WorldWideScience

Sample records for polarized plane wave

  1. Multiphoton processes in the field of two-frequency circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, An

    1997-01-01

    The authors solve Dirac's equation for an electron in the field of a two-frequency plane electromagnetic wave, deriving general formulae for the probabilities of radiation of a photon by the electron, and for the probabilities for pair production by a photon when the two-frequency wave is circularly polarized. In contrast to the case of a monochromatic-plane electromagnetic wave, when an electron is in the field of a two-frequency circularly polarized wave, besides the absorption of multiphotons and emission of simple harmonics of the individual waves, stimulated multiphoton emission processes and various composite harmonic-photon emission processes are occurred: when a high-energy photon is in a such a field, multiphoton processes also follow the pair production processes

  2. Dirac electron in a chiral space-time crystal created by counterpropagating circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzdov, G. N.

    2017-10-01

    The family of solutions to the Dirac equation for an electron moving in an electromagnetic lattice with the chiral structure created by counterpropagating circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves is obtained. At any nonzero quasimomentum, the dispersion equation has two solutions which specify bispinor wave functions describing electron states with different energies and mean values of momentum and spin operators. The inversion of the quasimomentum results in two other linearly independent solutions. These four basic wave functions are uniquely defined by eight complex scalar functions (structural functions), which serve as convenient building blocks of the relations describing the electron properties. These properties are illustrated in graphical form over a wide range of quasimomenta. The superpositions of two basic wave functions describing different spin states and corresponding to (i) the same quasimomentum (unidirectional electron states with the spin precession) and (ii) the two equal-in-magnitude but oppositely directed quasimomenta (bidirectional electron states) are also treated.

  3. Next generation sub-millimeter wave focal plane array coupling concepts: an ESA TRP project to develop multichroic focal plane pixels for future CMB polarization experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, N.; Bucher, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Deo, P.; DePetris, M.; Doherty, S.; Ghribi, A.; Gradziel, M.; Kuzmin, L.; Maffei, B.; Mahashabde, S.; Masi, S.; Murphy, J. A.; Noviello, F.; O'Sullivan, C.; Pagano, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Robinson, M.; Stompor, R.; Tartari, A.; van der Vorst, M.; Verhoeve, P.

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this activity is to develop new focal plane coupling array concepts and technologies that optimise the coupling from reflector optics to the large number of detectors for next generation sub millimetre wave telescopes particularly targeting measurement of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this 18 month TRP programme the consortium are tasked with developing, manufacturing and experimentally verifying a prototype multichroic pixel which would be suitable for the large focal plane arrays which will be demanded to reach the required sensitivity of future CMB polarization missions. One major development was to have multichroic operation to potentially reduce the required focal plane size of a CMB mission. After research in the optimum telescope design and definition of requirements based on a stringent science case review, a number of compact focal plane architecture concepts were investigated before a pixel demonstrator consisting of a planar mesh lens feeding a backend Resonant Cold Electron Bolometer RCEB for filtering and detection of the dual frequency signal was planned for manufacture and test. In this demonstrator the frequencies of the channels was chosen to be 75 and 105 GHz in the w band close to the peak CMB signal. In the next year the prototype breadboards will be developed to test the beams produced by the manufactured flat lenses fed by a variety of antenna configurations and the spectral response of the RCEBs will also be verified.

  4. Fast Plane Wave Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas

    This PhD project investigates and further develops methods for ultrasound plane wave imaging and blood flow estimation with the objective of overcoming some of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems, which are related to low frame rates and only estimation of velocities along...... the ultrasound beam. The first part of the contribution investigates the compromise between frame rate and plane wave image quality including the influence of grating lobes from a λ-pitch transducer. A method for optimizing the image quality is suggested, and it is shown that the frame rate can be increased...... healthy volunteers. Complex flow patterns were measured in an anthropomorphic flow phantom and showed good agreement with the velocity field simulated using computational fluid dynamics. The last part of the contribution investigates two clinical applications. Plane wave imaging was used for slow velocity...

  5. Scattering of E Polarized Plane Wave by Rectangular Cavity With Finite Flanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Elena D.

    2017-11-01

    The rigorous Method of Regularization is implemented for accurate analysis of wave scattering by rectangular cavity with finite flanges. The solution is free from limitations on problem parameters. The calculation of the induced surface current, bistatic radar cross section (RCS) and frequency dependence of monostatic RCS are performed with controlled accuracy in a wide frequency band.

  6. Conceptual Design of Wave Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Trewers, Andrew; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The Wave Plane is a patented Wave Energy device of the overtopping type, designed to capture potential as well as kinetic energy. This is as such different to other overtopping devices, who usually only focus on potential energy. If Wave Plane A/S can deliver the turbine technology to utilize both...

  7. Generating asymptotically plane wave spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to study asymptotically plane wave spacetimes which admit an event horizon, we find solutions to vacuum Einstein's equations in arbitrary dimension which have a globally null Killing field and rotational symmetry. We show that while such solutions can be deformed to include ones which are asymptotically plane wave, they do not posses a regular event horizon. If we allow for additional matter, such as in supergravity theories, we show that it is possible to have extremal solutions with globally null Killing field, a regular horizon, and which, in addition, are asymptotically plane wave. In particular, we deform the extremal M2-brane solution in 11-dimensional supergravity so that it behaves asymptotically as a 10-dimensional vacuum plane wave times a real line. (author)

  8. Interaction of gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical theory of colliding, infinite-fronted, plane gravitational waves is presented. The process of focusing, the creation of singularities and horizons, due to the interaction, and the lens effect due to a beam-like gravitational wave are discussed

  9. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  10. Plane waves and spacelike infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marolf, Donald; Ross, Simon F

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we showed that the causal boundary of any homogeneous plane wave satisfying the null convergence condition consists of a single null curve. In Einstein-Hilbert gravity, this would include any homogeneous plane wave satisfying the weak null energy condition. For conformally flat plane waves such as the Penrose limit of AdS 5 x S 5 , all spacelike curves that reach infinity also end on this boundary and the completion is Hausdorff. However, the more generic case (including, e.g., the Penrose limits of AdS 4 x S 7 and AdS 7 x S 4 ) is more complicated. In one natural topology, not all spacelike curves have limit points in the causal completion, indicating the need to introduce additional points at 'spacelike infinity' - the endpoints of spacelike curves. We classify the distinct ways in which spacelike curves can approach infinity, finding a two-dimensional set of distinct limits. The dimensionality of the set of points at spacelike infinity is not, however, fixed from this argument. In an alternative topology, the causal completion is already compact, but the completion is non-Hausdorff

  11. New family of exact solutions for colliding plane gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, U.

    1988-01-01

    We construct an infinite-parameter family of exact solutions to the vacuum Einstein field equations describing colliding gravitational plane waves with parallel polarizations. The interaction regions of the solutions in this family are locally isometric to the interiors of those static axisymmetric (Weyl) black-hole solutions which admit both a nonsingular horizon, and an analytic extension of the exterior metric to the interior of the horizon. As a member of this family of solutions we also obtain, for the first time, a colliding plane-wave solution where both of the two incoming plane waves are purely anastigmatic, i.e., where both incoming waves have equal focal lengths

  12. Topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shao-Yong; Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Huang, Hong-Bo

    2018-04-01

    Topological phononic insulators (TPnIs) show promise for application in the manipulation of acoustic waves for the design of low-loss transmission and perfectly integrated communication devices. Since solid phononic crystals exist as a transverse polarization mode and a mixed longitudinal-transverse polarization mode, the realization of topological edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is desirable to enhance the controllability of the edge waves in solid systems. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) solid/solid hexagonal-latticed phononic system that simultaneously supports the topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is investigated. Firstly, two pairs of two-fold Dirac cones, respectively corresponding to the out-of-plane and in-plane waves, are obtained at the same frequency by tuning the crystal parameters. Then, a strategy of zone folding is invoked to form double Dirac cones. By shrinking and expanding the steel scatterer, the lattice symmetry is broken, and band inversions induced, giving rise to an intriguing topological phase transition. Finally, the topologically protected edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves, which can be simultaneously located at the frequency range from 1.223 to 1.251 MHz, are numerically observed. Robust pseudospin-dependent elastic edge wave propagation along arbitrary paths is further demonstrated. Our results will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  13. A differentiated plane wave as an electromagnetic vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H; Nye, J F

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating a complex scalar plane wave with respect to its direction produces an isolated straight vortex line and has a natural extension, described in earlier papers, to the vector waves of electromagnetism—a differentiated plane wave (DPW). It epitomizes destructive interference and will be shown to have the local structure of an electromagnetic vortex. In this paper its polarization structure and Poynting vector field are compared and contrasted with that of the family of linear polynomial waves, of which it is a special member. By definition this wider family has a general linear complex vector function of position multiplying a plane wave, but the function must be such that the combination satisfies Maxwell’s equations. This forces translational invariance of the function along the wavevector direction—in other words the wave is ‘non-diffracting’. In a natural sense all possible polarizations are exhibited once only. But the DPW has a distinctive polarization structure only partly explored previously. Both classes of waves share similar Poynting vector fields, which can be ‘elliptic’ (helix-like flow lines) or ‘hyperbolic’, of a repulsive nature, unexpected for a vortex. Both classes can be considered as a limit in the superposition of three closely parallel ordinary plane waves in destructive interference, and this derivation is supplied in full here. (paper)

  14. Colliding almost-plane gravitational waves: Colliding plane waves and general properties of almost-plane-wave spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, U.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that when two precisely plane-symmetric gravitational waves propagating in an otherwise flat background collide, they focus each other so strongly as to produce a curvature singularity. This paper is the first of several devoted to almost-plane gravitational waves and their collisions. Such waves are more realistic than plane waves in having a finite but very large transverse size. In this paper we review some crucial features of the well-known exact solutions for colliding plane waves and we argue that one of these features, the breakdown of ''local inextendibility'' can be regarded as nongeneric. We then introduce a new framework for analyzing general colliding plane-wave spacetimes; we give an alternative proof of a theorem due to Tipler implying the existence of singularities in all generic colliding plane-wave solutions; and we discuss the fact that the recently constructed Chandrasekhar-Xanthopoulos colliding plane-wave solutions are not strictly plane symmetric and thus do not satisfy the conditions and the conclusion of Tipler's theorem

  15. Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-11-19

    The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion.

  16. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality

  17. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general space-time to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave space-times. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.

  18. A differentiated plane wave: its passage through a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H; Nye, J F

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating a monochromatic uniform plane electromagnetic wavefield with respect to its direction produces, from a field that is completely lacking in localized specific features, one that contains a straight vortex-like line, a ‘C-line’ of defined circular polarization. There is also a second separate C-line of opposite handedness; indeed, in a sense, a straight line of every polarization is realized. Because of its primitive construction it is analytically simple to study the passage of a differentiated wave obliquely through a plane interface into a medium of different refractive index, to trace its C-line. This was done in an earlier paper. Here we extend the method to passage through a parallel-sided transparent slab. There are multiple reflections within the slab, as in a Fabry–Pérot interferometer. The exiting wave, as a single differentiated plane wave, has a straight oblique C-line. Inside the slab, and in front of it, there is wave interference. The result is a coiled, helix-like, C-line in front of the slab and another inside it. The two coils wrap around separate hyperboloids of one sheet, like cooling towers. The emerging straight C-line is shifted (with respect to a C-line in a notional undisturbed incident plane wave) both in the plane of incidence and transversely to it, and the second C-line behaves similarly. The analysis is exact and could be extended in a straightforward way to a general stratified medium. (paper)

  19. Plane wave limits and T-duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guven, R.

    2000-04-01

    The Penrose limit is generalized to show that, any leading order solution of the low-energy field equations in any one of the five string theories has a plane wave solution as a limit. This limiting procedure takes into account all the massless fields that may arise and commutes with the T-duality so that any dual solution has again a plane wave limit. The scaling rules used in the limit are unique and stem from the scaling property of the D = 11 supergravity action. Although the leading order dual solutions need not be exact or supersymmetric, their plane wave limits always preserve some portion of the Poincare supersymmetry and solve the relevant field equations in all powers of the string tension parameter. Further properties of the limiting procedure are discussed. (author)

  20. Plane-wave scattering from half-wave dipole arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels E.

    1970-01-01

    A matrix equation for determination of plane-wave scattering from arrays of thin short-circuited dipoles of lengths about half a wavelength is derived. Numerical and experimental results are presented for linear, circular, and concentric circular arrays.......A matrix equation for determination of plane-wave scattering from arrays of thin short-circuited dipoles of lengths about half a wavelength is derived. Numerical and experimental results are presented for linear, circular, and concentric circular arrays....

  1. Radiation of Electron in the Field of Plane Light Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinsky, A.; Drebot, I.V.; Grigorev, Yu.N.; Zvonareva, O.D.; Tatchyn, R.

    2006-01-01

    Results of integration of a Lorentz equation for a relativistic electron moving in the field of running, plane, linear polarized electromagnetic wave are presented in the paper. It is shown that electron velocities in the field of the wave are almost periodic functions of time. For calculations of angular spectrum of electron radiation intensity expansion of the electromagnetic field in a wave zone into generalized Fourier series was used. Expressions for the radiation intensity spectrum are presented in the paper. Derived results are illustrated for electron and laser beam parameters of NSC KIPT X-ray generator NESTOR. It is shown that for low intensity of the interacting electromagnetic wave the results of energy and angular spectrum calculations in the frame of classical electrodynamics completely coincide with calculation results produced using quantum electrodynamics. Simultaneously, derived expressions give possibilities to investigate dependence of energy and angular Compton radiation spectrum on phase of interaction and the interacting wave intensity

  2. Solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the field of a plane electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostin, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    A solution is obtained of the Bethe--Salpeter equation for positronium in the field of linearly and circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves at frequencies much higher than atomic. It is not assumed that the field is weak

  3. Apodised aperture using rotation of plane of polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.W.; Leppelmeier, G.W.; Johnson, B.C.

    1975-01-01

    An apodised aperture based on the rotation of plane of polarization producing desirable characteristics on a transmitted light beam such as beam profiling in high flux laser amplifier chains is described. The apodised aperture is made with a lossless element by using one or more polarizers and/or analyzers and magneto-optical Faraday means for selectively rotating the plane of polarized radiation over the cross section to effect the desired apodisation

  4. The memory effect for plane gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.-M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2017-09-01

    We give an account of the gravitational memory effect in the presence of the exact plane wave solution of Einstein's vacuum equations. This allows an elementary but exact description of the soft gravitons and how their presence may be detected by observing the motion of freely falling particles. The theorem of Bondi and Pirani on caustics (for which we present a new proof) implies that the asymptotic relative velocity is constant but not zero, in contradiction with the permanent displacement claimed by Zel'dovich and Polnarev. A non-vanishing asymptotic relative velocity might be used to detect gravitational waves through the "velocity memory effect", considered by Braginsky, Thorne, Grishchuk, and Polnarev.

  5. Chiral retrieval method based on right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Ernesto; Muñoz, Juan; Margineda, José; Molina-Cuberos, Gregorio J; García-Collado, Ángel J

    2014-01-01

    The free-wave characterization of metamaterials is usually carried out by illuminating a sample with a linearly polarized plane electromagnetic wave. At points before and after the sample, sensors are introduced to measure the transverse components of the field, in order to compute the reflection and transmission coefficients related with the co- and cross-polar field components. Based on this information, retrieval algorithms allow parameters like rotation angle, effective chirality and refraction index to be calculated. Here we propose to use the transmission signals under illumination with plane circularly polarized waves, without sensing the reflection signal, to calculate the chirality parameter and the rotation angle due to the electromagnetic activity of the material. This new method, which allows a simpler characterization of a chiral slab, is applied to the study of metamaterials composed of both periodic and random distributions of metallic structures with chiral symmetry. The experimental results are contrasted with simulations and alternative measurements obtained using linearly polarized waves. (paper)

  6. Helical waves in easy-plane antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Yuriy G.; Li, Xi-Lai; Xu, Xinyi; Kim, Ki Wook

    2017-12-01

    Effective spin torques can generate the Néel vector oscillations in antiferromagnets (AFMs). Here, it is theoretically shown that these torques applied at one end of a normal AFM strip can excite a helical type of spin wave in the strip whose properties are drastically different from characteristic spin waves. An analysis based on both a Néel vector dynamical equation and the micromagnetic simulation identifies the direction of magnetic anisotropy and the damping factor as the two key parameters determining the dynamics. Helical wave propagation requires the hard axis of the easy-plane AFM to be aligned with the traveling direction, while the damping limits its spatial extent. If the damping is neglected, the calculation leads to a uniform periodic domain wall structure. On the other hand, finite damping decelerates the helical wave rotation around the hard axis, ultimately causing stoppage of its propagation along the strip. With the group velocity staying close to spin-wave velocity at the wave front, the wavelength becomes correspondingly longer away from the excitation point. In a sufficiently short strip, a steady-state oscillation can be established whose frequency is controlled by the waveguide length as well as the excitation energy or torque.

  7. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-07-29

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  8. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  9. On the energy-momentum density of gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dereli, T; Tucker, R W

    2004-01-01

    By embedding Einstein's original formulation of general relativity into a broader context, we show that a dynamic covariant description of gravitational stress-energy emerges naturally from a variational principle. A tensor T G is constructed from a contraction of the Bel tensor with a symmetric covariant second degree tensor field Φ and has a form analogous to the stress-energy tensor of the Maxwell field in an arbitrary spacetime. For plane-fronted gravitational waves helicity-2 polarized (graviton) states can be identified carrying non-zero energy and momentum

  10. Scattering on plane waves and the double copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Tim; Casali, Eduardo; Mason, Lionel; Nekovar, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Perturbatively around flat space, the scattering amplitudes of gravity are related to those of Yang–Mills by colour-kinematic duality, under which gravitational amplitudes are obtained as the ‘double copy’ of the corresponding gauge theory amplitudes. We consider the question of how to extend this relationship to curved scattering backgrounds, focusing on certain ‘sandwich’ plane waves. We calculate the 3-point amplitudes on these backgrounds and find that a notion of double copy remains in the presence of background curvature: graviton amplitudes on a gravitational plane wave are the double copy of gluon amplitudes on a gauge field plane wave. This is non-trivial in that it requires a non-local replacement rule for the background fields and the momenta and polarization vectors of the fields scattering on the backgrounds. It must also account for new ‘tail’ terms arising from scattering off the background. These encode a memory effect in the scattering amplitudes, which naturally double copies as well.

  11. Plane wave fast color flow mode imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolic, Ibrahim; Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    A new Plane wave fast color flow imaging method (PWM) has been investigated, and performance evaluation of the PWM based on experimental measurements has been made. The results show that it is possible to obtain a CFM image using only 8 echo-pulse emissions for beam to flow angles between 45...... degrees and 75 degrees. Compared to the conventional ultrasound imaging the frame rate is similar to 30 - 60 times higher. The bias, B-est of the velocity profile estimate, based on 8 pulse-echo emissions, is between 3.3% and 6.1% for beam to flow angles between 45 degrees and 75 degrees, and the standard...

  12. Synchrotron-radiation plane-wave topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riglet, P.; Sauvage, M.; Petroff, J.F.; Epelboin, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program based on the Takagi-Taupin differential equations for X-ray propagation in distorted crystals has been developed in order to simulate dislocation images in the Bragg case. The program is valid both for thin and thick crystals. Simulated images of misfit dislocations formed either in a thin epilayer or in a thick substrate are compared with experimental images obtained by synchrotron-radiation plane-wave topography. The influence of the various strain components on the image features is discussed. (author)

  13. Apparatus and methods for memory using in-plane polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junwei; Chang, Kai; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Chen, Xi; Fu, Liang

    2018-05-01

    A memory device includes a semiconductor layer with an in-plane polarization component switchable between a first direction and a second direction. A writing electrode is employed to apply a writing voltage to the semiconductor layer to change the in-plane polarization component between the first direction and the second direction. A reading electrode is employed to apply a reading voltage to the semiconductor layer to measure a tunneling current substantially perpendicular to the polarization direction of the in-plane polarization component. The directions of the reading voltage and the writing voltage are substantially perpendicular to each other. Therefore, the reading process is non-destructive. Thin films (e.g., one unit cell thick) of ferroelectric material can be used in the memory device to increase the miniaturization of the device.

  14. Augmented-plane-wave calculations on small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serena, P.A.; Baratoff, A.; Soler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    We have performed ab initio calculations on a wide range of small molecules, demonstrating the accuracy and flexibility of an alternative method for calculating the electronic structure of molecules, solids, and surfaces. It is based on the local-density approximation (LDA) for exchange and correlation and the nonlinear augmented-plane-wave method. Very accurate atomic forces are obtained directly. This allows for implementation of Car-Parrinello-like techniques to determine simultaneously the self-consistent electron wave functions and the equilibrium atomic positions within an iterative scheme. We find excellent agreement with the best existing LDA-based calculations and remarkable agreement with experiment for the equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, and dipole moments of a wide variety of molecules, including strongly bound homopolar and polar molecules, hydrogen-bound and electron-deficient molecules, and weakly bound alkali and noble-metal dimers, although binding energies are overestimated

  15. Polarization sensitivity testing of off-plane reflection gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Hannah; McEntaffer, Randal L.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; Laubis, Christian; Soltwisch, Victor

    2015-09-01

    Off-Plane reflection gratings were previously predicted to have different efficiencies when the incident light is polarized in the transverse-magnetic (TM) versus transverse-electric (TE) orientations with respect to the grating grooves. However, more recent theoretical calculations which rigorously account for finitely conducting, rather than perfectly conducting, grating materials no longer predict significant polarization sensitivity. We present the first empirical results for radially ruled, laminar groove profile gratings in the off-plane mount which demonstrate no difference in TM versus TE efficiency across our entire 300-1500 eV bandpass. These measurements together with the recent theoretical results confirm that grazing incidence off-plane reflection gratings using real, not perfectly conducting, materials are not polarization sensitive.

  16. Plane shock wave studies of geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.D.; Larson, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    Plane shock wave experiments have been conducted on eight geologic materials in an effort to determine the importance of time-dependent mechanical behavior. Of the eight rocks studied, only Westerly granite and nugget sandstone appear to show time independence. In the slightly porous materials (1-5 percent), Blair dolomite and sodium chloride, and in the highly porous (15 to 40 percent) rock, Mt. Helen tuff and Indiana limestone, time-dependent behavior is associated with the time required to close the available porosity. In water-saturated rocks the time dependence arises because the water that is present shows no indication of transformation to the higher pressure ice phases, thus suggesting the possibility that a metastable form of water exists under dynamic conditions

  17. A ''quadratized'' augmented plane wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrcka, L.

    1982-02-01

    The exact radial solution inside the muffin-tin sphere is replaced by its Taylor expansion with respect to the energy, truncated after the quadratic term. Making use of it the energy independent augmented plane waves are formed which lead to the secular equations linear in energy. The method resembles the currently used linearized APW method but yields higher accuracy. The analysis of solution inside one muffin-tin sphere shows that the eigenvalue error is proportional to (E-E 0 ) 6 as compared with (E-E 0 ) 4 for LAPW. The error of eigenfunctions is (E-E 0 ) 3 ((E-E 0 ) 2 for LAPW). These conclusions are confirmed by direct numerical calculation of band structure of Cu and Al. (author)

  18. Velocity Memory Effect for polarized gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.-M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    Circularly polarized gravitational sandwich waves exhibit, as do their linearly polarized counterparts, the Velocity Memory Effect: freely falling test particles in the flat after-zone fly apart along straight lines with constant velocity. In the inside zone their trajectories combine oscillatory and rotational motions in a complicated way. For circularly polarized periodic gravitational waves some trajectories remain bounded, while others spiral outward. These waves admit an additional "screw" isometry beyond the usual five. The consequences of this extra symmetry are explored.

  19. Plane-wave least-squares reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2013-06-03

    A plane-wave least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM) is formulated with a new parameterization, where the migration image of each shot gather is updated separately and an ensemble of prestack images is produced along with common image gathers. The merits of plane-wave prestack LSRTM are the following: (1) plane-wave prestack LSRTM can sometimes offer stable convergence even when the migration velocity has bulk errors of up to 5%; (2) to significantly reduce computation cost, linear phase-shift encoding is applied to hundreds of shot gathers to produce dozens of plane waves. Unlike phase-shift encoding with random time shifts applied to each shot gather, plane-wave encoding can be effectively applied to data with a marine streamer geometry. (3) Plane-wave prestack LSRTM can provide higher-quality images than standard reverse-time migration. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model and a marine field data set are performed to illustrate the benefits of plane-wave LSRTM. Empirical results show that LSRTM in the plane-wave domain, compared to standard reversetime migration, produces images efficiently with fewer artifacts and better spatial resolution. Moreover, the prestack image ensemble accommodates more unknowns to makes it more robust than conventional least-squares migration in the presence of migration velocity errors. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  20. Plane-wave least-squares reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    . The merits of plane-wave prestack LSRTM are the following: (1) plane-wave prestack LSRTM can sometimes offer stable convergence even when the migration velocity has bulk errors of up to 5%; (2) to significantly reduce computation cost, linear phase

  1. 3D plane-wave least-squares Kirchhoff migration

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin

    2014-08-05

    A three dimensional least-squares Kirchhoff migration (LSM) is developed in the prestack plane-wave domain to increase the quality of migration images and the computational efficiency. Due to the limitation of current 3D marine acquisition geometries, a cylindrical-wave encoding is adopted for the narrow azimuth streamer data. To account for the mispositioning of reflectors due to errors in the velocity model, a regularized LSM is devised so that each plane-wave or cylindrical-wave gather gives rise to an individual migration image, and a regularization term is included to encourage the similarities between the migration images of similar encoding schemes. Both synthetic and field results show that: 1) plane-wave or cylindrical-wave encoding LSM can achieve both computational and IO saving, compared to shot-domain LSM, however, plane-wave LSM is still about 5 times more expensive than plane-wave migration; 2) the regularized LSM is more robust compared to LSM with one reflectivity model common for all the plane-wave or cylindrical-wave gathers.

  2. Initial value problem for colliding gravitational plane waves. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, I.; Ernst, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a homogeneous Hilbert problem (HHP) approach to the initial value problem (IVP) for colliding gravitational plane waves with noncollinear polarization that began in two earlier papers [I. Hauser and F. J. Ernst, J. Math. Phys. 30, 872 (1989) and 30, 2322 (1989)] is continued. After formulating the HHP, the description of how one can apply it to generate a new family of solutions of the colliding wave problem that generalizes a three-parameter family constructed by Ernst, Garcia, and Hauser [J. Math. Phys. 29, 681 (1988)] using a double-Harrison transformation is given. Then the proof that the solution of the new HHP indeed solves the IVP that is posed is presented. A matrix Fredholm equation of the second kind that is equivalent to the HHP is also deduced. This will be used in a sequel to complete the proof of existence of solutions of the HHP and the proof that certain assumed differentiability hypotheses are in fact valid

  3. Scattering of spinning test particles by gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, D.; Gemelli, G.

    1997-01-01

    The authors study the motion of spinning particles in the gravitational plane-wave background and discuss particular solutions under a suitable choice of supplementary conditions. An analysis of the discontinuity of the motion across the wavefront is presented too

  4. Can plane wave modes be physical modes in soliton models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldabe, F.

    1995-08-01

    I show that plane waves may not be used as asymptotic states in soliton models because they describe unphysical states. When asymptotic states are taken to the physical there is not T-matrix of O(1). (author). 9 refs

  5. Regularized plane-wave least-squares Kirchhoff migration

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin; Dai, Wei; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    A Kirchhoff least-squares migration (LSM) is developed in the prestack plane-wave domain to increase the quality of migration images. A regularization term is included that accounts for mispositioning of reflectors due to errors in the velocity

  6. Plane-wave Least-squares Reverse Time Migration

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-01-01

    convergence for least-squares migration even when the migration velocity is not completely accurate. To significantly reduce computation cost, linear phase shift encoding is applied to hundreds of shot gathers to produce dozens of planes waves. A

  7. 3D plane-wave least-squares Kirchhoff migration

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin; Dai, Wei; Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    A three dimensional least-squares Kirchhoff migration (LSM) is developed in the prestack plane-wave domain to increase the quality of migration images and the computational efficiency. Due to the limitation of current 3D marine acquisition

  8. DLCQ and plane wave matrix Big Bang models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2008-09-01

    We study the generalisations of the Craps-Sethi-Verlinde matrix big bang model to curved, in particular plane wave, space-times, beginning with a careful discussion of the DLCQ procedure. Singular homogeneous plane waves are ideal toy-models of realistic space-time singularities since they have been shown to arise universally as their Penrose limits, and we emphasise the role played by the symmetries of these plane waves in implementing the flat space Seiberg-Sen DLCQ prescription for these curved backgrounds. We then analyse various aspects of the resulting matrix string Yang-Mills theories, such as the relation between strong coupling space-time singularities and world-sheet tachyonic mass terms. In order to have concrete examples at hand, in an appendix we determine and analyse the IIA singular homogeneous plane wave - null dilaton backgrounds.

  9. DLCQ and plane wave matrix Big Bang models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study the generalisations of the Craps-Sethi-Verlinde matrix big bang model to curved, in particular plane wave, space-times, beginning with a careful discussion of the DLCQ procedure. Singular homogeneous plane waves are ideal toy-models of realistic space-time singularities since they have been shown to arise universally as their Penrose limits, and we emphasise the role played by the symmetries of these plane waves in implementing the flat space Seiberg-Sen DLCQ prescription for these curved backgrounds. We then analyse various aspects of the resulting matrix string Yang-Mills theories, such as the relation between strong coupling space-time singularities and world-sheet tachyonic mass terms. In order to have concrete examples at hand, in an appendix we determine and analyse the IIA singular homogeneous plane wave - null dilaton backgrounds.

  10. Regularized plane-wave least-squares Kirchhoff migration

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin

    2013-09-22

    A Kirchhoff least-squares migration (LSM) is developed in the prestack plane-wave domain to increase the quality of migration images. A regularization term is included that accounts for mispositioning of reflectors due to errors in the velocity model. Both synthetic and field results show that: 1) LSM with a reflectivity model common for all the plane-wave gathers provides the best image when the migration velocity model is accurate, but it is more sensitive to the velocity errors, 2) the regularized plane-wave LSM is more robust in the presence of velocity errors, and 3) LSM achieves both computational and IO saving by plane-wave encoding compared to shot-domain LSM for the models tested.

  11. Tunnelling of plane waves through a square barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julve, J [IMAFF, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 113 bis, Madrid 28006 (Spain); UrrIes, F J de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: julve@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: fernando.urries@uah.es

    2008-08-01

    The time evolution of plane waves in the presence of a one-dimensional square quantum barrier is considered. Comparison is made between the cases of an infinite and a cut-off (shutter) initial plane wave. The difference is relevant when the results are applied to the analysis of the tunnelling regime. This work is focused on the analytical calculation of the time-evolved solution and highlights the contribution of the resonant (Gamow) states.

  12. Circularly Polarized Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna with Finite Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyog Rawat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new geometry of circularly polarized patch antenna is proposed with improved bandwidth. The radiation performance of proposed patch antenna is investigated using IE3D simulation software and its performance is compared with that of conventional rectangular patch antenna. The simulated return loss, axial ratio and impedance with frequency for the proposed antenna are reported in this paper. It is shown that by selecting suitable ground-plane dimensions, air gap and location of the slots, the impedance bandwidth can be enhanced upto 10.15% as compared to conventional rectangular patch (4.24% with an axial ratio bandwidth of 4.05%.

  13. An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…

  14. Plane waves and structures in turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirovich, L.; Ball, K. S.; Keefe, L. R.

    1990-01-01

    A direct simulation of turbulent flow in a channel is analyzed by the method of empirical eigenfunctions (Karhunen-Loeve procedure, proper orthogonal decomposition). This analysis reveals the presence of propagating plane waves in the turbulent flow. The velocity of propagation is determined by the flow velocity at the location of maximal Reynolds stress. The analysis further suggests that the interaction of these waves appears to be essential to the local production of turbulence via bursting or sweeping events in the turbulent boundary layer, with the additional suggestion that the fast acting plane waves act as triggers.

  15. Problems of the orthogonalized plane wave method. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farberovich, O.V.; Kurganskii, S.I.; Domashevskaya, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    The main problems of the orthogonalized plane wave method are discussed including (a) consideration of core states; (b) effect of overlap of wave functions of external core states upon the band structure; (c) calculation of d-type states. The modified orthogonal plane wave method (MOPW method) of Deegan and Twose is applied in a general form to solve the problems of the usual OPW method. For the first time the influence on the spectrum of the main parameters of the MOPW method is studied systematically by calculating the electronic energy spectrum in the transition metals Nb and V. (author)

  16. Trapped waves on the mid-latitude β-plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldor, Nathan; Sigalov, Andrey

    2008-08-01

    A new type of approximate solutions of the Linearized Shallow Water Equations (LSWE) on the mid-latitude β-plane, zonally propagating trapped waves with Airy-like latitude-dependent amplitude, is constructed in this work, for sufficiently small radius of deformation. In contrast to harmonic Poincare and Rossby waves, these newly found trapped waves vanish fast in the positive half-axis, and their zonal phase speed is larger than that of the corresponding harmonic waves for sufficiently large meridional domains. Our analysis implies that due to the smaller radius of deformation in the ocean compared with that in the atmosphere, the trapped waves are relevant to observations in the ocean whereas harmonic waves typify atmospheric observations. The increase in the zonal phase speed of trapped Rossby waves compared with that of harmonic ones is consistent with recent observations that showed that Sea Surface Height features propagated westwards faster than the phase speed of harmonic Rossby waves.

  17. The geometry of plane waves in spaces of constant curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.V.

    1988-01-01

    We examined the geometry of possible plane wave fronts in spaces of constant curvature for three cases in which the cosmological constant is positive, zero, or negative. The cosmological constant and a second-order invariant determined by a congruence of null rays were used in the investigation. We embedded the spaces under investigation in a flat five-dimensional space, and studied the null hyperplanes passing through the origin of the flat five-dimensional space. The embedded spaces are represented by quadrics in the five-dimensional space. The plane wave fronts are represented by the intersection of the quadric with null hyperplanes passing through the origin of the five-dimensional space. We concluded that in Minkowski spaces (zero cosmological constant), the plane-fronted waves will intersect if and only if the second-order invariant mentioned above is non-zero. For deSitter spaces (positive cosmological constant), plane-fronted waves will always intersect. For anti-deSitter spaces (negative cosmological constant), plane-fronted waves may but need not intersect

  18. Wave-equation Migration Velocity Analysis Using Plane-wave Common Image Gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2017-06-01

    Wave-equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) based on subsurface-offset, angle domain or time-lag common image gathers (CIGs) requires significant computational and memory resources because it computes higher dimensional migration images in the extended image domain. To mitigate this problem, a WEMVA method using plane-wave CIGs is presented. Plane-wave CIGs reduce the computational cost and memory storage because they are directly calculated from prestack plane-wave migration, and the number of plane waves is often much smaller than the number of shots. In the case of an inaccurate migration velocity, the moveout of plane-wave CIGs is automatically picked by a semblance analysis method, which is then linked to the migration velocity update by a connective function. Numerical tests on two synthetic datasets and a field dataset validate the efficiency and effectiveness of this method.

  19. Explaining Polarization Reversals in STEREO Wave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L, B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently Breneman et al. reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (Lpaper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by +/-200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by 200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al.

  20. Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging With Cascaded Dual-Polarity Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Guo, Yuexin; Lee, Wei-Ning

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound imaging using plane or diverging waves, instead of focused beams, has advanced greatly the development of novel ultrasound imaging methods for evaluating tissue functions beyond anatomical information. However, the sonographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ultrafast imaging remains limited due to the lack of transmission focusing, and thus insufficient acoustic energy delivery. We hereby propose a new ultrafast ultrasound imaging methodology with cascaded dual-polarity waves (CDWs), which consists of a pulse train with positive and negative polarities. A new coding scheme and a corresponding linear decoding process were thereby designed to obtain the recovered signals with increased amplitude, thus increasing the SNR without sacrificing the frame rate. The newly designed CDW ultrafast ultrasound imaging technique achieved higher quality B-mode images than coherent plane-wave compounding (CPWC) and multiplane wave (MW) imaging in a calibration phantom, ex vivo pork belly, and in vivo human back muscle. CDW imaging shows a significant improvement in the SNR (10.71 dB versus CPWC and 7.62 dB versus MW), penetration depth (36.94% versus CPWC and 35.14% versus MW), and contrast ratio in deep regions (5.97 dB versus CPWC and 5.05 dB versus MW) without compromising other image quality metrics, such as spatial resolution and frame rate. The enhanced image qualities and ultrafast frame rates offered by CDW imaging beget great potential for various novel imaging applications.

  1. Plane-Wave Imaging Challenge in Medical Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebgott, Herve; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-01-01

    for this effect, but comparing the different methods is difficult due to the lack of appropriate tools. PICMUS, the Plane-Wave Imaging Challenge in Medical Ultrasound aims to provide these tools. This paper describes the PICMUS challenge, its motivation, implementation, and metrics.......Plane-Wave imaging enables very high frame rates, up to several thousand frames per second. Unfortunately the lack of transmit focusing leads to reduced image quality, both in terms of resolution and contrast. Recently, numerous beamforming techniques have been proposed to compensate...

  2. REFLECT: a program to integrate the wave equation through a plane stratified plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A program was developed to integrate the wave equation through a plane stratified plasma with a general density distribution. The reflection and transmission of a plane wave are computed as a function of the angle of incidence. The polarization of the electric vector is assumed to be perpendicular to the plane of incidence. The model for absorption by classical inverse bremsstrahlung avoids the improper extrapolation of underdense formulae that are singular at the plasma critical surface. Surprisingly good agreement with the geometric-optics analysis of a linear layer was found. The system of ordinary differential equations is integrated by the variable-step, variable-order Adams method in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Gear package. Parametric studies of the absorption are summarized, and some possibilities for further development of the code are discussed. (auth)

  3. Soft Gravitons & the Memory Effect for Plane Gravitational Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, P. -M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    The "gravitational memory effect" due to an exact plane wave provides us with an elementary description of the diffeomorphisms associated with soft gravitons. It is explained how the presence of the latter may be detected by observing the motion of freely falling particles or other forms of gravitational wave detection. Numerical calculations confirm the relevance of the first, second and third time integrals of the Riemann tensor pointed out earlier. Solutions for various profiles are constr...

  4. Traveling Wave Modes of a Plane Layered Anelastic Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    grant, “Coupled Modes in Elastic Bottoms” (1) is the publication “Traveling wave modes of a plane layered anelastic earth ” accepted for...anelastic earth Robert I. Odom Applied Physics Laboratory and Department of Earth and Space Sciences University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th St., Seattle...contrast to a similar standing wave problem for the earth free oscillations (Tromp and Dahlen, 1990). Attenuation is commonly incorporated into synthetic

  5. Transverse spin and transverse momentum in scattering of plane waves

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Sudipta; Singh, Ankit K.; Ray, Subir K.; Banerjee, Ayan; Gupta, Subhasish Dutta; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2016-01-01

    We study the near field to the far field evolution of spin angular momentum (SAM) density and the Poynting vector of the scattered waves from spherical scatterers. The results show that at the near field, the SAM density and the Poynting vector are dominated by their transverse components. While the former (transverse SAM) is independent of the helicity of the incident circular polarization state, the latter (transverse Poynting vector) depends upon the polarization state. It is further demon...

  6. Long wave polar modes in semiconductor heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Trallero-Giner, C; García-Moliner, F; Garc A-Moliner, F; Perez-Alvarez, R; Garcia-Moliner, F

    1998-01-01

    Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is concerned with the study of polar optical modes in semiconductor heterostructures from a phenomenological approach and aims to simplify the model of lattice dynamics calculations. The book provides useful tools for performing calculations relevant to anyone who might be interested in practical applications. The main focus of Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is planar heterostructures (quantum wells or barriers, superlattices, double barrier structures etc) but there is also discussion on the growing field of quantum wires and dots. Also to allow anyone reading the book to apply the techniques discussed for planar heterostructures, the scope has been widened to include cylindrical and spherical geometries. The book is intended as an introductory text which guides the reader through basic questions and expands to cover state-of-the-art professional topics. The book is relevant to experimentalists wanting an instructive presentatio...

  7. Technique for measurements of plane waves of uniaxial strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The measurement of plane waves in uniaxial strain, in which large surface areas are loaded and the measurements are restricted to a central region that is not influenced by lateral boundaries, is discussed. Measuring techniques are covered and instruments are discussed

  8. Plane-wave electronic structure calculations on a parallel supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.S.; Plimpton, S.J.; Sears, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    The development of iterative solutions of Schrodinger's equation in a plane-wave (pw) basis over the last several years has coincided with great advances in the computational power available for performing the calculations. These dual developments have enabled many new and interesting condensed matter phenomena to be studied from a first-principles approach. The authors present a detailed description of the implementation on a parallel supercomputer (hypercube) of the first-order equation-of-motion solution to Schrodinger's equation, using plane-wave basis functions and ab initio separable pseudopotentials. By distributing the plane-waves across the processors of the hypercube many of the computations can be performed in parallel, resulting in decreases in the overall computation time relative to conventional vector supercomputers. This partitioning also provides ample memory for large Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) meshes and the storage of plane-wave coefficients for many hundreds of energy bands. The usefulness of the parallel techniques is demonstrated by benchmark timings for both the FFT's and iterations of the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger's equation for different sized Si unit cells of up to 512 atoms

  9. Plane Wave Medical Ultrasound Imaging Using Adaptive Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the adaptive, minimum variance (MV) beamformer is applied to medical ultrasound imaging. The Significant resolution and contrast gain provided by the adaptive, minimum variance (MV) beamformer, introduces the possibility of plane wave (PW) ultrasound imaging. Data is obtained using...

  10. A plane-wave final-state theory of ATI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.S.; Clark, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    A Fermi Golden Rule calculation of ionization cross-sections provides us with the simplest example of a plane-wave final-state theory. In this method the final (unbound) state is modeled as a plane wave, an approximation that generally gives best results in the high energy limit in which the affect of the atomic potential on the final state can be neglected. A cross-section is then calculated from the matrix element connecting the bound initial state with the final state. The idea of generalizing this method to model transitions among unbound states is credited to L.V. Keldysh, and a number of related formalisms have been proposed that are consistent with the general features of experimental data. Here we describe a plane-wave final-state model of ATI that is in the spirit of these theories, but differs significantly in its implementation and predictions. We will present a comparison of the predictions of the plane-wave model with those of a full numerical integration of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for atomic hydrogen in a radiation field. The theory and the numerical integration give good qualitative agreement in their predictions of photoelectron spectra over about 14 orders of magnitude

  11. Energy Relations for Plane Waves Reflected from Moving Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, P.; Gruenberg, Harry

    1967-01-01

    When a plane wave is obliquely incident from vacuum on a semi-infinite moving medium, the energy flow carried by the incident wave, is in general, not carried away by the reflected and transmitted waves. This is only the case when the medium velocity is parallel to its vacuum interface. Otherwise...... there is a net inflow or outflow of electromagnetic energy, which can be accounted for by the change of stored energy in the system, and the work done by the mechanical forces acting on the medium. A detailed energy balance is drawn up for two different media moving normal to their vacuum interfaces: (a...

  12. Parallel Multi-Focusing Using Plane Wave Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Munk, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    of desired 2-D sensitivity functions is specified, for multi-focusing in a number of directions. The field along these directions is decomposed to a sufficiently large (for accurate specification) number of plane waves, which are then back-propagated to all transducer elements. The contributions of all plane...... waves result in one time function per element. The numerical solution is presented and discussed. It contains pulses with a variation in central frequency and time-varying apodization across the aperture (dynamic apodization). The RMS difference between the transmitted field using the calculated pulse...... of the transmitted pulses is based on the directivity spectrum method, a generalization of the angular spectrum method, a generalization of the angular spectrum method, containing no evanescent waves. The underlying theory is based on the Fourier slice theorem, and field reconstruction from projections. First a set...

  13. Quantum scattering beyond the plane-wave approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovets, Dmitry

    2017-12-01

    While a plane-wave approximation in high-energy physics works well in a majority of practical cases, it becomes inapplicable for scattering of the vortex particles carrying orbital angular momentum, of Airy beams, of the so-called Schrödinger cat states, and their generalizations. Such quantum states of photons, electrons and neutrons have been generated experimentally in recent years, opening up new perspectives in quantum optics, electron microscopy, particle physics, and so forth. Here we discuss the non-plane-wave effects in scattering brought about by the novel quantum numbers of these wave packets. For the well-focused electrons of intermediate energies, already available at electron microscopes, the corresponding contribution can surpass that of the radiative corrections. Moreover, collisions of the cat-like superpositions of such focused beams with atoms allow one to probe effects of the quantum interference, which have never played any role in particle scattering.

  14. Plane waves and spherical means applied to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    John, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    Elementary and self-contained, this heterogeneous collection of results on partial differential equations employs certain elementary identities for plane and spherical integrals of an arbitrary function, showing how a variety of results on fairly general differential equations follow from those identities. The first chapter deals with the decomposition of arbitrary functions into functions of the type of plane waves. Succeeding chapters introduce the first application of the Radon transformation and examine the solution of the initial value problem for homogeneous hyperbolic equations with con

  15. Path integral for Dirac particle in plane wave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeggari, S.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of a relativistic spinning particle in interaction with an electromagnetic plane wave field is treated via path integrals. The dynamics of the spin of the particle is described using the supersymmetric action proposed by Fradkin and Gitman. The problem has been solved by using two identities, one bosonic and the other fermionic, which are related directly to the classical equations of motion. The exact expression of the relative Green's function is given and the result agrees with those of the literature. Further, the suitably normalized wave functions are also extracted. (orig.)

  16. Path integral for Dirac particle in plane wave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeggari, S.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L. [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Dept. of Physique

    2001-10-01

    The problem of a relativistic spinning particle in interaction with an electromagnetic plane wave field is treated via path integrals. The dynamics of the spin of the particle is described using the supersymmetric action proposed by Fradkin and Gitman. The problem has been solved by using two identities, one bosonic and the other fermionic, which are related directly to the classical equations of motion. The exact expression of the relative Green's function is given and the result agrees with those of the literature. Further, the suitably normalized wave functions are also extracted. (orig.)

  17. Polarization waves in dielectric films with spatial dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, Jean-Pierre; Moch, Philippe; Dvorak, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The polarization waves propagating in a slab-shaped or in a semi-infinite dielectric medium with spatial dispersion characterized by a volume free-energy density and by a boundary-surface energy density are studied, taking into account Maxwell's equations, in the framework of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism. It is shown that two independent extrapolation lengths providing for the required additional boundary conditions need to be specified at each surface limiting the medium. Complete calculations are performed in the electrostatic approximation: they provide evidence of the differences between the transverse in-plane polarized modes (s modes) and the sagittal plane polarized modes (p modes). True surface modes exist only in the case of negative extrapolation lengths. A detailed analysis of the symmetry properties of the surface and of the guided bulk modes in a slab is developed. Finally, our results are compared with those from previous models describing the boundary conditions in media where spatial dispersion is present. (author)

  18. Plane-wave Least-squares Reverse Time Migration

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2012-11-04

    Least-squares reverse time migration is formulated with a new parameterization, where the migration image of each shot is updated separately and a prestack image is produced with common image gathers. The advantage is that it can offer stable convergence for least-squares migration even when the migration velocity is not completely accurate. To significantly reduce computation cost, linear phase shift encoding is applied to hundreds of shot gathers to produce dozens of planes waves. A regularization term which penalizes the image difference between nearby angles are used to keep the prestack image consistent through all the angles. Numerical tests on a marine dataset is performed to illustrate the advantages of least-squares reverse time migration in the plane-wave domain. Through iterations of least-squares migration, the migration artifacts are reduced and the image resolution is improved. Empirical results suggest that the LSRTM in plane wave domain is an efficient method to improve the image quality and produce common image gathers.

  19. Electron Cyclotron Waves Polarization in the TJII Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, A.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Wagner, D.

    2013-05-01

    This report describes the theoretical calculations related with the electron cyclotron (EC) waves polarization control in the TJII stellarator. Two main aspects will be distinguished: the determination of the vacuum polarization that the wave must exhibit if a given propagation mode in a cold plasma is desired and the calculation of the behavior of the grooved polarizers and other transmission systems used to launch the vacuum wave with the required polarization. (Author) 13 refs.

  20. CMB polarization systematics, cosmological birefringence, and the gravitational waves background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagano, Luca; Bernardis, Paolo de; Gubitosi, Giulia; Masi, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Piacentini, Francesco; De Troia, Grazia; Natoli, Paolo; Polenta, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background experiments must achieve very accurate calibration of their polarization reference frame to avoid biasing the cosmological parameters. In particular, a wrong or inaccurate calibration might mimic the presence of a gravitational wave background, or a signal from cosmological birefringence, a phenomenon characteristic of several nonstandard, symmetry breaking theories of electrodynamics that allow for in vacuo rotation of the polarization direction of the photon. Noteworthly, several authors have claimed that the BOOMERanG 2003 (B2K) published polarized power spectra of the cosmic microwave background may hint at cosmological birefringence. Such analyses, however, do not take into account the reported calibration uncertainties of the BOOMERanG focal plane. We develop a formalism to include this effect and apply it to the BOOMERanG dataset, finding a cosmological rotation angle α=-4.3 deg. ±4.1 deg. We also investigate the expected performances of future space borne experiment, finding that an overall miscalibration larger then 1 deg. for Planck and 0.2 deg. for the Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology, if not properly taken into account, will produce a bias on the constraints on the cosmological parameters and could misleadingly suggest the presence of a gravitational waves background.

  1. The Uniform geometrical Theory of Diffraction for elastodynamics: Plane wave scattering from a half-plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djakou, Audrey Kamta; Darmon, Michel; Fradkin, Larissa; Potel, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Diffraction phenomena studied in electromagnetism, acoustics, and elastodynamics are often modeled using integrals, such as the well-known Sommerfeld integral. The far field asymptotic evaluation of such integrals obtained using the method of steepest descent leads to the classical Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD). It is well known that the method of steepest descent is inapplicable when the integrand's stationary phase point coalesces with its pole, explaining why GTD fails in zones where edge diffracted waves interfere with incident or reflected waves. To overcome this drawback, the Uniform geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) has been developed previously in electromagnetism, based on a ray theory, which is particularly easy to implement. In this paper, UTD is developed for the canonical elastodynamic problem of the scattering of a plane wave by a half-plane. UTD is then compared to another uniform extension of GTD, the Uniform Asymptotic Theory (UAT) of diffraction, based on a more cumbersome ray theory. A good agreement between the two methods is obtained in the far field.

  2. Quantum oscillation amplification of the ultrasound polarization parameters in tungsten during coupling with the spiral wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, V.V.; Zhevstovskikh, I.V.; Zimbovskaya, N.A.; Okulov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    The quantum oscillations are studied of ellipcity, the rotation angle of the ultrasound polarization plane, the velocity and absorption of waves polarized circularly at the 196 MHz frequency in a tungsten single crystal in magnetic field of 30-80 kOe at temperature 1,8 K. The oscillation amplitudes of ellipticity and rotation angle of the ultrasound polarization plane beyond the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance are found to vary nonmonotonously with field and to be large enough, so that they are not described by the simple expressions for high fields. The explanation for the oscillation amplification of the polarization parameters is given within the theory involving the ultrasound-spiral wave coupling predicted by Kaner and Skobov. The quantitative comparison in details demonstrates a good agreement in the theory and experimental data and allows to find the numerical values of new parameters characterizing the Fermi surface, electron relaxation frequency, and deformation potential

  3. Plane-wave scattering by self-complementary metasurfaces in terms of electromagnetic duality and Babinet's principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yosuke; Urade, Yoshiro; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao

    2013-11-01

    We investigate theoretically electromagnetic plane-wave scattering by self-complementary metasurfaces. By using Babinet's principle extended to metasurfaces with resistive elements, we show that the frequency-independent transmission and reflection are realized for normal incidence of a circularly polarized plane wave onto a self-complementary metasurface, even if there is diffraction. Next, we consider two special classes of self-complementary metasurfaces. We show that self-complementary metasurfaces with rotational symmetry can act as coherent perfect absorbers, and those with translational symmetry compatible with their self-complementarity can split the incident power equally, even for oblique incidences.

  4. Electromagnetic forces and torques in nanoparticles irradiated by plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Optical tweezers and optical lattices are making it possible to control small particles by means of electromagnetic forces and torques. In this context, a method is presented in this work to calculate electromagnetic forces and torques for arbitrarily-shaped objects in the presence of other objects illuminated by a plane wave. The method is based upon an expansion of the electromagnetic field in terms of multipoles around each object, which are in turn used to derive forces and torques analytically. The calculation of multipole coefficients are obtained numerically by means of the boundary element method. Results are presented for both spherical and non-spherical objects

  5. Multiple projection optical diffusion tomography with plane wave illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, Vadim A; Schotland, John C

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new data collection scheme for optical diffusion tomography in which plane wave illumination is combined with multiple projections in the slab imaging geometry. Multiple projection measurements are performed by rotating the slab around the sample. The advantage of the proposed method is that the measured data are more compatible with the dynamic range of most commonly used detectors. At the same time, multiple projections improve image quality by mutually interchanging the depth and transverse directions, and the scanned (detection) and integrated (illumination) surfaces. Inversion methods are derived for image reconstructions with extremely large data sets. Numerical simulations are performed for fixed and rotated slabs

  6. Observation of proton chorus waves close to the equatorial plane by Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Pickett, J. S.; Santolik, O.; Robert, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Constantinescu, D. O.

    2009-12-01

    Whistler mode chorus waves are a widely studied phenomena. They are present in numerous regions of the magnetosphere and are presumed to originate in the magnetic equatorial region. In a spectrogram they are characterized by narrowband features with rise (or fall) in frequency over short periods of time. Being whistler mode waves around a few tenths of the electron cyclotron frequency they interact mainly with electrons. In the present study we report observations by the Cluster spacecraft of what we call proton chorus waves. They have spectral features with rising frequency, similar to the electron chorus waves, but they are detected in a frequency range that starts roughly at 0.50fH+ up to fH+ (the local proton gyro-frequency). The lower part of their spectrum seems to originate from monochromatic Pc 1 waves (1.5 Hz). Proton chorus waves are detected close to the magnetic equatorial plane in both hemispheres during the same event. Our interpretation of these waves as proton chorus is supported by polarization analysis with the Roproc procedures and the Prassadco software using both the magnetic (STAFF-SC) and electric (EFW) parts of the fluctuations spectrum.

  7. Far-field divergence of a vectorial plane wave diffracted by a circular aperture from the vectorial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Guo-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the vectorial structure of an electromagnetic wave, the analytical and concise expressions for the TE and TM terms of a vectorial plane wave diffracted by a circular aperture are derived in the far-field. The expressions of the energy flux distributions of the TE term, the TM term and the diffracted plane wave are also presented. The ratios of the power of the TE and TM terms to that of the diffracted plane wave are examined in the far-field. In addition, the far-field divergence angles of the TE term, the TM term and the diffracted plane wave, which are related to the energy flux distribution, are investigated. The different energy flux distributions of the TE and TM terms result in the discrepancy of their divergence angles. The influences of the linearly polarized angle and the radius of the circular aperture on the far-field divergence angles of the TE term, the TM term and the diffracted plane wave are discussed in detail. This research may promote the recognition of the optical propagation through a circular aperture. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. Polarization-dependent thin-film wire-grid reflectarray for terahertz waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Tiaoming [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); School of Information Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Upadhyay, Aditi; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath [Functional Materials and Microsystems Research Group, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Withayachumnankul, Withawat [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S9-3, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Headland, Daniel; Abbott, Derek; Fumeaux, Christophe, E-mail: cfumeaux@eleceng.adelaide.edu.au [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2015-07-20

    A thin-film polarization-dependent reflectarray based on patterned metallic wire grids is realized at 1 THz. Unlike conventional reflectarrays with resonant elements and a solid metal ground, parallel narrow metal strips with uniform spacing are employed in this design to construct both the radiation elements and the ground plane. For each radiation element, a certain number of thin strips with an identical length are grouped to effectively form a patch resonator with equivalent performance. The ground plane is made of continuous metallic strips, similar to conventional wire-grid polarizers. The structure can deflect incident waves with the polarization parallel to the strips into a designed direction and transmit the orthogonal polarization component. Measured radiation patterns show reasonable deflection efficiency and high polarization discrimination. Utilizing this flexible device approach, similar reflectarray designs can be realized for conformal mounting onto surfaces of cylindrical or spherical devices for terahertz imaging and communications.

  9. Conversion of optical wave polarizations in 1D finite anisotropic photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchani, N.; Nougaoui, N.; Daoudi, A.; Bria, D.

    2006-07-01

    We show that by using one dimensional anisotropic photonic structures, it is possible to realize optical wave polarization conversion by transmission or by reflection. Thus a single incident S(P) polarized plane wave can produce a single reflected P(S) polarized wave and a single transmitted P(S) polarized wave. This polarization conversion property can be fulfilled with a simple finite superlattice constituted by anisotropic dielectric materials. We discuss the appropriate choices of the material and geometrical properties to realize such structures. The transmission and reflection coefficients are discussed in relation with the dispersion curves of the finite structure embedded between two isotropic substrates. Both transmission and reflection coefficients are calculated in the framework of Green's function method. The amplitude and the polarization characteristics of reflected and transmitted waves are determined as function of frequency ω , and wave vector k parallel ( parallel to the interface) and the orientations of the principal axes of the layers constituting the SL. Moreover, this structure exhibits a coupling between S and P waves that does not exist in SL composed only of isotropic materials. Specific applications of these results are given for a superlattice consisting of alternating biaxial anisotropic layers NaNO 2 /SbSi sandwiched between two identical semi-infinite isotropic media. (author)

  10. Surface polarization, rumpling, and domain ordering of strained ultrathin BaTiO_3(001) films with in-plane and out-of-plane polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionot, Jelle; Mathieu, Claire; Barrett, Nick; Geneste, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    BaTiO_3 ultrathin films (thickness ≅1.6 nm) with in- and out-of-plane polarization are studied by first-principles calculations. Out-of-plane polarization is simulated using the method proposed by Shimada et al. [Phys. Rev. B 81, 144116 (2010)], which consists in building a supercell containing small domains with alternating up and down polarization. This allows one to investigate the properties of defect free BaTiO_3 ultrathin films with polarization perpendicular to the surface, as a function of in-plane lattice constant, i.e., epitaxial strain. The configurations with polarization perpendicular to the surface (c phase) are found stable under compressive strain, while under tensile strain, the polarization tends to lie in-plane (aa phase), along [110]. In the c phase, the most stable domain width is predicted to be 1 to 2 lattice constants, and the magnitude of the surface rumpling varies according to the direction of the polarization (upwards versus downwards), though its sign is unchanged, the oxygen anions pointing in all cases outwards. Finally, all the surfaces studied are found to be insulating. Analysis of the atom-projected electronic density of states gives insight into the surface contributions to the electronic structure. An important reduction of the Kohn-Sham band gap is predicted at TiO_2 terminations in the c phase (≅1 eV with respect to the aa phase). The Madelung potential at the surface plays the dominant role in modifications of the surface electronic structure. (authors)

  11. Computational dosimetry in embryos exposed to electromagnetic plane waves over the frequency range of 10 MHz-1.5 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Hiroki; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents calculated specific absorption rate (SAR) dosimetry in 4 and 8 week Japanese pregnant-woman models exposed to plane waves over the frequency range of 10 MHz-1.5 GHz. Two types of 2 mm spatial-resolution pregnant-woman models comprised a woman model, which is similar to the average-sized Japanese adult female in height and weight, with a cubic (4 week) embryo or spheroidal (8 week) one. The averaged SAR in the embryos exposed to vertically and horizontally polarized plane waves at four kinds of propagation directions are calculated from 10 MHz to 1.5 GHz. The results indicate that the maximum average SAR in the embryos exposed to plane waves is lower than 0.08 W kg -1 when the incident power density is at the reference level of ICNIRP guideline for general public environment. (note)

  12. The effect of sources on horizons that may develop when plane gravitational waves collide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan; Xanthopoulos, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    Colliding plane gravitational waves that lead to the development of a horizon and a subsequent time-like singularity are coupled with an electromagnetic field, a perfect fluid, and null dust (consisting of massless particles). The coupling of the gravitational waves with an electromagnetic field does not affect, in any essential way, the development of the horizon or the time-like singularity if the polarizations of the colliding gravitational waves are not parallel. If the polarizations are parallel, the space-like singularity which occurs in the vacuum is transformed into a horizon followed by a three-dimensional time-like singularity by the merest presence of the electromagnetic field. The coupling of the gravitational waves with a perfect fluid and null dust affect the development of horizons and singularities in radically different ways: the perfect fluid affects the development decisively in all cases but qualitatively in the same way, while null dust prevents the development of horizons and allows only the development of space-like singularities. The contrasting behaviours of a perfect fluid and of null dust in the framework of general relativity is compared with the behaviours one may expect, under similar circumstances, in the framework of special relativity. (author)

  13. Plane-wave diffraction by periodic structures with artificial anisotropic dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazerooni, Azadeh Semsar; Shahabadi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Periodic structures with artificial anisotropic dielectrics are studied. The artificial anisotropic dielectric material in this work is made of two alternating isotropic dielectric layers. By a proper choice of the dielectric constant of the layers, we can realize a uniaxial anisotropic medium with controllable anisotropy. The artificial anisotropic dielectric is then used in periodic structures. For these structures, the optical axis of the artificial dielectric is assumed to be parallel or perpendicular to the period of the structure. Diffraction of plane waves by these structures is analyzed by a fully vectorial rigorous matrix method based on a generalized transmission line (TL) formulation. The propagation constants and field distributions are computed and diffraction properties of such structures are studied to show that, by a proper choice of structural parameters, these periodic structures with artificial anisotropic dielectrics can be used as polarizers or polarizing mirrors

  14. Quantum fields interacting with colliding plane waves: the stress-energy tensor and backreaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorca, M.; Verdaguer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Following a previous work on the quantization of a massless scalar field in a space-time representing the head on collision of two plane waves which focus into a Killing-Cauchy horizon, we compute the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of the quantum field near that horizon in the physical state which corresponds to the Minkowski vacuum before the collision of the waves. It is found that for minimally coupled and conformally coupled scalar fields the respective stress-energy tensors are unbounded in the horizon. The specific form of the divergences suggests that when the semiclassical Einstein equations describing the backreaction of the quantum fields on the space-time geometry are taken into account, the horizon will acquire a curvature singularity. Thus the Killing-Cauchy horizon which is known to be unstable under ''generic'' classical perturbations is also unstable by vacuum polarization. The calculation is done following the point-splitting regularization technique. The dynamical colliding wave space-time has four quite distinct space-time regions, namely, one flat region, two single plane wave regions, and one interaction region. Exact mode solutions of the quantum field equation cannot be found exactly, but the blueshift suffered by the initial modes in the plane wave and interaction regions makes the use of the WKB expansion a suitable method of solution. To ensure the correct regularization of the stress-energy tensor, the initial flat modes propagated into the interaction region must be given to a rather high adiabatic order of approximation. (orig.)

  15. Acoustic backscattering and radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane progressive waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2016-03-01

    This work proposes a formal analytical theory using the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates, to calculate the acoustic backscattering form function as well as the radiation force-per-length on an infinitely long elliptical (non-circular) cylinder in plane progressive waves. The major (or minor) semi-axis of the ellipse coincides with the direction of the incident waves. The scattering coefficients for the rigid elliptical cylinder are determined by imposing the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface and solving a resulting system of linear equations by matrix inversion. The present method, which utilizes standard cylindrical (Bessel and Hankel) wave functions, presents an advantage over the solution for the scattering that is ordinarily expressed in a basis of elliptical Mathieu functions (which are generally non-orthogonal). Furthermore, an integral equation showing the direct connection of the radiation force function with the square of the scattering form function in the far-field from the scatterer (applicable for plane waves only), is noted and discussed. An important application of this integral equation is the adequate evaluation of the radiation force function from a bistatic measurement (i.e., in the polar plane) of the far-field scattering from any 2D object of arbitrary shape. Numerical predictions are evaluated for the acoustic backscattering form function and the radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density, and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb, without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation, acousto-fluidics and particle dynamics applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Polarization-sensitive electro-optic detection of terahertz wave using three different types of crystal symmetry: Toward broadband polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Hotsumi; Okano, Makoto; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated polarization-sensitive electro-optic (EO) detection of terahertz (THz) waves by using two uniaxial crystals: a c-cut gallium selenide and a c-cut lithium niobate crystals. We formulated a general frequency-domain description of EO detection by in-plane isotropic EO crystals, which holds regardless of the frequency. Based on this description, the polarization of THz waves can be derived by analyzing EO sampling signals measured with two orthogonal configurations of the in-plane isotropic EO crystals as well as typical (111) zinc-blende EO crystals. In addition, we experimentally demonstrated that the frequency-dependent polarization of THz waves can be reproducibly retrieved using three EO crystals with different crystal symmetries and with different phase matching conditions. Our description provides essential information for practical polarization sensing in the THz frequency range as well as in the mid-infrared range

  17. Several localized waves induced by linear interference between a nonlinear plane wave and bright solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan-Hong; Zhao, Li-Chen; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Yang, Wen-Li

    2018-01-01

    We investigate linear interference effects between a nonlinear plane wave and bright solitons, which are admitted by a pair-transition coupled two-component Bose-Einstein condensate. We demonstrate that the interference effects can induce several localized waves possessing distinctive wave structures, mainly including anti-dark solitons, W-shaped solitons, multi-peak solitons, Kuznetsov-Ma like breathers, and multi-peak breathers. Specifically, the explicit conditions for them are clarified by a phase diagram based on the linear interference properties. Furthermore, the interactions between these localized waves are discussed. The detailed analysis indicates that the soliton-soliton interaction induced phase shift brings the collision between these localized waves which can be inelastic for solitons involving collision and can be elastic for breathers. These characters come from the fact that the profile of solitons depends on the relative phase between bright solitons and a plane wave, and the profile of breathers does not depend on the relative phase. These results would motivate more discussions on linear interference between other nonlinear waves. Specifically, the solitons or breathers obtained here are not related to modulational instability. The underlying reasons are discussed in detail. In addition, possibilities to observe these localized waves are discussed in a two species Bose-Einstein condensate.

  18. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  19. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  20. Effects of Medium Characteristics on Laser RCS of Airplane with E-Wave Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam El-Ocla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plane wave incidence should be postulated to have an authentic target detection. Practically, the plane wave is incapable usually of keeping its power in the far field especially when propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. Consequently, we assume an incident beam wave with a finite width around the target. In this work, we calculate numerically a laser radar cross section (LRCS of conducting targets having smooth cross sections with inflection points such as airplane in random media. Effects of fluctuations intensity of random media on the LRCS performance are studied in this paper. E-wave polarization (E-wave incidence is considered while the mean target size is approximately twice the wavelength.

  1. Linear augmented plane wave method for self-consistent calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Kuebler, J.

    1979-01-01

    O.K. Andersen has recently introduced a linear augmented plane wave method (LAPW) for the calculation of electronic structure that was shown to be computationally fast. A more general formulation of an LAPW method is presented here. It makes use of a freely disposable number of eigenfunctions of the radial Schroedinger equation. These eigenfunctions can be selected in a self-consistent way. The present formulation also results in a computationally fast method. It is shown that Andersen's LAPW is obtained in a special limit from the present formulation. Self-consistent test calculations for copper show the present method to be remarkably accurate. As an application, scalar-relativistic self-consistent calculations are presented for the band structure of FCC lanthanum. (author)

  2. Optically compressed sensing by under sampling the polar Fourier plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, A; Levi, O; Rivenson, Y

    2010-01-01

    In a previous work we presented a compressed imaging approach that uses a row of rotating sensors to capture indirectly polar strips of the Fourier transform of the image. Here we present further developments of this technique and present new results. The advantages of our technique, compared to other optically compressed imaging techniques, is that its optical implementation is relatively easy, it does not require complicate calibrations and that it can be implemented in near-real time.

  3. Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Kyle S.; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F.

    2015-10-01

    A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic.

  4. Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, Kyle S., E-mail: sprattkyle@gmail.com; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F. [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, P. O. Box 8029, Austin, Texas 78713–8029, US (United States)

    2015-10-28

    A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic.

  5. Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spratt, Kyle S.; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic

  6. Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xu, Di-Hu; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-02-18

    A freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband terahertz waves is demonstrated using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized terahertz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. This low-cost, high-efficiency, and freely tunable device has potential applications as material analysis, wireless communication, and THz imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Dispersive photonic crystals from the plane wave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara-Cabrera, E.; Palomino-Ovando, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Flores-Desirena, B., E-mail: bflores@fcfm.buap.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Gaspar-Armenta, J.A. [Departamento de Investigación en Física de la Universidad de Sonora Apdo, Post 5-088, Hermosillo Sonora 83190, México (Mexico)

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays photonic crystals are widely used in many different applications. One of the most used methods to compute their band structure is the plane wave method (PWM). However, it can only be applied directly to non-dispersive media and be extended to systems with a few model dielectric functions. We explore an extension of the PWM to photonic crystals containing dispersive materials, that solves an eigenvalue equation for the Bloch wave vectors. First we compare our calculation with analytical results for one dimensional photonic crystals containing Si using experimental values of its optical parameters, and obtainig very well agreement, even for the spectrum region with strong absorption. Then, using the same method, we computed the band structure for a two dimensional photonic crystal without absorption, formed by an square array of MgO cylinders in air. The optical parameters for MgO were modeled with the Lorentz dielectric function. Finally, we studied an array of MgO cylinders in a metal, using Drude model without absorption, for the metal dielectric function. For this last case, we study the gap–midgap ratio as a function of the filling fraction for both the square and triangular lattice. The gap–midgap ratio is larger for the triangular lattice, with a maximum value of 10% for a filling fraction of 0.6. Our results show that the method can be applied to dispersive materials, and then to a wide range of applications where photonic crystals can be used.

  8. Goedel, Penrose, anti-Mach: extra supersymmetries of time-dependent plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin; Meessen, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    We prove that M-theory plane waves with extra supersymmetries are necessarily homogeneous (but possibly time-dependent), and we show by explicit construction that such time-dependent plane waves can admit extra supersymmetries. To that end we study the Penrose limits of Goedel-like metrics, show that the Penrose limit of the M-theory Goedel metric (with 20 supercharges) is generically a time-dependent homogeneous plane wave of the anti-Mach type, and display the four extra Killings spinors in that case. We conclude with some general remarks on the Killing spinor equations for homogeneous plane waves. (author)

  9. Goedel, Penrose, anti-Mach: extra supersymmetries of time-dependent plane waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Matthias; O' Loughlin, Martin; Meessen, Patrick [SISSA/ISAS, Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: meessen@sissa.it

    2003-09-01

    We prove that M-theory plane waves with extra supersymmetries are necessarily homogeneous (but possibly time-dependent), and we show by explicit construction that such time-dependent plane waves can admit extra supersymmetries. To that end we study the Penrose limits of Goedel-like metrics, show that the Penrose limit of the M-theory Goedel metric (with 20 supercharges) is generically a time-dependent homogeneous plane wave of the anti-Mach type, and display the four extra Killings spinors in that case. We conclude with some general remarks on the Killing spinor equations for homogeneous plane waves. (author)

  10. Optimization of incident EC wave polarization in real-time polarization scan experiments on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Toru I.; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Makino, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    Real-time polarization scan experiments were performed on the Large Helical Device (LHD) to search an optimal incident wave polarization for electron cyclotron resonance heating. The obtained optimal polarization state to maximize the power absorption to the LHD plasma is compared with the ray-tracing code that includes mode content analyses, which indicates that the calculated results are generally in good agreement with the experimental results. The analyses show that optimal coupling to plasma waves requires a fine adjustment for an incident wave polarization even for perpendicular injection due to the finite density profile and the magnetic shear at the peripheral region. (author)

  11. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solutions for plane wave scattering by circular impedance cylinders are derived by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solutions employing the Hankel function wave transformation. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution thus obtained...

  12. Near-surface compressional and shear wave speeds constrained by body-wave polarization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunyoung; Ishii, Miaki

    2018-06-01

    A new technique to constrain near-surface seismic structure that relates body-wave polarization direction to the wave speed immediately beneath a seismic station is presented. The P-wave polarization direction is only sensitive to shear wave speed but not to compressional wave speed, while the S-wave polarization direction is sensitive to both wave speeds. The technique is applied to data from the High-Sensitivity Seismograph Network in Japan, and the results show that the wave speed estimates obtained from polarization analysis are compatible with those from borehole measurements. The lateral variations in wave speeds correlate with geological and physical features such as topography and volcanoes. The technique requires minimal computation resources, and can be used on any number of three-component teleseismic recordings, opening opportunities for non-invasive and inexpensive study of the shallowest (˜100 m) crustal structures.

  13. Nonlinear resonance rotation of polarization plane in the conditions of coherent captivity of occupation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedzhanov, R.A.; Zelenskij, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the nonlinear resonance rotation of the polarization plane of the electromagnetic radiation under the conditions of the coherent occupation captivity in the 87 Rb pairs at the F = 2 → F' = 1 transition of the D 1 -line is studied within the wide range of the experimental parameters change. The nonmonotonous dependence of the turning angle on the laser radiation intensity and applied magnetic field is identified. The effect of the occupation optical pumping out on the F = 1 level is discussed. The twofold increase in the polarization plane turning angle by the pumping out compensation is experimentally demonstrated [ru

  14. Study of the in-plane magnetic structure of a layered system using polarized neutron scattering under grazing incidence geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, R., E-mail: ryuji.maruyama@j-parc.jp [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Bigault, T.; Wildes, A.R.; Dewhurst, C.D. [Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Soyama, K. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Courtois, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2016-05-21

    The in-plane magnetic structure of a layered system with a polycrystalline grain size less than the ferromagnetic exchange length was investigated using polarized neutron off-specular scattering and grazing incidence small angle scattering measurements to gain insight into the mechanism that controls the magnetic properties which are different from the bulk. These complementary measurements with different length scales and the data analysis based on the distorted wave Born approximation revealed the lateral correlation on a length scale of sub- μm due to the fluctuating orientation of the magnetization in the layer. The obtained in-plane magnetic structure is consistent with the random anisotropy model, i.e. competition between the exchange interactions between neighboring spins and the local magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  15. The plain truth about forming a plane wave of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Apoorva G., E-mail: nintsspd@barc.gov.i [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Abbas, Sohrab [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Treimer, Wolfgang [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    We have attained the first sub-arcsecond collimation of a monochromatic neutron beam by diffracting neutrons from a Bragg prism, viz. a single crystal prism operating in the vicinity of Bragg incidence. Analytical as well numerical computations based on the dynamical diffraction theory, led to the optimised collimator configuration of a silicon {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} Bragg prism for 5.26 A neutrons. We fabricated a Bragg prism to these specifications, tested and operated it at the double diffractometer setup in Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin to produce a 0.58 arcsec wide monochromatic neutron beam. With a similarly optimised Bragg prism analyser of opposite asymmetry, we recorded a 0.62 arcsec wide virgin rocking curve for this ultra-parallel beam. With this nearly plane-wave neutron beam, we have recorded the first ever USANS spectrum in Q{approx}10{sup -6} A{sup -1} range with a hydroxyapatite casein protein sample and demonstrated the instrument capability to characterise agglomerates up to 150 {mu}m in size. The super-collimated monochromatic beam has also enabled us to record the first neutron diffraction pattern from a macroscopic grating of 200 {mu}m period. The transverse coherence length of 175 {mu}m (FWHM) of the ultra-parallel beam derived from the analysis of this pattern, is the greatest achieved to date for A wavelength neutrons.

  16. Scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by a buried vertical dike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista Lurimar S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete and exact solution of the scattering of a TE mode frequency domain electromagnetic plane wave by a vertical dike under a conductive overburden has been established. An integral representation composed of one-sided Fourier transforms describes the scattered electric field components in each one of the five media: air, overburden, dike, and the country rocks on both sides of the dike. The determination of the terms of the series that represents the spectral components of the Fourier integrals requires the numerical inversion of a sparse matrix, and the method of successive approaches. The zero-order term of the series representation for the spectral components of the overburden, for given values of the electrical and geometrical parameters of the model, has been computed. This result allowed to determine an approximate value of the variation of the electric field on the top of the overburden in the direction perpendicular to the strike of the dike. The results demonstrate the efficiency of this forward electromagnetic modeling, and are fundamental for the interpretation of VLF and Magnetotelluric data.

  17. Ground penetrating radar antenna measurements based on plane-wave expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The plane-wave transmitting spectrum of the system consisting of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna and the air-soil interface is measured using a loop buried in the soil. The plane-wave spectrum is used to determine various parameters characterizing the radiation of the GPR antenna...

  18. Plane-Wave Characterization of Antennas Close to a Planar Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    The plane-wave scattering matrix is used to characterize antennas that are located just above a planar interface that separates two media. The plane-wave transmitting spectrum for the field radiated downwards into the lower medium is expressed directly in terms of the current distribution of the ...

  19. Diffraction of love waves by two parallel perfectly weak half planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, S.; Zaman, F.D.; Ayub, M.

    1986-04-01

    We consider the diffraction of Love waves by two parallel perfectly weak half planes in a layer overlying a half space. The problem is formulated in terms of the Wiener-Hopf equations in the transformed plane. The transmitted waves are then calculated using the Wiener-Hopf procedure and inverse transforms. (author)

  20. Lectures on strings in flat space and plane waves from N = 4 super Yang Mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldacena, J.

    2003-01-01

    In these lecture notes we explain how the string spectrum in flat space and plane waves arises from the large N limit of U(N) N = 4 super Yang Mills. We reproduce the spectrum by summing a subset of the planar Feynman diagrams. We also describe some other aspects of string propagation on plane wave backgrounds. (author)

  1. A general solution of the plane problem in thermoelasticity in polar coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakman, H.D.; Lin, Y.J.

    1977-01-01

    A general solution, in polar coordinates, of the plane problem in thermoelasticity is obtained in terms of a stress and displacement function. The solution is valid for arbitrary temperature distribution T(r,theta). The characteristic feature of the paper is the forthright determination of the displacement components brought about by the introduction of a displacement function. (Auth.)

  2. A general solution of the plane problem thermoelasticity in polar coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakman, H.D.; Lin, Y.J.

    1977-01-01

    A general solution, in polar coordinates, of the plane problem in thermoelasticity is obtained in terms of a stress and displacement function. The solution is valid for arbitrary temperature distribution T(r, theta). The characteristic feature of the paper is the forthright determination of the displacement components brought about by the introduction of a displacement function

  3. On the polarization and depolarization of the electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghese, Ferdinando; Denti, Paolo; Saija, Rosalba; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a general description of the polarization of monochromatic electromagnetic waves that proves useful when the customary description in terms of Stokes parameters does not apply. We also show how this description can be exploited to study the depolarization of linearly polarized waves in the interior of porous model cosmic dust grains. The results that we discuss may affect our understanding of several problems that are relevant for astrobiology

  4. Dispersion properties of transverse waves in electrically polarized BECs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A; Kuz'menkov, L S

    2014-01-01

    Further development of the method of quantum hydrodynamics in applications for Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) is presented. To consider the evolution of polarization direction along with particle movement, we have developed a corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. It includes equations of the polarization evolution and the polarization-current evolution along with the continuity equation and the Euler equation (the momentum-balance equation). Dispersion properties of the transverse waves, including the electromagnetic waves propagating through the BECs, are considered. To this end, we consider a full set of the Maxwell equations for the description of electromagnetic field dynamics. This approximation gives us the possibility of considering the electromagnetic waves along with the matter waves. We find a splitting of the electromagnetic-wave dispersion on two branches. As a result, we have four solutions, two for the electromagnetic waves and two for the matter waves; the last two are the concentration-polarization waves appearing as a generalization of the Bogoliubov mode. We also find that if the matter wave propagates perpendicular to the external electric field then the dipolar contribution does not disappear (as it follows from our generalization of the Bogoliubov spectrum). A small dipolar frequency shift exists in this case due to the transverse electric field of perturbation. (paper)

  5. Graphene-based magnetless converter of terahertz wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Veronica S.; Polischuk, Olga V.; Popov, Vyacheslav V.

    2016-04-01

    The polarization conversion of terahertz radiation by the periodic array of graphene nanoribbons located at the surface of a high-refractive-index dielectric substrate (terahertz prism) is studied theoretically. Giant polarization conversion at the plasmon resonance frequencies takes place without applying external DC magnetic field. It is shown that the total polarization conversion can be reached at the total internal reflection of THz wave from the periodic array of graphene nanoribbons even at room temperature.

  6. Feasibility of maintaining in-plane polarization for a storage ring EDM search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Edward; Storage Ring EDM Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    A search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) on charged particles using a storage ring requires beam polarization lifetimes approaching 1000 s for in-plane polarization. A feasibility study using beam bunching and sextupole field adjustment is underway with a 0.97-GeV/c vector-polarized deuteron beam at COSY. The polarimeter consists of a thick carbon target positioned at the edge of the beam and the EDDA scintillation detectors. The DAQ system assigns a clock time to each polarimeter event. Once calibrated against the RF-cavity, the clock time is used to select events associated with a maximal sideways polarization (precessing at 120 kHz). With this tool, the in-plane polarization magnitude is tracked versus time. Electron cooling reduces the depolarization from finite emittance and second-order momentum spread acting through synchrotron oscillations. Further lifetime improvement to the level of hundreds of seconds is achieved by adjusting sextupole fields located in the COSY ring arcs at places of large transverse beta functions and dispersion. The dependence of the reciprocal of the lifetime on sextupole field strength is nearly linear, permitting an easy location of the best field values. These typically occur near loci of zero chromaticity. A search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) on charged particles using a storage ring requires beam polarization lifetimes approaching 1000 s for in-plane polarization. A feasibility study using beam bunching and sextupole field adjustment is underway with a 0.97-GeV/c vector-polarized deuteron beam at COSY. The polarimeter consists of a thick carbon target positioned at the edge of the beam and the EDDA scintillation detectors. The DAQ system assigns a clock time to each polarimeter event. Once calibrated against the RF-cavity, the clock time is used to select events associated with a maximal sideways polarization (precessing at 120 kHz). With this tool, the in-plane polarization magnitude is tracked versus time. Electron

  7. The influence of polarization on millimeter wave propagation through rain. Ph.D Thesis. Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, P. H.; Bostian, C. W.; Stutzman, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of polarization on millimeter wave propagation is investigated from both an experimental and a theoretical viewpoint. First, previous theoretical and experimental work relating to the attenuation and depolarization of millimeter waves by rainfall is discussed. Considerable detail is included in the literature review. Next, a theoretical model is developed to predict the cross polarization level during rainfall from the path average rain rate and the scattered field from a single raindrop. Finally, data from the VPI and SU depolarization experiment are presented as verification of the new model, and a comparison is made with other theories and experiments. Aspects of the new model are: (1) spherical rather than plane waves are assumed, (2) the average drop diameter is used rather than a drop size distribution, and (3) it is simple enough so that the effect which changing one or more parameters has on the crosspolarization level is easily seen.

  8. Spectrum of spin waves in cold polarized gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, T. L., E-mail: phdocandreeva@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The spin dynamics of cold polarized gases are investigated using the Boltzmann equation. The dispersion relation for spin waves (transverse component of the magnetic moment) and the spin diffusion coefficient of the longitudinal component of the magnetic moment are calculated without using fitting parameters. The spin wave frequency and the diffusion coefficient for rubidium atoms are estimated numerically.

  9. Generation of neutron standing waves at total reflection of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.; Kozhevnikov, S.V.; Radu, F.; Kruijs, R.; Rekveldt, M.Th.

    1999-01-01

    The regime of neutron standing waves at reflection of polarized thermal neutrons from the structure glass/Cu (1000 A Angstrom)/Ti (2000 A Angstrom)/Co (60 A Angstrom)/Ti (300 A Angstrom) in a magnetic field directed at an angle to the sample plane is realized. The intensity of neutrons with a particular spin projection on the external magnetic field direction appears to be a periodic function of the neutron wavelength and the glancing angle of the reflected beam. It is shown that the neutron standing wave regime can be a very sensitive method for the determination of changes in the spatial position of magnetic noncollinear layers. (author)

  10. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....

  11. A Design of 45-Degree Dual-Polarization Broadband Plane Station Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new broadband planar dual-polarization base station antenna is proposed, the antenna consists of two broadband plane coplanar base station antenna units, and so it has features of plane antenna. Two broadband plane station antenna units can, respectively, form double polarization in the direction. We analyzed the relative positions between the two antenna units and their effects on the performances of the antenna, especially for the influence of isolation. Broadband antenna has the characteristics of the broadband station antenna, and bandwidth is also guaranteed. The measured results show that the antenna can obtain 45% relative bandwidth, and 30 dB isolation degree also can be got, and the radiation performance is also good. Measurement results confirmed that the antenna gain can be guaranteed among 48% relative bandwidth, 15 dB of gain is got among bandwidth of 1.69–2.78 GHz, the isolation degree of different polarization method can reach 30 dB, and the measurement gain of two polarization methods of antenna both can reach 8.5 dBi.

  12. Multiband Circular Polarizer Based on Fission Transmission of Linearly Polarized Wave for X-Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Mangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband circular polarizer based on fission transmission of linearly polarized wave for x-band application is proposed, which is constructed of 2 × 2 metallic strips array. The linear-to-circular polarization conversion is obtained by decomposing the linearly incident x-polarized wave into two orthogonal vector components of equal amplitude and 90° phase difference between them. The innovative approach of “fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarized wave” is firstly introduced to obtain giant circular dichroism based on decomposition of orthogonal vector components through the structure. It means that the incident linearly polarized wave is converted into two orthogonal components through lower printed metallic strips layer and two transmitted waves impinge on the upper printed strips layer to convert into four orthogonal vector components at the end of structure. This projection and transmission sequence of orthogonal components sustain the chain transmission of electromagnetic wave and can achieve giant circular dichroism. Theoretical analysis and microwave experiments are presented to validate the performance of the structure. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation results. In addition, the proposed circular polarizer exhibits the optimal performance with respect to the normal incidence. The right handed circularly polarized wave is emitted ranging from 10.08 GHz to 10.53 GHz and 10.78 GHz to 11.12 GHz, while the left handed circular polarized wave is excited at 10.54 GHz–10.70 GHz and 11.13 GHz–11.14 GHz, respectively.

  13. Dirac particle in a plane wave field and the semi-classical approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourouaine, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Mentouri University, Constantine (Algeria)

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of photon represented by plane wave field on Dirac particle in the context of path integral approach given by Fradkin and Gitman formalism. In our case, although the action relative to Dirac particle in plane wave field seems to be non quadratic, the result obtained by semi-classical approach is the same as that found by an exact calculation. Hence; when we add the plane wave field to any quadratic actions related to Fradkin and Gitman approach, the total action behaves like quadratic. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. A new GTD slope diffraction coefficient for plane wave illumination of a wedge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael; Breinbjerg, Olav

    1997-01-01

    Two wedge problems including slope diffraction are solved: one in which the incident field is a non-uniform plane wave, and one in which it is an inhomogeneous plane wave. The two solutions lead to the same GTD slope diffraction coefficient. This coefficient reveals the existence of a coupling...... effect between a transverse magnetic (or transverse electric) incident plane wave and the transverse electric (or transverse magnetic) slope-diffracted field. The coupling effect is not described by the existing GTD slope diffraction coefficient...

  15. Dirac particle in a plane wave field and the semi-classical approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourouaine, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of photon represented by plane wave field on Dirac particle in the context of path integral approach given by Fradkin and Gitman formalism. In our case, although the action relative to Dirac particle in plane wave field seems to be non quadratic, the result obtained by semi-classical approach is the same as that found by an exact calculation. Hence; when we add the plane wave field to any quadratic actions related to Fradkin and Gitman approach, the total action behaves like quadratic. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Plane of polarization rotation induced by a non-Minkowskian spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelidis, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    Fermat's principle has been used to derive expressions for the curvature and torsion of the path of the electromagnetic radiation in a medium of refractive index n (= function of space coordinates). Levi-Civita's notion of parallelism further, in conjunction with Brill's results have enabled the derivation (1) of Einstein's formula for the deflection of light, and (2) an expression for the rotation of the plane of polarization, an entirely general relativistic effect, unaccountable in Newtonian physics. Finally, the idea is put forward that the observed rotation of polarization in pulsars might be a purely general relativistic effect due to the non-Minkowskian geometry around them. (Auth.)

  17. Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.

  18. Diffraction of an inhomogeneous plane wave by an impedance wedge in a lossy medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manara, G

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The diffraction of an inhomogeneous plane wave by an impedance wedge embedded in a lossy medium is analyzed. The rigorous integral representation for the field is asymptotically evaluated in the context of the uniform geometrical theory...

  19. Existence and Stability of Spatial Plane Waves for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes in R^3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Simão; Figueira, Mário

    2018-03-01

    We consider the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equation on the whole space. We observe that this system admits a L^∞ family of global spatial plane wave solutions, which are connected with the two-dimensional equation. We then proceed to prove local well-posedness over a space which includes L^3(R^3) and these solutions. Finally, we prove L^3-stability of spatial plane waves, with no condition on their size.

  20. Diffraction of love waves by two staggered perfectly weak half-planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, S.; Zaman, F.D.; Sajida Asghar

    1989-01-01

    Love wave travelling in a layer of uniform thickness overlying a half-space is assumed to be incident on two parallel but staggered perfectly weak half-planes lying in the upper layer. The diffracted fields is calculated using the modified Wiener-Hopf technique and contour integration method. The diffracted waves satisfy the dispersion relations appropriate to different regions formed by the perfectly weak half-planes

  1. Geometrical optics in the near field: local plane-interface approach with evanescent waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Gaurav; Hyvärinen, Heikki J; Tervo, Jani; Turunen, Jari

    2015-01-12

    We show that geometrical models may provide useful information on light propagation in wavelength-scale structures even if evanescent fields are present. We apply a so-called local plane-wave and local plane-interface methods to study a geometry that resembles a scanning near-field microscope. We show that fair agreement between the geometrical approach and rigorous electromagnetic theory can be achieved in the case where evanescent waves are required to predict any transmission through the structure.

  2. Projecting non-diffracting waves with intermediate-plane holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Argha; Yevick, Aaron; Blackburn, Lauren C; Kanellakopoulos, Nikitas; Grier, David G

    2018-02-19

    We introduce intermediate-plane holography, which substantially improves the ability of holographic trapping systems to project propagation-invariant modes of light using phase-only diffractive optical elements. Translating the mode-forming hologram to an intermediate plane in the optical train can reduce the need to encode amplitude variations in the field, and therefore complements well-established techniques for encoding complex-valued transfer functions into phase-only holograms. Compared to standard holographic trapping implementations, intermediate-plane holograms greatly improve diffraction efficiency and mode purity of propagation-invariant modes, and so increase their useful non-diffracting range. We demonstrate this technique through experimental realizations of accelerating modes and long-range tractor beams.

  3. A numerical method for determining the radial wave motion correction in plane wave couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Torras Rosell, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Microphones are used for realising the unit of sound pressure level, the pascal (Pa). Electro-acoustic reciprocity is the preferred method for the absolute determination of the sensitivity. This method can be applied in different sound fields: uniform pressure, free field or diffuse field. Pressure...... solution is an analytical expression that estimates the difference between the ideal plane wave sound field and a more complex lossless sound field created by a non-planar movement of the microphone’s membranes. Alternatively, a correction may be calculated numerically by introducing a full model...... of the microphone-coupler system in a Boundary Element formulation. In order to obtain a realistic representation of the sound field, viscous losses must be introduced in the model. This paper presents such a model, and the results of the simulations for different combinations of microphones and couplers...

  4. Response of a Doppler canceling system to plane gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporali, A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the interaction of long periodic gravitational waves with a three-link microwave system known as the Doppler canceling system. This system, which was developed for gravitational red-shift experiment, uses one-way and two-way Doppler information to construct the beat signal of two reference oscillators moving with respect to each other. The geometric-optics approximation is used to derive the frequency shift produced on a light signal propagating in a gravitational-wave space-time. The signature left on the Doppler-canceled beat by bursts and continuous gravitational waves is analyzed. A comparison is made between the response to gravitational waves of the Doppler canceling system and that of a (NASA) Doppler tracking system which employs two-way, round-trip radio waves. A threefold repetition of the gravitational wave form is found to be a common feature of the response functions of both systems. These two functions otherwise exhibit interesting differences

  5. Spin waves in two-dimensional ferromagnet with large easy-plane anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Spirin, D.V.

    2002-01-01

    Spin waves in easy-plane two-dimensional ferromagnet when anisotropy is much stronger than exchange are investigated. The spectra of magnons, the spin-spin and quadrupolar correlation functions have been derived. It is shown that in such a system there exist spin waves at low temperatures. Some properties of the quadrupolar ordering in ferromagnets are discussed

  6. The Relativistic Transformation for an Electromagnetic Plane Wave with General Time Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2012-01-01

    In special relativity, the transformation between inertial frames for an electromagnetic plane wave is usually derived for the time-harmonic case (the field is a sinusoid of infinite duration), even though all practical waves are of finite duration and may not even contain a dominant sinusoid. This paper presents an alternative derivation in which…

  7. Circularly Polarized Low-Profile Antenna for Radiating Parallel to Ground Plane for RFID Reader Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittima Lertsakwimarn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-profile printed antenna with double U-shaped arms radiating circular polarization for the UHF RFID readers. The proposed antenna consists of double U-shaped strip structures and a capacitive feeding line to generate circular polarization. A part of the U-shaped arms is bent by 90° to direct the main beam parallel to the ground plane. From the results, -10 dB |S11| and 3 dB axial ratio of the antenna cover a typical UHF RFID band from 920 MHz to 925 MHz. The bidirectional beam is obtained with the maximum gain of 1.8 dBic in the parallel direction to the ground plane at the 925 MHz. The overall size of the proposed antenna including ground plane is 107 mm × 57 mm × 12.8 mm (0.33λ0 × 0.17λ0 × 0.04λ0.

  8. A phase-plane analysis of localized frictional waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putelat, T.; Dawes, J. H. P.; Champneys, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    Sliding frictional interfaces at a range of length scales are observed to generate travelling waves; these are considered relevant, for example, to both earthquake ground surface movements and the performance of mechanical brakes and dampers. We propose an explanation of the origins of these waves through the study of an idealized mechanical model: a thin elastic plate subject to uniform shear stress held in frictional contact with a rigid flat surface. We construct a nonlinear wave equation for the deformation of the plate, and couple it to a spinodal rate-and-state friction law which leads to a mathematically well-posed problem that is capable of capturing many effects not accessible in a Coulomb friction model. Our model sustains a rich variety of solutions, including periodic stick-slip wave trains, isolated slip and stick pulses, and detachment and attachment fronts. Analytical and numerical bifurcation analysis is used to show how these states are organized in a two-parameter state diagram. We discuss briefly the possible physical interpretation of each of these states, and remark also that our spinodal friction law, though more complicated than other classical rate-and-state laws, is required in order to capture the full richness of wave types.

  9. In-Vivo Synthetic Aperture and Plane Wave High Frame Rate Cardiac Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jonas; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of synthetic aperture imaging using spherical and plane waves with low number of emission events is presented. For both wave types, a 90 degree sector is insonified using 15 emission events giving a frame rate of 200 frames per second. Field II simulations of point targets show simil.......43 for spherical and 0.70 for plane waves. All measures are well within FDA limits for cardiac imaging. In-vivo images of the heart of a healthy 28-year old volunteer are shown....

  10. Detectability of inflationary gravitational waves with microwave background polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamionkowski, M.; Kosowsky, A.

    1998-01-01

    Inflation predicts specific relations between the amplitudes and spectral indices of the primordial spectrum of density (scalar metric) perturbations and gravitational waves (tensor metric perturbations). Detection of a stochastic gravitational-wave background is essential for identifying this unmistakable signature. Polarization of the cosmic microwave background can isolate these tensor modes in a model-independent way and thereby circumvent the cosmic-variance limit to detecting a small tensor signal with only a temperature map. Here we assess the detectability of a gravity-wave background with a temperature and polarization map. For detector sensitivities better than 10 endash 20μK√ (sec) , the sensitivity to a tensor signal is always dominated by the polarization map. With a detector sensitivity of order 1μK√ (sec) , polarization could improve on a temperature-map sensitivity to tensor modes by two to three orders of magnitude. Even a small amount of reionization substantially enhances tensor-mode detectability. We also argue that the sensitivity of the Planck Surveyor to tensor modes is significantly improved with polarization, even taking into account the resulting degradation of the intensity determination in the high-frequency channels. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Cylindrical and spherical space equivalents to the plane wave expansion technique of Maxwell's wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Robert C.; Alzahrani, Mohammed A.; Jafari, Seyed Hamed

    2015-02-01

    The plane wave expansion (PWM) technique applied to Maxwell's wave equations provides researchers with a supply of information regarding the optical properties of dielectric structures. The technique is well suited for structures that display a linear periodicity. When the focus is directed towards optical resonators and structures that lack linear periodicity the eigen-process can easily exceed computational resources and time constraints. In the case of dielectric structures which display cylindrical or spherical symmetry, a coordinate system specific set of basis functions have been employed to cast Maxwell's wave equations into an eigen-matrix formulation from which the resonator states associated with the dielectric profile can be obtained. As for PWM, the inverse of the dielectric and field components are expanded in the basis functions (Fourier-Fourier-Bessel, FFB, in cylindrical and Fourier- Bessel-Legendre, BLF, in spherical) and orthogonality is employed to form the matrix expressions. The theoretical development details will be presented indicating how certain mathematical complications in the process have been overcome and how the eigen-matrix can be tuned to a specific mode type. The similarities and differences in PWM, FFB and BLF are presented. In the case of structures possessing axial cylindrical symmetry, the inclusion of the z axis component of propagation constant makes the technique applicable to photonic crystal fibers and other waveguide structures. Computational results will be presented for a number of different dielectric geometries including Bragg ring resonators, cylindrical space slot channel waveguides and bottle resonators. Steps to further enhance the computation process will be reported.

  12. Estimation of the gravitational wave polarizations from a nontemplate search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Irene; Drago, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is just beginning, after the recent success of the four direct detections of binary black hole (BBH) mergers and the first observation from a binary neutron star inspiral, with the expectation of many more events to come. Given the possibility to detect waves from not exactly modeled astrophysical processes, it is fundamental to be ready to calculate the polarization waveforms in the case of searches using nontemplate algorithms. In such a case, the waveform polarizations are the only quantities that contain direct information about the generating process. We present the performance of a new valuable tool to estimate the inverse solution of gravitational wave transient signals, starting from the analysis of the signal properties of a nontemplate algorithm that is open to a wider class of gravitational signals not covered by template algorithms. We highlight the contributions to the wave polarization associated with the detector response, the sky localization, and the polarization angle of the source. In this paper we present the performances of such a method and its implications by using two main classes of transient signals, resembling the limiting case for most simple and complicated morphologies. The performances are encouraging for the tested waveforms: the correlation between the original and the reconstructed waveforms spans from better than 80% for simple morphologies to better than 50% for complicated ones. For a nontemplate search these results can be considered satisfactory to reconstruct the astrophysical progenitor.

  13. Propagation of Quasi-plane Nonlinear Waves in Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Koníček

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with possibilities of using the generalized Burgers equation and the KZK equation to describe nonlinear waves in circular ducts. A new method for calculating of diffraction effects taking into account boundary layer effects is described. The results of numerical solutions of the model equations are compared. Finally, the limits of validity of the used model equations are discussed with respect to boundary conditions and the radius of the circular duct. The limits of applicability of the KZK equation and the GBE equation for describing nonlinear waves in tubes are discussed.

  14. Effect of weak nonlinearities on the plane waves in a plasma stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of weak nonlinearities on the monochromatic plane waves in a cold infinite plasma stream is investigated for the case in which the waves are progressing parallel to the drift velocity. The fast and the slow space-charge waves undergo amplitude-dependent frequency and wave number shifts. There is a long time slow modulation of the amplitude of the electromagnetic mode which becomes unstable to this nonlinear wave modulation. The importance of using the relativistically correct equation of motion for predicting correctly the modulational stability of the electromagnetic mode is pointed out. (author)

  15. Stimulated polarization wave process in spin 3/2 chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G. B.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulated wave of polarization, triggered by a flip of a single spin, presents a simple model of quantum amplification. Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in an idealized one-dimensional Ising spin 1/2 chain with nearest-neighbor interactions and realistic spin 1/2 chain including the natural dipole-dipole interactions, irradiated by a weak resonant transverse field, a wave of flipped spins can be triggered by a single spin flip. Here we focuse on control of polarization wave in chain of spin 3/2, where the nuclear quadrupole interaction is dominant. Results of simulations for 1D spin chains and rings with up to five spins are presented.

  16. Probing spin-polarized edge state superconductivity by Andreev reflection in in-plane magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinthaler, Rolf W.; Tkachov, Grigory; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M. [Faculty of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Finding signatures of unconventional superconductivity in Quantum Spin Hall systems is one of the challenges of solid state physics. Here we induce superconductivity in a 3D topological insulator thin film to cause the formation of helical edge states, which are protected against backscattering even in finite magnetic fields. Above a critical in-plane magnetic field, which is much smaller than the critical field of typical superconductors, the quasi-particle gap closes, giving rise to energy-dependent spin polarization. In this regime the spin-polarized edge state superconductivity can be detected by Andreev reflection. We propose measurement setups to experimentally observe the spin-dependent excess current and dI/dV characteristics.

  17. Probing the f(R) formalism through gravitational wave polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.E.S.; Miranda, O.D.; Araujo, J.C.N. de

    2009-01-01

    The direct observation of gravitational waves (GW) in the near future, and the corresponding determination of the number of independent polarizations, is a powerful tool to test general relativity and alternative theories of gravity. In the present work we use the Newman-Penrose formalism to characterize GWs in quadratic gravity and in a particular class of f(R) Lagrangians. We find that both quadratic gravity and the f(R) theory belong to the most general invariant class of GWs, i.e., they can present up to six independent polarizations of GWs. For a particular combination of the parameters, we find that quadratic gravity can present up to five polarizations states. On the other hand, if we use the Palatini approach for f(R) theories, GWs present only the usual two transverse-traceless polarizations such as in general relativity. Thus, we conclude that the observation of GWs can strongly constrain the suitable formalism for these theories.

  18. Realistic full wave modeling of focal plane array pixels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campione, Salvatore [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electromagnetic Theory Dept.; Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electromagnetic Theory Dept.; Jorgenson, Roy E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electromagnetic Theory Dept.; Davids, Paul [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Photonic Microsystems Dept.; Peters, David W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Photonic Microsystems Dept.

    2017-11-01

    Here, we investigate full-wave simulations of realistic implementations of multifunctional nanoantenna enabled detectors (NEDs). We focus on a 2x2 pixelated array structure that supports two wavelengths of operation. We design each resonating structure independently using full-wave simulations with periodic boundary conditions mimicking the whole infinite array. We then construct a supercell made of a 2x2 pixelated array with periodic boundary conditions mimicking the full NED; in this case, however, each pixel comprises 10-20 antennas per side. In this way, the cross-talk between contiguous pixels is accounted for in our simulations. We observe that, even though there are finite extent effects, the pixels work as designed, each responding at the respective wavelength of operation. This allows us to stress that realistic simulations of multifunctional NEDs need to be performed to verify the design functionality by taking into account finite extent and cross-talk effects.

  19. Propagation of Quasi-plane Nonlinear Waves in Tubes

    OpenAIRE

    P. Koníček; M. Bednařík; M. Červenka

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with possibilities of using the generalized Burgers equation and the KZK equation to describe nonlinear waves in circular ducts. A new method for calculating of diffraction effects taking into account boundary layer effects is described. The results of numerical solutions of the model equations are compared. Finally, the limits of validity of the used model equations are discussed with respect to boundary conditions and the radius of the circular duct. The limits of applicabi...

  20. Generation of Elliptically Polarized Terahertz Waves from Antiferromagnetic Sandwiched Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Shu-Fang; Wang, Xuan-Zhang; Song, Yu-Ling; Wang, Xiang-Guang; Qu, Xiu-Rong

    2018-04-01

    The generation of elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave of an antiferromagnetic (AF)/dielectric sandwiched structure in the terahertz range is studied. The frequency and external magnetic field can change the AF optical response, resulting in the generation of elliptical polarization. An especially useful geometry with high levels of the generation of elliptical polarization is found in the case where an incident electromagnetic wave perpendicularly illuminates the sandwiched structure, the AF anisotropy axis is vertical to the wave-vector and the external magnetic field is pointed along the wave-vector. In numerical calculations, the AF layer is FeF2 and the dielectric layers are ZnF2. Although the effect originates from the AF layer, it can be also influenced by the sandwiched structure. We found that the ZnF2/FeF2/ZnF2 structure possesses optimal rotation of the principal axis and ellipticity, which can reach up to about thrice that of a single FeF2 layer.

  1. Phase function of a spherical particle when scattering an inhomogeneous electromagnetic plane wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2018-01-01

    of the complex hypergeometric function 2F1 for every term of a series expansion. In this work, I develop a simpler solution based on associated Legendre functions with argument zero. It is similar to the solution for homogeneous plane waves but with new explicit expressions for the angular dependency of the far......In absorbing media, electromagnetic plane waves are most often inhomogeneous. Existing solutions for the scattering of an inhomogeneous plane wave by a spherical particle provide no explicit expressions for the scattering components. In addition, current analytical solutions require evaluation......-field scattering components, that is, the phase function. I include recurrence formulae for practical evaluation and provide numerical examples to evaluate how well the new expressions match previous work in some limiting cases. The predicted difference in the scattering phase function due to inhomogeneity...

  2. Wave-vector and polarization dependence of conical refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, A; Loiko, Yu V; Kalkandjiev, T K; Tomizawa, H; Mompart, J

    2013-02-25

    We experimentally address the wave-vector and polarization dependence of the internal conical refraction phenomenon by demonstrating that an input light beam of elliptical transverse profile refracts into two beams after passing along one of the optic axes of a biaxial crystal, i.e. it exhibits double refraction instead of refracting conically. Such double refraction is investigated by the independent rotation of a linear polarizer and a cylindrical lens. Expressions to describe the position and the intensity pattern of the refracted beams are presented and applied to predict the intensity pattern for an axicon beam propagating along the optic axis of a biaxial crystal.

  3. Quadrupole mass detector in the field of weak plane gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    Studied is the behaviour of the system which consists of two test particles connected by a string (quadrupole mass detector) and placed in the field of weak plane monochromatic gravitational waves. It is shown that at cross orientation of the detector the gravitational wave effecting such a system excites oscillations in it with the frequency equal to that of the gravitational wave source. The role of the driving force is played by the periodical change with the time of the equilibrium position. The gravitational wave does not influence the detector at its longitudinal orientation

  4. In-plane confinement and waveguiding of surface acoustic waves through line defects in pillars-based phononic crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Khelif

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical analysis of an in-plane confinement and a waveguiding of surface acoustic waves in pillars-based phononic crystal. The artificial crystal is made up of cylindrical pillars placed on a semi-infinite medium and arranged in a square array. With a well-chosen of the geometrical parameters, this pillars-based system can display two kinds of complete band gaps for guided waves propagating near the surface, a low frequency gap based on locally resonant mode of pillars as well as a higher frequency gap appearing at Bragg scattering regime. In addition, we demonstrate a waveguiding of surface acoustic wave inside an extended linear defect created by removing rows of pillars in the perfect crystal. We discuss the transmission and the polarization of such confined mode appearing in the higher frequency band gap. We highlight the strong similarity of such defect mode and the Rayleigh wave of free surface medium. An efficient finite element analysis is used to simulate the propagation of guided waves through silicon pillars on a silicon substrate.

  5. Plane-wave decomposition by spherical-convolution microphone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz; Park, Munhum

    2004-05-01

    Reverberant sound fields are widely studied, as they have a significant influence on the acoustic performance of enclosures in a variety of applications. For example, the intelligibility of speech in lecture rooms, the quality of music in auditoria, the noise level in offices, and the production of 3D sound in living rooms are all affected by the enclosed sound field. These sound fields are typically studied through frequency response measurements or statistical measures such as reverberation time, which do not provide detailed spatial information. The aim of the work presented in this seminar is the detailed analysis of reverberant sound fields. A measurement and analysis system based on acoustic theory and signal processing, designed around a spherical microphone array, is presented. Detailed analysis is achieved by decomposition of the sound field into waves, using spherical Fourier transform and spherical convolution. The presentation will include theoretical review, simulation studies, and initial experimental results.

  6. Back Radiation Suppression through a Semitransparent Ground Plane for a mm-Wave Patch Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill

    2017-06-21

    Omnidirectional radiation pattern with minimum backward radiation is highly desirable for base station antennas to minimize the multipath effects. Semitransparent ground planes have been used to reduce the backward radiation, but mostly with complicated non-uniform impedance distribution. In this work, we propose, for the first time, a round semitransparent ground plane of radius 0.8 λ with uniform impedance distribution that can improve the front-to-back ratio of a wideband patch antenna by 11.6 dB as compared to a similar sized metallic ground plane. The value of uniform impedance is obtained through analytical optimization by using asymptotic expressions in the Kirchhoff approximation of the radiation pattern of a toroidal wave scattered by a round semitransparent ground plane. The semitransparent ground plane has been realized using a low-cost carbon paste on a Kapton film. Experimental results match closely with those of simulations and validate the overall concept.

  7. Dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Dobrowolny, M [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleaire, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Plasma Spazio

    1975-12-15

    A numerical study is presented of the dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves in a cold electron plasma. The nonlinear effects introduced by the relativistic motion of electrons are: (1) the dispersion relation depends explicitly on the field strength ..cap alpha..=eE/sub 0//mc..omega../sub 0/, and (2) the propagation of modes with frequencies below the formal electron plasma frequency is allowed.

  8. Primordial gravitational waves measurements and anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yu Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching for the signal of primordial gravitational waves in the B-modes (BB power spectrum is one of the key scientific aims of the cosmic microwave background (CMB polarization experiments. However, this could be easily contaminated by several foreground issues, such as the interstellar dust grains and the galactic cyclotron electrons. In this paper we study another mechanism, the cosmic birefringence, which can be introduced by a CPT-violating interaction between CMB photons and an external scalar field. Such kind of interaction could give rise to the rotation of the linear polarization state of CMB photons, and consequently induce the CMB BB power spectrum, which could mimic the signal of primordial gravitational waves at large scales. With the recently released polarization data of BICEP2 and the joint analysis data of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck, we perform a global fitting analysis on constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by considering the polarization rotation angle [α(nˆ] which can be separated into a background isotropic part [α¯] and a small anisotropic part [Δα(nˆ]. Since the data of BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments have already been corrected by using the “self-calibration” method, here we mainly focus on the effects from the anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation angle. We find that including Δα(nˆ in the analysis could slightly weaken the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, when using current CMB polarization measurements. We also simulate the mock CMB data with the BICEP3-like sensitivity. Very interestingly, we find that if the effects of the anisotropic polarization rotation angle could not be taken into account properly in the analysis, the constraints on r will be dramatically biased. This implies that we need to break the degeneracy between the anisotropies of the CMB polarization rotation angle and the CMB primordial tensor perturbations, in order to measure the signal of primordial

  9. Path integral for spinning particle in the plane wave field: Global and local projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudiaf, N.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L.

    2001-01-01

    The Green function related to the problem of a Dirac particle interacting with a plane wave is calculated via the path integral formalism proposed recently by Alexandrou et al. according to the two so-called global and local projections. With the help of the incorporation of two simple identities, it is shown that the contribution to the calculation of the integrals comes essentially from classical solutions projected along the direction of wave propagation. (orig.)

  10. Gravitational Wave Polarizations in f (R Gravity and Scalar-Tensor Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Yungui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory opens a new era to use gravitational waves to test alternative theories of gravity. We investigate the polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R gravity and Horndeski theory, both containing scalar modes. These theories predict that in addition to the familiar + and × polarizations, there are transverse breathing and longitudinal polarizations excited by the massive scalar mode and the new polarization is a single mixed state. It would be very difficult to detect the longitudinal polarization by interferometers, while pulsar timing array may be the better tool to detect the longitudinal polarization.

  11. From plane waves to local Gaussians for the simulation of correlated periodic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, George H.; Tsatsoulis, Theodoros; Grüneis, Andreas; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple, robust, and black-box approach to the implementation and use of local, periodic, atom-centered Gaussian basis functions within a plane wave code, in a computationally efficient manner. The procedure outlined is based on the representation of the Gaussians within a finite bandwidth by their underlying plane wave coefficients. The core region is handled within the projected augment wave framework, by pseudizing the Gaussian functions within a cutoff radius around each nucleus, smoothing the functions so that they are faithfully represented by a plane wave basis with only moderate kinetic energy cutoff. To mitigate the effects of the basis set superposition error and incompleteness at the mean-field level introduced by the Gaussian basis, we also propose a hybrid approach, whereby the complete occupied space is first converged within a large plane wave basis, and the Gaussian basis used to construct a complementary virtual space for the application of correlated methods. We demonstrate that these pseudized Gaussians yield compact and systematically improvable spaces with an accuracy comparable to their non-pseudized Gaussian counterparts. A key advantage of the described method is its ability to efficiently capture and describe electronic correlation effects of weakly bound and low-dimensional systems, where plane waves are not sufficiently compact or able to be truncated without unphysical artifacts. We investigate the accuracy of the pseudized Gaussians for the water dimer interaction, neon solid, and water adsorption on a LiH surface, at the level of second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory.

  12. From plane waves to local Gaussians for the simulation of correlated periodic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, George H., E-mail: george.booth@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King’s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Tsatsoulis, Theodoros; Grüneis, Andreas, E-mail: a.grueneis@fkf.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstraße 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic [Frick Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    We present a simple, robust, and black-box approach to the implementation and use of local, periodic, atom-centered Gaussian basis functions within a plane wave code, in a computationally efficient manner. The procedure outlined is based on the representation of the Gaussians within a finite bandwidth by their underlying plane wave coefficients. The core region is handled within the projected augment wave framework, by pseudizing the Gaussian functions within a cutoff radius around each nucleus, smoothing the functions so that they are faithfully represented by a plane wave basis with only moderate kinetic energy cutoff. To mitigate the effects of the basis set superposition error and incompleteness at the mean-field level introduced by the Gaussian basis, we also propose a hybrid approach, whereby the complete occupied space is first converged within a large plane wave basis, and the Gaussian basis used to construct a complementary virtual space for the application of correlated methods. We demonstrate that these pseudized Gaussians yield compact and systematically improvable spaces with an accuracy comparable to their non-pseudized Gaussian counterparts. A key advantage of the described method is its ability to efficiently capture and describe electronic correlation effects of weakly bound and low-dimensional systems, where plane waves are not sufficiently compact or able to be truncated without unphysical artifacts. We investigate the accuracy of the pseudized Gaussians for the water dimer interaction, neon solid, and water adsorption on a LiH surface, at the level of second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory.

  13. Can continuous scans in orthogonal planes improve diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography for breast lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Peng, Yulan; Zhao, Haina; Luo, Honghao; Jin, Ya; He, Yushuang

    2015-01-01

    Static shear wave elastography (SWE) is used to detect breast lesions, but slice and plane selections result in discrepancies. To evaluate the intraobserver reproducibility of continuous SWE, and whether quantitative elasticities in orthogonal planes perform better in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. One hundred and twenty-two breast lesions scheduled for ultrasound-guided biopsy were recruited. Continuous SWE scans were conducted in orthogonal planes separately. Quantitative elasticities and histopathology results were collected. Reproducibility in the same plane and diagnostic performance in different planes were evaluated. The maximum and mean elasticities of the hardest portion, and standard deviation of whole lesion, had high inter-class correlation coefficients (0.87 to 0.95) and large areas under receiver operation characteristic curve (0.887 to 0.899). Without loss of accuracy, sensitivities had increased in orthogonal planes compared with single plane (from 73.17% up to 82.93% at most). Mean elasticity of whole lesion and lesion-to-parenchyma ratio were significantly less reproducible and less accurate. Continuous SWE is highly reproducible for the same observer. The maximum and mean elasticities of the hardest portion and standard deviation of whole lesion are most reliable. Furthermore, the sensitivities of the three parameters are improved in orthogonal planes without loss of accuracies.

  14. Flow features that arise due to the interaction of a plane shock wave with concave profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    MacLucas, David A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the author's thesis was the aerodynamic flow field that develops as a result of the interaction of a moving plane shock wave with concave profiles. In this presentation, he discusses some of the interesting flow phenomena that arise...

  15. Measurement of Plane-Wave Spectra of Ground Penetrating Radar Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The plane-wave transmitting spectrum of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) loop antenna close to the air-soil interface is measured by means of a probe buried in soil. Probe correction is implemented based upon knowledge about the complex permittivity of the soil and the current distribution...

  16. An extended Fourier modal method for plane-wave scattering from finite structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisarenco, M.; Maubach, J.M.L.; Setija, I.D.; Mattheij, R.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the area of application of the Fourier modal method from periodic structures to aperiodic ones, in particular for plane-wave illumination at arbitrary angles. This is achieved by placing perfectly matched layers at the lateral sides of the computational domain and reformulating

  17. Measurement Verification of Plane Wave Synthesis Technique Based on Multi-probe MIMO-OTA Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2012-01-01

    Standardization work for MIMO OTA testing methods is currently ongoing, where a multi-probe anechoic chamber based solution is an important candidate. In this paper, the probes located on an OTA ring are used to synthesize a plane wave field in the center of the OTA ring. This paper investigates...

  18. Progress in parallel implementation of the multilevel plane wave time domain algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The computational complexity and memory requirements of classical schemes for evaluating transient electromagnetic fields produced by Ns dipoles active for Nt time steps scale as O(NtN s 2) and O(Ns 2), respectively. The multilevel plane wave time

  19. Electronic-Optical Amplifier in the measurement of light polarization plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Diaz, Lazaro

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the behavior of the output response of two electronic-optical amplifiers with constant amplitude and phase variable, in which photodiodes each them are arranged spatially 90th each other and both with their faces detection parallel to the axis of light transmission. Outward both amplifiers are going to a digital circuit that compares the fronts outputs to the front of the pulse signal that feeds the light source, to finally obtain the difference in time when fronts of light capture the photodiodes. This configuration permit to analyze the influence of the geometric arrangement of the system optical and understand the principle of why the diodes with their faces parallel to the axis of light transmission are capable of capturing variations of this, and even detect the rotation of the plane of light polarized. (Author)

  20. Excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized electromagnetic wave incident upon a boundary of a dense magnetoactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragila, R.; Vukovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of surfave waves that are associated with a boundary between a rare plasma and a dense magnetoactive plasma and that propagate along a dc magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the presence of the magnetic field introduces symmetry in terms of the polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave that excites the surface waves. A surface wave excited by an incident p-polarized (s-polarized) electromagnetic wave leaks in the form of an s-polarized (p-polarized) electromagnetic wave. The rate of rotation of polarization is independent of the polarization of the incident wave. Because a surface wave can leak in the form of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave, it can also be pumped by such a wave, and conditions were found for excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized incident electromagnetic wave

  1. Power spectrum analysis of polarized emission from the Canadian galactic plane survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, R. A.; Rosolowsky, E. W. [University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L. [National Research Council Canada, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Box 248, Penticton, BC, V2A 6J9 (Canada)

    2014-05-20

    Angular power spectra are calculated and presented for the entirety of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey polarization data set at 1.4 GHz covering an area of 1060 deg{sup 2}. The data analyzed are a combination of data from the 100 m Effelsberg Telescope, the 26 m Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, and the Synthesis Telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, allowing all scales to be sampled down to arcminute resolution. The resulting power spectra cover multipoles from ℓ ≈ 60 to ℓ ≈ 10{sup 4} and display both a power-law component at low multipoles and a flattening at high multipoles from point sources. We fit the power spectrum with a model that accounts for these components and instrumental effects. The resulting power-law indices are found to have a mode of 2.3, similar to previous results. However, there are significant regional variations in the index, defying attempts to characterize the emission with a single value. The power-law index is found to increase away from the Galactic plane. A transition from small-scale to large-scale structure is evident at b = 9°, associated with the disk-halo transition in a 15° region around l = 108°. Localized variations in the index are found toward H II regions and supernova remnants, but the interpretation of these variations is inconclusive. The power in the polarized emission is anticorrelated with bright thermal emission (traced by Hα emission) indicating that the thermal emission depolarizes background synchrotron emission.

  2. Evaluation of the Electromagnetic Power Absorption in Humans Exposed to Plane Waves: The Effect of Breathing Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cavagnaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety aspects of the exposure of people to uniform plane waves in the frequency range from 900 MHz to 5 GHz are analyzed. Starting from a human body model available in the literature, representing a man in resting state, two new anatomical models are considered, representing different phases of the respiratory activity: tidal breath and deep breath. These models have been used to evaluate the whole body Specific Absorption Rate (SAR and the 10-g averaged and 1-g averaged SAR. The analysis is performed using a parallel implementation of the finite difference time domain method. A uniform plane wave, with vertical polarization, is used as an incident field since this is the canonical exposure situation used in safety guidelines. Results show that if the incident electromagnetic field is compliant with the reference levels promulgated by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and by IEEE, the computed SAR values are lower than the corresponding basic restrictions, as expected. On the other side, when the Federal Communications Commission reference levels are considered, 1-g SAR values exceeding the basic restrictions for exposure at 4 GHz and above are obtained. Furthermore, results show that the whole body SAR values increase passing from the resting state model to the deep breath model, for all the considered frequencies.

  3. Simplified description of out-of-plane waves in thin annular elastic plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Maziyar Nesari; Sorokin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion relations are derived for the out-of-plane wave propagation in planar elastic plates with constant curvature using the classical Kirchhoff thin plate theory. The dispersion diagrams and the mode shapes are compared with their counterparts for a straight plate strip and the role...... of curvature is assessed for plates with unconstrained edges. Elementary Bernoulli–Euler theory for a beam of rectangular cross-section with the circular shape of its axis is also employed to analyze the wave guide properties of this structure in its out-of-plane deformation. The applicability range...... of the elementary beam theory is validated. The wave finite element method in the formulation of the three-dimensional elasticity theory is used to ensure that the comparison of dispersion diagrams is performed in the frequency range, where the classical thin plate theory is valid. Thus, the paper summarizes...

  4. Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yuan; Lin, Lan-Lan

    2003-04-01

    Transfer-matrix methods adopting a plane-wave basis have been routinely used to calculate the scattering of electromagnetic waves by general multilayer gratings and photonic crystal slabs. In this paper we show that this technique, when combined with Bloch's theorem, can be extended to solve the photonic band structure for 2D and 3D photonic crystal structures. Three different eigensolution schemes to solve the traditional band diagrams along high-symmetry lines in the first Brillouin zone of the crystal are discussed. Optimal rules for the Fourier expansion over the dielectric function and electromagnetic fields with discontinuities occurring at the boundary of different material domains have been employed to accelerate the convergence of numerical computation. Application of this method to an important class of 3D layer-by-layer photonic crystals reveals the superior convergency of this different approach over the conventional plane-wave expansion method.

  5. Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiyuan; Lin Lanlan

    2003-01-01

    Transfer-matrix methods adopting a plane-wave basis have been routinely used to calculate the scattering of electromagnetic waves by general multilayer gratings and photonic crystal slabs. In this paper we show that this technique, when combined with Bloch's theorem, can be extended to solve the photonic band structure for 2D and 3D photonic crystal structures. Three different eigensolution schemes to solve the traditional band diagrams along high-symmetry lines in the first Brillouin zone of the crystal are discussed. Optimal rules for the Fourier expansion over the dielectric function and electromagnetic fields with discontinuities occurring at the boundary of different material domains have been employed to accelerate the convergence of numerical computation. Application of this method to an important class of 3D layer-by-layer photonic crystals reveals the superior convergency of this different approach over the conventional plane-wave expansion method

  6. Imaging off-plane shear waves with a two-dimensional phononic crystal lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang Chenyu; Luan Pigang

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional flat phononic crystal (PC) lens for focusing off-plane shear waves is proposed. The lens consists of a triangular lattice hole-array, embedded in a solid matrix. The self-collimation effect is employed to guide the shear waves propagating through the lens along specific directions. The Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps (DtN) method is employed to calculate the band structure of the PC, which can avoid the problems of bad convergence and fake bands automatically in the void-solid PC structure. When the lens is illuminated by the off-plane shear waves emanating from a point source, a subwavelength image appears in the far-field zone. The imaging characteristics are investigated by calculating the displacement fields explicitly using the multiple scattering method, and the results are in good agreement with the ray-trace predictions. Our results may provide insights for designing new phononic devices.

  7. Polarization speed meter for gravitational-wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew R.; McKenzie, Kirk; Chen, Yanbei; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Chow, Jong H.; McClelland, David E.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a modified configuration of an advanced gravitational-wave detector that is a speed-meter-type interferometer with improved sensitivity with respect to quantum noise. With the addition of polarization-controlling components to the output of an arm cavity Michelson interferometer, an orthogonal polarization state of the interferometer can be used to store signal, returning it later with opposite phase to cancel position information below the storage bandwidth of the opposite mode. This modification provides an alternative to an external kilometer-scale Fabry-Pérot cavity, as presented in earlier work of Purdue and Chen [Phys. Rev. D 66, 122004 (2002)]. The new configuration requires significantly less physical infrastructure to achieve speed meter operation. The quantity of length and alignment degrees of freedom is also reduced. We present theoretical calculations to show that such a speed meter detector is capable of beating the strain sensitivity imposed by the standard quantum limit over a broad range of frequencies for Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory-like parameters. The benefits and possible difficulties of implementing such a scheme are outlined. We also present results for tuning of the speed meter by adjusting the degree of polarization coupling, a novel possibility that does not exist in previously proposed designs, showing that there is a smooth transition from speed meter operation to that of a signal-recycling Michelson behavior.

  8. Stability of plane wave solutions of the two-space-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.U.; Yuen, H.C.; Saffman, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    The stability of plane, periodic solutions of the two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation to infinitesimal, two-dimensional perturbation has been calculated and verified numerically. For standing wave disturbances, instability is found for both odd and even modes; as the period of the unperturbed solution increases, the instability associated with the odd modes remains but that associated with the even mode disappears, which is consistent with the results of Zakharov and Rubenchik, Saffman and Yuen and Ablowitz and Segur on the stability of solitons. In addition, we have identified travelling wave instabilities for the even mode perturbations which are absent in the long-wave limit. Extrapolation to the case of an unperturbed solution with infinite period suggests that these instabilities may also be present for the soliton. In other words, the soliton is unstable to odd, standing-wave perturbations, and very likely also to even, travelling-wave perturbations. (orig.)

  9. Polarized time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of m-plane AlGaN/GaN MQWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Daniel; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Monavarian, M.; Izioumskaia, N.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Leach, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    The optical properties of GaN/Al0.15Ga0.85N multiple quantum wells grown on m-plane oriented substrate are studied in 8K-300K temperature range. The optical spectra reveal strong in-plane optical anisotropies as predicted by group theory. Polarized time resolved temperature-dependent photoluminescence experiments are performed providing access to the relative contributions of the non-radiative and radiative recombination processes. We deduce the variation of the radiative decay time with temperature in the two polarizations.

  10. Superresolution Imaging Using Resonant Multiples and Plane-wave Migration Velocity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2017-08-28

    Seismic imaging is a technique that uses seismic echoes to map and detect underground geological structures. The conventional seismic image has the resolution limit of λ/2, where λ is the wavelength associated with the seismic waves propagating in the subsurface. To exceed this resolution limit, this thesis develops a new imaging method using resonant multiples, which produces superresolution images with twice or even more the spatial resolution compared to the conventional primary reflection image. A resonant multiple is defined as a seismic reflection that revisits the same subsurface location along coincident reflection raypath. This reverberated raypath is the reason for superresolution imaging because it increases the differences in reflection times associated with subtle changes in the spatial location of the reflector. For the practical implementation of superresolution imaging, I develop a post-stack migration technique that first enhances the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of resonant multiples by a moveout-correction stacking method, and then migrates the post-stacked resonant multiples with the associated Kirchhoff or wave-equation migration formula. I show with synthetic and field data examples that the first-order resonant multiple image has about twice the spatial resolution compared to the primary reflection image. Besides resolution, the correct estimate of the subsurface velocity is crucial for determining the correct depth of reflectors. Towards this goal, wave-equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) is an image-domain method which inverts for the velocity model that maximizes the similarity of common image gathers (CIGs). Conventional WEMVA based on subsurface-offset, angle domain or time-lag CIGs requires significant computational and memory resources because it computes higher dimensional migration images in the extended image domain. To mitigate this problem, I present a new WEMVA method using plane-wave CIGs. Plane-wave CIGs reduce the

  11. Theory of steady-state plane tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of band-to-band and trap-assisted tunneling on the properties of steady-state plane ionization waves in p + -n-n + structures is theoretically analyzed. It is shown that such tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves do not differ in a qualitative sense from ordinary impact ionization waves propagating due to the avalanche multiplication of uniformly distributed seed electrons and holes. The quantitative differences of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves from impact ionization waves are reduced to a slightly different relation between the wave velocity u and the maximum field strength E M at the front. It is shown that disregarding impact ionization does not exclude the possibility of the existence of tunneling-assisted ionization waves; however, their structure radically changes, and their velocity strongly decreases for the same E M . A comparison of the dependences u(E M ) for various ionization-wave types makes it possible to determine the conditions under which one of them is dominant. In conclusion, unresolved problems concerning the theory of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves are discussed and the directions of further studies are outlined

  12. Diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave on a dielectric plate of variable density. [Field equatios, diffracted-wave angular distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aivazyan, Yu M; Mergelyan, O S; Poulatov, M P

    1974-01-01

    Aproblem for the diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave on a dielectric plate between two other dielectrics is solved. The dielectric constant of the plate depends periodically on three coordinates. From this solution it is possible to obtain the equations for fields and the angular distribution of diffracted waves for the particular cases of a crystal plate and a dielectric surface fluted in all directions. If the expansion is made in the variable of the electron density in crystals, the results will correspond to the problem for the X-ray diffraction on a crystal lattice, the values of the coefficient ..cap alpha -->..sub(tau) being determined by the lattice parameters.

  13. On completeness and orthogonality of solutions of relativistic wave equations on zero plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D.M.; Shakhmatov, V.M.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.

    1975-01-01

    The work considers the possible redeterminations of the scalar product for the relativistic wave fields, such as the Klein-Gordon and Dirac ones. It has been shown that a whole class of new exact solutions, for which the usual scalar product on the plane x 0 =const. could not be previously determinated, allows a correct scalar product on the zero plane x 0 -x 3 =const. The relations of orthogonality and completeness with respect to the above scalar product have been proved. Possible applications of the obtained results are discussed

  14. A wavenumber approach to analysing the active control of plane waves with arrays of secondary sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Cheer, Jordan; Bhan, Lam; Shi, Chuang; Gan, Woon-Seng

    2018-04-01

    The active control of an incident sound field with an array of secondary sources is a fundamental problem in active control. In this paper the optimal performance of an infinite array of secondary sources in controlling a plane incident sound wave is first considered in free space. An analytic solution for normal incidence plane waves is presented, indicating a clear cut-off frequency for good performance, when the separation distance between the uniformly-spaced sources is equal to a wavelength. The extent of the near field pressure close to the source array is also quantified, since this determines the positions of the error microphones in a practical arrangement. The theory is also extended to oblique incident waves. This result is then compared with numerical simulations of controlling the sound power radiated through an open aperture in a rigid wall, subject to an incident plane wave, using an array of secondary sources in the aperture. In this case the diffraction through the aperture becomes important when its size is compatible with the acoustic wavelength, in which case only a few sources are necessary for good control. When the size of the aperture is large compared to the wavelength, and diffraction is less important but more secondary sources need to be used for good control, the results then become similar to those for the free field problem with an infinite source array.

  15. Proposal of coherent Cherenkov radiation matched to circular plane wave for intense terahertz light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sei, Norihiro; Sakai, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Ken; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Nakao, Keisuke; Nogami, Kyoko; Inagaki, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a new intense terahertz-wave source based on coherent Cherenkov radiation (CCR). • A hollow conical dielectric is used to generate the CCR beam. • The wave front of the CCR beam can be matched to the basal plane. • The peak-power of the CCR beam is above 1 MW per micropulse with a short interval of 350 ps. - Abstract: We propose a high-peak-power terahertz-wave source based on an electron accelerator. By passing an electron beam through a hollow conical dielectric with apex facing the incident electron beam, the wave front of coherent Cherenkov radiation generated on the inner surface of the hollow conical dielectric matches the basal plane. Using the electron beam generated at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application at Nihon University, the calculated power of coherent Cherenkov radiation that matched the circular plane (CCR-MCP) was above 1 MW per micropulse with a short interval of 350 ps, for wavelengths ranging from 0.5 to 5 mm. The electron beam is not lost for generating the CCR-MCP beam by using the hollow conical dielectric. It is possible to combine the CCR-MCP beams with other light sources based on an accelerator

  16. Instability of drift Alfven wave accompanying polar magnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Yoshihiro

    1974-01-01

    As the micro plasma instability due to the plasma non-uniformity in magnetosphere, there is the instability of drift Alfven wave. With the data obtained with the network of multiple observation points for geomagnetism, attempt was made to prove the hypothesis that the instability of drift Alfven wave due to the electron temperature gradient at the inner boundary of plasma sheet may be one of the causes for the geomagnetic pulsation (Pi 1) accompanying polar magnetic storm. Up to date, final conclusion is yet impossible as to the problems in it due to the discussion based on the data from widely separated observation points. The installation of economically efficient multi-point observation network is necessary for the solution. (Mori, K.)

  17. X-ray diffraction study of A- plane non-polar InN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Matthieu; Briot, Olivier; Gil, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Strong polarisation-induced electric fields in C-plane oriented nitrides semiconductor layers reduce the performance of devices. Eliminating the polarization fields can be achieved by growing nitrides along non polar direction. We have grown non polar A-plane oriented InN on R-plane (1‾102) nitridated sapphire substrate by MOCVD. We have studied the structural anisotropy observed in these layers by analyzing High Resolution XRay Diffraction rocking curve (RC) experiments as a function of the in-plane beam orientation. A-plane InN epilayer have a unique epitaxial relationship on R-Plane sapphire and show a strong structural anisotropy. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the InN(11‾20) XRD RC values are contained between 44 and 81 Arcmin. FWHM is smaller when the diffraction occurs along the [0001] and the largest FWHM values, of the (11‾20) RC, are obtained when the diffraction occurs along the [1‾100] in-plane direction. Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed morphologies with well organized crystallites. The grains are structured along a unique crystallographic orientation of InN, leading to larger domains in this direction. This structural anisotropy can be, in first approximation, attributed to the difference in the domain sizes observed. XRD reciprocal space mappings (RSM) were performed in asymmetrical configuration on (13‾40) and (2‾202) diffraction plane. RSM are measured with a beam orientation corresponding to a maximal and a minimal width of the (11‾20) Rocking curves, respectively. A simple theoretical model is exposed to interpret the RSM. We concluded that the dominant contribution to the anisotropy is due to the scattering coherence length anisotropy present in our samples.

  18. Invertible propagator for plane wave illumination of forward-scattering structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelsohn, Gregory

    2017-05-10

    Propagation of directed waves in forward-scattering media is considered. It is assumed that the evolution of the wave field is governed by the standard parabolic wave equation. An efficient one-step momentum-space propagator, suitable for a tilted plane wave illumination of extended objects, is derived. It is expressed in terms of a propagation operator that transforms (the complex exponential of) a linogram of the illuminated object into a set of its diffraction patterns. The invertibility of the propagator is demonstrated, which permits a multiple-shot scatter correction to be performed, and makes the solution especially attractive for either projective or tomographic imaging. As an example, high-resolution tomograms are obtained in numerical simulations implemented for a synthetic phantom, with both refractive and absorptive inclusions.

  19. Quantum mechanics of lattice gas automata: One-particle plane waves and potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Classical lattice gas automata effectively simulate physical processes, such as diffusion and fluid flow (in certain parameter regimes), despite their simplicity at the microscale. Motivated by current interest in quantum computation we recently defined quantum lattice gas automata; in this paper we initiate a project to analyze which physical processes these models can effectively simulate. Studying the single particle sector of a one-dimensional quantum lattice gas we find discrete analogs of plane waves and wave packets, and then investigate their behavior in the presence of inhomogeneous potentials. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Worldline path integrals for a Dirac particle in a weak gravitational plane wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haouat, S.; Chetouani, L.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of a relativistic spinning particle interacting with a weak gravitational plane wave in (3+1) dimensions is formulated in the frame work of covariant supersymmetric path integrals. The relative Green function is expressed through a functional integral over bosonic trajectories that describe the external motion and fermionic variables that describe the spin degrees of freedom. The (3+1) dimensional problem is reduced to the (1+1) dimensional one by using an identity. Next, the relative propagator is exactly calculated and the wave functions are extracted. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of the projector augmented-wave, pseudopotential, and linearized augmented-plane-wave formalisms for density-functional calculations of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzwarth, N.A.; Matthews, G.E.; Dunning, R.B.; Tackett, A.R.; Zeng, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The projector augmented-wave (PAW) method was developed by Bloechl as a method to accurately and efficiently calculate the electronic structure of materials within the framework of density-functional theory. It contains the numerical advantages of pseudopotential calculations while retaining the physics of all-electron calculations, including the correct nodal behavior of the valence-electron wave functions and the ability to include upper core states in addition to valence states in the self-consistent iterations. It uses many of the same ideas developed by Vanderbilt in his open-quotes soft pseudopotentialclose quotes formalism and in earlier work by Bloechl in his open-quotes generalized separable potentials,close quotes and has been successfully demonstrated for several interesting materials. We have developed a version of the PAW formalism for general use in structural and dynamical studies of materials. In the present paper, we investigate the accuracy of this implementation in comparison with corresponding results obtained using pseudopotential and linearized augmented-plane-wave (LAPW) codes. We present results of calculations for the cohesive energy, equilibrium lattice constant, and bulk modulus for several representative covalent, ionic, and metallic materials including diamond, silicon, SiC, CaF 2 , fcc Ca, and bcc V. With the exception of CaF 2 , for which core-electron polarization effects are important, the structural properties of these materials are represented equally well by the PAW, LAPW, and pseudopotential formalisms. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. A standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2015-03-01

    A novel standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes was proposed in this study. The stator (or actuator) of the linear motor was made of a simple single Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramic square plate (15 × 15 × 2 mm(3)) with a circular hole (D = 6.7 mm) in the center. The geometric parameters of the stator were computed with the finite element analysis to produce in-plane bi-mode standing wave vibration. The calculated results predicted that a driving tip attached at midpoint of one edge of the stator can produce two orthogonal, approximate straight-line trajectories, which can be used to move a slider in linear motion via frictional forces in forward or reverse direction. The investigations showed that the proposed linear motor can produce a six times higher power density than that of a previously reported square plate motor.

  3. Accuracy and Precision of Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging for Laminar and Complex Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Traberg, Marie Sand; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a comparison between velocity fields for a plane wave 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is made. VFI estimates are obtained from the scan of a flow phantom, which mimics the complex flow conditions in the carotid artery....... Furthermore, the precision of the VFI method is investigated under laminar and complex flow conditions in vivo. The carotid bifurcation of a healthy volunteer was scanned using both fast plane wave ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The acquired MRI geometry of the bifurcation was used...... difference within 15 %, however, it was 23 % in the external branch. For the in vivo scan, the precision in terms of mean standard deviation (SD) of estimates aligned to the cardiac cycle was highest in the center of the common carotid artery (SD 4.7◦ for angles) and lowest in the external branch and close...

  4. Analytical Time-Domain Solution of Plane Wave Propagation Across a Viscoelastic Rock Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Li, Jianchun; Laloui, Lyesse; Zhao, Jian

    2017-10-01

    The effects of viscoelastic filled rock joints on wave propagation are of great significance in rock engineering. The solutions in time domain for plane longitudinal ( P-) and transverse ( S-) waves propagation across a viscoelastic rock joint are derived based on Maxwell and Kelvin models which are, respectively, applied to describe the viscoelastic deformational behaviour of the rock joint and incorporated into the displacement discontinuity model (DDM). The proposed solutions are verified by comparing with the previous studies on harmonic waves, which are simulated by sinusoidal incident P- and S-waves. Comparison between the predicted transmitted waves and the experimental data for P-wave propagation across a joint filled with clay is conducted. The Maxwell is found to be more appropriate to describe the filled joint. The parametric studies show that wave propagation is affected by many factors, such as the stiffness and the viscosity of joints, the incident angle and the duration of incident waves. Furthermore, the dependences of the transmission and reflection coefficients on the specific joint stiffness and viscosity are different for the joints with Maxwell and Kelvin behaviours. The alternation of the reflected and transmitted waveforms is discussed, and the application scope of this study is demonstrated by an illustration of the effects of the joint thickness. The solutions are also extended for multiple parallel joints with the virtual wave source method and the time-domain recursive method. For an incident wave with arbitrary waveform, it is convenient to adopt the present approach to directly calculate wave propagation across a viscoelastic rock joint without additional mathematical methods such as the Fourier and inverse Fourier transforms.

  5. Plane wave diffraction by a finite plate with impedance boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Rab; Ayub, Muhammad; Javaid, Akmal

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have examined a plane wave diffraction problem by a finite plate having different impedance boundaries. The Fourier transforms were used to reduce the governing problem into simultaneous Wiener-Hopf equations which are then solved using the standard Wiener-Hopf procedure. Afterwards the separated and interacted fields were developed asymptotically by using inverse Fourier transform and the modified stationary phase method. Detailed graphical analysis was also made for various physical parameters we were interested in.

  6. Plane wave diffraction by a finite plate with impedance boundary conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rab Nawaz

    Full Text Available In this study we have examined a plane wave diffraction problem by a finite plate having different impedance boundaries. The Fourier transforms were used to reduce the governing problem into simultaneous Wiener-Hopf equations which are then solved using the standard Wiener-Hopf procedure. Afterwards the separated and interacted fields were developed asymptotically by using inverse Fourier transform and the modified stationary phase method. Detailed graphical analysis was also made for various physical parameters we were interested in.

  7. Excitation of plane Lamb wave in plate-like structures under applied surface loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Xu, Xinsheng; Zhao, Zhen; Yang, Zhengyan; Zhou, Zhenhuan; Wu, Zhanjun

    2018-02-01

    Lamb waves play an important role in structure health monitoring (SHM) systems. The excitation of Lamb waves has been discussed for a long time with absorbing results. However, little effort has been made towards the precise characterization of Lamb wave excitation by various transducer models with mathematical foundation. In this paper, the excitation of plane Lamb waves with plane strain assumption in isotropic plate structures under applied surface loading is solved with the Hamiltonian system. The response of the Lamb modes excited by applied loading is expressed analytically. The effect of applied loading is divided into the product of two parts as the effect of direction and the effect of distribution, which can be changed by selecting different types of transducer and the corresponding transducer configurations. The direction of loading determines the corresponding displacement of each mode. The effect of applied loading on the in-plane and normal directions depends on the in-plane and normal displacements at the surface respectively. The effect of the surface loading distribution on the Lamb mode amplitudes is mainly reflected by amplitude versus frequency or wavenumber. The frequencies at which the maxima and minima of the S0 or A0 mode response occur depend on the distribution of surface loading. The numerical results of simulations conducted on an infinite aluminum plate verify the theoretical prediction of not only the direction but also the distribution of applied loading. A pure S0 or A0 mode can be excited by selecting the appropriate direction and distribution at the corresponding frequency.

  8. The Fermionic Signature Operator and Hadamard States in the Presence of a Plane Electromagnetic Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Reintjes, Moritz

    2017-05-01

    We give a non-perturbative construction of a distinguished state for the quantized Dirac field in Minkowski space in the presence of a time-dependent external field of the form of a plane electromagnetic wave. By explicit computation of the fermionic signature operator, it is shown that the Dirac operator has the strong mass oscillation property. We prove that the resulting fermionic projector state is a Hadamard state.

  9. Perturbation theory for the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the field of a plane electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostin, V.S.; Litskevich, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    The completeness and orthogonality of the solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation is proven. A correct derivation of perturbation-theory equations is given. A generalization that includes the field of a plane electromagnetic wave is proposed. The rate of one-photon annihilation of positronium in this field is calculated. If the one-photon decay is allowed, the stationary states of the system are found (states of light-positronium)

  10. A parallel orbital-updating based plane-wave basis method for electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Yan; Dai, Xiaoying; Gironcoli, Stefano de; Gong, Xin-Gao; Rignanese, Gian-Marco; Zhou, Aihui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose three parallel orbital-updating based plane-wave basis methods for electronic structure calculations. • These new methods can avoid the generating of large scale eigenvalue problems and then reduce the computational cost. • These new methods allow for two-level parallelization which is particularly interesting for large scale parallelization. • Numerical experiments show that these new methods are reliable and efficient for large scale calculations on modern supercomputers. - Abstract: Motivated by the recently proposed parallel orbital-updating approach in real space method , we propose a parallel orbital-updating based plane-wave basis method for electronic structure calculations, for solving the corresponding eigenvalue problems. In addition, we propose two new modified parallel orbital-updating methods. Compared to the traditional plane-wave methods, our methods allow for two-level parallelization, which is particularly interesting for large scale parallelization. Numerical experiments show that these new methods are more reliable and efficient for large scale calculations on modern supercomputers.

  11. Localized orbitals vs. pseudopotential-plane waves basis sets: performances and accuracy for molecular magnetic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Massobrio, C

    2003-01-01

    Density functional theory, in combination with a) a careful choice of the exchange-correlation part of the total energy and b) localized basis sets for the electronic orbital, has become the method of choice for calculating the exchange-couplings in magnetic molecular complexes. Orbital expansion on plane waves can be seen as an alternative basis set especially suited to allow optimization of newly synthesized materials of unknown geometries. However, little is known on the predictive power of this scheme to yield quantitative values for exchange coupling constants J as small as a few hundredths of eV (50-300 cm sup - sup 1). We have used density functional theory and a plane waves basis set to calculate the exchange couplings J of three homodinuclear Cu-based molecular complexes with experimental values ranging from +40 cm sup - sup 1 to -300 cm sup - sup 1. The plane waves basis set proves as accurate as the localized basis set, thereby suggesting that this approach can be reliably employed to predict and r...

  12. Localized orbitals vs. pseudopotential-plane waves basis sets: performances and accuracy for molecular magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massobrio, C.; Ruiz, E.

    2003-01-01

    Density functional theory, in combination with a) a careful choice of the exchange-correlation part of the total energy and b) localized basis sets for the electronic orbital, has become the method of choice for calculating the exchange-couplings in magnetic molecular complexes. Orbital expansion on plane waves can be seen as an alternative basis set especially suited to allow optimization of newly synthesized materials of unknown geometries. However, little is known on the predictive power of this scheme to yield quantitative values for exchange coupling constants J as small as a few hundredths of eV (50-300 cm -1 ). We have used density functional theory and a plane waves basis set to calculate the exchange couplings J of three homodinuclear Cu-based molecular complexes with experimental values ranging from +40 cm -1 to -300 cm -1 . The plane waves basis set proves as accurate as the localized basis set, thereby suggesting that this approach can be reliably employed to predict and rationalize the magnetic properties of molecular-based materials. (author)

  13. Improved Plane-Wave Ultrasound Beamforming by Incorporating Angular Weighting and Coherent Compounding in Fourier Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Hendriks, Gijs A G M; van Sloun, Ruud J G; Hansen, Hendrik H G; de Korte, Chris L

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a novel processing framework is introduced for Fourier-domain beamforming of plane-wave ultrasound data, which incorporates coherent compounding and angular weighting in the Fourier domain. Angular weighting implies spectral weighting by a 2-D steering-angle-dependent filtering template. The design of this filter is also optimized as part of this paper. Two widely used Fourier-domain plane-wave ultrasound beamforming methods, i.e., Lu's f-k and Stolt's f-k methods, were integrated in the framework. To enable coherent compounding in Fourier domain for the Stolt's f-k method, the original Stolt's f-k method was modified to achieve alignment of the spectra for different steering angles in k-space. The performance of the framework was compared for both methods with and without angular weighting using experimentally obtained data sets (phantom and in vivo), and data sets (phantom) provided by the IEEE IUS 2016 plane-wave beamforming challenge. The addition of angular weighting enhanced the image contrast while preserving image resolution. This resulted in images of equal quality as those obtained by conventionally used delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming with apodization and coherent compounding. Given the lower computational load of the proposed framework compared to DAS, to our knowledge it can, therefore, be concluded that it outperforms commonly used beamforming methods such as Stolt's f-k, Lu's f-k, and DAS.

  14. Phase function of a spherical particle when scattering an inhomogeneous electromagnetic plane wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2018-04-01

    In absorbing media, electromagnetic plane waves are most often inhomogeneous. Existing solutions for the scattering of an inhomogeneous plane wave by a spherical particle provide no explicit expressions for the scattering components. In addition, current analytical solutions require evaluation of the complex hypergeometric function F 1 2 for every term of a series expansion. In this work, I develop a simpler solution based on associated Legendre functions with argument zero. It is similar to the solution for homogeneous plane waves but with new explicit expressions for the angular dependency of the far-field scattering components, that is, the phase function. I include recurrence formulas for practical evaluation and provide numerical examples to evaluate how well the new expressions match previous work in some limiting cases. The predicted difference in the scattering phase function due to inhomogeneity is not negligible for light entering an absorbing medium at an oblique angle. The presented theory could thus be useful for predicting scattering behavior in dye-based random lasing and in solar cell absorption enhancement.

  15. Terahertz wave polarization beam splitter using a cascaded multimode interference structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiu-sheng; Liu, Han; Zhang, Le

    2014-08-01

    A terahertz wave polarization beam splitter, based on two cascaded multimode interference structures with different widths, is designed and numerically demonstrated. The numerical calculation results show that the designed polarization beam splitter can split transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM)-polarized terahertz waves into different propagation directions with high efficiency over a frequency range from 6.40 to 6.50 THz. This polarization beam splitter shows more than a 22.06 dB extinction ratio for TE-polarization and a 31.65 dB extinction ratio for TM-polarization. Using such a polarization beam splitter, the whole length of the polarization beam splitter is reduced to about 1/12 that of a conventional design. This enables the polarization beam splitter to be used in terahertz wave integrated circuit fields.

  16. Shear wave induced resonance elastography of spherical masses with polarized torsional waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj Henni, Anis; Schmitt, Cédric; Trop, Isabelle; Cloutier, Guy

    2012-03-01

    Shear wave induced resonance (SWIR) is a technique for dynamic ultrasound elastography of confined mechanical inclusions. It was developed for breast tumor imaging and tissue characterization. This method relies on the polarization of torsional shear waves modeled with the Helmholtz equation in spherical coordinates. To validate modeling, an invitro set-up was used to measure and image the first three eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a soft sphere. A preliminary invivo SWIR measurement on a breast fibroadenoma is also reported. Results revealed the potential of SWIR elastography to detect and mechanically characterize breast lesions for early cancer detection.

  17. Wave-equation Migration Velocity Analysis Using Plane-wave Common Image Gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    Wave-equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) based on subsurface-offset, angle domain or time-lag common image gathers (CIGs) requires significant computational and memory resources because it computes higher dimensional migration images

  18. Longitudinal elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in off-diagonal magnetoelectric split-ring composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, S T; Wang, Weihua; Zhou, L; Lin, Z F

    2009-07-22

    We study the propagation of plane electromagnetic waves through different systems consisting of arrays of split rings of different orientations. Many extraordinary EM phenomena were discovered in such systems, contributed by the off-diagonal magnetoelectric susceptibilities. We find a mode such that the electric field becomes elliptically polarized with a component in the longitudinal direction (i.e. parallel to the wavevector). Even though the group velocity [Formula: see text] and the wavevector k are parallel, in the presence of damping, the Poynting vector does not just get 'broadened', but can possess a component perpendicular to the wavevector. The speed of light can be real even when the product ϵμ is negative. Other novel properties are explored.

  19. Formation of whispering gallery modes by scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by two cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, Arnold, E-mail: qulaser@gmail.com [Kuang-Chi Institute of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen, 518057 (China); Kostikov, Alexander [Donbass State Engineering Academy, 84303, Kramatorsk, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2017-03-26

    We report the effect of scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders on whispering gallery mode (WGM) formation in a cylinder. WGM can occur because of the presence of additional cylinder scatterers at specific location, while WGMs can only form in a single cylinder for specific cylinder radius and/or wavelength values, the matching accuracy required would be much greater than that required in our model for the additional cylinders locations. Analysis of the general solution to the problem showed that the effect can be explained by the interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main cylinder. - Highlights: • We consider scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders. • WGMs occur because of the presence of additional cylinder at specific location. • The accuracy for the locations is much less than required for specific values of single cylinder. • The interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main is responsible for the effect.

  20. On the comparsion of the Spherical Wave Expansion-to-Plane Wave Expansion and the Sources Reconstruction Method for Antenna Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Yuri; Cappellin, Cecilia; Las-Heras, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    A comparison between two recently developed methods for antenna diagnostics is presented. On one hand, the Spherical Wave Expansion-to-Plane Wave Expansion (SWE-PWE), based on the relationship between spherical and planar wave modes. On the other hand, the Sources Reconstruction Method (SRM), based...

  1. Acoustic multipath arrivals in the horizontal plane due to approaching nonlinear internal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiey, Mohsen; Katsnelson, Boris G; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Lynch, James F

    2011-04-01

    Simultaneous measurements of acoustic wave transmissions and a nonlinear internal wave packet approaching an along-shelf acoustic path during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment are reported. The incoming internal wave packet acts as a moving frontal layer reflecting (or refracting) sound in the horizontal plane. Received acoustic signals are filtered into acoustic normal mode arrivals. It is shown that a horizontal multipath interference is produced. This has previously been called a horizontal Lloyd's mirror. The interference between the direct path and the refracted path depends on the mode number and frequency of the acoustic signal. A mechanism for the multipath interference is shown. Preliminary modeling results of this dynamic interaction using vertical modes and horizontal parabolic equation models are in good agreement with the observed data.

  2. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  3. On plane-wave relativistic electrodynamics in plasmas and in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the exact microscopic equations (in differential, and equivalent integral form) ruling a relativistic cold plasma after the plane-wave Ansatz, without customary approximations. We show that in the Eulerian description the motion of a very diluted plasma initially at rest and excited by an arbitrary transverse plane electromagnetic travelling-wave has a very simple and explicit dependence on the transverse electromagnetic potential; for a non-zero density plasma the above motion is a good approximation of the real one as long as the back-reaction of the charges on the electromagnetic field can be neglected, i.e. for a time lapse decreasing with the plasma density, and can be used as initial step in an iterative resolution scheme. As one of many possible applications, we use these results to describe how the ponderomotive force of a very intense and short plane laser pulse hitting normally the surface of a plasma boosts the surface electrons into the ion background. In response to this penetration, the electrons are pulled back by the electric force exerted by the ions and the other displaced electrons and may leave the plasma with high energy in the direction opposite to that of propagation of the pulse ‘slingshot effect’ (Fiore G et al 2013 arXiv:1309.1400). (paper)

  4. Photonic antenna enhanced middle wave and longwave infrared focal plane array with low noise and high operating temperature, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photodetectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs) covering the middle-wave and longwave infrared (MWIR/LWIR) are of great importance in numerous NASA applications,...

  5. Simulation of Guided Wave Interaction with In-Plane Fiber Waviness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the timeline for certification of composite materials and enabling the expanded use of advanced composite materials for aerospace applications are two primary goals of NASA's Advanced Composites Project (ACP). A key a technical challenge area for accomplishing these goals is the development of rapid composite inspection methods with improved defect characterization capabilities. Ongoing work at NASA Langley is focused on expanding ultrasonic simulation capabilities for composite materials. Simulation tools can be used to guide the development of optimal inspection methods. Custom code based on elastodynamic finite integration technique is currently being developed and implemented to study ultrasonic wave interaction with manufacturing defects, such as in-plane fiber waviness (marcelling). This paper describes details of validation comparisons performed to enable simulation of guided wave propagation in composites containing fiber waviness. Simulation results for guided wave interaction with in-plane fiber waviness are also discussed. The results show that the wavefield is affected by the presence of waviness on both the surface containing fiber waviness, as well as the opposite surface to the location of waviness.

  6. Alfvénic waves in polar spicules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavabi, E.; Koutchmy, S.; Ajabshirizadeh, A.; Ahangarzadeh Maralani, A. R.; Zeighami, S.

    2015-01-01

    Context. For investigating spicules from the photosphere to coronal heights, the new Hinode/SOT long series of high-resolution observations from space taken in CaII H line emission offers an improved way to look at their remarkable dynamical behavior using images free of seeing effects. They should be put in the context of the huge amount of already accumulated material from ground-based instruments, including high- resolution spectra of off-limb spicules. Aims: Both the origin of the phenomenon and the significance of dynamical spicules for the heating above the top of the photosphere and the fuelling of the chromospheric and the transition region need more investigation, including of the possible role of the associated magnetic waves for the corona higher up. Methods: We analyze in great detail the proper transverse motions of mature and tall polar region spicules for different heights, assuming that there might be Helical-Kink waves or Alfvénic waves propagating inside their multicomponent substructure, by interpreting the quasi-coherent behavior of all visible components presumably confined by a surrounding magnetic envelop. We concentrate the analysis on the taller CaII spicules more relevant for coronal heights and easier to measure. Two-dimensional velocity maps of proper motion were computed for the first time using a correlation tracking technique based on FFTs and cross-correlation function with a 2nd-order-accuracy Taylor expansion. Highly processed images with the popular mad-max algorithm were first prepared to perform this analysis. The locations of the peak of the cross-correlation function were obtained with subpixel accuracy. Results: The surge-like behavior of solar polar region spicules supports the untwisting multicomponent interpretation of spicules exhibiting helical dynamics. Several tall spicules are found with (i) upward and downward flows that are similar at lower and middle levels, the rate of upward motion being slightly higher at high

  7. A New Kind of Circular Polarization Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of circular polarization leaky-wave antenna with N-shaped slots cut in the upper side of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW is investigated and presented. The radiation pattern and polarization axial ratio of the leaky-wave antenna are studied. The results show that the width of N-shaped slots has significant effect on the circular polarization property of the antenna. By properly choosing structural parameters, the SIW based leaky-wave antenna can realize circular polarization with excellent axial ratio in 8 GHz satellite band.

  8. A singularity extraction technique for computation of antenna aperture fields from singular plane wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    An effective technique for extracting the singularity of plane wave spectra in the computation of antenna aperture fields is proposed. The singular spectrum is first factorized into a product of a finite function and a singular function. The finite function is inverse Fourier transformed...... numerically using the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform, while the singular function is inverse Fourier transformed analytically, using the Weyl-identity, and the two resulting spatial functions are then convolved to produce the antenna aperture field. This article formulates the theory of the singularity...

  9. Acoustic radiation force on cylindrical shells in a plane standing wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, F G

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the radiation force per length resulting from a plane standing wave incident on an infinitely long cylindrical shell is computed. The cases of elastic and viscoelastic shells immersed in ideal (non-viscous) fluids are considered with particular emphasis on their thickness and the content of their interior hollow spaces. Numerical calculations of the radiation force function Y st are performed. The fluid-loading effect on the radiation force function curves is analysed as well. The results show several features quite different when the interior hollow space is changed from air to water. Moreover, the theory developed here is more general since it includes the results on cylinders

  10. ONETEP: linear-scaling density-functional theory with plane-waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, P D; Mostof, A A; Skylaris, C-K; Payne, M C

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of the methodology implemented in onetep (Order-N Electronic Total Energy Package), a parallel density-functional theory code for largescale first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations. The distinctive features of onetep are linear-scaling in both computational effort and resources, obtained by making well-controlled approximations which enable simulations to be performed with plane-wave accuracy. Titanium dioxide clusters of increasing size designed to mimic surfaces are studied to demonstrate the accuracy and scaling of onetep

  11. Increased Frame Rate for Plane Wave Imaging Without Loss of Image Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications of plane wave imaging necessitate the creation of high-quality images with the highest possible frame rate for improved blood flow tracking and anatomical imaging. However, linear array transducers create grating lobe artefacts, which degrade the image quality especially...... in the near field for λ-pitch transducers. Artefacts can only partly be suppressed by increasing the number of emissions, and this paper demonstrates how the frame rate can be increased without loss of image quality by using λ/2-pitch transducers. The number of emissions and steering angles are optimized...

  12. Useful Solutions for Plane Wave Diffraction by Dielectric Slabs and Wedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gennarelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an overview of available uniform asymptotic physical optics solutions for evaluating the plane wave diffraction by some canonical geometries of large interest: dielectric slabs and wedges. Such solutions are based on a physical optics approximation of the electric and magnetic equivalent surface currents in the involved scattering integrals. The resulting diffraction coefficients are expressed in terms of the geometrical optics response of the considered structure and the standard transition function of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction. Numerical tests and comparisons make evident the effectiveness and reliability of the presented solutions.

  13. String interactions in a plane-fronted parallel-wave spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2002-01-01

    We argue that string interactions in a plane-fronted parallel-wave spacetime are governed by an effective coupling g eff =g s (μp + α ' )f(μp + α ' ) where f(μp + α ' ) is proportional to the light-cone energy of the string states involved in the interaction. This simply follows from generalities of a matrix string description of this background. g eff nicely interpolates between the expected result (g s ) for flat space (small μp + α ' ) and a recently conjectured expression from the perturbative gauge theory side (large μp + α ' )

  14. Efficient evaluation of Coulomb integrals in a mixed Gaussian and plane-wave basis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čársky, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2007), s. 56-62 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100400501; GA AV ČR 1ET400400413 Grant - others:European Science Foundation (EIPAM)(XE) PESC7-20; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) OISE-0532040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : two- electron integrals * mixed plane-wave and Gaussian basis sets * Coulomb integrals Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; The oretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.368, year: 2007

  15. Explicit formulas for Neumann coefficients in the plane-wave geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yanghui; Schwarz, John H.; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2003-01-01

    We obtain explicit formulas for the Neumann coefficients and associated quantities that appear in the three-string vertex for type IIB string theory in a plane-wave background, for any value of the mass parameter μ. The derivation involves constructing the inverse of a certain infinite-dimensional matrix, in terms of which the Neumann coefficients previously had been written only implicitly. We derive asymptotic expansions for large μ and find unexpectedly simple results, which are valid to all orders in 1/μ. Using BMN duality, these give predictions for certain gauge theory quantities to all orders in the modified 't Hooft coupling λ ' . A specific example is presented

  16. Diffraction of a plane wave on two-dimensional conductive structures and a surface wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, Mikhael V.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the structures type of two-dimensional electron gas in the form of a thin conductive, in particular, graphene films described by tensor conductivity, which are isolated or located on the dielectric layers. The dispersion equation for hybrid modes, as well as scattering parameters. We show that free wave (eigenwaves) problem follow from the problem of diffraction when linking the amplitude of the current of the linear equations are unsolvable, i.e., the determinant of this system is zero. As a particular case the dispersion equation follow from the conditions of matching (with zero reflection coefficient).

  17. Necessary conditions for the initiation and propagation of nuclear-detonation waves in plane atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.; Wood, L.

    1979-01-01

    The basic conditions for the initiation of a nuclear-detonation wave in an atmosphere having plane symmetry (e.g., a thin, layered fluid envelope on a planet or star) are developed. Two classes of such a detonation are identified: those in which the temperature of the plasma is comparable to that of the electromagnetic radiation permeating it, and those in which the temperature of the plasma is much higher. Necessary conditions are developed for the propagation of such detonation waves for an arbitrarily great distance. The contribution of fusion chain reactions to these processes is evaluated. By means of these considerations, it is shown that neither the atmosphere nor oceans of the Earth may be made to undergo propagating nuclear detonation under any circumstances

  18. Temperature elevation in the eye of anatomically based human head models for plane-wave exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, A; Watanabe, S; Fujiwara, O; Kojima, M; Sasaki, K; Shiozawa, T

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the temperature elevation in the eye of anatomically based human head models for plane-wave exposures. The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation. The eyes in the anatomic models have average dimensions and weight. Computational results show that the ratio of maximum temperature in the lens to the eye-average SAR (named 'heating factor for the lens') is almost uniform (0.112-0.147 deg. C kg W -1 ) in the frequency region below 3 GHz. Above 3 GHz, this ratio increases gradually with an increase of frequency, which is attributed to the penetration depth of an electromagnetic wave. Particular attention is paid to the difference in the heating factor for the lens between this study and earlier works. Considering causes clarified in this study, compensated heating factors in all these studies are found to be in good agreement

  19. Statistics for long irregular wave run-up on a plane beach from direct numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Senichev, Dmitry; Dutykh, Denys

    2017-04-01

    -975 (2011). [2] P. Denissenko, I. Didenkulova, A. Rodin, M. Listak, E. Pelinovsky. Experimental statistics of long wave runup on a plane beach. Journal of Coastal Research 65, 195-200 (2013). [3] I. Didenkulova, E. Pelinovsky, A. Sergeeva. Statistical characteristics of long waves nearshore. Coastal Engineering 58, 94-102 (2011). [4] D. Dutykh, T. Katsaounis, D. Mitsotakis. Finite volume schemes for dispersive wave propagation and runup. J. Comput. Phys. 230 (8), 3035-3061 (2011a). [5] D. Dutykh, C. Labart, D. Mitsotakis. Long wave run-up on random beaches. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 184504 (2011b).

  20. Surface effects on anti-plane shear waves propagating in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Chunli; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-01-01

    Material surfaces may have a remarkable effect on the mechanical behavior of magneto-electro-elastic (or multiferroic) structures at nanoscale. In this paper, a surface magneto-electro-elasticity theory (or effective boundary condition formulation), which governs the motion of the material surface of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, is established by employing the state-space formalism. The properties of anti-plane shear (SH) waves propagating in a transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic plate with nanothickness are investigated by taking surface effects into account. The size-dependent dispersion relations of both antisymmetric and symmetric SH waves are presented. The thickness-shear frequencies and the asymptotic characteristics of the dispersion relations considering surface effects are determined analytically as well. Numerical results show that surface effects play a very pronounced role in elastic wave propagation in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, and the dispersion properties depend strongly on the chosen surface material parameters of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates. As a consequence, it is possible to modulate the waves in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates through surface engineering. (paper)

  1. Tissue elasticity of in vivo skeletal muscles measured in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Kentaro; Kawakami, Yasuo; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure in vivo skeletal muscle elasticity in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography and then to compare the image stability, measurement values and measurement repeatability between these imaging planes. Thirty-one healthy males participated in this study. Tissue elasticity (shear wave velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, biceps brachii and rectus abdominis was measured in both the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography. Image stability was evaluated by the standard deviation of the colour distribution in the shear wave elastography image. Measurement repeatability was assessed by the coefficient of variance obtained from three measurement values. Image stability of all tested muscles was significantly higher in the longitudinal plane (Pplanes (P>0·05), except in the biceps brachii (P = 0·001). Measurement values of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps brachii were significantly different between the imaging planes (Pplane, which indicates that imaging plane should be considered when measuring skeletal muscle tissue elasticity by shear wave elastography. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Planar plane-wave matrix theory at the four loop order: integrability without BMN scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbacher, Thomas; Klose, Thomas; Plefka, Jan

    2005-01-01

    We study SU(N) plane-wave matrix theory up to fourth perturbative order in its large N planar limit. The effective hamiltonian in the closed su(2) subsector of the model is explicitly computed through a specially tailored computer program to perform large scale distributed symbolic algebra and generation of planar graphs. The number of graphs here was in the deep billions. The outcome of our computation establishes the four-loop integrability of the planar plane-wave matrix model. To elucidate the integrable structure we apply the recent technology of the perturbative asymptotic Bethe ansatz to our model. The resulting S-matrix turns out to be structurally similar but nevertheless distinct to the so far considered long-range spin-chain S-matrices of Inozemtsev, Beisert-Dippel-Staudacher and Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher in the AdS/CFT context. In particular our result displays a breakdown of BMN scaling at the four-loop order. That is, while there exists an appropriate identification of the matrix theory mass parameter with the coupling constant of the N=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory which yields an eighth order lattice derivative for well separated impurities (naively implying BMN scaling) the detailed impurity contact interactions ruin this scaling property at the four-loop order. Moreover we study the issue of 'wrapping' interactions, which show up for the first time at this loop-order through a Konishi descendant length four operator. (author)

  3. Parallel Implementation of Gamma-Point Pseudopotential Plane-Wave DFT with Exact Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bylaska, Eric J.; Tsemekhman, Kiril L.; Baden, Scott B.; Weare, John H.; Jonsson, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    One of the more persistent failures of conventional density functional theory (DFT) methods has been their failure to yield localized charge states such as polarons, excitons and solitons in solid-state and extended systems. It has been suggested that conventional DFT functionals, which are not self-interaction free, tend to favor delocalized electronic states since self-interaction creates a Coulomb barrier to charge localization. Pragmatic approaches in which the exchange correlation functionals are augmented with small amount of exact exchange (hybrid-DFT, e.g. B3LYP and PBE0) have shown promise in localizing charge states and predicting accurate band gaps and reaction barriers. We have developed a parallel algorithm for implementing exact exchange into pseudopotential plane-wave density functional theory and we have implemented it in the NWChem program package. The technique developed can readily be employed in plane-wave DFT programs. Furthermore, atomic forces and stresses are straightforward to implement, making it applicable to both confined and extended systems, as well as to Car-Parrinello ab initio molecular dynamic simulations. This method has been applied to several systems for which conventional DFT methods do not work well, including calculations for band gaps in oxides and the electronic structure of a charge trapped state in the Fe(II) containing mica, annite.

  4. Optimization of exit-plane waves restored from HRTEM through-focal series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erni, Rolf; Rossell, Marta D.; Nakashima, Philip N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy has largely benefited from the implementation of aberration correctors in the imaging part of the microscope. Though the dominant geometrical axial aberrations can in principle be corrected or suitably adjusted, the impact of higher-order aberrations, which are mainly due to the implementation of non-round electron optical elements, on the imaging process remains unclear. Based on a semi-empirical criterion, we analyze the impact of residual aperture aberrations on the quality of exit-plane waves that are retrieved from through-focal series recorded using an aberration-corrected and monochromated instrument which was operated at 300 kV and enabled for an information transfer of ∼0.05 nm. We show that the impact of some of the higher-order aberrations in retrieved exit-plane waves can be balanced by a suitable adjustment of symmetry equivalent lower-order aberrations. We find that proper compensation and correction of 1st and 2nd order aberrations is critical, and that the required accuracy is difficult to achieve. This results in an apparent insensitivity towards residual higher-order aberrations. We also investigate the influence of the detector characteristics on the image contrast. We find that correction for the modulation transfer function results in a contrast gain of up to 40%.

  5. Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jordá, José M

    2016-02-01

    Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations Ax=b, where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O(NlogN) memory and executing an iteration in O(Nlog(2)N) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.

  6. [A new method to orthodontically correct dental occlusal plane canting: wave-shaped arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Hu, X X; Ma, N; Chen, X H

    2017-02-18

    To introduce a technique of second order wave-shaped arch wire to orthodontically treat dental occlusal plane canting (DOPC) with left-right interactive anchorage, and to test its clinical efficacy. Among the permanent dentition malocclusion patients who showed no obvious facial asymmetry, we screened for patients who showed anterior occlusal plane canting (AOPC) after routine orthodontic examination, treatment planning, MBT fixed appliance installation and serial arch wires alignment. Each patient had been clinically appraised in frontal view by 2 orthodontists and the patient him/herself; if all 3 agreed that the AOPC was obvious, the patient was included. By this means, we included 37 patients, including 10 males and 27 females; the average age was (21.9±5.2) years. To correct AOPC, opposite direction equal curvature second order rocking-chair curve was bent on each side of 0.46 mm×0.56 mm stainless steel edgewise wire. With reference to normal occlusal plane, a curve toward the occlusal surface was made to extrude under-erupted teeth on one side while a curve toward the gingiva was made to intrude over-erupted teeth on the other side, so that the arch wire was made into a wave shape in vertical dimension. Before and after application of wave-shaped arch wire, frontal facial photographs were taken when the patient's mouth was open slightly with lips retracted to show anterior occlusal plane (AOP) clearly. An AOP was constructed by connecting the center of the slot in the medial edge of canine bracket on each side in the photograph. The angles between the bipupillary plane(BPP) and the constructed AOP were measured in ImageJ1-48v software and the angle differences before and after treatment were compared with paired Wilcoxon test in SPSS 10.0 software. The wave-shaped arch could correct AOPC effectively in 3 to 10 months time with an average of 5.5±1.7 months; the angles between AOP and BBP before treatment ranged from 2.90° to 6.12° with a median of 4.01

  7. Nonlinear interaction of s-polarized surface waves at the boundary of a semibounded magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amein, W.H.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Nagy, O.Z.; Sayed, Y.A.

    1981-01-01

    Nonlinear interaction of S-Polarized surface waves at the boundary of a semibounded magnetized plasma is investigated. The expressions of the amplitudes of the generated waves are found. It is shown that, the generated waves with combined frequencies are equally radiated from the transient layer into plasma and vacuum

  8. Search for Tensor, Vector, and Scalar Polarizations in the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Shaffer, T J; Shah, A A; Shahriar, M S; Shaner, M B; Shao, L; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, B; Smith, J R; Smith, R J E; Somala, S; Son, E J; Sonnenberg, J A; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Spencer, A P; Srivastava, A K; Staats, K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Stops, D J; Strain, K A; Stratta, G; Strigin, S E; Strunk, A; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Suresh, J; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Tait, S C; Talbot, C; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tao, D; Tápai, M; Taracchini, A; Tasson, J D; Taylor, J A; Taylor, R; Tewari, S V; Theeg, T; Thies, F; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres-Forné, A; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trinastic, J; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tsang, K W; Tse, M; Tso, R; Tsukada, L; Tsuna, D; Tuyenbayev, D; Ueno, K; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Varma, V; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Venugopalan, G; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Viets, A D; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walet, R; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J Z; Wang, W H; Wang, Y F; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Watchi, J; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessel, E K; Weßels, P; Westerweck, J; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Whittle, C; Wilken, D; Williams, D; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Wofford, J; Wong, K W K; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wysocki, D M; Xiao, S; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, L; Yap, M J; Yazback, M; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zelenova, T; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, T; Zhang, Y-H; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, S J; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2018-05-18

    The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically polarized gravitational waves. We find no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to Ω_{0}^{T}<5.58×10^{-8}, Ω_{0}^{V}<6.35×10^{-8}, and Ω_{0}^{S}<1.08×10^{-7} at a reference frequency f_{0}=25  Hz.

  9. Search for Tensor, Vector, and Scalar Polarizations in the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. 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S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. 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B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tao, D.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically polarized gravitational waves. We find no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to Ω0T<5.58 ×10-8 , Ω0V<6.35 ×10-8 , and Ω0S<1.08 ×10-7 at a reference frequency f0=25 Hz .

  10. Dispersion of linearly polarized electromagnetic wave in magnetized quantum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Abhisek Kumar; Kumar, Punit

    2015-01-01

    The generation of harmonic radiation is significant in terms of laser-plasma interaction and has brought interesting notice due to the diversity of its applications. The odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated in the majority of laser interactions with homogenous plasma. It has been remarked that second harmonic generation takes place in the presence of density gradient which gives rise to perturbation in the electron density at the laser frequency. The density perturbation coupled with the quiver motion of the electrons produces a source current at the second harmonic frequency. Second harmonic generation has also been related with filamentation. In the present paper, a study of second harmonic generation by propagation of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave through homogeneous high density quantum plasma in the presence of transverse magnetic field. The nonlinear current density and dispersion relations for the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies have been obtained using the recently developed quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. The effect of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and the electron spin have been taken into account. The second harmonic is found to be less dispersed than the first. (author)

  11. Electrical access to critical coupling of circularly polarized waves in graphene chiral metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Teun-Teun; Oh, Sang Soon; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Park, Hyun Sung; Hess, Ortwin; Min, Bumki; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-09-01

    Active control of polarization states of electromagnetic waves is highly desirable because of its diverse applications in information processing, telecommunications, and spectroscopy. However, despite the recent advances using artificial materials, most active polarization control schemes require optical stimuli necessitating complex optical setups. We experimentally demonstrate an alternative-direct electrical tuning of the polarization state of terahertz waves. Combining a chiral metamaterial with a gated single-layer sheet of graphene, we show that transmission of a terahertz wave with one circular polarization can be electrically controlled without affecting that of the other circular polarization, leading to large-intensity modulation depths (>99%) with a low gate voltage. This effective control of polarization is made possible by the full accessibility of three coupling regimes, that is, underdamped, critically damped, and overdamped regimes by electrical control of the graphene properties.

  12. Polarization reversal of electron cyclotron wave due to radial boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Kaneko, T.; Hatakeyama, R.

    2004-01-01

    The electron cyclotron wave is an important plasma wave in the fields of basic plasma physics and nuclear fusion. Propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) frequency are experimentally and theoretically investigated for the case of inhomogeneously magnetized plasma column with peripheral vacuum layer, when a left-hand polarized wave (LHPW) is selectively launched. The polarization reversal from the LHPW to the right-hand polarized wave is found to occur near the ECR point. As a result, it is clarified that the LHPW, which has been considered not to be absorbed at the ECR point, is absorbed near the ECR point. The phenomena can be explained by taking into account the effects of the radial boundary conditions. In addition, it is found that the polarization reversal point can be adjusted by the external parameters, for example, plasma radius. (authors)

  13. Polarity inversion of AlN film grown on nitrided a-plane sapphire substrate with pulsed DC reactive sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsetio Noorprajuda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxygen partial pressure (PO2 on polarity and crystalline quality of AlN films grown on nitrided a-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed direct current (DC reactive sputtering was investigated as a fundamental study. The polarity inversion of AlN from nitrogen (−c-polarity to aluminum (+c-polarity occurred during growth at a high PO2 of 9.4×103 Pa owing to Al-O octahedral formation at the interface of nitrided layer and AlN sputtered film which reset the polarity of AlN. The top part of the 1300 nm-thick AlN film sputtered at the high PO2 was polycrystallized. The crystalline quality was improved owing to the high kinetic energy of Al sputtered atom in the sputtering phenomena. Thinner AlN films were also fabricated at the high PO2 to eliminate the polycrystallization. For the 200 nm-thick AlN film sputtered at the high PO2, the full width at half-maximum values of the AlN (0002 and (10−12 X-ray diffraction rocking curves were 47 and 637 arcsec, respectively.

  14. Angular momentum of circularly polarized light in dielectric media

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-01-01

    A circularly polarized plane-wave is known to have no angular momentum when examined through Maxwell's equations. This, however, contradicts the experimentally observed facts, where finite segments of plane waves are known to be capable of imparting angular momentum to birefringent platelets. Using a superposition of four plane-waves propagating at slightly different angles to a common direction, we derive an expression for the angular momentum density of a single plane-wave in the limit when...

  15. Polarizer design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Salewski, Mirko; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2013-01-01

    Radiation from magnetized plasmas is in general elliptically polarized. In order to convert the elliptical polarization to linear polarization, mirrors with grooved surfaces are currently employed in our collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade. If these mirrors can be substituted...

  16. The nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity wave packets: dispersion and polarization relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-D. Zhang

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the results of the numerical simulations of nonlinear propagation of three Gaussian gravity-wave packets in isothermal atmosphere individually, the nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity waves are studied quantitatively. The analyses show that during the nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packets the mean flows are accelerated and the vertical wavelengths show clear reduction due to nonlinearity. On the other hand, though nonlinear effects exist, the time variations of the frequencies of gravity wave packets are close to those derived from the dispersion relation and the amplitude and phase relations of wave-associated disturbance components are consistent with the predictions of the polarization relation of gravity waves. This indicates that the dispersion and polarization relations based on the linear gravity wave theory can be applied extensively in the nonlinear region.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides

  17. Basal-plane stacking faults in non-polar GaN studied by off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lewis Z-Y; Rao, D V Sridhara; Kappers, M J; Humphreys, C J [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Geiger, D, E-mail: ZL249@cam.ac.u [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute for Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-02-01

    We have studied basal-plane stacking faults in a non-polar (11-20) GaN epilayer using high-resolution electron microscopy and off-axis electron holography. The microstructure of the basal-plane stacking faults (BSFs) has been determined to be I{sub 1} type from high-resolution TEM images. High-resolution holograms along the [11-20] zone axis were obtained by off-axis electron holography on a Cs-corrected TEM, providing {approx}2 A spatial resolution in the reconstructed amplitude and phase images. Phase fluctuations across the stacking faults were detected, suggesting the presence of a built-in electric field. The uncertainties in the experiments and their interpretation are discussed.

  18. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow band waves at frequencies approximately 0.2 to 3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency, and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both lefthanded and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  19. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High-Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow-band waves at frequencies approx. 0.2-3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both left-handed and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle, and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  20. Acoustic radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane (quasi)standing waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic radiation force on a 2D elliptical (non-circular) cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of plane quasi-standing and standing waves is derived, based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates. A non-dimensional acoustic radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, is defined in terms of the scattering coefficients that are determined by applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface. A system of linear equations involving a single numerical integration procedure is solved by matrix inversion. Numerical simulations showing the transition from the quasi-standing to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behaviour are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the ellipse semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb (where k is the wavenumber), without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. It is found that at high kb values > 1, the radiation force per length with broadside incidence is larger, whereas the opposite situation occurs in the long-wavelength limit (i.e., kb < 1). The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation of elliptical cylinders, the acoustic stabilization of liquid columns in a host medium, acousto-fluidics devices, and other particle dynamics applications to name a few. Moreover, the formalism presented here may be effectively applied to compute the acoustic radiation force on other 2D surfaces of arbitrary shape such as super-ellipses, Chebyshev cylindrical particles, or other non-circular geometries

  1. Acoustic radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane (quasi)standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-12-01

    The acoustic radiation force on a 2D elliptical (non-circular) cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of plane quasi-standing and standing waves is derived, based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates. A non-dimensional acoustic radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, is defined in terms of the scattering coefficients that are determined by applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface. A system of linear equations involving a single numerical integration procedure is solved by matrix inversion. Numerical simulations showing the transition from the quasi-standing to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behaviour are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the ellipse semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb (where k is the wavenumber), without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. It is found that at high kb values > 1, the radiation force per length with broadside incidence is larger, whereas the opposite situation occurs in the long-wavelength limit (i.e., kb acoustic levitation of elliptical cylinders, the acoustic stabilization of liquid columns in a host medium, acousto-fluidics devices, and other particle dynamics applications to name a few. Moreover, the formalism presented here may be effectively applied to compute the acoustic radiation force on other 2D surfaces of arbitrary shape such as super-ellipses, Chebyshev cylindrical particles, or other non-circular geometries.

  2. Acoustic radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane (quasi)standing waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitri, F. G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology–ETC, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    The acoustic radiation force on a 2D elliptical (non-circular) cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of plane quasi-standing and standing waves is derived, based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates. A non-dimensional acoustic radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, is defined in terms of the scattering coefficients that are determined by applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface. A system of linear equations involving a single numerical integration procedure is solved by matrix inversion. Numerical simulations showing the transition from the quasi-standing to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behaviour are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the ellipse semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb (where k is the wavenumber), without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. It is found that at high kb values > 1, the radiation force per length with broadside incidence is larger, whereas the opposite situation occurs in the long-wavelength limit (i.e., kb < 1). The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation of elliptical cylinders, the acoustic stabilization of liquid columns in a host medium, acousto-fluidics devices, and other particle dynamics applications to name a few. Moreover, the formalism presented here may be effectively applied to compute the acoustic radiation force on other 2D surfaces of arbitrary shape such as super-ellipses, Chebyshev cylindrical particles, or other non-circular geometries.

  3. Back radiation suppression through a semi-transparent round ground plane for a mm-Wave monopole antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill; Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    Omnidirectional radiation pattern with minimum backward radiation is highly desirable for millimeter-wave telecommunication antennas. In this work, we propose a round, semitransparent ground plane of radius 0.8λ with uniform impedance distribution that can reduce the back radiation of a monopole antenna by 8.8 dB as compared with a similar sized metallic ground plane. The value of uniform impedance is obtained through analytical optimization by using asymptotic expressions in the Kirchhoff approximation of the radiation pattern of a toroidal wave scattered by a round semitransparent ground plane. The semitransparent ground plane has been realized using a low-cost carbon paste on a Kapton film. Experimental results match closely with those of simulations and validate the overall concept.

  4. Back radiation suppression through a semi-transparent round ground plane for a mm-Wave monopole antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill

    2017-10-25

    Omnidirectional radiation pattern with minimum backward radiation is highly desirable for millimeter-wave telecommunication antennas. In this work, we propose a round, semitransparent ground plane of radius 0.8λ with uniform impedance distribution that can reduce the back radiation of a monopole antenna by 8.8 dB as compared with a similar sized metallic ground plane. The value of uniform impedance is obtained through analytical optimization by using asymptotic expressions in the Kirchhoff approximation of the radiation pattern of a toroidal wave scattered by a round semitransparent ground plane. The semitransparent ground plane has been realized using a low-cost carbon paste on a Kapton film. Experimental results match closely with those of simulations and validate the overall concept.

  5. DFT LCAO and plane wave calculations of SrZrO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evarestov, R.A.; Bandura, A.V.; Alexandrov, V.E.; Kotomin, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the density functional (DFT) LCAO and plane wave (PW) calculations of the electronic and structural properties of four known SrZrO 3 phases (Pm3m, I4/mcm, Cmcm and Pbnm) are presented and discussed. The calculated unit cell energies and relative stability of these phases agree well with the experimental sequence of SrZrO 3 phases as the temperature increases. The lattice structure parameters optimized in the PW calculations for all four phases are in good agreement with the experimental neutron diffraction data. The LCAO and PW results for the electronic structure, density of states and chemical bonding in the cubic phase (Pm3m) are discussed in detail and compared with the results of previous PW calculations. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. DFT LCAO and plane wave calculations of SrZrO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evarestov, R.A.; Bandura, A.V.; Alexandrov, V.E. [Department of Quantum Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, 26 Universitetskiy Prospekt, Stary Peterhof 198504 (Russian Federation); Kotomin, E.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    The results of the density functional (DFT) LCAO and plane wave (PW) calculations of the electronic and structural properties of four known SrZrO{sub 3} phases (Pm3m, I4/mcm, Cmcm and Pbnm) are presented and discussed. The calculated unit cell energies and relative stability of these phases agree well with the experimental sequence of SrZrO{sub 3} phases as the temperature increases. The lattice structure parameters optimized in the PW calculations for all four phases are in good agreement with the experimental neutron diffraction data. The LCAO and PW results for the electronic structure, density of states and chemical bonding in the cubic phase (Pm3m) are discussed in detail and compared with the results of previous PW calculations. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Kinetic theory of electromagnetic plane wave obliquely incident on bounded plasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, J. R.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Smolyakov, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic plane waves obliquely incident on a warm bounded plasma slab of finite length L are studied by solving the coupled Vlasov-Maxwell set of equations. It is shown that the solution can be greatly simplified in the limit where thermal effects are most important by expanding in small parameters and introducing self-similar variables. These solutions reveal that the coupling of thermal effects with the angle of incidence is negligible in the region of bounce resonance and anomalous skin effect. In the region of the anomalous skin effect, the heating is shown to scale linearly with the anomalous skin depth δ a when δ a a >>L, the heating is shown to decay with 1/δ a 3 . The transmission is found to be exponentially larger than that predicted from a local theory in the appropriate region of the anomalous skin effect.

  8. Quartic scaling MP2 for solids: A highly parallelized algorithm in the plane wave basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Tobias; Ramberger, Benjamin; Kresse, Georg

    2017-03-01

    We present a low-complexity algorithm to calculate the correlation energy of periodic systems in second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory. In contrast to previous approximation-free MP2 codes, our implementation possesses a quartic scaling, O ( N 4 ) , with respect to the system size N and offers an almost ideal parallelization efficiency. The general issue that the correlation energy converges slowly with the number of basis functions is eased by an internal basis set extrapolation. The key concept to reduce the scaling is to eliminate all summations over virtual orbitals which can be elegantly achieved in the Laplace transformed MP2 formulation using plane wave basis sets and fast Fourier transforms. Analogously, this approach could allow us to calculate second order screened exchange as well as particle-hole ladder diagrams with a similar low complexity. Hence, the presented method can be considered as a step towards systematically improved correlation energies.

  9. Performance evaluation of compounding and directional beamforming techniques for carotid strain imaging using plane wave transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    2014-01-01

    Carotid strain imaging in 3D is not possible with conventional focused imaging, because the frame rate is too low. Plane wave ultrasound provides sufficiently high frame rates, albeit at t he cost of image quality, especially in the off - axis direction due to the lack of focusing . Multiple...... techniques have been developed to cope with the low off - axis image quality when performing 2D (and in future 3D) motion estimation: cross correlation with directional beamforming (with or without RF (coherent) compounding) and displacement compounding. This study compares the precision of these techniques...... with RF compounding and 2D displacement compounding with θ = ~20 ° per formed equally and best with a relative root - mean - squared error of ~2% with respect to the analytical solution . The mean and standard deviation of the estimated motion direction for 2D displacement compounding with θ = 20 ° was 0...

  10. Integrable open spin chain in Super Yang-Mills and the plane-wave/SYM duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Wang Xiaojun; Wu Yongshi

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the integrable structures in an N = 2 superconfomal Sp(N) Yang-Mills theory with matter, which is dual to an open+closed string system. We restrict ourselves to the BMN operators that correspond to free string states. In the closed string sector, an integrable structure is inherited from its parent theory, N = 4 SYM. For the open string sector, the planar one-loop mixing matrix for gauge invariant holomorphic operators is identified with the Hamiltonian of an integrable SU(3) open spin chain. Using the K-matrix formalism we identify the integrable open-chain boundary conditions that correspond to string boundary conditions. The solutions to the algebraic Bethe ansatz equations (ABAE) with a few impurities are shown to recover the anomalous dimensions that exactly match the spectrum of free open string in the plane-wave background. We also discuss the properties of the solutions of ABAE beyond the BMN regime. (author)

  11. Progress in parallel implementation of the multilevel plane wave time domain algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2013-07-01

    The computational complexity and memory requirements of classical schemes for evaluating transient electromagnetic fields produced by Ns dipoles active for Nt time steps scale as O(NtN s 2) and O(Ns 2), respectively. The multilevel plane wave time domain (PWTD) algorithm [A.A. Ergin et al., Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE, vol. 41, pp. 39-52, 1999], viz. the extension of the frequency domain fast multipole method (FMM) to the time domain, reduces the above costs to O(NtNslog2Ns) and O(Ns α) with α = 1.5 for surface current distributions and α = 4/3 for volumetric ones. Its favorable computational and memory costs notwithstanding, serial implementations of the PWTD scheme unfortunately remain somewhat limited in scope and ill-suited to tackle complex real-world scattering problems, and parallel implementations are called for. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Fast plane wave density functional theory molecular dynamics calculations on multi-GPU machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Weile; Fu, Jiyun; Cao, Zongyan; Wang, Long; Chi, Xuebin; Gao, Weiguo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2013-01-01

    Plane wave pseudopotential (PWP) density functional theory (DFT) calculation is the most widely used method for material simulations, but its absolute speed stagnated due to the inability to use large scale CPU based computers. By a drastic redesign of the algorithm, and moving all the major computation parts into GPU, we have reached a speed of 12 s per molecular dynamics (MD) step for a 512 atom system using 256 GPU cards. This is about 20 times faster than the CPU version of the code regardless of the number of CPU cores used. Our tests and analysis on different GPU platforms and configurations shed lights on the optimal GPU deployments for PWP-DFT calculations. An 1800 step MD simulation is used to study the liquid phase properties of GaInP

  13. Spin effects in nonlinear Compton scattering in a plane-wave laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boca, Madalina; Dinu, Victor; Florescu, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the electron angular and energy distribution in the non-linear Compton effect in a finite plane-wave laser pulse. We first present analytical and numerical results for unpolarized electrons (described by a Volkov solution of the Dirac equation), in comparison with those corresponding to a spinless particle (obeying the Klein–Gordon equation). Then, in the spin 1/2 case, we include results for the spin flip probability. The regime in which the spin effects are negligible, i.e. the results for the unpolarized spin 1/2 particle coincide practically with those for the spinless particle, is the same as the regime in which the emitted radiation is well described by classical electrodynamics.

  14. Acoustically mediated long-range interaction among multiple spherical particles exposed to a plane standing wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shenwei; Qiu, Chunyin; Wang, Mudi; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the acoustically mediated interaction forces among multiple well-separated spherical particles trapped in the same node or antinode plane of a standing wave. An analytical expression of the acoustic interaction force is derived, which is accurate even for the particles beyond the Rayleigh limit. Interestingly, the multi-particle system can be decomposed into a series of independent two-particle systems described by pairwise interactions. Each pairwise interaction is a long-range interaction, as characterized by a soft oscillatory attenuation (at the power exponent of n  = −1 or −2). The vector additivity of the acoustic interaction force, which is not well expected considering the nonlinear nature of the acoustic radiation force, is greatly useful for exploring a system consisting of a large number of particles. The capability of self-organizing a big particle cluster can be anticipated through such acoustically controllable long-range interaction. (paper)

  15. Fast Plane Wave 2-D Vector Flow Imaging Using Transverse Oscillation and Directional Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2017-01-01

    load, which is 4.6 times larger than for TO and seven times smaller than for conventional DB. Steered plane wave transmissions are employed for high frame rate imaging, and parabolic flow with a peak velocity of 0.5 m/s is simulated in straight vessels at beamto- flow angles from 45 to 90. The TO......-DB method estimates the angle with a bias and standard deviation (SD) less than 2, and the SD of the velocity magnitude is less than 2%. When using only TO, the SD of the angle ranges from 2 to 17 and for the velocity magnitude up to 7%. Bias of the velocity magnitude is within 2% for TO and slightly larger...

  16. Accuracy and Precision of a Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging Method in the Healthy Carotid Artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study described here was to investigate the accuracy and precision of a plane wave 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method in laminar and complex blood flow conditions in the healthy carotid artery. The approach was to study (i) the accuracy for complex flow by comparing...... of laminar flow in vivo. The precision in vivo was calculated as the mean standard deviation (SD) of estimates aligned to the heart cycle and was highest in the center of the common carotid artery (SD = 3.6% for velocity magnitudes and 4.5° for angles) and lowest in the external branch and for vortices (SD...... the velocity field from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to VFI estimates obtained from the scan of an anthropomorphic flow phantom and from an in vivo scan; (ii) the accuracy for laminar unidirectional flow in vivo by comparing peak systolic velocities from VFI with magnetic resonance...

  17. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of Spectralon white reflectance standard illuminated by incoherent unpolarized and plane-polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Anak; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øvynd; Zhao, Lu; Stamnes, Jakob J; Kildemo, Morten

    2011-06-01

    A Lambert surface would appear equally bright from all observation directions regardless of the illumination direction. However, the reflection from a randomly scattering object generally has directional variation, which can be described in terms of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). We measured the BRDF of a Spectralon white reflectance standard for incoherent illumination at 405 and 680 nm with unpolarized and plane-polarized light from different directions of incidence. Our measurements show deviations of the BRDF for the Spectralon white reflectance standard from that of a Lambertian reflector that depend both on the angle of incidence and the polarization states of the incident light and detected light. The non-Lambertian reflection characteristics were found to increase more toward the direction of specular reflection as the angle of incidence gets larger.

  18. Plane-wave spectrum approach for the calculation of electromagnetic absorption under near-field exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, I.; Gandhi, O.P.; Hagmann, M.J.; Riazi, A.

    1980-01-01

    The exposure of humans to electromagnetic near fields has not been sufficiently emphasized by researcher. We have used the plane-wave-spectrum approach to evaluate the electromagnetic field and determine the energy deposited in a lossy, homogeneous, semi-infinite slab placed in the near field of a source leaking radiation. Values of the fields and absorbed energy in the target are obtained by vector summation of the contributions of all the plane waves into which the prescribed field is decomposed. Use of a fast Fourier transform algorithm contributes to the high efficiency of the computations. The numerical results show that, for field distributions that are nearly constant over a physical extent of at least a free-space wavelength, the energy coupled into the target is approximately equal to the resulting from plane-wave exposed

  19. Polarization Insensitive Wavelength Conversion Based on Four-Wave Mixing in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements.......We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements....

  20. Spin-wave propagation and spin-polarized electron transport in single-crystal iron films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladii, O.; Halley, D.; Henry, Y.; Bailleul, M.

    2017-11-01

    The techniques of propagating spin-wave spectroscopy and current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift are applied to a 20-nm-thick Fe/MgO(001) film. The magnetic parameters extracted from the position of the spin-wave resonance peaks are very close to those tabulated for bulk iron. From the zero-current propagating wave forms, a group velocity of 4 km/s and an attenuation length of about 6 μ m are extracted for 1.6-μ m -wavelength spin wave at 18 GHz. From the measured current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift, we extract a surprisingly high degree of spin polarization of the current of 83 % , which constitutes the main finding of this work. This set of results makes single-crystalline iron a promising candidate for building devices utilizing high-frequency spin waves and spin-polarized currents.

  1. Propagation of plane waves in a rotating magneto-thermoelastic fiber-reinforced medium under G-N theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is concernedwith the possibility of plane wave propagation in a rotating elastic medium under the action of magnetic and thermal fields. The material is assumed to be fibre-reinforced with increased stiffness, strength and load bearing capacity. Green and Nagdhi’s concepts of generalized thermoelastic models II and III have been followed in the governing equations expressed in tensor notation. The effects of various parameters of the applied fields on the plane wave velocity have been shown graphically.

  2. Neoclassical Solution of Transient Interaction of Plane Acoustic Waves with a Spherical Elastic Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Huang

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed solution to the transient interaction of plane acoustic waves with a spherical elastic shell was obtained more than a quarter of a century ago based on the classical separation of variables, series expansion, and Laplace transform techniques. An eight-term summation of the time history series was sufficient for the convergence of the shell deflection and strain, and to a lesser degree, the shell velocity. Since then, the results have been used routinely for validation of solution techniques and computer methods for the evaluation of underwater explosion response of submerged structures. By utilizing modern algorithms and exploiting recent advances of computer capacities and floating point mathematics, sufficient terms of the inverse Laplace transform series solution can now be accurately computed. Together with the application of the Cesaro summation using up to 70 terms of the series, two primary deficiencies of the previous solution are now remedied: meaningful time histories of higher time derivative data such as acceleration and pressure are now generated using a sufficient number of terms in the series; and uniform convergence around the discontinuous step wave front is now obtained, completely eradicating spurious oscillations due to the Gibbs' phenomenon. New results of time histories of response items of interest are presented.

  3. ABINIT: Plane-Wave-Based Density-Functional Theory on High Performance Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Marc

    2014-03-01

    For several years, a continuous effort has been produced to adapt electronic structure codes based on Density-Functional Theory to the future computing architectures. Among these codes, ABINIT is based on a plane-wave description of the wave functions which allows to treat systems of any kind. Porting such a code on petascale architectures pose difficulties related to the many-body nature of the DFT equations. To improve the performances of ABINIT - especially for what concerns standard LDA/GGA ground-state and response-function calculations - several strategies have been followed: A full multi-level parallelisation MPI scheme has been implemented, exploiting all possible levels and distributing both computation and memory. It allows to increase the number of distributed processes and could not be achieved without a strong restructuring of the code. The core algorithm used to solve the eigen problem (``Locally Optimal Blocked Congugate Gradient''), a Blocked-Davidson-like algorithm, is based on a distribution of processes combining plane-waves and bands. In addition to the distributed memory parallelization, a full hybrid scheme has been implemented, using standard shared-memory directives (openMP/openACC) or porting some comsuming code sections to Graphics Processing Units (GPU). As no simple performance model exists, the complexity of use has been increased; the code efficiency strongly depends on the distribution of processes among the numerous levels. ABINIT is able to predict the performances of several process distributions and automatically choose the most favourable one. On the other hand, a big effort has been carried out to analyse the performances of the code on petascale architectures, showing which sections of codes have to be improved; they all are related to Matrix Algebra (diagonalisation, orthogonalisation). The different strategies employed to improve the code scalability will be described. They are based on an exploration of new diagonalization

  4. Magnetoelastic plane waves in rotating media in thermoelasticity of type II (G-N model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Roychoudhuri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the propagation of time-harmonic plane waves in an infinite, conducting, thermoelastic solid permeated by a uniform primary external magnetic field when the entire medium is rotating with a uniform angular velocity. The thermoelasticity theory of type II (G-N model (1993 is used to study the propagation of waves. A more general dispersion equation is derived to determine the effects of rotation, thermal parameters, characteristic of the medium, and the external magnetic field. If the primary magnetic field has a transverse component, it is observed that the longitudinal and transverse motions are linked together. For low frequency (χ≪1, χ being the ratio of the wave frequency to some standard frequency ω∗, the rotation and the thermal field have no effect on the phase velocity to the first order of χ and then this corresponds to only one slow wave influenced by the electromagnetic field only. But to the second order of χ, the phase velocity, attenuation coefficient, and the specific energy loss are affected by rotation and depend on the thermal parameters cT, cT being the nondimensional thermal wave speed of G-N theory, and the thermoelastic coupling εT, the electromagnetic parameters εH, and the transverse magnetic field RH. Also for large frequency, rotation and thermal field have no effect on the phase velocity, which is independent of primary magnetic field to the first order of (1/χ (χ≫1, and the specific energy loss is a constant, independent of any field parameter. However, to the second order of (1/χ, rotation does exert influence on both the phase velocity and the attenuation factor, and the specific energy loss is affected by rotation and depends on the thermal parameters cT and εT, electromagnetic parameter εH, and the transverse magnetic field RH, whereas the specific energy loss is independent of any field parameters to the first order of (1/χ.

  5. Vector wave diffraction pattern of slits masked by polarizing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This calls for a systematic study of diffraction properties of different apertures using polarization-sensitive devices. In the present paper, we have studied the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of slits masked by different kinds of polarizing devices which introduce a phase difference between the two orthogonal components of the ...

  6. Bistable polarization switching in a continuous wave ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawandy, N. M.; Afzal, R. Sohrab

    1988-01-01

    Bistability in the output power, polarization state, and mode volume of an argon-ion laser pumped single mode ruby laser at 6943 A has been observed. The laser operates in a radially confined mode which exhibits hysteresis and bistability only when the pump polarization is parallel to the c-axis.

  7. Reconfigurable micromachined antenna with polarization diversity for mm-wave applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, Mai O.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a novel MEMS antenna with reconfigurable polarization operating at 60 GHz is presented. This antenna can provide vertical linear polarization, horizontal linear polarization, left hand circular polarization (LHCP), or right hand circular polarization (RHCP) based on the states of the switches present in the feeding network. The proposed antenna is characterized by having its radiating elements isolated from the feeding circuitry via a ground plane without the need for wafer bonding or hybrid integration. Such advantage results in good electric performance while maintains low fabrication cost. The antenna parameters are optimized using HFSS and the results are cross-validated using CST. The good agreement between the two simulators, confirms that the proposed antenna enjoys attractive radiation characteristics for all polarization senses. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Reconfigurable micromachined antenna with polarization diversity for mm-wave applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, Mai O.; Soliman, Ezzeldin A.; Sedky, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel MEMS antenna with reconfigurable polarization operating at 60 GHz is presented. This antenna can provide vertical linear polarization, horizontal linear polarization, left hand circular polarization (LHCP), or right hand circular polarization (RHCP) based on the states of the switches present in the feeding network. The proposed antenna is characterized by having its radiating elements isolated from the feeding circuitry via a ground plane without the need for wafer bonding or hybrid integration. Such advantage results in good electric performance while maintains low fabrication cost. The antenna parameters are optimized using HFSS and the results are cross-validated using CST. The good agreement between the two simulators, confirms that the proposed antenna enjoys attractive radiation characteristics for all polarization senses. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Anomalous incident-angle and elliptical-polarization rotation of an elastically refracted P-wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Lin; Fa, Yuxiao; Zhang, Yandong; Ding, Pengfei; Gong, Jiamin; Li, Guohui; Li, Lijun; Tang, Shaojie; Zhao, Meishan

    2015-08-01

    We report a newly discovered anomalous incident-angle of an elastically refracted P-wave, arising from a P-wave impinging on an interface between two VTI media with strong anisotropy. This anomalous incident-angle is found to be located in the post-critical incident-angle region corresponding to a refracted P-wave. Invoking Snell’s law for a refracted P-wave provides two distinctive solutions before and after the anomalous incident-angle. For an inhomogeneously refracted and elliptically polarized P-wave at the anomalous incident-angle, its rotational direction experiences an acute variation, from left-hand elliptical to right-hand elliptical polarization. The new findings provide us an enhanced understanding of acoustical-wave scattering and lead potentially to widespread and novel applications.

  10. The influence of air-filled structures on wave propagation and beam formation of a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) in horizontal and vertical planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhongchang; Zhang, Yu; Thornton, Steven W; Li, Songhai; Dong, Jianchen

    2017-10-01

    The wave propagation, sound field, and transmission beam pattern of a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) were investigated in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Results suggested that the signals obtained at both planes were similarly characterized with a high peak frequency and a relatively narrow bandwidth, close to the ones recorded from live animals. The sound beam measured outside the head in the vertical plane was narrower than that of the horizontal one. Cases with different combinations of air-filled structures in both planes were used to study the respective roles in controlling wave propagation and beam formation. The wave propagations and beam patterns in the horizontal and vertical planes elucidated the important reflection effect of the spermaceti and vocal chambers on sound waves, which was highly significant in forming intensive forward sound beams. The air-filled structures, the forehead soft tissues and skull structures formed wave guides in these two planes for emitted sounds to propagate forward.

  11. Propagation of magnetostatic spin waves in an yttrium iron garnet film for out-of-plane magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Wonbae; Lim, Jinho; Trossman, Jonathan; Tsai, C. C.; Ketterson, John B.

    2018-06-01

    We have observed the propagation of spin waves across a thin yttrium iron garnet film on (1 1 1) gadolinium gallium garnet for magnetic fields inclined with respect to the film plane. Two principle planes were studied: that for H in the plane defined by the wave vector k and the plane normal, n, with limiting forms corresponding to the Backward Volume and Forward Volume modes, and that for H in the plane perpendicular to k, with limiting forms corresponding to the Damon-Eshbach and Forward Volume modes. By exciting the wave at one edge of the film and observing the field dependence of the phase of the received signal at the opposing edge we determined the frequency vs. wavevector relation, ω = ω (k), of various propagating modes in the film. Avoided crossings are observed in the Damon-Eshbach and Forward Volume regimes when the propagating mode intersects the higher, exchange split, volume modes, leading to an extinction of the propagating mode; analysis of the resulting behavior allows a determination of the exchange parameter. The experimental results are compared with theoretical simulations.

  12. Modifications of Surface Wave Discrimination Filter Based on the Polarization Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutlu, Y. A.; Sayil, N.

    2007-01-01

    The polarization properties of Love and Rayleigh waves are utilized to design Surface Wave Discrimination Filter. Filtering process for a selected window length and moving interval is that the amplitudes at each frequency on vertical, radial and transverse components are weighted according to how closely the theoretical three-dimensional particle motion pattern. In this study, weighted functions have been modified for epicenteral distances smaller than about 2200 km to corresponding with angular distribution of polarization parameters obtained from computed synthetic seismograms. Modified Surface Wave Discrimination Filter has been tested on synthetic seismograms and digital three-components broadband records at Trabzon earthquake station

  13. A semi-analytical approach towards plane wave analysis of local resonance metamaterials using a multiscale enriched continuum description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sridhar, A.; Kouznetsova, V.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a novel multiscale semi-analytical technique for the acoustic plane wave analysis of (negative) dynamic mass density type local resonance metamaterials with complex micro-structural geometry. A two step solution strategy is adopted, in which the unit cell problem at the

  14. A projection-free method for representing plane-wave DFT results in an atom-centered basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnington, Benjamin D.; Schmidt, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) is a powerful tool for gaining accurate, atomic level insight into bulk and surface structures. Yet, the delocalized nature of the plane wave basis set hinders the application of many powerful post-computation analysis approaches, many of which rely on localized atom-centered basis sets. Traditionally, this gap has been bridged via projection-based techniques from a plane wave to atom-centered basis. We instead propose an alternative projection-free approach utilizing direct calculation of matrix elements of the converged plane wave DFT Hamiltonian in an atom-centered basis. This projection-free approach yields a number of compelling advantages, including strict orthonormality of the resulting bands without artificial band mixing and access to the Hamiltonian matrix elements, while faithfully preserving the underlying DFT band structure. The resulting atomic orbital representation of the Kohn-Sham wavefunction and Hamiltonian provides a gateway to a wide variety of analysis approaches. We demonstrate the utility of the approach for a diverse set of chemical systems and example analysis approaches

  15. Band offsets of non-polar A-plane GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterostructures measured by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ling; Zhu, Qin Sheng; Yang, Shao Yan; Liu, Gui Peng; Li, Hui Jie; Wei, Hong Yuan; Jiao, Chun Mei; Liu, Shu Man; Wang, Zhan Guo; Zhou, Xiao Wei; Mao, Wei; Hao, Yue; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The band offsets of non-polar A-plane GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions are measured by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A large forward-backward asymmetry is observed in the non-polar GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions. The valence-band offsets in the non-polar A-plane GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions are determined to be 1.33 ± 0.16 and 0.73 ± 0.16 eV, respectively. The large valence-band offset difference of 0.6 eV between the non-polar GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions is considered to be due to piezoelectric strain effect in the non-polar heterojunction overlayers.

  16. A MODIFIED H-α PLANE FOR THE EXTRACTION OF SCATTERING MECHANISMS FROM DUAL CIRCULAR POLARIZATION SAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghods

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloude–Pottier entropy and α-angle are two important parameters for the interpretation of fully polarimetric data. They indicate the randomness of the polarisation of the back scattered waves and the scattering mechanisms of the targets respectively. For fully polarimetric data the H-α plane is presented which using the borders of it the full polarimetric data can be classified into 8 different physical scattering mechanisms. In recent years new approaches have proposed H-α classification spaces by mapping the points which are belong to each PSMs of FP data into the space of H/α for CP data and approximate borders were extracted for the classification purpose. In this paper a novel approach for defining H/α classification plane has been presented which maximizes the producer’s accuracy. The optimum borders have been found and the results of classification using the new plane have been compared with the rival method and the superiority of the new proposed method has been revealed.

  17. Reflection and Transmission of Plane Electromagnetic Waves by a Geologic Layer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Electric field and magnetic field reflection and transmission responses generated by a plane wave normally incident onto a finite - thickness geologic layer are mathematically derived and numerically evaluated. A thin layer with enhanced electric current conductivity and/or magnetic permeability is a reasonable geophysical representation of a hydraulic fracture inject ed with a high - contrast proppant pack. Both theory and numerics indicate that backward - and forward - scattered electromagnetic wavefields are potentially observable in a field experiment, despite the extreme thinness of a fracture compared to a typical low - frequency electromagnetic wavelength. The First Born Approximation (FBA) representation of layer scattering, significant for inversion studies, is shown to be accurate for a thin layer with mild medium parameter (i.e., conductivity, permeability, and per mittivity) contrasts with the surrounding homogeneous wholespace. However, FBA scattering theory breaks down for thick layers and strong parameter contrasts. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. This research is conducted under the auspices of CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) SC11/01780.00 between Carbo Ceramics Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories. The author acknowledges former Carbo R&D Vic e - President Mr. Chad Cannan and former SNL Geophysics Department manage r Ms. Amy Halloran for their interest i n and support of this work. Technical discussions with Project Manager and Principal Investigator Dr. Chester J. Weiss of the SNL Geophysics Department greatly benefited this work. Dr. Lewis C. Bartel, formerly with S NL and presently a consultant to Carbo Ceramics, provided many useful and intuitive insights, and

  18. Rac1 regulates neuronal polarization through the WAVE complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahirovic, Sabina; Hellal, Farida; Neukirchen, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    the physiological function of Rac1 in neuronal development, we have generated a conditional knock-out mouse, in which Rac1 is ablated in the whole brain. Rac1-deficient cerebellar granule neurons, which do not express other Rac isoforms, showed impaired neuronal migration and axon formation both in vivo...... and in vitro. In addition, Rac1 ablation disrupts lamellipodia formation in growth cones. The analysis of Rac1 effectors revealed the absence of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) complex from the plasma membrane of knock-out growth cones. Loss of WAVE...... function inhibited axon growth, whereas overexpression of a membrane-tethered WAVE mutant partially rescued axon growth in Rac1-knock-out neurons. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of the WAVE complex effector Arp2/3 also reduced axon growth. We propose that Rac1 recruits the WAVE complex...

  19. Trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane during surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkrtichyan, G. S., E-mail: hay-13@mail.ru [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane in the course of their surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave propagating in space plasma across the external magnetic field are analyzed. Electrons with large longitudinal momenta are trapped immediately if the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory is positive. For negative values of Ψ(0), no electrons trapping by the wave is observed over the available computational times. According to numerical calculations, the trajectories of trapped particles in the phase plane have a singular point of the stable focus type and the behavior of the trajectory corresponds to the motion in a complex nonstationary effective potential well. For some initial phases, electrons are confined in the region of the accelerating electric field for relatively short time, the energy gain being about 50–130% and more.

  20. Noise characteristics analysis of short wave infrared InGaAs focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunlei; Li, Xue; Yang, Bo; Huang, Songlei; Shao, Xiumei; Zhang, Yaguang; Gong, Haimei

    2017-09-01

    The increasing application of InGaAs short wave infrared (SWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) in low light level imaging requires ultra-low noise FPAs. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of FPA noise, and point out that both dark current and detector capacitance strongly affect the FPA noise. The impact of dark current and detector capacitance on FPA noise is compared in different situations. In order to obtain low noise performance FPAs, the demand for reducing detector capacitance is higher especially when pixel pitch is smaller, integration time is shorter, and integration capacitance is larger. Several InGaAs FPAs were measured and analyzed, the experiments' results could be well fitted to the calculated results. The study found that the major contributor of FPA noise is coupled noise with shorter integration time. The influence of detector capacitance on FPA noise is more significant than that of dark current. To investigate the effect of detector performance on FPA noise, two kinds of photodiodes with different concentration of the absorption layer were fabricated. The detectors' performance and noise characteristics were measured and analyzed, the results are consistent with that of theoretical analysis.

  1. High Intensity Compton Scattering in a strong plane wave field of general form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartin, A.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Hamburg Univ.

    2011-06-01

    Photon emission by an electron embedded in a strong external field of general form is studied theoretically. The external field considered is a plane wave electromagnetic field of any number of components, period and polarisation. Exact, Volkov solutions of the Dirac equation with the 4-potential of the general external field are obtained. The photon emission is considered in the usual perturbation theory using the Volkov solutions to represent the electron. An expression for the transition probability of this process is obtained after the usual spin and polarisation sums, trace calculation and phase space integration. The final transition probability in the general case contains a single sum over contributions from external field photons, an integration over one of the phase space components and the Fourier transforms of the Volkov phases. The validity of the general expression is established by considering specific external fields. Known specific analytic forms of the transition probability are obtained after substitution of the 4-potential for a circularly polarised and constant crossed external field. As an example usage of the general result for the transition probability, the case of two circularly polarised external fields separated by a phase difference is studied both analytically and numerically. (orig.)

  2. Inertia–gravity wave radiation from the elliptical vortex in the f -plane shallow water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko, E-mail: nori@phys-h.keio.ac.jp [Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Department of Physics, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Kouhoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Inertia–gravity wave (IGW) radiation from the elliptical vortex is investigated in the f -plane shallow water system. The far field of IGW is analytically derived for the case of an almost circular Kirchhoff vortex with a small aspect ratio. Cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry appears at finite values of the Rossby number (Ro) caused by the source originating in the Coriolis acceleration. While the intensity of IGWs from the cyclone monotonically decreases as f increases, that from the anticyclone increases as f increases for relatively smaller f and has a local maximum at intermediate f . A numerical experiment is conducted on a model using a spectral method in an unbounded domain. The numerical results agree quite well with the analytical ones for elliptical vortices with small aspect ratios, implying that the derived analytical forms are useful for the verification of the numerical model. For elliptical vortices with larger aspect ratios, however, significant deviation from the analytical estimates appears. The intensity of IGWs radiated in the numerical simulation is larger than that estimated analytically. The reason is that the source of IGWs is amplified during the time evolution because the shape of the vortex changes from ideal ellipse to elongated with filaments. Nevertheless, cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry similar to the analytical estimate appears in all the range of aspect ratios, suggesting that this asymmetry is a robust feature. (paper)

  3. Beam Dynamics a Integrated Plane Wave Transformer Photoinjector at S- and X- band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, J. B.; Ding, X.; Pellegrini, X.; Serafini, L.; Yu, D.

    1997-05-01

    The beam dynamics of an integrated S-band rf photoinjector based on the plane wave transformer concept, proposed as part of an SBIR collaboration between UCLA and DULY Research, are studied. The intial design, which calls for an 11.5 cell structure run at a peak on-axis accelerating field of 60 MV/m, and has a compact solenoid around the intial 2.5 cells, is based on the recently developed theory of emittance compensation(L.Serafini, and J.B. Rosenzweig, submitted to Physical Review E.). It calls for matching the beam onto an envelope which is a generalized Brillouin flow, producing a beam which diminishes in transverse size as the square root of the accelerating beam energy. This condition produces a minimized emittance, which for the S-band case is 1 mm-rad at at charge of 1 nC. This design is also scaled to produce nearly identical performance at X-band, giving an injector appropriate to running an FEL at the SLAC NLCTA. It is noted that these designs are insensitive to rf emittance increase, allowign a choice of injection phase, and the option to compress the emitted pulse.

  4. Four-dimensional parameter estimation of plane waves using swarming intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman Fawad; Munir Fahad; Khan Zafar Ullah; Qureshi Ijaz Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient approach for four-dimensional (4D) parameter estimation of plane waves impinging on a 2-L shape array. The 4D parameters include amplitude, frequency and the two-dimensional (2D) direction of arrival, namely, azimuth and elevation angles. The proposed approach is based on memetic computation, in which the global optimizer, particle swarm optimization is hybridized with a rapid local search technique, pattern search. For this purpose, a new multi-objective fitness function is used. This fitness function is the combination of mean square error and the correlation between the normalized desired and estimated vectors. The proposed hybrid scheme is not only compared with individual performances of particle swarm optimization and pattern search, but also with the performance of the hybrid genetic algorithm and that of the traditional approach. A large number of Monte—Carlo simulations are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed scheme. It gives promising results in terms of estimation accuracy, convergence rate, proximity effect and robustness against noise. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  5. An Enhanced Plane Wave Expansion Method to Solve Piezoelectric Phononic Crystal with Resonant Shunting Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Lian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced plane wave expansion (PWE method is proposed to solve piezoelectric phononic crystal (PPC connected with resonant shunting circuits (PPC-C, which is named as PWE-PPC-C. The resonant shunting circuits can not only bring about the locally resonant (LR band gap for the PPC-C but also conveniently tune frequency and bandwidth of band gaps through adjusting circuit parameters. However, thus far, more than one-dimensional PPC-C has been studied just by Finite Element method. Compared with other methods, the PWE has great advantages in solving more than one-dimensional PC as well as various lattice types. Nevertheless, the conventional PWE cannot accurately solve coupling between the structure and resonant shunting circuits of the PPC-C since only taking one-way coupling from displacements to electrical parameters into consideration. A two-dimensional PPC-C model of orthorhombic lattice is established to demonstrate the whole solving process of PWE-PPC-C. The PWE-PPC-C method is validated by Transfer Matrix method as well as Finite Element method. The dependence of band gaps on circuit parameters has been investigated in detail by PWE-PPC-C. Its advantage in solving various lattice types is further illustrated by calculating the PPC-C of triangular and hexagonal lattices, respectively.

  6. High Intensity Compton Scattering in a strong plane wave field of general form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartin, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Moortgat-Pick, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-06-15

    Photon emission by an electron embedded in a strong external field of general form is studied theoretically. The external field considered is a plane wave electromagnetic field of any number of components, period and polarisation. Exact, Volkov solutions of the Dirac equation with the 4-potential of the general external field are obtained. The photon emission is considered in the usual perturbation theory using the Volkov solutions to represent the electron. An expression for the transition probability of this process is obtained after the usual spin and polarisation sums, trace calculation and phase space integration. The final transition probability in the general case contains a single sum over contributions from external field photons, an integration over one of the phase space components and the Fourier transforms of the Volkov phases. The validity of the general expression is established by considering specific external fields. Known specific analytic forms of the transition probability are obtained after substitution of the 4-potential for a circularly polarised and constant crossed external field. As an example usage of the general result for the transition probability, the case of two circularly polarised external fields separated by a phase difference is studied both analytically and numerically. (orig.)

  7. Markov chain formalism for generalized radiative transfer in a plane-parallel medium, accounting for polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Davis, Anthony B.; Diner, David J.

    2016-11-01

    A Markov chain formalism is developed for computing the transport of polarized radiation according to Generalized Radiative Transfer (GRT) theory, which was developed recently to account for unresolved random fluctuations of scattering particle density and can also be applied to unresolved spectral variability of gaseous absorption as an improvement over the standard correlated-k method. Using Gamma distribution to describe the probability density function of the extinction or absorption coefficient, a shape parameter a that quantifies the variability is introduced, defined as the mean extinction or absorption coefficient squared divided by its variance. It controls the decay rate of a power-law transmission that replaces the usual exponential Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. Exponential transmission, hence classic RT, is recovered when a→∞. The new approach is verified to high accuracy against numerical benchmark results obtained with a custom Monte Carlo method. For a<∞, angular reciprocity is violated to a degree that increases with the spatial variability, as observed for finite portions of real-world cloudy scenes. While the degree of linear polarization in liquid water cloudbows, supernumerary bows, and glories is affected by spatial heterogeneity, the positions in scattering angle of these features are relatively unchanged. As a result, a single-scattering model based on the assumption of subpixel homogeneity can still be used to derive droplet size distributions from polarimetric measurements of extended stratocumulus clouds.

  8. Back Radiation Suppression through a Semitransparent Ground Plane for a mm-Wave Patch Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    by a round semitransparent ground plane. The semitransparent ground plane has been realized using a low-cost carbon paste on a Kapton film. Experimental results match closely with those of simulations and validate the overall concept.

  9. Polarization-resolved characterization of plasmon waves supported by an anisotropic metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samusev, Anton; Mukhin, Ivan; Malureanu, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Optical metasurfaces have great potential to form a platform for manipulation of surface waves. A plethora of advanced surface-wave phenomena such as negative refraction, self-collimation and channeling of 2D waves can be realized through on-demand engineering of dispersion properties of a periodic...... metasurface. In this letter, we report on polarization-resolved measurement of dispersion of plasmon waves supported by an anisotropic metasurface. We demonstrate that a subdiffractive array of strongly coupled resonant plasmonic nanoparticles supports both TE and TM plasmon modes at optical frequencies...... polarization degree of freedom for surface waves, our results open new routes for designing planar on-chip devices for surface photonics....

  10. NONLINEAR REFLECTION PROCESS OF LINEARLY POLARIZED, BROADBAND ALFVÉN WAVES IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoda, M.; Yokoyama, T., E-mail: shoda@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Using one-dimensional numerical simulations, we study the elementary process of Alfvén wave reflection in a uniform medium, including nonlinear effects. In the linear regime, Alfvén wave reflection is triggered only by the inhomogeneity of the medium, whereas in the nonlinear regime, it can occur via nonlinear wave–wave interactions. Such nonlinear reflection (backscattering) is typified by decay instability. In most studies of decay instabilities, the initial condition has been a circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In this study we consider a linearly polarized Alfvén wave, which drives density fluctuations by its magnetic pressure force. For generality, we also assume a broadband wave with a red-noise spectrum. In the data analysis, we decompose the fluctuations into characteristic variables using local eigenvectors, thus revealing the behaviors of the individual modes. Different from the circular-polarization case, we find that the wave steepening produces a new energy channel from the parent Alfvén wave to the backscattered one. Such nonlinear reflection explains the observed increasing energy ratio of the sunward to the anti-sunward Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind with distance against the dynamical alignment effect.

  11. Decay of correlations between cross-polarized electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional random medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnichev, E E

    2018-04-01

    The problem of multiple scattering of polarized light in a two-dimensional medium composed of fiberlike inhomogeneities is studied. The attenuation lengths for the density matrix elements are calculated. For a highly absorbing medium it is found that, as the sample thickness increases, the intensity of waves polarized along the fibers decays faster than the other density matrix elements. With further increase in the sample thickness, the off-diagonal elements which are responsible for correlations between the cross-polarized waves disappear. In the asymptotic limit of very thick samples the scattered light proves to be polarized perpendicular to the fibers. The difference in the attenuation lengths between the density matrix elements results in a nonmonotonic depth dependence of the degree of polarization. In the opposite case of a weakly absorbing medium, the off-diagonal element of the density matrix and, correspondingly, the correlations between the cross-polarized fields are shown to decay faster than the intensity of waves polarized along and perpendicular to the fibers.

  12. Recording polarization gratings with a standing spiral wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Jonathan P.; Serak, Svetlana V.; Hakobyan, Rafik S.; Aleksanyan, Artur K.; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J.; Tabiryan, Nelson V.

    2013-11-01

    A scalable and robust methodology for writing cycloidal modulation patterns of optical axis orientation in photosensitive surface alignment layers is demonstrated. Counterpropagating circularly polarized beams, generated by reflection of the input beam from a cholesteric liquid crystal, direct local surface orientation in a photosensitive surface. Purposely introducing a slight angle between the input beam and the photosensitive surface normal introduces a grating period/orientation that is readily controlled and templated. The resulting cycloidal diffractive waveplates offer utility in technologies requiring diffraction over a broad range of angles/wavelengths. This simple methodology of forming polarization gratings offers advantages over conventional fabrication techniques.

  13. Recording polarization gratings with a standing spiral wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, Jonathan P.; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, 3005 Hobson Way, Suite 1, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Serak, Svetlana V.; Hakobyan, Rafik S.; Aleksanyan, Artur K.; Tabiryan, Nelson V., E-mail: nelson@beamco.com [BEAM Engineering for Advanced Measurements Company, 809 South Orlando Avenue, Suite I, Winter Park, Florida 32789 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    A scalable and robust methodology for writing cycloidal modulation patterns of optical axis orientation in photosensitive surface alignment layers is demonstrated. Counterpropagating circularly polarized beams, generated by reflection of the input beam from a cholesteric liquid crystal, direct local surface orientation in a photosensitive surface. Purposely introducing a slight angle between the input beam and the photosensitive surface normal introduces a grating period/orientation that is readily controlled and templated. The resulting cycloidal diffractive waveplates offer utility in technologies requiring diffraction over a broad range of angles/wavelengths. This simple methodology of forming polarization gratings offers advantages over conventional fabrication techniques.

  14. Recording polarization gratings with a standing spiral wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, Jonathan P.; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J.; Serak, Svetlana V.; Hakobyan, Rafik S.; Aleksanyan, Artur K.; Tabiryan, Nelson V.

    2013-01-01

    A scalable and robust methodology for writing cycloidal modulation patterns of optical axis orientation in photosensitive surface alignment layers is demonstrated. Counterpropagating circularly polarized beams, generated by reflection of the input beam from a cholesteric liquid crystal, direct local surface orientation in a photosensitive surface. Purposely introducing a slight angle between the input beam and the photosensitive surface normal introduces a grating period/orientation that is readily controlled and templated. The resulting cycloidal diffractive waveplates offer utility in technologies requiring diffraction over a broad range of angles/wavelengths. This simple methodology of forming polarization gratings offers advantages over conventional fabrication techniques

  15. Polarized Microwave Background Technologies for Inflationary Gravitational Wave Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of primordial gravitational waves (PGWs) from the epoch of inflation is one of the next majors goals in cosmology. These PGWs leave a signature on the...

  16. Markov chain formalism for generalized radiative transfer in a plane-parallel medium, accounting for polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Feng; Davis, Anthony B.; Diner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A Markov chain formalism is developed for computing the transport of polarized radiation according to Generalized Radiative Transfer (GRT) theory, which was developed recently to account for unresolved random fluctuations of scattering particle density and can also be applied to unresolved spectral variability of gaseous absorption as an improvement over the standard correlated-k method. Using Gamma distribution to describe the probability density function of the extinction or absorption coefficient, a shape parameter a that quantifies the variability is introduced, defined as the mean extinction or absorption coefficient squared divided by its variance. It controls the decay rate of a power-law transmission that replaces the usual exponential Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. Exponential transmission, hence classic RT, is recovered when a→∞. The new approach is verified to high accuracy against numerical benchmark results obtained with a custom Monte Carlo method. For a<∞, angular reciprocity is violated to a degree that increases with the spatial variability, as observed for finite portions of real-world cloudy scenes. While the degree of linear polarization in liquid water cloudbows, supernumerary bows, and glories is affected by spatial heterogeneity, the positions in scattering angle of these features are relatively unchanged. As a result, a single-scattering model based on the assumption of subpixel homogeneity can still be used to derive droplet size distributions from polarimetric measurements of extended stratocumulus clouds. - Highlights: • A Markov chain formalism is developed for Generalized Radiative Transfer theory. • Angular reciprocity is violated to a degree that increases with spatial variability. • The positions of cloudbows and glories in scattering angle are relatively unchanged.

  17. Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragawa, Naoki; Hojo, Hitoshi; Mase, Atushi

    1996-11-01

    Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves due to magnetic fluctuations is presented. One-dimensional coupled wave equations for the ordinary and extraordinary modes are solved for incident unipolar sub-cycle pulses in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. It is shown that the peak frequencies in the frequency-spectral signals of the mode-converted reflected waves are determined from the Bragg resonance condition in the wave numbers of the ordinary mode, the extraordinary mode and the magnetic fluctuations for relatively short-wavelength localized magnetic fluctuations. (author)

  18. Raman backscattering of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves propagating along a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraghechi, B.; Willett, J.e.

    1979-01-01

    The stimulated Raman backscattering of an intense electromagnetic wave propagating in the extraordinary mode along a uniform, static magnetic field is considered. The dispersion relation for a homogeneous magnetized plasma in the presence of the circularly polarized pump waves is developed in the cold-plasma approximation with the pump frequency above the plasma frequency. Formulas are derived for the threshold νsub(OT) of the parametric instability and for the growth rate γ of the backscattered extraordinary wave and Langmuir wave. The effects of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation on νsub(0T) and γ are studied numerically. (author)

  19. Lamb Wave Polarization Techniques for Structural Damage Localization and Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    11  Figure 11. Images showing (a) fatigued aluminum dog bone specimen with 53-mm crack and (b) 3-D SLDV test...Abaqus* and a 3-D model of a plate girder. Experimental measurements using piezoelectric ( PZT ) sensors were located on the web in pulse-echo mode, and...analyzed mode conversion of T- joint with collocated PZT sensors before and after the stiffener using a 2-D simulation under plane strain assumptions

  20. Circular Polarizations of Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae: A Clear Indication of Rapid Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Nakamura, Ko; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-04-15

    We propose to employ the circular polarization of gravitational waves emitted by core-collapse supernovae as an unequivocal indication of rapid rotation deep in their cores just prior to collapse. It has been demonstrated by three dimensional simulations that nonaxisymmetric accretion flows may develop spontaneously via hydrodynamical instabilities in the postbounce cores. It is not surprising, then, that the gravitational waves emitted by such fluid motions are circularly polarized. We show, in this Letter, that a network of the second generation detectors of gravitational waves worldwide may be able to detect such polarizations up to the opposite side of the Galaxy as long as the rotation period of the core is shorter than a few seconds prior to collapse.

  1. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Waves and Spherical Arc-Polarized Waves in Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B.; Ho, Christian M.; Arballo, John K.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Neubauer, Fritz M.

    1997-01-01

    We review observations of nonlinear plasma waves detected by interplanetary spacecraft. For this paper we will focus primarily on the phase-steepened properties of such waves. Plasma waves at comet Giacobini-Zinner measured by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), at comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup measured by Giotto, and interplanetary Alfven waves measured by Ulysses, will be discussed and intercompared.

  2. Exact exchange plane-wave-pseudopotential calculations for slabs: Extending the width of the vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Eberhard

    2018-04-01

    Standard plane-wave pseudopotential (PWPP) calculations for slabs such as graphene become extremely demanding, as soon as the exact exchange (EXX) of density functional theory is applied. Even if the Krieger-Li-Iafrate (KLI) approximation for the EXX potential is utilized, such EXX-PWPP calculations suffer from the fact that an accurate representation of the occupied states throughout the complete vacuum between the replicas of the slab is required. In this contribution, a robust and efficient extension scheme for the PWPP states is introduced, which ensures the correct exponential decay of the slab states in the vacuum for standard cutoff energies and therefore facilitates EXX-PWPP calculations for very wide vacua and rather thick slabs. Using this scheme, it is explicitly verified that the Slater component of the EXX/KLI potential decays as -1 /z over an extended region sufficiently far from the surface (assumed to be perpendicular to the z direction) and from the middle of the vacuum, thus reproducing the asymptotic behavior of the exact EXX potential of a single slab. The calculations also reveal that the orbital-shift component of the EXX/KLI potential is quite sizable in the asymptotic region. In spite of the long-range exchange potential, the replicas of the slab decouple rather quickly with increasing width of the vacuum. Relying on the identity of the work function with the Fermi energy obtained with a suitably normalized total potential, the present EXX/KLI calculations predict work functions for both graphene and the Si(111) surface which are substantially larger than the corresponding experimental data. Together with the size of the orbital-shift potential in the asymptotic region, the very large EXX/KLI work functions indicate a failure of the KLI approximation for nonmetallic slabs.

  3. Polarization of concave domains by traveling wave pinning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Bialecki

    Full Text Available Pattern formation is one of the most fundamental yet puzzling phenomena in physics and biology. We propose that traveling front pinning into concave portions of the boundary of 3-dimensional domains can serve as a generic gradient-maintaining mechanism. Such a mechanism of domain polarization arises even for scalar bistable reaction-diffusion equations, and, depending on geometry, a number of stationary fronts may be formed leading to complex spatial patterns. The main advantage of the pinning mechanism, with respect to the Turing bifurcation, is that it allows for maintaining gradients in the specific regions of the domain. By linking the instant domain shape with the spatial pattern, the mechanism can be responsible for cellular polarization and differentiation.

  4. Controlling the position of a stabilized detonation wave in a supersonic gas mixture flow in a plane channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, V. A.; Zhuravskaya, T. A.

    2017-03-01

    Stabilization of a detonation wave in a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture flowing at a supersonic velocity into a plane symmetric channel with constriction has been studied in the framework of a detailed kinetic mechanism of the chemical interaction. Conditions ensuring the formation of a thrust-producing f low with a stabilized detonation wave in the channel are determined. The inf luence of the inf low Mach number, dustiness of the combustible gas mixture supplied to the channel, and output cross-section size on the position of a stabilized detonation wave in the f low has been analyzed with a view to increasing the efficiency of detonation combustion of the gas mixture. It is established that thrust-producing flow with a stabilized detonation wave can be formed in the channel without any energy consumption.

  5. Flexible manipulation of terahertz wave reflection using polarization insensitive coding metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu-Sheng, Li; Ze-Jiang, Zhao; Jian-Quan, Yao

    2017-11-27

    In order to extend to 3-bit encoding, we propose notched-wheel structures as polarization insensitive coding metasurfaces to control terahertz wave reflection and suppress backward scattering. By using a coding sequence of "00110011…" along x-axis direction and 16 × 16 random coding sequence, we investigate the polarization insensitive properties of the coding metasurfaces. By designing the coding sequences of the basic coding elements, the terahertz wave reflection can be flexibly manipulated. Additionally, radar cross section (RCS) reduction in the backward direction is less than -10dB in a wide band. The present approach can offer application for novel terahertz manipulation devices.

  6. Polarization-dependent ponderomotive gradient force in a standing wave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, P.W.; Kanters, J.H.M.; Lassise, A.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Luiten, O.J.

    2011-01-01

    The ponderomotive force is derived for a relativistic charged particle entering an electromagnetic standing wave with a general three-dimensional field distribution and a nonrelativistic intensity, using a perturbation expansion method. It is shown that the well-known ponderomotive gradient force

  7. Polarization characterization of PZT disks and of embedded PZT plates by thermal wave methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eydam, Agnes; Suchaneck, Gunnar; Gerlach, Gerald; Esslinger, Sophia; Schönecker, Andreas; Neumeister, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the thermal wave method was applied to characterize PZT disks and embedded PZT plates with regard to the polarization magnitude and spatial homogeneity. The samples were exposed to periodic heating by means of a laser beam and the pyroelectric response was determined. Thermal relaxation times (single time constants or distributions of time constants) describe the heat losses of the PZT samples to the environment. The resulting pyroelectric current spectrum was fitted to the superposition of thermal relaxation processes. The pyroelectric coefficient gives insight in the polarization distribution. For PZT disks, the polarization distribution in the surface region showed a characteristic decrease towards the electrodes

  8. Polarization of the interference field during reflection of electromagnetic waves from an intermedia boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakhov, M. G.; Buyanov, Yu. I.; Yakubov, V. P.

    1996-10-01

    It has been shown that a full vector measurement of the total field allows one to uniquely distinguish the incident and reflected waves at each observation point without the use of a spatial difference based on an analysis of the polarization structure of the interference pattern which arises during reflection of electromagnetic waves from an intermedia boundary. We have investigated the stability of these procedures with respect to measurement noise by means of numerical modeling.

  9. Mobile ultrasound plane wave beamforming on iPhone or iPad using metal-based GPU processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hewener, H.; Tretbar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile and cost effective ultrasound devices are being used in point of care scenarios or the drama room. To reduce the costs of such devices we already presented the possibilities of consumer devices like Apple iPad for full signal processing of raw data for ultraound image generation. Using technologies like plane wave imaging to generate a full image with only one excitation/reception event the acquisition times and power consumption of ultrasound imaging can be reduced for low power mobil...

  10. Magnetism of hexagonal close-packed nickel calculated by full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, F.; Tian, H.; Whitmore, L.; Ye, L.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The energy dependent on volume of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) nickel with different magnetism is calculated by full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. Based on the calculation ferromagnetic state is found to be the most stable state. The magnetic moment of hcp Ni is calculated and compared to those calculated by different pseudo-potential methods. Furthermore, it is also compared to that of face-centered cubic (fcc) one with the reason discussed

  11. An Empirical Algorithm for Wave Retrieval from Co-Polarization X-Band SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizeng Shao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed an empirical algorithm for significant wave height (SWH retrieval from TerraSAR-X/TanDEM (TS-X/TD-X X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR co-polarization (vertical-vertical (VV and horizontal-horizontal (HH images. As the existing empirical algorithm at X-band, i.e., XWAVE, is applied for wave retrieval from HH-polarization TS-X/TD-X image, polarization ratio (PR has to be used for inverting wind speed, which is treated as an input in XWAVE. Wind speed encounters saturation in tropical cyclone. In our work, wind speed is replaced by normalized radar cross section (NRCS to avoiding using SAR-derived wind speed, which does not work in high winds, and the empirical algorithm can be conveniently implemented without converting NRCS in HH-polarization to NRCS in VV-polarization by using X-band PR. A total of 120 TS-X/TD-X images, 60 in VV-polarization and 60 in HH-polarization, with homogenous wave patterns, and the coincide significant wave height data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF reanalysis field at a 0.125° grid were collected as a dataset for tuning the algorithm. The range of SWH is from 0 to 7 m. We then applied the algorithm to 24 VV and 21 HH additional SAR images to extract SWH at locations of 30 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA National Data Buoy Center (NDBC buoys. It is found that the algorithm performs well with a SWH stander deviation (STD of about 0.5 m for both VV and HH polarization TS-X/TD-X images. For large wave validation (SWH 6–7 m, we applied the empirical algorithm to a tropical cyclone Sandy TD-X image acquired in 2012, and obtained good result with a SWH STD of 0.3 m. We concluded that the proposed empirical algorithm works for wave retrieval from TS-X/TD-X image in co-polarization without external sea surface wind information.

  12. Beyond conventional c-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes: A systematic exploration of LEDs on semi-polar orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavarian, Morteza

    Despite enormous efforts and investments, the efficiency of InGaN-based green and yellow-green light emitters remains relatively low, and that limits progress in developing full color display, laser diodes, and bright light sources for general lighting. The low efficiency of light emitting devices in the green-to-yellow spectral range, also known as the "Green Gap", is considered a global concern in the LED industry. The polar c-plane orientation of GaN, which is the mainstay in the LED industry, suffers from polarization-induced separation of electrons and hole wavefunctions (also known as the "quantum confined Stark effect") and low indium incorporation efficiency that are the two main factors that contribute to the Green Gap phenomenon. One possible approach that holds promise for a new generation of green and yellow light emitting devices with higher efficiency is the deployment of nonpolar and semi-polar crystallographic orientations of GaN to eliminate or mitigate polarization fields. In theory, the use of other GaN planes for light emitters could also enhance the efficiency of indium incorporation compared to c-plane. In this thesis, I present a systematic exploration of the suitable GaN orientation for future lighting technologies. First, in order to lay the groundwork for further studies, it is important to discuss the analysis of processes limiting LED efficiency and some novel designs of active regions to overcome these limitations. Afterwards, the choice of nonpolar orientations as an alternative is discussed. For nonpolar orientation, the (1100)-oriented (mo-plane) structures on patterned Si (112) and freestanding m-GaN are studied. The semi-polar orientations having substantially reduced polarization field are found to be more promising for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) owing to high indium incorporation efficiency predicted by theoretical studies. Thus, the semi-polar orientations are given close attention as alternatives for future LED technology

  13. Extremely intense ELF magnetosonic waves: A survey of polar observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Santolík, Ondřej; Lakhina, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 2 (2014), s. 964-977 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Magneotosonic waves * plasmaspheric hiss * plasmasphere * substorm protons * mode conversion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.426, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013JA019284/abstract

  14. An IBEM solution to the scattering of plane SH-waves by a lined tunnel in elastic wedge space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongxian; Liu, Lei

    2015-02-01

    The indirect boundary element method (IBEM) is developed to solve the scattering of plane SH-waves by a lined tunnel in elastic wedge space. According to the theory of single-layer potential, the scattered-wave field can be constructed by applying virtual uniform loads on the surface of lined tunnel and the nearby wedge surface. The densities of virtual loads can be solved by establishing equations through the continuity conditions on the interface and zero-traction conditions on free surfaces. The total wave field is obtained by the superposition of free field and scattered-wave field in elastic wedge space. Numerical results indicate that the IBEM can solve the diffraction of elastic wave in elastic wedge space accurately and efficiently. The wave motion feature strongly depends on the wedge angle, the angle of incidence, incident frequency, the location of lined tunnel, and material parameters. The waves interference and amplification effect around the tunnel in wedge space is more significant, causing the dynamic stress concentration factor on rigid tunnel and the displacement amplitude of flexible tunnel up to 50.0 and 17.0, respectively, more than double that of the case of half-space. Hence, considerable attention should be paid to seismic resistant or anti-explosion design of the tunnel built on a slope or hillside.

  15. Linearly polarized photoluminescence of anisotropically strained c-plane GaN layers on stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongmyeong; Moon, Daeyoung; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Donghyun; Yang, Duyoung; Jang, Jeonghwan; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon

    2018-05-01

    Anisotropic in-plane strain and resultant linearly polarized photoluminescence (PL) of c-plane GaN layers were realized by using a stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate (SCES). High resolution X-ray reciprocal space mapping measurements revealed that the GaN layers on the SCES were under significant anisotropic in-plane strain of -0.0140% and -0.1351% along the directions perpendicular and parallel to the stripe pattern, respectively. The anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers was attributed to the anisotropic strain relaxation due to the anisotropic arrangement of cavity-incorporated membranes. Linearly polarized PL behavior such as the observed angle-dependent shift in PL peak position and intensity comparable with the calculated value based on k.p perturbation theory. It was found that the polarized PL behavior was attributed to the modification of valence band structures induced by anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers on the SCES.

  16. Scattering of three-dimensional plane waves in a self-reinforced half-space lying over a triclinic half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shishir; Pramanik, Abhijit; Smita; Pramanik, Snehamoy

    2018-06-01

    The phenomenon of plane waves at the intersecting plane of a triclinic half-space and a self-reinforced half-space is discussed with possible applications during wave propagation. Analytical expressions of the phase velocities of reflection and refraction for quasi-compressional and quasi-shear waves under initial stress are discussed carefully. The closest form of amplitude proportions on reflection and refraction factors of three quasi-plane waves are developed mathematically by applying appropriate boundary conditions. Graphics are sketched to exhibit the consequences of initial stress in the three-dimensional plane wave on reflection and refraction coefficients. Some special cases that coincide with the fundamental properties of several layers are designed to express the reflection and refraction coefficients.

  17. Polarization properties of Gendrin mode waves observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: observations and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Verkhoglyadova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We show a case of an outer zone magnetospheric electromagnetic wave propagating at the Gendrin angle, within uncertainty of the measurements. The chorus event occurred in a "minimum B pocket". For the illustrated example, the measured angle of wave propagation relative to the ambient magnetic field θkB was 58°±4°. For this event the theoretical Gendrin angle was 62°. Cold plasma model is used to demonstrate that Gendrin mode waves are right-hand circularly polarized, in excellent agreement with the observations.

  18. Explaining Electromagnetic Plane Waves in a Vacuum at the Introductory Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Clark L.; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Flusche, Brian M.; Kiziah, Rex R.; Lee, David J.

    2010-01-01

    A typical introduction to electromagnetic waves in vacuum is illustrated by the following quote from an introductory physics text: "Maxwell's equations predict that an electromagnetic wave consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. The changing fields induce each other, which maintains the propagation of the wave; a changing electric…

  19. Stress wave velocity patterns in the longitudinal-radial plane of trees for defect diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghui Li; Xiang Weng; Xiaocheng Du; Xiping Wang; Hailin Feng

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic tomography for urban tree inspection typically uses stress wave data to reconstruct tomographic images for the trunk cross section using interpolation algorithm. This traditional technique does not take into account the stress wave velocity patterns along tree height. In this study, we proposed an analytical model for the wave velocity in the longitudinal–...

  20. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Origins of the Polar Kerr Effect in a Chiral p-WAVE Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryo, Jun

    Recently, the measurement of the polar Kerr effect (PKE) in the quasi two-dimensional superconductor Sr2RuO4, which is motivated to observe the chirality of px + ipy-wave pairing, has been reported. We clarify that the PKE has intrinsic and extrinsic (disorder-induced) origins. The extrinsic contribution would be dominant in the PKE experiment.

  1. On the stability of a finite amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Lundberg, J.

    1990-01-01

    To study the stability of a finite amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in a plasma with pressure anisotropy we make use of a generalized version of the Chew-Goldberger-Low equations. The dispersion relation is derived. Special attention is focused on the MHD-limit. (orig.)

  2. Manipulation of the polarization of intense laser beams via optical wave mixing in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Pierre; Divol, Laurent; Turnbull, David; Moody, John

    2014-10-01

    When intense laser beams overlap in plasmas, the refractive index modulation created by the beat wave via the ponderomotive force can lead to optical wave mixing phenomena reminiscent of those used in crystals and photorefractive materials. Using a vector analysis, we present a full analytical description of the modification of the polarization state of laser beams crossing at arbitrary angles in a plasma. We show that plasmas can be used to provide full control of the polarization state of a laser beam, and give simple analytical estimates and practical considerations for the design of novel photonics devices such as plasma polarizers and plasma waveplates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Pingping; Yue, Jia; Russell, James M., III; Siskind, David E.; Randall, Cora E.

    2018-01-01

    We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of ˜ 20-60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave) power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent = -3.2) and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of -2.9 and -2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.

  4. Influence of vertically and obliquely propagating gravity waves on the polar summer mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurairajah, B.; Siskind, D. E.; Bailey, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) are sensitive to changes in temperature of the cold polar summer mesosphere, which in turn are modulated by gravity waves (GWs). In this study we investigate the link between PMCs and GWs that propagate both vertically (i.e. wave propagation is directly above the source region) and obliquely (lateral or non-vertical propagation upward but away from the source region). Several observational studies have analyzed the link between PMCs and vertically propagating GWs and have reported both positive and negative correlations. Moreover, while modelling studies have noted the possibility of oblique propagation of GWs from the low-latitude stratosphere to the high-latitude mesosphere, observational studies of the influence of these waves on the polar summer mesosphere are sparse. We present a comprehensive analysis of the influence of vertically and obliquely propagating GWs on the northern hemisphere (NH) polar summer mesosphere using data from 8 PMC seasons. Temperature data from the SOFIE experiment on the AIM satellite and SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite are used to derive GW parameters. SOFIE PMC data in terms of Ice Water Content (IWC) are used to quantify the changes in the polar summer mesosphere. At high latitudes, preliminary analysis of vertically propagating waves indicate a weak but positive correlation between GWs at 50 km and GWs at the PMC altitude of 84 km. Overall there is a negative correlation between GWs at 50 km and IWC and a positive correlation between GWs at 84 km and IWC. These results and the presence of a slanted structure (slanted from the low-latitude stratosphere to the high-latitude mesosphere) in GW momentum flux suggest the possibility of a significant influence of obliquely propagating GWs on the polar summer mesosphere

  5. Pitch angle scattering of an energetic magnetized particle by a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a circularly polarized wave and an energetic gyrating particle is described using a relativistic pseudo-potential that is a function of the frequency mismatch. Analysis of the pseudo-potential provides a means for interpreting numerical results. The pseudo-potential profile depends on the initial mismatch, the normalized wave amplitude, and the initial angle between the wave magnetic field and the particle perpendicular velocity. For zero initial mismatch, the pseudo-potential consists of only one valley, but for finite mismatch, there can be two valleys separated by a hill. A large pitch angle scattering of the energetic electron can occur in the two-valley situation but fast scattering can also occur in a single valley. Examples relevant to magnetospheric whistler waves show that the energetic electron pitch angle can be deflected 5°towards the loss cone when transiting a 10 ms long coherent wave packet having realistic parameters.

  6. Experimental dependence of ECR plasma breakdown on wave polarization in the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, A.; Castejon, F.; Tabares, F.; Fernandez, A.; Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Estrada, T.; Nagasaki, K.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, second harmonic ECRH plasma breakdown and its dependence on the initial conditions such as neutral gas pressure, injected power or beam polarization has been the subject of theoretical as well as experimental work. Although those studies have been carried out in the context of stellarators, they are particularly relevant in the case of large tokamaks, such as ITER, where conventional inductive breakdown is expected to be strongly improved if ECRH is used. A matter of interest is the dependence of breakdown time on wave polarization. In the existing theoretical models, wave polarization is not taken into account because it is assumed that the injected ECRH power is initially scrambled by the vessel walls and that the energy source for breakdown is only due to the non-linear wave-particle interaction between deeply trapped electrons and the averaged electric field. However, while this seems reasonable for the very beginning of the discharge, it may not be so as we progress towards breakdown. Actually, as experiments in Heliotron J have demonstrated, wave polarization must be taken into account in the description of the energy source. Breakdown experiments in TJ-II were performed in order to get a deep insight into this matter and part of the results of breakdown dependence on wave polarization were already discussed. In particular, it was demonstrated that the hypothesis about the energy source used in the models is failing long before full ionization is completed. But more information in relation with our understanding of the second harmonic ECRH breakdown, such as the toroidal and radial breakdown propagation, which is seen to be non-diffusive, can be extracted. Thus, the experiment results provide valuable data that can be used not only to improve the energy source but also to include spatial dimensions in the breakdown models. (author)

  7. Visualizing the phenomena of wave interference, phase-shifting and polarization by interactive computer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Dirckx, Joris

    2015-09-01

    In this manuscript a computer based simulation is proposed for teaching concepts of interference of light (under the scheme of a Michelson interferometer), phase-shifting and polarization states. The user can change some parameters of the interfering waves, such as their amplitude and phase difference in order to graphically represent the polarization state of a simulated travelling wave. Regarding to the interference simulation, the user is able to change the wavelength and type of the interfering waves by selecting combinations between planar and Gaussian profiles, as well as the optical path difference by translating or tilting one of the two mirrors in the interferometer setup, all of this via a graphical user interface (GUI) designed in MATLAB. A theoretical introduction and simulation results for each phenomenon will be shown. Due to the simulation characteristics, this GUI can be a very good non-formal learning resource.

  8. Spin waves in full-polarized state of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets: Small-angle neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, S. V.; Sukhanov, A. S.; Altynbaev, E. V.; Siegfried, S.-A.; Heinemann, A.; Kizhe, P.; Maleyev, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    We develop the technique to study the spin-wave dynamics of the full-polarized state of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets by polarized small-angle neutron scattering. We have experimentally proven that the spin-waves dispersion in this state has the anisotropic form. We show that the neutron scattering image displays a circle with a certain radius which is centered at the momentum transfer corresponding to the helix wave vector in helimagnetic phase ks, which is oriented along the applied magnetic field H . The radius of this circle is directly related to the spin-wave stiffness of this system. This scattering depends on the neutron polarization showing the one-handed nature of the spin waves in Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets in the full-polarized phase. We show that the spin-wave stiffness A for MnSi helimagnet decreased twice as the temperature increases from zero to the critical temperature Tc.

  9. Plasmonic Dimer Metamaterials and Metasurfaces for Polarization Control of Terahertz and Optical Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu

    2013-01-01

    We explore the capabilities of planar metamaterials and metasurfaces to control and transform the polarization of electromagnetic radiation, and present a detailed covariant multipole theory of dimer-based metamaterials. We show that various optical properties, such as optical activity, elliptical...... dichroism or polarization conversion can be achieved in metamaterials made of simple shapes, such as nanorods, just by varying their geometrical arrangement. By virtue of the Babinet principle, the proposed theory is extended to inverted structures (membranes) where rods are replaced by slots. Such free......-standing “metasurface membranes” can act as thin-film spectrally sensitive polarization shapers for THz radiation. Proof-of-principle devices (a linear polarizer and a structure with giant optical activity) are fabricated and characterized. Experimental results coincide with those of full-wave numerical simulations...

  10. Regimes of wave type patterning driven by refractory actin feedback: transition from static polarization to dynamic wave behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W R; Edelstein-Keshet, L; Carlsson, A E

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of waves, patches, and peaks of actin are observed experimentally in many living cells. Models of this phenomenon have been based on the interplay between filamentous actin (F-actin) and its nucleation promoting factors (NPFs) that activate the Arp2/3 complex. Here we present an alternative biologically-motivated model for F-actin-NPF interaction based on properties of GTPases acting as NPFs. GTPases (such as Cdc42, Rac) are known to promote actin nucleation, and to have active membrane-bound and inactive cytosolic forms. The model is a natural extension of a previous mathematical mini-model of small GTPases that generates static cell polarization. Like other modellers, we assume that F-actin negative feedback shapes the observed patterns by suppressing the trailing edge of NPF-generated wave-fronts, hence localizing the activity spatially. We find that our NPF-actin model generates a rich set of behaviours, spanning a transition from static polarization to single pulses, reflecting waves, wave trains, and oscillations localized at the cell edge. The model is developed with simplicity in mind to investigate the interaction between nucleation promoting factor kinetics and negative feedback. It explains distinct types of pattern initiation mechanisms, and identifies parameter regimes corresponding to distinct behaviours. We show that weak actin feedback yields static patterning, moderate feedback yields dynamical behaviour such as travelling waves, and strong feedback can lead to wave trains or total suppression of patterning. We use a recently introduced nonlinear bifurcation analysis to explore the parameter space of this model and predict its behaviour with simulations validating those results. (paper)

  11. Robust sky light polarization detection with an S-wave plate in a light field camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Cao, Yu; Liu, Haibo; Liu, Zejin

    2016-05-01

    The sky light polarization navigator has many advantages, such as low cost, no decrease in accuracy with continuous operation, etc. However, current celestial polarization measurement methods often suffer from low performance when the sky is covered by clouds, which reduce the accuracy of navigation. In this paper we introduce a new method and structure based on a handheld light field camera and a radial polarizer, composed of an S-wave plate and a linear polarizer, to detect the sky light polarization pattern across a wide field of view in a single snapshot. Each micro-subimage has a special intensity distribution. After extracting the texture feature of these subimages, stable distribution information of the angle of polarization under a cloudy sky can be obtained. Our experimental results match well with the predicted properties of the theory. Because the polarization pattern is obtained through image processing, rather than traditional methods based on mathematical computation, this method is less sensitive to errors of pixel gray value and thus has better anti-interference performance.

  12. Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.

  13. Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.

  14. Correction of the near threshold behavior of electron collisional excitation cross-sections in the plane-wave Born approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcrease, D. P.; Brookes, S.

    2013-12-01

    The modeling of NLTE plasmas requires the solution of population rate equations to determine the populations of the various atomic levels relevant to a particular problem. The equations require many cross sections for excitation, de-excitation, ionization and recombination. A simple and computational fast way to calculate electron collisional excitation cross-sections for ions is by using the plane-wave Born approximation. This is essentially a high-energy approximation and the cross section suffers from the unphysical problem of going to zero near threshold. Various remedies for this problem have been employed with varying degrees of success. We present a correction procedure for the Born cross-sections that employs the Elwert-Sommerfeld factor to correct for the use of plane waves instead of Coulomb waves in an attempt to produce a cross-section similar to that from using the more time consuming Coulomb Born approximation. We compare this new approximation with other, often employed correction procedures. We also look at some further modifications to our Born Elwert procedure and its combination with Y.K. Kim's correction of the Coulomb Born approximation for singly charged ions that more accurately approximate convergent close coupling calculations.

  15. Investigating dust trapping in transition disks with millimeter-wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, A.; Kataoka, A.; Pinilla, P.; Dullemond, C. P.; Henning, Th.; Birnstiel, T.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Spatially resolved polarized (sub-)mm emission has been observed for example in the protoplanetary disk around HL Tau. Magnetically aligned grains are commonly interpreted as the source of polarization. However, self-scattering by large dust grains with a high enough albedo is another polarization mechanism, which is becoming a compelling method independent of the spectral index to constrain the dust grain size in protoplanetary disks. Aims: We study the dust polarization at mm wavelengths in the dust trapping scenario proposed for transition disks, when a giant planet opens a gap in the disk. We investigate the characteristic polarization patterns and their dependence on disk inclination, dust size evolution, planet position, and observing wavelength. Methods: We combine two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of planet-disk interactions with self-consistent dust growth models. These size-dependent dust density distributions are used for follow-up three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations to predict the polarization degree at ALMA bands due to scattered thermal emission. Results: Dust self-scattering has been proven to be a viable mechanism for producing polarized mm-wave radiation. We find that the polarization pattern of a disk with a planetary gap after 1 Myr of dust evolution shows a distinctive three-ring structure. Two narrow inner rings are located at the planet gap edges. A third wider ring of polarization is situated in the outer disk beyond 100 au. For increasing observing wavelengths, all three rings change their position slightly, where the innermost and outermost rings move inward. This distance is detectable when comparing the results at ALMA bands 3, 6, and 7. Within the highest polarized intensity regions the polarization vectors are oriented in the azimuthal direction. For an inclined disk there is an interplay between polarization originating from a flux gradient and inclination-induced quadrupole polarization. For

  16. Broadband asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves based on chiral metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Lincy; Yogesh, N.; Subramanian, V.

    2018-01-01

    The giant optical activity of chiral metamaterials (CMMs) holds great potential for tailoring the polarization state of an electromagnetic (EM) wave. In controlling the polarization state, the aspect of asymmetric transmission (AT), where a medium allows the EM radiation to pass through in one direction while restricting it in the opposite direction, adds additional degrees of freedom such as one-way channelling functionality. In this work, a CMM formed by a pair of mutually twisted slanted complementary metal strips is realized for broadband AT accompanied with cross-polarization (CP) conversion for linearly polarized EM waves. Numerically, the proposed ultra-thin (˜λ/42) CMM shows broadband AT from 8.58 GHz to 9.73 GHz (bandwidth of 1.15 GHz) accompanied with CP transmission magnitude greater than 0.9. The transmission and reflection spectra reveal the origin of the asymmetric transmission as the direction sensitive cross polarization conversion and anisotropic electric coupling occurring in the structure which is then elaborated with the surface current analysis and electric field distribution within the structure. An experiment is carried out to verify the broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM at microwave frequencies, and a reliable agreement between numerical and experimental results is obtained. Being ultra-thin, the reported broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM is useful for controlling radiation patterns in non-reciprocal EM devices and communication networks.

  17. First-order reflection/transmission coefficients for unconverted plane P waves in weakly anisotropic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farra, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 3 (2010), s. 1443-1454 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : body waves * seismic anisotropy * wave propagation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.411, year: 2010

  18. Estimation of in-situ stresses in concrete members using polarized ultrasonic shear waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew; Schumacher, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic testing is commonly used to detect flaws, estimate geometries, and characterize properties of materials and structures. Acoustoelasticity refers to the dependency of stress wave velocity with applied stresses and is a phenomenon that has been known by geophysicists since the 1960s. A way to capitalize on this effect for concrete applications is by using ultrasonic shear waves which are particularly sensitive to applied stresses when polarized in the direction of the applied stress. The authors conducted an experiment on a 150 mm (6 in.) diameter concrete cylinder specimen with a length of 305 mm (12 in.) that was loaded in discrete load steps to failure. At each load step two ultrasonic shear waves were transmitted through the specimen, one with the polarization perpendicular and the other transverse to the applied stress. The velocity difference between the two sets of polarized shear waves was found to correlate with the applied stress in the specimen. Two potential applications for this methodology include estimation of stresses in pre-stressed concrete bridge girders and investigation of load redistribution in structural support elements after extreme events. This paper introduces the background of the methodology, presents an analysis of the collected data, and discusses the relationship between the recorded signals and the applied stress.

  19. Discrete ordinate solution of the radiative transfer equation in the 'polarization normal wave representation'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, A.

    1991-01-01

    The transfer equations for normal waves in finite, inhomogeneous and plane-parallel magnetoactive media are solved using the discrete ordinate method. The physical process of absorption, emission, and multiple scattering are accounted for, and the medium may be forced both at the top and bottom boundary by anisotropic radiation as well as by internal anisotropic sources. The computational procedure is numerically stable for arbitrarily large optical depths, and the computer time is independent of optical thickness.

  20. Investigating Gravity Waves in Polar Mesospheric Clouds Using Tomographic Reconstructions of AIM Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, V. P.; Taylor, M. J.; Doyle, T. E.; Zhao, Y.; Pautet, P.-D.; Carruth, B. L.; Rusch, D. W.; Russell, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    This research presents the first application of tomographic techniques for investigating gravity wave structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) imaged by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument on the NASA AIM satellite. Albedo data comprising consecutive PMC scenes were used to tomographically reconstruct a 3-D layer using the Partially Constrained Algebraic Reconstruction Technique algorithm and a previously developed "fanning" technique. For this pilot study, a large region (760 × 148 km) of the PMC layer (altitude 83 km) was sampled with a 2 km horizontal resolution, and an intensity weighted centroid technique was developed to create novel 2-D surface maps, characterizing the individual gravity waves as well as their altitude variability. Spectral analysis of seven selected wave events observed during the Northern Hemisphere 2007 PMC season exhibited dominant horizontal wavelengths of 60-90 km, consistent with previous studies. These tomographic analyses have enabled a broad range of new investigations. For example, a clear spatial anticorrelation was observed between the PMC albedo and wave-induced altitude changes, with higher-albedo structures aligning well with wave troughs, while low-intensity regions aligned with wave crests. This result appears to be consistent with current theories of PMC development in the mesopause region. This new tomographic imaging technique also provides valuable wave amplitude information enabling further mesospheric gravity wave investigations, including quantitative analysis of their hemispheric and interannual characteristics and variations.

  1. Wigner functions for nonparaxial, arbitrarily polarized electromagnetic wave fields in free space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Miguel A

    2004-11-01

    New representations are defined for describing electromagnetic wave fields in free space exactly in terms of rays for any wavelength, level of coherence or polarization, and numerical aperture, as long as there are no evanescent components. These representations correspond to tensors assigned to each ray such that the electric and magnetic energy densities, the Poynting vector, and the polarization properties of the field correspond to simple integrals involving these tensors for the rays that go through the specified point. For partially coherent fields, the ray-based approach provided by the new representations can reduce dramatically the computation times for the physical properties mentioned earlier.

  2. Separation of gravitational-wave and cosmic-shear contributions to cosmic microwave background polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesden, Michael; Cooray, Asantha; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2002-07-01

    Inflationary gravitational waves (GW) contribute to the curl component in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Cosmic shear--gravitational lensing of the CMB--converts a fraction of the dominant gradient polarization to the curl component. Higher-order correlations can be used to map the cosmic shear and subtract this contribution to the curl. Arcminute resolution will be required to pursue GW amplitudes smaller than those accessible by the Planck surveyor mission. The blurring by lensing of small-scale CMB power leads with this reconstruction technique to a minimum detectable GW amplitude corresponding to an inflation energy near 10(15) GeV.

  3. Pitch Angle Scattering of Upgoing Electron Beams in Jupiter's Polar Regions by Whistler Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Clark, G.; Mauk, B. H.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The Juno spacecraft's Jupiter Energetic-particle Detector Instrument has observed field-aligned, unidirectional (upgoing) electron beams throughout most of Jupiter's entire polar cap region. The Waves instrument detected intense broadband whistler mode emissions occurring in the same region. In this paper, we investigate the pitch angle scattering of the upgoing electron beams due to interactions with the whistler mode waves. Profiles of intensity versus pitch angle for electron beams ranging from 2.53 to 7.22 Jovian radii show inconsistencies with the expected adiabatic invariant motion of the electrons. It is believed that the observed whistler mode waves perturb the electron motion and scatter them away from the magnetic field line. The diffusion equation has been solved by using diffusion coefficients which depend on the magnetic intensity of the whistler mode waves.

  4. Plane-wave and common-translation-factor treatments of He2++H collisions at high velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Harel, C.; Jouin, H.; Maidagan, J.M.; Mendez, L.; Pons, B.; Riera, A.

    1992-01-01

    We complement previous work that showed that the molecular approach, modified with plane-wave translation factors, is able to reproduce the fall of charge-exchange cross sections in He 2+ +H collisions, by presenting the molecular data, and studying the corresponding mechanism. We test the accuracy of simplifications of the method that have been employed in the literature, and that lead to very simple calculations. We show that the common-translation-factor method is also successful at high nuclear velocities, provided that sufficiently excited states are included in the basis; moreover, it yields a simple picture of the mechanism and a description of ionization processes at high velocities

  5. Density fitting for derivatives of Coulomb integrals in ab initio calculations using mixed Gaussian and plane-wave basis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čársky, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 620 (2009), s. 1237-1242 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0070; GA ČR GA202/08/0631; GA AV ČR 1ET400400413; GA AV ČR IAA100400501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Derivatives of Coulomb integrals * mixed Gaussian and plane-wave basis sets * electron scattering * computer time saving Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.315, year: 2009

  6. In-plane angular dependence of the spin-wave nonreciprocity of an ultrathin film with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Vanessa Li; Di, Kai; Lim, Hock Siah; Ng, Ser Choon; Kuok, Meng Hau, E-mail: phykmh@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Yu, Jiawei; Yoon, Jungbum; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-07-13

    The nonreciprocal propagation of spin waves in an ultrathin Pt/Co/Ni film has been measured by Brillouin light scattering. The frequency nonreciprocity, due to the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), has a sinusoidal dependence on the in-plane angle between the magnon wavevector and the applied magnetic field. The results, which are in good agreement with analytical predictions reported earlier, yield a value of the DMI constant which is the same as that obtained previously from a study of the magnon dispersion relations. We have demonstrated that our magnon-dynamics based method can experimentally ascertain the DMI constant of multilayer thin films.

  7. Transient reflection and transmission of E polarized electromagnetic waves at boundary surface between air and moving isotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yukimasa

    1977-01-01

    The transient reflection and transmission waves of E polarized electromagnetic waves coming into the boundary surface between air and moving isotropic plasma were theoretically investigated. By using the Laplace transformation in the moving system, the formulae of Lorentz and inverse Lorentz transformations concerning electromagnetic field were transformed, thus the transient reflection and transmission waves were obtained. These waves were normalized with the angular frequency of the incident waves, and the variation of the wave form was obtained. Examples of the numerical calculation of reflected waves are shown for the plasma moving in parallel to the boundary surface. (Kato, T.)

  8. Analysis of a plane stress wave by the moving least squares method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Dornowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A meshless method based on the moving least squares approximation is applied to stress wave propagation analysis. Two kinds of node meshes, the randomly generated mesh and the regular mesh are used. The nearest neighbours’ problem is developed from a triangulation that satisfies minimum edges length conditions. It is found that this method of neighbours’ choice significantly improves the solution accuracy. The reflection of stress waves from the free edge is modelled using fictitious nodes (outside the plate. The comparison with the finite difference results also demonstrated the accuracy of the proposed approach.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, meshless method, moving least squares method, elastic waves

  9. Coherent quantum states of a relativistic particle in an electromagnetic plane wave and a parallel magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colavita, E.; Hacyan, S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the solutions of the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations describing a charged particle in an electromagnetic plane wave combined with a magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave. It is shown that the Klein–Gordon equation admits coherent states as solutions, while the corresponding solutions of the Dirac equation are superpositions of coherent and displaced-number states. Particular attention is paid to the resonant case in which the motion of the particle is unbounded. -- Highlights: •We study a relativistic electron in a particular electromagnetic field configuration. •New exact solutions of the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations are obtained. •Coherent and displaced number states can describe a relativistic particle

  10. FDTD analysis of reflection of electromagnetic wave from a conductive plane covered with inhomogeneous time-varying plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaobin; Mo Jinjun; Yuan Naichang

    2003-01-01

    A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm is applied to study the electro-magnetic reflection of conduction plane covered with inhomogeneous time-varying plasma, homogeneous plasma and inhomogeneous plasma. The collisions frequency of plasma is a function of electron density and plasma temperature. The number density profile follows a parabolic function. A discussion on the effect of various plasma parameters on the reflection coefficient is presented. Under the one-dimensional case, transient electromagnetic propagation through various plasmas has been obtained, and the reflection coefficients of EM wave through various plasma are calculated under different conditions. The results illustrate that a plasma cloaking system can successfully absorb the incident EM wave

  11. Reduction of Polarization Field Strength in Fully Strained c-Plane InGaN/(In)GaN Multiple Quantum Wells Grown by MOCVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Ikeda, Masao; Zhang, Shu-Ming; Liu, Jian-Ping; Tian, Ai-Qin; Wen, Peng-Yan; Cheng, Yang; Yang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    The polarization fields in c-plane InGaN/(In)GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures grown on sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition are investigated in this paper. The indium composition in the quantum wells varies from 14.8 to 26.5% for different samples. The photoluminescence wavelengths are calculated theoretically by fully considering the related effects and compared with the measured wavelengths. It is found that when the indium content is lower than 17.3%, the measured wavelengths agree well with the theoretical values. However, when the indium content is higher than 17.3%, the measured ones are much shorter than the calculation results. This discrepancy is attributed to the reduced polarization field in the MQWs. For the MQWs with lower indium content, 100% theoretical polarization can be maintained, while, when the indium content is higher, the polarization field decreases significantly. The polarization field can be weakened down to 23% of the theoretical value when the indium content is 26.5%. Strain relaxation is excluded as the origin of the polarization reduction because there is no sign of lattice relaxation in the structures, judging by the X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping. The possible causes of the polarization reduction are discussed.

  12. Brewster angle for an E-polarized electromagnetic wave interacting with a moving dielectric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Brewster-angle phenomena of total transmission has been investigated with reference to an E-polarized electromagnetic wave interacting with a dielectric half-space moving along the interface. Analytic conditions are derived for the existence of Brewster angles. We also discuss how the Brewster angles are modified by replacing the incident region (in which the incident electromagnetic wave is propagated) with an isotropic or a uniaxially anisotropic plasma. The Brewster angles are found to behave in a remarkably different fashion under various conditions. Numerical results for the Brewster angles, showing their dependence on the nondimensional velocity of the medium β, are presented for several values of the physical parameters

  13. Superresolution Imaging Using Resonant Multiples and Plane-wave Migration Velocity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2017-01-01

    Seismic imaging is a technique that uses seismic echoes to map and detect underground geological structures. The conventional seismic image has the resolution limit of λ/2, where λ is the wavelength associated with the seismic waves propagating

  14. Anisotropic chemical etching of semipolar {101-bar 1-bar}/{101-bar +1} ZnO crystallographic planes: polarity versus dangling bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Lidon, E; Perez-GarcIa, B; Colchero, J; Vennegues, P; Zuniga-Perez, J; Munoz-Sanjose, V

    2009-01-01

    ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy along the nonpolar [112-bar] direction and exhibiting semipolar {101-bar 1-bar}/{101-bar +1} facets have been chemically etched with HCl. In order to get an insight into the influence of the ZnO wurtzite structure in the chemical reactivity of the material, Kelvin probe microscopy and convergent beam electron diffraction have been employed to unambiguously determine the absolute polarity of the facets, showing that {101-bar +1} facets are unstable upon etching in an HCl solution and transform into (000+1)/{101-bar 1-bar} planes. In contrast, {101-bar 1-bar} undergo homogeneous chemical etching perpendicular to the initial crystallographic plane. The observed etching behavior has been explained in terms of surface oxygen dangling bond density, suggesting that the macroscopic polarity plays a secondary role in the etching process.

  15. The recombination correction and the dependence of the response of plane parallel chambers on the polarizing voltage in pulsed electron and photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.; Derikum, K.

    2000-01-01

    Based on an experimental investigation of the recombination effect in plane parallel chambers, a relation is deduced that allows the correction to be calculated from the electrode spacing and from the dose per pulse. It is shown that the uncertainties caused by the application of the Boag formula for volume recombination (recommended in the International Code of Practice TRS-381) amount to not more than about 0.1% for conventional beams. Calculated recombinations are compared with experimental results concerning the dependence of the response of various commercial plane parallel chambers on the polarizing voltage. Since it cannot be excluded that particular chambers collect a non-negligible amount of charge from regions outside the designated collecting volume or that the effective polarizing voltage is reduced by poor contacts, it seems advisable to experimentally check the chambers before use and before application of the analytical relations. (author)

  16. Separation of variables for the nonlinear wave equation in polar coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shermenev, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Some classical types of nonlinear wave motion in polar coordinates are studied within quadratic approximation. When the nonlinear quadratic terms in the wave equation are arbitrary, the usual perturbation techniques used in polar coordinates leads to overdetermined systems of linear algebraic equations for the unknown coefficients. However, we show that these overdetermined systems are compatible with the special case of the nonlinear shallow water equation and express explicitly the coefficients of the first two harmonics as polynomials of the Bessel functions of radius and of the trigonometric functions of angle. It gives a series of solutions to the nonlinear shallow water equation that are periodic in time and found with the same accuracy as the equation is derived

  17. Method for measuring retardation of infrared wave-plate by modulated-polarized visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Song, Feijun

    2012-11-01

    A new method for precisely measuring the optical phase retardation of wave-plates in the infrared spectral region is presented by using modulated-polarized visible light. An electro-optic modulator is used to accurately determine the zero point by the frequency-doubled signal of the Modulated-polarized light. A Babinet-Soleil compensator is employed to make the phase delay compensation. Based on this method, an instrument is set up to measure the retardations of the infrared wave-plates with visible region laser. Measurement results with high accuracy and sound repetition are obtained by simple calculation. Its measurement precision is less than and repetitive precision is within 0.3%.

  18. Ultra-High-Speed Travelling Wave Protection of Transmission Line Using Polarity Comparison Principle Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional polarity comparison based travelling wave protection, using the initial wave information, is affected by initial fault angle, bus structure, and external fault. And the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave is ignored. Because of the protection tripping and malfunction, the further application of this protection principle is affected. Therefore, this paper presents an ultra-high-speed travelling wave protection using integral based polarity comparison principle. After empirical mode decomposition of the original travelling wave, the first-order intrinsic mode function is used as protection object. Based on the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of using travelling wave magnitude which contains polar information as direction criterion. And the paper integrates the direction criterion in a period after fault to avoid wave head detection failure. Through PSCAD simulation with the typical 500 kV transmission system, the reliability and sensitivity of travelling wave protection were verified under different factors’ affection.

  19. Development of Extended Ray-tracing method including diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Kota; Kubo, Shin; Dodin, Ilya; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Tsujimura, Toru

    2017-10-01

    Geometrical Optics Ray-tracing is a reasonable numerical analytic approach for describing the Electron Cyclotron resonance Wave (ECW) in slowly varying spatially inhomogeneous plasma. It is well known that the result with this conventional method is adequate in most cases. However, in the case of Helical fusion plasma which has complicated magnetic structure, strong magnetic shear with a large scale length of density can cause a mode coupling of waves outside the last closed flux surface, and complicated absorption structure requires a strong focused wave for ECH. Since conventional Ray Equations to describe ECW do not have any terms to describe the diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects, we can not describe accurately a mode coupling of waves, strong focus waves, behavior of waves in inhomogeneous absorption region and so on. For fundamental solution of these problems, we consider the extension of the Ray-tracing method. Specific process is planned as follows. First, calculate the reference ray by conventional method, and define the local ray-base coordinate system along the reference ray. Then, calculate the evolution of the distributions of amplitude and phase on ray-base coordinate step by step. The progress of our extended method will be presented.

  20. Polarization dependence of the spin-density-wave excitations in single-domain chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Roessli, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France); Sternlieb, B.J. [Brookhaven (United States); Lorenzo, E. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France); Werner, S.A. [Missouri (United States)

    1997-09-01

    A polarized neutron scattering experiment has been performed with a single-Q, single domain sample of chromium in a magnetic field of 4 T. It is confirmed that the longitudinal fluctuations are enhanced for small energy transfers and that the spin wave modes with {delta}S parallel to Q and {delta}S perpendicular to Q are similar. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  1. Anomalous high-frequency wave activity flux preceding anomalous changes in the Northern polar jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mototaka; Kadota, Minoru; Yamane, Shozo

    2010-05-01

    show anomalous acceleration or deceleration of U in the polar region, accompanied by anomalies of the opposite sign in the subtropics throughout the troposphere and stratosphere. The anomalies are conspicuously large in the polar stratosphere. The composited anomalous Z and U in the preceding and following months indicate that these large anomalies in dZ and dU occur when the polar troposphere and stratosphere are relaxing back toward the climatology from strongly anomalous states that closely resemble the positive and negative phases of the NAM. In this process of relaxation, the atmosphere actually overshoots the climatology and develops anomalies of the sign opposite to those existed initially. The anomalous wave activity flux exhibit strong signals of anomalous upward (downward) propagation of high-frequency waves in the North Atlantic storm track from the bottom of the atmosphere, penetrating up to the stratosphere, when the polar jet is anomalously strong (weak) in the preceding month. The anomalous horizontal wave activity flux shows anomalous eastward (westward) flux emanating from the North Atlantic storm track when the polar jet is anomalously strong (weak) in the preceding month. These patterns suggest that anomalous high-frequency waves originating from the North Atlantic storm track in the lower troposphere contribute to the destruction of both phases of the NAM. However, the anomalous flux divergence is very noisy everywhere due to the noisiness of the advective horizontal flux, making it difficult to ascertain the role of the high-frequency transients in the destruction of the NAM.

  2. Stability of the Superconducting d-Wave Pairing Toward the Intersite Coulomb Repulsion in CuO_2 Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val'kov, V. V.; Dzebisashvili, D. M.; Korovushkin, M. M.; Barabanov, A. F.

    2018-06-01

    Taking into account the real crystalline structure of the CuO_2 plane and the strong spin-fermion coupling, we study the influence of the intersite Coulomb repulsion between holes on the Cooper instability of the spin-polaron quasiparticles in cuprate superconductors. The analysis shows that only the superconducting d-wave pairing is implemented in the whole region of doping, whereas the solutions of the self-consistent equations for the s-wave pairing are absent. It is shown that intersite Coulomb interaction V_1 between the holes located at the nearest oxygen ions does not affect the d-wave pairing, because its Fourier transform V_q vanishes in the kernel of the corresponding integral equation. The intersite Coulomb interaction V_2 of quasiparticles located at the next-nearest oxygen ions does not vanish in the integral equations, however, but it is also shown that the d-wave pairing is robust toward this interaction for physically reasonable values of V_2.

  3. The right circular polarized waves in the three-dimensional anisotropic dispersive photonic crystals consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material as the Faraday effects considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Tang, Yi-Jun; Zhen, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the properties of the right circular polarized (RCP) waves in the three-dimensional (3D) dispersive photonic crystals (PCs) consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, which the homogeneous anisotropic dielectric spheres (the uniaxial material) immersed in the magnetized plasma background, as the Faraday effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is parallel to the external magnetic field at any time). The equations for calculating the anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for the RCP waves in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and a flatbands region can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, anisotropic dielectric filling factor, plasma frequency, and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field) on the properties of first two anisotropic PBGs for the RCP waves are investigated in detail, respectively. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in fcc lattices at U and W points, and the complete PBGs for the RCP waves can be achieved compared to the conventional 3D dispersive PCs composed of the magnetized plasma and isotropic material. It is also shown that the first two anisotropic PBGs can be tuned by those parameters as mentioned above. Those PBGs can be enlarged by introducing the uniaxial material into such 3D PCs as the Faraday effects are considered

  4. Restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and subwavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gawhary, Omar; Schilder, Nick J; Costa Assafrao, Alberto da; Pereira, Silvania F; Paul Urbach, H

    2012-01-01

    It was predicted a few years ago that a medium with negative index of refraction would allow for perfect imaging. Although no material has been found so far that behaves as a perfect lens, some experiments confirmed the theoretical predictions in the near-field, or quasi-static, regime where the behaviour of a negative index medium can be mimicked by a thin layer of noble metal, such as silver. These results are normally attributed to the excitation of surface plasmons in the metal, which only leads to the restoration of p-polarized evanescent waves. In this work, we show that the restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and, correspondingly, sub-wavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab are possible. Specifically, we show that at λ = 632 nm a thin layer of GaAs behaves as a superlens for s-polarized waves. Replacing the single-metal slab by a dielectric is not only convenient from a technical point of view, it being much easier to deposit and control the thickness and flatness of dielectric films than metal ones, but also invites us to re-think the connection between surface plasmon excitation and the theory of negative refraction. (paper)

  5. Scattering of polarized electrons from polarized targets: Coincidence reactions and prescriptions for polarized half-off-shell single-nucleon cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, J.A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Donnelly, T.W.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Poulis, G.I.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1993-01-01

    Coincidence reactions of the type vector A( vector e, e'N)B involving the scattering of polarized electrons from polarized targets are discussed within the context of the plane-wave impulse approximation. Prescriptions are developed for polarized half-off single-nucleon cross sections; the different prescriptions are compared for typical quasi-free kinematics. Illustrative results are presented for coincidence polarized electron scattering from typical polarized nuclei. (orig.)

  6. Reflection of Plane Waves in Generalized Thermoelastic Half Space under the Action of Uniform Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narottam Maity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflection of longitudinal displacement waves in a generalized thermoelastic half space under the action of uniform magnetic field has been investigated. The magnetic field is applied in such a direction that the problem can be considered as a two-dimensional one. The discussion is based on the three theories of generalized thermoelasticity: Lord-Shulman (L-S, Green-Lindsay (G-L, and Green-Naghdi (G-N with energy dissipation. We compute the possible wave velocities for different models. Amplitude ratios have been presented. The effects of magnetic field on various subjects of interest are discussed and shown graphically.

  7. Connection between in-plane upper critical field Hc 2 and gap symmetry in layered d -wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Liu, Guo-Zhu; Zhang, Chang-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Angle-resolved upper critical field Hc 2 provides an efficient tool to probe the gap symmetry of unconventional superconductors. We revisit the behavior of in-plane Hc 2 in d -wave superconductors by considering both the orbital effect and Pauli paramagnetic effect. After carrying out systematic analysis, we show that the maxima of Hc 2 could be along either nodal or antinodal directions of a d -wave superconducting gap, depending on the specific values of a number of tuning parameters. This behavior is in contrast to the common belief that the maxima of in-plane Hc 2 are along the direction where the superconducting gap takes its maximal value. Therefore, identifying the precise d -wave gap symmetry through fitting experiments results of angle-resolved Hc 2 with model calculations at a fixed temperature, as widely used in previous studies, is difficult and practically unreliable. However, our extensive analysis of angle-resolved Hc 2 show that there is a critical temperature T*: in-plane Hc 2 exhibits its maxima along nodal directions at T change as other parameters vary, but the existence of π /4 shift of Hc 2 at T* appears to be a general feature. Thus a better method to identify the precise d -wave gap symmetry is to measure Hc 2 at a number of different temperatures, and examine whether there is a π /4 shift in its angular dependence at certain T*. We further show that Landau level mixing does not change this general feature. However, in the presence of Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state, the angular dependence of Hc 2 becomes quite complicated, which makes it more difficult to determine the gap symmetry by measuring Hc 2. Our results indicate that some previous studies on the gap symmetry of CeCu2Si2 are unreliable and need to be reexamined, and also provide a candidate solution to an experimental discrepancy in the angle-resolved Hc 2 in CeCoIn5.

  8. Polarized photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on r-plane sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundys, D., E-mail: dmytro.kundys@manchester.ac.uk; Sutherland, D.; Badcock, T. J.; Dawson, P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Schulz, S. [Photonics Theory group, Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Oehler, F.; Kappers, M. J.; Oliver, R. A.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-21

    We have performed a detailed study of the impact of basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) on the optical properties of both a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) and GaN template samples grown on r-sapphire. In particular, we have used polarised photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (P-PLE) to investigate the nature of the low temperature recombination as well as extracting information on the valence band (VB) polarisation anisotropy. Our low temperature P-PLE results revealed not only excitons associated with intersubband quantum well transitions and the GaN barrier material but also a transition associated with creation of excitons in BSFs. The strength of this BSF transition varied with detection energy across the quantum well emission suggesting that there is a significant contribution to the emission line width from changes in the local electronic environment of the QWs due to interactions with BSFs. Furthermore, we observed a corresponding progressive increase in the VB splitting of the QWs as the detection energy was varied across the quantum well emission spectrum.

  9. Deciphering inflation with gravitational waves: Cosmic microwave background polarization vs direct detection with laser interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Tristan L.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Cooray, Asantha

    2006-01-01

    A detection of the primordial gravitational wave background is considered to be the 'smoking-gun' evidence for inflation. While superhorizon waves are probed with cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization, the relic background will be studied with laser interferometers. The long lever arm spanned by the two techniques improves constraints on the inflationary potential and validation of consistency relations expected under inflation. If gravitational waves with a tensor-to-scalar amplitude ratio greater than 0.01 are detected by the CMB, then a direct-detection experiment with a sensitivity consistent with current concept studies should be pursued vigorously. If no primordial tensors are detected by the CMB, a direct-detection experiment to understand the simplest form of inflation must have a sensitivity improved by two to 3 orders of magnitude over current plans

  10. THz-waves channeling in a monolithic saddle-coil for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macor, A.; de Rijk, E.; Annino, G.; Alberti, S.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    2011-10-01

    A saddle coil manufactured by electric discharge machining (EDM) from a solid piece of copper has recently been realized at EPFL for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiments (DNP-NMR) at 9.4 T. The corresponding electromagnetic behavior of radio-frequency (400 MHz) and THz (263 GHz) waves were studied by numerical simulation in various measurement configurations. Moreover, we present an experimental method by which the results of the THz-wave numerical modeling are validated. On the basis of the good agreement between numerical and experimental results, we conducted by numerical simulation a systematic analysis on the influence of the coil geometry and of the sample properties on the THz-wave field, which is crucial in view of the optimization of DNP-NMR in solids.

  11. Reflection of plane waves from free surface of a microstretch elastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Department of Mathematics, Jat College, Rohtak 124 001, Haryana, India. e-mail: baljeet−gill@hotmail.com. In the present investigation, it is shown that there exists five basic waves in a ..... in layered media, (New York: McGraw-Hill). Gauthier ...

  12. Prediction of Vertical-Plane Wave Loading and Ship Responses in High Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Xia, J.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2000-01-01

    The non-linearities in wave- and slamming-induced rigid-body motions and structural responses of ships such as heave, pitch and vertical bending moments are consistently investigated based on a rational time-domain strip method. A hydrodynamic model for predicting sectional green water force is a...

  13. Boundary attenuation angles for inhomogeneous plane waves in anisotropic dissipative media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 3 (2011), WA51-WA62 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/0117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : attenuation angles * seismic waves * seismic anisotropy Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.418, year: 2011

  14. The Interaction between the Plane Wave and the Plate with Limited Height in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Lokteva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A solution of the two-dimensional task on interaction between the harmonic wave and the plate with the limited height in soil has been provided. The plate surrounded on both sides with the half-spaces filled with soil medium has been used as a vibro-absorbing obstacle. The mechanical behavior of the plate has been described by S.P. Timoshenko's shift model and the mechanical behavior of soil by a linear elasticity theory equation. The main purpose of the paper is to determine the total acceleration vector field inducted by the penetrated and radiated waves in the second half-space. The mathematical formulation of the task includes a model of upcoming wave, soil medium and plate movement equation, infinity conditions, and conditions of soil contact with obstacle. Conditions of free slip have been taken as the contact conditions between the soil and the obstacle. We have considered a closed system of equations, which includes wave equations for scalar and vector potentials, elasticity theory equations for soil mediums, Koshi's relations, physical law, and plate movement equation. The boundary conditions for the plate correspond to a hinged support. To solve this task, all functions have been expanded in trigonometric series that allowed to obtain potential values in the coefficients of the series. To define the integrations constants, the contact conditions between the obstacle and soil have been used. On the basis of the revealed potentials, we have defined displacements on the boundary between the plate and soil and in other points of the second half-space. The vibro-absorbing properties of the plate have been investigated depending on the frequency of the harmonic wave falling on the plate. From the practical point of view, this task is related to protection of buildings from vibrations formed at a distance from underground railways.

  15. Broadband Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion Based on Non-Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate broadband polarization-insensitive one-to-two wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s DPSK data signal based on non-degenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements.......We experimentally demonstrate broadband polarization-insensitive one-to-two wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s DPSK data signal based on non-degenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements....

  16. Determination of Focal Mechanisms of Non-Volcanic Tremors Based on S-Wave Polarization Data Corrected for the Effects of Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, K.; Uchide, T.; Takeda, N.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a method to determine focal mechanisms of non-volcanic tremors (NVTs) based on S-wave polarization angles. The successful retrieval of polarization angles in low S/N tremor signals owes much to the observation that NVTs propagate slowly and therefore they do not change their location immediately. This feature of NVTs enables us to use a longer window to compute a polarization angle (e.g., one minute or longer), resulting in a stack of particle motions. Following Zhang and Schwartz (1994), we first correct for the splitting effect to recover the source polarization angle (anisotropy-corrected angle). This is a key step, because shear-wave splitting distorts the particle motion excited by a seismic source. We then determine the best double-couple solution using anisotropy-corrected angles of multiple stations. The present method was applied to a tremor sequence at Kii Peninsula, southwest Japan, which occurred at the beginning of April 2013. A standard splitting and polarization analysis were subject to a one-minute-long moving window to determine the splitting parameters as well as anisotropy-corrected angles. A grid search approach was performed at each hour to determine the best double-couple solution satisfying one-hour average polarization angles. Most solutions show NW-dipping low-angle planes consistent with the plate boundary or SE-dipping high-angle planes. Because of 180 degrees ambiguity in polarization angles, the present method alone cannot distinguish compressional quadrant from dilatational one. Together with the observation of very low-frequency earthquakes near the present study area (Ito et al., 2007), it is reasonable to consider that they represent shear slip on low-angle thrust faults. It is also noted that some of solutions contain strike-slip component. Acknowledgements: Seismograph stations used in this study include permanent stations operated by NIED (Hi-net), JMA, Earthquake Research Institute, together with Geological Survey of

  17. Two-body Schrödinger wave functions in a plane-wave basis via separation of dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerke, Jonathan; Poirier, Bill

    2018-03-01

    Using a combination of ideas, the ground and several excited electronic states of the helium atom and the hydrogen molecule are computed to chemical accuracy—i.e., to within 1-2 mhartree or better. The basic strategy is very different from the standard electronic structure approach in that the full two-electron six-dimensional (6D) problem is tackled directly, rather than starting from a single-electron Hartree-Fock approximation. Electron correlation is thus treated exactly, even though computational requirements remain modest. The method also allows for exact wave functions to be computed, as well as energy levels. From the full-dimensional 6D wave functions computed here, radial distribution functions and radial correlation functions are extracted—as well as a 2D probability density function exhibiting antisymmetry for a single Cartesian component. These calculations support a more recent interpretation of Hund's rule, which states that the lower energy of the higher spin-multiplicity states is actually due to reduced screening, rather than reduced electron-electron repulsion. Prospects for larger systems and/or electron dynamics applications appear promising.

  18. Evaluation of mode purity of ordinary and extraordinary modes by fixed elliptically polarized wave for ECH and ECCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, Mikio

    1991-08-01

    Mode separation ratio from an arbitrary elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave to an ordinary and an extraordinary modes on a plasma surface for oblique launch is evaluated quantitatively for designing an electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) antenna. An optimized elliptical polarization for the wide range of injection angles and magnetic fields is firstly investigated for ECCD and ECH experiments. (author)

  19. Formation of the reflected and refracted s-polarized electromagnetic waves in the Fresnel problem for the boundary vacuum-metamaterial from the viewpoint of molecular optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbukh, B. B.; Averbukh, I. B.

    2016-11-01

    The refraction of a plane s-polarized electromagnetic wave on the vacuum-metamaterial interface is considered. Point particles with electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities are scattering elements of a medium. The medium consists of plane-parallel monolayers of electric or magnetic dipoles or Huygens elements influencing one another. Dipole fields are completely taken into account. The fields inside the medium and the reflected fields are calculated. The extinction theorem is analyzed in detail. The mechanism of rotation of the magnetic field vector during refraction is elucidated. A reason for the absence of the fourth wave propagating from the medium toward the boundary in the conventionally employed boundary conditions is elucidated. It is shown that, under certain conditions, this medium can behave as possessing a unity refractive index or zero refractive index at a preset frequency. In the case of a metamaterial layer of finite thickness shows the output region of the existence of backward waves outside metamaterial layer. It is shown that the refraction of the field in a homogeneous medium after the dielectric corresponds to Fermat's principle, and the interference nature of Fermat's principle is justified.

  20. Bloch Surface Waves Using Graphene Layers: An Approach toward In-Plane Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Dubey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A dielectric multilayer platform was investigated as a foundation for two-dimensional optics. In this paper, we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of absorption of Bloch surface waves in the presence of graphene layers. Graphene is initially grown on a Cu foil via Chemical Vapor Deposition and transferred layer by layer by a wet-transfer method using poly(methyl methacrylate, (PMMA. We exploit total internal reflection configuration and multi-heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy as a far-field coupling method and near-field characterization tool, respectively. The absorption is quantified in terms of propagation lengths of Bloch surface waves. A significant drop in the propagation length of the BSWs is observed in the presence of graphene layers. The propagation length of BSWs in bare multilayer is reduced to 17 times shorter in presence of graphene monolayer, and 23 times shorter for graphene bilayer.

  1. Arbitrary beam control using passive lossless metasurfaces enabled by orthogonally polarized custom surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Tretyakov, Sergei A.

    2018-01-01

    For passive, lossless impenetrable metasurfaces, a design technique for arbitrary beam control of receiving, guiding, and launching is presented. Arbitrary control is enabled by a custom surface wave in an orthogonal polarization such that its addition to the incident (input) and the desired scattered (output) fields is supported by a reactive surface impedance everywhere on the reflecting surface. Such a custom surface wave (SW) takes the form of an evanescent wave propagating along the surface with a spatially varying envelope. A growing SW appears when an illuminating beam is received. The SW amplitude stays constant when power is guided along the surface. The amplitude diminishes as a propagating wave (PW) is launched from the surface as a leaky wave. The resulting reactive tensor impedance profile may be realized as an array of anisotropic metallic resonators printed on a grounded dielectric substrate. Illustrative design examples of a Gaussian beam translator-reflector, a probe-fed beam launcher, and a near-field focusing lens are provided.

  2. Nonlinear Right-Hand Polarized Wave in Plasma in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    The propagation of a nonlinear right-hand polarized wave along an external magnetic field in subcritical plasma in the electron cyclotron resonance region is studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that a small-amplitude plasma wave excited in low-density plasma is unstable against modulation instability with a modulation period equal to the wavelength of the excited wave. The modulation amplitude in this case increases with decreasing detuning from the resonance frequency. The simulations have shown that, for large-amplitude waves of the laser frequency range propagating in plasma in a superstrong magnetic field, the maximum amplitude of the excited longitudinal electric field increases with the increasing external magnetic field and can reach 30% of the initial amplitude of the electric field in the laser wave. In this case, the energy of plasma electrons begins to substantially increase already at magnetic fields significantly lower than the resonance value. The laser energy transferred to plasma electrons in a strong external magnetic field is found to increase severalfold compared to that in isotropic plasma. It is shown that this mechanism of laser radiation absorption depends only slightly on the electron temperature.

  3. Time-domain analytic solutions of two-wire transmission line excited by a plane-wave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Guyan; Yan Li; Yuan Naichang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that an analytic method is used to calculate the load responses of the two-wire transmission line excited by a plane-wave directly in the time domain. By the frequency-domain Baum–Liu–Tesche (BLT) equation, the time-domain analytic solutions are obtained and expressed in an infinite geometric series. Moreover, it is shown that there exist only finite nonzero terms in the infinite geometric series if the time variate is at a finite interval. In other word, the time-domain analytic solutions are expanded in a finite geometric series indeed if the time variate is at a finite interval. The computed results are subsequently compared with transient responses obtained by using the frequency-domain BLT equation via a fast Fourier transform, and the agreement is excellent. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  4. Time-domain analytic Solutions of two-wire transmission line excited by a plane-wave field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Gu-Yan; Yan Li; Yuan Nai-Chang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that an analytic method is used to calculate the load responses of the two-wire transmission line excited by a plane-wave directly in the time domain.By the frequency-domain Baum-Liu-Tesche(BLT)equation,the time-domain analytic solutions are obtained and expressed in an infinite geometric series.Moreover,it is shown that there exist only finite nonzero terms in the infinite geometric series if the time variate is at a finite interval.In other word.the time-domain analytic solutions are expanded in a finite geometric series indeed if the time variate is at a finite interval.The computed results are subsequently compared with transient responses obtained by using the frequency-domain BLT equation via a fast Fourier transform,and the agreement is excellent.

  5. Mobile Ultrasound Plane Wave Beamforming on iPhone or iPad using Metal- based GPU Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewener, Holger J.; Tretbar, Steffen H.

    Mobile and cost effective ultrasound devices are being used in point of care scenarios or the drama room. To reduce the costs of such devices we already presented the possibilities of consumer devices like the Apple iPad for full signal processing of raw data for ultrasound image generation. Using technologies like plane wave imaging to generate a full image with only one excitation/reception event the acquisition times and power consumption of ultrasound imaging can be reduced for low power mobile devices based on consumer electronics realizing the transition from FPGA or ASIC based beamforming into more flexible software beamforming. The massive parallel beamforming processing can be done with the Apple framework "Metal" for advanced graphics and general purpose GPU processing for the iOS platform. We were able to integrate the beamforming reconstruction into our mobile ultrasound processing application with imaging rates up to 70 Hz on iPad Air 2 hardware.

  6. The MaCWAVE program to study gravity wave influences on the polar mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Goldberg

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically was a highly coordinated rocket, ground-based, and satellite program designed to address gravity wave forcing of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT. The MaCWAVE program was conducted at the Norwegian Andøya Rocket Range (ARR, 69.3° N in July 2002, and continued at the Swedish Rocket Range (Esrange, 67.9° N during January 2003. Correlative instrumentation included the ALOMAR MF and MST radars and RMR and Na lidars, Esrange MST and meteor radars and RMR lidar, radiosondes, and TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite measurements of thermal structures. The data have been used to define both the mean fields and the wave field structures and turbulence generation leading to forcing of the large-scale flow. In summer, launch sequences coupled with ground-based measurements at ARR addressed the forcing of the summer mesopause environment by anticipated convective and shear generated gravity waves. These motions were measured with two 12-h rocket sequences, each involving one Terrier-Orion payload accompanied by a mix of MET rockets, all at ARR in Norway. The MET rockets were used to define the temperature and wind structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Terrier-Orions were designed to measure small-scale plasma fluctuations and turbulence that might be induced by wave breaking in the mesosphere. For the summer series, three European MIDAS (Middle Atmosphere Dynamics and Structure rockets were also launched from ARR in coordination with the MaCWAVE payloads. These were designed to measure plasma and neutral turbulence within the MLT. The summer program exhibited a number of indications of significant departures of the mean wind and temperature structures from ``normal" polar summer conditions, including an unusually warm mesopause and a slowing of the formation of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE and noctilucent clouds (NLC. This

  7. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high

  8. Continuous wave protocol for simultaneous polarization and optical detection of P1-center electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, E. J.; Carvajal, B.; Samarth, N.

    2018-01-01

    The ready optical detection and manipulation of bright nitrogen vacancy center spins in diamond plays a key role in contemporary quantum information science and quantum metrology. Other optically dark defects such as substitutional nitrogen atoms (`P1 centers') could also become potentially useful in this context if they could be as easily optically detected and manipulated. We develop a relatively straightforward continuous wave protocol that takes advantage of the dipolar coupling between nitrogen vacancy and P1 centers in type 1b diamond to detect and polarize the dark P1 spins. By combining mutual spin flip transitions with radio frequency driving, we demonstrate the simultaneous optical polarization and detection of the electron spin resonance of the P1 center. This technique should be applicable to detecting and manipulating a broad range of dark spin populations that couple to the nitrogen vacancy center via dipolar fields, allowing for quantum metrology using these spin populations.

  9. Scalable Background-Limited Polarization-Sensitive Detectors for mm-wave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostem, Karwan; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe A.; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin L.; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Marriage, Tobias A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report on the status and development of polarization-sensitive detectors for millimeter-wave applications. The detectors are fabricated on single-crystal silicon, which functions as a low-loss dielectric substrate for the microwave circuitry as well as the supporting membrane for the Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. The orthomode transducer (OMT) is realized as a symmetric structure and on-chip filters are employed to define the detection bandwidth. A hybridized integrated enclosure reduces the high-frequency THz mode set that can couple to the TES bolometers. An implementation of the detector architecture at Q-band achieves 90% efficiency in each polarization. The design is scalable in both frequency coverage, 30-300 GHz, and in number of detectors with uniform characteristics. Hence, the detectors are desirable for ground-based or space-borne instruments that require large arrays of efficient background-limited cryogenic detectors.

  10. Polarized Kink Waves in Magnetic Elements: Evidence for Chromospheric Helical Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangalini, M.; Giannattasio, F. [INAF-OAR National Institute for Astrophysics, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone (RM) (Italy); Erdélyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Jafarzadeh, S. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Consolini, G.; Ermolli, I. [INAF-IAPS National Institute for Astrophysics, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Criscuoli, S. [NSO, National Solar Observatory, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F., E-mail: marco.stangalini@inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95125 Catania (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, new high spatial resolution observations of the Sun's atmosphere have revealed the presence of a plethora of small-scale magnetic elements down to the resolution limit of the current cohort of solar telescopes (∼100–120 km on the solar photosphere). These small magnetic field concentrations, due to the granular buffeting, can support and guide several magnetohydrodynamic wave modes that would eventually contribute to the energy budget of the upper layers of the atmosphere. In this work, exploiting the high spatial and temporal resolution chromospheric data acquired with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope, and applying the empirical mode decomposition technique to the tracking of the solar magnetic features, we analyze the perturbations of the horizontal velocity vector of a set of chromospheric magnetic elements. We find observational evidence that suggests a phase relation between the two components of the velocity vector itself, resulting in its helical motion.

  11. Plane wave analysis of coherent holographic image reconstruction by phase transfer (CHIRPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Jeffrey J; Winters, David G; Bartels, Randy A

    2015-11-01

    Fluorescent imaging plays a critical role in a myriad of scientific endeavors, particularly in the biological sciences. Three-dimensional imaging of fluorescent intensity often requires serial data acquisition, that is, voxel-by-voxel collection of fluorescent light emitted throughout the specimen with a nonimaging single-element detector. While nonimaging fluorescence detection offers some measure of scattering robustness, the rate at which dynamic specimens can be imaged is severely limited. Other fluorescent imaging techniques utilize imaging detection to enhance collection rates. A notable example is light-sheet fluorescence microscopy, also known as selective-plane illumination microscopy, which illuminates a large region within the specimen and collects emitted fluorescent light at an angle either perpendicular or oblique to the illumination light sheet. Unfortunately, scattering of the emitted fluorescent light can cause blurring of the collected images in highly turbid biological media. We recently introduced an imaging technique called coherent holographic image reconstruction by phase transfer (CHIRPT) that combines light-sheet-like illumination with nonimaging fluorescent light detection. By combining the speed of light-sheet illumination with the scattering robustness of nonimaging detection, CHIRPT is poised to have a dramatic impact on biological imaging, particularly for in vivo preparations. Here we present the mathematical formalism for CHIRPT imaging under spatially coherent illumination and present experimental data that verifies the theoretical model.

  12. Phase dispersion of Raman and Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixings in femtosecond polarization beats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhao; Zhi-Qiang, Nie; Chang-Biao, Li; Yan-Peng, Zhang; Chen-Li, Gan; Huai-Bin, Zheng; Yuan-Yuan, Li; Ke-Qing, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Based on color-locking noisy field correlation in three Markovian stochastic models, phase dispersions of the Raman- and Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixing (FWM) have been investigated. The phase dispersions are modified by both linewidth and time delay for negative time delay, but only by linewidth for positive time delay. Moreover, the results under narrowband condition are close to the nonmodified nonlinear dispersion and absorption of the material. Homodyne and heterodyne detections of the Raman, the Rayleigh and the mixing femtosecond difference-frequency polarization beats have also been investigated, separately

  13. Enhanced polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation from thermal gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh

    2006-12-22

    If inflation was preceded by a radiation era, then at the time of inflation there will exist a decoupled thermal distribution of gravitons. Gravitational waves generated during inflation will be amplified by the process of stimulated emission into the existing thermal distribution of gravitons. Consequently, the usual zero temperature scale invariant tensor spectrum is modified by a temperature dependent factor. This thermal correction factor amplifies the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation by an order of magnitude at large angles, which may now be in the range of observability of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe.

  14. Bistable states of TM polarized non-linear waves guided by symmetric layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, D.

    1985-04-01

    Dispersion relations for TM polarized non-linear waves propagating in a symmetric single film optical waveguide are derived. The system consists of a layer of thickness d with dielectric constant epsilon 1 bounded at two sides by a non-linear medium characterized by the diagonal dielectric tensor epsilon 11 =epsilon 22 =epsilon 0 , epsilon 33 =epsilon 0 +α|E 3 | 2 , where E 3 is the normal electric field component. For sufficiently large d/lambda (lambda is the wavelength) we predict bistable states of both symmetric and antisymmetric modes provided that the power flow is the control parameter. (author)

  15. Thin-film VO2 submillimeter-wave modulators and polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J.C.C.; Fetterman, H.R.; Bachner, F.J.; Zavracky, P.M.; Parker, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    Submillimeter-wave modulators and switchable polarizers have been fabricated from VO 2 thin films deposited on sapphire substrates. By passing electric current pulses through elements made from these films, the films can be thermally cycled through the insulator-to-metal transition that occurs in VO 2 at about 65 degreeC. In the insulating state, the films are found to have negligible effect on the transmission at submillimeter wavelengths, while above the phase transition the transmission is strongly reduced by the free-electron effects characteristic of a metal. Other possible applications of such switchable VO 2 elements include variable bandpass filters and diffraction grating beam-steering devices

  16. Gravitational waves from nonlinear couplings of radial and polar nonradial modes in relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passamonti, Andrea; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Nagar, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    The postbounce oscillations of newly-born relativistic stars are expected to lead to gravitational-wave emission through the excitation of nonradial oscillation modes. At the same time, the star is oscillating in its radial modes, with a central density variation that can reach several percent. Nonlinear couplings between radial oscillations and polar nonradial modes lead to the appearance of combination frequencies (sums and differences of the linear mode frequencies). We study such combination frequencies using a gauge-invariant perturbative formalism, which includes bilinear coupling terms between different oscillation modes. For typical values of the energy stored in each mode we find that gravitational waves emitted at combination frequencies could become detectable in galactic core-collapse supernovae with advanced interferometric or wideband resonant detectors

  17. Lower Hybrid Frequency Range Waves Generated by Ion Polarization Drift Due to Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Analysis of an Event Observed by the Van Allen Probe B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Boardsen, S.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Sibeck, D.; Chen, S.; Breneman, A.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze a wave event that occurred near noon between 07:03 and 07:08 UT on 23 February 2014 detected by the Van Allen Probes B spacecraft, where waves in the lower hybrid frequency range (LHFR) and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are observed to be highly correlated, with Pearson correlation coefficient of approximately 0.86. We assume that the correlation is the result of LHFR wave generation by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of the EMIC waves. To check this assumption the drift velocities of electrons and H+, He+, and O+ ions in the measured EMIC wave electric field were modeled. Then the LHFR wave linear instantaneous growth rates for plasma with these changing drift velocities and different plasma compositions were calculated. The time distribution of these growth rates, their frequency distribution, and the frequency dependence of the ratio of the LHFR wave power spectral density (PSD)parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic eld to the total PSD were found. These characteristics of the growth rates were compared with the corresponding characteristics of the observed LHFR activity. Reasonable agreement between these features and the strong correlation between EMIC and LHFR energy densities support the assumption that the LHFR wave generation can be caused by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of an EMIC wave.

  18. In-plane polarization dependence of (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} single crystals studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafari, A., E-mail: ghafari@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Newtonstr., 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14 km 163.5, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Ariffin, A.K. [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Newtonstr., 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim (Malaysia); Janowitz, C., E-mail: christoph.janowitz@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Newtonstr., 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Dwelk, H.; Krapf, A.; Manzke, R. [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Newtonstr., 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    The effects of in-plane polarization change on the determination of the hole density of weakly under-doped (Bi, Pb)-2212 single crystals has been studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The XAS signal at the CuL{sub 3} edge (925–940 eV) and O K edge (525 eV to 539 eV) were recorded under continuous rotation of the CuO{sub 2} plane from 0° to 180° with a minimum increment of 1.8°, yielding experimentally an in-plane polarization dependence for the absorption signals at the respective threshold. From that the in-plane angular dependence of the hole density (n{sub H}(φ)) could be determined. Fermi's golden rule was then used for the evaluation of the in-plane polarization dependence showing the expected polarization independence in disaccord to the experimental observations. Possible scenarios to solve this issue are discussed. Our results propose that polarization dependence could be due to inhomogeneous distribution of holes in the CuO{sub 2} planes which is also supported by models. Second, the role of out of plane orbitals has to be taken into account for interpretation.

  19. Model test study on propagation law of plane stress wave in jointed rock mass under different in-situ stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian

    2017-12-01

    The study of propagation law of plane stress wave in jointed rock mass under in-situ stress has important significance for safety excavation of underground rock mass engineering. A model test of the blasting stress waves propagating in the intact rock and jointed rock mass under different in-situ stresses was carried out, and the influencing factors on the propagation law, such as the scale of static loads and the number of joints were studied respectively. The results show that the transmission coefficient of intact rock is larger than that of jointed rock mass under the same loading condition. With the increase of confining pressure, the transmission coefficients of intact rock and jointed rock mass both show an trend of increasing first and then decreasing, and the variation of transmission coefficients in intact rock is smaller than that of jointed rock mass. Transmission coefficient of jointed rock mass decreases with the increase of the number of joints under the same loading condition, when the confining pressure is relatively small, the reduction of transmission coefficients decreases with the increasing of the number of joints, and the variation law of the reduction of transmission coefficients is contrary when the confining pressure is large.

  20. On AdS/CFT correspondence beyond SUGRA: plane waves, free CFTs and double-trace deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Vazquez, D.E.

    2007-09-13

    This thesis deals with three corners of the AdS/CFT Correspondence that lie one step beyond the classical supergravity (SUGRA) approximation. We first explore the BMN limit of the duality and study, in particular, the behavior of field theoretic propagators in the corresponding Penrose limit. We unravel the semiclassical (WKB-) exactness of the propagators in the resulting plane wave background metric. Then, we address the limit of vanishing coupling of the conformal field theory (CFT) at large N. In the simplified scenario of Higher Spin/O(N) Vector Model duality, the conformal partial wave (CPW) expansion of scalar four-point functions are reorganized to make them suggestive of a bulk interpretation in term of a consistent truncated massless higher spin theory and their corresponding exchange Witten graphs. We also explore the connection to the interacting O(N) Vector Model at its infra-red fixed point, at leading large N. Finally, coming back to the gauge theory, we study the effect of a relevant double-trace deformations of the boundary CFT on the partition function and its dual bulk interpretation. We show how the one-loop computation in the Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space correctly reproduces the partition function and conformal anomaly of the boundary theory. In all, we get a clean test of the duality beyond the classical SUGRA approximation in the AdS bulk and at the corresponding next-to-leading 1/N order of the CFT at the conformal boundary. (orig.)

  1. On AdS/CFT correspondence beyond SUGRA: plane waves, free CFTs and double-trace deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Vazquez, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with three corners of the AdS/CFT Correspondence that lie one step beyond the classical supergravity (SUGRA) approximation. We first explore the BMN limit of the duality and study, in particular, the behavior of field theoretic propagators in the corresponding Penrose limit. We unravel the semiclassical (WKB-) exactness of the propagators in the resulting plane wave background metric. Then, we address the limit of vanishing coupling of the conformal field theory (CFT) at large N. In the simplified scenario of Higher Spin/O(N) Vector Model duality, the conformal partial wave (CPW) expansion of scalar four-point functions are reorganized to make them suggestive of a bulk interpretation in term of a consistent truncated massless higher spin theory and their corresponding exchange Witten graphs. We also explore the connection to the interacting O(N) Vector Model at its infra-red fixed point, at leading large N. Finally, coming back to the gauge theory, we study the effect of a relevant double-trace deformations of the boundary CFT on the partition function and its dual bulk interpretation. We show how the one-loop computation in the Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space correctly reproduces the partition function and conformal anomaly of the boundary theory. In all, we get a clean test of the duality beyond the classical SUGRA approximation in the AdS bulk and at the corresponding next-to-leading 1/N order of the CFT at the conformal boundary. (orig.)

  2. Fermi wave vector for the partially spin-polarized composite-fermion Fermi sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Jain, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The fully spin-polarized composite-fermion (CF) Fermi sea at the half-filled lowest Landau level has a Fermi wave vector kF*=√{4 π ρe } , where ρe is the density of electrons or composite fermions, supporting the notion that the interaction between composite fermions can be treated perturbatively. Away from ν =1 /2 , the area is seen to be consistent with kF*=√{4 π ρe } for ν 1 /2 , where ρh is the density of holes in the lowest Landau level. This result is consistent with particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level. We investigate in this article the Fermi wave vector of the spin-singlet CF Fermi sea (CFFS) at ν =1 /2 , for which particle-hole symmetry is not a consideration. Using the microscopic CF theory, we find that for the spin-singlet CFFS the Fermi wave vectors for up- and down-spin CFFSs at ν =1 /2 are consistent with kF*↑,↓=√{4 π ρe↑,↓ } , where ρe↑=ρe↓=ρe/2 , which implies that the residual interactions between composite fermions do not cause a nonperturbative correction for spin-singlet CFFS either. Our results suggest the natural conjecture that for arbitrary spin polarization the CF Fermi wave vectors are given by kF*↑=√{4 π ρe↑ } and kF*↓=√{4 π ρe↓ } .

  3. ACCELERATING WAVES IN POLAR CORONAL HOLES AS SEEN BY EIS AND SUMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G. R.; Banerjee, D.; Teriaca, L.; Solanki, S.; Imada, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present EIS/Hinode and SUMER/SOHO observations of propagating disturbances detected in coronal lines in inter-plume and plume regions of a polar coronal hole. The observation was carried out on 2007 November 13 as part of the JOP196/HOP045 program. The SUMER spectroscopic observation gives information about fluctuations in radiance and on both resolved (Doppler shift) and unresolved (Doppler width) line-of-sight velocities, whereas EIS 40'' wide slot images detect fluctuations only in radiance but maximize the probability of overlapping field of view between the two instruments. From distance-time radiance maps, we detect the presence of propagating waves in a polar inter-plume region with a period of 15-20 minutes and a propagation speed increasing from 130 ± 14 km s -1 just above the limb to 330 ± 140 km s -1 around 160'' above the limb. These waves can be traced to originate from a bright region of the on-disk part of the coronal hole where the propagation speed is in the range of 25 ± 1.3 to 38 ± 4.5 km s -1 , with the same periodicity. These on-disk bright regions can be visualized as the base of the coronal funnels. The adjacent plume region also shows the presence of propagating disturbances with the same range of periodicity but with propagation speeds in the range of 135 ± 18 to 165 ± 43 km s -1 only. A comparison between the distance-time radiance map of the two regions indicates that the waves within the plumes are not observable (may be getting dissipated) far off-limb, whereas this is not the case in the inter-plume region. A correlation analysis was also performed to find out the time delay between the oscillations at several heights in the off-limb region, finding results consistent with those from the analysis of the distance-time maps. To our knowledge, this result provides first spectroscopic evidence of the acceleration of propagating disturbances in the polar region close to the Sun (within 1.2 R/R sun ), which provides clues to the

  4. Determining Ocean-Bottom Seismometer Orientations from the RHUM-RUM experiment from P-wave and Rayleigh wave polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, John-Robert; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Sigloch, Karin

    2016-04-01

    sensor orientations. In this study, we analyzed particle motions of P-waves (P-pol) and of Rayleigh waves (R-pol) to quantify the orientation of each of the 57 OBS. We performed 213 polarization measurements based on 35 earthquakes for P-pol, and 381 polarization measurements based on 48 earthquakes for R-pol. This allowed us to successfully determine the North/South orientations for 40 out of 57 OBS: 13 stations were devoid of usable data and 4 stations were too noisy. From twice the standard deviation (95% confidence interval), we estimate the errors between 1° and 20°.

  5. Quantum mechanical systems interacting with different polarizations of gravitational waves in noncommutative phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anirban; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Saha, Swarup

    2018-02-01

    Owing to the extreme smallness of any noncommutative scale that may exist in nature, both in the spatial and momentum sector of the quantum phase space, a credible possibility of their detection lies in the gravitational wave (GW) detection scenario, where one effectively probes the relative length-scale variations ˜O [10-20-10-23] . With this motivation, we have theoretically constructed how a free particle and a harmonic oscillator will respond to linearly and circularly polarized gravitational waves if their quantum mechanical phase space has a noncommutative structure. We critically analyze the formal solutions which show resonance behavior in the responses of both free particle and HO systems to GW with both kind of polarizations. We discuss the possible implications of these solutions in detecting noncommutativity in a GW detection experiment. We use the currently available upper-bound estimates on various noncommutative parameters to anticipate the relative importance of various terms in the solutions. We also argue how the quantum harmonic oscillator system we considered here can be very relevant in the context of the resonant bar detectors of GW which are already operational.

  6. Control phase shift of spin-wave by spin-polarized current and its application in logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiangxu; Wang, Qi; Liao, Yulong; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a new ways to control the phase shift of propagating spin waves by applying a local spin-polarized current on ferromagnetic stripe. Micromagnetic simulation showed that a phase shift of about π can be obtained by designing appropriate width and number of pinned magnetic layers. The ways can be adopted in a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer structure to fulfill logic NOT gates based on spin waves. - Highlights: • Spin-wave phase shift can be controlled by a local spin-polarized current. • Spin-wave phase shift increased with the increasing of current density. • Spin-wave phase shift can reach about 0.3π at a particular current density. • The ways can be used in a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer to fulfill logic gates

  7. Precise real-time polarization measurement of terahertz electromagnetic waves by a spinning electro-optic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumatsu, Naoya; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2012-02-01

    We propose and develop a method to quickly and precisely determine the polarization direction of coherent terahertz electromagnetic waves generated by femtosecond laser pulses. The measurement system consists of a conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system with the electro-optic (EO) sampling method, but we add a new functionality in the EO crystal which is continuously rotating with the angular frequency ω. We find a simple yet useful formulation of the EO signal as a function of the crystal orientation, which enables a lock-in-like detection of both the electric-field amplitude and the absolute polarization direction of the terahertz waves with respect to the probe laser pulse polarization direction at the same time. The single measurement finishes around two periods of the crystal rotations (∼21 ms), and we experimentally prove that the accuracy of the polarization measurement does not suffer from the long-term amplitude fluctuation of the terahertz pulses. Distribution of the measured polarization directions by repeating the measurements is excellently fitted by a gaussian distribution function with a standard deviation of σ = 0.56°. The developed technique is useful for the fast direct determination of the polarization state of the terahertz electromagnetic waves for polarization imaging applications as well as the precise terahertz Faraday or Kerr rotation spectroscopy.

  8. Nonlinear waves in viscoelastic magnetized complex astroplasmas with polarized dust-charge variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papari Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonextensive nonthermal magnetized viscoelastic astrofluid, compositionally containing nonthermal electrons and ions together with massive polarized dust micro-spherical grains of variable electric charge, is allowed to endure weakly nonlinear perturbation around its equilibrium. The nonextensivity originating from the large-scale non-local effects is included via the Tsallis thermo-statistical distribution laws describing the lighter species. Assuming the equilibrium as a homogeneous hydrostatic one, the dust polarization effects are incorporated via the conventional homogeneous polarization force law. The perturbed fluid model evolves as a unique conjugate pair of coupled extended Korteweg-de Vries (e-KdV equations. A constructed numerical tapestry shows the collective excitations of a new pair of distinct classes of nonlinear mode structures in new parametric space. The first family indicates periodic electrostatic compressive eigenmodes in the form of soliton-chains. Likewise, the second one reveals gravitational rarefactive solitary patterns. Their microphysical multi-parametric dependencies of the eigen-patterns are illustratively analyzed and bolstered. The paper ends up with some promising implications and applications in the astro-cosmo-plasmic context of wave-induced accretive triggering processes responsible for gravitationally bounded (gravito-condensed astro-structure formation, such as stellesimals, planetsimals, etc.

  9. Nonlinear waves in viscoelastic magnetized complex astroplasmas with polarized dust-charge variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Papari; Karmakar, Pralay Kumar

    2018-01-01

    A nonextensive nonthermal magnetized viscoelastic astrofluid, compositionally containing nonthermal electrons and ions together with massive polarized dust micro-spherical grains of variable electric charge, is allowed to endure weakly nonlinear perturbation around its equilibrium. The nonextensivity originating from the large-scale non-local effects is included via the Tsallis thermo-statistical distribution laws describing the lighter species. Assuming the equilibrium as a homogeneous hydrostatic one, the dust polarization effects are incorporated via the conventional homogeneous polarization force law. The perturbed fluid model evolves as a unique conjugate pair of coupled extended Korteweg-de Vries (e-KdV) equations. A constructed numerical tapestry shows the collective excitations of a new pair of distinct classes of nonlinear mode structures in new parametric space. The first family indicates periodic electrostatic compressive eigenmodes in the form of soliton-chains. Likewise, the second one reveals gravitational rarefactive solitary patterns. Their microphysical multi-parametric dependencies of the eigen-patterns are illustratively analyzed and bolstered. The paper ends up with some promising implications and applications in the astro-cosmo-plasmic context of wave-induced accretive triggering processes responsible for gravitationally bounded (gravito-condensed) astro-structure formation, such as stellesimals, planetsimals, etc.

  10. Detecting primordial gravitational waves with circular polarization of the redshifted 21 cm line. II. Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhilash; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2018-05-01

    In the first paper of this series, we showed that the CMB quadrupole at high redshifts results in a small circular polarization of the emitted 21 cm radiation. In this paper we forecast the sensitivity of future radio experiments to measure the CMB quadrupole during the era of first cosmic light (z ˜20 ). The tomographic measurement of 21 cm circular polarization allows us to construct a 3D remote quadrupole field. Measuring the B -mode component of this remote quadrupole field can be used to put bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r . We make Fisher forecasts for a future Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT), consisting of an array of dipole antennas in a compact grid configuration, as a function of array size and observation time. We find that a FFTT with a side length of 100 km can achieve σ (r )˜4 ×10-3 after ten years of observation and with a sky coverage fsky˜0.7 . The forecasts are dependent on the evolution of the Lyman-α flux in the pre-reionization era, that remains observationally unconstrained. Finally, we calculate the typical order of magnitudes for circular polarization foregrounds and comment on their mitigation strategies. We conclude that detection of primordial gravitational waves with 21 cm observations is in principle possible, so long as the primordial magnetic field amplitude is small, but would require a very futuristic experiment with corresponding advances in calibration and foreground suppression techniques.

  11. Mode and polarization state selected guided wave spectroscopy of orientational anisotrophy in model membrane cellulosic polymer films: relevance to lab-on-a-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mark P.; Kanigan, Tanya

    2007-06-01

    Orientation anisotropies in structural properties relevant to the use of cellulosic polymers as membranes for lab-on-chips were investigated for cellulose acetate (CA) and regenerated cellulose (RC) films deposited as slab waveguides. Anisotropy was probed with mode and polarization state selected guided wave Raman spectroscopy. CA exhibits partial chain orientation in the plane of the film, and this orientation is independent of sample substrate and film preparation conditions. RC films also show in-plane anisotropy, where the hexose sugar rings lie roughly in the plane of the film. Explanations are given of the role of artifacts in interpreting waveguide Raman spectra, including anomalous contributions to Raman spectra that arise from deviations from right angle scattering geometry, mode-dependent contributions to longitudinal electric field components and TETM mode conversion. We explore diffusion profiles of small molecules in cellulosic films by adaptations of an inverse-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (iWKB) recursive, noninteger virtual mode index algorithm. Perturbations in the refractive index distribution, n(z), are recovered from the measured relative propagation constants, neffective,m, of the planar waveguide. The refractive index distribution then yields the diffusion profile.

  12. Photonic Crystal Polarizing and Non-Polarizing Beam Splitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Ying, Guan; Jin-Hui, Shi; Li-Boo, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and a non-polarizing beam splitter (NPBS) based on a photonic crystal (PC) directional coupler are demonstrated. The photonic crystal directional coupler consists of a hexagonal lattice of dielectric pillars in air and has a complete photonic band gap. The photonic band structure and the band gap map are calculated using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. The splitting properties of the splitter are investigated numerically using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method

  13. A Study of the use of a Crystal as a `Quarter-Wave Plate' to Produce High Energy Circularly Polarized Photons

    CERN Multimedia

    Kononets, I

    2002-01-01

    %NA59 %title\\\\ \\\\We present a proposal to study the use of a crystal as a `quarter-wave plate' to produce high energy circularly polarized photons, starting from unpolarized electrons. The intention is to generate linearly polarized photons by letting electrons pass a crystalline target, where they interact coherently with the lattice nuclei. The photon polarization is subsequently turned into circular polarization after passing another crystal, which acts as a `quarter-wave plate'.

  14. Seismic shear waves as Foucault pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Ruigrok, Elmer; Shiomi, Katsuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Earth's rotation causes splitting of normal modes. Wave fronts and rays are, however, not affected by Earth's rotation, as we show theoretically and with observations made with USArray. We derive that the Coriolis force causes a small transverse component for P waves and a small longitudinal component for S waves. More importantly, Earth's rotation leads to a slow rotation of the transverse polarization of S waves; during the propagation of S waves the particle motion behaves just like a Foucault pendulum. The polarization plane of shear waves counteracts Earth's rotation and rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The rotation rate is independent of the wave frequency and is purely geometric, like the Berry phase. Using the polarization of ScS and ScS2 waves, we show that the Foucault-like rotation of the S wave polarization can be observed. This can affect the determination of source mechanisms and the interpretation of observed SKS splitting.

  15. Propagation of plane waves at the interface of an elastic solid half-space and a microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The problem of reflection and refraction phenomenon due to plane waves incident obliquely at a plane interface between uniform elastic solid half-space and microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half-space has been studied. It is found that the amplitude ratios of various reflected and refracted waves are functions of angle of incidence, frequency of incident wave and are influenced by the microstretch thermoelastic diffusion properties of the media. The expressions of amplitude ratios and energy ratios are obtained in closed form. The energy ratios have been computed numerically for a particular model. The variations of energy ratios with angle of incidence are shown for thermoelastic diffusion media in the context of Lord-Shulman (L-S (1967 and Green-Lindsay (G-L (1972 theories. The conservation of energy at the interface is verified. Some particular cases are also deduced from the present investigation.

  16. Effect of low NH3 flux towards high quality semi-polar (11-22) GaN on m-plane sapphire via MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Al-Zuhairi; Shuhaimi Bin Abu Bakar, Ahmad; Makinudin, Abdullah Haaziq Ahmad; Khudus, Muhammad Imran Mustafa Abdul; Azman, Adreen; Kamarundzaman, Anas; Supangat, Azzuliani

    2018-05-01

    The effect of ammonia flux towards the quality of the semi-polar (11-22) gallium nitride thin film on m-plane (10-10) sapphire is presented. Semi-polar (11-22) gallium nitride epi-layers were obtained using a two-step growth method, consisting of high temperature aluminum nitride followed by gallium nitride via metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The surface morphology analysis via field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy of the semi-polar (11-22) gallium nitride has shown that low ammonia flux promotes two-dimensional growth with low surface roughness of 4.08 nm. A dominant diffraction peak of (11-22) gallium nitride was also observed via X-ray diffraction upon utilizing low ammonia flux. The on- and off-axis X-ray rocking curve measurements illustrate the enhancement of the crystal quality, which might result from the reduction of the basal stacking faults and perfect dislocation. The full width half maximum values were reduced by at least 15% for both on- and off-axis measurements.

  17. The D-instanton and other supersymmetric D-branes in IIB plane-wave string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Green, Michael B.

    2003-01-01

    A class of D-branes for the type IIB plane-wave background is considered that preserve half the dynamical supersymmetries of the light-cone gauge. The D-branes of this type are the Euclidean (or instantonic) (0,0), (0,4), and (4,0) branes (where (r,s) denotes a brane oriented with r axes in the first four directions transverse to the +, - light-cone, and s axes in the second four directions). Corresponding Lorentzian D-branes are (+,-;0,0), (+,-;0,4), and (+,-;4,0). These are constructed in two ways. The first uses a boundary state formalism which implements appropriate fermionic gluing conditions and the second is based on a direct quantization of the open strings ending on the branes. In distinction to the D-branes considered earlier these have massless world-volume fermions but do not possess kinematical supersymmetries. Cylinder diagrams describing the overlap between a pair of boundary states displaced by some distance are evaluated. The open-string description of this system involves mode frequencies that are, in general, given by irrational solutions to transcendental equations. The closed-string and open-string descriptions are shown to be equivalent by a nontrivial implementation of the S modular transformation. A classical description of the D-instanton (the (0,0) case) in light-cone gauge is also given

  18. Modelling the optical response of human retinal photoreceptors to plane wave illumination with the finite integration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlagh Moayed, Alireza; Dang, Shannon; Ramahi, Omar M.; Bizheva, Kostadinka K.

    2009-02-01

    The early stages of ocular diseases such as Diabetic Retinopathy are manifested by morphological changes in retinal tissue occurring on cellular level. Therefore, a number of ophthalmic diseases can be diagnosed at an early stage by detecting spatial and temporal variations in the scattering profile of retinal tissue. It was recently demonstrated that, OCT can be used to probe the functional response of retinal photoreceptors to external light stimulation [1]-[3]. fUHROCT measures localized differential changes in the retina reflectivity over time resulting from external light stimulation of the retina. Currently the origins of the observed reflectivity changes are not well understood. However, due to the complex nature of retinal physiology using purely experimental approaches in this case is problematic. For example fUHROCT is sensitive to small changes in the refractive index of biological tissue which as demonstrated previously, can result from a number of processes such as membrane hyperpolarization, osmotic swelling, metabolic changes, etc. In this paper, we present a computational model of interaction between photoreceptor cells and optical plane wave based on the Finite Integration Technique (FIT).

  19. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C; Christ, A; Kuster, N

    2010-01-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR wb ) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR 10g ). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR wb ) and 58% (SAR 10g ) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR wb is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR 10g values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

  20. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section Hyperthermia, PO box 5201, NL-3008 AE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Christ, A; Kuster, N, E-mail: j.bakker@erasmusmc.n [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS) (Switzerland)

    2010-06-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR{sub wb}) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR{sub 10g}). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR{sub wb}) and 58% (SAR{sub 10g}) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR{sub wb} is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR{sub 10g} values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

  1. A New Method for Simulating Power Flow Density Focused by a Silicon Lens Antenna Irradiated with Linearly Polarized THz Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Apriono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A terahertz system uses dielectric lens antennas for focusing and collimating beams of terahertz wave radiation. Linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation has been widely applied in the terahertz system. Therefore, an accurate method for analyzing the power flow density in the dielectric lens antenna irradiated with the linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation is important to design the terahertz systems. In optics, ray-tracing method has been used to calculate the power flow density by a number density of rays. In this study, we propose a method of ray-tracing combined with Fresnel’s transmission, including transmittance and polarization of the terahertz wave radiation to calculate power flow density in a Silicon lens antenna. We compare power flow density calculated by the proposed method with the regular ray-tracing method. When the Silicon lens antenna is irradiated with linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation, the proposed method calculates the power flow density more accurately than the regular ray-tracing.

  2. Polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering from spin-density-wave modulation in chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    We present a polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering in pure chromium. Satellite reflections are observed at +/-Q and +/-2Q, where Q is the modulation wave vector of an itinerant spin-density-wave. The first and second harmonics are confirmed to have magnetic and charge origin, respectively, by means of polarimetry without using an analyzer crystal. This alternative technique eliminates intolerable intensity loss at an analyzer by utilizing the sample crystal also as an analyzer crystal

  3. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C.; Jiang, J. A.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  4. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C. [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jiang, J. A. [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  5. Solitary Waves in Space Dusty Plasma with Dust of Opposite Polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwakil, S.A.; Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.; Abdelwahed, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic solitary waves (DAWs) in an unmagnetized, collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated. The fluid model is a generalize to the model of Mamun and Shukla to a more realistic space dusty plasma in different regions of space viz.., cometary tails, mesosphere, Jupiter s magnetosphere, etc., by considering a four component dusty plasma consists of charged dusty plasma of opposite polarity, isothermal electrons and vortex like ion distributions in the ambient plasma. A reductive perturbation method were employed to obtain a modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation for the first-order potential and a stationary solution is obtained. The effect of the presence of positively charged dust fluid, the specific charge ratioμ, temperature of the positively charged dust fluid, the ratio of constant temperature of free hot ions and the constant temperature of trapped ions and ion temperature are also discussed.

  6. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W Y; Wu, M H; Wu, K L; Lin, M H; Teng, H H; Tsai, Y F; Ko, C C; Yang, E C; Jiang, J A; Barnett, L R; Chu, K R

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  7. Helicons in uniform fields. I. Wave diagnostics with hodograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    The wave equation for whistler waves is well known and has been solved in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates, yielding plane waves and cylindrical waves. In space plasmas, waves are usually assumed to be plane waves; in small laboratory plasmas, they are often assumed to be cylindrical "helicon" eigenmodes. Experimental observations fall in between both models. Real waves are usually bounded and may rotate like helicons. Such helicons are studied experimentally in a large laboratory plasma which is essentially a uniform, unbounded plasma. The waves are excited by loop antennas whose properties determine the field rotation and transverse dimensions. Both m = 0 and m = 1 helicon modes are produced and analyzed by measuring the wave magnetic field in three dimensional space and time. From Ampère's law and Ohm's law, the current density and electric field vectors are obtained. Hodograms for these vectors are produced. The sign ambiguity of the hodogram normal with respect to the direction of wave propagation is demonstrated. In general, electric and magnetic hodograms differ but both together yield the wave vector direction unambiguously. Vector fields of the hodogram normal yield the phase flow including phase rotation for helicons. Some helicons can have locally a linear polarization which is identified by the hodogram ellipticity. Alternatively the amplitude oscillation in time yields a measure for the wave polarization. It is shown that wave interference produces linear polarization. These observations emphasize that single point hodogram measurements are inadequate to determine the wave topology unless assuming plane waves. Observations of linear polarization indicate wave packets but not plane waves. A simple qualitative diagnostics for the wave polarization is the measurement of the magnetic field magnitude in time. Circular polarization has a constant amplitude; linear polarization results in amplitude modulations.

  8. Nuclear-optical methods for production of polarized photons with energies of a few hundred GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ispiryan, K.A.; Ispiryan, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    The absorption coefficients of linearly polarized photons passing through a crystal in parallel to its crystallographic planes are calculated. The methods of determination of the obtainable degree of polarization as well as of the intensity losses for the cases when non-polarized photon beams pass through various crystals in parallel to the planes (110) are described. The energy dependence of the thickness of the quarter-wave plate crystals transforming the linear polarization of the beam into circular one is obtained

  9. Generation of an XUV supercontinuum by optimization of the angle between polarization planes of two linearly polarized pulses in a multicycle two-color laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jinping; Zeng Bin; Fu Yuxi; Chu Wei; Ni Jielei; Li Yao; Xiong Hui; Xu Han; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan; Liu Xiaojun; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in helium using a two-color laser field synthesized by an intense 25-fs laser pulse at 800 nm and a relatively weak ∼43-fs laser pulse at 1400 nm. When the polarization between the two pulses is arranged at an angle of ∼73 deg., supercontinuum spectra are dramatically broadened to 180 eV, which is sufficient to support an isolated ∼73-as pulse without any phase compensation. The physical mechanisms behind the phenomenon are well explained in terms of quantum and classical analyses. Furthermore, in the long-pulse regime, this method of extending the supercontinuum spectrum shows the significant advantage over previous two-color HHG schemes.

  10. Large amplitude solitary waves in and near the Earth’s magnetosphere, magnetopause and bow shock: Polar and Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cattell

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary waves with large electric fields (up to 100's of mV/m have been observed throughout the magnetosphere and in the bow shock. We discuss observations by Polar at high altitudes ( ~ 4-8 RE , during crossings of the plasma sheet boundary and cusp, and new measurements by Polar at the equatorial magnetopause and by Cluster near the bow shock, in the cusp and at the plasma sheet boundary. We describe the results of a statistical study of electron solitary waves observed by Polar at high altitudes. The mean solitary wave duration was ~ 2 ms. The waves have velocities from ~ 1000 km/s to  > 2500 km/s. Observed scale sizes (parallel to the magnetic field are on the order of 1-10lD, with eF/kTe from ~ 0.01 to O(1. The average speed of solitary waves at the plasma sheet boundary is faster than the average speed observed in the cusp and at cusp injections. The amplitude increases with both velocity and scale size. These observations are all consistent with the identification of the solitary waves as electron hole modes. We also report the discovery of solitary waves at the magnetopause, observed in Polar data obtained at the subsolar equatorial magnetopause. Both positive and negative potential structures have been observed with amplitudes up to ~ 25 mV/m. The velocities range from 150 km/s to >2500 km/s, with scale sizes the order of a kilometer (comparable to the Debye length. Initial observations of solitary waves by the four Cluster satellites are utilized to discuss the scale sizes and time variability of the regions where the solitary waves occur. Preliminary results from the four Cluster satellites have given a glimpse of the spatial and temporal variability of the occurrence of solitary waves and their association with other wave modes. In all the events studied, significant differences were observed in the waveforms observed simultaneously at the four locations separated by ~ 1000 km. When solitary waves were seen at one satellite, they

  11. Electromagnetic frozen waves with radial, azimuthal, linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corato-Zanarella, Mateus; Zamboni-Rached, Michel

    2016-11-01

    Frozen waves (FWs) are a class of diffraction- and attenuation-resistant beams whose intensity pattern along the direction of propagation can be chosen arbitrarily, thus making them relevant for engineering the spatial configuration of optical fields. To date, analyses of such beams have been done essentially for the scalar case, with the vectorial nature of the electromagnetic fields often neglected. Although it is expected that the field components keep the fundamental properties of the scalar FWs, a deeper understanding of their electromagnetic counterparts is mandatory in order to exploit their different possible polarization states. The purpose of this paper is to study the properties of electromagnetic FWs with radial, azimuthal, linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations under paraxial and nonparaxial regimes in nonabsorbing media. An intensity pattern is chosen for a scalar FW, and the vectorial solutions are built after it via the use of Maxwell's equations. The results show that the field components and the longitudinal component of the time-averaged Poynting vector closely follow the pattern chosen even under highly nonparaxial conditions, showing the robustness of the FW structure to parameters variations.

  12. Shape optimization of solid-air porous phononic crystal slabs with widest full 3D bandgap for in-plane acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Luca; Bahr, Bichoy; Daniel, Luca; Weinstein, Dana; Ardito, Raffaele

    2017-09-01

    The use of Phononic Crystals (PnCs) as smart materials in structures and microstructures is growing due to their tunable dynamical properties and to the wide range of possible applications. PnCs are periodic structures that exhibit elastic wave scattering for a certain band of frequencies (called bandgap), depending on the geometric and material properties of the fundamental unit cell of the crystal. PnCs slabs can be represented by plane-extruded structures composed of a single material with periodic perforations. Such a configuration is very interesting, especially in Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems industry, due to the easy fabrication procedure. A lot of topologies can be found in the literature for PnCs with square-symmetric unit cell that exhibit complete 2D bandgaps; however, due to the application demand, it is desirable to find the best topologies in order to guarantee full bandgaps referred to in-plane wave propagation in the complete 3D structure. In this work, by means of a novel and fast implementation of the Bidirectional Evolutionary Structural Optimization technique, shape optimization is conducted on the hole shape obtaining several topologies, also with non-square-symmetric unit cell, endowed with complete 3D full bandgaps for in-plane waves. Model order reduction technique is adopted to reduce the computational time in the wave dispersion analysis. The 3D features of the PnC unit cell endowed with the widest full bandgap are then completely analyzed, paying attention to engineering design issues.

  13. Application of structural symmetries in the plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method for three-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiyuan; Ho Kaiming

    2003-01-01

    The plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method (TMM) exhibits a peculiar advantage of being capable of solving eigenmodes involved in an infinite photonic crystal and electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in finite photonic crystal slabs or even semi-infinite photonic crystal structures within the same theoretical framework. In addition, this theoretical approach can achieve much improved numerical convergency in solution of photonic band structures than the conventional plane-wave expansion method. In this paper we employ this TMM in combination with a supercell technique to handle two important kinds of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal waveguide structures. The first one is waveguides created in a 3D layer-by-layer photonic crystal that possesses a complete band gap, the other more popular one is waveguides built in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab. These waveguides usually have mirror-reflection symmetries in one or two directions perpendicular to their axis. We have taken advantage of these structural symmetries to reduce the numerical burden of the TMM solution of the guided modes. The solution to the EM problems under these mirror-reflection symmetries in both the real space and the plane-wave space is discussed in a systematic way and in great detail. Both the periodic boundary condition and the absorbing boundary condition are employed to investigate structures with or without complete 3D optical confinement. The fact that the EM field components investigated in the TMM are collinear with the symmetric axes of the waveguide brings great convenience and clarity in exploring the eigenmode symmetry in both the real space and the plane-wave space. The classification of symmetry involved in the guided modes can help people to better understand the coupling of the photonic crystal waveguides with external channels such as dielectric slab or wire waveguides

  14. Novel porous fiber based on dual-asymmetry for low-loss polarization maintaining THz wave guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Habib, Selim; Hasanuzzaman, G.K.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we suggest a novel kind of porous-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) (to the best of our knowledge) for efficient transportation of polarization maintaining (PM) terahertz (THz) waves. We introduce an asymmetry in both the porous-core and the porous-cladding of the structure to ach...

  15. Spin-wave dynamics in Invar Fe65Ni35 studied by small-angle polarized neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brück, E.H.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Deriglazov, V.V.; Okorokov, A.I.; Dijk van, N.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. Spin dynamics in Fe65Ni35 Invar alloy has been studied by left-right asymmetry of small-angle polarized neutron scattering below TC=485 K in external magnetic fields of H=0.05-0.25 T inclined relative to the incident beam. The spin-wave stiffness D and the damping & were obtained by

  16. Three-dimensional shear wave elastography for differentiation of breast lesions: An initial study with quantitative analysis using three orthogonal planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao

    2018-05-25

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional (3D) shear wave elastography (SWE) for breast lesions with quantitative stiffness information from transverse, sagittal and coronal planes. Conventional ultrasound (US), two-dimensional (2D)-SWE and 3D-SWE were performed for 122 consecutive patients with 122 breast lesions before biopsy or surgical excision. Maximum elasticity values of Young's modulus (Emax) were recorded on 2D-SWE and three planes of 3D-SWE. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of US, 2D-SWE and 3D-SWE were evaluated. Two combined sets (i.e., BI-RADS and 2D-SWE; BI-RADS and 3D-SWE) were compared in AUC. Observer consistency was also evaluated. On 3D-SWE, the AUC and sensitivity of sagittal plane were significantly higher than those of transverse and coronal planes (both P 0.05). However, the combined set of BI-RADS and sagittal plane of 3D-SWE had significantly higher sensitivity than the combined set of BI-RADS and 2D-SWE. The sagittal plane shows the best diagnostic performance among 3D-SWE. The combination of BI-RADS and 3D-SWE is a useful tool for predicting breast malignant lesions in comparison with BI-RADS alone.

  17. Numerical tests of evolution systems, gauge conditions, and boundary conditions for 1D colliding gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Buchman, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate how the accuracy and stability of numerical relativity simulations of 1D colliding plane waves depends on choices of equation formulations, gauge conditions, boundary conditions, and numerical methods, all in the context of a first-order 3+1 approach to the Einstein equations, with basic variables some combination of first derivatives of the spatial metric and components of the extrinsic curvature tensor. Hyperbolic schemes, specifically variations on schemes proposed by Bona and Masso and Anderson and York, are compared with variations of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation. Modifications of the three basic schemes include raising one index in the metric derivative and extrinsic curvature variables and adding a multiple of the energy constraint to the extrinsic curvature evolution equations. Redundant variables in the Bona-Masso formulation may be reset frequently or allowed to evolve freely. Gauge conditions which simplify the dynamical structure of the system are imposed during each time step, but the lapse and shift are reset periodically to control the evolution of the spacetime slicing and the longitudinal part of the metric. We show that physically correct boundary conditions, satisfying the energy and momentum constraint equations, generically require the presence of some ingoing eigenmodes of the characteristic matrix. Numerical methods are developed for the hyperbolic systems based on decomposing flux differences into linear combinations of eigenvectors of the characteristic matrix. These methods are shown to be second-order accurate, and in practice second-order convergent, for smooth solutions, even when the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the characteristic matrix are spatially varying

  18. The incorporation of fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times and arrival polarizations into seismic tomography: Application to the Parkfield, California area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Peng, Z.; Zhao, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a 3D P-wave velocity (Vp) model of the Parkfield region that utilizes existing P-wave arrival time data, including fault zone head waves (FZHW), plus new data from direct wave secondary arrivals (DWSA). The first-arrival and DWSA travel times are obtained as the global and local minimum travel time paths, respectively. The inclusion of DWSA results in as much as a 10% increase in the across-fault velocity contrast for the Vp model at Parkfield relative to Thurber et al. (2006). Viewed along strike, three pronounced velocity contrast regions are observed: a pair of strong positive velocity contrasts (SW fast), one NW of the 1966 Parkfield hypocenter and the other SE of the 2004 Parkfield hypocenter, and a strong negative velocity contrast (NE fast) between the two hypocenters. The negative velocity contrast partially to entirely encompasses peak coseismic slip estimated in several slip models for the 2004 earthquake, suggesting that the negative velocity contrast played a part in defining the rupture patch of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We expand on this work by modifying our seismic tomography algorithm to incorporate arrival polarizations (azimuths). Synthetic tests will be presented to demonstrate the improvements in velocity structure when arrival polarizations are incorporated. These tests will compare the synthetic model recovered when FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data are inverted to that recovered with the same dataset with the inclusion of arrival polarizations. We plan to extend this work to carry out a full scale seismic tomography/relocation inversion at Parkfield, CA utilizing arrival polarizations from all first-P arrivals, and FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data. This effort requires the determination of polarization data for all P-waves and FZHW's at Parkfield. To this end, we use changes in the arrival azimuth from fault normal to source-receiver direction to identify FZHW and

  19. Propagation properties of Rossby waves for latitudinal β-plane variations of f and zonal variations of the shallow water speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Duba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the shallow water equations for a rotating layer of fluid, the wave and dispersion equations for Rossby waves are developed for the cases of both the standard β-plane approximation for the latitudinal variation of the Coriolis parameter f and a zonal variation of the shallow water speed. It is well known that the wave normal diagram for the standard (mid-latitude Rossby wave on a β-plane is a circle in wave number (ky,kx space, whose centre is displaced −β/2 ω units along the negative kx axis, and whose radius is less than this displacement, which means that phase propagation is entirely westward. This form of anisotropy (arising from the latitudinal y variation of f, combined with the highly dispersive nature of the wave, gives rise to a group velocity diagram which permits eastward as well as westward propagation. It is shown that the group velocity diagram is an ellipse, whose centre is displaced westward, and whose major and minor axes give the maximum westward, eastward and northward (southward group speeds as functions of the frequency and a parameter m which measures the ratio of the low frequency-long wavelength Rossby wave speed to the shallow water speed. We believe these properties of group velocity diagram have not been elucidated in this way before. We present a similar derivation of the wave normal diagram and its associated group velocity curve for the case of a zonal (x variation of the shallow water speed, which may arise when the depth of an ocean varies zonally from a continental shelf.

  20. Effect of H-wave polarization on laser radar detection of partially convex targets in random media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ocla, Hosam

    2010-07-01

    A study on the performance of laser radar cross section (LRCS) of conducting targets with large sizes is investigated numerically in free space and random media. The LRCS is calculated using a boundary value method with beam wave incidence and H-wave polarization. Considered are those elements that contribute to the LRCS problem including random medium strength, target configuration, and beam width. The effect of the creeping waves, stimulated by H-polarization, on the LRCS behavior is manifested. Targets taking large sizes of up to five wavelengths are sufficiently larger than the beam width and are sufficient for considering fairly complex targets. Scatterers are assumed to have analytical partially convex contours with inflection points.

  1. Excited state nuclear forces from the Tamm-Dancoff approximation to time-dependent density functional theory within the plane wave basis set framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Jürg

    2003-03-01

    An efficient formulation of time-dependent linear response density functional theory for the use within the plane wave basis set framework is presented. The method avoids the transformation of the Kohn-Sham matrix into the canonical basis and references virtual orbitals only through a projection operator. Using a Lagrangian formulation nuclear derivatives of excited state energies within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation are derived. The algorithms were implemented into a pseudo potential/plane wave code and applied to the calculation of adiabatic excitation energies, optimized geometries and vibrational frequencies of three low lying states of formaldehyde. An overall good agreement with other time-dependent density functional calculations, multireference configuration interaction calculations and experimental data was found.

  2. The effect of finite-difference time-domain resolution and power-loss computation method on SAR values in plane-wave exposure of Zubal phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusitupa, T M; Ilvonen, S A; Laakso, I M; Nikoskinen, K I

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the anatomically realistic body model Zubal is exposed to a plane wave. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to obtain field data for specific-absorption-rate (SAR) computation. It is investigated how the FDTD resolution, power-loss computation method and positioning of the material voxels in the FDTD grid affect the SAR results. The results enable one to estimate the effects due to certain fundamental choices made in the SAR simulation

  3. Dynamics of a charged particle in a circularly polarized travelling electromagnetic wave. Self-consistent model for the wave-particle dynamical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.

    1999-01-01

    This work concerns mainly the dynamics of a charged particle in an electromagnetic wave. It is a first step in elaborating a more general model permitting to predict the wave-particle interaction. We show how deriving a first integral gives an idea on how to create an electron current in a cold electron plasma. We present results which can be used to test the 2D and 3D Vlasov-Maxwell codes being built up in CEA-DAM. These codes will allow the calcination of the magnetic field created by an electromagnetic wave like the one due to the inverse Faraday effect when a circularly polarized wave drives the electrons of a plasma into circular orbits. (author)

  4. Ocular aberrations with ray tracing and Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensors: Does polarization play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Susana; Diaz-Santana, Luis; Llorente, Lourdes; Dainty, Chris

    2002-06-01

    Ocular aberrations were measured in 71 eyes by using two reflectometric aberrometers, employing laser ray tracing (LRT) (60 eyes) and a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (S-H) (11 eyes). In both techniques a point source is imaged on the retina (through different pupil positions in the LRT or a single position in the S-H). The aberrations are estimated by measuring the deviations of the retinal spot from the reference as the pupil is sampled (in LRT) or the deviations of a wave front as it emerges from the eye by means of a lenslet array (in the S-H). In this paper we studied the effect of different polarization configurations in the aberration measurements, including linearly polarized light and circularly polarized light in the illuminating channel and sampling light in the crossed or parallel orientations. In addition, completely depolarized light in the imaging channel was obtained from retinal lipofuscin autofluorescence. The intensity distribution of the retinal spots as a function of entry (for LRT) or exit pupil (for S-H) depends on the polarization configuration. These intensity patterns show bright corners and a dark area at the pupil center for crossed polarization, an approximately Gaussian distribution for parallel polarization and a homogeneous distribution for the autofluorescence case. However, the measured aberrations are independent of the polarization states. These results indicate that the differences in retardation across the pupil imposed by corneal birefringence do not produce significant phase delays compared with those produced by aberrations, at least within the accuracy of these techniques. In addition, differences in the recorded aerial images due to changes in polarization do not affect the aberration measurements in these reflectometric aberrometers.

  5. Simulation of angle-resolved photoemission spectra by approximating the final state by a plane wave: From graphene to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puschnig, Peter, E-mail: peter.puschnig@uni-graz.at; Lüftner, Daniel

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Computational study on angular dependent photoemission spectroscopy. • Graphene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. • Plane wave final state approximation accounts for experimental findings. - Abstract: We present a computational study on the angular-resolved photoemission spectra (ARPES) from a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and graphene. Our theoretical approach is based on ab-initio density functional theory and the one-step model where we greatly simplify the evaluation of the matrix element by assuming a plane wave for the final state. Before comparing our ARPES simulations with available experimental data, we discuss how typical approximations for the exchange-correlation energy affect orbital energies. In particular, we show that by employing a hybrid functional, considerable improvement can be obtained over semi-local functionals in terms of band widths and relative energies of π and σ states. Our ARPES simulations for graphene show that the plane wave final state approximation provides indeed an excellent description when compared to experimental band maps and constant binding energy maps. Furthermore, our ARPES simulations for a number of polycyclic aromatic molecules from the oligo-acene, oligo-phenylene, phen-anthrene families as well as for disc-shaped molecules nicely illustrate the evolution of the electronic structure from molecules with increasing size towards graphene.

  6. Circular polarization of gravitational waves from non-rotating supernova cores: a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya

    2018-06-01

    We present an analysis of the circular polarization of gravitational waves (GWs) using results from three-dimensional (3D), general relativistic (GR) core-collapse simulations of a non-rotating 15 M⊙ star. For the signal detection, we perform a coherent network analysis taking into account the four interferometers of LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, VIRGO, and KAGRA. We focus on the Stokes V parameter, which directly characterizes the asymmetry of the GW circular polarization. We find that the amplitude of the GW polarization becomes bigger for our 3D-GR model that exhibits strong activity of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Our results suggest that the SASI-induced accretion flows to the proto-neutron star (PNS) lead to a characteristic, low-frequency modulation (100-200 Hz) in both the waveform and the GW circular polarization. By estimating the signal-to-noise ratio of the GW polarization, we demonstrate that the detection horizon of the circular polarization extends by more than a factor of several times farther comparing to that of the GW amplitude. Our results suggest that the GW circular polarization, if detected, could provide a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics such as the SASI activity and the g-mode oscillation of the PNS.

  7. Circular polarization of gravitational waves from non-rotating supernova cores: a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis of the circular polarization of gravitational-waves (GWs) using results from three-dimensional (3D), general relativistic (GR) core-collapse simulations of a non-rotating 15M⊙ star. For the signal detection, we perform a coherent network analysis taking into account the four interferometers of LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, VIRGO, and KAGRA. We focus on the Stokes V parameter, which directly characterizes the asymmetry of the GW circular polarization. We find that the amplitude of the GW polarization becomes bigger for our 3D-GR model that exhibits strong activity of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Our results suggest that the SASI-induced accretion flows to the proto-neutron star (PNS) lead to a characteristic, low-frequency modulation (100 ˜ 200 Hz) in both the waveform and the GW circular polarization. By estimating the signal-to-noise ratio of the GW polarization, we demonstrate that the detection horizon of the circular polarization extends by more than a factor of several times farther comparing to that of the GW amplitude. Our results suggest that the GW circular polarization, if detected, could provide a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics such as the SASI activity and the g-mode oscillation of the PNS.

  8. The effect of lower-hybrid waves on the propagation of hydromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamabata, Hiromitsu; Namikawa, Tomikazu; Mori, Kazuhiro

    1988-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of hydromagnetic waves in a magnetic plasma are investigated using the two-plasma fluid equations including the effect of lower-hybrid waves propagating perpendicularly to the magnetic field. The effect of lower-hybrid waves on the propagation of hydromagnetic waves is analysed in terms of phase speed, growth rate, refractive index, polarization and the amplitude relation between the density perturbation and the magnetic-field perturbation for the cases when hydromagnetic waves propagate in the plane whose normal is perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves and in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves. It is shown that hydromagnetic waves propagating at small angles to the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves can be excited by the effect of lower-hybrid waves and the energy of excited waves propagates nearly parallel to the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves. (author)

  9. P-polarized surface waves in a slab waveguide with left-handed material for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, Sofyan A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, surface waves excited at the interface between left-handed and right-handed materials are employed for sensing applications. The propagation of p-polarized (TM) surface waves in a three-layer slab waveguide structure with air core layer as an analyte and anisotropic left-handed materials as claddings is investigated for detection of any changes in the refractive index of the analyte. The dispersion equations and the sensitivity of the effective refractive index to any change in the air layer index are derived, plotted, and discussed in details. The field profile is also explored. It is found that the sensitivity of the proposed surface wave sensor is almost independent of the wavelength of the propagating wave. A considerable sensitivity improvement can be obtained with the increase of transverse components of the left-handed material permittivity. - Highlights: • P-polarized surface waves in a three-layer slab waveguide are employed for sensing applications. • The structure contains air core layer as an analyte and anisotropic left-handed material in the claddings. • The sensitivity is found to be almost independent of the wavelength of the propagating wave. • Unusual sensitivity enhancement is observed as the transverse components of the LHM permittivity increase. • The asymmetric waveguide structure exhibits much higher sensitivity compared to the symmetric one

  10. Electromagnetic waves in gravitational wave spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, M.; Bini, D.; Ortolan, A.; Fortini, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have considered the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a space-time representing an exact gravitational plane wave and calculated the induced changes on the four-potential field Aμ of a plane electromagnetic wave. By choosing a suitable photon round-trip in a Michelson interferometer, we have been able to identify the physical effects of the exact gravitational wave on the electromagnetic field, i.e. phase shift, change of the polarization vector, angular deflection and delay. These results have been exploited to study the response of an interferometric gravitational wave detector beyond the linear approximation of the general theory of relativity. A much more detailed examination of this problem can be found in our paper recently published in Classical and Quantum Gravity (28 (2011) 235007).

  11. Effect of multi-ions on electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves with a hot plasma around the polar cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Soniya; Varma, P; Tiwari, M S

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instabilities with an isotropic ion beam and general loss-cone distribution of hot core plasmas are discussed. The growth rate of the wave, perpendicular heating of ions, parallel resonant energy and marginal instability of the EMIC waves in homogeneous plasmas are obtained using the dispersion relation for hot plasmas consisting of H + , He + ,O + ions and electrons. The wave is assumed to propagate parallel to the static magnetic field. The whole plasma is considered to consist of resonant and non-resonant particles permeated by the isotropic ion beam. It is assumed that the resonant particles and the ion beam participate in energy exchange with the wave, whereas the non-resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave. We determined the variation in energies and growth rate in hot plasmas by the energy conservation method with a general loss-cone distribution function. We also discuss the effect of positive and negative ion beam velocity on the growth rate of the wave. The thermal anisotropy of the ions of the core plasma acts as a source of free energy for EMIC waves and enhances the growth rate. Heating of ions perpendicular to the magnetic field is discussed along with EMIC wave emission in the polar cusp region.

  12. Polarized-neutron-scattering study of the spin-wave excitations in the 3-k ordered phase of uranium antimonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, N; Caciuffo, R; Lander, G H; Hiess, A; Regnault, L-P

    2010-03-24

    The anisotropy of magnetic fluctuations propagating along the [1 1 0] direction in the ordered phase of uranium antimonide has been studied using polarized inelastic neutron scattering. The observed polarization behavior of the spin waves is a natural consequence of the longitudinal 3-k magnetic structure; together with recent results on the 3-k-transverse uranium dioxide, these findings establish this technique as an important tool to study complex magnetic arrangements. Selected details of the magnon excitation spectra of USb have also been reinvestigated, indicating the need to revise the currently accepted theoretical picture for this material.

  13. Observation of reflected waves on the SABRE positive polarity inductive adder MITL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuneo, M.E.; Poukey, J.W.; Mendel, C.W.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Hanson, D.L.; Smith, J.R.; Maenchen, J.E.; Wenger, D.F.; Bernard, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    We are studying the coupling of extraction applied-B ion diodes to Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITLs) on the SABRE (Sandia Accelerator and Beam Research Experiment, 6 MV, 300 kA) positive polarity inductive voltage adder. Our goal is to determine conditions under which efficient coupling occurs. The best total power efficiency for an ideal ion diode load (i.e., without parasitic losses) is obtained by maximizing the product of cathode current and gap voltage. MITLs require that the load impedance be undermatched to the self-limited line operating impedance for efficient transfer of power to ion diodes, independent of transit time isolation, and even in the case of multiple cathode system with significant vacuum electron flow. We observe that this undermatched condition results in a reflected wave which decreases the line voltage and gap electron sheath current, and increases the anode and cathode current in a time-dependent way. The MITL diode coupling is determined by the flow impedance at the adder exit. We also show that the flow impedance increases along the extension MITL on SABRE. Experimental measurements of current and peak voltage are compared to analytical models and TWOQUICK 2.5-D PIC code simulations

  14. Robust Likelihoods for Inflationary Gravitational Waves from Maps of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Eric Ryan; Watts, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background provides a unique window into tensor perturbations from inflationary gravitational waves. Survey effects complicate the estimation and description of the power spectrum on the largest angular scales. The pixel-space likelihood yields parameter distributions without the power spectrum as an intermediate step, but it does not have the large suite of tests available to power spectral methods. Searches for primordial B-modes must rigorously reject and rule out contamination. Many forms of contamination vary or are uncorrelated across epochs, frequencies, surveys, or other data treatment subsets. The cross power and the power spectrum of the difference of subset maps provide approaches to reject and isolate excess variance. We develop an analogous joint pixel-space likelihood. Contamination not modeled in the likelihood produces parameter-dependent bias and complicates the interpretation of the difference map. We describe a null test that consistently weights the difference map. Excess variance should either be explicitly modeled in the covariance or be removed through reprocessing the data.

  15. Extending the precision and efficiency of the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave density-functional theory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalicek, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is the most widely-used first-principles theory for analyzing, describing and predicting the properties of solids based on the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics. The success of the theory is a consequence of powerful approximations to the unknown exchange and correlation energy of the interacting electrons and of sophisticated electronic structure methods that enable the computation of the density functional equations on a computer. A widely used electronic structure method is the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method, that is considered to be one of the most precise methods of its kind and often referred to as a standard. Challenged by the demand of treating chemically and structurally increasingly more complex solids, in this thesis this method is revisited and extended along two different directions: (i) precision and (ii) efficiency. In the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method the space of a solid is partitioned into nearly touching spheres, centered at each atom, and the remaining interstitial region between the spheres. The Kohn-Sham orbitals, which are used to construct the electron density, the essential quantity in DFT, are expanded into a linearized augmented plane-wave basis, which consists of plane waves in the interstitial region and angular momentum dependent radial functions in the spheres. In this thesis it is shown that for certain types of materials, e.g., materials with very broad electron bands or large band gaps, or materials that allow the usage of large space-filling spheres, the variational freedom of the basis in the spheres has to be extended in order to represent the Kohn-Sham orbitals with high precision over a large energy spread. Two kinds of additional radial functions confined to the spheres, so-called local orbitals, are evaluated and found to successfully eliminate this error. A new efficient basis set is developed, named linearized augmented lattice

  16. Elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in a magnetized quantum electron-positron plasma with effects of exchange-correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahmansouri, M., E-mail: mshmansouri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 38156-8 8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Misra, A. P., E-mail: apmisra@visva-bharati.ac.in, E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-15

    The dispersion properties of elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in a magnetized electron-positron-pair (EP-pair) plasma are studied with the effects of particle dispersion associated with the Bohm potential, the Fermi degenerate pressure, and the exchange-correlation force. Two possible modes of the extraordinary or X wave, modified by these quantum effects, are identified and their propagation characteristics are investigated numerically. It is shown that the upper-hybrid frequency and the cutoff and resonance frequencies are no longer constants but are dispersive due to these quantum effects. It is found that the particle dispersion and the exchange-correlation force can have different dominating roles on each other depending on whether the X waves are of short or long wavelengths (in comparison with the Fermi Debye length). The present investigation should be useful for understanding the collective behaviors of EP plasma oscillations and the propagation of extraordinary waves in magnetized dense EP-pair plasmas.

  17. Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun

    2014-08-06

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  18. Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun; Gan, Liyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  19. On the spallation of a polarized photon on a nonpolarized electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozrikov, P.V.; Kopytov, G.F.

    1978-01-01

    Considered is the process of the spallation of a polarized photon of the plane electromagnet wave into two polarized photons on a nonpolarized electron. One of these photons is considered as an emitted one, another as a photon of a plane wave. The degrees of circular and linear polarization of the emitted photon are studied in detail. It is shown that the degree of linear polarization does not depend on the type of circular polarization of the initial plane wave photon. At a relativistic electron moving in the direction of the plane wave, totally linearly polarized radiation appears. The analogy between the following two processes is made: (1) γ 1 +e - → γ 2 + γ tilde +e' - (where γ 1 , γ 2 are photons of the plane wave, and γ tilde is an emitted photon) and (2) γ 1 +e - → γ 2 +γ 3 +e' - . From the correspondence between the processes it follows that the results of the investigation may be applied to the double Compton effect. Besides, it appears to be possible to study the correlation between polarization states of all three photons participating in the double Compton scattering

  20. Validation of the k-filtering technique for a signal composed of random-phase plane waves and non-random coherent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Roberts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of astrophysical magnetic fields have shown the presence of fluctuations being wave-like (propagating in the plasma frame and those described as being structure-like (advected by the plasma bulk velocity. Typically with single-spacecraft missions it is impossible to differentiate between these two fluctuations, due to the inherent spatio-temporal ambiguity associated with a single point measurement. However missions such as Cluster which contain multiple spacecraft have allowed for temporal and spatial changes to be resolved, using techniques such as k filtering. While this technique does not assume Taylor's hypothesis it requires both weak stationarity of the time series and that the fluctuations can be described by a superposition of plane waves with random phases. In this paper we test whether the method can cope with a synthetic signal which is composed of a combination of non-random-phase coherent structures with a mean radius d and a mean separation λ, as well as plane waves with random phase.

  1. Shear-wave polarization analysis of the seismic swarm following the July 9th 1998 Faial (Azores) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, N. A.; Matias, L.; Tellez, J.; Senos, L.; Gaspar, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    The Azores Islands, located at a tectonic triple Junction, geodynamically are a highly active place. The seismicity in this region occurs mainly in the form of two types of seismic swarms with tectonic and/or volcanic origins, lasting from hours to years. In some cases the swarm follows a main stronger shock, while in others the more energetic event occurs sometime after the beginning of the swarm. In order to understand the complex phenomena of this region, a multidisciplinary approach is needed, involving geophysical, geological and geochemical studies such as the one being carried under the MASHA project (POCTI/CTA/39158/2001), On July 9th 1998 an Mw=6.2 earthquake stroked the island of Faial, in the central group of the Azores archipelago, followed by a seismic swarm still active today. We will present some preliminary results of the shear-wave polarization analysis of a selected dataset of events of this swarm. These correspond to the 112 best- constrained events, record during the first 2 weeks by the seismic network deployed on the 3 islands surrounding the area of the main shock. The objective was to analyse the behaviour of the S wave polarization and the eventual relationship with the presence of seismic anisotropy under the seismic stations, and to correlate this with the regional structure and origin of the Azores plateau. Two main tectonic features are observable on the islands, one primarily orientated SE-NW and the other crossing it roughly with the WNW-ESE direction. The polarization direction observed in the majority of the seismic stations is not stable, varying from SE-NW to WSW-ENE, and showing also the presence in same cases of shear-wave splitting, indicating the presence of anisotropy. Part of the polarization seems to be coherent with the direction of the local tectonic features, but its instability suggest a more complex seismic anisotropy than that proposed by the model EDA of Crampin. Furthermore, the dataset revealed some limitations to

  2. Mechanically Reconfigurable Single-Arm Spiral Antenna Array for Generation of Broadband Circularly Polarized Orbital Angular Momentum Vortex Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Zhou, Xiaoxiao

    2018-03-23

    In this paper, a mechanically reconfigurable circular array with single-arm spiral antennas (SASAs) is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate broadband circularly polarized orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex waves in radio frequency domain. With the symmetrical and broadband properties of single-arm spiral antennas, the vortex waves with different OAM modes can be mechanically reconfigurable generated in a wide band from 3.4 GHz to 4.7 GHz. The prototype of the circular array is proposed, conducted, and fabricated to validate the theoretical analysis. The simulated and experimental results verify that different OAM modes can be effectively generated by rotating the spiral arms of single-arm spiral antennas with corresponding degrees, which greatly simplify the feeding network. The proposed method paves a reconfigurable way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves with spin angular momentum (SAM) in radio and microwave satellite communication applications.

  3. The light wave flow effect in a plane-parallel layer with a quasi-zero refractive index under the action of bounded light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomsky, O. N.; Shchukarev, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that external optical radiation in the 450–1200 nm range can be efficiently transformed under the action of bounded light beams to a surface wave that propagates along the external and internal boundaries of a plane-parallel layer with a quasi-zero refractive index. Reflection regimes with complex and real angles of refraction in the layer are considered. The layer with a quasi-zero refractive index in this boundary problem is located on a highly reflective metal substrate; it is shown that the uniform low reflection of light is achieved in the wavelength range under study.

  4. The energy and temporal characteristics of orthogonal polarized waves generated by a transversely-excited pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertel, I.M.; Churakov, V.V.; Petukhov, V.O.; Prokopov, A.P.; Trushin, S.A.; Voitovich, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    The competition of orthogonally-polarized waves with various differences in the wave Q-factors and active medium pressures is studied. The possibility of controlling the parameters of a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser by changing the value of the amplitude anisotropy of the cavity is demonstrated. The duration of the emission pulse for one of two orthogonal polarizations was reduced by virtually 50%.

  5. Acoustic plane waves normally incident on a clamped panel in a rectangular duct. [to explain noise reduction curves for reducing interior noise in aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unz, H.; Roskam, J.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of acoustic plane wave normally incident on a clamped panel in a rectangular duct is developed. The coupling theory between the elastic vibrations of the panel (plate) and the acoustic wave propagation in infinite space and in the rectangular duct is considered. The partial differential equation which governs the vibration of the panel (plate) is modified by adding to its stiffness (spring) forces and damping forces, and the fundamental resonance frequency and the attenuation factor are discussed. The noise reduction expression based on the theory is found to agree well with the corresponding experimental data of a sample aluminum panel in the mass controlled region, the damping controlled region, and the stiffness controlled region. All the frequency positions of the upward and downward resonance spikes in the sample experimental data are identified theoretically as resulting from four cross interacting major resonance phenomena: the cavity resonance, the acoustic resonance, the plate resonance, and the wooden back panel resonance.

  6. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.

    2016-01-01

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  7. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei, E-mail: weikang@pku.edu.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Hongwei [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Ping, E-mail: zhang-ping@iapcm.ac.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); He, X. T., E-mail: xthe@iapcm.ac.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2016-04-15

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  8. Polarization holograms allow highly efficient generation of complex light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, U; Pagliusi, P; Provenzano, C; Volke-Sepúlveda, K; Cipparrone, Gabriella

    2013-03-25

    We report a viable method to generate complex beams, such as the non-diffracting Bessel and Weber beams, which relies on the encoding of amplitude information, in addition to phase and polarization, using polarization holography. The holograms are recorded in polarization sensitive films by the interference of a reference plane wave with a tailored complex beam, having orthogonal circular polarizations. The high efficiency, the intrinsic achromaticity and the simplicity of use of the polarization holograms make them competitive with respect to existing methods and attractive for several applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.

  9. Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grison

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 RE cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.

  10. Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grison

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 RE cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.

  11. Electromagnetic Components of Auroral Hiss and Lower Hybrid Waves in the Polar Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H. K.

    1995-01-01

    DE-1 has frequently observed waves in the whistler and lower hybrid frequencies range. Besides the electrostatic components, these waves also exhibit electromagnetic components. It is generally believed that these waves are excited by the electron acoustic instability and the electron-beam-driven lower hybrid instability. Because the electron acoustic and the lower hybrid waves are predominately electrostatic waves, they cannot account for the observed electromagnetic components. In this work, it is suggested that these electromagnetic components can be explained by waves that are generated near the resonance cone and that propagate away from the source. The role that these electromagnetic waves can play in particle acceleration processes at low altitude is discussed.

  12. Plane-Wave Implementation and Performance of à-la-Carte Coulomb-Attenuated Exchange-Correlation Functionals for Predicting Optical Excitation Energies in Some Notorious Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Martin P; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2018-06-12

    Linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TD-DFT) has become a valuable tool in the calculation of excited states of molecules of various sizes. However, standard generalized-gradient approximation and hybrid exchange-correlation (xc) functionals often fail to correctly predict charge-transfer (CT) excitations with low orbital overlap, thus limiting the scope of the method. The Coulomb-attenuation method (CAM) in the form of the CAM-B3LYP functional has been shown to reliably remedy this problem in many CT systems, making accurate predictions possible. However, in spite of a rather consistent performance across different orbital overlap regimes, some pitfalls remain. Here, we present a fully flexible and adaptable implementation of the CAM for Γ-point calculations within the plane-wave pseudopotential molecular dynamics package CPMD and explore how customized xc functionals can improve the optical spectra of some notorious cases. We find that results obtained using plane waves agree well with those from all-electron calculations employing atom-centered bases, and that it is possible to construct a new Coulomb-attenuated xc functional based on simple considerations. We show that such a functional is able to outperform CAM-B3LYP in some cases, while retaining similar accuracy in systems where CAM-B3LYP performs well.

  13. Nearaffine planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we develop a theory for nearaffine planes analogous to the theory of ordinary affine translation planes. In a subsequent paper we shall use this theory to give a characterization of a certain class of Minkowski planes.

  14. Determining the dominant partial wave contributions from angular distributions of single- and double-polarization observables in pseudoscalar meson photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Y.; Afzal, F.; Thiel, A.; Beck, R. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    This work presents a simple method to determine the significant partial wave contributions to experimentally determined observables in pseudoscalar meson photoproduction. First, fits to angular distributions are presented and the maximum orbital angular momentum L{sub max} needed to achieve a good fit is determined. Then, recent polarization measurements for γp → π{sup 0}p from ELSA, GRAAL, JLab and MAMI are investigated according to the proposed method. This method allows us to project high-spin partial wave contributions to any observable as long as the measurement has the necessary statistical accuracy. We show, that high precision and large angular coverage in the polarization data are needed in order to be sensitive to high-spin resonance states and thereby also for the finding of small resonance contributions. This task can be achieved via interference of these resonances with the well-known states. For the channel γp → π{sup 0}p, those are the N(1680)(5)/(2){sup +} and Δ(1950)(7)/(2){sup +}, contributing to the F-waves. (orig.)

  15. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of randomly distributed discrete scatterers and polarized backscattering ratio law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The effective-medium approximation is applied to investigate scattering from a half-space of randomly and densely distributed discrete scatterers. Starting from vector wave equations, an approximation, called effective-medium Born approximation, a particular way, treating Green's functions, and special coordinates, of which the origin is set at the field point, are used to calculate the bistatic- and back-scatterings. An analytic solution of backscattering with closed form is obtained and it shows a depolarization effect. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in the cases of snow, multi- and first-year sea-ice. The root product ratio of polarization to depolarization in backscattering is equal to 8; this result constitutes a law about polarized scattering phenomena in the nature.

  16. Polarization-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing of CdS nanocrystals in a nonresonant region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, S.M.; Seo, J.T.; Yang, Q.; Creemore, L.; Battle, R.; Tabibi, B.; Yu, W.

    2006-01-01

    The third-order susceptibilities of various concentrations of TOPO-passivated CdS nanocrystals (NCs) with the size near the Bohr radius were investigated using polarization-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in a nonresonant excitation region with 532 nm wavelength and 8 ns pulse width. The second hyperpolarizabilities left angle γ h xxxx right angle and left angle γ h xyyx right angle of the CdS NCs were ∝1.25 x 10 -42 m 5 /V 2 and ∝3.66 x 10 -43 m 5 /V 2 , respectively. The ratio (left angle γ h xyyx right angle / left angle γ h xxxx right angle) of the hyperpolarizabilities was ∝0.29 that indicated a large contribution of electronic polarization process to the third-order nonlinearity of CdS NCs. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E. [Departamento de Comunicaciones-iTEAM, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gimeno, B. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo-ICMUV, Universitat de València c/Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J. [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Edificio de Desarrollo Empresarial 9B, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE{sub 11} circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored.

  18. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E.; Gimeno, B.; Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J.

    2014-01-01

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE 11 circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored

  19. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  20. Application of the Method of Auxiliary Sources for the Analysis of Plane-Wave Scattering by Impedance Spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2002-01-01

    The Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is applied to 3D scattering problems involving spherical impedance scatterers. The MAS results are compared with the reference spherical wave expansion (SWE) solution. It is demonstrated that good agreement is achieved between the MAS and SWE results....