuum and non-relativistic matter, producing different effects on the matter power spectrum.

  16. The aerodynamic signature of running spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Casas

    Full Text Available Many predators display two foraging modes, an ambush strategy and a cruising mode. These foraging strategies have been classically studied in energetic, biomechanical and ecological terms, without considering the role of signals produced by predators and perceived by prey. Wolf spiders are a typical example; they hunt in leaf litter either using an ambush strategy or by moving at high speed, taking over unwary prey. Air flow upstream of running spiders is a source of information for escaping prey, such as crickets and cockroaches. However, air displacement by running arthropods has not been previously examined. Here we show, using digital particle image velocimetry, that running spiders are highly conspicuous aerodynamically, due to substantial air displacement detectable up to several centimetres in front of them. This study explains the bimodal distribution of spider's foraging modes in terms of sensory ecology and is consistent with the escape distances and speeds of cricket prey. These findings may be relevant to the large and diverse array of arthropod prey-predator interactions in leaf litter.

  17. The Relationship between Running Velocity and the Energy Cost of Turning during Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Ball game players frequently perform changes of direction (CODs) while running; however, there has been little research on the physiological impact of CODs. In particular, the effect of running velocity on the physiological and energy demands of CODs while running has not been clearly determined. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD and to quantify the energy cost of a 180°COD. Nine male university students (aged 18–22 years) participated in the study. Five shuttle trials were performed in which the subjects were required to run at different velocities (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 km/h). Each trial consisted of four stages with different turn frequencies (13, 18, 24 and 30 per minute), and each stage lasted 3 minutes. Oxygen consumption was measured during the trial. The energy cost of a COD significantly increased with running velocity (except between 7 and 8 km/h, p = 0.110). The relationship between running velocity and the energy cost of a 180°COD is best represented by a quadratic function (y = −0.012+0.066x +0.008x2, [r = 0.994, p = 0.001]), but is also well represented by a linear (y = −0.228+0.152x, [r = 0.991, prunning velocities have relatively high physiological demands if the COD frequency increases, and that running velocities affect the physiological demands of CODs. These results also showed that the energy expenditure of COD can be evaluated using only two data points. These results may be useful for estimating the energy expenditure of players during a match and designing shuttle exercise training programs. PMID:24497913

  18. Short-run and long-run effects of unemployment on suicides: does welfare regime matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Pawel; Zhukovska, Kateryna

    2017-12-01

    Disentangling the immediate effects of an unemployment shock from the long-run relationship has a strong theoretical rationale. Different economic and psychological forces are at play in the first moment and after prolonged unemployment. This study suggests a diverse impact of short- and long-run unemployment on suicides in liberal and social-democratic countries. We take a macro-level perspective and simultaneously estimate the short- and long-run relationships between unemployment and suicide, along with the speed of convergence towards the long-run relationship after a shock, in a panel of 10 high-income countries. We also account for unemployment benefit spending, the share of the population aged 15-34, and the crisis effects. In the liberal group of countries, only a long-run impact of unemployment on suicides is found to be significant (P = 0.010). In social-democratic countries, suicides are associated with initial changes in unemployment (P = 0.028), but the positive link fades over time and becomes insignificant in the long run. Further, crisis effects are a much stronger determinant of suicides in social-democratic countries. Once the broad welfare regime is controlled for, changes in unemployment-related spending do not matter for preventing suicides. A generous welfare system seems efficient at preventing unemployment-related suicides in the long run, but societies in social-democratic countries might be less psychologically immune to sudden negative changes in their professional lives compared with people in liberal countries. Accounting for the different short- and long-run effects could thus improve our understanding of the unemployment-suicide link. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Test results of Run-1 and Run-2 in steam generator safety test facility (SWAT-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, A.; Yatabe, Toshio; Tanabe, Hiromi; Hiroi, Hiroshi

    2003-07-01

    Large leak sodium-water reaction tests were carried out using SWAT-1 rig and SWAT-3 facility in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) O-arai Engineering Center to obtain the data on the design of the prototype LMFBR Monju steam generator against a large leak accident. This report provides the results of SWAT-3 Runs 1 and 2. In Runs 1 and 2, the heat transfer tube bundle of the evaporator, fabricated by TOSHIBA/IHI, were used, and the pressure relief line was located at the top of evaporator. The water injection rates in the evaporator were 6.7 kg/s and 14.2 (initial)-9.7 kg/s in Runs 1 and 2 respectively, which corresponded to 3.3 tubes and 7.1 (initial)-4.8 tubes failure in actual size system according to iso-velocity modeling. Approximately two hundreds of measurement points were provided to collect data such as pressure, temperature, strain, sodium level, void, thrust load, acceleration, displacement, flow rate, and so on in each run. Initial spike pressures were 1.13 MPa and 2.62 MPa nearest to injection point in Runs 1 and 2 respectively, and the maximum quasi-steady pressures in evaporator were 0.49 MPa and 0.67 MPa in Runs 1 and 2. No secondary tube failure was observed. The rupture disc of evaporator (RD601) burst at 1.1s in Run-1 and at 0.7s in Run-2 after water injected, and the pressure relief system was well-functioned though a few items for improvement were found. (author)

  20. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI; Jacob TSADO; Mark NWOHU; Usman Abraham USMAN; Odu Ayo IMORU

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The ma...

  1. Changes in running kinematics, kinetics, and spring-mass behavior over a 24-h run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behavior over a 24-h treadmill run (24TR). Kinematics, kinetics, and spring-mass characteristics of the running step were assessed in 10 experienced ultralong-distance runners before, every 2 h, and after a 24TR using an instrumented treadmill dynamometer. These measurements were performed at 10 km·h, and mechanical parameters were sampled at 1000 Hz for 10 consecutive steps. Contact and aerial times were determined from ground reaction force (GRF) signals and used to compute step frequency. Maximal GRF, loading rate, downward displacement of the center of mass, and leg length change during the support phase were determined and used to compute both vertical and leg stiffness. Subjects' running pattern and spring-mass behavior significantly changed over the 24TR with a 4.9% higher step frequency on average (because of a significantly 4.5% shorter contact time), a lower maximal GRF (by 4.4% on average), a 13.0% lower leg length change during contact, and an increase in both leg and vertical stiffness (+9.9% and +8.6% on average, respectively). Most of these changes were significant from the early phase of the 24TR (fourth to sixth hour of running) and could be speculated as contributing to an overall limitation of the potentially harmful consequences of such a long-duration run on subjects' musculoskeletal system. During a 24TR, the changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behavior show a clear shift toward a higher oscillating frequency and stiffness, along with lower GRF and leg length change (hence a reduced overall eccentric load) during the support phase of running. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  2. Automated JPSS VIIRS GEO code change testing by using Chain Run Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Wang, W.; Zhao, Q.; Das, B.; Mikles, V. J.; Sprietzer, K.; Tsidulko, M.; Zhao, Y.; Dharmawardane, V.; Wolf, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the next generation polar-orbiting operational environmental satellite system. The first satellite in the JPSS series of satellites, J-1, is scheduled to launch in early 2017. J1 will carry similar versions of the instruments that are on board of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite which was launched on October 28, 2011. The center for Satellite Applications and Research Algorithm Integration Team (STAR AIT) uses the Algorithm Development Library (ADL) to run S-NPP and pre-J1 algorithms in a development and test mode. The ADL is an offline test system developed by Raytheon to mimic the operational system while enabling a development environment for plug and play algorithms. The Perl Chain Run Scripts have been developed by STAR AIT to automate the staging and processing of multiple JPSS Sensor Data Record (SDR) and Environmental Data Record (EDR) products. JPSS J1 VIIRS Day Night Band (DNB) has anomalous non-linear response at high scan angles based on prelaunch testing. The flight project has proposed multiple mitigation options through onboard aggregation, and the Option 21 has been suggested by the VIIRS SDR team as the baseline aggregation mode. VIIRS GEOlocation (GEO) code analysis results show that J1 DNB GEO product cannot be generated correctly without the software update. The modified code will support both Op21, Op21/26 and is backward compatible with SNPP. J1 GEO code change version 0 delivery package is under development for the current change request. In this presentation, we will discuss how to use the Chain Run Script to verify the code change and Lookup Tables (LUTs) update in ADL Block2.

  3. Adjustments with running speed reveal neuromuscular adaptations during landing associated with high mileage running training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Jasper; Clansey, Adam C; Lake, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    It remains to be determined whether running training influences the amplitude of lower limb muscle activations before and during the first half of stance and whether such changes are associated with joint stiffness regulation and usage of stored energy from tendons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and movement adaptations before and during landing in response to running training across a range of speeds. Two groups of high mileage (HM; >45 km/wk, n = 13) and low mileage (LM; joint stiffness might predominantly be governed by tendon stiffness rather than muscular activations before landing. Estimated elastic work about the ankle was found to be higher in the HM runners, which might play a role in reducing weight acceptance phase muscle activation levels and improve muscle activation efficiency with running training. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although neuromuscular factors play a key role during running, the influence of high mileage training on neuromuscular function has been poorly studied, especially in relation to running speed. This study is the first to demonstrate changes in neuromuscular conditioning with high mileage training, mainly characterized by lower thigh muscle activation after touch down, higher initial knee stiffness, and greater estimates of energy return, with adaptations being increasingly evident at faster running speeds. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Breeding facilities for polar bears, Thalarctos maritimus (Phipps, 1774), in captivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, E.F.

    1968-01-01

    The breeding results of Polar Bears in captivity are in general very disappointing. Unsuitable maternity dens are the main cause. These should be completely closed, very quiet without outside disturbances and should have connection with a run and thus with an outside enclosure. The female should be

  5. Preventing running injuries. Practical approach for family doctors.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, C. A. M.; Taunton, J. E.; Lloyd-Smith, D. R.; McKenzie, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach for preventing running injuries. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Much of the research on running injuries is in the form of expert opinion and comparison trials. Recent systematic reviews have summarized research in orthotics, stretching before running, and interventions to prevent soft tissue injuries. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common factors implicated in running injuries are errors in training methods, inappropriate training surfaces and running shoes, malalign...

  6. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  7. Study of Jupiter polarization properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolkvadze, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations into polarization properties of the Jupiter reflected light were carried on at the Abastumani astrophysical observatory in 1967, 1968 and 1969 in the four spectral ranges: 4000, 4800, 5400 and 6600 A deg. Data on light polarization in different parts of the Jupiter visible disk are given. Curves of dependence of the planet light polarization degree on a phase angle are plotted. It is shown that in the central part of the visible planet disk the polarization degree is low. Atmosphere is in a stable state in this part of Jupiter. Mean radius of particles of a cloud layer is equal to 0.26μ, and optical thickness of overcloud atmosphere tau=0.05. Height of transition boundary of the cloud layer into overcloud gas atmosphere changes from year to year at the edges of the equatorial zone. Optical thickness of overcloud atmosphere changes also with changing height of a transient layer. The polar Jupiter regions possess a high degree of polarization which depends on a latitude. Polarization increases monotonously with the latitude and over polar regions accepts a maximum value [ru

  8. ARGONNE/ NOVOSIBIRSK: Storing polarized deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Promising new results come from a collaboration between the Institute of Physics, Novosibirsk, and the US Argonne Laboratory, initiated in 1988 to look at the possibilities for using polarized (spin oriented) gas targets in high current electron storage rings, the object being to maximize target polarization levels

  9. The SLAC polarized electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Alley, R.; Frisch, J.; Kotseroglou, T.; Mulhollan, G.; Schultz, D.; Tang, H.; Turner, J.; Yeremian, A.D.

    1997-08-01

    Since 1992, the SLAC 3-km linac has operated exclusively with polarized electrons. The polarized electron source is highly reliable, remotely operated and monitored, and able to produce a variety of electron bunch profiles for high-energy physics experiments. The source and its operating characteristics are described. Some implications drawn from the operating experience are discussed

  10. UV Coatings, Polarization, and Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Quijada, Manuel; West, Garrett; Balasubramanian, Bala; Krist, John; Martin, Stefan; Sabatke, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Presenation for the Large UltraViolet Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) and Habitable Exoplanet Imager (HabEx) Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDT) on technical considerations regarding ultraviolet coatings, polarization, and coronagraphy. The presentations review the state-of-the-art in ultraviolet coatings, how those coatings generate polarization aberrations, and recent study results from both the LUVOIR and HabEx teams.

  11. Carbon nanotube fiber terahertz polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Ahmed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Young, Colin C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Heimbeck, Martin S. [Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Charles M. Bowden Laboratory, Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Pasquali, Matteo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Kono, Junichiro, E-mail: kono@rice.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-04

    Conventional, commercially available terahertz (THz) polarizers are made of uniformly and precisely spaced metallic wires. They are fragile and expensive, with performance characteristics highly reliant on wire diameters and spacings. Here, we report a simple and highly error-tolerant method for fabricating a freestanding THz polarizer with nearly ideal performance, reliant on the intrinsically one-dimensional character of conduction electrons in well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The polarizer was constructed on a mechanical frame over which we manually wound acid-doped CNT fibers with ultrahigh electrical conductivity. We demonstrated that the polarizer has an extinction ratio of ∼−30 dB with a low insertion loss (<0.5 dB) throughout a frequency range of 0.2–1.1 THz. In addition, we used a THz ellipsometer to measure the Müller matrix of the CNT-fiber polarizer and found comparable attenuation to a commercial metallic wire-grid polarizer. Furthermore, based on the classical theory of light transmission through an array of metallic wires, we demonstrated the most striking difference between the CNT-fiber and metallic wire-grid polarizers: the latter fails to work in the zero-spacing limit, where it acts as a simple mirror, while the former continues to work as an excellent polarizer even in that limit due to the one-dimensional conductivity of individual CNTs.

  12. Geomorphology of Triton's polar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1993-01-01

    One of Triton's most debated puzzles is the nature, distribution, and transport of its atmospheric volatiles. The full potential of constraints provided by detailed observations of the morphology and distribution of the polar deposits has not been realized. The objective of this study is characterization of the morphology, distribution, stratigraphy, and geologic setting of Triton's polar materials.

  13. Running spectral index from large-field inflation with modulations revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerny, Michael, E-mail: mczerny@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kobayashi, Takeshi, E-mail: takeshi@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-07-30

    We revisit large field inflation models with modulations in light of the recent discovery of the primordial B-mode polarization by the BICEP2 experiment, which, when combined with the Planck+WP+highL data, gives a strong hint for additional suppression of the CMB temperature fluctuations at small scales. Such a suppression can be explained by a running spectral index. In fact, it was pointed out by two of the present authors (TK and FT) that the existence of both tensor mode perturbations and a sizable running of the spectral index is a natural outcome of large inflation models with modulations such as axion monodromy inflation. We find that this holds also in the recently proposed multi-natural inflation, in which the inflaton potential consists of multiple sinusoidal functions and therefore the modulations are a built-in feature.

  14. Dynamic polarization of radioactive nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, Yu.F.; Lyuboshits, V.L.; )

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive nuclei, embedded into a frozen polarized proton target, atr proposed to polarize by means of some dynamic polarization methods. Angular distributions of γ-quanta emitted ny 22 Na(3 + ) in the cascade β-γ-radiation are calculated. It is shown that this distribution does not depend on the spin temperature sing at the Boltzmann distribution of populations among the Zeeman magnetic substates, whereas the tensor polarization of quadrupole nuclei, placed in the electric field of the crystal, causes the considerable sing dependence. The new method promises wide opportunities for the magnetic structure investigations as well as for the study of spin-spin interaction dynamics of rare nuclei in dielectrics. Physical-technical advantages and disadvantages of the given method are discussed for the polarization of heavy nuclei in the on-line implantation mode [ru

  15. Generalized Expression for Polarization Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lu; Hahm, T.S.

    2009-01-01

    A general polarization density which consists of classical and neoclassical parts is systematically derived via modern gyrokinetics and bounce-kinetics by employing a phase-space Lagrangian Lie-transform perturbation method. The origins of polarization density are further elucidated. Extending the work on neoclassical polarization for long wavelength compared to ion banana width [M. N. Rosenbluth and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)], an analytical formula for the generalized neoclassical polarization including both finite-banana-width (FBW) and finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) effects for arbitrary radial wavelength in comparison to banana width and gyroradius is derived. In additional to the contribution from trapped particles, the contribution of passing particles to the neoclassical polarization is also explicitly calculated. Our analytic expression agrees very well with the previous numerical results for a wide range of radial wavelength.

  16. Measuring the sea quark polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Spin is a fundamental degree of freedom and measuring the spin structure functions of the nucleon should be a basic endeavor for hadron physics. Polarization experiments have been the domain of fixed target experiments. Over the years large transverse asymmetries have been observed where the prevailing QCD theories predicted little or no asymmetries, and conversely the latest deep inelastic scattering experiments of polarized leptons from polarized targets point to the possibility that little of the nucleon spin is carried by the valence quarks. The possibility of colliding high luminosity polarized proton beams in the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a great opportunity to extend these studies and systematically probe the spin dependent parton distributions specially to those reactions that are inaccessible to current experiments. This presentation focuses on the measurement of sea quark and possibly the strange quark polarization utilizing the approved RHIC detectors

  17. A review of polarized ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmor, P.W.

    1995-06-01

    The two main types of polarized ion sources in use on accelerators today are the Atomic Beam Polarized Ion Source (ABIS) source and the Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS). Both types can provide beams of nuclearly polarized light ions which are either positively or negatively charged. Heavy ion polarized ion sources for accelerators are being developed. (author). 35 refs., 1 tab

  18. Polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, K.; Ishihara, M.; Takahashi, N.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter presents a few key experiments which provide direct evidence of the polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions. The theory of polarization observables and measurements is given with the necessary formulae. The polarization phenomena is described and studies of product nuclear polarization in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. Studies of heavy-ion reactions induced by polarized beams are examined

  19. Realization of beam polarization at the linear collider and its application to EW processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco-Sollova, F.

    2006-07-15

    -positron pairs. The polarization of the positrons is analyzed by reconverting them into photons and measuring the transmission asymmetry through a magnetized iron absorber. The analysis of the transmission asymmetry yields the following result for the June 2005 run: {delta}=0.0073 and the error is {delta}{delta}=0.0013; indicating the presence of positron polarization. The actual degree of polarization is still under study by the E-166 collaboration. (orig.)

  20. Physics with polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    As a distinct field, elementary particle physics is now approximately forty years old. In all that time, only a few of the thousands of experiments that have been performed have made use of spin polarized particle beams (with apologies to those who have studied neutrino interactions, polarized beam are defined to refer to the case in which the experimenter has control over the polarization direction). If the discussion is restricted to spin polarized electron beams, the number of experiments becomes countable with the fingers of one hand (with several to spare). There are two reasons for this lack of interest. The first is that spin polarized beams are difficult to produce, accelerate, and transport. The second reason is that any physical process that can occur during the collision of a polarized particle with another (polarized or not) can also occur during the collision of unpolarized particles. One might ask then, why has any effort been expended on the subject. The answer, at least in the case of polarized electron beams, is that electron accelerators and storage rings have in recent years achieved sufficient energy to begin to probe the weak interaction directly. The weak interaction distinguishes between left- and right-handed fermionic currents. Left-handed particles interact in a fundamentally different way than their right-handed counterparts. If the experimenter wishes to explore or exploit this difference, he (or she) must either prepare the spin state of the incident particles or analyze the spin state of outgoing particles. For reasons of genearlity and improved statistical precision, the former is usually preferable to the latter. The first of these lectures will review some of the techniques necessary for the production, transport, and monitoring of polarized electron (or positron) beams. The second lecture will survey some of the physics possibilities of polarized electron-positron collisions

  1. Promoting Diversity Through Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (Polar ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, J. D.; Hotaling, L. A.; Garza, C.; Van Dyk, P. B.; Hunter-thomson, K. I.; Middendorf, J.; Daniel, A.; Matsumoto, G. I.; Schofield, O.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Interdisciplinary Coordinated Education (ICE) is an education and outreach program designed to provide public access to the Antarctic and Arctic regions through polar data and interactions with the scientists. The program provides multi-faceted science communication training for early career scientists that consist of a face-to face workshop and opportunities to apply these skills. The key components of the scientist training workshop include cultural competency training, deconstructing/decoding science for non-expert audiences, the art of telling science stories, and networking with members of the education and outreach community and reflecting on communication skills. Scientists partner with educators to provide professional development for K-12 educators and support for student research symposia. Polar ICE has initiated a Polar Literacy initiative that provides both a grounding in big ideas in polar science and science communication training designed to underscore the importance of the Polar Regions to the public while promoting interdisciplinary collaborations between scientists and educators. Our ultimate objective is to promote STEM identity through professional development of scientists and educators while developing career awareness of STEM pathways in Polar science.

  2. Western diet increases wheel running in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Garland, T

    2010-06-01

    Mice from a long-term selective breeding experiment for high voluntary wheel running offer a unique model to examine the contributions of genetic and environmental factors in determining the aspects of behavior and metabolism relevant to body-weight regulation and obesity. Starting with generation 16 and continuing through to generation 52, mice from the four replicate high runner (HR) lines have run 2.5-3-fold more revolutions per day as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines, but the nature of this apparent selection limit is not understood. We hypothesized that it might involve the availability of dietary lipids. Wheel running, food consumption (Teklad Rodent Diet (W) 8604, 14% kJ from fat; or Harlan Teklad TD.88137 Western Diet (WD), 42% kJ from fat) and body mass were measured over 1-2-week intervals in 100 males for 2 months starting 3 days after weaning. WD was obesogenic for both HR and C, significantly increasing both body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass, the latter even when controlling statistically for wheel-running distance and caloric intake. The HR mice had significantly less fat than C mice, explainable statistically by their greater running distance. On adjusting for body mass, HR mice showed higher caloric intake than C mice, also explainable by their higher running. Accounting for body mass and running, WD initially caused increased caloric intake in both HR and C, but this effect was reversed during the last four weeks of the study. Western diet had little or no effect on wheel running in C mice, but increased revolutions per day by as much as 75% in HR mice, mainly through increased time spent running. The remarkable stimulation of wheel running by WD in HR mice may involve fuel usage during prolonged endurance exercise and/or direct behavioral effects on motivation. Their unique behavioral responses to WD may render HR mice an important model for understanding the control of voluntary activity levels.

  3. The Robust Running Ape: Unraveling the Deep Underpinnings of Coordinated Human Running Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kiely

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to other mammals, humans are not especially strong, swift or supple. Nevertheless, despite these apparent physical limitations, we are among Natures most superbly well-adapted endurance runners. Paradoxically, however, notwithstanding this evolutionary-bestowed proficiency, running-related injuries, and Overuse syndromes in particular, are widely pervasive. The term ‘coordination’ is similarly ubiquitous within contemporary coaching, conditioning, and rehabilitation cultures. Various theoretical models of coordination exist within the academic literature. However, the specific neural and biological underpinnings of ‘running coordination,’ and the nature of their integration, remain poorly elaborated. Conventionally running is considered a mundane, readily mastered coordination skill. This illusion of coordinative simplicity, however, is founded upon a platform of immense neural and biological complexities. This extensive complexity presents extreme organizational difficulties yet, simultaneously, provides a multiplicity of viable pathways through which the computational and mechanical burden of running can be proficiently dispersed amongst expanded networks of conditioned neural and peripheral tissue collaborators. Learning to adequately harness this available complexity, however, is a painstakingly slowly emerging, practice-driven process, greatly facilitated by innate evolutionary organizing principles serving to constrain otherwise overwhelming complexity to manageable proportions. As we accumulate running experiences persistent plastic remodeling customizes networked neural connectivity and biological tissue properties to best fit our unique neural and architectural idiosyncrasies, and personal histories: thus neural and peripheral tissue plasticity embeds coordination habits. When, however, coordinative processes are compromised—under the integrated influence of fatigue and/or accumulative cycles of injury, overuse

  4. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M A; Miller, R S; Keane, J T; Laneuville, M; Paige, D A; Matsuyama, I; Lawrence, D J; Crotts, A; Poston, M J

    2016-03-24

    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury's poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the Moon

  5. POLARIZED BEAMS: 1 - Longitudinal electron spin polarization at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-09-15

    Wednesday 4 May marked a turning point in the art of the manipulation of spins in electron storage rings: longitudinal electron spin polarization (with the spins oriented along the electrons' direction of motion) was established in the electron ring of HERA, the electronproton collider at DESY in Hamburg. A polarization level of about 55% was obtained and polarizations of over 60% were reproducibly obtained in the following days. The beam energy was 27.52 GeV, corresponding to half integer spin tune of 62.5.

  6. Providing a Continuum of Leadership in Polar Science - An IPY Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeseman, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) grew out of the 4th International Polar Year (IPY-4) 2007-08 and is an international and interdisciplinary organization of over 1200 undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere from more than 40 countries. Our aims are to stimulate interdisciplinary and international research collaborations, and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education and outreach. As potentially one of the major legacies of IPY-4, APECS members have been at the forefront of increasing scientific knowledge and public interest in the polar regions, centered around global climate change, and enhancing scientific understanding, media attention, primary and secondary school (K-12) educational programs, and public literacy campaigns. Research and Educational Outreach activities by APECS members during IPY-4 have improved both our understanding and the communication of all aspects of the Polar Regions and the importance of their broader global connections. APECS National Committees have run Polar Contests where young researchers partnered with teachers and students to develop curriculum and activities to share their research, have participated in many field based communication exchanges and are mentoring youth to pursue careers in science, and enhancing the public perception of scientists through photo, video and museum exhibits. In cooperation with the IPY Teachers Network and the IPY IPO, APECS is developing a polar education resource book that will feature education and outreach activities by young researchers, as well as provide examples of classroom activities for teachers to incorporate polar literacy into their curriculum and a 'how to' guide for researchers interested in conducting education and outreach. As young researchers share their excitement and experiences in deepening our understanding of the

  7. Optimization of AGS Polarized Proton Operation with the Warm Helical Snake

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Junpei; Bai, Mei; Brown, Kevin A; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Huang, Haixin; Luccio, Alfredo U; MacKay, William W; Okamura, Masahiro; Roser, Thomas; Tepikian, Steven; Tsoupas, Nicholaos

    2005-01-01

    A normal conducting helical dipole partial Siberian snake (Warm Snake) has been installed in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for overcoming all of imperfection depolarizing resonances and reducing the transverse coupling resonances caused by the solenoidal Siberian snake which had been operated in AGS before the last polarized run. The polarized proton beam has been accelerated successfully with the warm snake and the polarization at extraction of the AGS was increased to 50% as opposed to 40% with the solenoidal snake. The magnetic field and beam trajectory in the warm snake was calculated by using the OPERA-3D/TOSCA software. We present optimization of the warm snake with beam during RUN5.

  8. TRANSVERSE OPTICS IMPROVEMENTS FOR RHIC RUN 4.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAN ZEIJTS,J.

    2004-07-05

    The magnetic settings in RHIC are driven by an on-line model, and the quality of the resulting lattice functions depend on the correctness of the settings, and knowledge of the magnet transfer-functions. Here we first present the different inputs into the model, including dipole sextupole components, used to set tunes and chromaticities along the ramp. Based on an analysis of measured tunes along the FY03 polarized proton ramp, we present predictions for quadrupole transfer-function changes which have been implemented for the FY04 Au ramp. We show the improved model agreement for tunes along the ramp, and measured transverse phase-advance at store.

  9. The Effects of Backwards Running Training on Forward Running Economy in Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Jason D; Laubach, Lloyd L; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Jackson, Kurt J

    2016-03-01

    Backwards running (BR) results in greater cardiopulmonary response and muscle activity compared with forward running (FR). BR has traditionally been used in rehabilitation for disorders such as stroke and lower leg extremity injuries, as well as in short bursts during various athletic events. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of sustained backwards running training on forward running economy in trained male athletes. Eight highly trained, male runners (26.13 ± 6.11 years, 174.7 ± 6.4 cm, 68.4 ± 9.24 kg, 8.61 ± 3.21% body fat, 71.40 ± 7.31 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) trained with BR while harnessed on a treadmill at 161 m·min(-1) for 5 weeks following a 5-week BR run-in period at a lower speed (134 m·min(-1)). Subjects were tested at baseline, postfamiliarized, and post-BR training for body composition, a ramped VO2max test, and an economy test designed for trained male runners. Subjects improved forward running economy by 2.54% (1.19 ± 1.26 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.032) at 215 m·min(-1). VO2max, body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and % body fat did not change (p > 0.05). Five weeks of BR training improved FR economy in healthy, trained male runners without altering VO2max or body composition. The improvements observed in this study could be a beneficial form of training to an already economical population to improve running economy.

  10. Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Isabel S

    2016-06-01

    Running economy (RE) has a strong relationship with running performance, and modifiable running biomechanics are a determining factor of RE. The purposes of this review were to (1) examine the intrinsic and extrinsic modifiable biomechanical factors affecting RE; (2) assess training-induced changes in RE and running biomechanics; (3) evaluate whether an economical running technique can be recommended and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. Based on current evidence, the intrinsic factors that appeared beneficial for RE were using a preferred stride length range, which allows for stride length deviations up to 3 % shorter than preferred stride length; lower vertical oscillation; greater leg stiffness; low lower limb moment of inertia; less leg extension at toe-off; larger stride angles; alignment of the ground reaction force and leg axis during propulsion; maintaining arm swing; low thigh antagonist-agonist muscular coactivation; and low activation of lower limb muscles during propulsion. Extrinsic factors associated with a better RE were a firm, compliant shoe-surface interaction and being barefoot or wearing lightweight shoes. Several other modifiable biomechanical factors presented inconsistent relationships with RE. Running biomechanics during ground contact appeared to play an important role, specifically those during propulsion. Therefore, this phase has the strongest direct links with RE. Recurring methodological problems exist within the literature, such as cross-comparisons, assessing variables in isolation, and acute to short-term interventions. Therefore, recommending a general economical running technique should be approached with caution. Future work should focus on interdisciplinary longitudinal investigations combining RE, kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular and anatomical aspects, as well as applying a synergistic approach to understanding the role of kinetics.

  11. Ground reaction forces in shallow water running are affected by immersion level, running speed and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupenthal, Alessandro; Fontana, Heiliane de Brito; Ruschel, Caroline; dos Santos, Daniela Pacheco; Roesler, Helio

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the effect of depth of immersion, running speed and gender on ground reaction forces during water running. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty adults (ten male and ten female) participated by running at two levels of immersion (hip and chest) and two speed conditions (slow and fast). Data were collected using an underwater force platform. The following variables were analyzed: vertical force peak (Fy), loading rate (LR) and anterior force peak (Fx anterior). Three-factor mixed ANOVA was used to analyze data. Significant effects of immersion level, speed and gender on Fy were observed, without interaction between factors. Fy was greater when females ran fast at the hip level. There was a significant increase in LR with a reduction in the level of immersion regardless of the speed and gender. No effect of speed or gender on LR was observed. Regarding Fx anterior, significant interaction between speed and immersion level was found: in the slow condition, participants presented greater values at chest immersion, whereas, during the fast running condition, greater values were observed at hip level. The effect of gender was only significant during fast water running, with Fx anterior being greater in the men group. Increasing speed raised Fx anterior significantly irrespective of the level of immersion and gender. The magnitude of ground reaction forces during shallow water running are affected by immersion level, running speed and gender and, for this reason, these factors should be taken into account during exercise prescription. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SUSANS With Polarized Neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Apoorva G; Rakhecha, Veer Chand; Strobl, Makus; Treimer, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Super Ultra-Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SUSANS) studies over wave vector transfers of 10(-4) nm(-1) to 10(-3) nm(-1) afford information on micrometer-size agglomerates in samples. Using a right-angled magnetic air prism, we have achieved a separation of ≈10 arcsec between ≈2 arcsec wide up- and down-spin peaks of 0.54 nm neutrons. The SUSANS instrument has thus been equipped with the polarized neutron option. The samples are placed in a uniform vertical field of 8.8 × 10(4) A/m (1.1 kOe). Several magnetic alloy ribbon samples broaden the up-spin neutron peak significantly over the ±1.3 × 10(-3) nm(-1) range, while leaving the down-spin peak essentially unaltered. Fourier transforms of these SUSANS spectra corrected for the instrument resolution, yield micrometer-range pair distribution functions for up- and down-spin neutrons as well as the nuclear and magnetic scattering length density distributions in the samples.

  13. Design and Development of RunForFun Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anci Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Race run for 5 km or 10 km has been trending recently in many places in Indonesia, especially in Surabaya where there were at least 11 events of race run. The participant's number also increased significantly compared to years before. However, among several race run events, it was seen that some events tended to be replicative and monotone, while among the participants recently were identified the need for increasing the fun factor. RunForFun is a mobile application which designed for participants to reach new experience when participating in a race run event. The mobile application will run on Android OS. The development method of this mobile application would use Reverse Waterfall method. The development of this mobile application uses Ionic Framework which utilizes Cordova as its base to deploy to smartphone devices. Subsequently, RunForRun was tested on 10 participants, and the test shows a significant increase in the fun factor from run race participants.

  14. Towards a measurement of the spectral runnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Julian B.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Raccanelli, Alvise; Kamionkowski, Marc; Silk, Joseph, E-mail: julianmunoz@jhu.edu, E-mail: ekovetz1@jhu.edu, E-mail: alvise@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: mkamion1@jhu.edu, E-mail: joseph.silk@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Single-field slow-roll inflation predicts a nearly scale-free power spectrum of perturbations, as observed at the scales accessible to current cosmological experiments. This spectrum is slightly red, showing a tilt (1− n {sub s} )∼ 0.04. A direct consequence of this tilt are nonvanishing runnings α {sub s} = d n {sub s} / dlog k , and β {sub s} = dα {sub s} / dlog k , which in the minimal inflationary scenario should reach absolute values of 10{sup −3} and 10{sup −5}, respectively. In this work we calculate how well future surveys can measure these two runnings. We consider a Stage-4 (S4) CMB experiment and show that it will be able to detect significant deviations from the inflationary prediction for α {sub s} , although not for β {sub s} . Adding to the S4 CMB experiment the information from a WFIRST-like or a DESI-like survey improves the sensitivity to the runnings by ∼ 20%, and 30%, respectively. A spectroscopic survey with a billion objects, such as the SKA, will add enough information to the S4 measurements to allow a detection of α {sub s} =10{sup −3}, required to probe the single-field slow-roll inflationary paradigm. We show that only a very-futuristic interferometer targeting the dark ages will be capable of measuring the minimal inflationary prediction for β {sub s} . The results of other probes, such as a stochastic background of gravitational waves observable by LIGO, the Ly-α forest, and spectral distortions, are shown for comparison. Finally, we study the claims that large values of β {sub s} , if extrapolated to the smallest scales, can produce primordial black holes of tens of solar masses, which we show to be easily testable by the S4 CMB experiment.

  15. Prevalence of Injury in Ultra Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliaropoulos Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to find the rate of musculoskeletal injuries in ultra-trail runners, investigate the most sensitive anatomical areas, and discover associated predicting factors to aid in the effective prevention and rapid rehabilitation of trail running injuries. Methods. Forty ultra trail runners responded to an epidemiological questionnaire. Results. At least one running injury was reported by 90% of the sample, with a total of 135 injuries were reported (111 overuse injuries, 24 appeared during competing. Lower back pain was the most common source of injury (42.5%. Running in the mountains (p = 0.0004 and following a personalized training schedule (p = 0.0995 were found to be protective factors. Runners involved in physical labor are associated with more injuries (p = 0.058. Higher-level runners are associated with more injuries than lower-level cohorts (p = 0.067, with symptoms most commonly arising in the lower back (p = 0.091, hip joint (p = 0.083, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0.054. Experienced runners (> 6 years are at greater risk of developing injuries (p = 0.001, especially in the lower back (p = 0.012, tibia (p = 0.049, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0 .028. Double training sessions could cause hip joint injury (p = 0.060. Conclusions. In order to avoid injury, it is recommended to train mostly on mountain trails and have a training program designed by professionals.

  16. Impact of optical feedback on current-induced polarization behavior of 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Xie, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Jia-Gui; Tang, Xi; Fan, Li; Panajotov, Krassimir; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2013-06-01

    Polarization switching (PS) between two orthogonal linearly polarized fundamental modes is experimentally observed in commercial free-running 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) (Raycan). The characteristics of this PS are strongly modified after introducing a polarization-preserved (PP) or polarization-orthogonal (PO) optical feedback. Under the case that the external cavity is approximately 30 cm, the PP optical feedback results in the PS point shifting toward a lower injection current, and the region within which the two polarization modes coexist is enlarged with the increase of the PP feedback strength. Under too-strong PP feedback levels, the PS disappears. The impact of PO optical feedback on VCSEL polarization behavior is quite similar to that of PP optical feedback, but larger feedback strength is needed to obtain similar results.

  17. Barefoot versus shoe running: from the past to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan

    2014-02-01

    Barefoot running is not a new concept, but relatively few people choose to engage in barefoot running on a regular basis. Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, as many as 79% of runners are injured every year. Although benefits of barefoot running have been proposed, there are also potential risks associated with it. To review the evidence-based literature concerning barefoot/minimal footwear running and the implications for the practicing physician. Multiple publications were reviewed using an electronic search of databases such as Medline, Cinahl, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Database from inception until August 30, 2013 using the search terms barefoot running, barefoot running biomechanics, and shoe vs. barefoot running. Ninety-six relevant articles were found. Most were reviews of biomechanical and kinematic studies. There are notable differences in gait and other parameters between barefoot running and shoe running. Based on these findings and much anecdotal evidence, one could conclude that barefoot runners should have fewer injuries, better performance, or both. Several athletic shoe companies have designed running shoes that attempt to mimic the barefoot condition, and thus garner the purported benefits of barefoot running. Although there is no evidence that confirms or refutes improved performance and reduced injuries in barefoot runners, many of the claimed disadvantages to barefoot running are not supported by the literature. Nonetheless, it seems that barefoot running may be an acceptable training method for athletes and coaches, as it may minimize the risks of injury.

  18. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Cormac W; Joyce, Kenneth M; Kennedy, Ann-Marie; Kelly, Jack L

    2014-04-01

    Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator.

  19. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac W. Joyce, MB, BCh, MRCSI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator.

  20. ATLAS data preparation in run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00037318; The ATLAS collaboration; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Guenther, Jaroslav; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Strandberg, Jonas; Taffard, Anyes; Wang, Song-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. The challenges posed by the excellent performance and high live time fraction of the LHC are discussed, and the solutions implemented by ATLAS are described. The prompt calibration loop procedures are described and examples are given. Several levels of data quality assessment are used to quickly spot problems in the control room and prevent data loss, and to provide the final selection used for physics analysis. Finally the data quality efficiency for physics analysis is shown.

  1. Electron ID in ATLAS Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Thais, Savannah Jennifer; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Efficient and accurate electron identification is of critical importance to measuring many physics processes with leptons in the final state, including H->4l, dark vector boson searches, and various SUSY searches. This poster will describe the current status of the Likelihood driven Electron ID, highlighting the recent move from a MC driven ID to a data-driven ID. It will include the most recent identification efficiency and scale-factor measurements. Additionally, it will describe continued improvements for Run 2 electron ID, highlighting improvements in the low pt region and potential Machine Learning improvements.

  2. LHCb: The LHCb Silicon Tracker: Running experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Saornil Gamarra, S

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. After presenting our production and comissioning issues in TWEPP 2008, we report on our running experience. Focusing on electronic and hardware issues as well as operation and maintenance adversities, we describe the lessons learned and the pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  3. Nuclear physics with polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen Schieck, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of spin-polarization observables in reactions of nuclei and particles is of great utility and advantage when the effects of single-spin sub-states are to be investigated. Indeed, the unpolarized differential cross-section encompasses the averaging over the spin states of the particles, and thus loses details of the interaction process. This introductory text combines, in a single volume, course-based lecture notes on spin physics and on polarized-ion sources with the aim of providing a concise yet self-contained starting point for newcomers to the field, as well as for lecturers in search of suitable material for their courses and seminars. A significant part of the book is devoted to introducing the formal theory-a description of polarization and of nuclear reactions with polarized particles. The remainder of the text describes the physical basis of methods and devices necessary to perform experiments with polarized particles and to measure polarization and polarization effects in nuclear rea...

  4. Voluntary resistance running induces increased hippocampal neurogenesis in rats comparable to load-free running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Chul; Inoue, Koshiro; Okamoto, Masahiro; Liu, Yu Fan; Matsui, Takashi; Yook, Jang Soo; Soya, Hideaki

    2013-03-14

    Recently, we reported that voluntary resistance wheel running with a resistance of 30% of body weight (RWR), which produces shorter distances but higher work levels, enhances spatial memory associated with hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling compared to wheel running without a load (WR) [17]. We thus hypothesized that RWR promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) as a neuronal substrate underlying this memory improvement. Here we used 10-week-old male Wistar rats divided randomly into sedentary (Sed), WR, and RWR groups. All rats were injected intraperitoneally with the thymidine analogue 5-Bromo-2'-deoxuridine (BrdU) for 3 consecutive days before wheel running. We found that even when the average running distance decreased by about half, the average work levels significantly increased in the RWR group, which caused muscular adaptation (oxidative capacity) for fast-twitch plantaris muscle without causing any negative stress effects. Additionally, immunohistochemistry revealed that the total BrdU-positive cells and newborn mature cells (BrdU/NeuN double-positive) in the dentate gyrus increased in both the WR and RWR groups. These results provide new evidence that RWR has beneficial effects on AHN comparable to WR, even with short running distances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiovascular responses during deep water running versus shallow water running in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anerao Urja M, Shinde Nisha K, Khatri SM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Overview: As the school going children especially the adolescents’ need workout routine; it is advisable that the routine is imbibed in the school’s class time table. In India as growing number of schools provide swimming as one of the recreational activities; school staff often fails to notice the boredom that is caused by the same activity. Deep as well as shallow water running can be one of the best alternatives to swimming. Hence the present study was conducted to find out the cardiovascular response in these individuals. Methods: This was a Prospective Cross-Sectional Comparative Study done in 72 healthy school going students (males grouped into 2 according to the interventions (Deep water running and Shallow water running. Cardiovascular parameters such as Heart rate (HR, Saturation of oxygen (SpO2, Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE were assessed. Results: Significant improvements in cardiovascular parameters were seen in both the groups i.e. by both the interventions. Conclusion: Deep water running and Shallow water running can be used to improve cardiac function in terms of various outcome measures used in the study.

  6. Few-body experiments with polarized beams and polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is presented concerning recent polarization experiments in the elastic p-d, p- 3 He, and p- 4 He systems. Mention is made of selected neutron experiments. The nominal energy range is 10 to 1000 MeV. Recent results and interpretations of the p-d system near 10 MeV are discussed. New experiments on the energy dependence of back angle p-d tensor polarization are discussed with respect to resolution of discrepancies and difficulty of theoretical interpretation. Progress is noted concerning multiple scattering interpretation of forward p-d deuteron polarization. Some new results are presented concerning the p- 3 He system and higher energy p- 4 He polarization experiments. 52 references

  7. Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,PO Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria BC, V8W 2Y2 (Canada)

    2016-07-05

    We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.

  8. Ejectile polarization and nuclear orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, A.; Maruyama, T.; Horiuchi, H.

    1992-01-01

    Ejectile polarization phenomena are studied by the use of 'Quantum Molecular Dynamics plus external mean field' model. It is shown that the far-side contribution increases as the incident energy increases or the target charge decreases. The incident energy and the target dependence of ejectile polarization data is reproduced qualitatively. The near- and far-side contributions themselves are calculated to be almost monotone functions of ejectile momentum as is predicted in a simple projectile fragmentation scheme without the assumption that the linear and angular momentum transfers are negligible, and their statistical average results in various shapes in ejectile polarization

  9. Acceleration of polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1998-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. Full Siberian snakes are being developed for RHIC to make the acceleration of polarized protons to 250 GeV possible. A similar scheme is being studied for the 800 GeV HERA proton accelerator

  10. Membrane Transport across Polarized Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Castillo, Maria Daniela; Chinnapen, Daniel J-F; Lencer, Wayne I

    2017-09-01

    Polarized epithelial cells line diverse surfaces throughout the body forming selective barriers between the external environment and the internal milieu. To cross these epithelial barriers, large solutes and other cargoes must undergo transcytosis, an endocytic pathway unique to polarized cell types, and significant for the development of cell polarity, uptake of viral and bacterial pathogens, transepithelial signaling, and immunoglobulin transport. Here, we review recent advances in our knowledge of the transcytotic pathway for proteins and lipids. We also discuss briefly the promise of harnessing the molecules that undergo transcytosis as vehicles for clinical applications in drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Hyperchaotic Dynamics for Light Polarization in a Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, Cristian

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that a highly randomlike behavior of light polarization states in the output of a free-running laser diode, covering the whole Poincaré sphere, arises as a result from a fully deterministic nonlinear process, which is characterized by a hyperchaotic dynamics of two polarization modes nonlinearly coupled with a semiconductor medium, inside the optical cavity. A number of statistical distributions were found to describe the deterministic data of the low-dimensional nonlinear flow, such as lognormal distribution for the light intensity, Gaussian distributions for the electric field components and electron densities, Rice and Rayleigh distributions, and Weibull and negative exponential distributions, for the modulus and intensity of the orthogonal linear components of the electric field, respectively. The presented results could be relevant for the generation of single units of compact light source devices to be used in low-dimensional optical hyperchaos-based applications.

  12. Cryogenic control system of the large COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Gautheron, F; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Görtz, S; Gustafsson, K K; Horikawa, N; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Kondo, K; Meyer, Werner T; Reicherz, G

    2004-01-01

    The dilution refrigerator used to cool the large COMPASS polarized target is monitored through a PC running LabVIEW trademark 6.1 under Windows 2000 trademark . About 60 parameters of the target (temperatures, pressures, flow rates) are continuously plotted and checked. They are periodically recorded in an Oracle trademark database and in a data file. An alarm for every parameter can be individually activated and optionally connected to a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) delivery message system. A web server receives and publishes the online status of the target with online tables and graphics on a dedicated COMPASS polarized target information web site. A Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC) powered by an uninterruptable source keeps the cryogenic system safe and stable during the long beam periods by controlling valves and interlocks. This safety feature protects the dilution refrigerator against potential damages in case of power failure.

  13. PolarHub: A Global Hub for Polar Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a NSF project in developing a large-scale web crawler PolarHub to discover automatically the distributed polar dataset in the format of OGC web services (OWS) in the cyberspace. PolarHub is a machine robot; its goal is to visit as many webpages as possible to find those containing information about polar OWS, extract this information and store it into the backend data repository. This is a very challenging task given huge data volume of webpages on the Web. Three unique features was introduced in PolarHub to make it distinctive from earlier crawler solutions: (1) a multi-task, multi-user, multi-thread support to the crawling tasks; (2) an extensive use of thread pool and Data Access Object (DAO) design patterns to separate persistent data storage and business logic to achieve high extendibility of the crawler tool; (3) a pattern-matching based customizable crawling algorithm to support discovery of multi-type geospatial web services; and (4) a universal and portable client-server communication mechanism combining a server-push and client pull strategies for enhanced asynchronous processing. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the impact of crawling parameters to the overall system performance. The geographical distribution pattern of all PolarHub identified services is also demonstrated. We expect this work to make a major contribution to the field of geospatial information retrieval and geospatial interoperability, to bridge the gap between data provider and data consumer, and to accelerate polar science by enhancing the accessibility and reusability of adequate polar data.

  14. Polarized deuteron elastic scattering from a polarized proton target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelzer, R.; Kuiper, H.; Schoeberl, M.; Berber, S.; Hilmert, H.; Koeppel, R.; Pferdmenges, R. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Zankel, H. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)

    1983-01-13

    Measurements are reported of the spin correlation parameter Cy,y for the elastic scattering of 10.0 MeV vector polarized deuterons from a polarized proton target at five CM angles (76/sup 0/,85/sup 0/,98/sup 0/,115/sup 0/,132/sup 0/). The experimental results are compared with different predictions. A Faddeev type calculation on the basis of local potentials also including approximate Coulomb distortion is favoured by our experimental results.

  15. Polarized deuteron elastic scattering from a polarized proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, R.; Kuiper, H.; Schoeberl, M.; Berber, S.; Hilmert, H.; Koeppel, R.; Pferdmenges, R.; Zankel, H.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the spin correlation parameter Cy,y for the elastic scattering of 10.0 MeV vector polarized deuterons from a polarized proton target at five CM angles (76 0 ,85 0 ,98 0 ,115 0 ,132 0 ). The experimental results are compared with different predictions. A Faddeev type calculation on the basis of local potentials also including approximate Coulomb distortion is favoured by our experimental results. (orig.)

  16. Photonic Crystal Polarizing and Non-Polarizing Beam Splitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Ying, Guan; Jin-Hui, Shi; Li-Boo, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and a non-polarizing beam splitter (NPBS) based on a photonic crystal (PC) directional coupler are demonstrated. The photonic crystal directional coupler consists of a hexagonal lattice of dielectric pillars in air and has a complete photonic band gap. The photonic band structure and the band gap map are calculated using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. The splitting properties of the splitter are investigated numerically using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method

  17. Observations and analysis of oil spills using polarized imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, S.A.; Duncan, M.E.; Johnson, W.R.; Whitehead, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    On Saturday, July 28, 1990, a train of barges collided with the Greek tanker Shinoussa in Galveston Bay off Red Fish Island near Texas City, Texas. The first barge sank and the second began to leak while the third barge in the chain and the Shinoussa both escaped without damage. The NASA Flight Science Support Office sponsored a Graduate Student from SUNY - College of Environmental Science and Forestry and a student from Texas A ampersand M, Galveston, to survey the damage. The purpose of this paper is to correlate aircraft base data with orbital data obtained during the Space Shuttle Polarization Experiment and existing laboratory data to evaluate the potential for an application such as oil spill monitoring and mapping. NASA has no charter with the local response agencies to support oil spill monitoring and cleanup

  18. Multiangular hyperspectral investigation of polarized light in case 2 waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonizzo, A.; Zhou, J.; Gilerson, A.; Chowdhary, J.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S.

    2009-09-01

    The focus of this work is on the dependence of in situ hyperspectral and multiangular polarized data on the size distribution and refractive index of the suspended particles. Underwater polarization measurements were obtained using a polarimeter developed at the Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory of the City College of New York, NY. The degree of polarization (DOP) of the underwater light field in coastal environments was measured and the water-leaving polarized radiance was derived. In-water optical properties were also measured with an ac-9 (WET Labs). Absorption and attenuation spectra are then used to derive information on the dissolved and suspend components in the water medium which are used in a vector radiative transfer code which provides the upwelling radiance. The model was run for various values of the refractive index of mineral particles until the modeled DOP matched the measured one. The relationship between the intensity of the maximum of the DOP and both the refractive index of the mineral particles and the shapes of their size distributions is analyzed in detail.

  19. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  20. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. At hand of a few examples, we will show the ...