WorldWideScience

Sample records for polarized ion beam

  1. Uses of laser optical pumping to produce polarized ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Laser optical pumping can be used to produce polarized alkali atom beams or polarized alkali vapor targets. Polarized alkali atom beams can be converted into polarized alkali ion beams, and polarized alkali vapor targets can be used to produce polarized H - or 3 He - ion beams. In this paper the authors discuss how the polarized alkali atom beams and polarized alkali vapor targets are used to produce polarized ion beams with emphasis on the production of polarized negative ion beams

  2. Colliding-beams polarized ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainor, T.A.; Douglas, J.G.; Badt, D.; Christiensen, C.; Herron, A.; Leach, D.; Olsen, J.; Osborne, J.L.; Zeps, V.

    1985-01-01

    This ion source was to be purchased from ANAC, Inc., a New Zealand-based supplier of beam optics hardware and atomic beam polarized ion sources in December 1982. Shortly before scheduled delivery ANAC went into receivership. During 1983 little work was done on the project as various steps were taken by us, first to get the ion source completed at ANAC, and then, failing that, to obtain the existing parts. In early 1984 we began work to finish the ion source in Seattle. The project is nearly complete, and this article presents progress to date. 2 refs

  3. Polarization Studies in Fast-Ion Beam Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabert, E

    2001-01-01

    In a historical review, the observations and the insight gained from polarization studies of fast ions interacting with solid targets are presented. These began with J. Macek's recognition of zero-field quantum beats in beam-foil spectroscopy as indicating alignment, and D.G. Ellis' density operator analysis that suggested the observability of orientation when using tilted foils. Lastly H. Winter's studies of the ion-beam surface interaction at grazing incidence yielded the means to produce a high degree of nuclear orientation in ion beams

  4. Production of polarized negative deuterium ion beam with dual optical pumping in KEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsho, M.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Y.

    1997-02-01

    To obtain highly nuclear-spin vector polarized negative deuterium ion beam, a dual optically pumped polarized negative deuterium ion source has been developed at KEK. It is possible to select a pure nuclear-spin state with this scheme, and negative deuterium ion beam with 100% nuclear-spin vector polarization can be produced in principle. We have obtained about 70% of nuclear-spin vector polarized negative deuterium ion beam so far. This result may open up a new possibilities for the optically pumped polarized ion source. (author)

  5. Optically pumped electron spin polarized targets for use in the production of polarized ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    The production of relatively dense electron spin polarized alkali metal vapor targets by optical pumping with intense cw dye lasers is discussed. The target density and electron spin polarization depend on the dye laser intensity and bandwidth, the magnetic field at the target, and the electron spin depolarization time. For example in a magnetic field of 1.5 x 10 3 G, and using 1 W dye laser with a bandwidth of 10 10 Hz one can construct an electron spin polarized Na vapor target with a target thickness of 1.6 x 10 13 atoms/cm 2 and an average electron spin polarization of about 90% even though the Na atoms are completely depolarized at every wall collision. Possible uses of the electron spin polarized targets for the production of intense beams of polarized H - or 3 He - ions are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  7. A multi-satellite study of accelerated ionospheric ion beams above the polar cap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maggiolo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of nearly field-aligned outflowing ion beams observed on the Cluster satellites over the polar cap. Data are taken at geocentric radial distances of the order of 5–9 RE. The distinction is made between ion beams originating from the polar cusp/cleft and beams accelerated almost along the magnetic field line passing by the spacecraft. Polar cusp beams are characterized by nearly field-aligned proton and oxygen ions with an energy ratio EO+ / EH+, of the order of 3 to 4, due to the ion energy repartition inside the source and to the latitudinal extension of the source. Rapid variations in the outflowing ion energy are linked with pulses/modifications of the convection electric field. Cluster data allow one to show that these perturbations of the convection velocity and the associated ion structures propagate at the convection velocity. In contrast, polar cap local ion beams are characterized by field-aligned proton and oxygen ions with similar energies. These beams show the typical inverted V structures usually observed in the auroral zone and are associated with a quasi-static converging electric field indicative of a field-aligned electric field. The field-aligned potential drop fits well the ion energy profile. The simultaneous observation of precipitating electrons and upflowing ions of similar energies at the Cluster orbit indicates that the spacecraft are crossing the mid-altitude part of the acceleration region. In the polar cap, the parallel electric field can thus extend to altitudes higher than 5 Earth radii. A detailed analysis of the distribution functions shows that the ions are heated during their parallel acceleration and that energy is exchanged between H+ and O+. Furthermore, intense electrostatic waves are observed simultaneously. These observations could be due to an ion-ion two-stream instability.

  8. Determination of the spin polarization of a 4He+ ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yamauchi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the spin polarization of a 4 He + ion beam (P He + ) can be determined from the spin dependence of the electron emission in the deexcitation process of spin-polarized He metastable atoms (He*, 2 3 S 1 ) and spin-polarized He + ions on Fe (100) surfaces. On Fe (100) surfaces, both He* and He + deexcite via Auger neutralization, and therefore, the spin asymmetry obtained from spin-polarized He + ion neutralization spectroscopy should be equal to that from spin-polarized metastable He* deexcitation spectroscopy. The spin polarization of He* was obtained from Stern-Gerlach measurements. P He + was finally determined to be 0.19±0.02

  9. Optimization of the performance of rf transitions for the TUNL atomic beam polarized ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosson, E.R.; Clegg, T.B.; Karwowski, H.J.; Lemieux, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    We have utilized the spin-dependence of the cross section for electron impact ionization of H 0 and D 0 atoms in the ionizer of our atomic beam polarized ion source to study the performance of the rf transitions which provide the nuclear polarization of the atomic beam. Switching the rf transitions on and off modulates the output polarized current. This modulation is observed using a lock-in amplifier and provides a fast and reliable method for optimization of transition unit parameters. (orig.)

  10. Polar cap ion beams during periods of northward IMF: Cluster statistical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maggiolo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Above the polar caps and during prolonged periods of northward IMF, the Cluster satellites detect upward accelerated ion beams with energies up to a few keV. They are associated with converging electric field structures indicating that the acceleration is caused by a quasi-static field-aligned electric field that can extend to altitudes higher than 7 RE (Maggiolo et al., 2006; Teste et al., 2007. Using the AMDA science analysis service provided by the Centre de Données de la Physique des Plasmas, we have been able to extract about 200 events of accelerated upgoing ion beams above the polar caps from the Cluster database. Most of these observations are taken at altitudes lower than 7 RE and in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate the statistical properties of these ion beams. We analyze their geometry, the properties of the plasma populations and of the electric field inside and around the beams, as well as their dependence on solar wind and IMF conditions. We show that ~40 % of the ion beams are collocated with a relatively hot and isotropic plasma population. The density and temperature of the isotropic population are highly variable but suggest that this plasma originates from the plasma sheet. The ion beam properties do not change significantly when the isotropic, hot background population is present. Furthermore, during one single polar cap crossing by Cluster it is possible to detect upgoing ion beams both with and without an accompanying isotropic component. The analysis of the variation of the IMF BZ component prior to the detection of the beams indicates that the delay between a northward/southward turning of IMF and the appearance/disappearance of the beams is respectively ~2 h and 20 min. The observed electrodynamic characteristics of high altitude polar cap ion beams suggest that they are closely connected to polar cap auroral arcs. We discuss the implications of these Cluster observations above the polar cap on the magnetospheric

  11. A multi-satellite study of accelerated ionospheric ion beams above the polar cap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maggiolo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of nearly field-aligned outflowing ion beams observed on the Cluster satellites over the polar cap. Data are taken at geocentric radial distances of the order of 5–9 RE. The distinction is made between ion beams originating from the polar cusp/cleft and beams accelerated almost along the magnetic field line passing by the spacecraft. Polar cusp beams are characterized by nearly field-aligned proton and oxygen ions with an energy ratio EO+ / EH+, of the order of 3 to 4, due to the ion energy repartition inside the source and to the latitudinal extension of the source. Rapid variations in the outflowing ion energy are linked with pulses/modifications of the convection electric field. Cluster data allow one to show that these perturbations of the convection velocity and the associated ion structures propagate at the convection velocity.

    In contrast, polar cap local ion beams are characterized by field-aligned proton and oxygen ions with similar energies. These beams show the typical inverted V structures usually observed in the auroral zone and are associated with a quasi-static converging electric field indicative of a field-aligned electric field. The field-aligned potential drop fits well the ion energy profile. The simultaneous observation of precipitating electrons and upflowing ions of similar energies at the Cluster orbit indicates that the spacecraft are crossing the mid-altitude part of the acceleration region. In the polar cap, the parallel electric field can thus extend to altitudes higher than 5 Earth radii. A detailed analysis of the distribution functions shows that the ions are heated during their parallel acceleration and that energy is exchanged between H+ and O+. Furthermore, intense electrostatic waves are observed simultaneously. These observations could be due to an ion-ion two-stream instability.

  12. A review of polarized ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmor, P.W.

    1995-06-01

    The two main types of polarized ion sources in use on accelerators today are the Atomic Beam Polarized Ion Source (ABIS) source and the Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS). Both types can provide beams of nuclearly polarized light ions which are either positively or negatively charged. Heavy ion polarized ion sources for accelerators are being developed. (author). 35 refs., 1 tab

  13. A new atomic beam polarized ion source for the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory: overview, operating experience, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Karwowski, H.J.; Lemieux, S.K.; Sayer, R.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Hooke, W.M.; Howell, C.R.; Lewis, H.W.; Lovette, A.W.; Pfutzner, H.J.; Sweeton, K.A.; Wilburn, W.S.

    1995-01-01

    A newly constructed source of polarized H ± and D ± ions is described. Atomic H or D beams from a dissociator with a cooled nozzle enter a system of two sextupole magnets and several radio-frequency transitions where they are focused and polarized. They enter a downstream electron-cyclotron-resonance-heated plasma ionizer from which positive ions are extracted. When negative ions are desired, they may be produced from the positive beam by charge-exchange in cesium vapor. Emerging beams are intense, have good polarization, low energy spread, and good optical quality. Descriptions are included for all major systems and for diagnostic procedures used to optimize both the intensity and the polarization of the output H ± or D ± beams obtained. Typical operating experience, performance figures, and a description of routine maintenance procedures are given. ((orig.))

  14. Recent progress in the development of a polarized proton target for reactions with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrego-Blanco, J.P.; Bingham, C.R.; Brandt, B. van den; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Schmelzbach, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Polarization observables in nuclear reactions with stable beams have provided important information concerning structural properties of nuclei and reaction mechanisms and hold great promise in the context of exotic nuclei. We report on the development of a polarized target based on plastic foils of 20-200 μm thickness to be used with radioactive ion beams. The operation of such a target requires a moderately high magnetic field and very low temperatures. The plastic foil is placed inside a chamber attached to the mixing chamber of a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator. Cooling of the foil is achieved via a superfluid film of 4 He that can be supplied through two capillaries. The chamber has two thin, highly uniform silicon nitride windows. An NMR coil is attached to the target to monitor the polarization. Results of a first test to characterize the target system, using the elastic scattering of 38 MeV 12 C by protons in inverse kinematics are presented

  15. Some developments in polarized ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witteveen, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations concerning an atomic beam source are presented and a new polarized ion source of a more universal type is introduced. Polarized and unpolarized beams of positively or negatively charged ions can be produced with this new version and the theoretical limits are a polarized negative hydrogen ion beam with an intensity of about 1 mH and a polarized proton beam with an intensity of 10 mH. (C.F.)

  16. Polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, K.; Ishihara, M.; Takahashi, N.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter presents a few key experiments which provide direct evidence of the polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions. The theory of polarization observables and measurements is given with the necessary formulae. The polarization phenomena is described and studies of product nuclear polarization in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. Studies of heavy-ion reactions induced by polarized beams are examined

  17. Development of high-polarization Fe/Ge neutron polarizing supermirror: Possibility of fine-tuning of scattering length density in ion beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, R.; Yamazaki, D.; Akutsu, K.; Hanashima, T.; Miyata, N.; Aoki, H.; Takeda, M.; Soyama, K.

    2018-04-01

    The multilayer structure of Fe/Si and Fe/Ge systems fabricated by ion beam sputtering (IBS) was investigated using X-ray and polarized neutron reflectivity measurements and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The obtained result revealed that the incorporation of sputtering gas particles (Ar) in the Ge layer gives rise to a marked reduction in the neutron scattering length density (SLD) and contributes to the SLD contrast between the Fe and Ge layers almost vanishing for spin-down neutrons. Bundesmann et al. (2015) have shown that the implantation of primary Ar ions backscattered at the target is responsible for the incorporation of Ar particles and that the fraction increases with increasing ion incidence angle and increasing polar emission angle. This leads to a possibility of fine-tuning of the SLD for the IBS, which is required to realize a high polarization efficiency of a neutron polarizing supermirror. Fe/Ge polarizing supermirror with m = 5 fabricated under the same condition showed a spin-up reflectivity of 0.70 at the critical momentum transfer. The polarization was higher than 0.985 for the qz range where the correction for the polarization inefficiencies of the beamline works properly. The result of the polarized neutron reflectivity measurement suggests that the "magnetically-dead" layers formed at both sides of the Fe layer, together with the SLD contrast, play a critical role in determining the polarization performance of a polarizing supermirror.

  18. Method of generating intense nuclear polarized beams by selective photodetachment of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1986-01-01

    A novel method for production of nuclear polarized negative hydrogen ions by selective neutralization with a laser of negative hydrogen ions in a magnetic field is described. This selectivity is possible since a final state of the neutralized atom, and hence the neutralization energy, depends on its nuclear polarization. The main advantages of this scheme are the availability of multi-ampere negative ion sources and the possibility of neutralizing negative ions with very high efficiency. An assessment of the required laser power indicates that this method is in principle feasible with today's technology

  19. The effects of electron spiraling on the anisotropy and polarization of photon emission from an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, D.W.; Gu, M.F.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    1998-01-01

    We present a theoretical formalism for calculating the anisotropy and polarization of photon emission due to a spiraling beam of electrons in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). We present measurements of the polarization for the Fe XXIV 4p 2 P 3/2 → 2s 2 S 1/2 X-ray transition due to electron impact excitation. We discuss these results, together with previously reported EBIT polarization measurements, in the light of electron spiraling. We find that spiraling effects cannot yet be discerned in these measurements. This is important for many EBIT measurements concerned with X-ray line intensity measurements. While the amount of spiraling is not accurately known, neglecting its effects introduces an error typically no larger than that given by counting statistics. (author)

  20. Generation of intense polarized beams by selective neutralization of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershcovitch, A.I.; Hinds, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    A novel scheme is proposed. This method is based on selective neutralization by laser negative hydrogen ions in a magnetic field. This selectivity is based on the fact that the final state of the neutralized atom depends on nuclear polarization in the magnetic field. A two-scenario approach is to be followed: one in which the resulting neutral atom is in the ground state, and in the other the neutral atom is in the n = 2 level. Limiting factors are discussed. The main advantages of this scheme are the availability of multi-ampere negative ion sources and the possibility to neutralize negative ions with very high efficiency. 15 references, 2 figures

  1. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  2. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.

    1985-01-01

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  3. Dependence of proton beam polarization on ion source transition configurations; Determination de la polarisation du faisceau de protons pour les quatre configurations des transitions de la source d`ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvieux, J.; Ausset, P.; Ball, J.; Beauvais, P.Y.; Bedfer, Y.; Chamouard, P.A.; Fontaine, J.M.; Kunne, R.; Lagniel, J.M.; Sans, J.L. [Laboratoire National Saturne - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Allgower, Ch.; Kasprzyk, T.E.; Spinka, H.M. [ANL-HEP, Argonne (United States); Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Demiere, Ph.; Rapin, D.; Teglia, A. [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire; Janout, Z. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Civil Engineering; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Popov, A.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Prokofiev, A.N.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Zhdanov, A.A. [Nuclear Physics Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Considerable anomalies were observed in recorded pp elastic scattering spin dependent data at several proton beam energies at SATURNE II. These results suggested that the discrepancies are related to the polarized ion source. In order to understand the observed effects, the proton beam polarizations for each ion source state were determined separately. Convenient procedures, allowing to determine the beam polarization from a beam-line polarimeter are presented. Two distinct experiments are necessary for this purpose. In the first one the LEFT-RIGHT instrumental asymmetry of the beam polarimeter arms is determined. In the second one this correction factor is applied to asymmetries measured with the beam from the polarized ion source in different polarization states. Both experiments determined the scattering asymmetries for all four polarized source states as functions of different source parameters. The measurements were carried out at the proton beam kinetic energy 0.80 GeV, where the pp elastic scattering analyzing power is at its maximum. Results show that the so called `unpolarized states` of the source are polarized, whereas the absolute values of the beam polarizations in `polarized states` are equal. It was observed that the hexapole lens of the ion source provides some beam polarization in the absence of any transition. The beam polarization as function of the hexapole current, of the transition efficiencies and of the rotation solenoid current has been studied. It is also shown, how one way obtain a strictly unpolarized beam using the polarized source only. The results obtained with the SATURNE II ion source HYPERION may be also valid for other accelerators and sources. (authors) 10 refs.

  4. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  5. The RHIC polarized H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenski, A., E-mail: zelenski@bnl.gov; Atoian, G.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H{sup −} ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H{sup −} ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC.

  6. Stanford polarized atomic beam target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavis, D.G.; Dunham, J.S.; Hugg, J.W.; Glavish, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    A polarized atomic beam source was used to produce an atomic hydrogen beam which was in turn used as a polarized proton target. A target density of 2 x 10'' atoms/cm 3 and a target polarization of 0.37 without the use of rf transitions were measured. These measurements indicate that a number of experiments are currently feasible with a variety of polarized target beams

  7. Ion beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    An ion beam analyzer is specified, having an ion source for generating ions of a sample to be analyzed, means for extracting the sample ions, means for focusing the sample ions into a beam, separation means positioned along the ion beam for selectively deflecting species of ions, and means for detecting the selected species of ions. According to the specification, the analyzer further comprises (a) means for disabling at least a portion of the separation means, such that the ion beam from the source remains undeflected; (b) means located along the path of the undeflected ion beam for sensing the sample ions; and (c) enabling means responsive to the sensing means for automatically re-enabling the separation means when the sample ions reach a predetermined intensity level. (author)

  8. Sources of polarized negative ions: progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberli, W.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of recent progress in the art of producing beams of polarized ions is given. In all sources of polarized ions, one first produces (or selects) neutral atoms which are polarized in electron spin. Those types of sources which use a beam of thermal polarized hydrogen atoms are discussed. Progress made in the preparation of the atomic beam and the methods used to convert the neutral atoms to polarized ions is summarized. The second type of source discussed is based on fast (keV) polarized hydrogen atoms. Conversion to negative ions is very simple because one only needs to pass the fast atoms through a suitable charge exchange medium (gas or vapor). However, the production of the polarized atoms is more difficult in this case. The proposal to employ polarized alkali vapor to form a beam of polarized fast H atoms, where the polarized alkali atoms are produced either by an atomic beam apparatus or by optical pumping is discussed

  9. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  10. Mono-energetic ion beam acceleration in solitary waves during relativistic transparency using high-contrast circularly polarized short-pulse laser and nanoscale targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Bowers, K. J.; Shah, R. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Fernandez, J. C.; Jung, D.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent experiments at the Trident laser facility, quasi-monoenergetic ion beams have been obtained from the interaction of an ultraintense, circularly polarized laser with a diamond-like carbon target of nm-scale thickness under conditions of ultrahigh laser pulse contrast. Kinetic simulations of this experiment under realistic laser and plasma conditions show that relativistic transparency occurs before significant radiation pressure acceleration and that the main ion acceleration occurs after the onset of relativistic transparency. Associated with this transition are a period of intense ion acceleration and the generation of a new class of ion solitons that naturally give rise to quasi-monoenergetic ion beams. An analytic theory has been derived for the properties of these solitons that reproduces the behavior observed in kinetic simulations and the experiments.

  11. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strehl, P.

    1994-04-01

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  12. A dual-optically-pumped polarized negative deuterium ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsho, M.; Mori, Y.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.

    1994-01-01

    An optically pumped polarized H - source (OPPIS), which is based on the charge exchange between H + ions and electron-spin-polarized alkali atoms has been developed at KEK. Just by applying this scheme to a deuteron beam, it is difficult to obtain a highly vector polarized deuteron beam. To obtain highly vector polarized D - ions, we have developed a 'dual optical pumping type' of polarized D - source. With this scheme, a 100% vector nuclear-spin polarization for D - ions is possible in principle. In a preliminary experiment, a 60% of vector nuclear-spin polarized D - ions was obtained. (author)

  13. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  14. Nanostructures by ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B.

    Ion beam techniques, including conventional broad beam ion implantation, ion beam synthesis and ion irradiation of thin layers, as well as local ion implantation with fine-focused ion beams have been applied in different fields of micro- and nanotechnology. The ion beam synthesis of nanoparticles in high-dose ion-implanted solids is explained as phase separation of nanostructures from a super-saturated solid state through precipitation and Ostwald ripening during subsequent thermal treatment of the ion-implanted samples. A special topic will be addressed to self-organization processes of nanoparticles during ion irradiation of flat and curved solid-state interfaces. As an example of silicon nanocrystal application, the fabrication of silicon nanocrystal non-volatile memories will be described. Finally, the fabrication possibilities of nanostructures, such as nanowires and chains of nanoparticles (e.g. CoSi2), by ion beam synthesis using a focused Co+ ion beam will be demonstrated and possible applications will be mentioned.

  15. Intense ion beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Sudan, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation

  16. A polarized alkali ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, R.; Tungate, G.; Bauer, B.; Egelhof, P.; Moebius, K.H.; Steffens, E.

    1978-01-01

    The beam foil technique has been applied to detect nuclear vector polarization of a 10 keV 23 Na + beam. The result was about 70% of the atomic beam polarization thus limiting the depolarization by the surface ionizer to at most 30%. In a Coulomb excitation experiment with a tensor polarized 42 MeV 23 Na 7+ beam an effect of 0.011 +- 0.003 was measured yielding a value of t 20 approx. 0.04 for the beam polarization. The depolarization during the acceleration process can be estimated to be about 0.8. (orig.) [de

  17. Physics with polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    As a distinct field, elementary particle physics is now approximately forty years old. In all that time, only a few of the thousands of experiments that have been performed have made use of spin polarized particle beams (with apologies to those who have studied neutrino interactions, polarized beam are defined to refer to the case in which the experimenter has control over the polarization direction). If the discussion is restricted to spin polarized electron beams, the number of experiments becomes countable with the fingers of one hand (with several to spare). There are two reasons for this lack of interest. The first is that spin polarized beams are difficult to produce, accelerate, and transport. The second reason is that any physical process that can occur during the collision of a polarized particle with another (polarized or not) can also occur during the collision of unpolarized particles. One might ask then, why has any effort been expended on the subject. The answer, at least in the case of polarized electron beams, is that electron accelerators and storage rings have in recent years achieved sufficient energy to begin to probe the weak interaction directly. The weak interaction distinguishes between left- and right-handed fermionic currents. Left-handed particles interact in a fundamentally different way than their right-handed counterparts. If the experimenter wishes to explore or exploit this difference, he (or she) must either prepare the spin state of the incident particles or analyze the spin state of outgoing particles. For reasons of genearlity and improved statistical precision, the former is usually preferable to the latter. The first of these lectures will review some of the techniques necessary for the production, transport, and monitoring of polarized electron (or positron) beams. The second lecture will survey some of the physics possibilities of polarized electron-positron collisions

  18. Cluster ion beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popok, V.N.; Prasalovich, S.V.; Odzhaev, V.B.; Campbell, E.E.B.

    2001-01-01

    A brief state-of-the-art review in the field of cluster-surface interactions is presented. Ionised cluster beams could become a powerful and versatile tool for the modification and processing of surfaces as an alternative to ion implantation and ion assisted deposition. The main effects of cluster-surface collisions and possible applications of cluster ion beams are discussed. The outlooks of the Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus (CIDA) being developed in Guteborg University are shown

  19. High energy polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmanith, R.

    1987-01-01

    In nearly all high energy electron storage rings the effect of beam polarization by synchrotron radiation has been measured. The buildup time for polarization in storage rings is of the order of 10 6 to 10 7 revolutions; the spins must remain aligned over this time in order to avoid depolarization. Even extremely small spin deviations per revolution can add up and cause depolarization. The injection and the acceleration of polarized electrons in linacs is much easier. Although some improvements are still necessary, reliable polarized electron sources with sufficiently high intensity and polarization are available. With the linac-type machines SLC at Stanford and CEBAF in Virginia, experiments with polarized electrons will be possible

  20. Polarizing a stored proton beam by spin flip?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oellers, D.; Barion, L.; Barsov, S.; Bechstedt, U.; Benati, P.; Bertelli, S.; Chiladze, D.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Dietrich, J.; Dolfus, N.; Dymov, S.; Engels, R.; Erven, W.; Garishvili, A.; Gebel, R.; Goslawski, P.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss polarizing a proton beam in a storage ring, either by selective removal or by spin flip of the stored ions. Prompted by recent, conflicting calculations, we have carried out a measurement of the spin-flip cross section in low-energy electron-proton scattering. The experiment uses the cooling electron beam at COSY as an electron target. The measured cross sections are too small for making spin flip a viable tool in polarizing a stored beam. This invalidates a recent proposal to use co-moving polarized positrons to polarize a stored antiproton beam.

  1. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  2. Ion beam studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.H.; Chivers, D.J.; Gard, G.A.; Temple, W.

    1977-04-01

    A description of techniques for the production of intense beams of heavy ions is given. A table of recommended operational procedures for most elements is included. The ionisation of boron is considered in some detail because of its particular importance as a dopant for ion implantation. (author)

  3. Biomaterials modification by ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Yi Zhongzhen; Zhang Xu; Wu Yuguang

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam technology is one of best ways for the modification of biomaterials. The results of ion beam modification of biomaterials are given. The method and results of improved biocompatibility are indicated by ion beam technology. The future development of ion beam modification of biomaterials is discussed

  4. Pulsed diode source of polarized ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenstein, J.; Rostoker, N.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of polarized nuclei for fusion reactors have recently been described. We propose a pulsed source of polarized nuclei that consists of an ion diode with a polarized anode. With magnetic resonance techniques the nuclear spins of the protons of solid NH 3 can be made about 90 to 95% polarized. This material would be used for the anode. The diode would be pulsed with a voltage of 1-200K-volts for 1-2 μ sec. Flashover of the anode produces a surface plasma from which the polarized protons would be extracted to form a beam. Depolarization could be detected by comparing reaction cross sections and/or distribution of reaction products with similar results for unpolarized beams

  5. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  6. Acceleration of polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1998-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. Full Siberian snakes are being developed for RHIC to make the acceleration of polarized protons to 250 GeV possible. A similar scheme is being studied for the 800 GeV HERA proton accelerator

  7. Physics with polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-06-01

    As a distinct field, elementary particle physics is now approximately forty years old. In all that time, only a few of the thousands of experiments that have been performed have made use of spin polarized particle beams. There are two reasons for this lack of interest. The first is that spin polarized beams are difficult to produce, accelerate, and transport. The second reason is that any physical process that can occur during the collision of a polarized particle with another (polarized or not) can also occur during the collision of unpolarized particles. One might ask then, why has any effort been expended on the subject? The answer, at least in the case of polarized electron beams, is that electron accelerators and storage rings have in recent years achieved sufficient energy to begin to probe the weak interaction directly. The weak interaction distinguishes between left- and right-handed fermionic currents. Left-handed particles interact in a fundamentally different way than their right-handed counterparts. If the experimenter wishes to explore or exploit this difference, he (or she) must either prepare the spin state of the incident particles or analyze the spin state of outgoing particles. For reasons, of generality and improved statistical precision, the former is usually preferable to the latter. The first of these lectures will review some of the techniques necessary for the production, transport, and monitoring of polarized electron (or positron) beams. The second lecture will survey some of the physics possibilities of polarized electron--positron collisions. 33 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.; Li, R. X.; Guo, L. X.; Ding, C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections of optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are theoretically investigated for a dielectric sphere with particular emphasis on the beam topological charge (or order), half-cone angle and polarization. The angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) is used to derive the non-paraxial electromagnetic (EM) field components of the Bessel beams. The multipole expansion method using vector spherical harmonics is utilized and appropriate beam-shape coefficients are derived in order to compute the radiation force cross-sections. The analysis has no limitation to a particular range of frequencies such that the Rayleigh, Mie or geometrical optics regimes can all be considered effectively using the present rigorous formalism. The focus of this investigation is to identify some of the tractor beam conditions so as to achieve retrograde motion of a dielectric sphere located arbitrarily in space. Numerical computations for the axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections are presented for linear, right-circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane waves forming the Bessel beams of zeroth- and first-order (with positive or negative helicity), respectively. As the sphere shifts off the beam's axis, the axial pulling (tractor) force is weakened. Moreover, the transverse radiation force cross-section field changes with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on the choice of ka and the half-cone angle α0. These results are particularly important in the development of emergent technologies for the photophoretic assembly of optically-engineered (meta)materials with designed properties using optical tractor (vortex) beams, particle manipulation, levitation and positioning, and other applications.

  9. Experiments with Fermilab polarized proton and polarized antiproton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a brief description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the π degree production at high p perpendicular and in the Λ (Σ degree), π ± , π degree production at large x F , and Δσ L (pp, bar pp) measurements. 18 refs

  10. History of the polarized beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    In 1973, the first high energy polarized proton beam was developed at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS). It operated very successfully and productively until 1979 when the ZGS was shut down permanently. This report describes the development, characteristics, and operations of this facility

  11. How It's Made - Polarized Proton Beam (444th Brookhaven Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenski, Anatoli

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams at RHIC will provide fundamental tests of QCD, and the electro-weak interaction reveal the spin structure of the proton. Polarization asymmetries and parity violation are the strong signatures for identification of the fundamental processes, which are otherwise inaccessible. Such experiments require the maximum available luminosity and therefore polarization must be obtained as an extra beam quality without sacrificing intensity. There are proposals to polarize the high-energy proton beam in the storage rings by the Stern-Gerlach effect or spin-filter techniques. But so far, the only practically available option is acceleration of the polarized beam produced in the source and taking care of polarization survival during acceleration and storage. Two major innovations -- the 'Siberian Snake' technique for polarization preservation during acceleration and high current polarized proton sources make spin physics with the high-energy polarized beams feasible. The RHIC is the first high-energy collider, where the 'Siberian Snake' technique allowed of polarized proton beam acceleration up-to 250 GeV energy. The RHIC unique Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source produces sufficient polarized beam intensity for complete saturation of the RHIC acceptance. This polarization technique is based on spin-transfer collisions between a proton or atomic hydrogen beam of a few keV beam energy and optically pumped alkali metal vapors. From the first proposal and feasibility studies to the operational source this development can be considered as example of successful unification of individual scientists ingenuity, international collaboration and modern technology application for creation of a new polarization technique, which allowed of two-to-three order of magnitude polarized beam intensity increase sufficient for loading the RHIC to its full capacity for polarization studies.

  12. Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, F.G.; Li, R.X.; Guo, L.X.; Ding, C.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections of optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are theoretically investigated for a dielectric sphere with particular emphasis on the beam topological charge (or order), half-cone angle and polarization. The angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM) is used to derive the non-paraxial electromagnetic (EM) field components of the Bessel beams. The multipole expansion method using vector spherical harmonics is utilized and appropriate beam-shape coefficients are derived in order to compute the radiation force cross-sections. The analysis has no limitation to a particular range of frequencies such that the Rayleigh, Mie or geometrical optics regimes can all be considered effectively using the present rigorous formalism. The focus of this investigation is to identify some of the tractor beam conditions so as to achieve retrograde motion of a dielectric sphere located arbitrarily in space. Numerical computations for the axial and transverse radiation force cross-sections are presented for linear, right-circular, radial, azimuthal and mixed polarizations of the individual plane waves forming the Bessel beams of zeroth- and first-order (with positive or negative helicity), respectively. As the sphere shifts off the beam's axis, the axial pulling (tractor) force is weakened. Moreover, the transverse radiation force cross-section field changes with the sphere's size factor ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the sphere radius). Both stable and unstable equilibrium regions around the beam's axis are found, depending on the choice of ka and the half-cone angle α_0. These results are particularly important in the development of emergent technologies for the photophoretic assembly of optically-engineered (meta)materials with designed properties using optical tractor (vortex) beams, particle manipulation, levitation and positioning, and other applications. - Highlights: • Optical tractor Bessel polarized beams are

  13. Wien filter for a polarized ions source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez A, P.I.

    1977-01-01

    In order to carry out investigation works about nuclear structure, the Nuclear Center of Mexico has an accelerator Tandem Van de Graff of 12 Mv. Now in this center there is a polarized ions source, in a setting phase, totally constructed in the workshop of the accelerator. This source, supplies an ion beam with a polarization whose propagation direction is not the adequate one for the dispersion and reaction processes wanted to be realized. A filter Wien was used to obtain the correct direction of the polarization vector. The purpose of this work is the study of the filter necessary conditions in order to reach the desirable objective. In the first part some generalities are given about: polarization phenomena, polarized ions source and description of the performance of the Wien filter. In the second part, the problem of the passage of a polarized beam through the filter is tried and solved. Finally, the design and construction of the filter is presented together with the results of the experimentation with the object to justify the suppositions which were taken into consideration in the solution of the filter problem. (author)

  14. Negative ion beam processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, T.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bentley, R.F.; Malanify, J.J.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory fiscal year 1975 work on production of intense, very bright, negative hydrogen (H - ), ion beams and conversion of a high-energy (a few hundred MeV) negative beam into a neutral beam are described. The ion source work has used a cesium charge exchange source that has produced H - ion beams greater than or equal to 10 mA (about a factor of 10 greater than those available 1 yr ago) with a brightness of 1.4 x 10 9 A/m 2 -rad 2 (about 18 times brighter than before). The high-energy, neutral beam production investigations have included measurements of the 800-MeV H - -stripping cross section in hydrogen gas (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 4 x 10 -19 cm 2 ), 3- to 6-MeV H - -stripping cross sections in a hydrogen plasma (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 2 to 4 x 10 -16 cm 2 ), and the small-angle scattering that results from stripping an 800-MeV H - ion beam to a neutral (H 0 ) beam in hydrogen gas. These last measurements were interrupted by the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility shutdown in December 1974, but should be completed early in fiscal year 1976 when the accelerator resumes operation. Small-angle scattering calculations have included hydrogen gas-stripping, plasma-stripping, and photodetachment. Calculations indicate that the root mean square angular spread of a 390-MeV negative triton (T - ) beam stripped in a plasma stripper may be as low as 0.7 μrad

  15. Possibility of polarized beams at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    A two week study was held at Brookhaven this summer to investigate polarized proton acceleration at the AGS in more detail and to produce a preliminary design and cost estimate. The Brookhaven study discovered no new problems which cannot be solved. A polarized proton ion source of the H - type is preferred, which could yield pulses of 75% polarized H - ions with an intensity of 10 to 100 μamp and a length of 1 to 3 msec. Upon injection this would result in an AGS intensity of 3 x 10 10 to 10 12 polarized protons per pulse which, together with the 2 sec repetition rate and the high extraction efficiency of the AGS, would yield an extracted beam intensity 5 to 150 times larger than that of the ZGS. Twelve new pulsed tune-shift quadrupoles will be necessary to jump the intrinsic resonances while the existing 96 correction dipoles can be used to tune out the imperfection harmonics. Most of the polarization monitors necessary are simply extensions of existing polarimeters; however, a fast internal polarimeter with an associated thin internal target would be useful for rapid tuning during the acceleration cycle. With these modifications it should be possible to accelerate polarized protons through the 8 intrinsic and 47 imperfection resonances in the AGS up to 23 GeV/c by late 1980. Although no decision has yet been reached with regard to the implementation of such a program, it is presently being considered together with other options for future AGS operation

  16. Ion beam texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    A microscopic surface texture was created by sputter-etching a surface while simultaneously sputter-depositing a lower sputter yield material onto the surface. A xenon ion-beam source was used to perform the texturing process on samples as large as 3-cm diameter. Textured surfaces have been characterized with SEM photomicrographs for a large number of materials including Cu, Al, Si, Ti, Ni, Fe, stainless steel, Au, and Ag. A number of texturing parameters are studied including the variation of texture with ion-beam powder, surface temperature, and the rate of texture growth with sputter etching time.

  17. Ion beam inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    About twenty years ago, A. W. Maschke of Brookhaven National Laboratory and R. L. Martin of Argonne National Laboratory recognized that the accelerators that have been developed for high energy and nuclear physics are, in many ways, ideally suited to the requirements of inertial fusion power production. These accelerators are reliable, they have a long operating life, and they can be efficient. Maschke and Martin noted that they can focus ion beams to small focal spots over distances of many meters and that they can readily operate at the high pulse repetition rates needed for commercial power production. Fusion, however, does impose some important new constraints that are not important for high energy or nuclear physics applications. The most challenging new constraint from a scientific standpoint is the requirement that the accelerator deliver more than 10 14 W of beam power to a small quantity (less than 100 mg) of matter. The most challenging constraint from an engineering standpoint is accelerator cost. Maschke showed theoretically that accelerators could produce adequate work. Heavy-ion fusion is widely recognized to be a promising approach to inertial fusion power production. It provides an excellent opportunity to apply methods and technology developed for basic science to an important societal need. The pulsed-power community has developed a complementary, parallel approach to ion beam fusion known as light-ion fusion. The talk will discuss both heavy-ion and light-ion fusion. It will explain target physics requirements and show how they lead to constraints on the usual accelerator parameters such as kinetic energy, current, and emittance. The talk will discuss experiments that are presently underway, specifically experiments on high-current ion sources and injectors, pulsed-power machines recirculating induction accelerators, and transverse beam combining. The talk will give a brief description of a proposed new accelerator called Elise

  18. Polarized proton beams since the ZGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses research involving polarized proton beams since the ZGS's demise. He begins by reminding the attendee that in 1973 the ZGS accelerated the world's first high energy polarized proton beam; all in attendance at this meeting can be proud of this accomplishment. A few ZGS polarized proton beam experiments were done in the early 1970's; then from about 1976 until 1 October 1979, the majority of the ZGS running time was polarized running. A great deal of fundamental physics was done with the polarized beam when the ZGS ran as a dedicated polarized proton beam from about Fall 1977 until it shut down on 1 October 1979. The newly created polarization enthusiats then dispersed; some spread polarized seeds al over the world by polarizing beams elsewhere; some wound up running the High Energy and SSC programs at DOE

  19. Modified betatron for ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostoker, N.; Fisher, A.

    1986-01-01

    An intense neutralized ion beam can be injected and trapped in magnetic mirror or tokamak geometry. The details of the process involve beam polarization so that the beam crosses the fringing fields without deflection and draining the polarization when the beam reaches the plasma. Equilibrium requires that a large betatron field be added in tokamak geometry. In mirror geometry a toroidal field must be added by means of a current along the mirror axis. In either case, the geometry becomes that of the modified betatron which has been studied experimentally and theoretically in recent years. We consider beams of d and t ions with a mean energy of 500 kev and a temperature of about 50 kev. The plasma may be a proton plasma with cold ions. It is only necessary for beam trapping or to carry currents. The ion energy for slowing down is initially 500 kev and thermonuclear reactions depend only on the beam temperature of 50 kev which changes very slowly. This new configuration for magnetic confinement fusion leads to an energy gain of 10--20 for d-t reactions whereas previous studies of beam target interaction predicted a maximum energy gain of 3--4. The high beam energy available with pulsed ion diode technology is also essential for advanced fuels. 16 refs., 3 figs

  20. Accelerating polarized beams in Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-02-01

    In this paper, we will examine the totality of equipment, manpower and cost necessary to obtain a polarized proton beam in the Tevatron. We will not, however, be concerned with the acquisition and acceleration of polarized /bar p/ beams. Furthermore we will consider only a planar main ring without overpass, although it is expected that Siberian snake schemes could be made to apply equally well to non-planar machines. In addition to not wanting to tackle here the task of reformulating the theory for a non-planar closed orbit, we also anticipate that as part of the Tevatron upgrade the main ring will in the not too distant future, be replaced by a planar main injector situated in a separate tunnel. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  1. Upgrading the AGS polarized beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    Although present techniques for crossing depolarizing resonances in circular accelerators work, they are very time-consuming to implement and were only able to provide about a 40% polarized beam at 22 GeV in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). We propose to install a partial ''Siberian Snake'' solenoid in the AGS to eliminate the need to correct imperfection resonances and to make other modifications in our intrinsic resonance correctors. This will allow us to reach an energy of 25 GeV with 70% polarization and will enable the AGS to be an efficient injector of polarized protons into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), as well as being able to carry on a fixed-target program with minimum set-up time. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Ion beam analysis is an accelerator application area for the study of materials and the structure of matter; electrostatic accelerators of the Van de Graaff or Dynamitron type are often used for energies up to a few MeV. Two types of machines are available - the single-ended accelerator type with higher beam currents and greater flexibility of beam management, or the tandem accelerator, limited to atomic species with negative ions. The accelerators are not generally installed at specialist accelerator laboratories and have to be easy to maintain and simple to operate. The most common technique for industrial research is Rutherford Back Scattering Spectrometry (RBS). Helium ions are the preferred projectiles, since at elevated energies (above 3 MeV) nuclear resonance scattering can be used to detect photons associated with target molecules containing elements such as carbon, nitrogen or oxygen. Due to the large amount of available data on nuclear reactions in this energy range, activation analysis (detecting trace elements by irradiating the sample) can be performed with charged particles from accelerators over a wider range of atoms than with the conventional use of neutrons, which is more suited to light elements. Resonance reactions have been used to detect trace metals such as aluminium, titanium and vanadium. Hydrogen atoms are vital to the material performance of several classes of materials, such as semiconductors, insulators and ceramics. Prudent selection of the projectile ion aids the analysis of hydrogen composition; the technique is then a simple measurement of the emitted gamma radiation. Solar cell material and glass can be analysed in this way. On a world-wide basis, numerous laboratories perform ion beam analysis for research purposes; considerable work is carried out in cooperation between scientific laboratories and industry, but only a few laboratories provide a completely commercial service

  3. Characteristics of 6.5 GHz ECR ion source for polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Mori, Yoshiharu; Takagi, Akira; Fukumoto, Sadayoshi.

    1983-04-01

    A 6.5 GHz ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source has been developed for optically pumped polarized H - ion source at KEK. The properties of this ECR ion source such as beam intensities, proton ratios, plasma electron temperatures and beam emittances were measured. (author)

  4. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fracti...

  5. Summary of the polarized beam working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Dyck, O. van.

    1989-05-01

    The polarized beam working group reviewed the AGS Bookster and TRIUMF KAON Factory facilities, heard an overview of the subject of siberian snakes, discussed internal polarized gas targets, and made recommendations for further study

  6. Polarized deuteron beam at the Dubna synchrophasotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, V.P.; Fimushkin, V.V.; Gai, G.I.

    1990-01-01

    The experimental equipment and setup used to accelerate a polarized deuteron beam at the Dubna synchrophasotron are briefly described. Basic characteristics of the cryogenic source of polarized deuterons POLARIS are presented. The results of measurements of the intensity of the accelerated beam, vector and tensor polarization at the output of the linac LU-20, inside the synchrophasotron ring and in the extracted beam are given. 16 refs.; 9 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Fabrication of the polarization independent spectral beam combining grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Jin, Yunxia; Wu, Jianhong; Guo, Peiliang

    2016-03-01

    Owing to damage, thermal issues, and nonlinear optical effects, the output power of fiber laser has been proven to be limited. Beam combining techniques are the attractive solutions to achieve high-power high-brightness fiber laser output. The spectral beam combining (SBC) is a promising method to achieve high average power output without influencing the beam quality. A polarization independent spectral beam combining grating is one of the key elements in the SBC. In this paper the diffraction efficiency of the grating is investigated by rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). The theoretical -1st order diffraction efficiency of the grating is more than 95% from 1010nm to 1080nm for both TE and TM polarizations. The fabrication tolerance is analyzed. The polarization independent spectral beam combining grating with the period of 1.04μm has been fabricated by holographic lithography - ion beam etching, which are within the fabrication tolerance.

  8. Focused ion beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamo, K.

    1993-01-01

    Focussed ion beam (FIB) technology has the advantage of being a maskless process compatible with UHV processing. This makes it attractive for use in in situ processing and has been applied to the fabrication of various mesoscopic structures. The present paper reviews these results whilst putting emphasis on in situ processing by a combined FIB and molecular beam epitaxy system. The typical performance of present FIB systems is also presented. In order to utilize the potential advantages of FIB processing, reduction of damage and improvement of throughput are important, and much effort has been devoted to developing processing techniques which require a reduced dose. The importance of low-energy FIB is discussed. (author)

  9. Heavy ion beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  10. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com

    2016-10-07

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge. - Highlights: • We investigated the polarization properties of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization. • We studied the evolution of transverse intensity profiles for the three components of these beams. • The intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components can reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  11. Source of polarized ions for the JINR accelerator complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. S.; Donets, D. E.; Fimushkin, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kutuzova, L. V.; Prokofichev, Yu V.; Shutov, V. B.; Turbabin, A. V.; Zubets, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    The JINR atomic beam type polarized ion source is described. Results of tests of the plasma ionizer with a storage cell and of tuning of high frequency transition units are presented. The source was installed in a linac injector hall of NUCLOTRON in May 2016. The source has been commissioned and used in the NUCLOTRON runs in 2016 and February - March 2017. Polarized and unpolarized deuteron beams were produced as well as polarized protons for acceleration in the NUCLOTRON. Polarized deuteron beam with pulsed current up to 2 mA has been produced. Deuteron beam polarization of 0.6-0.9 of theoretical values for different modes of high frequency transition units operation has been measured with the NUCLOTRON ring internal polarimeter for the accelerated deuteron and proton beams.

  12. Cornell electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostroun, V.O.; Ghanbari, E.; Beebe, E.N.; Janson, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    An electron beam ion source (EBIS) for the production of low energy, multiply charged ion beams to be used in atomic physics experiments has been designed and constructed. An external high perveance electron gun is used to launch the electron beam into a conventional solenoid. Novel features of the design include a distributed sputter ion pump to create the ultrahigh vacuum environment in the ionization region of the source and microprocessor control of the axial trap voltage supplies

  13. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  14. Ion beam generation and focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Mendel, C.W.; Swain, D.W.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations have shown that efficiently generated and focused ion beams could have significant advantages over electron beams in achieving ignition of inertially-confined thermonuclear fuel. Efficient ion beam generation implies use of a good ion source and suppression of net electron current. Net electron flow can be reduced by allowing electrons to reflex through a highly transparent anode or by use of transverse magnetic fields (either beam self-fields or externally applied fields). Geometric focusing can be achieved if the beam is generated by appropriately shaped electrodes. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate ion beam generation in both reflexing and pinched-flow diodes. Spherically shaped electrodes are used to concentrate a proton beam, and target response to proton deposition is studied

  15. Proceedings of the meeting on the acceleration of polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Akira; Mori, Yoshiharu

    1980-08-01

    The project for accelerating polarized proton beam with the 12 GeV synchrotron in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics was started in full scale, and the development of a polarized ion source of high intensity and the analysis of reduced polarization problem on the way to accelerate in the booster or the main ring have been carried out. On the other hand, with the cyclotrons in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, and the Institute for Nuclear Research, University of Tokyo, and with the tandem machine in the Accelerator Center, Tsukuba University, polarized beams have already been accelerated, and the steady operations have been continued. Taking this opportunity, this study meeting was planned, considering that it is necessary to exchange informations among the researchers on polarized beam. It was the significant study meeting as unexpectedly many persons took part and the useful advices to the polarized beam project in this Laboratory were obtained. The construction of the preaccelerator for polarized protons was commenced in this year in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. In the proceedings, the introduction, the foreword, and eight papers are summarized. The progress of polarized beam researches in the world was mentioned in the introduction, and the project for proton acceleration in this Laboratory was explained in the foreword. (Kako, I.)

  16. The BNL polarized H- ion source development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.; Hershcovitch, A.; DeVito, B.

    1992-01-01

    Polarized protons have been available for acceleration in the AGS for the high energy physics program since 1984. The polarized H - source, PONI-1, has routinely supplied a 0.4 Hz, 400 μsec pulse having a nominal intensity of 40 μA. Polarization is ∼80% out of the ion source. After PONI- 1 became operational, a program was initiated to develop a more intense source based on a cold ground state atomic beam source, followed by ionization of the polarized H degrees beam by D - charge exchange. Various phases of this work have been fully reported elsewhere, and only a summary is given here

  17. Cooling of molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Krohn, S.; Kreckel, H.; Lammich, L.; Lange, M.; Strasser, D.; Grieser, M.; Schwalm, D.; Zajfman, D.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the use of stored ion beams and phase space cooling (electron cooling) is given for the field of molecular physics. Emphasis is given to interactions between molecular ions and electrons studied in the electron cooler: dissociative recombination and, for internally excited molecular ions, electron-induced ro-vibrational cooling. Diagnostic methods for the transverse ion beam properties and for the internal excitation of the molecular ions are discussed, and results for phase space cooling and internal (vibrational) cooling are presented for hydrogen molecular ions

  18. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-08-18

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. {bar P}), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g.

    ).

  19. Effect of 3D Polarization profiles on polarization measurements and colliding beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Bazilevsky, A.

    2011-01-01

    The development of polarization profiles are the primary reason for the loss of average polarization. Polarization profiles have been parametrized with a Gaussian distribution. We derive the effect of 3-dimensional polarization profiles on the measured polarization in polarimeters, as well as the observed polarization and the figure of merit in single and double spin experiments. Examples from RHIC are provided. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the only collider of spin polarized protons. During beam acceleration and storage profiles of the polarization P develop, which affect the polarization measured in a polarimeter, and the polarization and figure of merit (FOM) in colliding beam experiments. We calculate these for profiles in all dimensions, and give examples for RHIC. Like in RHIC we call the two colliding beams Blue and Yellow. We use the overbar to designate intensity-weighted averages in polarimeters (e.g. (bar P)), and angle brackets to designate luminosity-weighted averages in colliding beam experiments (e.g. ).

  20. Polarized positrons in Jefferson lab electron ion collider (JLEIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fanglei; Grames, Joe; Guo, Jiquan; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong

    2018-05-01

    The Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) is designed to provide collisions of electron and ion beams with high luminosity and high polarization to reach new frontier in exploration of nuclear structure. The luminosity, exceeding 1033 cm-2s-1 in a broad range of the center-of-mass (CM) energy and maximum luminosity above 1034 cm-2s-1, is achieved by high-rate collisions of short small-emittance low-charge bunches with proper cooling of the ion beam and synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. The polarization of light ion species (p, d, 3He) and electron can be easily preserved, manipulated and maintained by taking advantage of the unique figure-8 shape rings. With a growing physics interest, polarized positron-ion collisions are considered to be carried out in the JLEIC to offer an additional probe to study the substructure of nucleons and nuclei. However, the creation of polarized positrons with sufficient intensity is particularly challenging. We propose a dedicated scheme to generate polarized positrons. Rather than trying to accumulate "hot" positrons after conversion, we will accumulate "cold" electrons before conversion. Charge accumulation additionally provides a novel means to convert high repetition rate (>100 MHz) electron beam from the gun to a low repetition rate (<100 MHz) positron beam for broad applications. In this paper, we will address the scheme, provide preliminary estimated parameters and explain the key areas to reach the desired goal.

  1. Nuclear physics with polarized heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fick, D.; Grawert, G.; Turkiewicz, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    Polarized heavy ion beams ( 6 Li, 7 Li, 23 Na) have been in use as tools for the investigation of nuclear scattering and nuclear reactions for almost two decades. This review attempts to survey the research activities in this field with reference to nuclear structure, nuclear dynamics and reaction mechanisms. Besides reviewing the results from full quantum mechanical coupled channels analyses of data, special attention is paid to handwaving arguments and semiclassical pictures as a complementary way of obtaining a better understanding of the relevant physics. (orig.)

  2. The new BNL polarized negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershcovitch, A.I.; Alessi, J.G.; DeVito, B.; Kponou, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    A new ground state source of negative hydrogen ions with polarized nuclei (rvec H - ) is being developed at BNL. Extensive developmental research has been aimed at improving each element of (rvec H - ) production: cold H degrees beam, spin selection and focusing magnets, and ionizer. These elements have recently been integrated into a source. A first test with the accommodator nozzle cooled only to liquid nitrogen temperatures resulted in 5 μA of H - . Tests at liquid helium temperatures are now beginning. 7 refs., 1 fig

  3. Photonic Crystal Polarizing and Non-Polarizing Beam Splitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Ying, Guan; Jin-Hui, Shi; Li-Boo, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and a non-polarizing beam splitter (NPBS) based on a photonic crystal (PC) directional coupler are demonstrated. The photonic crystal directional coupler consists of a hexagonal lattice of dielectric pillars in air and has a complete photonic band gap. The photonic band structure and the band gap map are calculated using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. The splitting properties of the splitter are investigated numerically using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method

  4. Development of spin polarized electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tsutomu

    2001-01-01

    Physical structure of the polarized electron beam production is explained in this paper. Nagoya University group has been improving the quality of beam. The present state of quality and the development objects are described. The new results of the polarized electron reported in 'RES-2000 Workshop' in October 2000, are introduced. The established ground of GaAs type polarized electron beam source, observation of the negative electron affinity (NEA) surface, some problems of NEA surface of high energy polarized electron beam such as the life, time response, the surface charge limited phenomena of NEA surface are explained. The interested reports in the RES-2000 Workshop consisted of observation by SPLEEM (Spin Low Energy Electron Microscope), Spin-STM and Spin-resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy. To increase the performance of the polarized electron source, we will develop low emittance and large current. (S.Y.)

  5. Electrohydrodynamic emitters of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnikov, V.G.; Shabalin, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Physical processes determining generation of ion beams with high emission current density in electrohydrodynamic emitters are considered. Electrohydrodynamic effects developing in ion emission features and kinetics of ion interaction in beams with high density are discussed. Factors determining the size of the emission zone, emission stability at high and low currents, cluster generation, increase of energy spread and decrease of brightness are analyzed. Problems on practical provision of stable EHD emitter functioning are considered. 94 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1990-10-01

    Polarization hadron experiments at high energies continue to generate surprises. Many questions remain unanswered or unanswerable within the frame work of QCD. These include such basic questions as to why at high energies the polarization analyzing power in pp elastic scattering remains high, why hyperons are produced with high polarizations etc. It is, therefore, interesting to investigate the possibilities of accelerating and storing polarized beams in high energy colliders. On the technical side the recent understanding and confirmation of the actions of partial and multiple Siberian snakes made it possible to contemplate accelerating and storing polarized hadron beams to multi-TeV energies. In this paper, we will examine the equipment, the operation and the procedure required to obtain colliding beams of polarized protons at TeV energies

  7. A polarized atomic-beam target for COSY-Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eversheim, P. D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.; Glende, M.; Walker, M.; Hiemer, A.; Gebel, R.

    1998-01-01

    An atomic-beam target (ABT) for the EDDA experiment has been built in Bonn and was tested for the very first time at the cooler synchrotron COSY. The ABT differs from the polarized colliding-beams ion source for COSY in the DC-operation of the dissociator and the use of permanent 6-pole magnets. At present the beam optics of the ABT is set-up for maximum density in the interaction zone, but for target-cell operation it can be modified to give maximum intensity. The modular concept of this atomic ground-state target allows to provide all vector- (and tensor) polarizations for protons and deuterons, respectively. Up to now the polarization of the atomic-beam could be verified by the EDDA experiment to be > or approx. 80% with a density in the interaction zone of > or approx. 10 11 atoms/cm 2

  8. Intense beams of light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, Noel

    1985-01-01

    Results of experiments performed in order to accelerate intense beams of light and heavier ions are presented. The accelerating diodes are driven by existing pulsed power generators. Optimization of the generator structure is described in chapter I. Nuclear diagnostics of the accelerated light ion beams are presented in chapter II. Chapter III deals with the physics of intense charged particle beams. The models developed are applied to the calculation of the performances of the ion diodes described in the previous chapters. Chapter IV reports preliminary results on a multiply ionized carbon source driven by a 0.1 TW pulsed power generator. (author) [fr

  9. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Instrumentation to handle thermal polarized neutron beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate devices needed to handle the polarization of thermal neutron beams: Ï/2-flippers (to start/stop Larmor precession) and Ï-flippers (to reverse polarization/precession direction) and illustrate how these devices are used to investigate the properties of matter and of the

  11. Pulsed Cs beam development for the BNL polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    A pulsed Cs + beam has been developed for use on a polarized H - source. Cesium ion production is by surface ionization using a porous tungsten ionizer. While satisfactory current pulses (5 to 10 mA greater than or equal to 0.5 ms) can be obtained, the pulse shapes are a sensitive function of the ionizer temperature and Cs surface coverage. The beam optical requirements are stringent, and the optics have been studied experimentally for both Cs + and Cs 0 beams. Computer calculations are in good agreement with the observed results. The present source has delivered 2.6 mA of Cs + through the interaction region of the polarized ion source, and as much as 2.0 particle mA of Cs 0 . A new source is being built which is designed to give 15 mA through the interaction region

  12. Intense electron and ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Molokovsky, Sergey Ivanovich

    2005-01-01

    Intense Ion and Electron Beams treats intense charged-particle beams used in vacuum tubes, particle beam technology and experimental installations such as free electron lasers and accelerators. It addresses, among other things, the physics and basic theory of intense charged-particle beams; computation and design of charged-particle guns and focusing systems; multiple-beam charged-particle systems; and experimental methods for investigating intense particle beams. The coverage is carefully balanced between the physics of intense charged-particle beams and the design of optical systems for their formation and focusing. It can be recommended to all scientists studying or applying vacuum electronics and charged-particle beam technology, including students, engineers and researchers.

  13. Optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The current status and future prospects for the optically pumped polarized H - ion source are discussed. At the present time H - ion currents of 60 μA and with a polarization of 65% have been produced. The ion current and polarization can be increased significantly if the optically pumped Na charge exchange target density and polarization can be increased. Studies of wall surfaces that permit many bounces before depolarizing the Na electron spin and studies of radiation trapping in optically pumped Na indicate that the Na target density and polarization can be increased substantially. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Spin flipping a stored polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caussyn, D.D.; Derbenev, Y.S.; Ellison, T.J.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E.J.; von Przewoski, B.; Blinov, B.B.; Chu, C.M.; Courant, E.D.; Crandell, D.A.; Kaufman, W.A.; Krisch, A.D.; Nurushev, T.S.; Phelps, R.A.; Ratner, L.G.; Wong, V.K.; Ohmori, C.

    1994-01-01

    We recently studied the spin flipping of a vertically polarized, stored 139-MeV proton beam. To flip the spin, we induced an rf depolarizing resonance by sweeping our rf solenoid magnet's frequency through the resonance frequency. With multiple spin flips, we found a polarization loss of 0.0000±0.0005 per spin flip under the best conditions; this loss increased significantly for small changes in the conditions. Minimizing the depolarization during each spin flip is especially important because frequent spin flipping could significantly reduce the systematic errors in stored polarized-beam experiments

  15. Measurement of γ-quanta beam polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchkov, B.I.; Tugaenko, V.Yu.; Maishev, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A beam of polarized γ-quanta is produced and its polarization degree is measured. The experiment is conducted using an electron beam of the Serpukhov accelerator at the 'Kaskad' facility. 28 GeV energy electrons are recorded in a proportional chamber after which they enter a 15 mm thickness silicon crystal. After passing the second proportional chamber the electrons get into complete absorption spectrometer where their energy is measured, and the emitted gamma quanta get to 30 mm thickness silicon crystal. E + e - -pair coordinates are measured in the third proportional chamber. Gamma-quantum polarization value of 0.3±0.1 is obtained. 1 ref.; 1 fig

  16. Collisional pumping for the production of intense spin-polarized neutral beams: target considerations. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, J.W.; Burrell, C.F.; Kaplan, S.N.; Pyle, R.V.; Ruby, L.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    Polarized beams at intensity levels heretofore not considered feasible have recently been proposed for heating and fueling fusion plasmas. Polarized-beam fueling could increase fusion rates by 50% as well as allow control of the directionality of the fusion products. A process which we have recently described, and called collisional pumping, promises to produce beams of polarized ions vastly more intense than producible by current methods

  17. STANFORD: Highly polarized SLC electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Using specialized photocathodes made with 'strained' gallium arsenide, physicists at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) have generated electron beams with polarizations in excess of 60 percent a year ahead of schedule. Together with recent luminosity increases, this breakthrough will have a major impact on the physics output of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). Beam polarization was almost tripled using photocathodes in which a gallium arsenide layer was grown epitaxially over a substrate of gallium arsenide phosphide. The mismatch between these two layers deforms the crystal structure and removes a degeneracy in the valence band structure, permitting selective optical pumping of one unique spin state. Whereas conventional gallium arsenide photocathodes are limited to 50 percent polarization because of this degeneracy (and realistic cathodes fall substantially below this theoretical limit), such strained crystal lattices have the potential to yield polarizations close to 100 percent. Polarization enhancement with strained lattices was first demonstrated in 1991 by a SLAC/Wisconsin/ Berkeley group (May 1991, page 6) with a 71 percent polarization in a laboratory experiment. More recently this group has achieved polarization in excess of 90 percent, reported last November at the Nagoya Spin Symposium. (In a complementary development, a Japanese KEK/ Nagoya/KEK obtains polarized beams using a 'superlattice' - May 1991, page 4.) The 1993 SLC run, the strained gallium arsenide photocathode technique's debut in an operating particle accelerator, has proved to be a resounding, unqualified success - as have physics experiments on the Z particles produced by the highly polarized beam. A conservative approach was called for, due to concerns about possible charge saturation effects. A relatively thick (0.3 micron) gallium arsenide layer was used for the photocathode in the SLC polarized electron source. With a titanium

  18. The optics of secondary polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Polarized protons can be produced by the parity-violating decay of either lambda or sigma hyperons. A secondary bema of polarized protons can then be produced without the difficult procedure of accelerating polarized protons. The preservation of the polarization while the protons are being transmitted to a final focus places stringent limitations on the optics of the beam line. The equations of motion of a polarized particle in a magnetic field have been solved to first order for quadrupole and dipole magnets. The lowest order terms indicate that the polarization vector will be restored to its original direction upon passage through a magnetic system if the momentum vector is unaltered. Higher-order terms may be derived by an expansion in commutators of the rotation matrix and its longitudinal derivative. The higher-order polarization rotation terms then arise from the non-commutivity of the rotation matrices by large angles in three-dimensional space. 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. Ion beam stabilization in ion implantation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, L.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of experimental efforts aimed at ion beam current stabilization in an equipment for ion implantation in solids. The related problems of power supplies are discussed. Measured characteristics of laboratory equipment served the determination of the parameters to be required of the supplies as well as the design and the construction of the supplies. The respective wiring diagram is presented. (J.K.)

  20. Control of colliding ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and system for enhancing the power-producing capability of a nuclear fusion reactor, and more specifically to methods and structure for enhancing the ion density in a directed particle fusion reactor. In accordance with the invention, oppositely directed ion beams constrained to helical paths pass through an annular reaction zone. The object is to produce fusion reactions due to collisions between the ion beams. The reaction zone is an annulus as between an inner-cylindrical electrode and an outer-cylindrical coaxial electrode. The beams are enhanced in ion density at spaced points along the paths by providing spline structures protruding from the walls of the electrodes into the reaction zone. This structure causes variations in the electric field along the paths followed by the ion beams. Such fields cause the beams to be successively more and less concentrated as the beams traverse the reaction zone. Points of high concentration are the points at which fusion-producing collisions are most likely to take place

  1. Ion beams in materials processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    This book covers ion beam application in modern materials research, offering the basics of ion beam physics and technology and a detailed account of the physics of ion-solid interactions for ion implantation, ion beam synthesis, sputtering and nano-patterning.

  2. POLARIZED BEAMS: 1 - Longitudinal electron spin polarization at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-09-15

    Wednesday 4 May marked a turning point in the art of the manipulation of spins in electron storage rings: longitudinal electron spin polarization (with the spins oriented along the electrons' direction of motion) was established in the electron ring of HERA, the electronproton collider at DESY in Hamburg. A polarization level of about 55% was obtained and polarizations of over 60% were reproducibly obtained in the following days. The beam energy was 27.52 GeV, corresponding to half integer spin tune of 62.5.

  3. Polarized beams in high energy storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montague, B W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1984-11-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable advance in understanding the spin motion of particles in storage rings and accelerators. The survey presented here outlines the early historical development in this field, describes the basic ideas governing the kinetics of polarized particles in electromagnetic fields and shows how these have evolved into the current description of polarized beam behaviour. Orbital motion of particles influences their spin precession, and depolarization of a beam can result from excitation of spin resonances by orbit errors and oscillations. Electrons and positrons are additionally influenced by the quantized character of synchrotron radiation, which not only provides a polarizing mechanism but also enhances depolarizing effects. Progress in the theoretical formulation of these phenomena has clarified the details of the physical processes and suggested improved methods of compensating spin resonances. Full use of polarized beams for high-energy physics with storage rings requires spin rotators to produce longitudinal polarization in the interaction regions. Variants of these schemes, dubbed Siberian snakes, provide a curious precession topology which can substantially reduce depolarization in the high-energy range. Efficient polarimetry is an essential requirement for implementing polarized beams, whose utility for physics can be enhanced by various methods of spin manipulation.

  4. Sources of polarized ions and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    In this presentation we discuss methods of producing large quantities of polarized atoms and ions (Stern-Gerlach separation, optical pumping, and spin-exchange) as well as experimental methods of measuring the degree of polarization of atomic systems. The usefulness of polarized atoms in probing the microscopic magnetic surface properties of materials will also be discussed. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Electron Beam Polarization Measurement Using Touschek Lifetime Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Changchun; /Duke U., DFELL; Li, Jingyi; /Duke U., DFELL; Mikhailov, Stepan; /Duke U., DFELL; Popov, Victor; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Wenzhong; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Ying; /Duke U., DFELL; Chao, Alex; /SLAC; Xu, Hong-liang; /Hefei, NSRL; Zhang, Jian-feng; /Hefei, NSRL

    2012-08-24

    Electron beam loss due to intra-beam scattering, the Touschek effect, in a storage ring depends on the electron beam polarization. The polarization of an electron beam can be determined from the difference in the Touschek lifetime compared with an unpolarized beam. In this paper, we report on a systematic experimental procedure recently developed at Duke FEL laboratory to study the radiative polarization of a stored electron beam. Using this technique, we have successfully observed the radiative polarization build-up of an electron beam in the Duke storage ring, and determined the equilibrium degree of polarization and the time constant of the polarization build-up process.

  6. Testing proton spin models with polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    We review models for spin-weighted parton distributions in a proton. Sum rules involving the nonsinglet components of the structure function xg 1 p help narrow the range of parameters in these models. The contribution of the γ 5 anomaly term depends on the size of the integrated polarized gluon distribution and experimental predictions depend on its size. We have proposed three models for the polarized gluon distributions, whose range is considerable. These model distributions give an overall range is considerable. These model distributions give an overall range of parameters that can be tested with polarized beam experiments. These are discussed with regard to specific predictions for polarized beam experiments at energies typical of UNK

  7. Condensed matter physics with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, H.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the present uses of radioactive ion beams from ISOLDE for condensed matter research is presented. As simple examples of such work, tracer studies of diffusion processes with radioisotopes and blocking/channeling measurements of emitted particles for lattice location are discussed. Especially the application of nuclear hyperfine interaction techniques such as PAC or Moessbauer spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to study local electronic and structural properties at impurities. Recently, interesting information on impurity properties in semiconductors has been obtained using all these methods. The extreme sensitivity of nuclear techniques makes them also well suited for investigations of surfaces, interfaces, and biomolecules. Some ideas for future uses of high energy radioactive ion beams beyond the scope of the present projects are outlined: the study of diffusion in highly immiscible systems by deep implantation, nuclear polarization with the tilted-foil technique, and transmutation doping of wide-bandgap semiconductors. (orig.)

  8. A variable partially polarizing beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Jefferson; Carlson, Nathan J.; Nacke, Codey H.; Giner, Lambert; Lundeen, Jeff S.

    2018-02-01

    We present designs for variably polarizing beam splitters. These are beam splitters allowing the complete and independent control of the horizontal and vertical polarization splitting ratios. They have quantum optics and quantum information applications, such as quantum logic gates for quantum computing and non-local measurements for quantum state estimation. At the heart of each design is an interferometer. We experimentally demonstrate one particular implementation, a displaced Sagnac interferometer configuration, that provides an inherent instability to air currents and vibrations. Furthermore, this design does not require any custom-made optics but only common components which can be easily found in an optics laboratory.

  9. Polarized muon beams for muon collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrinsky, A.N. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1996-11-01

    An option for the production of intense and highly polarized muon beams, suitable for a high-luminosity muon collider, is described briefly. It is based on a multi-channel pion-collection system, narrow-band pion-to-muon decay channels, proper muon spin gymnastics, and ionization cooling to combine all of the muon beams into a single bunch of ultimately low emittance. (orig.).

  10. Practical layer designs for polarizing beam-splitter cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Blanckenhagen, Bernhard

    2006-03-01

    Liquid-crystal-on-silicon- (LCoS-) based digital projection systems require high-performance polarizing beam splitters. The classical beam-splitter cube with an immersed interference coating can fulfill these requirements. Practical layer designs can be generated by computer optimization using the classic MacNeille polarizer layer design as the starting layer design. Multilayer structures with 100 nm bandwidth covering the blue, green, or red spectral region and one design covering the whole visible spectral region are designed. In a second step these designs are realized by using plasma-ion-assisted deposition. The performance of the practical beam-splitter cubes is compared with the theoretical performance of the layer designs.

  11. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O2+, BF2+, P+ etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF2+, over 90% of O2+ and P+ have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He+ beam is as high as 440 A/cm2 • Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O2+ ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O2+ ions with the dose of 1015 cm-2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The

  12. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qing

    2003-01-01

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O 2 + , BF 2 + , P + etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF 2 + , over 90% of O 2 + and P + have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He + beam is as high as 440 A/cm 2 · Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O 2 + ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O 2 + ions with the dose of 10 15 cm -2 . The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features are presented. The formation of shallow pn-junctions in bulk silicon wafers by scanning focused P

  13. High-quality laser-accelerated ion beams for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, Zoltan; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Salamin, Yousef I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Cancer radiation therapy requires accelerated ion beams of high energy sharpness and a narrow spatial profile. As shown recently, linearly and radially polarized, tightly focused and thus extremely strong laser beams should permit the direct acceleration of light atomic nuclei up to energies that may offer the potentiality for medical applications. Radially polarized beams have better emittance than their linearly polarized counterparts. We put forward the direct laser acceleration of ions, once the refocusing of ion beams by external fields is solved or radially polarized laser pulses of sufficient power can be generated.

  14. Ion beam analysis fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Michael; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications explains the basic characteristics of ion beams as applied to the analysis of materials, as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) of art/archaeological objects. It focuses on the fundamentals and applications of ion beam methods of materials characterization.The book explains how ions interact with solids and describes what information can be gained. It starts by covering the fundamentals of ion beam analysis, including kinematics, ion stopping, Rutherford backscattering, channeling, elastic recoil detection, particle induced x-ray emission, and nucle

  15. Cylindrically polarized Bessel–Gauss beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhi, Daena; Aiello, Andrea; Ornigotti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of radially and azimuthally polarized Bessel–Gauss (BG) beams in both the paraxial and nonparaxial regime. We discuss the validity of the paraxial approximation and the form of the nonparaxial corrections for BG beams. We show that independently on the ratio between the Bessel aperture cone angle ϑ 0 and the Gaussian beam divergence θ 0 , the nonparaxial corrections are alway very small and therefore negligible. The explicit expressions for the nonparaxial vector electric field components are also reported. (paper)

  16. The TRIUMF optically-pumped polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, C.D.P.; Jayamanna, K.; McDonald, M.; Schmor, P.W.; Van Oers, W.T.H.; Welz, J.; Wight, G.W.; Dutto, G.; Zelenski, A.N.; Sakae, T.

    1995-09-01

    The TRIUMF dc optically-pumped polarized H - ion source (OPPIS) produces 200 μA dc H - current at 85% polarization within a normalized emittance (90%) of 0.8 π mm mrad, for operations at the TRIUMF cyclotron. As a result of development of the ECR primary proton source, 1.6 mA dc polarized H - current is produced within a normalized emittance of 2 π mm mrad, suitable for high energy accelerators. The OPPIS has also been developed for use in a parity non-conservation experiment which has very severe limits on permissible helicity-correlated changes in beam current and energy. (author)

  17. The TRIUMF optically-pumped polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, C.D.P.; Jayamanna, K.; McDonald, M.

    1995-09-01

    The TRIUMF dc optically-pumped polarized H - ion source (OPPIS) produces 200 microA dc H - current at 85% polarization within a normalized emittance (90%) of 0.8 π mm mrad, for operations at the TRIUMF cyclotron. As a result of development of the ECR primary proton source, 1.6 mA dc polarized H - current is produced within a normalized emittance of 2 π mm mrad, suitable for high energy accelerators. The OPPIS has also been developed for use in a parity non-conservation experiment which has very severe limits on permissible helicity-correlated changes in beam current and energy

  18. Neutron beam effects on spin-exchange-polarized 3He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Babcock, E; Andersen, K H; Barrón-Palos, L; Becker, M; Boag, S; Chen, W C; Chupp, T E; Danagoulian, A; Gentile, T R; Klein, A; Penttila, S; Petoukhov, A; Soldner, T; Tardiff, E R; Walker, T G; Wilburn, W S

    2008-08-22

    We have observed depolarization effects when high intensity cold neutron beams are incident on alkali-metal spin-exchange-polarized 3He cells used as neutron spin filters. This was first observed as a reduction of the maximum attainable 3He polarization and was attributed to a decrease of alkali-metal polarization, which led us to directly measure alkali-metal polarization and spin relaxation over a range of neutron fluxes at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center and Institute Laue-Langevin. The data reveal a new alkali-metal spin-relaxation mechanism that approximately scales as sqrt[phi_{n}], where phi_{n} is the neutron capture-flux density incident on the cell. This is consistent with an effect proportional to the concentration of electron-ion pairs but is much larger than expected from earlier work.

  19. Optically pumped polarized alkali atomic beams and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    The optical pumping of 23 Na and 6 Li atomic beams is discussed. Experiments on the optical pumping of 23 Na atomic beams using either a single mode dye laser followed by a double passed acousto-optic modulator or a multimode dye laser are reported. The optical pumping of a 23 Na vapor target for use in a polarized H - ion source is discussed. Results on the use of viton as a wall coating with a long relaxation time are reported. 31 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  20. Nanostructuring by ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valbusa, U.; Boragno, C.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.

    2003-01-01

    In metals, the surface curvature dependence of the sputtering yield and the presence of an extra energy barrier whenever diffusing adatoms try to descend step edges, produce a similar surface instability, which builds up regular patterns. By tuning the competition between these two mechanisms, it is possible to create self-organized structures of the size of few nanometers. Height, lateral distance and order of the structures change with the deposition parameters like ion energy, dose, incident angle and substrate temperature. The paper offers an overview of the experiments carried out and foresees possible applications of these results in the area of material science

  1. Materials Science with Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bernas, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces materials scientists and designers, physicists and chemists to the properties of materials that can be modified by ion irradiation or implantation. These techniques can help design new materials or to test modified properties; novel applications already show that ion-beam techniques are complementary to others, yielding previously unattainable properties. Also, ion-beam interactions modify materials at the nanoscale, avoiding the often detrimental results of lithographic or chemical techniques. Here, the effects are related to better-known quasi-equilibrium thermodynamics, and the consequences to materials are discussed with concepts that are familiar to materials science. Examples addressed concern semiconductor physics, crystal and nanocluster growth, optics, magnetism, and applications to geology and biology.

  2. EPIC - an electron-polarized ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    As discussed earlier in this workshop, we have been studying at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) for some time the potential of a facility-the Light Ion Spin Synchrotron (LISS)- focusing on reactions induced by polarized nucleons at ∼ 1 to 20 GeV. The technology would extrapolate from what we have learned using our existing Cooler ring using internal polarized targets. Indeed, these techniques are most viable at higher energies where the loss of the stored beam is due to the nuclear reactions which are of interest and not that of multiple Coulomb scattering which dominate in our present energy range. However, while the internal targets are not exactly fixed, they certainly do not contribute to the available energy in the center of momentum frame. Consequently, the energy and momentum which can be effective explored are 6 GeV and 3 GeV/c respectively, about the same range that we expect to explore using electromagnetic probes using the enhanced Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory electron beam. Looking at the structure of hadrons, as we currently understand it, one can divide it into four size scales. The LISS facility would permit studies of the manifestation of the nucleon substructure but generally would not get to scales where one would only have incoherent interactions at the partonic level. Following in a path already trodden by our European colleagues, we have recently started to look at the possibility of adding an electronic collider option to our plans. This would significantly increase the kinematic range, with 25 GeV protons and 4 GeV electrons (one gets over 20 GeV in the center of mass-equivalent to about 200 GeV on a fixed proton target). The accessible range provides coverage up to Q 2 = 20 GeV/ c 2 and down to x ∼ 10 -2 (here x = Q 2 /2Mv, the usual Bjorken scaling variable). As the energy of both beams would be variable, one can cover the whole range between HERMES and CERN/FNAL muon beams. Examples of the range of

  3. Physics with polarized beams above GeV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1980-01-01

    During the past several years many exciting and unexpected results have been observed in experiments with polarized beams. Those results are reviewed briefly. A new polarized beam line up to 600 GeV/c is also discussed. 4 figures

  4. Hyperon beams as a source of polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    A high energy polarized proton beam which would utilize lambda decays as a source of polarized protons was proposed. We discuss the operation of such a beam and related physics experiments. 12 references

  5. Ion-beam Plasma Neutralization Interaction Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; S. Klasky; Ronald C. Davidson

    2002-04-01

    Neutralization of the ion beam charge and current is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because the excitation of nonlinear plasma waves may occur. Computer simulation images of plasma neutralization of the ion beam pulse are presented

  6. Ion-beam Plasma Neutralization Interaction Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; S. Klasky; Ronald C. Davidson

    2002-04-09

    Neutralization of the ion beam charge and current is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because the excitation of nonlinear plasma waves may occur. Computer simulation images of plasma neutralization of the ion beam pulse are presented.

  7. Polarized proton beam for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    RHIC has provided polarized proton collisions from 31 GeV to 255 GeV in the past decade. To preserve polarization through numerous depolarizing resonances through the whole accelerator chain, harmonic orbit correction, partial snakes, horizontal tune jump system and full snakes have been used. In addition, close attentions have been paid to betatron tune control, orbit control and beam line alignment. The polarization of 60% at 255 GeV has been delivered to experiments with 1.8×1011 bunch intensity. For the eRHIC era, the beam brightness has to be maintained to reach the desired luminosity. Since we only have one hadron ring in the eRHIC era, existing spin rotator and snakes can be converted to six snake configuration for one hadron ring. With properly arranged six snakes, the polarization can be maintained at 70% at 250 GeV. This paper summarizes the effort and plan to reach high polarization with small emittance for eRHIC.

  8. Ion beam modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, C.J.; Sugden, S.; Ing, J.; Bridwell, L.B.; Wang, Y.Q.

    1993-01-01

    The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms. (Author)

  9. Scatterings and reactions by means of polarized neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koori, N.

    1989-01-01

    A high resolution polarized neutron beam should be prepared for nuclear physics, which will be planned with the new ring cyclotron at RCNP. Studies on scatterings and reactions by means of polarized neutron beams are reviewed briefly. Beam lines for polarized neutrons are summarized. An example of high resolution measurements of neutron induced reactions is described. (author)

  10. A specialized bioengineering ion beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.D.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.; Sriprom, C.; Thongleurm, C.; Suwanksum, R.; Tondee, N.; Prakrajang, K.; Vilaithong, T.; Brown, I.G.; Wiedemann, H.

    2007-01-01

    A specialized bioengineering ion beam line has recently been completed at Chiang Mai University to meet rapidly growing needs of research and application development in low-energy ion beam biotechnology. This beam line possesses special features: vertical main beam line, low-energy (30 keV) ion beams, double swerve of the beam, a fast pumped target chamber, and an in-situ atomic force microscope (AFM) system chamber. The whole beam line is situated in a bioclean environment, occupying two stories. The quality of the ion beam has been studied. It has proved that this beam line has significantly contributed to our research work on low-energy ion beam biotechnology

  11. Performance of the polarized ion source POLIS used at the AGOR accelerator facility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, H.R.; Drentje, A.G.; Holt, R.J.; Miller, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of the KVI polarized ion source POLIS presently running on proton beams is discussed. The best polarization values which have been measured, are 70 +/-0.5 % and -56 +/-0.5 %. The asymmetry is due to 7 +/-1 % offset in polarization, which originates from state mixing in the magnetic

  12. Transport of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.; Laslett, L.J.; Smith, L.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of using intense bursts of heavy ions to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated interest in the transport of intense unneutralized heavy ion beams by quadrupole or solenoid systems. This problem was examined in some detail, using numerical integration of the coupled envelope equations for the quadrupole case. The general relations which emerge are used to develop examples of high energy transport systems and as a basis for discussing the limitations imposed by a transport system on achievable intensities for initial acceleration

  13. Materials research with ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This report gives a series of helpful programs which are used in materials research with ion beams. In this context algorithms which can substitute table books are dealt with. This is true for the programs DEDX and PRAL; they are used in order to determine the energy loss of ions in solid bodies, their working range and straggling. Furthermore, simulator routines and analyzers are described. The program TRIM simulates the physical phenomena which occur with the penetration of high-energy ions into solid bodies. In this context electronic excitations, phonons and lattice distortions which are caused by the ions are dealt with. For the experimental ion implantation it is interesting to know the final distribution of the simulated ions in the solid body. The program RBS simulates the Rutherford spectrum of ions which are scattered from a solid body which may consist of up to nine elements and up to one hundred layers. The unknown composition of a solid body can be determined in direct comparison with the experimental spectrum. The program NRA determines concentration and penetrative distribution of an impurity by means of the experimental nuclear reaction spectrum of this impurity. All programs are written in FORTRAN 77. (orig./MM) [de

  14. Ion beam sputter implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    By means of ion beam atomizing or sputtering an integrally composed coating, the composition of which continuously changes from 100% of the substrate to 100% of the coating, can be surfaced on a substrate (e.g. molten quartz on plastic lenses). In order to do this in the facility there is directed a primary beam of accelerated noble gas ions on a target from the group of the following materials: SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Corning Glass 7070, Corning Glass 7740 or borosilicate glass. The particles leaving the target are directed on the substrate by means of an acceleration potential of up to 10 KV. There may, however, be coated also metal layers (Ni, Co) on a mylar film resulting in a semireflecting metal film. (RW) [de

  15. Development of focused ion beam systems with various ion species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qing; Leung, K.-N.; King, Tsu-Jae; Jiang Ximan; Appleton, Bill R.

    2005-01-01

    Conventional focused ion beam systems employ a liquid-metal ion source (LMIS) to generate high-brightness beams, such as Ga + beams. Recently there has been an increased need for focused ion beams in areas like biological studies, advanced magnetic-film manufacturing and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In this article, status of development on focused ion beam systems with ion species such as O 2 + , P + , and B + will be reviewed. Compact columns for forming focused ion beams from low energy (∼3keV), to intermediate energy (∼35keV) are discussed. By using focused ion beams, a SOI MOSFET is fabricated entirely without any masks or resist

  16. Adiabatic/diabatic polarization beam splitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRose, Christopher; Cai, Hong

    2017-09-12

    The various presented herein relate to an on-chip polarization beam splitter (PBS), which is adiabatic for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode and diabatic for the transverse electric (TE) mode. The PBS comprises a through waveguide and a cross waveguide, wherein an electromagnetic beam comprising TE mode and TM mode components is applied to an input port of the through waveguide. The PBS can be utilized to separate the TE mode component from the TM mode component, wherein the TE mode component exits the PBS via an output port of the through waveguide, and the TM mode component exits the PBS via an output port of the cross waveguide. The PBS has a structure that is tolerant to manufacturing variations and exhibits high polarization extinction ratios over a wide bandwidth.

  17. Probing surface magnetism with ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, H.

    2007-01-01

    Ion beams can be used to probe magnetic properties of surfaces by a variety of different methods. Important features of these methods are related to trajectories of atomic projectiles scattered from the surface of a solid target and to the electronic interaction mechanisms in the surface region. Both items provide under specific conditions a high sensitivity for the detection of magnetic properties in the region at the topmost layer of surface atoms. This holds in particular for scattering under planar surface channeling conditions, where under grazing impact atoms or ions are reflected specularly from the surface without penetration into the subsurface region. Two different types of methods are employed based on the detection of the spin polarization of emitted or captured electrons and on spin blocking effects for capture into atomic terms. These techniques allow one to probe the long range and short range magnetic order in the surface region

  18. Ion beam neutralization with ferroelectrically generated electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herleb, U; Riege, H [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). LHC Division

    1997-12-31

    A technique for ion beam space-charge neutralization with pulsed electron beams is described. The intensity of multiply-charged ions produced with a laser ion source can be enhanced or decreased separately with electron beam trains of MHz repetition rate. These are generated with ferroelectric cathodes, which are pulsed in synchronization with the laser ion source. The pulsed electron beams guide the ion beam in a similar way to the alternating gradient focusing of charged particle beams in circular accelerators such as synchrotrons. This new neutralization technology overcomes the Langmuir-Child space-charge limit and may in future allow ion beam currents to be transported with intensities by orders of magnitude higher than those which can be accelerated today in a single vacuum tube. (author). 6 figs., 10 refs.

  19. Polarizing beam-splitter device at a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi; Takeda, Masayasu.

    1996-01-01

    A polarizing beam-splitter device was designed using Fe/Si supermirrors in order to obtain two polarized neutron beam lines, from one unpolarized neutron beam line, with a practical beam size for investigating the properties of condensed matter. This device was mounted after a guide tube at a pulsed neutron source, and its performance was investigated. (author)

  20. A fast beam-ion instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, G V [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The ionization of residual gas by an electron beam in an accelerator generates ions that can resonantly couple to the beam through a wave propagating in the beam-ion system. Results of the study of a beam-ion instability are presented for a multi-bunch train taking into account the decoherence of ion oscillations due to the ion frequency spread and spatial variation of the ion frequency. It is shown that the combination of both effects can substantially reduce the growth rate of the instability. (author)

  1. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldorf, J. [IPT Ionen- und Plasmatech. GmbH, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.).

  2. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldorf, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.)

  3. The polarized electron beam at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.; Drachenfels, W. von; Frommberger, F.; Gowin, M.; Hillert, W.; Husmann, D.; Keil, J.; Helbing, K.; Michel, T.; Naumann, J.; Speckner, T.; Zeitler, G.

    2001-01-01

    The future medium energy physics program at the electron stretcher accelerator ELSA of Bonn University mainly relies on experiments using polarized electrons in the energy range from 1 to 3.2 GeV. To provide a polarized beam with high polarization and sufficient intensity a dedicated source has been developed and set into operation. To prevent depolarization during acceleration in the circular accelerators several depolarizing resonances have to be corrected for. Intrinsic resonances are compensated using two pulsed betatron tune jump quadrupoles. The influence of imperfection resonances is successfully reduced applying a dynamic closed orbit correction in combination with an empirical harmonic correction on the energy ramp. In order to minimize beam depolarization, both types of resonances and the correction techniques have been studied in detail. It turned out that the polarization in ELSA can be conserved up to 2.5 GeV and partially up to 3.2 GeV which is demonstrated by measurements using a Moeller polarimeter installed in the external GDH1-beamline

  4. Versatile Ion-polarized Techniques On-line (VITO) experiment at ISOLDE-CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachura, M., E-mail: monika.stachura@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gottberg, A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Johnston, K. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Universität des Saarlandes, Experimentalphysik, 66123 Saabrucken (Germany); Bissell, M.L.; Garcia Ruiz, R.F. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Martins Correia, J.; Granadeiro Costa, A.R. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares - C" 2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Dehn, M. [Technische Universität München, Physics Department, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Deicher, M. [Universität des Saarlandes, Experimentalphysik, 66123 Saabrucken (Germany); Fenta, A. [CICECO, Complexo de Laboratórios Tecnológicos, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Hemmingsen, L. [Kemisk Institut, Københavns Universitet, Universtetsparken 5, 2100 København (Denmark); Mølholt, T.E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Munch, M. [Institut for Fysik og Astronomi, Aarhus Universitet, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Neyens, G. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); and others

    2016-06-01

    The VITO (Versatile Ion-polarized Techniques Online) project is a new experimental setup at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. VITO is a dedicated beam line for producing laser-induced spin-polarized beams of both, atoms and ions, and it has been commissioned in response to the continuously growing demand for the use of spin-polarized beams. The new VITO beam line is a modification of the formerly existing ultra-high vacuum beam line, connecting ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN), and it has been under construction since the beginning of 2014. Once fully commissioned, VITO will open up numerous possibilities for carrying out multidisciplinary experiments in the areas of nuclear and solid state physics, fundamental interaction physics and biophysics. In its final stage the VITO beam line will provide three fully independent experimental stations: UHV chamber for material science applications, a β-asymmetry station where highly-polarized ions will be available, and a central open-end station suitable for travelling experiments. The VITO beam line will operate in two different modes providing either beams of spin-polarized atoms or ions, or non-polarized ion beams to all three end stations operating from 10{sup −10} mbar to 50 mbar. Recent experimental campaigns with stable and radioactive beams have allowed for testing VITO’s constituent parts and have demonstrated 96% of ion beam transmission to the collection chamber installed on the central station. The first experimental results obtained with on-line Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using {sup 68m}Cu ion-beams will be briefly discussed.

  5. SLC polarized beam source electron optics design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.R.; Lavine, T.L.; Early, R.A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Miller, R.H.; Schultz, D.C.; Spencer, C.M.; Yeremian, A.D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the beam-line from the polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10 -11 -Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photocathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. The quality of the optics for the 160-kV beam is crucial since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1% of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line consists of a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Focusing is provided by a pair of Helmholtz coils and by several iron-encased solenoidal lenses. Our optics design is based on beam transport simulations using 2 1/2-D particle-in-cell codes to model the gun and to solve the fully-relativistic time-dependent equations of motion in three dimensions for electrons in the presence of azimuthally symmetric electromagnetic fields. 6 refs., 6 figs

  6. Neurosurgical applications of ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrikant, Jacob I.; Levy, Richard P.; Phillips, Mark H.; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Lyman, John T.

    1989-04-01

    The program at Donner Pavilion has applied nuclear medicine research to the diagnosis and radiosurgical treatment of life-threatening intracranial vascular disorders that affect more than half a million Americans. Stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery, using narrow beams of heavy ions, demonstrates superior biological and physical characteristics in brain over X-and γ-rays, viz., improved dose distribution in the Bragg peak and sharp lateral and distal borders and less scattering of the beam. Examination of CNS tissue response and alteration of cerebral blood-flow dynamics related to heavy-ion Bragg peak radiosurgery is carried out using three-dimensional treatment planning and quantitative imaging utilizing cerebral angiography, computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cine-CT, xenon X-ray CT and positron emission tomography (PET). Also under examination are the physical properties of narrow heavy-ion beams for improving methods of dose delivery and dose distribution and for establishing clinical RBE/LET and dose-response relationships for human CNS tissues. Based on the evaluation and treatment with stereotactically directed narrow beams of heavy charged particles of over 300 patients, with cerebral angiography, CT scanning and MRI and PET scanning of selected patients, plus extensive clinical and neuroradiological followup, it appears that Stereotactic charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery obliterates intracranial arteriovenous malformations or protects against rebleeding with reduced morbidity and no mortality. Discussion will include the method of evaluation, the clinical research protocol, the Stereotactic neuroradiological preparation, treatment planning, the radiosurgery procedure and the protocol for followup. Emphasis will be placed on the neurological results, including the neuroradiological and clinical response and early and late delayed injury in brain leading to complications (including vasogenic edema

  7. Revised data taking schedule with ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, Marek; Aduszkiewicz, A; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brzychczyk, J; Bubak, A; Bunyatov, S A; Choi, K U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Cleymans, J; Derkach, D A; Diakonos, F; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Feofilov, G A; Fodor, Z; Ferrero, A; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Grzeszczuk, A; Guber, F; Hasegawa, T; Haungs, A; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kisiel, J; Kobayashi, T; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kolevatov, R S; Kondratiev, V P; Kowalski, S; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Laszlo, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Majka, Z; I Malakhov, A; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mijakowski, P; Mitrovski, M; Montaruli, T; Mrówczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nikolic, V; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Röhrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovskii, A; Sakashita, K; Schuster, T; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shibata, M; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Szuba, M; Tada, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Zipper, W; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the revised data taking schedule of NA61 with ion beams. The revision takes into account limitations due to the new LHC schedule as well as final results concerning the physics performance with secondary ion beams. It is proposed to take data with primary Ar and Xe beams in 2012 and 2014, respectively, and to test and use for physics a secondary B beam from primary Pb beam fragmentation in 2010, 2011 and 2013.

  8. Vorticity and particle polarization in heavy ion collisions (experimental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshin Sergei A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent measurements of the global polarization and vector meson spin alignment along the system orbital momentum in heavy ion collisions are briefly reviewed. A possible connection between the global polarization and the chiral anomalous effects is discussed along with possible experimental checks. Future directions, in particular those aimed on the detailed mapping of the vorticity fields, are outlined. The Blast Wave model is used for an estimate of the anisotropic flow effect on the vorticity component along the beam direction. We also point to a possibility of a circular pattern in the vorticity field in asymmetric, e.g. Cu+Au, central collisions.

  9. Ion beam processes in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, O.W.; Narayan, J.; Fathy, D.

    1984-07-01

    Observation of the effects of implants of energetic ions at high dose rates into Si have produced some exciting and interesting results. The mechanism whereby displacement damage produced by ions self-anneals during high dose rate implantation is discussed. It is shown that ion beam annealing (IBA) offers in certain situations unique possibilities for damage annealing. Annealing results of the near surface in Si with a buried oxide layer, formed by high dose implantation, are presented in order to illustrate the advantages offered by IBA. It is also shown that ion irradiation can stimulate the epitaxial recrystallization of amorphous overlayers in Si. The nonequilibrium alloying which results from such epitaxial processes is discussed as well as mechanisms which limit the solid solubility during irradiation. Finally, a dose rate dependency for the production of stable damage by ion irradiation at a constant fluence has been observed. For low fluence implants, the amount of damage is substantially greater in the case of high flux rather than low flux implantation

  10. Ion density in ionizing beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuyt, G.K.; Callebaut, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    The equations defining the ion density in a non-quasineutral plasma (chasma) are derived for a number of particular cases from the general results obtained in paper 1. Explicit calculations are made for a fairly general class of boundaries: all tri-axial ellipsoids, including cylinders with elliptic cross-section and the plane parallel case. The results are very simple. When the ion production and the beam intensity are constant then the steady state ion space charge is also constant in space, it varies over less than 10% for the various geometries, it may exceed the beam density largely for comparatively high pressures (usually still less than about 10 -3 Torr), it is tabulated for a number of interesting cases and moreover it can be calculated precisely and easily by some simple formulae for which also approximations are elaborated. The total potential is U =-ax 2 -by 2 -cz 2 , a, b and c constants which can be calculated immediately from the space charge density and the geometry; the largest coefficient varies at most over a factor four for various geometries; it is tabulated for a number of interesting cases. (author)

  11. Atomic physics of highly charged ions in an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.E.

    1990-07-01

    Two electron beam ion traps are in use at LLNL for the purpose of studying the properties of very highly charged ions and their interactions with electrons. This paper reviews the operation of the traps and discusses recent experiments in three areas: precision transition energy measurements in the limit of very high ion charge, dielectronic recombination measurements for the He-like isoelectronic sequence, and measurements of x-ray polarization. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  12. Cylinder and metal grating polarization beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junbo; Xu, Suzhi

    2017-08-01

    We propose a novel and compact metal grating polarization beam splitter (PBS) based on its different reflected and transmitted orders. The metal grating exhibits a broadband high reflectivity and polarization dependence. The rigorous coupled wave analysis is used to calculate the reflectivity and the transmitting spectra and optimize the structure parameters to realize the broadband PBS. The finite-element method is used to calculate the field distribution. The characteristics of the broadband high reflectivity, transmitting and the polarization dependence are investigated including wavelength, period, refractive index and the radius of circle grating. When grating period d = 400 nm, incident wavelength λ = 441 nm, incident angle θ = 60° and radius of circle d/5, then the zeroth reflection order R0 = 0.35 and the transmission zeroth order T0 = 0.08 for TE polarization, however, T0 = 0.34 and R0 = 0.01 for TM mode. The simple fabrication method involves only single etch step and good compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. PBS designed here is particularly suited for optical communication and optical information processing.

  13. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion ...

  14. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, Igor B.; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface

  15. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Igor B; Ryabchikov, Alexander I; Sivin, Denis O; Verigin, Dan A

    2014-02-01

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  16. Determination of deuteron beam polarizations at COSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chiladze

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The vector (P_{z} and tensor (P_{zz} polarizations of a deuteron beam have been measured using elastic deuteron–carbon scattering at 75.6 MeV and deuteron-proton scattering at 270 MeV. After acceleration to 1170 MeV inside the COSY storage ring, the polarizations of the deuterons were remeasured by studying the analyzing powers of a variety of nuclear reactions. For this purpose a hydrogen cluster target was employed at the ANKE magnetic spectrometer, which is situated at an internal target position in the ring. The overall precisions obtained were about 4% for both P_{z} and P_{zz}. Though all the measurements were consistent with the absence of depolarization during acceleration, only an upper limit of about 6% could be placed on such an effect.

  17. An intense polarized beam by a laser ionization injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Chihiro; Hiramatsu, Shigenori; Nakamura, Takeshi.

    1990-12-01

    Accumulation of protons and polarized protons by photo-ionization injection are described. This method consists of (1)producing the neutral hydrogen beam by Lorentz stripping, (2)excitation of the neutral hydrogen beam with a laser, and (3)ionization of the hydrogen beam in the 2P excited state with another laser. When the laser for the excitation is circularly polarized, we can get a polarized proton beam. An ionization efficiency of 98% and a polarization of 80% can be expected by an intense laser beam from a FEL(Free Electron Laser). (author)

  18. Nuclear spin polarized alkali beams (Li and Na): Production and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaensch, H.; Becker, K.; Blatt, K.; Leucker, H.; Fick, D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent improvements of the Heidelberg source for polarized heavy ions (PSI) are described. By means of optical pumping in combination with the existing multipole separation magnet the beam figure of merit (polarization 2 x intensity) was doubled. 7 Li and 23 Na atomic beams can now be produced in pure hyperfine magnetic substates. Fast switching of the polarization is achieved by an adiabatic medium field transition. The hyperfine magnetic substate population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. In routine operation atomic beams with nuclear polarization p α ≥0.85 (α=z, zz) are obtained. The acceleration of polarized 23 Na - ions by a 12 MV tandem accelerator introduces a new problem: the energy at the terminal stripper foil is not sufficient to produce a usable yield of naked ions. For partially stripped ions hyperfine interaction of the remaining electrons with the nuclear spin reduces the nuclear polarization. Using in addition the Heidelberg postaccelerator 23 Na 9+ beams of energies between 49 and 184 MeV were obtained with an alignment on target of P zz ≅0.45. 7 Li beams have also been accelerated up to 45 MeV with an alignment of P zz =0.69. (orig.)

  19. Fusion at counterstreaming ion beams - ion optic fusion (IOF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryzinski, M.

    1981-01-01

    The results of investigation are briefly reviewed in the field of ion optic fusion performed at the Institute of Nuclear Research in Swierk. The ion optic fusion concept is based on the possibility of obtaining fusion energy at highly ordered motion of ions in counterstreaming ion beams. For this purpose TW ion beams must be produced and focused. To produce dense and charge-neutralized ion beams the selective conductivity and ballistic focusing ideas were formulated and used in a series of RPI devices with low-pressure cylindrical discharge between grid-type electrodes. 100 kA, 30 keV deuteron beams were successfully produced and focused into the volume of 1 cm 3 , yielding 10 9 neutrons per 200 ns shot on a heavy ice target. Cylindrically convergent ion beams with magnetic anti-defocusing were proposed in order to reach a positive energy gain at reasonable energy level. (J.U.)

  20. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sarvesh, E-mail: sarvesh@iuac.res.in; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  1. Ion-beam plasma and propagation of intense compensated ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabovich, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed are the results of investigation of plasma properties recieved by neutralization of intensive ion beam space charge. Considered is the process of ion beam compensation by charges, formed as a result of gas ionization by this beam or by externally introduced ones. Emphasis is placed on collective phenomena in ion-beam plasma, in particular on non-linear effects limiting amplitude of oscillations. It is shown, that not only dinamic decompensation but the Coulomb collisions of ions with electrons as well as other collective oscillations significantly affects the propagation of compensated ion beams. All the processes are to be taken into account at solving the problem of obtaining ''superdense'' compensated beams

  2. Ion-beam plasma and propagation of intense compensated ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabovich, M D [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Fiziki

    1977-02-01

    Discussed are the results of investigation of plasma properties received by neutralization of intense ion beam space charge. Considered is the process of ion beam compensation by charges, formed as a result of gas ionization by this beam or by externally introduced ones. Emphasis is placed on collective phenomena in ion-beam plasma, in particular on non-linear effects limiting amplitude of oscillations. It is shown that not only dynamic decompensation but the Coulomb collisions of ions with electrons as well as other collective oscillations significantly affects the propagation of compensated ion beams. All the processes are to be taken into account in solving the problem of obtaining ''superdense'' compensated beams.

  3. Conical pinched electron beam diode for intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Yoshiro

    1982-01-01

    For the purpose of improvement of the pinched electron beam diode, the production of an ion beam by a diode with electrodes in a conical shape was studied at low voltage operation (--200 kV). The ion beam is emitted from a small region of the diode apex. The mean ion beam current density near the axis at 12 cm from the diode apex is two or three times that from an usual flat parallel diode with the same dimension and impedance. The brightness and the power brightness at the otigin are 450 MA/cm 2 sr and 0.12 TW/cm 2 sr respectively. (author)

  4. Tool steel ion beam assisted nitrocarburization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagonel, L.F.; Alvarez, F.

    2007-01-01

    The nitrocarburization of the AISI-H13 tool steel by ion beam assisted deposition is reported. In this technique, a carbon film is continuously deposited over the sample by the ion beam sputtering of a carbon target while a second ion source is used to bombard the sample with low energy nitrogen ions. The results show that the presence of carbon has an important impact on the crystalline and microstructural properties of the material without modification of the case depth

  5. Beam-plasma instability in ion beam systems used in neutral beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1977-02-01

    The beam-plasma instability is analyzed for the ion beams used for neutral beam generation. Both positive and negative ion beams are considered. Stability is predicted when the beam velocity is less than the electron thermal velocity; the only exception occurs when the electron density accompanying a negative ion beam is less than the ion density by nearly the ratio of electron to ion masses. For cases in which the beam velocity is greater than the electron thermal velocity, instability is predicted near the electron plasma frequency

  6. ORNL positive ion neutral beam program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whealton, J.H.; Haselton, H.H.; Barber, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    The neutral beam group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has constructed neutral beam generators for the ORMAK and PLT devices, is presently constructing neutral beam devices for the ISX and PDX devices, and is contemplating the construction of neutral beam systems for the advanced TNS device. These neutral beam devices stem from the pioneering work on ion sources of G. G. Kelley and O. B. Morgan. We describe the ion sources under development at this Laboratory, the beam optics exhibited by these sources, as well as some theoretical considerations, and finally the remainder of the beamline design

  7. Cooled heavy ion beams at the ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, M.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Eickhoff, H.; Franzke, B.; Klepper, O.; Nolden, F.; Reich, H.; Schlitt, B.; Spaedtke, P.; Winkler, T.

    1996-01-01

    The storage ring ESR has been used in various operational modes for experiments with electron cooled heavy ion beams. Besides the standard storage mode including injection and beam accumulation the deceleration of highly charged ions has been demonstrated. Beams of highly charged ions have been injected and accumulated and finally decelerated to a minimum energy of 50 MeV/u. An ultraslow extraction method using charge changing processes is now also available for cooled beams of highly charged ions. For in ring experiments the internal gas jet and the cold electron beam of the cooling system are applied as targets. High precision mass spectrometry by Schottky noise detection has been demonstrated. Operation at transition energy has been achieved with cooled beams opening the field for experiments which require an isochronous revolution of the ions. (orig.)

  8. Polarization beam smoothing for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, Joshua E.

    2000-01-01

    For both direct and indirect drive approaches to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) it is imperative to obtain the best possible drive beam uniformity. The approach chosen for the National Ignition Facility uses a random-phase plate to generate a speckle pattern with a precisely controlled envelope on target. A number of temporal smoothing techniques can then be employed to utilize bandwidth to rapidly change the speckle pattern, and thus average out the small-scale speckle structure. One technique which generally can supplement other smoothing methods is polarization smoothing (PS): the illumination of the target with two distinct and orthogonally polarized speckle patterns. Since these two polarizations do not interfere, the intensity patterns add incoherently, and the rms nonuniformity can be reduced by a factor of (√2). A number of PS schemes are described and compared on the basis of the aggregate rms and the spatial spectrum of the focused illumination distribution. The (√2) rms nonuniformity reduction of PS is present on an instantaneous basis and is, therefore, of particular interest for the suppression of laser plasma instabilities, which have a very rapid response time. When combining PS and temporal methods, such as smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), PS can reduce the rms of the temporally smoothed illumination by an additional factor of (√2). However, it has generally been thought that in order to achieve this reduction of (√2), the increased divergence of the beam from PS must exceed the divergence of SSD. It is also shown here that, over the time scales of interest to direct or indirect drive ICF, under some conditions PS can reduce the smoothed illumination rms by nearly (√2) even when the PS divergence is much smaller than that of SSD. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Accelerating polarized beams at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing resonances. During acceleration, a depolarizing resonance is crossed whenever the spin precession frequency equals the frequency with which spin-perturbing magnetic fields are encountered. There are two main types of depolarizing resonances corresponding to the possible sources of such fields: imperfection resonances, which are driven by magnet errors and misalignments, and intrinsic resonances, driven by the focusing fields. The resonance conditions are usually expressed in terms of the spin tune ν s , which is defined as the number of spin precessions per revolution. For an ideal planar accelerator, where orbiting particles experience only the vertical guide field, the spin tune is equal to Gγ, where G = 1.7928 is the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton and γ is the relativistic Lorentz factor. The resonance condition for imperfection depolarizing resonances arise when ν s = Gγ = n, where n is an integer. Imperfection resonances are therefore separated by only 523 MeV energy steps. The condition for intrinsic resonances is ν s = Gγ = kP ± ν y , where k is an integer, ν y is the vertical betatron tune and P is the superperiodicity. For the AGS, P = 12 and ν y ∼ 8.8. For most of the time during the acceleration cycle, the precession direction, or stable spin direction, coincides with the main vertical magnetic field. Close to a resonance, the stable spin direction is perturbed away from the vertical direction by the resonance driving fields. When a polarized beam is accelerated through an isolated resonance, the final polarization can be calculated analytically

  10. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  11. Integrated polarization beam splitter with relaxed fabrication tolerances

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Galacho, D.; Halir, R.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Zhang, R.; Runge, P.; Janiak, K.; Bach, H-G; Steffan, A. G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.

    2013-01-01

    Polarization handling is a key requirement for the next generation of photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Integrated polarization beam splitters (PBS) are central elements for polarization management, but their use in PICs is hindered by poor fabrication tolerances. In this work we present a fully passive, highly fabrication tolerant polarization beam splitter, based on an asymmetrical Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with a Si/SiO2 Periodic Layer Structure (PLS) on top of one of its arms. ...

  12. Polarization coupling of vector Bessel–Gaussian beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Ryushi; Kozawa, Yuichi; Sato, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    We report polarization coupling of radial and azimuthal electric field components of a vector light beam as predicted by the fact that the vector Helmholtz equation is expressed as coupled differential equations in cylindrical coordinates. To clearly observe the polarization variation of a beam as it propagates, higher order transverse modes of a vector Bessel–Gaussian beam were generated by a gain distribution modulation technique, which created a narrow ring-shaped gain region in a Nd:YVO 4 crystal. The polarization coupling was confirmed by the observation that the major polarization component of a vector Bessel–Gaussian beam alternates between radial and azimuthal components along with the propagation. (paper)

  13. Commissioning of polarized-proton and antiproton beams at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1988-01-01

    The author described the polarized-proton and polarized-antiproton beams up to 200 GeV/c at Fermilab. The beam line, called MP, consists of the 400-m long primary and 350-m long secondary beam line followed by 60-m long experimental hall. We discuss the characteristics of the polarized beams. The Fermilab polarization projects are designated at E-581/704 initiated and carried out by an international collaboration, Argonne (US), Fermilab (US), Kyoto-Kyushu-Hiroshima-KEK (Japan), LAPP (France), Northwestern University (US), Los Alamos Laboratory (US), Rice (US), Saclay (France), Serpukhov (USSR), INFN Trieste (Italy), and University of Texas (US)

  14. Polarization holograms allow highly efficient generation of complex light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, U; Pagliusi, P; Provenzano, C; Volke-Sepúlveda, K; Cipparrone, Gabriella

    2013-03-25

    We report a viable method to generate complex beams, such as the non-diffracting Bessel and Weber beams, which relies on the encoding of amplitude information, in addition to phase and polarization, using polarization holography. The holograms are recorded in polarization sensitive films by the interference of a reference plane wave with a tailored complex beam, having orthogonal circular polarizations. The high efficiency, the intrinsic achromaticity and the simplicity of use of the polarization holograms make them competitive with respect to existing methods and attractive for several applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.

  15. Polarized Parton Distributions at an Electron-Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Guffanti, Alberto; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    We study the potential impact of inclusive deep-inelastic scattering data from a future electron-ion collider (EIC) on longitudinally polarized parton distribution (PDFs). We perform a PDF determination using the NNPDF methodology, based on sets of deep-inelastic EIC pseudodata, for different realistic choices of the electron and proton beam energies. We compare the results to our current polarized PDF set, NNPDFpol1.0, based on a fit to fixed-target inclusive DIS data. We show that the uncertainties on the first moments of the polarized quark singlet and gluon distributions are substantially reduced in comparison to NNPDFpol1.0, but also that more measurements may be needed to ultimately pin down the size of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin.

  16. Polarized parton distributions at an electron–ion collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Richard D. [Tait Institute, University of Edinburgh, JCMB, KB, Mayfield Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Forte, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Guffanti, Alberto [The Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Nocera, Emanuele R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Rojo, Juan [PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-20

    We study the potential impact of inclusive deep-inelastic scattering data from a future electron–ion collider (EIC) on longitudinally polarized parton distributions (PDFs). We perform a PDF determination using the NNPDF methodology, based on sets of deep-inelastic EIC pseudodata, for different realistic choices of the electron and proton beam energies. We compare the results to our current polarized PDF set, NNPDFpol1.0, based on a fit to fixed-target inclusive DIS data. We show that the uncertainties on the first moments of the polarized quark singlet and gluon distributions are substantially reduced in comparison to NNPDFpol1.0, but also that more measurements may be needed to ultimately pin down the size of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin.

  17. Polarized parton distributions at an electron–ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Richard D.; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    We study the potential impact of inclusive deep-inelastic scattering data from a future electron–ion collider (EIC) on longitudinally polarized parton distributions (PDFs). We perform a PDF determination using the NNPDF methodology, based on sets of deep-inelastic EIC pseudodata, for different realistic choices of the electron and proton beam energies. We compare the results to our current polarized PDF set, NNPDFpol1.0, based on a fit to fixed-target inclusive DIS data. We show that the uncertainties on the first moments of the polarized quark singlet and gluon distributions are substantially reduced in comparison to NNPDFpol1.0, but also that more measurements may be needed to ultimately pin down the size of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin

  18. Recent results on polarizations and the present status of the Fermilab polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, Akihiko.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are reviewed on polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering at intermediate energies. The present status of S = 0 dibaryon resonances is presented. The status of the Fermilab polarized beam program is presented, including the construction of polarized beam, two polarimeters being installed in the experimental hall, and the experimental program

  19. Radiation effects of ion beams on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Seiichi

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the radiation effects of ion beams on polymers are reviewed briefly. Our recent work on the radiation effects of ion beams on polystyrene thin films on silicon wafers and time resolved emission studies on polymers are described. (orig.)

  20. Ion Beams in Nanoscience and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hellborg, Ragnar

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ion beam irradiation is the basis of a wide plethora of powerful research- and fabrication-techniques for materials characterisation and processing on a nanometre scale. This book is suitable for practitioners, researchers and graduate students working in the field of ion beams and application

  1. Ion-Ion Plasmas Produced by Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, R. F.; Leonhardt, D.; Walton, S. G.; Meger, R. A.

    2001-10-01

    The ability of plasmas to etch deep, small-scale features in materials is limited by localized charging of the features. The features charge because of the difference in electron and ion anisotropy, and thus one solution now being explored is to use ion-ion plasmas in place of electron-ion plasmas. Ion-ion plasmas are effectively electron-free and consist mainly of positive and negative ions. Since the two ion species behave similarly, localized charging is largely eliminated. However, the only way to produce ion-ion plasmas at low gas pressure is to convert electrons into negative ions through two-body attachment to neutrals. While the electron attachment rate is large at low electron temperatures (Te < 1 eV) in many of the halogen gases used for processing, these temperatures occur in most reactors only during the afterglow when the heating fields are turned off and the plasma is decaying. By contrast, Te is low nearly all the time in plasmas produced by electron beams, and therefore electron beams can potentially produce ion-ion plasmas continuously. The theory of ion-ion plasmas formed by pulsed electron beams is examined in this talk and compared with experimental results presented elsewhere [1]. Some general limitations of ion-ion plasmas, including relatively low flux levels, are discussed as well. [1] See the presentation by D. Leonhardt et al. at this conference.

  2. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 {mu}m patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma.

  3. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 μm patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma

  4. Modeling of ion beam surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, R W [Quantum Manufacturing Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maenchen, J E; Renk, T J [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Struve, K W [Mission Research Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Campbell, M M [PASTDCO, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The use of intense pulsed ion beams is providing a new capability for surface engineering based on rapid thermal processing of the top few microns of metal, ceramic, and glass surfaces. The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST) process has been shown to produce enhancements in the hardness, corrosion, wear, and fatigue properties of surfaces by rapid melt and re-solidification. A new code called IBMOD was created, enabling the modeling of intense ion beam deposition and the resulting rapid thermal cycling of surfaces. This code was used to model the effect of treatment of aluminum, iron, and titanium using different ion species and pulse durations. (author). 3 figs., 4 refs.

  5. Intense ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Intense beams of light of heavy ions are being studied as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers for high yield and energy. Heavy and light ions have common interests in beam transport, targets, and alternative accelerators. Self-pinched transport is being jointly studied. This article reviews the development of intense ion beams for ICF. Light-ion drivers are highlighted because they are compact, modular, efficient and low cost. Issues facing light ions are: (1) decreasing beam divergence; (2) increasing beam brightness; and (3) demonstrating self-pinched transport. Applied-B ion diodes are favored because of efficiency, beam brightness, perceived scalability, achievable focal intensity, and multistage capability. A light-ion concept addressing these issues uses: (1) an injector divergence of ≤ 24 mrad at 9 MeV; (2) two-stage acceleration to reduce divergence to ≤ 12 mrad at 35 MeV; and (3) self-pinched transport accepting divergences up to 12 mrad. Substantial progress in ion-driven target physics and repetitive ion diode technology is also presented. Z-pinch drivers are being pursued as the shortest pulsed power path to target physics experiments and high-yield fusion. However, light ions remain the pulsed power ICF driver of choice for high-yield fusion energy applications that require driver standoff and repetitive operation. 100 refs

  6. Operational experience with the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmor, P.W.; Buchmann, L.; Jayamanna, K.; Levy, C.D.P.; McDonald, M.; Ruegg, R.

    1991-05-01

    The initial goal of a polarized proton beam extracted from the TRIUMF cyclotron, having a current of 5 μA with 60% polarization, has been achieved with the development of the optically pumped polarized H - ion source. This beam is now being used to produce an intense secondary beam of polarized neutrons for the TRIUMF experimental program. Much of the recent development effort has addressed the reliability requirements for routine operation. This paper describes the results with emphasis on the laser stabilization subsystem, the modifications to the electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source (ECRIS), the sodium charge exchange cells and the development of a low energy polarimeter. Also discussed are the developments which should lead to a higher polarization. (Author) 7 refs

  7. The polarized proton and deuteron beam at the Bonn isochronous cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, K G; Enders, R; Hammon, W; Krause, K D; Lesemann, D; Scholzen, A [Bonn Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Euler, K; Schueller, B [Bonn Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    1976-02-15

    The present state of the polarized proton and deuteron source at the Bonn cyclotron is described. The source, which is of the atomic beam type, gives typical ion beam intensities of 2 ..mu..A for protons and 3 ..mu..A for deuterons. The overall transmission from the source to the first stopper after extraction from the cyclotron is 3%. Target currents with an energy resolution E/..delta..E=500 are 20 nA for deuterons and 10 nA for protons. For the proton beam, a polarization P=-0.71 was measured. For the deuteron beam, a pure vector polarization Psub(z)=-0.47 or various mixtures of vector and tensor polarization are obtained.

  8. Beam brilliance investigation of high current ion beams at GSI heavy ion accelerator facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, A A; Hollinger, R

    2014-02-01

    In this work the emittance measurements of high current Ta-beam provided by VARIS (Vacuum Arc Ion Source) ion source are presented. Beam brilliance as a function of beam aperture at various extraction conditions is investigated. Influence of electrostatic ion beam compression in post acceleration gap on the beam quality is discussed. Use of different extraction systems (single aperture, 7 holes, and 13 holes) in order to achieve more peaked beam core is considered. The possible ways to increase the beam brilliance are discussed.

  9. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  10. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  11. Modeling of Jovian Auroral Polar Ion and Proton Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, S. J.; Ozak, N. O.; Cravens, T.; Schultz, D. R.; Mauk, B.; Haggerty, D. K.; Young, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    of 10 mW/m2 of 2 MeV/u oxygen ions, and a color ratio of 10 is expected for this case. Moreover, recent Juno data indicates the presence of both upward and downward relativistic energy beams over the polar cap, hence we perform some preliminary calculations of the effect of proton precipitation into the polar atmosphere and its contributions to the aurora dynamics.

  12. Constraints on ion beam handling for intersecting beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, T.

    1981-01-01

    The intense synchrotron radiation beams from the NSLS uv or x-ray storage rings still do not compare in monochromatized photon flux with a laser beam, a fact which becomes apparent in considering reaction rates for interaction of photon and ion beams. There are two prototypical interaction geometries, parallel and perpendicular. Calculations should properly be done in the rest frame of the ion beam; however, expected beta values are small, so the lab frame will be employed and aberration and Doppler shift effects neglected

  13. Physics with polarized beams. Report of the ANL Technical Advisory Panel. [Research with polarized proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-01

    Experimental directions which will be the most useful in developing underlying theories of hadronic collisions are outlined. As a pedagogical device to accomplish this, approximate percentages of a total program which could be devoted to different areas have been quoted. Findings are presented in the form of a short basic report with several long detailed appendices. In the basic report our opinion as to the amount of polarized beam experimental effort that should be applied to the following areas is stated: nucleon-nucleon scattering, quasi-two-body processes, inclusive production, and new or unexplored areas (such as large p/sub T/ and invariance principles). Our reasoning is discussed briefly, however, the details are left for the appendices. Members of the panel present certain aspects of the above areas, which should be useful for planning and/or performing polarized beam experiments. The seven presentations are abstracted separately in ERA.

  14. Initial operating experience and recent development on the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmor, P.W.; Law, W.M.; Levy, C.D.P.; McDonald, M.

    1988-01-01

    A polarized H - ion source using optical pumping techniques has been developed at TRIUMF. This source was used to demonstrate (on an ion source test stand) the feasibility of producing 10- μA of ∼ 60% polarized H - ion beam in a dc mode suitable for injection into the TRIUMF cyclotron. The source has been installed in a 300 kV high voltage terminal connected to the cyclotron via a recently constructed beam transport line. A polarization of 80% is anticipated near the end of 1988 after the installation of a superconducting solenoid to the source. In this paper the authors describe the initial operating experience, recent developments, and the future plans for the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized ion source

  15. Inverse design engineering of all-silicon polarization beam splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing the inverse design engineering method of topology optimization, we have realized high-performing all-silicon ultra-compact polarization beam splitters. We show that the device footprint of the polarization beam splitter can be as compact as similar to 2 µm2 while performing experimentally...

  16. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  17. Pulsed high current ion beam processing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Perry, A.

    1995-01-01

    A pulsed high voltage ion source is considered for use in ion beam processing for the surface modification of materials, and deposition of conducting films on different substrates. The source consists of an Arkad'ev-Marx high voltage generator, a vacuum ion diode based on explosive ion emission, and a vacuum chamber as substrate holder. The ion diode allows conducting films to be deposited from metal or allow sources, with ion beam mixing, onto substrates held at a pre-selected temperature. The main variables can be set in the ranges: voltage 100-700 kV, pulse length 0.3 μs, beam current 1-200 A depending on the ion chosen. The applications of this technology are discussed in semiconductor, superconductor and metallizing applications as well as the direction of future development and cost of these devices for commercial application. 14 refs., 6 figs

  18. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  19. Recommendation for a injector-cyclotron and ion sources for the acceleration of heavy ions and polarized protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, A.H.; Cronje, P.M.; Du Toit, Z.B.; Nel, W.A.G.; Celliers, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    It was decided to accelerate both heavy and light ions with the open-sector cyclotron. The injector SPS1, was used for light ions and SPS2 for heavy ions. Provision was also made for the acceleration of polarized neutrons. To enable this, the injector must have an axial injection system. The working of a source of polarized ions and inflectors for an axial injection system is discussed. The limitations of the open-sector cyclotron on the acceleration of heavy ions are also dealt with. The following acceleration/ion source combinations are discussed: i) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=40 injector cyclotron with a Penning ion source, and a stripper between the injector and the open-sector cyclotron and also a source of polarized protons and deuterons; ii) The acceleration/ion source combination with the addition of electron beam ion sources; iii) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=11 injector cyclotron with a electron beam ion source and a source of polarized protons and deuterons

  20. Measurement of electron beam polarization at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.

    1987-03-01

    The polarimeters needed to monitor and measure electron beam polarization at the Stanford Linear Collider are discussed. Two types of polarimeters, are to be used. The first is based on the spin dependent elastic scattering of photons from high energy electrons. The second utilizes the spin dependence of elastic electron-electron scattering. The plans of the SLC polarization group to measure and monitor electron beam polarization are discussed. A brief discussion of the physics and the demands it imposes on beam polarization measurements is presented. The Compton polarimeter and the essential characteristics of two Moeller polarimeters are presented

  1. High current density ion beam measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W.C.; Sawatzky, E.

    1976-01-01

    High ion beam current measurements are difficult due to the presence of the secondary particles and beam neutralization. For long Faraday cages, true current can be obtained only by negative bias on the target and by summing the cage wall and target currents; otherwise, the beam will be greatly distorted. For short Faraday cages, a combination of small magnetic field and the negative target bias results in correct beam current. Either component alone does not give true current

  2. Review of intense-ion-beam propagation with a view toward measuring ion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this review is intense ion beam propagation and the possibilities of measuring time dependent ion energy in the beam. Propagation effects discussed include charge separation, charge and current autoneutralization, electron thermalization and current neutralization decay. The interaction of a plasma beam with material obstacles, like collimators, and with transverse magnetic fields is also described. Depending on beam energy, density and pulse length, these interactions can include material ablation with plasmadynamic flow and undeflected propagation across transverse magnetic fields by a polarization drift. On the basis of this review I conclude that three diagnostics: a single floating potential probe, net current probes (Faraday cups) and a Rutherford scattering spectrometer appear capable of giving prompt, time dependent ion energy measurements

  3. Production of ion beam by conical pinched electron beam diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Some properties of the ion beam produced by pinched electron beam diode having conical shape electrodes and organic insulator anode was studied. Ion energy is about 200keV and the peak diode current is about 30 kA. At 11cm from the diode apex, not the geometrical focus point, concentrated ion beam was obtained. Its density is more than 500A/cm 2 . The mean ion current density within the radius of 1.6cm around the axis from conical diode is two or three times that from an usual pinched electron beam diode with flat parallel electrodes of same dimension and impedance under the same conditions. (author)

  4. Intense non-relativistic cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampel, M.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium Injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl. Fus. 21, 529 (1981)) is applied to the problem of the Cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx. 5 cm, and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx. 10 cm

  5. Proton polarizing system with Ar-ion laser for p-vector-RI scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, T.; Hatano, M.; Sakai, H.; Uesaka, T.; Tamii, A.

    2005-01-01

    A proton polarizing system for use in scattering experiments with radioactive isotope beams is described. Protons in a naphthalene crystal doped with pentacene are polarized in a magnetic field of 0.3T at 100K by transferring a large population difference among the photo-excited triplet states of pentacene to the hydrogen nuclei. An Ar-ion laser, which demands minimal maintenance during scattering experiments, is employed to excite the pentacene molecules. A proton polarization of 37% is obtained

  6. A polarized beam for the M-3 line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.; Colton, E.; Halpern, H.

    1978-01-01

    A beamline is proposed for polarized protons to be built in the M-3 line of the Meson Laboratory utilizing lambda decays. This beamline would provide a clean source of polarized protons or an enriched beam of antiprotons or polarized antiprotons

  7. Radially Polarized Conical Beam from an Embedded Etched Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaidji , D.; Spajer , M.; Marthouret , N.; Grosjean , T.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; We propose a method for producing a conical beam based on the lateral refraction of the TM01 mode from a two-mode fiber after chemical etching of the cladding, and for controlling its radial polarization. The whole power of the guided mode is transferred to the refracted beam with low diffraction. Polarization control by a series of azimuthal detectors and a stress controller affords the transmission of a stabilized radial polarization through an optical fiber. A solid...

  8. Managing focal fields of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Liu, Sheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Huachao; Gan, Xuetao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-11-10

    We explore the tight focusing behavior of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities, and analyze the influences of the number, position, and topological charge of the singularities on the focal fields. It is found that the ellipticity of the local polarization states at the focal plane could be determined by the spatial distribution of the polarization singularities of the vector beam. When the spatial location and topological charge of singularities have even-fold rotation symmetry, the transverse fields at the focal plane are locally linearly polarized. Otherwise, the polarization state becomes a locally hybrid one. By appropriately arranging the distribution of the polarization singularities in the vector beam, the polarization distributions of the focal fields could be altered while the intensity maintains unchanged.

  9. Multicharged and intense heavy ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutner, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    The cyclotron plasma-are source (PIG), duoplasmatron (DP), laser source (LS), electron beam ion source (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance source (ECRS) from the viewpoint of generating intense and high charge state beams are considered. It is pointed out that for the last years three types of multicharged ion sources-EBIS, ECR and LS have been essentially developed. In the EBIS source the Xe 48+ ions are produced. The present day level of the development of the electron-beam ionization technique shows that by means of this technique intensive uranium nuclei beams production becomes a reality. On the ECR source Xe 26+ approximately 4x10 10 h/s, Asub(r)sup(12+) approximately 10 12 h/s intensive ion beams are produced. In the laser source a full number of C 6+ ions during one laser pulse constitutes not less than 10 10 from the 5x10mm 2 emission slit. At the present time important results are obtained pointing to the possibility to separate the ion component of laser plasma in the cyclotron central region. On the PIG source the Xe 15+ ion current up to 10μA per pulse is produced. In the duoplasmatron the 11-charge state of xenon ion beams is reached [ru

  10. SLC polarized beam source ultra-high-vacuum design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Clendenin, J.E.; Garwin, E.L.; Hoyt, E.W.; Hoyt, M.W.; Miller, R.H.; Nuttall, J.A.; Schultz, D.C.; Wright, D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the ultra-high vacuum system for the beam-line from the 160-kV polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10 -11 -Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photo-cathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. Photo-cathode maintenance and improvements require occasional substitution of guns with rapid restoration of UHV conditions. Differential pumping is crucial since the pressure in the injector is more than 10 times greater than the photocathode can tolerate, and since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1% of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line contains a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Exchange of guns requires venting only this isolated region which can be restored to UHV rapidly by baking. The differential pumping is performed by non-evaporable getters (NEGs) and an ion pump. 3 refs., 3 figs

  11. Intense pulsed heavy ion beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm 2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm 2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al (1-3)+ ) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89%. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were successively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm 2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration. (author)

  12. Determination of the polarization states of an arbitrary polarized terahertz beam: vectorial vortex analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Toshitaka; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Oikawa, Hiroki; Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Yonemura, Motoki; Yoshizawa, Toru; Tyo, J Scott; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2015-03-24

    Vectorial vortex analysis is used to determine the polarization states of an arbitrarily polarized terahertz (0.1-1.6 THz) beam using THz achromatic axially symmetric wave (TAS) plates, which have a phase retardance of Δ = 163° and are made of polytetrafluorethylene. Polarized THz beams are converted into THz vectorial vortex beams with no spatial or wavelength dispersion, and the unknown polarization states of the incident THz beams are reconstructed. The polarization determination is also demonstrated at frequencies of 0.16 and 0.36 THz. The results obtained by solving the inverse source problem agree with the values used in the experiments. This vectorial vortex analysis enables a determination of the polarization states of the incident THz beam from the THz image. The polarization states of the beams are estimated after they pass through the TAS plates. The results validate this new approach to polarization detection for intense THz sources. It could find application in such cutting edge areas of physics as nonlinear THz photonics and plasmon excitation, because TAS plates not only instantaneously elucidate the polarization of an enclosed THz beam but can also passively control THz vectorial vortex beams.

  13. Electron beam based transversal profile measurements of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Moussati, Said

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic method for the experimental determination of the transverse profile of an intense ion beam has been developed and investigated theoretically as well as experimentally within the framework of the present work. The method is based on the deflection of electrons when passing the electromagnetic field of an ion beam. To achieve this an electron beam is employed with a specifically prepared transversal profile. This distinguish this method from similar ones which use thin electron beams for scanning the electromagnetic field [Roy et al. 2005; Blockland10]. The diagnostic method presented in this work will be subsequently called ''Electron-Beam-Imaging'' (EBI). First of all the influence of the electromagnetic field of the ion beam on the electrons has been theoretically analyzed. It was found that the magnetic field causes only a shift of the electrons along the ion beam axis, while the electric field only causes a shift in a plane transverse to the ion beam. Moreover, in the non-relativistic case the magnetic force is significantly smaller than the Coulomb one and the electrons suffer due to the magnetic field just a shift and continue to move parallel to their initial trajectory. Under the influence of the electric field, the electrons move away from the ion beam axis, their resulting trajectory shows a specific angle compared to the original direction. This deflection angle practically depends just on the electric field of the ion beam. Thus the magnetic field has been neglected when analysing the experimental data. The theoretical model provides a relationship between the deflection angle of the electrons and the charge distribution in the cross section of the ion beam. The model however only can be applied for small deflection angles. This implies a relationship between the line-charge density of the ion beam and the initial kinetic energy of the electrons. Numerical investigations have been carried out to clarify the

  14. Ion beam processing of bio-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektessabi, A. M.

    1995-05-01

    Thin films of bio-inert (TiO 2+α, Al 2O 3+α) and bio-active (compounds of calcium and phosphorus oxides, hydroxyapatite) were deposited on the most commonly used implant materials such as titanium and stainless steel, using a dual-ion-beam deposition system. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was carried out for quantitative measurement of the interfacial atomic mixing and the composition of the elements. The experimental results show that by controlling the ion beam energy and current, thin films with very good mechanical properties are obtained as a result of the ion beam mixing within the film and at the interface of the film and substrate.

  15. Cold guided beams of polar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motsch, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports on experiments characterizing cold guided beams of polar molecules which are produced by electrostatic velocity filtering. This filtering method exploits the interaction between the polar molecules and the electric field provided by an electrostatic quadrupole guide to extract efficiently the slow molecules from a thermal reservoir. For molecules with large and linear Stark shifts such as deuterated ammonia (ND 3 ) or formaldehyde (H 2 CO), fluxes of guided molecules of 10 10 -10 11 molecules/s are produced. The velocities of the molecules in these beams are in the range of 10-200 m/s and correspond to typical translational temperatures of a few Kelvin. The maximum velocity of the guided molecules depends on the Stark shift, the molecular mass, the geometry of the guide, and the applied electrode voltage. Although the source is operated in the near-effusive regime, the number density of the slowest molecules is sensitive to collisions. A theoretical model, taking into account this velocity-dependent collisional loss of molecules in the vicinity of the nozzle, reproduces the density of the guided molecules over a wide pressure range. A careful adjustment of pressure allows an increase in the total number of molecules, whilst yet minimizing losses due to collisions of the sought-for slow molecules. This is an important issue for future applications. Electrostatic velocity filtering is suited for different molecular species. This is demonstrated by producing cold guided beams of the water isotopologs H 2 O, D 2 O, and HDO. Although these are chemically similar, they show linear and quadratic Stark shifts, respectively, when exposed to external electric fields. As a result, the flux of HDO is larger by one order of magnitude, and the flux of the individual isotopologs shows a characteristic dependence on the guiding electric field. The internal-state distribution of guided molecules is studied with a newly developed diagnostic method: depletion

  16. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology in microfabrications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Lili

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 (micro)m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance

  17. Ion-beam spectroscopic studies of the 69As nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badica, T.; Cojocaru, V.; Olariu, A.; Petre, M.; Popescu, I. V.; Gheboianu, A.

    2009-01-01

    Excited state of the neutron deficient 69 As nucleus were investigated in the 58 Ni( 14 N,2pn) reaction by ion-beam γ spectroscopic methods (excitation functions, γγ-coincidences, angular distributions and linear polarization gated with neutrons). A new more complete level scheme of 69 As has been proposed with spin-parity values. The structure of the nucleus is discussed in the framework of the interaction boson-fermion model (IBFM). (authors)

  18. Heavy ion beams from the new Hungarian ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biri, S.; Valek, A.; Ditroi, F.; Koivisto, H.; Arje, J.; Stiebing, K.; Schmidt, L.

    1998-01-01

    The first beams of highly charged ions in Hungary were obtained in fall of 1996. The new 14.5 GHz ECR ion source of ATOMKI produced beams of multiply charged ions with remarkable intensities at first experiments. Since then, numerous further developments were carried out. An external electrondonor electrode drastically increased the plasma density and, consequently, the intensity of highly charged ions. These upgrades concentrated mainly on beams from gaseous elements and were carried out by the ECRIS team of ATOMKI. Another series of experiments - ionising from solids - however, was done in the framework of an international collaboration. The first metal ion beam has been extracted from the ECRIS in November 1997 using the known method of Metal Ions from Volatile Compounds (MIVOC). The possibility to put the MIVOC chamber inside the ion source was also tested and the dosing regulation problem of metal vapours inside the ion source was solved. As a result, beams of more than 10 μA of highly charged Fe and Ni ions were produced. (author)

  19. Diffuse ions produced by electromagnetic ion beam instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Leroy, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of the electromagnetic ions beam instability driven by the reflected ion component backstreaming away from the earth's how shock into the foreshock region is studied by means computer simulation. The linear the quasi-linear states of the instability are found to be in good agreement with known results for the resonant model propagating parallel to the beam along the magnetic field and with theory developed in this paper for the nonresonant mode, which propagates antiparallel to the beam direction. The quasi-linear stage, which produces large amplitude 8Bapprox.B, sinusoidal transverse waves and ''intermediate'' ion distribution, is terminated by a nonlinear phase in which strongly nonlinear, compressive waves and ''diffuse'' ion distributions are produced. Additional processes by which the diffuse ions are accelerated to observed high energies are not addressed. The results are discussed in terms of the ion distributions and hydromagnetic waves observed in the foreshock of the earth's bow shock and of interplanetary shocks

  20. Consideration of beam plasma ion-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Fumimichi; Kusano, Norimasa; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental analyses and their comparison were made on the plasma generation and on the beam extraction for the beam plasma ion-source. The operational principle and the structure of the ion-source are explained in the first part. Considerations are given on the electron beam-plasma interaction and the resulting generation of high frequency or microwaves which in turn increases the plasma density. The flow of energy in this system is also explained in the second part. The relation between plasma density and the imaginary part of frequency is given by taking the magnetic flux density, the electron beam energy, and the electron beam current as parameters. The relations between the potential difference between collector and drift tube and the plasma density or the ion-current are also given. Considerations are also given to the change of the plasma density due to the change of the magnetic flux density at drift tube, the change of the electron beam energy, and the change of the electron beam current. The third part deals with the extraction characteristics of the ion beam. The structure of the multiple-aperture electrode and the relation between plasma density and the extracted ion current are explained. (Aoki, K.)

  1. Beam Angular Divergence Effects in Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsky, T. N.; Hahto, S. K.; Bilbrough, D. G.; Jacobson, D. C.; Krull, W. A.; Goldberg, R. D.; Current, M. I.; Hamamoto, N.; Umisedo, S.

    2008-01-01

    An important difference between monomer ion beams and heavy molecular beams is a significant reduction in beam angular divergence and increased on-wafer angular accuracy for molecular beams. This advantage in beam quality stems from a reduction in space-charge effects within the beam. Such improved angular accuracy has been shown to have a significant impact on the quality and yield of transistor devices [1,12]. In this study, B 18 H x + beam current and angular divergence data collected on a hybrid scanned beam line that magnetically scans the beam across the wafer is presented. Angular divergence is kept below 0.5 deg from an effective boron energy of 200 eV to 3000 eV. Under these conditions, the beam current is shown analytically to be limited by space charge below about 1 keV, but by the matching of the beam emittance to the acceptance of the beam line above 1 keV. In addition, results of a beam transport model which includes variable space charge compensation are presented, in which a drift mode B 18 H x + beam is compared to an otherwise identical boron beam after deceleration. Deceleration is shown to introduce significant space-charge blow up resulting in a large on-wafer angular divergence. The divergence effects introduced by wafer charging are also discussed.

  2. Measurement of electron beam polarization at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1988-01-01

    One of the unique features of the SLC is its capability to accelerate longitudinally polarized electrons. The SLC polarization group has been performed to implement the polarization program at the SLC. Technically the polarization project consists of three main parts: (1) a polarized source, (2) spin-rotating superconducting solenoid magnets to be used to manipulate the direction of the electron spin, and (3) the polarimeters needed to monitor and measure the electron beam polarization. It is this last topic that will concern us here. Two types of polarimeters will be used - Compton and Moeller. (orig./HSI)

  3. Accelerated ion beam research at ATOMKI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, A.Z.

    2009-01-01

    The paper summarizes the studies on accelerated ion beams at ATOMKI and their technical background, their use from chemical analysis to biological, medical, geological, archaeological applications, their advance from material science to micromachining. (TRA)

  4. Intense pulsed ion beams for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    The subject of this review paper is the field of intense pulsed ion beam generation and the potential application of the beams to fusion research. Considerable progress has been made over the past six years. The ion injectors discussed utilize the introduction of electrons into vacuum acceleration gaps in conjunction with high voltage pulsed power technology to achieve high output current. Power levels from injectors exceeding 1000 MW/cm 2 have been obtained for pulse lengths on the order of 10 -7 sec. The first part of the paper treats the physics and technology of intense ion beams. The second part is devoted to applications of intense ion beams in fusion research. A number of potential uses in magnetic confinement systems have been proposed

  5. Ion beam techniques in arts and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guangyong; Pan Xianjia; Sun Zhongtian; Gao Zhengyao

    1991-01-01

    The ion beam techniques used in studies of arts and archaeology are compared with other analytical techniques. Some examples are specially selected to illustrate the achievements and trends of the techniques in this field

  6. A spin-filter polarimeter for low energy hydrogen and deuterium ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, S.K.; Clegg, T.B.; Karwowski, H.J.; Thompson, W.J.; Crosson, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    An efficient polarimeter which reveals populations of individual hyperfine states of nuclear-spin-polarized H ± (or D ± ) ion beams has been tested. This device is based on unique properties of a three-level interaction in the 2S 1/2 and 2P 1/2 states of hydrogen (or deuterium) atoms, created when the incident, polarized ion beams undergo electron pickup in cesium vapour. Used on a polarized ion source, its efficiency faciy facilitates both rapid optimization and continual monitoring of parameters that affect the beam polarization. With such sources, and perhaps in applications with polarized gas jet targets, the device has potential for an absolute accuracy of better than 2%. (orig.)

  7. Radioactive heavy ion secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.

    1987-01-01

    The production of secondary radioactive beams at GANIL using the LISE spectrometer is reviewed. The experimental devices, and secondary beam characteristics are summarized. Production of neutron rich secondary beams was studied for the systems Ar40 + Be at 44 MeV/u, and 018 + Be at 45 and 65 MeV/u. Partial results were also obtained for the system Ne22 + Ta at 45 MeV/u. Experiments using secondary beams are classified into two categories: those which correspond to fast transfer of nuclei from the production target to a well shielded observation point; and those in which the radioactive beam interacts with a secondary target

  8. Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, C.; Beale, M.I.J.; Deshmukh, V.G.I.

    1986-04-01

    We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)

  9. Radioactive ion beam facilities at INFN LNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifuggiato, D; Calabretta, L; Celona, L; Chines, F; Cosentino, L; Cuttone, G; Finocchiaro, P; Pappalardo, A; Re, M; Rovelli, A

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams are produced at INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) by means of the two operating accelerators, the Tandem and the Superconducting Cyclotron (CS), originally designed to accelerate stable beams. Both the ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) and the IFF (In-Flight Fragmentation) methods are exploited to produce RIBs in two different ways at different energies: in the first case, the Cyclotron is the primary accelerator and the Tandem accelerates the secondary beams, while in the second case radioactive fragments are produced by the Cyclotron beam in a thin target with energies comparable to the primary beam energy. The ISOL facility is named EXCYT (Exotics at the Cyclotron and Tandem) and was commissioned in 2006, when the first radioactive beam ( 8 Li) has been produced. The IFF installation is named FRIBs (in Flight Radioactive Ion Beams), and it has started to produce radioactive beams in 2001, placing a thin target in the extraction beam line of the Cyclotron. The development of both facilities to produce and accelerate radioactive ion beams at LNS, is briefly described, with some details on the future prospects that are presently under consideration or realization.

  10. Beam modulation for heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, T.; Minohara, S.; Sudou, M.

    1993-01-01

    The first clinical trial of heavy ion radiation therapy is scheduled in 1994 by using the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). In order to start the clinical trial, first, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of high energy heavy ions in human bodies, for example, dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distribution. Also the knowledge on the biological effectiveness of heavy ions is required. Based on these biophysical properties of heavy ions, monoenergetic heavy ion beam should be modulated so as to make the spread Bragg peak suitable to heavy ion radiation therapy. In order to establish a methodology to obtain the most effective spread Bragg peak for heavy ion radiation therapy, a heavy ion irradiation port at the RIKEN ring cyclotron facility was constructed. By using a 135 MeV/u carbon beam, the biophysical properties of the heavy ions were investigated, and a range modulator was designed to have uniform biological response in the spread Bragg peak. The physical and biological rationality of the spread Bragg peak were investigated. The dose, LET and biological effect of a monoenergetic heavy ion beam, the design of the range modulator, and the distributions of LET and biological dose for the spread Bragg peak are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed

  12. Calculation of ballistic focusing of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrelin, V.T.; Syresin, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The motion of ions passing from the homogeneous magnetic field into a conical one is treated analytically in paraxial approximation. Further ions transform into neutral particles at the recharging target which is placed in the conical area of field. The optimal conditions for maximum compression of the beams of neutral particles are investigated. An influence of the initial angular spread on the beam compression is analysed. The computation results together with the those of analytical treatment are presented

  13. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  14. Construction of ion beam pulse radiolysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, Norihisa; Katsumura, Yosuke; Domae, Masafumi; Ishigure, Kenkichi; Murakami, Takeshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24 MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3} and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals were observed. (author)

  15. SWIMS, Sigmund and Winterbon Multiple Scattering of Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyeberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function - SWIMS calculates the angular dispersion of ion beams that undergo small-angle, incoherent multiple scattering by gaseous or solid media. 2 - Method of solution - SWIMS uses the tabulated angular distributions of Sigmund and Winterbon for a Thomas-Fermi screened Coulomb potential. The fraction of the incident beam scattered into a cone defined by the polar angle is computed as a function of that angle for a reduced thickness over the rang of 0.01 to 10

  16. Intense ion beam research at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Faehl, R.J.; Gautier, D.C.; Greenly, J.B.; Henins, I.; Linton, T.W.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Waganaar, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Two new interdisciplinary programs are underway at Los Alamos involving the physics and technology of intense light ion beams. In contrast to high-power ICF applications, the LANL effort concentrates on the development of relatively low-voltage (50 to 800 kV) and long-pulsewidth (0.1 to 1 μs) beams. The first program involves the 1.2 MV, 300-kJ Anaconda generator which has been fitted with an extraction ion diode. Long pulsewidth ion beams have been accelerated, propagated, and extracted for a variety of magnetic field conditions. The primary application of this beam is the synthesis of novel materials. Initial experiments on the congruent evaporative deposition of metallic and ceramic thin films are reported. The second program involves the development of a 120-keV, 50-kA, 1-μs proton beam for the magnetic fusion program as an ion source for an intense diagnostic neutral beam. Ultra-bright, pulsed neutral beams will be required to successfully measure ion temperatures and thermalized alpha particle energy distributions in large, dense, ignited tokamaks such as ITER

  17. Intense ion beam research at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Faehl, R.J.; Gautier, D.C.; Greenly, J.B.; Henins, I.; Linton, T.W.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Waganaar, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Two new interdisciplinary programs are underway at Los Alamos involving the physics and technology of intense light ion beams. In contrast to high-power ICF applications, the LANL effort concentrates on the development of relatively low-voltage (50 to 800 kV) and long pulsewidth (0.1 to 1 μs) beams. The first program involves the 1.2 MV, 300-kJ Anaconda generator which has been fitted with an extraction ion diode. Long pulsewidth ion beams have been accelerated, propagated, and extracted for a variety of magnetic field conditions. The primary application of this beam is the synthesis of novel materials. Initial experiments on the congruent evaporative deposition of metallic and ceramic thin films are reported. The second program involves the development of a 120-keV, 50-kA, 1-μs proton beam for the magnetic fusion program as an ion source for an intense diagnostic neutral beam. Ultra-bright, pulsed neutral beams will be required to successfully measure ion temperatures and thermalized alpha particle distributions in large, dense, ignited tokamaks such as ITER

  18. Polarization of a stored beam by spin filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidemann, C.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 the PAX Collaboration has performed a successful spin-filtering test using protons at Tp = 49.3 MeV at the COSY ring, which confirms that spin filtering is a viable method to polarize a stored beam and that the present interpretation of the mechanism in terms of the proton-proton interaction is correct. The equipment and the procedures to produce stored polarized beams was successfully commissioned and are established. The outcome of the experiment is of utmost importance in view of the possible application of the method to polarize a beam of stored antiprotons. (author)

  19. National Centre for Radioactive Ion Beams (NCRIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    A dedicated National Centre for RIB (NCRIB) proposed discussed at several forums is presented. The production of (RIB) radioactive ion beams and applications of beams leading to competitive studies in nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, condensed matter, bio-science and radioactive isotope production etc. are mentioned

  20. Proceedings of workshop on physics with polarized beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikawa, N.; Masaike, A.; Nakanishi, T.; Yagi, K.; Yoshimura, Y.

    1985-02-01

    The small meeting on the construction of the 12 GeV polarized proton beam facility was held at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics on December 7, 1984. At this meeting, the present status of the construction of the polarized beam facility, the feasibility of some experiments by the polarized proton and the topical suggestions from the theoretical aspect were reported and discussed. Moreover, the advanced study on the polarized photon and electron sources, and the activities at the foreign institutes, such as Los Alamos National Laboratory, were also introduced. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Setup and proof of principle of SAPIS (Stored Atoms Polarized Ion Source), a novel source of polarized H-/D- ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerich, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was the setup and the proof-of-principle of a new type of negative polarized hydrogen or deuterium ion source, which is based on the charge-exchange reaction vectorH 0 +Cs 0 →vectorH - +Cs + , as for instance the Colliding-Beams-Source (CBS) at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY in Juelich. In contrast to the CBS, the use of a storage cell for the charge-exchange region promises an increase in H - current by at least an order of magnitude without considerable polarization losses. For these purposes, a new laboratory was equipped and both a polarized hydrogen/deuterium atomic beam source and an intense neutral cesium-beam source have been build-on. A Lambshift polarimeter, which allows the measurement of the nuclear polarization of the atomic as well as ionic beams, was completed with the construction of a new spin-filter. After commissioning and optimizing each of these sources, a storage cell was developed and installed in the charge-exchange region with a magnetic field. Additionally, components for the extraction, detection and analysis of the negative ion beam were installed. Following the decisive proof of principle, investigation of the properties of the storage cell, especially as to H recombination and depolarisation, was begun. Furthermore, a number of software programs was developed for the control and monitoring of different components of the sources as well as a universal measuring software for the complete installation, including the measurement and calculation of the beam polarization. At the same time, the remote control system of the Cologne source of polarized ions LASCO at the FN tandem accelerator was completely modernized. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of Beam Emittance and Beam Transport Line Optics on Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Andrew [Northern Illinois U.; Syphers, Michael [Fermilab

    2017-10-06

    Effects of beam emittance, energy spread, optical parameters and magnet misalignment on beam polarization through particle transport systems are investigated. Particular emphasis will be placed on the beam lines being used at Fermilab for the development of the muon beam for the Muon g-2 experiment, including comparisons with the natural polarization resulting from pion decay, and comments on the development of systematic correlations among phase space variables.

  3. A synchronous beam sweeper for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility at Argonne National Laboratory provides a wide range of accelerated heavy ions from the periodic table. Frequently, the beam delivery rate of 12 MHz is too fast for the type of experiment on line. Reaction by-products from a target bombardment may have a decay interval much longer than the dead time between beam bunches. To prevent data from being corrupted by incoming ions a beam sweeper was developed which synchronously eliminates selected beam bunches to suit experimental needs. As the SWEEPER is broad band (DC to 6 MHz) beam delivery rates can be instantaneously changed. Ion beam bunches are selectively kicked out by an electrostatic dipole electrode pulsed to 2 kVDC. The system has been used for almost three years with several hundred hours of operating time logged to date. Beam bunch delivery rates of 6 MHz down to 25 kHz have been provided. Since this is a non-resonant system any beam delivery rate from 6 MHz down to zero can be set. In addition, burst modes have been used where beam is supplied in 12 MHz bursts and then shut down for a period of time set by the user. 3 figs

  4. A pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Hermann; Stroebele, Julia; Schreiner, Thomas; Hirtl, Albert; Georg, Dietmar [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria) and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna (Austria) and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); PEG MedAustron, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria) and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a flexible pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy. Dose distributions were calculated using the newly developed pencil beam algorithm and validated using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Methods: The algorithm was based on the established theory of fluence weighted elemental pencil beam (PB) kernels. Using a new real-time splitting approach, a minimization routine selects the optimal shape for each sub-beam. Dose depositions along the beam path were determined using a look-up table (LUT). Data for LUT generation were derived from MC simulations in water using GATE 6.1. For materials other than water, dose depositions were calculated by the algorithm using water-equivalent depth scaling. Lateral beam spreading caused by multiple scattering has been accounted for by implementing a non-local scattering formula developed by Gottschalk. A new nuclear correction was modelled using a Voigt function and implemented by a LUT approach. Validation simulations have been performed using a phantom filled with homogeneous materials or heterogeneous slabs of up to 3 cm. The beams were incident perpendicular to the phantoms surface with initial particle energies ranging from 50 to 250 MeV/A with a total number of 10{sup 7} ions per beam. For comparison a special evaluation software was developed calculating the gamma indices for dose distributions. Results: In homogeneous phantoms, maximum range deviations between PB and MC of less than 1.1% and differences in the width of the distal energy falloff of the Bragg-Peak from 80% to 20% of less than 0.1 mm were found. Heterogeneous phantoms using layered slabs satisfied a {gamma}-index criterion of 2%/2mm of the local value except for some single voxels. For more complex phantoms using laterally arranged bone-air slabs, the {gamma}-index criterion was exceeded in some areas giving a maximum {gamma}-index of 1.75 and 4.9% of the voxels showed {gamma}-index values larger than one. The calculation precision of the

  5. High Precision Beam Diagnostics for Ion Thrusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reijen, B.; Koch, N.; Lazurenko, A.; Weis, S.; Schirra, M.; Genovese, A.; Haderspeck, J.; Gill, E.K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Thales diagnostic equipment for ion beam characterization consists of a gridded and single orifice retarding potential analyzer (RPA) and an energy selective mass spectrometer (ESMS). During the development phase of these sensors considerable effort was put into the removal of ion optical

  6. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; ET AL.

    2005-02-28

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linac. The highly successful development of an EBIS at BNL now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based pre-injectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The new RFQ and Linac that are used to accelerate beams from the EBIS to an energy sufficient for injection into the Booster are both very similar to existing devices already in operation at other facilities. Injection into the Booster will occur at the same location as the existing injection from the Tandem.

  7. Ion beam source construction and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torab, S.I.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to improve the performance of a new shape cold cathode Penning ion source to be suitable for some applications. In this work, many trials have been made to reach the optimum dimensions of the new shape of cold Molybdenum cathode Penning ion source with radial extraction. The high output ion beam can be extracted in a direction transverse to the discharge region. The new shape cold cathode Penning ion source consists of Copper cylindrical hollow anode of 40 mm length, 12 mm diameter and has two similar cone ends of 15 mm length, 22 mm upper cone diameter and 12 mm bottom cone diameter. The two movable Molybdenum cathodes are fixed in Perspex insulator and placed symmetrically at two ends of the anode. The Copper emission disc of 2 mm thickness and has central aperture of different diameters is placed at the middle of the anode for ion beam exit. The inner surface of the emission disc is isolated from the anode by Perspex insulator except an area of diameter 5 mm to confine the electrical discharge in this area. A movable Faraday cup is placed at different distances from the emission electrode aperture and used to collect the output ion beam from the ion source. The working gases are admitted to the ion source through a hole in the anode via a needle valve which placed between the gas cylinder and the ion source. The optimum anode- cathode distance, the uncovered area diameter of the emission disc, the central aperture diameter of the emission electrode, the distance between emission electrode and Faraday cup have been determined using Argon gas. The optimum distances of the ion source were found to be equal to 6 mm, 5 mm, 2.5 mm, and 3 cm respectively where stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current at low discharge current can be obtained. The discharge characteristics, ion beam characteristics, and the efficiency of the ion source have been measured at different operating conditions and different gas pressures using

  8. Experimental studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, D.L.; Sree Krishna Murty, G.; Chandrasekhar Rao, M.V.S.

    1991-01-01

    The sources of information presented are essentially taken from the papers reported at several international seminars and those appeared in the Journal of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Production and usage of radioactive ion beams (RIB) in research have received the attention of scientists all over the world during the past six years. The first radioactive ion beams ( 19 Ne) were produced at Bevalac for the purpose of medical research using a primary beam of energy 800 MeV/a.m.u. (author). 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Barium ion beam. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, N.; Dandl, R.; Rynn, N.; Wickham, M.

    1985-01-01

    The barium ion beam Zeeman diagnostic is an in situ nonperturbing diagnostic designed to measure both the plasma electric and magnetic fields in devices such as STM and EBT. The diagnostic satisfies the requirements of high precision, spatial resolution and nonperturbation of the plasma. The technique uses resonance absorption of light from a single moded laser in a beam of energetic barium ions to measure the Zeeman effect in the absorption spectrum (to measure changes in the magnetic field) and to observe the changes in beam velocity by the Doppler shift of the absorption lines

  10. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation

  11. Cellular radiobiology of heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Ngo, F.Q.H.; Roots, R.J.; Yang, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas of this research program: relative biological effectiveness and oxygen enhancement ratio of silicon ion beams; heavy ion effects on the cell cycle; the potentiation effect (2 doses of high LET heavy-ion radiations separated by 2 to 3 hours); potentially lethal damage in actively growing cells and plateau growth cells; radiation induced macromolecular lesions and cellular radiation chemistry; lethal effects of dual radiation; and the development of a biophysical repair/misrepair model

  12. Fast ion beam-laser interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Young, L.; Engstroem, L.; Hardis, J.E.; Somerville, L.P.; Ray, W.J.; Kurtz, C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors are using collinear laser excitation of fast ion beams to study a number of atomic structure problems. The problems include the determination of fine and hyperfine structure in light positive and negative ions, plus measurements of absolute wavelengths of light from two-electron ions. In addition the authors intend to use a similar experimental arrangement to study excitation and decay of high Rydberg states first in the absence of fields and then in crossed electric and magnetic fields

  13. Construction and testing of a source for the production of polarized heavy ions at the Heidelberg MP tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    At the Heidelberg MP tandem a source for the production of nuclear-spin polarized lithium and sodium ions was constructed. The ion source works according to the atomic beam principle. By a furnace a thermal atomic beam is produced the electron shell of which is polarized in a quadrupole magnet. This beam passes then three high frequency passages in which by exchange of suitable hyperfine structure levels the nuclear spin is partly polarized. The atoms are ionized on a hot tungsten surface and transcharged in cesium vapour to negative ions. The alignment of the spin in the desired spatial direction is rendered possible by means of a Wien filter rotable around the beam axis. For the beam transport until the accelerator exclusively electrostatic lenses and deviation elements are used. For the checking of the function modus of the different source parts the polarization of the atomic beam and low energy ion beams was studied. The polarization of the accelerated sup(7->)Li beam was measured by the reaction 1 H(sup(7->)Li, α) 4 He at Esub(Li) = 44 MeV. The tensor polarization was determined to Psub(zz) = 0.35 +- 0.01. The polarization of odd stages was determined to >= 80% of the theoretically reachable values. For a tensor polarized 23 Na 9+ beam accelerated to 110 MeV could be shown that during the acceleration 50% of the polarization remains conserved. With this at the first time a powerful source for the production of polarized Na beams of an accelerator is available which permits nuclear physics studies inthe energy range Esub(Na) [de

  14. Ion beam heating of thin silicon membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, P.E.; Hart, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    For silicon membranes irradiated by an ion beam in a vacuum environment, such as the masks used for ion beam lithography and the membranes used for thin film self-annealing, the heat transfer modes are radiation and limited conduction through the thin membrane. The radiation component depends on the total hemispherical emissivity which varies with the thickness and temperature of the membrane. A semiempirical correlation for the absorption coefficient of high resistivity silicon was derived and the variation of the total emissivity with temperature was computed for membranes with thicknesses between 0.1 and 10 μm. Based on this result, the temperatures reached during exposure to ion beams of varying intensities were computed. A proper modeling of the emissivity is shown to be important for beam heating of thin silicon membranes. (orig.)

  15. Few-body experiments with polarized beams and polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is presented concerning recent polarization experiments in the elastic p-d, p- 3 He, and p- 4 He systems. Mention is made of selected neutron experiments. The nominal energy range is 10 to 1000 MeV. Recent results and interpretations of the p-d system near 10 MeV are discussed. New experiments on the energy dependence of back angle p-d tensor polarization are discussed with respect to resolution of discrepancies and difficulty of theoretical interpretation. Progress is noted concerning multiple scattering interpretation of forward p-d deuteron polarization. Some new results are presented concerning the p- 3 He system and higher energy p- 4 He polarization experiments. 52 references

  16. Design and Beam Dynamics Studies of a Multi-Ion Linac Injector for the JLEIC Ion Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Plastun, A. S.; Mustapha, B.; Conway, Z. A.

    2016-01-01

    The electron-ion collider (JLEIC) being proposed at JLab requires a new ion accelerator complex which includes a linac capable of delivering any ion beam from hydrogen to lead to the booster. We are currently developing a linac which consists of several ion sources, a normal conducting (NC) front end, up to 5 MeV/u, and a SC section for energies > 5 MeV/u. This design work is focused on the beam dynamics and electrodynamics studies performed to design efficient and cost-effective accelerating structures for both the NC and SC sections of the linac. Currently, we are considering two separate RFQs for the heavy-ion and light-ion beams including polarized beams, and different types of NC accelerating structures downstream of the RFQ. Quarter-wave and half-wave resonators can be effectively used in the SC section.

  17. Light ion beam transport research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshelwood, D.D.; Boller, J.R.; Cooperstein, G.

    1996-01-01

    Transport of light ion beams through low-pressure background gas is under investigation at NRL in support of the light-ion ICF program at Sandia National Laboratories. Scaling experiments and the field solver/orbit code ATHETA have been used to design and construct a focusing, extraction applied-B diode for transport experiments. An active anode source has been developed to provide a high proton fraction in the ion beam and a fast ion turn-on time. A very sensitive Zeeman diagnostic is being developed to determine the net current distribution in the beam/transport system. Both analytical and numerical techniques using several codes are being applied to transport modeling, leading to the capability of full system studies. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 10 refs

  18. Light ion beam transport research at NRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinshelwood, D D; Boller, J R; Cooperstein, G [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.; and others

    1997-12-31

    Transport of light ion beams through low-pressure background gas is under investigation at NRL in support of the light-ion ICF program at Sandia National Laboratories. Scaling experiments and the field solver/orbit code ATHETA have been used to design and construct a focusing, extraction applied-B diode for transport experiments. An active anode source has been developed to provide a high proton fraction in the ion beam and a fast ion turn-on time. A very sensitive Zeeman diagnostic is being developed to determine the net current distribution in the beam/transport system. Both analytical and numerical techniques using several codes are being applied to transport modeling, leading to the capability of full system studies. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 10 refs.

  19. Non-uniform 3He polarization formed by multiple collisions of a fast 3He+ ion with polarized Rb vapor in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Y.; Yonehara, K.; Yamagata, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution of a polarization in 3 He beam expected from a novel polarized 3 He ion source based on electron pumping, i.e., multiple electron capture and stripping collisions of an incident fast 3 He + ion with a polarized Rb vapor in a strong axial magnetic field. For this purpose, a Monte Carlo simulation was carried out for 19 keV 3 He + ions with varying Rb vapor thickness, magnetic field, and beam emittance. The calculated results showed a distribution of the 3 He polarization that we call a 'polarization hole', which has a low polarization area around the beam axis. The parameters characterizing the polarization hole, i.e., the polarization and radius of the hole, were found to depend on the Rb vapor thickness, the magnetic field, the beam size, and the angular divergence of the initial beam. These parameters were successfully reproduced with analytical functions deduced from a probability density function prescription. This provides a powerful tool to treat complex phenomena of multiple collisions in strong magnetic fields without performing time-consuming Monte Carlo calculations

  20. Study of the exotic Θ+ with polarized photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiang

    2004-01-01

    We carry out an analysis of the pentaquark Θ + photoproduction with polarized photon beams. Kinematical and dynamical aspects are examined for the purpose of determining Θ + 's spin and parity. It shows that the polarized photon beam asymmetry in association with certain dynamical properties of the production mechanism would provide further information on its quantum numbers. Facilities at SPring-8, JLab, ELSA, and ESRF will have access to them

  1. Polarizing a stored proton beam by spin-flip?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oellers, Dieter Gerd Christian

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis discusses the extraction of the electron-proton spin-flip cross-section. The experimental setup, the data analysis and the results are pictured in detail. The proton is described by a QCD-based parton model. In leading twist three functions are needed. The quark distribution, the helicity distribution and the transversity distribution. While the first two are well-known, the transversity distribution is largely unknown. A self-sufficient measurement of the transversity is possible in double polarized proton-antiproton scattering. This rises the need of a polarized antiproton beam. So far spin filtering is the only tested method to produce a polarized proton beam, which may be capable to hold also for antiprotons. In-situ polarization build-up of a stored beam either by selective removal or by spin-flip of a spin-(1)/(2) beam is mathematically described. A high spin-flip cross-section would create an effective method to produce a polarized antiproton beam by polarized positrons. Prompted by conflicting calculations, a measurement of the spin-flip cross-section in low-energy electron-proton scattering was carried out. This experiment uses the electron beam of the electron cooler at COSY as an electron target. The depolarization of the stored proton beam is detected. An overview of the experiment is followed by detailed descriptions of the cycle setup, of the electron target and the ANKE silicon tracking telescopes acting as a beam polarimeter. Elastic protondeuteron scattering is the analyzing reaction. The event selection is depicted and the beam polarization is calculated. Upper limits of the two electron-proton spin-flip cross-sections σ parallel and σ perpendicular to are deduced using the likelihood method. (orig.)

  2. Polarizing a stored proton beam by spin-flip?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oellers, Dieter Gerd Christian

    2010-04-15

    The present thesis discusses the extraction of the electron-proton spin-flip cross-section. The experimental setup, the data analysis and the results are pictured in detail. The proton is described by a QCD-based parton model. In leading twist three functions are needed. The quark distribution, the helicity distribution and the transversity distribution. While the first two are well-known, the transversity distribution is largely unknown. A self-sufficient measurement of the transversity is possible in double polarized proton-antiproton scattering. This rises the need of a polarized antiproton beam. So far spin filtering is the only tested method to produce a polarized proton beam, which may be capable to hold also for antiprotons. In-situ polarization build-up of a stored beam either by selective removal or by spin-flip of a spin-(1)/(2) beam is mathematically described. A high spin-flip cross-section would create an effective method to produce a polarized antiproton beam by polarized positrons. Prompted by conflicting calculations, a measurement of the spin-flip cross-section in low-energy electron-proton scattering was carried out. This experiment uses the electron beam of the electron cooler at COSY as an electron target. The depolarization of the stored proton beam is detected. An overview of the experiment is followed by detailed descriptions of the cycle setup, of the electron target and the ANKE silicon tracking telescopes acting as a beam polarimeter. Elastic protondeuteron scattering is the analyzing reaction. The event selection is depicted and the beam polarization is calculated. Upper limits of the two electron-proton spin-flip cross-sections {sigma} {sub parallel} and {sigma} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} are deduced using the likelihood method. (orig.)

  3. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Gourab; Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren; Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10 12 cm −3 is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm 2 as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10 11 cm −3 has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated

  4. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savajols, H.

    2002-01-01

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  5. Proposed LLNL electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.E.; Egan, P.O.; Proctor, I.; Levine, M.A.; Hansen, L.; Kajiyama, Y.; Wolgast, R.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of energetic electrons with highly charged ions is of great importance to several research fields such as astrophysics, laser fusion and magnetic fusion. In spite of this importance there are almost no measurements of electron interaction cross sections for ions more than a few times ionized. To address this problem an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is being developed at LLNL. The device is essentially an EBIS except that it is not intended as a source of extracted ions. Instead the (variable energy) electron beam interacting with the confined ions will be used to obtain measurements of ionization cross sections, dielectronic recombination cross sections, radiative recombination cross sections, energy levels and oscillator strengths. Charge-exchange recombinaion cross sections with neutral gasses could also be measured. The goal is to produce and study elements in many different charge states up to He-like xenon and Ne-like uranium. 5 refs., 2 figs

  6. Ion acceleration in modulated electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonch-Osmolovskij, A.G.; Dolya, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    A method of ion acceleration in modulated electron beams is considered. Electron density and energy of their rotational motion are relatively low. However the effective ion-accelerating field is not less than 10 MeV/m. The electron and ion numbers in an individual bunch are also relatively small, although the number of produced bunches per time unit is great. Some aspects of realization of the method are considered. Possible parameters of the accelerator are given. At 50 keV electron energy and 1 kA beam current a modulation is realized at a wave length of 30 cm. The ion-accelerating field is 12 MeV/m. The bunch number is 2x10 3 in one pulse at a gun pulse duration of 2 μs. With a pulse repetition frequency of 10 2 Hz the number of accelerated ions can reach 10 13 -10 14 per second

  7. Nitridation of vanadium by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Masato; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Kinomura, Atsushi; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1994-01-01

    The nitridation of vanadium by ion beam irradiation is studied by the ion implantation method and the dynamic mixing method. The nitrogen ion implantation was carried out into deposited V(110) films. Using both methods, three phases are formed, i.e. α-V, β-V 2 N, and δ-VN. Which phases are formed is related to the implantation dose or the arrival ratio. The orientation of the VN films produced by the dynamic ion beam mixing method is (100) and that of the VN films produced by the ion implantation method is (111). The nitridation of vanadium is also discussed in comparison with that of titanium and chromium. ((orig.))

  8. Direct seawater desalination by ion concentration polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Ko, Sung Hee; Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Han, Jongyoon

    2010-04-01

    A shortage of fresh water is one of the acute challenges facing the world today. An energy-efficient approach to converting sea water into fresh water could be of substantial benefit, but current desalination methods require high power consumption and operating costs or large-scale infrastructures, which make them difficult to implement in resource-limited settings or in disaster scenarios. Here, we report a process for converting sea water (salinity ~500 mM or ~30,000 mg l-1) to fresh water (salinity water is divided into desalted and concentrated streams by ion concentration polarization, a phenomenon that occurs when an ion current is passed through ion-selective membranes. During operation, both salts and larger particles (cells, viruses and microorganisms) are pushed away from the membrane (a nanochannel or nanoporous membrane), which significantly reduces the possibility of membrane fouling and salt accumulation, thus avoiding two problems that plague other membrane filtration methods. To implement this approach, a simple microfluidic device was fabricated and shown to be capable of continuous desalination of sea water (~99% salt rejection at 50% recovery rate) at a power consumption of less than 3.5 Wh l-1, which is comparable to current state-of-the-art systems. Rather than competing with larger desalination plants, the method could be used to make small- or medium-scale systems, with the possibility of battery-powered operation.

  9. Characterization of ion beam induced nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, J.; Satpati, B.; Umananda, M.; Kabiraj, D.; Som, T.; Dev, B.N.; Akimoto, K.; Ito, K.; Emoto, T.; Satyam, P.V.

    2006-01-01

    Tailoring of nanostructures with energetic ion beams has become an active area of research leading to the fundamental understanding of ion-solid interactions at nanoscale regime and with possible applications in the near future. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and asymmetric X-ray Bragg-rocking curve experimental methods have been used to characterize ion-induced effects in nanostructures. The possibility of surface and sub-surface/interface alloying at nano-scale regime, ion-beam induced embedding, crater formation, sputtering yield variations for systems with isolated nanoislands, semi-continuous and continuous films of noble metals (Au, Ag) deposited on single crystalline silicon will be reviewed. MeV-ion induced changes in specified Au-nanoislands on silicon substrate are tracked as a function of ion fluence using ex situ TEM. Strain induced in the bulk silicon substrate surface due to 1.5 MeV Au 2+ and C 2+ ion beam irradiation is determined by using HRTEM and asymmetric Bragg X-ray rocking curve methods. Preliminary results on 1.5 MeV Au 2+ ion-induced effects in nanoislands of Co deposited on silicon substrate will be discussed

  10. Reaching for highest ion beam intensities through laser ion acceleration and beam compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Blazevic, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Weih, Simon [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Jahn, Diana; Ding, Johannes; Roth, Markus [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Tom [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden Rossendorf (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Laser ion acceleration provides access to ion sources with unique properties. To use these capabilities the LIGHT collaboration (Laser Ion Generation Handling and Transport) was founded. The aim of this collaboration is the beam transport and manipulation of laser accelerated ions with conventional accelerator structures. Therefor a dedicated beam line has been build up at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung. With this beam line the manipulation of the transversal and also the longitudinal beam parameters has been achieved. It has been shown that laser generated ion beams can be transported over more than 6 meters and pulses shorter than 300 ps can be generated at this distance. This Talk will give an overview over the recent developments and plans of the LIGHT collaboration.

  11. Plasma opening switch for long-pulse intense ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.A.; Mason, R.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Greenly, J.B.; Rej, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    A Plasma Opening Switch (POS) is being developed at Los Alamos, as part of an intense ion beam experiment with special application to materials processing. The switch must conduct up to 100 kA for 600 ns, and open quickly to avoid premature gap closure in the ion beam diode load. Power multiplication is not a necessity, but prepulse suppression is. A positive central polarity is desirable, since with it an ion beam can be conveniently launched beyond the switch from the central anode toward a negatively charged target. Thus, otherwise by virtue of traditional scaling rules, a POS was designed with a 1.25 cm radius inner anode, and a 4.75 cm radius outer cathode. This has been constructed, and subjected to circuit, and simulational analysis. The computations are being performed with the 2D ANTHEM implicit code. Preliminary results show a marked difference in switching dynamics, when the central positive polarity is used in place of the more conventional opposite choice. Opening goes by the fast development of a central anode magnetic layer, rather than by the more conventional slow evolution of a cathode gap. With the central anode, higher fill densities are needed to achieve desired conduction times. This has suggested switch design improvements, which are discussed

  12. Plasma opening switch for long-pulse intense ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.A.; Mason, R.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Greenly, J.B.; Rej, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A Plasma Opening Switch (POS) is being developed at Los Alamos, as part of an intense ion beam experiment with special application to materials processing. The switch must conduct up to 100 kA for 400 ns, and open quicky to avoid premature gap closure in the ion beam diode load. Power multiplication is not a necessity, but prepulse suppression is. A positive central polarity is desirable, since with it an ion beam can be conveniently launched beyond the switch from the central anode toward a negatively charged target. Using traditional scaling rules, a POS was designed with a 1.25 cm radius inner anode, and a 5.0 cm radius outer cathode. This has been constructed, and subjected to circuit, and simulational analysis. The computations are being performed with the 2D ANTHEM implicit code. Preliminary results show a marked difference in switching dynamics, when the central positive polarity is used in place of the more conventional opposite choice. Opening is achieved by the fast development of a central anode magnetic layer, rather than by the more conventional slow evolution of a cathode gap. With the central anode, higher fill densities are needed to achieve desired conduction times. This has suggested switch design improvements, which are discussed

  13. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Watson, R. L.; Horvat, V.; Zaharakis, K. E.; Peng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  14. Charge-transfer collisions for polarized ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1983-06-01

    Charge-transfer processes relevant to polarized ion sources are discussed and results are summarized. The primary atom discussed is hydrogen, with particulr emphasis on H - formation. Heavier negative ions are briefly discussed

  15. Mutation induction by ion beams in arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    An investigation was made on characteristics of ion beams for the biological effects and the induction of mutation using Arabidopsis plant as a model plant for the molecular genetics. Here, the characteristics of mutation at the molecular level as well as new mutants induced by ion beams were described. The ast and sep1 were obtained from the offspring of 1488 carbon ion-irradiated seeds respectively. The uvi1-uvi4 mutants were also induced from 1280 M 1 lines. Thus, ion beams can induce not only known mutants such as tt, gl and hy but also novel mutants with high frequency. Even in the tt phenotype, two new mutant loci other than known loci were found. In chrysanthemum, several kinds of single, complex or stripped flower-color mutants that have been never induced by γirradiation, indicating that ion beams could produce a variety of mutants with the same phenotype. In conclusion, ion beams for the mutation induction are characterized by 1) to induce mutants with high frequency, 2) to show broad mutation spectrum and 3) to produce novel mutants. For these reasons, chemical mutagens such as EMS and low LET ionizing radiation such as X-rays and γ-rays will predominantly induce many but small modifications or DNA damages on the DNA strands. As the result, several point mutations will be produced on the genome. On the contrary, ion beams as a high LET ionizing radiation will not cause so many but large and irreparable DNA damage locally, resulting in production of limited number of null mutation. (M.N.)

  16. Mutation induction by ion beams in arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1999-07-01

    An investigation was made on characteristics of ion beams for the biological effects and the induction of mutation using Arabidopsis plant as a model plant for the molecular genetics. Here, the characteristics of mutation at the molecular level as well as new mutants induced by ion beams were described. The ast and sep1 were obtained from the offspring of 1488 carbon ion-irradiated seeds respectively. The uvi1-uvi4 mutants were also induced from 1280 M{sub 1} lines. Thus, ion beams can induce not only known mutants such as tt, gl and hy but also novel mutants with high frequency. Even in the tt phenotype, two new mutant loci other than known loci were found. In chrysanthemum, several kinds of single, complex or stripped flower-color mutants that have been never induced by {gamma}irradiation, indicating that ion beams could produce a variety of mutants with the same phenotype. In conclusion, ion beams for the mutation induction are characterized by 1) to induce mutants with high frequency, 2) to show broad mutation spectrum and 3) to produce novel mutants. For these reasons, chemical mutagens such as EMS and low LET ionizing radiation such as X-rays and {gamma}-rays will predominantly induce many but small modifications or DNA damages on the DNA strands. As the result, several point mutations will be produced on the genome. On the contrary, ion beams as a high LET ionizing radiation will not cause so many but large and irreparable DNA damage locally, resulting in production of limited number of null mutation. (M.N.)

  17. Generation and propagation of radially polarized beams in optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Siddharth; Kristensen, P; Yan, M F

    2009-01-01

    Beams with polarization singularities have attracted immense recent attention in a wide array of scientific and technological disciplines. We demonstrate a class of optical fibers in which these beams can be generated and propagated over long lengths with unprecedented stability, even...

  18. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; GRANDINETTI, R.; HSEUH, H.; JAVIDFAR, A.; KPONOU, A.; LAMBIASE, R.; LESSARD, E.; LOCKEY, R.; LODESTRO, V.; MAPES, M.; MIRABELLA, D.; NEHRING, T.; OERTER, B.; PENDZICK, A.; PIKIN, A.; RAPARIA, D.; RITTER, J.; ROSER, T.; RUSSO, T.; SNYDSTRUP, L.; WILINSKI, M.; ZALTSMAN, A.; ZHANG, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linear accelerator (Linac). The highly successful development of an EBIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based preinjectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The proposed pre-injector system would also provide for a major enhancement in capability for the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), which utilizes heavy-ion beams from the RHIC complex. EBIS would allow for the acceleration of all important ion species for the NASA radiobiology program, such as, helium, argon, and neon which are unavailable with the present Tandem injector. In addition, the new system would allow for very rapid switching of ion species for

  19. Development and application of ion beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    At GSI - Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt/Germany the HITRAP project is in the commissioning phase. This world-wide unique facility consists of a linear decelerator for heavy, highly charged ions including atomic physics precision experiments. During commissioning of the cavities, transverse emittances were measured using the single-shot pepperpot method as well as the multi-gradient method. The extraction emittance of the experimental storage ring (ESR) was determined. Furthermore, the phase space distribution of an decelerated beam at an intermediate energy of 500keV/u was measured behind the IH-structure. New algorithms have been integrated into the analysis of digital images. The longitudinal bunch structure measurements of the ion beam at the entry point into the decelerator and the operation of the Double-drift Buncher is shown. The design, development and the first commissioning of a new single-shot pepperpot emittance meter for very low beam currents and beam energies in the order of some hundred nA is described, making it possible to measure the beam behind the deceleration cavities. In addition, transverse beam dynamics calculations were performed, which supported the hands-on commissioning of the accelerator. It is described how the entire beam line from the ESR to the radio-frequency quadrupole can be optimized using the new routine for transverse effects of the bunching and deceleration, which was successfully integrated into the software COSY Infinity. (orig.)

  20. Ion beams in silicon processing and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chason, E.; Picraux, S.T.; Poate, J.M.; Borland, J.O.; Current, M.I.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Holland, O.W.; Law, M.E.; Magee, C.W.; Mayer, J.W.; Melngailis, J.; Tasch, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    General trends in integrated circuit technology toward smaller device dimensions, lower thermal budgets, and simplified processing steps present severe physical and engineering challenges to ion implantation. These challenges, together with the need for physically based models at exceedingly small dimensions, are leading to a new level of understanding of fundamental defect science in Si. In this article, we review the current status and future trends in ion implantation of Si at low and high energies with particular emphasis on areas where recent advances have been made and where further understanding is needed. Particularly interesting are the emerging approaches to defect and dopant distribution modeling, transient enhanced diffusion, high energy implantation and defect accumulation, and metal impurity gettering. Developments in the use of ion beams for analysis indicate much progress has been made in one-dimensional analysis, but that severe challenges for two-dimensional characterization remain. The breadth of ion beams in the semiconductor industry is illustrated by the successful use of focused beams for machining and repair, and the development of ion-based lithographic systems. This suite of ion beam processing, modeling, and analysis techniques will be explored both from the perspective of the emerging science issues and from the technological challenges. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. The quest for crystalline ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, U; Bussmann, M; Habs, D

    2002-01-01

    The phase transition of an ion beam into its crystalline state has long been expected to dramatically influence beam dynamics beyond the limitations of standard accelerator physics. Yet, although considerable improvement in beam cooling techniques has been made, strong heating mechanisms inherent to existing high-energy storage rings have prohibited the formation of the crystalline state in these machines up to now. Only recently, laser cooling of low-energy beams in the table-top rf quadrupole storage ring PAaul Laser cooLing Acceleration System (PALLAS) has lead to the experimental realization of crystalline beams. In this article, the quest for crystalline beams as well as their unique properties as experienced in PALLAS will be reviewed.

  2. Filamentation of a converging heavy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Buchanan, H.L.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    A major concern in the use of heavy ion beams as igniters in pellet fusion systems is the vulnerability of the beam to the transverse flamentation instability. The undesirable consequence of this mode is the transverse heating of the beam to the extent that convergence on the pellet becomes impossible. This work considers the case of a beam injected into a gas filled reactor vessel, where finite pulse length and propagation distance play an important role in limiting growth. Two geometries are analyzed: a nonconverging case where the radius at injection is nearly equal to the desired radius at the pellet, and a converging case in which the injection radius is large and the beam is pre-focused to converge at the target. It is found that a cold beam will be severely disrupted if the product of the magnetic plasma frequency and the propagation distance is much larger than unity

  3. Radially polarized conical beam from an embedded etched fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaidji, Djamel; Spajer, Michel; Marthouret, Nadège; Grosjean, Thierry

    2009-06-15

    We propose a method for producing a conical beam based on the lateral refraction of the TM(01) mode from a two-mode fiber after chemical etching of the cladding, and for controlling its radial polarization. The whole power of the guided mode is transferred to the refracted beam with low diffraction. Polarization control by a series of azimuthal detectors and a stress controller affords the transmission of a stabilized radial polarization through an optical fiber. A solid component usable for many applications has been obtained.

  4. Ion beam modification of buckminsterfullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; McCulloch, D.G.; Leong, W.H.; Hoffman, A.; Kalish, R.

    1995-01-01

    The response of thin films of buckminsterfullerene (C 60 ) to energetic xenon ion impact is investigated. The diagnostics employed include Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies, Cross-Sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. By combining the information obtained from these diagnostics with that from the dependence of the conductivity on ion dose, it is concluded that each C 60 molecule completely disintegrates when hit by an energetic ion. The cross-section for the destruction of about 7 x 10 -13 cm 2 for irradiation with 620 keV Xe ions. The disintegration occurs when C atoms are knocked-out of the molecule either directly by the impinging ion or by an energetic knock-on C atom with the damage cascade. This process is quite different from the Coulomb Explosion mechanism previously proposed in the literature. For very low ions doses ( 11 Xe/cm 2 ) most of the C 60 molecules remain intact; however this dose is sufficient to completely disrupt the ordering of the C 60 molecules in the van der Waals bonded C 60 solid. Disruption of the lattice ordering at such low doses is considered to be attributable to the weakness of the van der Waals forces which bind the C 60 clusters together into the molecular solid. 13 refs., 7 figs

  5. Ion beam processing of bio-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ektessabi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Thin films of bio-inert (TiO 2+α , Al 2 O 3+α ) and bio-active (compounds of calcium and phosphorus oxides, hydroxy-apatite) were deposited on the most commonly used implant materials such as titanium and stainless steel, using a dual-ion-beam deposition system. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was carried out for quantitative measurement of the interfacial atomic mixing and the composition of the elements. The experimental results show that by controlling the ion beam energy and current, thin films with very good mechanical properties are obtained as a result of the ion beam mixing within the film and at the interface of the film and substrate. (orig.)

  6. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  7. Leptoquark production with polarized γe beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, T.M.; Mustafaev, Kh.A.

    1991-01-01

    Possibilities of single production of the scalar leptoquark and also of its supersymmetric partner in polarized γe beams are studied in E 6 superstring theories. Expressions for the differential and total cross sections are obtained and analyzed. It is shown that the scalar leptoquark of mass 300 GeV can be detected even for a very small interaction constant γ 2 /4π∼10 -2 a and its supersymmetric partner can be detected for γ 2 /4π∼10 -2 a. The spin asymmetry due to the photon-beam polarization and the effect of this polarization on both the differential and the total cross sections are studied in detail. It is shown that study of the spin asymmetry and the effect of the photon-beam polarization can be used to extract information about the leptoquark masses

  8. Effect of multi-ions on electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves with a hot plasma around the polar cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Soniya; Varma, P; Tiwari, M S

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instabilities with an isotropic ion beam and general loss-cone distribution of hot core plasmas are discussed. The growth rate of the wave, perpendicular heating of ions, parallel resonant energy and marginal instability of the EMIC waves in homogeneous plasmas are obtained using the dispersion relation for hot plasmas consisting of H + , He + ,O + ions and electrons. The wave is assumed to propagate parallel to the static magnetic field. The whole plasma is considered to consist of resonant and non-resonant particles permeated by the isotropic ion beam. It is assumed that the resonant particles and the ion beam participate in energy exchange with the wave, whereas the non-resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave. We determined the variation in energies and growth rate in hot plasmas by the energy conservation method with a general loss-cone distribution function. We also discuss the effect of positive and negative ion beam velocity on the growth rate of the wave. The thermal anisotropy of the ions of the core plasma acts as a source of free energy for EMIC waves and enhances the growth rate. Heating of ions perpendicular to the magnetic field is discussed along with EMIC wave emission in the polar cusp region.

  9. Charge neutralization of small ion beam clumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, D R [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olson, C L; Hanson, D L [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The mega-ampere currents associated with light ion fusion (LIF) require excellent charge neutralization to prevent divergence growth. As the size and space-charge potential of a beam clump or `beamlet` become small (submillimeter size and kilovolt potentials), the neutralization becomes increasingly difficult. Linear theory predicts that plasma electrons cannot neutralize potentials < {phi}{sub crit} = (1/2)m{sub e}v{sub i}{sup 2}/e, where m{sub e} is the electron mass and v{sub i} is the ion beam velocity. A non-uniform beam would, therefore, have regions with potentials sufficient to add divergence to beam clumps. The neutralization of small beamlets produced on the SABLE accelerator and in numerical simulation has supported the theory, showing a plateau in divergence growths as the potential in the beamlet exceeds {phi}{sub crit}. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 refs.

  10. A Study on the Ion Beam Extraction using Duo-PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sok; Lee, Chan young; Lee, Jae Sang [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), we have started ion beam service in the new beam utilization building since March this year. For various ion beam irradiation services, we are developed implanters such as metal (150keV/1mA), gaseous (200keV/5mA) and high current ion beam facility (20keV/150mA). One of the new one is a vertical type ion beam facility without acceleration tube (60keV/20mA) which is easy to install the sample. After the installation is complete, it is where you are studying the optimal ion beam extraction process. Detailed experimental results will be presented. Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility without acceleration tube of 60keV 20mA class was installed. We successfully extracted 60keV 20mA using Duo- PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility. Use the BPM and Faraday-cup, is being studied the optimum conditions of ion beam extraction.

  11. Spatially-Resolved Ion Trajectory Measurements During Cl2 Reactive Ion Beam Etching and Ar Ion Beam Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vawter, G. Allen; Woodworth, Joseph R.; Zubrzycki, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    The angle of ion incidence at the etched wafer location during RIBE and IBE using Cl 2 , Ar and O 2 ion beams has been characterized using an ion energy and angle analyzer. Effects of beam current and accelerator grid bias on beam divergence and the spatial uniformity of the spread of incident angles are measured. It is observed that increased total beam current can lead to reduced current density at the sample stage due to enhanced beam divergence at high currents. Results are related to preferred etch system design for uniform high-aspect-ratio etching across semiconductor wafers

  12. A neutron beam polarizer for study of parity violation in neutron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttilae, S.I.; Bowman, J.D.; Delheij, P.P.; Frankle, C.M.; Haase, D.G.; Postma, H.; Seestrom, S.J.; Yen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamically-polarized proton target operating at 5 Tesla and 1 K has been built to polarize an epithermal neutron beam for studies of parity violation in compound-nuclear resonances. Nearly 0.9 proton polarization was obtained in an electron-beam irradiated ammonia target. This was used to produce a neutron beam polarization of 0.7 at epithermal energies. The combination of the polarized proton target and the LANSCE spallation neutron source produces the most intense pulsed polarized epithermal neutron beam in the world. The neutron-beam polarizer is described and methods to determine neutron beam polarization are presented. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Calculation of ion storage in electron beams with account of ion-ion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perel'shtejn, Eh.A.; Shirkov, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    Ion storage in relativistic electron beams was calculated taking account of ion-ion charge exchange and ionization. The calculations were made for nitrogen ion storage from residual gas during the compression of electron rings in the adhezator of the JINR heavy ion accelerator. The calculations were made for rings of various parameters and for various pressures of the residual gas. The results are compared with analogous calculations made without account of ion-ion processes. It is shown that at heavy loading of a ring by ions ion-ion collisions play a significant part, and they should be taken into account while calculating ion storage

  14. First results from SLD with polarized electron beam at SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fero, M.J.

    1992-12-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) has been modified to collide a longitudinally polarized electron beam with the unpolarized positron beam. We review the beginning of polarized beam running at the SLC, and report on the measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry (A LR ) made with a sample of 10,224 Z decays collected over the course of the 1992 run. The average beam polarization for this set of Z decays was 22.4 ± 0.6%(syst.). A LR was measured to be 0.100 ± 0.044(stat.) ± 0.004(syst.). From this measurement, the weak mixing angle defined at the Z boson pole is determined to be sin 2 θ eff W = 0.2378 ± 0.0056 ± 0.0005

  15. Determination of beam polarization from integrated Borrmann intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenmann, J.L.; Horning, R.D.; Murphy, W.J.; Chapman, L.D.; Liedl, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Borrmann effect can be used to determine the extent of beam polarization of any x-ray beam. The method is applicable, without any modification, to any diffractometer equipped with a partial or full Eulerian cradle. It consists of rocking a perfect crystal, in a thick crystal Laue transmission geometry, through the Bragg angle at various values of the azimuthal angle /sub chi/. If the thickness of the perfect crystal is such that μT/sub 0/>10, then it measures directly the polarization of the incident beam. Three different Ge perfect crystals were used to study the amount of polarization of x-rays produced by a MO and a W source, followed by a double crystal graphite monochromator. A 180 0 periodicity in the integrated intensity, as a function of /sub chi/, is observed; the periodic extremes show the extent of beam polarization. Anomalously transmitted integrated intensity ratios between parallel (σ-component) and perpendicular (π-component) scanning directions, with respect to the scattering plane, are used to characterize the polarization since they are quite insensitive to beam divergences, whereas the corresponding peak height radius show very important beam divergence effects. Also, the polarization properties of graphite monochromators can be related to those of a perfect crystal if the (002) lattice planes are used for any excitation line of the W-anode. This is due to the polarization contribution of the intense white radiation spectrum superimposed on that of the line. On the other hand, the same spectrum impinging on the (004) lattice planes produce polarization properties closer to that of the ideally mosaic crystal

  16. Ion beam dump for JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki; Horiike, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shinzaburo; Morita, Hiroaki; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1981-10-01

    The design of the active cooling type ion beam dump for JT-60 NBI which receives the total beam power of 5.6 MW for 10 sec continuously is described. It is composed of array of many finned tubes which is made of oxygen free copper with 0.2% silver content. The safety margin against thermal and mechanical troubles is estimated by the heat transfer and the thermal stress calculation. (author)

  17. Mega-electron-volt ion beam induced anisotropic plasmon resonance of silver nanocrystals in glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninkhof, JJ; Polman, A; Sweatlock, LA; Maier, SA; Atwater, HA; Vredenberg, AM; Kooi, BJ; Sweatlock, Luke A.; Maier, Stefan A.

    2003-01-01

    30 MeV Si ion beam irradiation of silica glass containing Ag nanocrystals causes alignment of Ag nanocrystals in arrays along the ion tracks. Optical transmission measurements show a large splitting of the surface plasmon resonance bands for polarizations longitudinal and transversal to the arrays.

  18. Generation of valley-polarized electron beam in bilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changsoo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to produce valley-polarized electron beams using a bilayer graphene npn junction. By analyzing the transmission properties of electrons through the junction with zigzag interface in the presence of trigonal warping, we observe that there exist a range of incident energies and barrier heights in which transmitted electrons are well polarized and collimated. From this observation and by performing numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that valley-dependent electronic currents with nearly perfect polarization can be generated. We also show that the peak-to-peak separation angle between the polarized currents is tunable either by incident energy or by barrier height each of which is controlled by using top and back gate voltages. The results can be used for constructing an electron beam splitter to produce valley-polarized currents

  19. Generation of valley-polarized electron beam in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changsoo

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to produce valley-polarized electron beams using a bilayer graphene npn junction. By analyzing the transmission properties of electrons through the junction with zigzag interface in the presence of trigonal warping, we observe that there exist a range of incident energies and barrier heights in which transmitted electrons are well polarized and collimated. From this observation and by performing numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that valley-dependent electronic currents with nearly perfect polarization can be generated. We also show that the peak-to-peak separation angle between the polarized currents is tunable either by incident energy or by barrier height each of which is controlled by using top and back gate voltages. The results can be used for constructing an electron beam splitter to produce valley-polarized currents.

  20. Integrated polarization beam splitter with relaxed fabrication tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Galacho, D; Halir, R; Ortega-Moñux, A; Alonso-Ramos, C; Zhang, R; Runge, P; Janiak, K; Bach, H-G; Steffan, A G; Molina-Fernández, Í

    2013-06-17

    Polarization handling is a key requirement for the next generation of photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Integrated polarization beam splitters (PBS) are central elements for polarization management, but their use in PICs is hindered by poor fabrication tolerances. In this work we present a fully passive, highly fabrication tolerant polarization beam splitter, based on an asymmetrical Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with a Si/SiO(2) Periodic Layer Structure (PLS) on top of one of its arms. By engineering the birefringence of the PLS we are able to design the MZI arms so that sensitivities to the most critical fabrication errors are greatly reduced. Our PBS design tolerates waveguide width variations of 400nm maintaining a polarization extinction ratio better than 13dB in the complete C-Band.

  1. Ion beam pulse radiolysis system at HIMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, N; Katsumura, Y; Domae, M; Ishigure, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Murakami, T

    1997-03-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3}, and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals corresponding to (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup -}, and (SCN){sub 2}{sup -} respectively were observed. Ghost signals which interfere with the measurement are also discussed. (author)

  2. Ion beam techniques for analyzing polymers irradiated by ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickards, J.; Zironi, E.P.; Andrade, E.; Dominguez, B.

    1992-01-01

    In the study of the effects of ion beam irradiation of polymers very large doses can be administered in short times. Thousands of MGy can be produced in a small volume of a sample in a few minutes by bombarding with typical ion beam currents. For instance, in an experiment done to observe the effects of 750 keV proton irradiation PVC, using a collimator of 1 mm diameter, 1 μC of charge integration deposits a dose of 50 MGy. The use of ion beams also opens up the possibility of using the same beam for irradiation and for analysis of the effects, using the well known ion beam analysis techniques. PIXE allows the measurement of chlorine in PVC. Polymers containing fluorine can be measured with the resonant nuclear reaction (RNR) technique, which is specific only to certain elements. The amount of hydrogen in the sample and its profile can be obtained using energy recoil detection analysis (ERDA); carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen can be measured and profiled using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and also using the (d,p) and (d, α) nuclear reactions (NR). Loss of mass is one effect that can be studied using these techniques. It was studied in two different polymers, PVC and CR-39, in order to determine carbon buildup during ion irradiation. It was concluded that carbon builds up following different mechanisms in these two materials, due to the different possibilities of forming volatile compounds. It is also suggested that CR-39 should be a good material for ion beam lithography. (author)

  3. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

  4. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized

  5. Treatment planning with ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Ions have higher linear energy transfer (LET) near the end of their range and lower LET away from the end of their range. Mixing radiations of different LET complicates treatment planning because radiation kills cells in two statistically independent ways. In some cases, cells are killed by a single-particle, which causes a linear decrease in log survival at low dosage. When the linear decrease is subtracted from the log survival curve, the remaining curve has zero slope at zero dosage. This curve is the log survival curve for cells that are killed only by two or more particles. These two mechanisms are statistically independent. To calculate survival, these two kinds of doses must be accumulated separately. The effect of each accumulated dosage must be read from its survival curve, and the logarithms of the two effects added to get the log survival. Treatment plans for doses of protons, He 3 ions, and He 4 ions suggest that these ions will be useful therapeutic modalities

  6. Fullerene genesis by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamaly, E.G.; Chadderton, L.T.; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Lindfield, NSW

    1995-01-01

    Clearly detectable quantities of molecular fullerene (C 60 ), the most recently discovered allotrope of carbon, have been observed in graphite following irradiation with heavy projectile ions at energies of about 1 GeV using high pressure chromatography. Similar experiments using lower ion energies gave no corresponding signal, indicating an absence of fullerene. This clear difference suggests that there exists an energy threshold for fullerene genesis. Beginning with a microscopic description of deposition and transfer of energy from the ion to the target, a theoretical model is developed for interpretation of these and similar experiments. An important consequence is a description of the formation of large carbon clusters in the hot dense 'primeval soup' of single carbon atoms by means of random 'sticky' collisions. The ion energy threshold is seen as arising, physically, from a balance in the competition between the rate of primary energy deposition and the rate of system cooling. Rate equations for the basic clustering process allow calculations of the time-dependent number densities for the different carbon clusters produced. An important consequence of the theory is that it is established that the region for the specific phase transition from graphite to fullerene lies in the same pressure regime on the phase diagram as does the corresponding transition for graphite to diamond. (author)

  7. Inferring Polar Ion Outflows from Topside Ionograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.; Rice, D. D.; Eccles, V.; Schunk, R. W.; David, M.; Benson, R. F.; James, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    The high-latitude topside ionosphere is dominated by O+ ions from the F-region peak around 300 km to over 1000 km altitude. The O+ profile shape provides information on the thermal structure, field aligned plasma dynamics, and outflows into the magnetosphere. Topside electron density profiles (EDP) are either obtained from topside sounders or Incoherent Scatter Radars. There is a large archive of topside sounder ionograms and hand scaled EDPs from the Alouette and ISIS satellites between 1962 and 1990. Recent NASA data enhancement efforts have augmented these EDP archives by producing digital topside ionograms both from the 7-track analog telemetry tapes and from 35 mm topside film ionograms. Rice et al [2017] in their 35 mm ionogram recovery emphasized high latitude ionograms taken during disturbed conditions. The figure below contrasts ISIS-II EDPs extracted from 35 mm films before and during a major storm (Dst -200nT) on 9 April 1972 (left panel: quiet period before the storm; right panel: during the peak of the storm). Both satellite passes used for these EDPs were centered on the Resolute Bay location that in 1972 was close to the magnetic pole. They begin at auroral latitudes around 2100 MLT and end on the dayside around 0900MLT. We will present results of how ionospheric models replicate both the quiet and disturbed conditions shown in the figure. Three types of models will be contrasted: an empirical ionosphere (IRI), a physics based ionospheric model (TDIM), and a fluid-based polar-wind model (PW). During the storm pass, when it is expected that substantial heating is present, the ISIS-II topside EDPs provide severe constraints on the usage of these models. These constraints enable estimates of the outflow fluxes as well as the heating that has occurred. The comparisons with the empirical model establish how well the pre-storm topside is modeled and identifies the challenges as the storm magnitude increases. The physics-based TDIM does have storm drivers

  8. Latest polarization and beam characterization results of the Orsay polarized electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arianer, J.; Cohen, S.; Essabaa, S.; Frascaria, R.; Zerhouni, O.

    1995-01-01

    The Orsay polarized electron source based on the chemi-ionization of aligned He(2 3 S 1 ) atoms and CO 2 molecules is briefly described. The latest results concerning electron polarization and beam emittance are presented. The present development status is also discussed. (K.A.)

  9. Ion-beam texturing of uniaxially textured Ni films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Norton, D.P.; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    The formation of biaxial texture in uniaxially textured Ni thin films via Ar-ion irradiation is reported. The ion-beam irradiation was not simultaneous with deposition. Instead, the ion beam irradiates the uniaxially textured film surface with no impinging deposition flux, which differs from conventional ion-beam-assisted deposition. The uniaxial texture is established via a nonion beam process, with the in-plane texture imposed on the uniaxial film via ion beam bombardment. Within this sequential ion beam texturing method, grain alignment is driven by selective etching and grain overgrowth

  10. Status and future plans of polarized beams at COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz, B.; Gebel, R.; Lehrach, A.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Stockhorst, H.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we report on the present status and future plans of polarized beams in the COSY synchrotron ring. COSY is a synchrotron ring in the momentum range from 295 to 3700 MeV/c. Polarized deuterons and protons are routinely delivered to experiments over the whole momentum range. No depolarization occurs during the acceleration of deuterons in COSY. For polarized protons many depolarizing resonances are crossed without polarization loss. At imperfection resonances, vertical steerer magnets are used to increase the resonance strength, leading to a complete polarization reversal. At intrinsic resonances a fast tune jump quadrupole is used to quickly cross the resonances without loss of polarization. Typical proton polarizations are close to 0.8 below 2.1 GeV/c and about 0.6 for higher momenta. During recent operation an induced depolarizing resonance was used for accurate determination of the relative momentum spread dp/p of the stored beam yielding an accuracy of better than 10-4. For spin filter studies of the PAX collaboration a low beta target section was installed in 2009 and was successfully put into operation early 2010. An upgrade of the EDDA polarimeter electronics and data acquisition system is underway to ensure continued availability of the polarimeter, which is essential for the polarized proton operation of COSY. In the near future it is planned to install a Siberian snake solenoid of 4.5 Tm to be able to provide in addition to vertically polarized protons, longitudinal polarization as well. This solenoid will allow the preparation of a longitudinally polarized beam up to a kinetic energy of 500 MeV.

  11. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams

  12. Realization of a scanning ion beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautard, C.

    2008-07-01

    During this thesis, a scanning ion beam monitor has been developed in order to measure on-line fluence spatial distributions. This monitor is composed of an ionization chamber, Hall Effect sensors and a scintillator. The ionization chamber set between the beam exit and the experiment measures the ion rate. The beam spot is localized thanks to the Hall Effect sensors set near the beam sweeping magnets. The scintillator is used with a photomultiplier tube to calibrate the ionization chamber and with an imaging device to calibrate the Hall Effect sensors. This monitor was developed to control the beam lines of a radiobiology dedicated experimentation room at GANIL. These experiments are held in the context of the research in hadron-therapy. As a matter of fact, this new cancer treatment technique is based on ion irradiations and therefore demands accurate knowledge about the relation between the dose deposit in biological samples and the induced effects. To be effective, these studies require an on-line control of the fluence. The monitor has been tested with different beams at GANIL. Fluence can be measured with a relative precision of ±4% for a dose rate ranging between 1 mGy/s and 2 Gy/s. Once permanently set on the beam lines dedicated to radiobiology at GANIL, this monitor will enable users to control the fluence spatial distribution for each irradiation. The scintillator and the imaging device are also used to control the position, the spot shape and the energy of different beams such as those used for hadron-therapy. (author)

  13. Improvement of herbage by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongmei; Hao Jifang; Wei Zengquan; Xie Zhongkui; Li Fengqin; Wang Yajun

    2004-01-01

    Herbage seeds of legume and grass were irradiated in penetration by 80 MeV/u 20 Ne 10+ ions. The results of field tests and observations of the root-tip cells showed that growth of the seedling was obviously weakened with increasing doses. Frequencies of chromosomal aberration and micronucleus increased significantly with increasing doses. According to the field growth tests, radiation sensitivity of grass herbage to the heavy ion beams was much higher than leguminous herbage, and suitable dose of the heavy ion irradiation for the grass and leguminous herbage is 20-30 Gy and 150 Gy, respectively

  14. Physics with fast molecular-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fast (MeV) molecular-ion beams provide a unique source of energetic projectile nuclei which are correlated in space and time. The recognition of this property has prompted several recent investigations of various aspects of the interactions of these ions with matter. High-resolution measurements on the fragments resulting from these interactions have already yielded a wealth of new information on such diverse topics as plasma oscillations in solids and stereochemical structures of molecular ions as well as a variety of atomic collision phenomena. The general features of several such experiments will be discussed and recent results will be presented

  15. Profiling hydrogen in materials using ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.; Wu, C.P.; Williams, P.

    1977-01-01

    Over the last few years many ion beam techniques have been reported for the profiling of hydrogen in materials. Nine of these were evaluated using similar samples of hydrogen ion-implanted into silicon. When possible the samples were analyzed using two or more techniques to confirm the ion-implanted accuracy. The results of this analysis which has produced a consensus profile of H in silicon which is useful as a calibration standard are reported. The analytical techniques used have capabilities ranging from very high depth resolution (approximately 50 A) and high sensitivity (less than 1 ppM) to deep probes for hydrogen which can sample throughout thin sheets

  16. Polarimeters for the AGS polarized-proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabb, D.G.; Bonner, B.; Buchanan, J.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the three polarimeters which will be used to measure the beam polarization at the AGS polarized beam facility. The beam polarization will be measured before injection into the AGS, during acceleration, and after extraction from the AGS. The 200-MeV polarimeter uses scintillation-counter telescopes to measure the asymmetry in p-carbon inclusive scattering. The internal polarimeter can measure the beam polarization at up to five selected times during acceleration. A continuously spooled nylon filament is swung into the beam at the appropriate time and the asymmetry in pp elastic scattering measured by two scintillation-counter telescopes. This is a relative polarimeter which can be calibrated by the absolute external polarimeter located in the D extracted-beam line. This polarimeter uses scintillation counters in two double-arm magnetic spectrometers to measure clearly the asymmetry in pp elastic scattering from a liquid hydrogen target. The specific features and operation of each polarimeter will be discussed.

  17. Polarimeters for the AGS polarized-proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D.G.; Bonner, B.; Buchanan, J.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the three polarimeters which will be used to measure the beam polarization at the AGS polarized beam facility. The beam polarization will be measured before injection into the AGS, during acceleration, and after extraction from the AGS. The 200-MeV polarimeter uses scintillation-counter telescopes to measure the asymmetry in p-carbon inclusive scattering. The internal polarimeter can measure the beam polarization at up to five selected times during acceleration. A continuously spooled nylon filament is swung into the beam at the appropriate time and the asymmetry in pp elastic scattering measured by two scintillation-counter telescopes. This is a relative polarimeter which can be calibrated by the absolute external polarimeter located in the D extracted-beam line. This polarimeter uses scintillation counters in two double-arm magnetic spectrometers to measure clearly the asymmetry in pp elastic scattering from a liquid hydrogen target. The specific features and operation of each polarimeter will be discussed

  18. Development of polarized e+ beams for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, M.; Hamatsu, R.; Endo, A.

    1995-01-01

    We have so far been carrying out systematic investigations to create polarized e + on the basis of two new methods. One method is to use β + decay of radioactive nuclei with short life-time produced with a proton cyclotron and the other method is to use e + e - pair creation from polarized γ beams made through backward Compton scattering of laser lights. Here we describe technical details on productions of polarized e + and measurements of the polarization. The experiments of producing polarized e + will soon start. Although the e + intensity is not sufficiently high, we will acquire lots of know-how for further development of polarized e + sources with high quality which will possibly be applied to future linear colliders. (author)

  19. Operation of the AGS polarized beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    A polarized proton physics run took place during January, 1988, at the Brookhaven AGS. It is the purpose of this paper to review the tune-up period preceding that run. This was the third such run at the AGS; the others occurred in June of 1984 and February of 1986. Some comparisons will be drawn among these. A thorough review of the history and hardware associated with the acceleration of polarized protons at the AGS can be found in the proceedings of the last meeting of this group at Protvino and will not be repeated here. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Temperature-dependent ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, L.E.; Alexander, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Recent work on enhanced interdiffusion rates during ion-beam mixing at elevated temperatures is reviewed. As discussed previously, expected increase in ion-beam mixing rates due to 'radiation-enhanced diffusion' (RED), i.e. the free migration of isolated vacancy and interstitial defects, is well documented in single-crystal specimens in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 of absolute melting temperature. In contrast, the increase often observed at somewhat lower temperatures during ion-beam mixing of polycrystalline specimens is not well understood. However, sufficient evidence is available to show that this increase reflects intracascade enhancement of a thermally-activated process that also occurs without irradiation. Recent evidence is presented which suggests that this process is Diffusion-induced Grain-Boundary Migration (DIGM). An important complementary conclusion is that because ion-beam mixing in single-crystal specimens exhibits no significant temperature dependence below that of RED, models that invoke only irradiation-specific phenomena, e.g., cascade-overlap, thermal-spikes, or liquid-diffusion, and hence which predict no difference in mixing behavior between single- or poly-crystalline specimens, cannot account for the existing results

  1. National Centre for Radioactive Ion Beams (NCRIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive Ion (nuclear) Beams have become prolific recently. Nuclear physics and associated subjects have staged a comeback to almost the beginning with the advent of RIB. A dedicated National Centre for RIB (NCRIB) proposed, discussed at several forums and under serious consideration is described

  2. BEARS: Radioactive ion beams at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Guo, F.Q.; Haustein, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    BEARS (Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species) is an initiative to develop a radioactive ion-beam capability at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim is to produce isotopes at an existing medical cyclotron and to accelerate them at the 88 inch Cyclotron. To overcome the 300-meter physical separation of these two accelerators, a carrier-gas transport system will be used. At the terminus of the capillary, the carrier gas will be separated and the isotopes will be injected into the 88 inch Cyclotron's Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. The first radioactive beams to be developed will include 20-min 11 C and 70-sec 14 O, produced by (p,n) and (p,α) reactions on low-Z targets. A test program is currently being conducted at the 88 inch Cyclotron to develop the parts of the BEARS system. Preliminary results of these tests lead to projections of initial 11 C beams of up to 2.5 x 10 7 ions/sec and 14 O beams of 3 x 10 5 ions/sec

  3. Treatment Planning for Ion Beam Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Oliver

    The special aspects of treatment planning for ion beams are outlined in this chapter, starting with positioning and immobilization of the patient, describing imaging and segmentation, definition of treatment parameters, dose calculation and optimization, and, finally, plan assessment, verification, and quality assurance.

  4. Surrey Ion Beam Centre: the EPSRC MRF for ion beam applications - 01002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    The SIBC (Surrey Ion Beam Centre) is an element of the Virtual Ion Beam Centre that coordinates 3 U.K. experimental facilities: SIBC (University of Surrey) for implantation and ion beam applications, Miami and MEIS facility (University of Huddersfield) and gamma ray and neutron irradiation emulation facility (University of Manchester). The SIBC works actively with industry, developing bespoke processes and services, particularly for the photonics industry and provides ion beam facilities to about 20 companies across the world. It operates a stringent quality control program and is one of the few ion beam laboratories in the world to operate under ISO 9001 certification. The equipment of SIBC is presented and some applications of ion beam analysis concerning the identification of gunshot residues, the determination of the origin of a painting, the analysis of proteins are described. Different techniques such as PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy), NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis), SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) are also explained in the slides of the presentation that have been added at the end of the paper

  5. A neutron beam polarizer for study of parity violation in neutron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttilae, S.I.; Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Seestrom, S.J.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Delheij, P.P.J.; Haase, D.G.; Postma, H.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamically-polarized proton target operating at 5 Tesla and 1 K has been built to, neutron beam for studies of parity violation in compound-nuclear resonances. Nearly 0.9 proton polarization was obtained in an electron-beam irradiated ammonia target. This was used to produce a neutron beam polarization of 0.7 at epithermal energies. The combination of the polarized proton target and the LANSCE spallation neutron source produces the most intense pulsed polarized epithermal neutron beam in the world. The neutron-beam polarizer is described and methods to determine neutron beam polarization are presented

  6. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T.; Sood, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs

  7. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P J; Chu, J W; Johnson, E P; Noorman, J T [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D K [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  9. The TMX heavy ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    A heavy ion beam probe has been used to measure the radial space potential distribution in the central cell of TMX. This was the first beam probe system to utilize computer control, CAMAC instrumentation, and fast time response for broadband fluctuation capabilities. The fast time response was obtained using off-line processing of the energy analyzer detector signals and wideband transimpedance amplifiers. The on-axis space potential was found to be 300--400 V, with φ e /T ec ∼8. The radial potential profile is parabolic when gas box fueling is used. The frequency of observed fluctuations was found to agree with the E x B plasma rotation frequency during the discharge. The measured Tl ++ secondary ion current level is consistent with calculations, given reasonable assumptions for beam attenuation

  10. High repetition rate intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.A.; Glidden, S.C.; Noonan, B.

    1992-01-01

    This final report describes a ≤ 150kV, 40kA, 100ns high repetition rate pulsed power system and intense ion beam source which is now in operation at Cornell University. Operation of the Magnetically-controlled Anode Plasma (MAP) ion diode at > 100Hz (burst mode for up to 10 pulse bursts) provides an initial look at repetition rate limitations of both the ion diode and beam diagnostics. The pulsed power systems are capable of ≥ 1kHz operation (up to 10 pulse bursts), but ion diode operation was limited to ∼100Hz because of diagnostic limitations. By varying MAP diode operating parameters, ion beams can be extracted at a few 10s of keV or at up to 150keV, the corresponding accelerating gap impedance ranging from about 1Ω to about 10Ω. The ability to make hundreds of test pulses per day at an average repetition rate of about 2 pulses per minute permits statistical analysis of diode operation as a function of various parameters. Most diode components have now survived more than 10 4 pulses, and the design and construction of the various pulsed power components of the MAP diode which have enabled us to reach this point are discussed. A high speed data acquisition system and companion analysis software capable of acquiring pulse data at 1ms intervals (in bursts of up to 10 pulses) and processing it in ≤ min is described

  11. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  12. Ion-Beam-Excited, Electrostatic, Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  13. Ions kinematics in an electrostatic ion beam trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, D

    2004-06-01

    In this study, I have tried to provide a better understanding of the dynamics of ions inside an electrostatic ion beam trap. The electrostatic ion trap allows to store ions moving between two electrostatic mirrors. Although the trap has been developed already seven years ago, no direct measurement of the transversal velocity distribution of the ions has been performed. Such quantity is central for understanding the conditions under which a beam should be produced (mainly emittance) in order to be trapped by such a device. The data I have obtained during the course of this work are based on an experimental technique which relies on the direct imaging of the particles exiting the trap, as well as on numerical simulations of the ion trajectories inside the trap. I have personally been involved in the hardware development of the imaging system, the data acquisition and analysis of the data as well as il all numerical calculations presented here. These results allow us to obtain, for the first time, experimental information on the transverse phase space of the trap, and contribute to the overall understanding of the ion motion in this system. (author)

  14. Study on broad beam heavy ion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yumiko; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Hitomi; Nanbu, S.; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2003-01-01

    To achieve the heavy ion radiotherapy more precisely, it is important to know the distribution of the electron density in a human body, which is highly related to the range of charged particles. From a heavy ion CT image, we can directly obtain the 2-D distribution of the electron density in a sample. For this purpose, we have developed a broad beam heavy ion CT system. The electron density was obtained using some kinds of solutions targets. Also the dependence of the spatial resolution on the target size and the kinds of beams was estimated in this work using cylinders targets of 40, 60 and 80 mm in diameter, each of them has a hole of 10 mm in diameter at the center of it. (author)

  15. Target design for heavy ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Metzler, N.

    1981-07-01

    Target design for Heavy Ion Beam Fusion and related physics are discussed. First, a modified version of the Kidder-Bodner model for pellet gain is presented and is used to define the working point (Esub(beam) = 4.8 MJ, Gain 83) for a reactor size target. Secondly, stopping of heavy ions in hot dense plasma is investigated and numerical results for stopping powers and ranges of 10 GeV Bi-ions in Pb, Li, and PbLi-alloy are given. Finally, results of an explicit implosion calculation, using the 1-D code MINIHY, are discussed in detail. The hydrodynamic efficiency is found to be about 5%. Special attention is given to the shock sequence leading to the ignition configuration. Also the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the absorber-pusher interface is estimated. (orig.)

  16. Squids, snakes, and polarimeters: A new technique for measuring the magnetic moments of polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, P.R.; Luccio, A.U.; Shea, T.J.; Tsoupas, N.; Goldberg, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Effective polarimetry at high energies in hadron and lepton synchrotrons has been a long-standing and difficult problem. In synchrotrons with polarized beams it is possible to cause the direction of the polarization vector of a given bunch to alternate at a frequency which is some subharmonic of the rotation frequency. This can result in the presence of lines in the beam spectrum which are due only to the magnetic moment of the beam and which are well removed from the various lines due to the charge of the beam. The magnitude of these lines can be calculated from first principles. They are many orders of magnitude weaker than the Schottky signals. Measurement of the magnitude of one of these lines would be an absolute measurement of beam polarization. For measuring magnetic field, the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device, or squid, is about five orders of magnitude more sensitive than any other transducer. Using a squid, such a measurement might be accomplished with the proper combination of shielding, pickup loop design, and filtering. The resulting instrument would be fast, non-destructive, and comparatively cheap. In addition, techniques developed in the creation of such an instrument could be used to measure the Schottky spectrum in unprecedented detail. We present specifics of a polarimeter design for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and briefly discuss the possibility of using this technique to measure polarization at high-energy electron machines like LEP and HERA. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. The tagged photon beam polarization of the jet target experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, N.; Muccifora, V.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of the residual electron selection method to the tagging method of the jet target laboratory has been studied. With this end in view the behaviour of the polarized bremsstrahlung cross section in the range considered has been analysed, while the polarization increase by means of the RES has been evaluated. The vertical conditions of the focusing of the tagging spectrometer as a function of energy have been determined. Finally the gamma beam density and the tagging efficiency have been calculated

  18. Negative ion based neutral beams for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.

    1978-01-01

    Neutral beam systems based on negative ions have been considered because of a high expected power efficiency. Methods for the production, acceleration and neutralization of negative ions will be reviewed and possibilities for an application in neutral beam lines explored

  19. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  20. Acceleration of polarized protons and deuterons in the ion collider ring of JLEIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yu N.; Derbenev, Ya S.; Lin, F.; Morozov, V. S.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-07-01

    The figure-8-shaped ion collider ring of Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) is transparent to the spin. It allows one to preserve proton and deuteron polarizations using weak stabilizing solenoids when accelerating the beam up to 100 GeV/c. When the stabilizing solenoids are introduced into the collider’s lattice, the particle spins precess about a spin field, which consists of the field induced by the stabilizing solenoids and the zero-integer spin resonance strength. During acceleration of the beam, the induced spin field is maintained constant while the resonance strength experiences significant changes in the regions of “interference peaks”. The beam polarization depends on the field ramp rate of the arc magnets. Its component along the spin field is preserved if acceleration is adiabatic. We present the results of our theoretical analysis and numerical modeling of the spin dynamics during acceleration of protons and deuterons in the JLEIC ion collider ring. We demonstrate high stability of the deuteron polarization in figure-8 accelerators. We analyze a change in the beam polarization when crossing the transition energy.

  1. InN{0001} polarity by ion scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.; Veal, T.D.; McConville, C.F.; Lu, Hai; Schaff, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The polarity of a wurtzite InN thin film grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate with GaN and AlN buffer layers has been investigated by co-axial impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (CAICISS). Time of flight (TOF) spectra of He + ions scattered from the surface of the InN film were taken as a function of the incident angles of the primary 3 keV He + ions. From the TOF spectra, the polar angle-dependence of the In scattered intensity was obtained. Comparison of the experimental polar-angle dependence of the In CAICISS signal intensity with simulated results for the various volume ratios of (0001)- and (000 anti 1)-polarity domains indicated that the InN film is approximately 75% In-polarity and 25% N-polarity. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Studies of polarized beam acceleration and Siberian Snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    We studied depolarization mechanisms of polarized proton acceleration in high energy accelerators with snakes and found that the perturbed spin tune due to the imperfection resonance plays an important role in beam depolarization at snake resonances. We also found that even order snake resonances exist in the overlapping intrinsic and imperfection resonances. Due to the perturbed spin tune of imperfection resonances, each snake resonance splits into two. Thus the available betatron tune space becomes smaller. Some constraints on polarized beam colliders were also examined

  3. Ion beam heating for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, S.Yu.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The characteristics features of the formation of the spatial distribution of the energy transferred to the plasma from a beam of ions with different initial energies, masses and charges under fast ignition conditions are determined. The motion of the Bragg peak is extended with respect to the spatial distribution of the temperature of the ion-beam-heated medium. The parameters of the ion beams are determined to initiate different regimes of fast ignition of thermonuclear fuel precompressed to a density of 300-500 g/cm 3 - the edge regime, in which the ignition region is formed at the outer boundary of the fuel, and the internal regime, in which the ignition region is formed in central parts of the fuel. The conclusion on the requirements for fast ignition by light and heavy ion beams is presented. It is shown that the edge heating with negative temperature gradient is described by a self-similar solution. Such a temperature distribution is the reason of the fact that the ignited beam energy at the edge heating is larger than the minimal ignition energy by factor 1.65. The temperature Bragg peak may be produced by ion beam heating in the reactor scale targets with pR-parameter larger than 3-4 g/cm 2 . In particular, for central ignition of the targets with pR-parameters in the range of 4-8 g/cm 2 the ion beam energy should be, respectively, from 5 to 7 times larger than the minimal ignition energy. The work by S.Ye. Gus'kov, D.V. Il'in, and V.E. Sherman was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation under the program 'Development of the Scientific Potential of High Education for 2009-2010' (project no. 2.1.1/1505) and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 08-02-01394 a ). The work by J. Limpouch and O. Klimo was supported by the Czech Ministry of Education (project no. LC528, MSM6840770022).

  4. Current neutralization of converging ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.

    1978-01-01

    It is desired to consider the problem of current neutralization of heavy ion beams traversing gas backgrounds in which the conductivity changes due to beam heating and beam convergence. The procedure is to determine Green's-function solutions to the magnetic-diffusion equation derived from Maxwell's equations and an assumed scaler-plasma conductivity sigma for the background-electron current density j/sub e/. The present calculation is more general than some previously carried out in that arbitrary time variations for the beam current j/sub b/ and conductivity are allowed and the calculation is valid for both weak and strong neutralization. Results presented here must be combined with an appropriate energy-balance equation for the heated background in order to obtain the neutralization self-consistently

  5. Applications of ion beam analysis workshop. Workshop handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on applications of ion beam analysis was held at ANSTO, immediate prior to the IBMM-95 Conference in Canberra. It aims was to review developments and current status on use of ion beams for analysis, emphasizing the following aspects: fundamental ion beam research and secondary effects of ion beams; material sciences, geological, life sciences, environmental and industrial applications; computing codes for use in accelerator research; high energy heavy ion scattering and recoil; recent technological development using ion beams. The handbook contains the workshop's program, 29 abstracts and a list of participants

  6. Image-projection ion-beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Image-projection ion-beam lithography is an attractive alternative for submicron patterning because it may provide high throughput; it uses demagnification to gain advantages in reticle fabrication, inspection, and lifetime; and it enjoys the precise deposition characteristics of ions which cause essentially no collateral damage. This lithographic option involves extracting low-mass ions (e.g., He + ) from a plasma source, transmitting the ions at low voltage through a stencil reticle, and then accelerating and focusing the ions electrostatically onto a resist-coated wafer. While the advantages of this technology have been demonstrated experimentally by the work of IMS (Austria), many difficulties still impede extension of the technology to the high-volume production of microelectronic devices. We report a computational study of a lithography system designed to address problem areas in field size, telecentricity, and chromatic and geometric aberration. We present a novel ion-column-design approach and conceptual ion-source and column designs which address these issues. We find that image-projection ion-beam technology should in principle meet high-volume-production requirements. The technical success of our present relatively compact-column design requires that a glow-discharge-based ion source (or equivalent cold source) be developed and that moderate further improvement in geometric aberration levels be obtained. Our system requires that image predistortion be employed during reticle fabrication to overcome distortion due to residual image nonlinearity and space-charge forces. This constitutes a software data preparation step, as do correcting for distortions in electron lithography columns and performing proximity-effect corrections. Areas needing further fundamental work are identified

  7. The application of ion beams to corrosion science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, V.; Grant, W.A.; Proctor, R.P.M.

    1976-01-01

    Briefly, the paper provides some basic information on the use of ion beams for surface alloying and surface analysis. After a brief historical review of those fields in which the techniques are already widely applied the important features of typical ion beam machines are described. The basic processes that occur when an ion beam strikes a solid are then considered. Selected ion beam analysis techniques are then discussed. Attention is drawn, wherever possible, to applications in corrosion science and engineering. (author)

  8. Development of a beam ion velocity detector for the heavy ion beam probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fimognari, P. J., E-mail: PJFimognari@XanthoTechnologies.com; Crowley, T. P.; Demers, D. R. [Xantho Technologies, LLC, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    In an axisymmetric plasma, the conservation of canonical angular momentum constrains heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) trajectories such that measurement of the toroidal velocity component of secondary ions provides a localized determination of the poloidal flux at the volume where they originated. We have developed a prototype detector which is designed to determine the beam angle in one dimension through the detection of ion current landing on two parallel planes of detecting elements. A set of apertures creates a pattern of ion current on wires in the first plane and solid metal plates behind them; the relative amounts detected by the wires and plates determine the angle which beam ions enter the detector, which is used to infer the toroidal velocity component. The design evolved from a series of simulations within which we modeled ion beam velocity changes due to equilibrium and fluctuating magnetic fields, along with the ion beam profile and velocity dispersion, and studied how these and characteristics such as the size, cross section, and spacing of the detector elements affect performance.

  9. Development of a beam ion velocity detector for the heavy ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fimognari, P. J.; Crowley, T. P.; Demers, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    In an axisymmetric plasma, the conservation of canonical angular momentum constrains heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) trajectories such that measurement of the toroidal velocity component of secondary ions provides a localized determination of the poloidal flux at the volume where they originated. We have developed a prototype detector which is designed to determine the beam angle in one dimension through the detection of ion current landing on two parallel planes of detecting elements. A set of apertures creates a pattern of ion current on wires in the first plane and solid metal plates behind them; the relative amounts detected by the wires and plates determine the angle which beam ions enter the detector, which is used to infer the toroidal velocity component. The design evolved from a series of simulations within which we modeled ion beam velocity changes due to equilibrium and fluctuating magnetic fields, along with the ion beam profile and velocity dispersion, and studied how these and characteristics such as the size, cross section, and spacing of the detector elements affect performance.

  10. Inertial confinement fusion with light ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDevender, J.P.; Cook, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) is presently under construction and is the only existing facility with the potential of igniting thermonuclear fuel in the laboratory. The accelerator will generate up to 5 megamperes of lithium ions at 30 million electron volts and will focus them onto an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target after beam production and focusing have been optimized. Since its inception, the light ion approach to ICF has been considered the one that combines low cost, high risk, and high payoff. The beams are of such high density that their self-generated electric and magnetic fields were thought to prohibit high focal intensities. Recent advances in beam production and focusing demonstrate that these self-forces can be controlled to the degree required for ignition, break-even, and high gain experiments. ICF has been pursued primarily for its potential military applications. However, the high efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the light ion approach enhance its potential for commercial energy application as well

  11. Crossed-beam energy transfer: polarization effects and evidence of saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D.; Colaïtis, A.; Follett, R. K.; Palastro, J. P.; Froula, D. H.; Michel, P.; Goyon, C.; Chapman, T.; Divol, L.; Kemp, G. E.; Mariscal, D.; Patankar, S.; Pollock, B. B.; Ross, J. S.; Moody, J. D.; Tubman, E. R.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2018-05-01

    Recent results on crossed-beam energy transfer are presented. Wavelength tuning was used to vary the amount of energy transfer between two beams in a quasi-stationary plasma with carefully controlled conditions. The amount of transfer agreed well with calculations assuming linear ion acoustic waves (IAWs) with amplitudes up to δ n/n≈ 0.015. Increasing the initial probe intensity to access larger IAW amplitudes for otherwise fixed conditions yields evidence of saturation. The ability to manipulate a beam's polarization, which results from the anisotropic nature of the interaction, is revisited; an example is provided to demonstrate how polarization effects in a multibeam situation can dramatically enhance the expected amount of energy transfer.

  12. Electron-ion recombination in merged beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Habs, D.; Lampert, A.; Neumann, R.; Schramm, U.; Schuessler, T.; Schwalm, D.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed studies of recombination processes between electrons and highly charged ions have become possible by recent improvements of merged-beams experiments. We discuss in particular measurements with stored cooled ion beams at the Test Storage Ring (TSR) in Heidelberg. The cross section of dielectronic recombination was measured with high energy resolution for few-electron systems up to the nuclear charge of Cu at a relative energy up to 2.6 keV. At low energy (∼0.1 eV) total recombination rates of several ions were measured and compared with calculated radiative recombination rates. Laser-stimulated recombination of protons and of C 6+ ions was investigated as a function of the photon energy using visible radiation. Both the total recombination rates and the stimulated recombination spectra indicate that in spite of the short interaction time in merged beams, also collisional capture of electrons into weakly bound levels (related to three-body recombination) could be important

  13. Inertial fusion with heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, R.; Hofmann, I.; Arnold, R.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principle of inertial confinement is the irradiation of a small pellet filled with DT-fuel by laser or particle beams in order to compress the fuel and ignite it. As 'drivers' for this process large laser installations and light-ion devices have been built since then and the results obtained during the past few years have increased our confidence, that the ignition conditions might be reached. Further conditions, however, have to be fulfilled for operating a power plant. In particular, the driver needs to have enough efficiency to be economical, and for a continuous energy production a high repetition rate and availability is required. It is less than ten years since it was realized that heavy ion beams might be a promising candidate for achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Due to the evolution of high-energy and heavy-ion physics during the past 25 years, accelerators have attained a high technical and technological standard and an excellent operational reliability. Nevertheless, the heavy ion driver for a fusion power plant requires beam specifications exceeding those of existing accelerators considerably. (Auth.)

  14. Photon beam polarization and non-dipolar angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshkin, M.

    1996-01-01

    Angular distributions of ejecta from unoriented atoms and molecules depend upon the polarization state of the incident x-rays as well as upon the dynamics of the physical systems being studied. I recommend a simple geometrical way of looking at the polarization and its effects upon angular distributions. The polarization is represented as a vector in a parameter space that faithfully represents the polarization of the beam. The simple dependence of the angular dependence of the angular distributions on the polarization vector enables easy extraction of the dynamical information contained in those angular distributions. No new physical results emerge from this geometrical approach, but known consequences of the symmetries appear in an easily visualized form that I find pleasing and that has proved to be useful for planning experiments and for analyzing data

  15. Ion beam biotechnology and its application to maize breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lixia; Li Wenjian; Dong Xicun; Zhou Libin; Ma Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid of 1980's, ion beam had been widely used in mutagenic breeding of various crops. Ion beam biotechnology had provided a new way for improving corn variety and creating new germplasm resources, and had promoted the development of maize breeding. The ion beam characteristics, the mutagenic mechanism and its application in maize breeding were described. (authors)

  16. MEV Energy Electrostatic Accelerator Ion Beam Emittance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Ignat’ev; M.I. Zakharets; S.V. Kolinko; D.P. Shulha

    2014-01-01

    The testing equipment was designed, manufactured and tried out permitting measurements of total current, current profile and emittance of an ion beam extracted from the ion beam. MeV energy electrostatic accelerator ion H + beam emittance measurement results are presented.

  17. Ion beam figuring of silicon aspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Marcel; Zeuner, Michael; Luca, Alfonz; Dunger, Thoralf; Rost, Dirk; Kiontke, Sven; Krüger, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    Silicon lenses are widely used for infrared applications. Especially for portable devices the size and weight of the optical system are very important factors. The use of aspherical silicon lenses instead of spherical silicon lenses results in a significant reduction of weight and size. The manufacture of silicon lenses is more challenging than the manufacture of standard glass lenses. Typically conventional methods like diamond turning, grinding and polishing are used. However, due to the high hardness of silicon, diamond turning is very difficult and requires a lot of experience. To achieve surfaces of a high quality a polishing step is mandatory within the manufacturing process. Nevertheless, the required surface form accuracy cannot be achieved through the use of conventional polishing methods because of the unpredictable behavior of the polishing tools, which leads to an unstable removal rate. To overcome these disadvantages a method called Ion Beam Figuring can be used to manufacture silicon lenses with high surface form accuracies. The general advantage of the Ion Beam Figuring technology is a contactless polishing process without any aging effects of the tool. Due to this an excellent stability of the removal rate without any mechanical surface damage is achieved. The related physical process - called sputtering - can be applied to any material and is therefore also applicable to materials of high hardness like Silicon (SiC, WC). The process is realized through the commercially available ion beam figuring system IonScan 3D. During the process, the substrate is moved in front of a focused broad ion beam. The local milling rate is controlled via a modulated velocity profile, which is calculated specifically for each surface topology in order to mill the material at the associated positions to the target geometry. The authors will present aspherical silicon lenses with very high surface form accuracies compared to conventionally manufactured lenses.

  18. NSUF Ion Beam Investment Options Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Brenden John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The workshop that generated this data was convened to develop a set of recommendations (a priority list) for possible funding in the area of US domestic ion beam irradiation capabilities for nuclear energy-focused RD&D. The results of this workshop were intended for use by the Department of Energy - Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) for consideration of support for these facilities. The workshop considered, as part of the initial potential future support discussions, input submitted through the Office of Nuclear Energy Request for Information (RFI) (DE-SOL-0008318, April 13, 2015), but welcomed discussion (and presentation) of other options, whether specific or general in scope. Input from users, including DOE-NE program interests and needs for ion irradiation RD&D were also included. Participants were selected from various sources: RFI respondents, NEUP/NEET infrastructure applicants, universities with known expertise in nuclear engineering and materials science and other developed sources. During the three days from March 22-24, 2016, the workshop was held at the Idaho National Laboratory Meeting Center in the Energy Innovation Laboratory at 775 University Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83401. Thirty-one members of the ion beam community attended the workshop, including 15 ion beam facilities, six representatives of Office of Nuclear Energy R&D programs, an industry representative from EPRI and the chairs of the NSUF User’s Organization and the NSUF Scientific Review Board. Another four ion beam users were in attendance acting as advisors to the process, but did not participate in the options assessment. Three members of the sponsoring agency, the Office of Science and Technology Innovation (NE-4) also attended the workshop.

  19. Development of bipolar pulse accelerator for intense pulsed ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Y.; Mitsui, C.; Kitamura, I.; Takahashi, T.; Masugata, K.; Tanoue, H.; Arai, K.

    2003-01-01

    To improve the purity of an intense pulsed ion beams a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA)' was proposed. In the accelerator purity of the beam is expected. To confirm the principle of the accelerator experimental system was developed. The system utilizes B y type magnetically insulated acceleration gap and operated with single polar negative pulse. A coaxial gas puff plasma gun placed in the grounded anode was used as an ion source, and source plasma (nitrogen) of current density approx. = 25 A/cm 2 , duration approx. = 1.5 μs was injected into the acceleration gap. The ions are successfully accelerated from the grounded anode to the drift tube by applying negative pulse of voltage 180 kV, duration 60 ns to the drift tube. Pulsed ion beam of current density approx. = 40 A/cm 2 , duration approx. 60 ns was obtained at 42 mm downstream from the anode surface. (author)

  20. Ion beam irradiation effects on aromatic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukushima, Satoshi; Ueno, Keiji

    1995-01-01

    We studied the optical and thermal properties of aromatic polymer films which had been irradiated with 1 MeV H + , H 2 + and He + ions. The examined aromatic polymers were polyetherether ketone(PEEK), polyetherimide(PEI), polyether sulfon(PES), polysulfon(PSF), and polyphenylene sulfide(PPS). The optical densities at 300nm of PES and PSF greatly increased after the irradiation. The optical densities at 400nm of all the examined polymer lineally increased with the irradiation dose. The PEEK film which had been irradiated with 1 MeV H + was not deformed above melting point. This demonstrates that cross-linking occurs in PEEK films by ion beam irradiation. As for the effects, depending on the mass of the irradiated ions, it was found that the ions with a high mass induced larger effects on the aromatic polymers for the same absorption energy. (author)

  1. Surface generation of negative hydrogen ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommel, P.J.M. van.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations on negative hydrogen ion sources at the ampere level. Formation of H - ions occurs when positive hydrogen ions capture two electrons at metal surfaces. The negative ionization probability of hydrogen at metal surfaces increases strongly with decreasing work function of the surface. The converters used in this study are covered with cesium. Usually there are 'surface plasma sources' in which the hydrogen source plasma interacts with a converter. In this thesis the author concentrates upon investigating a new concept that has converters outside the plasma. In this approach a positive hydrogen ion beam is extracted from the plasma and is subsequently reflected from a low work function converter surface. (Auth.)

  2. Deflagration wave formed by ion beam, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Kasuya, K.; Niu, K.; Tamba, M.

    1979-06-01

    Analyses are given for structures of deflagration waves formed by ion beams in spherical targets. The singularity at the sonic point disappears in the spherical target if the beam pressure is in balance with the plasma pressure. The expanding supersonic flow of the background plasma can be connected with the subsonic flow in the core of the target through the deflagration wave. The length and the strength of the deflagration wave in the spherical target is comparable with the corresponding ones in the slab target. (author)

  3. Light-ion beam for microelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, L.; Tardy, P.; Wantz, G.; Huby, N.; Moretto, P.; Serani, L.; Natali, F.; Damilano, B.; Duboz, J.Y.; Reverchon, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the structure and the composition of (Al,Ga)N/GaN Bragg reflectors obtained from Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Bragg reflectors constitute a part of blue (λ = 450 nm) resonant cavity light emitting diodes. To improve the measurement accuracy, three tilt angles have been used (10 deg. , 25 deg. and 50 deg. ). In a second part of the paper, ion beam induced charges study has been carried out, with a 2 MeV 4 He + micro-beam, on metal-semiconductor-metal UV photodetectors. Results have been taken into account for the design of the photodetector electrodes

  4. On the polarized beam acceleration in medium energy synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture note reviews physics of spin motion in a synchrotron, spin depolarization mechanisms of spin resonances, and methods of overcoming the spin resonances during acceleration. Techniques used in accelerating polarized ions in the low/medium energy synchrotrons, such as the ZGS, the AGS, SATURNE, and the KEK PS and PS Booster are discussed. Problems related to polarized proton acceleration with snakes or partial snake are also examined

  5. On the polarized beam acceleration in medium energy synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-12-31

    This lecture note reviews physics of spin motion in a synchrotron, spin depolarization mechanisms of spin resonances, and methods of overcoming the spin resonances during acceleration. Techniques used in accelerating polarized ions in the low/medium energy synchrotrons, such as the ZGS, the AGS, SATURNE, and the KEK PS and PS Booster are discussed. Problems related to polarized proton acceleration with snakes or partial snake are also examined.

  6. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  7. Neutralization principles for the Extraction and Transport of Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Riege, H

    2000-01-01

    The strict application of conventional extraction techniques of ion beams from a plasma source is characterized by a natural intensity limit determined by space charge.The extracted current may be enhanced far beyond this limit by neutralizing the space charge of the extracted ions in the first extraction gap of the source with electrons injected from the opposite side. The transverse and longitudinal emittances of a neutralized ion beam, hence its brightness, are preserved. Results of beam compensation experiments, which have been carried out with a laser ion source, are resumed for proposing a general scheme of neutralizing ion sources and their adjacent low-energy beam transport channels with electron beams. Many technical applications of high-mass ion beam neutralization technology may be identified: the enhancement of ion source output for injection into high-intensity, low-and high-energy accelerators, or ion thrusters in space technology, for the neutral beams needed for plasma heating of magnetic conf...

  8. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton W, Frederick; Walsh S, David; Doyle L, Barney; Dodd E, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a -.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients

  9. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEXTON,FREDERICK W.; WALSH,DAVID S.; DOYLE,BARNEY L.; DODD,PAUL E.

    2000-04-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a {minus}.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients.

  10. Neutralized ion beam modification of cellulose membranes for study of ion charge effect on ion-beam-induced DNA transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Wanichapichart, P.; Yu, L. D.

    2012-02-01

    Low-energy ion beam biotechnology (IBBT) has recently been rapidly developed worldwide. Ion-beam-induced DNA transfer is one of the important applications of IBBT. However, mechanisms involved in this application are not yet well understood. In this study plasma-neutralized ion beam was applied to investigate ion charge effect on induction of DNA transfer. Argon ion beam at 7.5 keV was neutralized by RF-driven plasma in the beam path and then bombarded cellulose membranes which were used as the mimetic plant cell envelope. Electrical properties such as impedance and capacitance of the membranes were measured after the bombardment. An in vitro experiment on plasmid DNA transfer through the cellulose membrane was followed up. The results showed that the ion charge input played an important role in the impedance and capacitance changes which would affect DNA transfer. Generally speaking, neutral particle beam bombardment of biologic cells was more effective in inducing DNA transfer than charged ion beam bombardment.

  11. Beam analysis spectrometer for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Subramanian, T.S.; McDonald, W.J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Sadoff, A.; Gabor, G.

    1983-01-01

    A versatile spectrometer useful for measuring the mass, charge, energy, fluence and angular distribution of primaries and fragments associated with relativistic heavy ion beams is described. The apparatus is designed to provide accurate physical data for biology experiments and medical therapy planning as a function of depth in tissue. The spectrometer can also be used to measure W, the average energy to produce an ion pair, range-energy, dE/dx, and removal cross section data of interest in nuclear physics. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  13. Method of measuring the polarization of high momentum proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A method of measuring the polarization of high momentum proton beams is proposed. This method utilizes the Primakoff effect and relates asymmetries at high energy to large asymmetries already measured at low energy. Such a new method is essential for the success of future experiments at energies where present methods are no longer feasible

  14. Production of microbunched beams of very highly charged ions with an electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckli, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources produce very highly charged ions most efficiently in a batch mode as the confinement time can be directly optimized for the production of the desired charge state. If, after confinement, the voltage of the ion-confining downstream dam is lowered rapidly, all ions escape and form an ion beam pulse with a length of a few tens of μs. Raising the main trap voltage while maintaining a constant dam voltage in a open-quotes spill-over expulsionclose quotes reduces the energy spread of the expelled ions. The longer time periods of open-quotes slow-,close quotes open-quotes leaky batch mode-,close quotes and open-quotes direct current (dc) batch mode-close quotes expulsions allow for increasing the ion beam duty cycle. Combining the rapid expulsion with one of the latter methods allows for the expulsion of the ions of a single batch in many small microbunches with variable intervals, maintaining the low energy spread and the increased duty cycle of slow expulsions. Combining the open-quotes microbunchingclose quotes with open-quotes dc batch mode productionclose quotes and a multitrap operation will eventually allow for the production of equally intense ion bunches over a wide range of frequencies without any deadtime, and with minimal compromise on the most efficient production parameters. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  15. Ion-acoustic solitons in a plasma with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfandyari, A. R.; Khorram, S.

    2001-01-01

    Ion-acoustic solitons in a collisionless plasma consisting of warm ions, hot isothermal electrons and a electron beam are studied by using the reductive perturbation method. The basic set of fluid equations is reduced to Korteweg-de Vries and modified Korteweg-de Vries temperature and electron beam on ion acoustic equations. The effect of ion solitons are investigated

  16. Bayesian analysis of ion beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Fischer, R.; Dose, V.

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam diagnostics are routinely used for quantitative analysis of the surface composition of mixture materials up to a depth of a few μm. Unfortunately, advantageous properties of the diagnostics, like high depth resolution in combination with a large penetration depth, no destruction of the surface, high sensitivity for large as well as for small atomic numbers, and high sensitivity are mutually exclusive. Among other things, this is due to the ill-conditioned inverse problem of reconstructing depth distributions of the composition elements. Robust results for depth distributions are obtained with adaptive methods in the framework of Bayesian probability theory. The method of adaptive kernels allows for distributions which contain only the significant information of the data while noise fitting is avoided. This is achieved by adaptively reducing the degrees of freedom supporting the distribution. As applications for ion beam diagnostics Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and particle induced X-ray emission are shown

  17. Ion beam therapy fundamentals, technology, clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The book provides a detailed, up-to-date account of the basics, the technology, and the clinical use of ion beams for radiation therapy. Theoretical background, technical components, and patient treatment schemes are delineated by the leading experts that helped to develop this field from a research niche to its current highly sophisticated and powerful clinical treatment level used to the benefit of cancer patients worldwide. Rather than being a side-by-side collection of articles, this book consists of related chapters. It is a common achievement by 76 experts from around the world. Their expertise reflects the diversity of the field with radiation therapy, medical and accelerator physics, radiobiology, computer science, engineering, and health economics. The book addresses a similarly broad audience ranging from professionals that need to know more about this novel treatment modality or consider to enter the field of ion beam therapy as a researcher. However, it is also written for the interested public an...

  18. Ion sources development at GANIL for radioactive beams and high charge state ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine-Landre, F.; Rataud, J.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.C.; Maunoury, L.

    2001-01-01

    The GANIL laboratory has in charge the production of ion beams for nuclear and non nuclear physics. This article reviews the last developments that are underway in the fields of radioactive ion beam production, increase of the metallic ion intensities and production of highly charges ion beams. (authors)

  19. Glory scattering with a polarized NO beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuis, H.; Stolte, S.; Klaassen, D.; Reuss, J.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the anisotropy A = (sigma(parallel)-sigma(perp.))/sigma(parallel) in the total collision cross section for NO-Ar, -Kr and -Xe have been extended to relativistic velocities up to 1.4 km sec -1 ; sigma(parallel)(sigma(perp.)) stands for the total collision cross section of the NO-molecule in the J = Ω = msub(j) = 3/2 state polarized parallel (perpendicular) to the relative velocity vsub(rel). Several glory undulations for each system are resolved and can be described with existing DWA-JWKB theory. So far measurements of A over a large velocity range have only been carried out for oriented H 2 -molecules. Due to their low mass, only the transition and the N=1 glory regions could be investigated. This study on NO is more of semiclassical nature and allows the exploration of anisotropic glories from N<2 up to N=4. (Auth.)

  20. Scattering of linearly polarized Bessel beams by dielectric spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoorian, Hamed

    2017-09-01

    The scattering of a Linearly Polarized Bessel Beam (LPBB) by an isotropic and homogenous dielectric sphere is investigated. Using analytical relation between the cylindrical and the spherical vector wave functions, all the closed- form analytical expressions, in terms of spherical wave-functions expansions, are derived for the scattered field. It is shown that in the case of conical angle of incident Bessel beam is equal to zero, the Linearly Polarized Bessel Beam becomes a plane wave and its scattering coefficients become the same as the expansion coefficients of plane wave in Mie theory. The transverse Cartesian and spherical components of the electric field, scattered by a sphere are shown in the z-plane for different cases, moreover the intensity of the incident Bessel beam and the effects of its conical angle on the scattered field and the field inside the sphere are investigated. To quantitatively study the scattering phenomenon and the variations of the fields inside and outside of the sphere, the scattering and absorption efficiencies are obtained for the scattering of the linearly-polarized Bessel beam, and are compared with those of the plane wave scattering.

  1. Simulations of multistage intense ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, S.A.; Poukey, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    An analytic theory for magnetically insulated, multistage acceleration of high intensity ion beams, where the diamagnetic effect due to electron flow is important, has been presented by Slutz and Desjarlais. The theory predicts the existence of two limiting voltages called V 1 (W) and V 2 (W), which are both functions of the injection energy qW of ions entering the accelerating gap. As the voltage approaches V 1 (W), unlimited beam-current density can penetrate the gap without the formation of a virtual anode because the dynamic gap goes to zero. Unlimited beam current density can penetrate an accelerating gap above V 2 (W), although a virtual anode is formed. It was found that the behavior of these limiting voltages is strongly dependent on the electron density profile. The authors have investigated the behavior of these limiting voltages numerically using the 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) code MAGIC. Results of these simulations are consistent with the superinsulated analytic results. This is not surprising, since the ignored coordinate eliminates instabilities known to be important from studies of single stage magnetically insulated ion diodes. To investigate the effect of these instabilities the authors have simulated the problem with the 3-D PIC code QUICKSILVER, which indicates behavior that is consistent with the saturated model

  2. Ion accumulation and space charge neutralization in intensive electron beams for ion sources and electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS), Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBIT) and electron beams for electron cooling application have the beam parameters in the same ranges of magnitudes. EBIS and EBIT produce and accumulate ions in the beam due to electron impact ionization. The cooling electron beam accumulates positive ions from the residual gas in the accelerator chamber during the cooling cycle. The space charge neutralization of cooling beam is also used to reduce the electron energy spread and enhance the cooling ability. The advanced results of experimental investigations and theoretical models of the EBIS electron beams are applied to analyze the problem of beam neutralization in the electron cooling techniques. The report presents the analysis of the most important processes connected with ion production, accumulation and losses in the intensive electron beams of ion sources and electron cooling systems for proton and ion colliders. The inelastic and elastic collision processes of charged particles in the electron beams are considered. The inelastic processes such as ionization, charge exchange and recombination change the charge states of ions and neutral atoms in the beam. The elastic Coulomb collisions change the energy of particles and cause the energy redistribution among components in the electron-ion beams. The characteristic times and specific features of ionization, beam neutralization, ion heating and loss in the ion sources and electron cooling beams are determined. The dependence of negative potential in the beam cross section on neutralization factor is studied. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Broad beam ion sources and some surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, H.; Scholze, F.; Tarz, M.; Schindler, A.; Wiese, R.; Nestler, M.; Blum, T.

    2005-01-01

    Modern broad-beam multi-aperture ion sources are widely used in material and surface technology applications. Customizing the generated ion beam properties (i. e. the ion current density profile) for specific demands of the application is a main challenge in the improvement of the ion beam technologies. First we introduce ion sources based on different plasma excitation principles shortly. An overview of source plasma and ion beam measurement methods deliver input data for modelling methods. This beam profile modelling using numerical trajectory codes and the validation of the results by Faraday cup measurements as a basis for ion beam profile design are described. Furthermore possibilities for ex situ and in situ beam profile control are demonstrated, like a special method for in situ control of a linear ion source beam profile, a grid modification for circular beam profile design and a cluster principle for broad beam sources. By means of these methods, the beam shape may be adapted to specific technological demands. Examples of broad beam source application in ion beam figuring of optical surfaces, modification of stainless steel, photo voltaic processes and deposition of EUVL-multilayer stacks are finally presented. (Author)

  4. Development of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) construction project has been completed and the first radioactive ion beam has been successfully accelerated. The project, which began in 1992, has involved numerous facility modifications. The Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron has been converted from an energy booster for heavy ion beams to a light ion accelerator with internal ion source. A target-ion source and mass analysis system have been commissioned as key components of the facility's radioactive ion beam injector to the 25MV tandem electrostatic accelerator. Beam transport lines have been completed, and new diagnostics for very low intensity beams have been developed. Work continues on a unified control system. Development of research quality radioactive beams for the nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics communities continues. This paper details facility development to date

  5. Ion beam deposited epitaxial thin silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrman-Rossiter, K.G.; Al-Bayati, A.H.; Armour, D.G.; Donnelly, S.E.; Berg, J.A. van den

    1991-01-01

    Deposition of thin films using low energy, mass-separated ion beams is a potentially important low temperature method of producing epitaxial layers. In these experiments silicon films were grown on Si (001) substrates using 10-200 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at substrate temperatures in the range 273-1073 K, under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions (deposition pressure -7 Pa). The film crystallinity was assessed in situ using medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). Films of crystallinity comparable to bulk samples were grown using 10-40 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at deposition temperatures in the range 623-823 K. These experiments confirmed the role of key experimental parameters such as ion energy, substrate temperature during deposition, and the surface treatment prior to deposition. It was found that a high temperature in situ anneal (1350-1450 K) gave the best results for epitaxial nucleation, whereas low energy (20-40 eV) Cl + ion bombardment resulted in amorphous film growth. The deposition energy for good epitaxial growth indicates that it is necessary to provide enough energy to induce local mobility but not to cause atomic displacements leading to the buildup of stable defects, e.g. divacancies, below the surface layer of the growing film. (orig.)

  6. Mutation induction of orchids by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Sakinah Ariffin; Oono, Yutaka; Hase, Yoshihiro; Shikazono; Naoya; Narumi, Issay; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Mutation induction using ionizing radiation provides an effective alternative means for improvement of orchids. In this study, ion beams were used because they have much higher linear energy transfer (LET) than X-rays or gamma rays, and subsequently lead to higher mutation frequency and broad mutation spectrum. The proto corm-like bodies (PLBs) of three orchid species (Dendrobium crumenatum, Dendrobium mirbellianum) were irradiated at various doses with 320 MeV 12 C 6+ ions accelerated by Azimuthally Varying Field (AVF) cyclotron at JAEAs Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA). The optimum irradiation condition and the effect of irradiation on each species were studied, particularly on flower colour and morphology, flowering habit and insect resistance. Dose effects on plantlet regeneration for each species were also obtained. Some morphological changes were observed in flowers of Dendrobium crumenatum, whilst one insect resistant mutant was obtained in Dendrobium mirbellianum. (author)

  7. Focused ion beam technology and ultimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierak, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    In this topical review, the potential of the focused ion beam (FIB) technology and ultimate applications are reviewed. After an introduction to the technology and to the operating principles of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), of ion optics and instrument architectures, several applications are described and discussed. First, the application of FIB for microcircuit inspection, metrology and failure analysis is presented. Then, we introduce and illustrate some advanced patterning schemes we propose as next generation FIB processing examples. These patterning schemes are (i) local defect injection or smoothing in magnetic thin film direct patterning, (ii) functionalization of graphite substrates to guide organization of clusters, (iii) local and selective epitaxy of III–V semiconductor quantum dots and (iv) FIB patterned solid-state nanopores for biological molecules manipulation and analysis. We conclude this work by giving our vision of the future developments for FIB technology. (topical review)

  8. QCD tests with SLD and polarized beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, M.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The author presents a measurement of the strong coupling {alpha}{sub s} derived from multijet rates using data collected by the SLD experiment at SLAC and find that {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup 2}) = 0.118 {+-} 0.002(stat.) {+-} 0.003(syst.) {+-} 0.010(theory). He presents tests of the flavor independence of strong interactions via preliminary measurements of the ratios {alpha}{sub s}(b)/{alpha}{sub s}(udsc) and {alpha}{sub s}(uds)/{alpha}{sub s}(bc). In addition, the group has measured the difference in charged particle multiplicity between Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b} and Z{sup 0} {yields} u{bar u}, d{bar d}, s{bar s} events, and find that it supports the prediction of perturbative QCD that the multiplicity difference be independent of center-of-mass energy. Finally, the group has made a preliminary study of jet polarization using the jet handedness technique.

  9. Laboratory of ion beam applications at ATOMKI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely-Kiss, I.; Huszank, R.; Kertesz, Zs.; Kiss, A.Z.; Koltay, E.; Rajta, I.; Simon, A.; Szabo, Gy.; Szikszai, Z.; Szilasi, S.Z.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Uzonyi, I.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. The Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications of ATOMKI is devoted to applications of atomic and nuclear physics in the fields of environmental research, biomedicine, geology, materials and surface science (including ion beam induced damage investigations and proton beam lithography) and cultural heritage research. We perform our work in the frame of various projects and collaborations: EU, IAEA, R and D, OTKA, etc. Our laboratory provides service for external (national and international) and internal users and contributes to higher education, as well. The Laboratory is based on the home-made 5 MV Van de Graaff (VdG) electrostatic accelerator of the institute. The accelerator was put into operation in 1971 and in the beginning it supplied ion beams exclusively for nuclear physics. A few years later with the measurements of K-shell ionization cross sections the door became open also for basic atomic physics. In parallel with this basic study, the application of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the elemental analysis of biological (hair, erythrocyte and blood plasma) samples and atmospheric aerosols also started. The first paper on PIXE, a methodological one, was published in 1978. The experience gained on these applications and later on archaeology led to the construction of complex PIXE chambers, which were sold, together with the corresponding know-how, to institutions in China, Portugal, Bangladesh, Jordan, North Korea, Singapore, Cuba and Mexico through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For the evaluation of PIXE spectra the laboratory has been continuously developing its own computer programme package. The first version of this continuous development was published in 1988. In the meantime a second IBA analysis method, the proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE), was introduced in the laboratory and was applied simultaneously with PIXE. Application of deuteron induced gamma ray emission (DIGE) started more than a decade later. A

  10. POLARIZED BEAMS: 2 - Partial Siberian Snake rescues polarized protons at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haixin

    1994-01-01

    To boost the level of beam polarization (spin orientation), a partial 'Siberian Snake' was recently used to overcome imperfection depolarizing resonances in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). This 9-degree spin rotator recently permitted acceleration with no noticeable polarization loss. The intrinsic AGS depolarizing resonances (which degrade the polarization content) had been eliminated by betatron tune jumps, but the imperfection resonances were compensated by means of harmonic orbit corrections. However, at high energies these orbit corrections are difficult and tedious and a Siberian Snake became an attractive alternative

  11. Multiport optical circulator by using polarizing beam splitter cubes as spatial walk-off polarizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang; Lin, Jiun-You; Hsieh, Hsiang-Yung

    2010-03-10

    Optical circulators are necessary passive devices applied in optical communication systems. In the design of optical circulators, the implementation of the function of spatial walk-off polarizers is a key technique that significantly influences the performance and cost of a device. This paper proposes a design of a multiport optical circulator by using polarizing beam splitter cubes as spatial walk-off polarizers. To show the feasibility of the design, a prototype of a six-port optical circulator was fabricated. The insertion losses are 0.94-1.49 dB, the isolations are 25-51 dB, and return losses are 27.72 dB.

  12. Coherent electromagnetic radiation of a combined electron-ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, S G; Samoshenkov, Yu K [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Optiko-Fizicheskikh Izmerenij, Moscow (USSR)

    1977-07-01

    The intensity of coherent electromagnetic radiation due to interaction of a modulated electron beam with a modulated ion beam is calculated. It is shown that the radiation intensity has a sharp maximum at the frequency equal to the difference of the modulation frequency of the electron and ion beams. The results obtained are compared with those corresponding to the scattering of a modulated electron beam on randomly distributed gas ions.

  13. Polarization of the sigma minus hyperon produced by a polarized neutral particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    A spin transfer technique has been tried in an attempt to produce a beam of polarized hyperons. The method makes use of a two-stage targeting scheme where unpolarized protons from Fermilab's Tevatron incident on target number one (Cu) at production angles of ±2.0 mrad would produce a beam of particles containing polarized Λs and Ξs as well as neutrons and Ks. This secondary beam would then be swept magnetically to retain only neutral particles and brought to bear on target number two (Cu) at 0.0 mrad, producing a tertiary beam of hyperons. The polarization of some 1.3 millions reconstructed Σ - → nπ - events in this tertiary beam (the Σ - having been produced in the inclusive reaction neutrals + Cu → Σ - + X) has been measured at average Σ - momenta 320 GeV/c (1.14 millions events) and 410 GeV/c (135,000 events) and found to be |P| = 3.9 ± 3.2 ± 1.8% and |P| = 13.9 ± 8.1 ± 2.0% respectively, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. These polarizations are small and consistent with zero, and preclude a meaningful measurement of the Σ - magnetic moment by the spin precession method. The sign of the polarizations at the target is ambiguous, giving rise to two possible different solutions for the magnetic moment-one of two possible different solutions for the magnetic moment-one of which distinctly disagrees with the world average value for the moment. However, this solution fits the data slightly better than the other. This inconsistency would not exist if the polarization is, in fact, zero

  14. Development of ion/proton beam equipment for industrial uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Lee, J. H.; Cho, Y. S.; Joo, P. K.; Kang, S. S.; Song, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Chang, G. H.; Bang, S. W

    1999-12-01

    KAERI has possessed design and fabrication technologies of various ion sources including Duoplasmatron and DuoPiGatron developed by R and D projects of the long-term nuclear technology development program. In order to industrialize ion beam equipments utilizing these ion sources, a technology transfer project for a technology transfer project for a domestic firm has been performed. Under this project, engineers of the firm have been trained through classroom lectures of ion beam principles and OJT, an ion/proton beam equipment (DEMO equipment) has been designed, assembled and commissioned jointly with the engineers. Quality of the ion sources has been quantified, and technologies for ion beam equipment construction, functional test and application research have been developed. The DEMO equipment, which consists of an ion source, power supplies, vacuum, cooling and target systems, has been fabricated and tested to secure stability and reliability for industrial uses. Various characteristic tests including high voltage insulation, beam extraction, beam current measuring, etc. have been performed. This DEMO can be utilized for ion sources development as well as ion beam process development for various industrial products. Engineers of the firm have been trained for the industrialization of ion beam equipment and joined in beam application technology development to create industrial needs of beam equipment. (author)

  15. Tight focusing of radially polarized circular Airy vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Musheng; Huang, Sujuan; Shao, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Tight focusing properties of radially polarized circular Airy vortex beams (CAVB) are studied numerically. The light field expressions for the focused fields are derived based on vectorial Debye theory. We also study the relationship between focal profiles, such as light intensity distribution, radius of focal spot and focal length, and the parameters of CAVB. Numerical results demonstrate that we can generate a radially polarized CAVB with super-long focal length, super-strong longitudinal intensity or subwavelength focused spot at the focal plane by properly choosing the parameters of incident light and high numerical aperture (NA) lens. These results have potential applications for optical trapping, optical storage and particle acceleration.

  16. Broad ion beam serial section tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, B., E-mail: b.winiarski@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Gholinia, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mingard, K.; Gee, M. [Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Here we examine the potential of serial Broad Ion Beam (BIB) Ar{sup +} ion polishing as an advanced serial section tomography (SST) technique for destructive 3D material characterisation for collecting data from volumes with lateral dimensions significantly greater than 100 µm and potentially over millimetre sized areas. Further, the associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. Block face serial sectioning data registration schemes usually assume that the data comprises a series of parallel, planar slices. We quantify the variations in slice thickness and parallelity which can arise when using BIB systems comparing Gatan PECS and Ilion BIB systems for large volume serial sectioning and 3D-EBSD data acquisition. As a test case we obtain 3D morphologies and grain orientations for both phases of a WC-11%wt. Co hardmetal. In our case we have carried out the data acquisition through the manual transfer of the sample between SEM and BIB which is a very slow process (1–2 slice per day), however forthcoming automated procedures will markedly speed up the process. We show that irrespective of the sectioning method raw large area 2D-EBSD maps are affected by distortions and artefacts which affect 3D-EBSD such that quantitative analyses and visualisation can give misleading and erroneous results. Addressing and correcting these issues will offer real benefits when large area (millimetre sized) automated serial section BIBS is developed. - Highlights: • In this work we examine how microstructures can be reconstructed in three-dimensions (3D) by serial argon broad ion beam (BIB) milling, enabling much larger volumes (>250×250×100µm{sup 3}) to be acquired than by serial section focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). • The associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D-EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. • We explore

  17. Focused ion beam milling of carbon fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huson, Mickey G.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Hillbrick, Linda K.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Sridhar, Manoj; Van De Meene, Allison M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A focused ion beam has been used to mill both individual carbon fibres as well as fibres in an epoxy composite, with a view to preparing flat surfaces for nano-indentation. The milled surfaces have been assessed for damage using scanning probe microscopy nano-indentation and Raman micro-probe analysis, revealing that FIB milling damages the carbon fibre surface and covers surrounding areas with debris of disordered carbon. The debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. The energy of milling as well as the orientation of the beam was varied and shown to have an effect when assessed by Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to mill flat surfaces on carbon fibres. • Raman spectroscopy showed amorphous carbon was generated during FIB milling. • The amorphous debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. • This surface degradation was confirmed by nano-indentation experiments.

  18. Ion beam induces nitridation of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petravic, M.; Williams, J.S.; Conway, M.

    1998-01-01

    High dose ion bombardment of silicon with reactive species, such as oxygen and nitrogen, has attracted considerable interest due to possible applications of beam-induced chemical compounds with silicon. For example, high energy oxygen bombardment of Si is now routinely used to form buried oxide layers for device purposes, the so called SIMOX structures. On the other hand, Si nitrides, formed by low energy ( 100 keV) nitrogen beam bombardment of Si, are attractive as oxidation barriers or gate insulators, primarily due to the low diffusivity of many species in Si nitrides. However, little data exists on silicon nitride formation during bombardment and its angle dependence, in particular for N 2 + bombardment in the 10 keV range, which is of interest for analytical techniques such as SIMS. In SIMS, low energy oxygen ions are more commonly used as bombarding species, as oxygen provides stable ion yields and enhances the positive secondary ion yield. Therefore, a large body of data can be found in the literature on oxide formation during low energy oxygen bombardment. Nitrogen bombardment of Si may cause similar effects to oxygen bombardment, as nitrogen and oxygen have similar masses and ranges in Si, show similar sputtering effects and both have the ability to form chemical compounds with Si. In this work we explore this possibility in some detail. We compare oxide and nitride formation during oxygen and nitrogen ion bombardment of Si under similar conditions. Despite the expected similar behaviour, some large differences in compound formation were found. These differences are explained in terms of different atomic diffusivities in oxides and nitrides, film structural differences and thermodynamic properties. (author)

  19. Nanodevices produced with focussed ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doetsch, U.; Wieck, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    In directly writing the 30 nm focus of a focussed Ga-ion beam (FIB) with an energy of 100 keV we define insulating lines in two-dimensional electronic layers in semiconductors. Ga ions act in GaAs and silicon as deep impurities or p-type doping, respectively. In this way the insulation by such written lines is due to lateral depletion within npn-like interfaces. In writing two FIB lines with a close spacing we define conducting channels between them. In applying a voltage of several Volts to the adjacent areas of the channel relative to it we can tune the effective width of the channel in the range of a few 100 nm to zero and obtain thus a one-dimensional field-effect-transistor-type structure. This transistor exhibits a pure lateral field effect and is thus topologically very different to current transistor concepts. Due to its particular geometry it is called in-plane-gate (IPG) transistor, since the gate and the channel are in the same plane. The fabrication of this type of transistor is thus completely maskless and does not require any alignment procedures since gate, source and drain are all written in the same writing process. Due to the computer-control of the beam deflection even more complex structures are just a question of software and do not need a set of specific masks or photoresist like in the classical lithography. The required line ion dose is of the order of 10 6 cm -1 which means that there are about 100 ions per μm implanted. For devices with maximum micron dimensions only a few hundred ions need thus to be implanted. (orig.)

  20. Analytical and numerical studies of positive ion beam expansion for surface treatment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounes-Mahloul, Soumya; Bendib, Abderrezeg; Oudini, Noureddine

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the expansion in vacuum, of a positive ion beam with the use of one dimensional (1D) analytic model and a two dimensional Particle-In-Cell (2D-PIC) simulation. The ion beam is extracted and accelerated from preformed plasma by an extraction system composed of two polarized parallel perforated grids. The results obtained with both approaches reveal the presence of a potential barrier downstream the extraction system which tends to reflect the ion flux. The dependence of the critical distance for which all extracted ions are reflected, is investigated as a function of the extracted ion beam current density. In particular, it is shown that the 1D model recovers the well-known Child-Langmuir law and that the 2D simulation presents a significant discrepancy with respect to the 1D prediction. Indeed, for a given value of current density, the transverse effects lead to a greater critical distance.

  1. Progress on the design of the polarized Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider at JLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, F.; Bogacz, A.; Brindza, P.; Camsonne, A.; Daly, E.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Douglas, D.; Ent, R.; Gaskell, D.; Geng, R.; Grames, J.; Guo, J.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Jordan, K.; Kimber, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Michalski, T.; Morozov, V. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; /Jefferson Lab /Argonne /DESY /Moscow , Inst. Phys. Tech., Dolgoprydny /Dubna, JINR /Northern Illinois U. /Old Doominion U. /Novosibirsk, GOO Zaryad /SLAC /Texas A-M

    2015-07-14

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab is designed to provide high luminosity and high polarization needed to reach new frontiers in the exploration of nuclear structure. The luminosity, exceeding 1033 cm-2s-1 in a broad range of the center-of-mass (CM) energy and maximum luminosity above 1034 cm-2s-1, is achieved by high-rate collisions of short small-emittance low-charge bunches made possible by high-energy electron cooling of the ion beam and synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. The polarization of light ion species (p, d, 3He) can be easily preserved and manipulated due to the unique figure-8 shape of the collider rings. A fully consistent set of parameters have been developed considering the balance of machine performance, required technical development and cost. This paper reports recent progress on the MEIC accelerator design including electron and ion complexes, integrated interaction region design, figure-8-ring-based electron and ion polarization schemes, RF/SRF systems and ERL-based high-energy electron cooling. Luminosity performance is also presented for the MEIC baseline design.

  2. 3D-Printed Beam Splitter for Polar Neutral Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sean D. S.; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    We describe a macroscopic beam splitter for polar neutral molecules. A complex electrode structure is required for the beam splitter which would be very difficult to produce with traditional manufacturing methods. Instead, we make use of a nascent manufacturing technique: 3D printing of a plastic piece, followed by electroplating. This fabrication method opens a plethora of avenues for research, since 3D printing imposes practically no limitations on possible shapes, and the plating produces chemically robust, conductive construction elements with an almost free choice of surface material. It has the added advantage of dramatically reduced production cost and time. Our beam splitter is an electrostatic hexapole guide that smoothly transforms into two bent quadrupoles. We demonstrate the correct functioning of this device by separating a supersonic molecular beam of ND3 into two correlated fractions. It is shown that this device can be used to implement experiments with differential detection wherein one of the fractions serves as a probe and the other as a reference. Reverse operation would allow the merging of two beams of polar neutral molecules.

  3. Performance with lead ions of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Jensen, L; Lefèvre, T; Weterings, W

    2007-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system must function safely with 208Pb82+ions. The differences with respect to the LHC proton beams are briefly recalled, and the possible areas for performance concerns discussed, in particular the various beam intercepting devices and the beam instrumentation. Energy deposition simulation results for the most critical elements are presented, and the conclusions drawn for the lead ion operation. The expected performance of the beam instrumentation systems are reviewed in the context of the damage potential of the ion beam and the required functionality of the various safety and post-operational analysis requirements.

  4. Steady state ion acceleration by a circularly polarized laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaomei; Shen Baifei; Cang Yu; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying; Wang Fengchao

    2007-01-01

    The steady state ion acceleration at the front of a cold solid target by a circularly polarized flat-top laser pulse is studied with one-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A model that ions are reflected by a steady laser-driven piston is used by comparing with the electrostatic shock acceleration. A stable profile with a double-flat-top structure in phase space forms after ions enter the undisturbed region of the target with a constant velocity

  5. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B

    2012-08-01

    Researchers have envisioned an electron-ion collider with ion species up to heavy ions, high polarization of electrons and light ions, and a well-matched center-of-mass energy range as an ideal gluon microscope to explore new frontiers of nuclear science. In its most recent Long Range Plan, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation endorsed such a collider in the form of a 'half-recommendation.' As a response to this science need, Jefferson Lab and its user community have been engaged in feasibility studies of a medium energy polarized electron-ion collider (MEIC), cost-effectively utilizing Jefferson Lab's already existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). In close collaboration, this community of nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists has rigorously explored the science case and design concept for this envisioned grand instrument of science. An electron-ion collider embodies the vision of reaching the next frontier in Quantum Chromodynamics - understanding the behavior of hadrons as complex bound states of quarks and gluons. Whereas the 12 GeV Upgrade of CEBAF will map the valence-quark components of the nucleon and nuclear wave functions in detail, an electron-ion collider will determine the largely unknown role sea quarks play and for the first time study the glue that binds all atomic nuclei. The MEIC will allow nuclear scientists to map the spin and spatial structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadrons from quarks and gluons. The proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab will collide a highly polarized electron beam originating from the CEBAF recirculating superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) linear accelerator (linac) with highly polarized light-ion beams or unpolarized light- to heavy-ion beams from a new ion accelerator and storage complex. Since the very

  6. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeyratne, S.; Accardi, A.; Ahmed, S.; Barber, D.; Bisognano, J.; Bogacz, A.; Castilla, A.; Chevtsov, P.; Corneliussen, S.; Deconinck, W.; Degtiarenko, P.; Delayen, J.; Derbenev, Ya.; DeSilva, S.; Douglas, D.; Dudnikov, V.; Ent, R.; Erdelyi, B.; Evtushenko, P.; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D.; Geng, R.; Guzey, V.; Horn, T.; Hutton, A.; Hyde, C.; Johnson, R.; Kim, Y.; Klein, F.; Kondratenko, A.; Kondratenko, M.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Lin, F.; Manikonda, S.; Marhauser, F.; McKeown, R.; Morozov, V.; Dadel-Turonski, P.; Nissen, E.; Ostroumov, P.; Pivi, M.; Pilat, F.; Poelker, M.; Prokudin, A.; Rimmer, R.; Satogata, T.; Sayed, H.; Spata, M.; Sullivan, M.; Tennant, C.; Terzic, B.; Tiefenback, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, S.; Weiss, C.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have envisioned an electron-ion collider with ion species up to heavy ions, high polarization of electrons and light ions, and a well-matched center-of-mass energy range as an ideal gluon microscope to explore new frontiers of nuclear science. In its most recent Long Range Plan, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation endorsed such a collider in the form of a 'half-recommendation.' As a response to this science need, Jefferson Lab and its user community have been engaged in feasibility studies of a medium energy polarized electron-ion collider (MEIC), cost-effectively utilizing Jefferson Lab's already existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). In close collaboration, this community of nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists has rigorously explored the science case and design concept for this envisioned grand instrument of science. An electron-ion collider embodies the vision of reaching the next frontier in Quantum Chromodynamics - understanding the behavior of hadrons as complex bound states of quarks and gluons. Whereas the 12 GeV Upgrade of CEBAF will map the valence-quark components of the nucleon and nuclear wave functions in detail, an electron-ion collider will determine the largely unknown role sea quarks play and for the first time study the glue that binds all atomic nuclei. The MEIC will allow nuclear scientists to map the spin and spatial structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadrons from quarks and gluons. The proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab will collide a highly polarized electron beam originating from the CEBAF recirculating superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) linear accelerator (linac) with highly polarized light-ion beams or unpolarized light- to heavy-ion beams from a new ion accelerator and storage complex. Since the very

  7. Terahertz wave polarization beam splitter using a cascaded multimode interference structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiu-sheng; Liu, Han; Zhang, Le

    2014-08-01

    A terahertz wave polarization beam splitter, based on two cascaded multimode interference structures with different widths, is designed and numerically demonstrated. The numerical calculation results show that the designed polarization beam splitter can split transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM)-polarized terahertz waves into different propagation directions with high efficiency over a frequency range from 6.40 to 6.50 THz. This polarization beam splitter shows more than a 22.06 dB extinction ratio for TE-polarization and a 31.65 dB extinction ratio for TM-polarization. Using such a polarization beam splitter, the whole length of the polarization beam splitter is reduced to about 1/12 that of a conventional design. This enables the polarization beam splitter to be used in terahertz wave integrated circuit fields.

  8. A radioactive ion beam facility using photofission

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, W T

    1999-01-01

    Use of a high-power electron linac as the driver accelerator for a Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility is proposed. An electron beam of 30 MeV and 100 kW can produce nearly 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 fissions/s from an optimized sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U target and about 60% of this from a natural uranium target. An electron beam can be readily transmitted through a thin window at the exit of the accelerator vacuum system and transported a short distance through air to a water-cooled Bremsstrahlung-production target. The Bremsstrahlung radiation can, in turn, be transported through air to the isotope-production target. This separates the accelerator vacuum system, the Bremsstrahlung target and the isotope-production target, reducing remote handling problems. The electron beam can be scanned over a large target area to reduce the power density on both the Bremsstrahlung and isotope-production targets. These features address one of the most pressing technological challenges of a high-power RIB facility, namely the production o...

  9. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  10. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  11. Teeth characterization using ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Falla-Sotelo, F.; Curado, J.F.; Francci, C.; Markarian, R.A.; Quinelato, A.; Youssef, F.; Mori, M.; Youssef, M.

    2006-01-01

    A collaboration project between the School of Dentistry and the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been established to measure elemental concentrations in teeth by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA) techniques. Data on trace elements in human, bovine and swine teeth, analyzed by PIXE with a 2.4 MeV proton beam, were compared and concentrations for several elements were obtained with tens of μg/g sensitivity. HI-ERDA measurements employing a 52 MeV Cl beam were done to evaluate changes in elementary concentration in dental enamel after bleaching treatment with different products in 25 bovine incisors teeth. This nondestructive technique allowed the measurements of Ca, P, O and C concentrations above the limit of 100 μg/g. (author)

  12. Deflagration wave formed by ion beam, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Keishiro; Abe, Takashi; Tamba, Moritake.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is given for the structure of the deflagration wave which is formed in a target bombarded by an ion beam. Stationary deflagration and/or detonation waves are formed at the surface of the target in a case in which the reaction energy of direct fusion and/or the beam energy deposited in the target are less than a critical value. On the other hand, no solution for stationary wave exists, if the energy deposited in the wave exceeds a critical value. In the latter case, the time-dependent fundamental equations reduce approximately to a self-similar type of equations. Numerical integrations are carried out for this type of differential equations, and an example of self-similar deflagration wave numerically obtained is plotted in the figures. (author)

  13. Development of a focused ion beam micromachining system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J.G.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    Focused ion beams are currently being investigated for many submicron fabrication and analytical purposes. An FIB micromachining system consisting of a UHV vacuum system, a liquid metal ion gun, and a control and data acquisition computer has been constructed. This system is being used to develop nanofabrication and nanomachining techniques involving focused ion beams and scanning tunneling microscopes.

  14. Plasma and ion beam processing at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Henins, I.

    1994-01-01

    Efforts are underway at Los Alamos National Laboratory to utilize plasma and intense ion beam science and technology of the processing of advanced materials. A major theme involves surface modification of materials, e.g., etching, deposition, alloying, and implantation. In this paper, we concentrate on two programs, plasma source ion implantation and high-intensity pulsed ion beam deposition

  15. A beam profile monitor for heavy ion beams at high impact energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, A.; Stiebing, K.E.; Bethge, K.; Froehlich, O.; Koehler, E.; Mueller, A.; Rueschmann, G.

    1994-01-01

    A beam profile monitor for heavy ion beams has been developed for the use in experiments at the Heavy Ion Synchrotron SIS at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt (GSI). Four thin scintillation fibres are mounted on one wheel and scan the ion beam sequentially in two linearly independent directions. They are read out via one single photomultiplier common to all four fibres into one time spectrum, which provides all information about beam position, beam extension, time structure and lateral homogeneity of the beam. The system operates in a wide dynamic range of beam intensities. ((orig.))

  16. Dynamic polarization potentials in heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, R.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the polarization potential is calculated which is caused by several collective, strongly coupled states. In the framework of the considered model space the calculation of the polarization potential was exact, i.e. no approximations were made. For this purpose the Green function of the system had to be calculated. This led to a nonlocal polarization potential. For the better interpretation possibility and for the easier use in coupled-channel or optical-model calculations from the nonlocal potentials also equivalent potentials were constructed. The properties of the local and nonlocal potentials as shape, angular momentum, and energy dependence were discussed. Furthermore parametrizations were given, how polarization effects can be regarded in a simple way in optical-model or coupled-channel calculations. The calculations were performed for the systems 12 C+ 12 C and 16 O+ 16 O. To meet as realistic results as possible, parameters for the unperturbed potential were looked for which describe as many data as possible, like angular distributions, excitation functions, and alignment of the main channels. As unperturbed potential both folding potentials and phenomenological potentials were applied in order to study the differences in the polarization potential in the application of deep and flat potentials. (orig./HSI) [de

  17. High spin studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The variety of new research possibilities afforded by the culmination of the two frontier areas of nuclear structure: high spin and studies far from nuclear stability (utilizing intense radioactive ion beams) are discussed. Topics presented include: new regions of exotic nuclear shape (e.g. superdeformation, hyperdeformation, and reflection-asymmetric shapes); the population of and consequences of populating exotic nuclear configurations; and complete spectroscopy (i.e. the overlap of state of the art low-and high-spin studies in the same nucleus)

  18. High spin studies with radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J D [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The variety of new research possibilities afforded by the culmination of the two frontier areas of nuclear structure: high spin and studies far from nuclear stability (utilizing intense radioactive ion beams) are discussed. Topics presented include: new regions of exotic nuclear shape (e.g. superdeformation, hyperdeformation, and reflection-asymmetric shapes); the population of and consequences of populating exotic nuclear configurations; and, complete spectroscopy (i.e. the overlap of state of the art low- and high-spin studies in the same nucleus). (author). 47 refs., 8 figs.

  19. The CERN polarized atomic hydrogen beam target project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubischta, W.; Dick, L.

    1990-01-01

    The UA6-experiment at the CERN p bar p Colider is at present using an unpolarized hydrogen cluster target with a thickness up to 5.10 14 atoms/cm 2 . It is planned to replace this target by a polarized atomic hydrogen beam target with a thickness up to about 10 13 atoms/cm 2 . This paper discusses basic requirements and results of atom optical calculations

  20. Electron temperature effects for an ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin.

    1979-05-01

    A hydrogen high temperature plasma up to 200 eV is produced by acceleration of electrons in a hot hollow cathode discharge and is used as an ion beam source. Then, two characteristics are observed: A rate of the atomic ion (H + ) number increases above 70%. A perveance of the ion beam increases above 30 times compared with that of a cold plasma, while a floating potential of an ion acceleration electrode approaches an ion acceleration potential (- 500 V) according as an increment of the electron temperature. Moreover, a neutralized ion beam can be produced by only the negative floating electrode without an external power supply. (author)

  1. Neutron polarization measurements using the pulsed-polarized proton and deuteron beams at TUNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Nanosecond wide pulses of polarized protons or deuterons at a repetition rate of 4 MHz are now routinely available for studying interactions involving outgoing neutrons. Up to 90 nA of protons and 200 nA of deuterons have been observed on target. The authors' first experiments involved the determination of the analyzing power A /SUB y/ (UJ) for a few (→p,n) and (→d,n) reactions using conventional neutron time-of-flight detection. A major program for observing polarization effects in neutron elastic scattering has been initiated. The source of polarized neutrons for this program is the 2 H(→d,n→) 3 He reaction which yields a neutron beam having 90% of the polarization of the incident deuterons

  2. A novel polarization demodulation method using polarization beam splitter (PBS) for dynamic pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Yiming; Shen, Huiping

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we propose a new design to demodulate polarization properties induced by pressure using a PBS (polarization beam splitter), which is different with traditional polarimeter based on the 4-detector polarization measurement approach. The theoretical model is established by Muller matrix method. Experimental results confirm the validity of our analysis. Proportional relationships and linear fit are found between output signal and applied pressure. A maximum sensitivity of 0.092182 mv/mv is experimentally achieved and the frequency response exhibits a <0.14 dB variation across the measurement bandwidth. The sensitivity dependence on incident SOP (state of polarization) is investigated. The simple and all-fiber configuration, low-cost and high speed potential make it promising for fiber-based dynamic pressure sensing.

  3. Optically induced rotation of Rayleigh particles by vortex beams with different states of polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Manman; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Liang, Yansheng; Lei, Ming; Yang, Yanlong

    2016-01-01

    Optical vortex beams carry optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) and can induce an orbital motion of trapped particles in optical trapping. We show that the state of polarization (SOP) of vortex beams will affect the details of this optically induced orbital motion to some extent. Numerical results demonstrate that focusing the vortex beams with circular, radial or azimuthal polarizations can induce a uniform orbital motion on a trapped Rayleigh particle, while in the focal field of the vortex beam with linear polarization the particle experiences a non-uniform orbital motion. Among the formers, the vortex beam with circular polarization induces a maximum optical torque on the particle. Furthermore, by varying the topological charge of the vortex beams, the vortex beam with circular polarization gives rise to an optimum torque superior to those given by the other three vortex beams. These facts suggest that the circularly polarized vortex beam is more suitable for rotating particles. - Highlights: • States of polarization of vortex beams affect the optically induced orbital motion of particles. • The dependences of the force and orbital torque on the topological charge, the size and the absorptivity of particles were calculated. • Focused vortex beams with circular, radial or azimuthal polarizations induce a uniform orbital motion on particles. • Particles experience a non-uniform orbital motion in the focused linearly polarized vortex beam. • The circularly polarized vortex beam is a superior candidate for rotating particles.

  4. High-energy polarized proton beams a modern view

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffstaetter, Georg Heinz

    2006-01-01

    This monograph begins with a review of the basic equations of spin motion in particle accelerators. It then reviews how polarized protons can be accelerated to several tens of GeV using as examples the preaccelerators of HERA, a 6.3 km long cyclic accelerator at DESY / Hamburg. Such techniques have already been used at the AGS of BNL / New York, to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV. But for acceleration to energies of several hundred GeV as in RHIC, TEVATRON, HERA, LHC, or a VLHC, new problems can occur which can lead to a significantly diminished beam polarization. For these high energies, it is necessary to look in more detail at the spin motion, and for that the invariant spin field has proved to be a useful tool. This is already widely used for the description of high-energy electron beams that become polarized by the emission of spin-flip synchrotron radiation. It is shown that this field gives rise to an adiabatic invariant of spin-orbit motion and that it defines the maximum time average polarizat...

  5. First light on 3d photoionization of multiply charged xenon ions: a new photon-ion merged beam setup at PETRA III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricz, S; Schippers, S; Buhr, T; Holste, K; Jr, A Borovik; Hellhund, J; Schäfer, H-J; Schury, D; Klumpp, S; Mertens, K; Martins, M; Flesch, R; Ulrich, G; Rühl, E; Lower, J; Jahnke, T; Metz, D; Schmidt, L; Schöffler, M; Williams, J B

    2014-01-01

    A photon-ion merged beam endstation has been set up at the variable polarization XUV-beamline P04 of PETRA III in Hamburg. In a commissioning experiment first results could be obtained for multiple photoionization of Xe q+ ions (q = 1,2,..,5) at photon energies around the 3d ionization threshold.

  6. Preliminary results of spatially resolved ECR ion beam profile investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitzsch, L.; Stalder, M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    The profile of an ion beam produced in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) can vary greatly depending on the source settings and the ion-optical tuning. Strongly focussed ion beams form circular structures (hollow beams) as predicted by simulations and observed in experiments. Each of the rings is predicted to be dominated by ions with same or at least similar m/q-ratios due to ion-optical effects. To check this we performed a series of preliminary investigations to test the required tuning capabilities of our ion source. This includes beam focussing (A) and beam steering (B) using a 3D-movable extraction. Having tuned the source to deliver a beam of strongly focussed ions of different ion species and having steered this beam to match the transmittance area of the sector magnet we also recorded the ion charge state distribution of the strongly focussed beam profile at different, spatially limited positions (C). The preliminary results will be introduced within this paper: it appears that our 3D-movable extraction is very efficient to steer and to focus the beam strongly. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  7. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large acceptance fragment separator, RIPS. The complex can provide high intense RI-beams. By using the high intense RI-beams, a variety of experiments have been ...

  8. Important atomic physics issues for ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-01-01

    This paper suggests several current atomic physics questions important to ion beam fusion. Among the topics discussed are beam transport, beam-target interaction, and reactor design. The major part of the report is discussion concerning areas of research necessary to better understand beam-target interactions

  9. Optimization of atomic beam sources for polarization experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Martin; Nass, Alexander; Stroeher, Hans [IKP, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    For experiments with spin-polarized protons and neutrons a dense target is required. In current atomic beam sources an atomic hydrogen or deuterium beam is expanded through a cold nozzle and a system of sextupole magnets and RF-transition units selects a certain hyperfine state. The achievable flux seems to be limited to about 10{sup 17} particles per second with a high nuclear polarization. A lot of experimental and theoretical effort has been undertaken to understand all effects and to increase the flux. However, improvements have remained marginal. Now, a Monte Carlo simulation based on the DSMC part of the open source C++ library OpenFOAM is set up in order to get a better understanding of the flow and to optimize the various elements. It is intended to include important effects like deflection from magnetic fields, recombination on the walls and spin exchange collisions in the simulation and make quantitative predictions of changes in the experimental setup. The goal is to get a tool that helps to further increase the output of an atomic beam source. So far, a new binary collision model, magnetic fields, RF-transition units and a tool to measure the collision age are included. The next step will be to couple the whole simulation with an optimization algorithm implementing Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) in order to automatically optimize the atomic beam source.

  10. Large area negative ion source for high voltage neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, P.; Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1979-11-01

    A source of negative deuterium ions in the multi-ampere range is described that is readily extrapolated to reactor size, 10 amp or more of neutral beam, that is of interest in future experiments and reactors. The negative ion source is based upon the double charge exchange process. A beam of positive ions is created and accelerated to an energy at which the attachment process D + M → D - + M + proceeds efficiently. The positive ions are atomically neutralized either in D 2 or in the charge exchange medium M. Atomic species make a second charge exchange collision in the charge target to form D - . For a sufficiently thick target, the beam reaches an equilibrium fraction of negative ions. For reasons of efficiency, the target is typically alkali metal vapor; this experiment uses sodium. The beam of negative ions can be accelerated to high (>200 keV) energy, the electrons stripped from the ions, and a high energy neutral beam formed

  11. Proceedings of national seminar on physics with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.; Shyam, R.

    1991-01-01

    This volume containing the proceedings of the national seminar on physics with radioactive ion beams gives a broad overview of the developments taking place in the area of nuclear physics and accelerator physics with special emphasis on the utilization of radioactive ion beams for various studies. Topics covered include studies on nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics and the wide ranging applications of radioactive ion beams in these and other areas of nuclear sciences. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. Commissioning of the ion beam buncher and cooler for LEBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, T.; Bollen, G.; Ringle, R.; Schury, P. [Michigan State University, NSCL, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, MI (United States); Schwarz, S.; Lawton, D. [Michigan State University, NSCL, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2005-09-01

    A radiofrequency-quadrupole ion accumulator and buncher has been set-up for the low-energy-beam and ion-trap (LEBIT) facility, which is in its final commissioning phase at the NSCL/MSU. The buncher is a cryogenic system with separated cooling and accumulation stages, optimized for excellent beam quality and high performance. The completed set-up of the LEBIT ion buncher is presented as well as first experimental results on pulse forming and beam properties. (orig.)

  13. Commissioning of the ion beam buncher and cooler for LEBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, T.; Bollen, G.; Ringle, R.; Schury, P.; Schwarz, S.; Lawton, D.

    2005-01-01

    A radiofrequency-quadrupole ion accumulator and buncher has been set-up for the low-energy-beam and ion-trap (LEBIT) facility, which is in its final commissioning phase at the NSCL/MSU. The buncher is a cryogenic system with separated cooling and accumulation stages, optimized for excellent beam quality and high performance. The completed set-up of the LEBIT ion buncher is presented as well as first experimental results on pulse forming and beam properties. (orig.)

  14. An ion beam deceleration lens for ultra-low-energy ion bombardment of naked DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuldyuld@gmail.com [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► An ion beam deceleration lens was designed and constructed. ► The deceleration lens was installed and tested. ► The decelerated ion beam energy was measured using an electrical field. ► Decelerated ultra-low-energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. ► Ion beam with energy of a few tens of eV could break DNA strands. -- Abstract: Study of low-energy ion bombardment effect on biological living materials is of significance. High-energy ion beam irradiation of biological materials such as organs and cells has no doubt biological effects. However, ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range. To investigate effects from very-low-energy ion bombardment on biological materials, an ion beam deceleration lens is necessary for uniform ion energy lower than keV. A deceleration lens was designed and constructed based on study of the beam optics using the SIMION program. The lens consisted of six electrodes, able to focus and decelerate primary ion beam, with the last one being a long tube to obtain a parallel uniform exiting beam. The deceleration lens was installed to our 30-kV bioengineering-specialized ion beam line. The final decelerated-ion energy was measured using a simple electrostatic field to bend the beam to range from 10 eV to 1 keV controlled by the lens parameters and the primary beam condition. In a preliminary test, nitrogen ion beam at 60 eV decelerated from a primary 20-keV beam bombarded naked plasmid DNA. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was possible to break DNA strands and thus potential to cause genetic modification of biological cells.

  15. An ion beam deceleration lens for ultra-low-energy ion bombardment of naked DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thopan, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An ion beam deceleration lens was designed and constructed. ► The deceleration lens was installed and tested. ► The decelerated ion beam energy was measured using an electrical field. ► Decelerated ultra-low-energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. ► Ion beam with energy of a few tens of eV could break DNA strands. -- Abstract: Study of low-energy ion bombardment effect on biological living materials is of significance. High-energy ion beam irradiation of biological materials such as organs and cells has no doubt biological effects. However, ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range. To investigate effects from very-low-energy ion bombardment on biological materials, an ion beam deceleration lens is necessary for uniform ion energy lower than keV. A deceleration lens was designed and constructed based on study of the beam optics using the SIMION program. The lens consisted of six electrodes, able to focus and decelerate primary ion beam, with the last one being a long tube to obtain a parallel uniform exiting beam. The deceleration lens was installed to our 30-kV bioengineering-specialized ion beam line. The final decelerated-ion energy was measured using a simple electrostatic field to bend the beam to range from 10 eV to 1 keV controlled by the lens parameters and the primary beam condition. In a preliminary test, nitrogen ion beam at 60 eV decelerated from a primary 20-keV beam bombarded naked plasmid DNA. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was possible to break DNA strands and thus potential to cause genetic modification of biological cells

  16. Ion spectroscopy for improvement of the physical beam model for therapy planning in ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arico, Giulia

    2016-11-23

    Helium and carbon ions enable a more conformal dose distribution, narrower penumbra and higher relative biological effectiveness than photon and proton radiotherapy. However, they may undergo nuclear fragmentation in the patient tissues and the arising secondary fragments affect the delivered biological dose distributions. Currently there is a lack of data regarding ion nuclear fragmentation. One reason is the large size (up to some meters) of the experimental setups required for the investigations. In this thesis a new method is presented, which makes use of versatile pixelated semiconductor detectors (Timepix). This method is based on tracking of single particles and pattern recognition of their signals in the detectors. Measurements were performed at the HIT facility. The mixed radiation field arising from 430 MeV/u carbon ion beams and 221 MeV/u helium ion beams in water and in PMMA targets was investigated. The amounts of primary (carbon or helium) ions detected behind targets with the same water equivalent thickness (WET) were found to be in agreement within the statistical uncertainties. However, more fragments (differences up to 20% in case of H) and narrower lateral particle distributions were measured behind the PMMA than the water targets. The spectra of ions behind tissue surrogates and corresponding water targets with the same WET were analysed. The results obtained with adipose and inner bone surrogates and with the equivalent water phantoms were found to be consistent within the uncertainties. Significant differences in the results were observed in the case of lung and cortical bone surrogates when compared to the water phantoms. The experimental results were compared to FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. This comparison could contribute to enhance the ion interaction models currently implemented for {sup 12}C and {sup 4}He ion beams.

  17. Materials processing with intense pulsed ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    We review research investigating the application of intense pulsed ion beams (IPIBs) for the surface treatment and coating of materials. The short range (0.1-10 μm) and high-energy density (1-50 J/cm 2 ) of these short-pulsed (≤ 1 μs) beams (with ion currents I = 5 - 50 kA, and energies E = 100 - 1000 keV) make them ideal to flash-heat a target surface, similar to the more familiar pulsed laser processes. IPIB surface treatment induces rapid melt and solidification at up to 10 10 K/s to cause amorphous layer formation and the production of non-equilibrium microstructures. At higher energy density the target surface is vaporized, and the ablated vapor is condensed as coatings onto adjacent substrates or as nanophase powders. Progress towards the development of robust, high-repetition rate IPIB accelerators is presented along with economic estimates for the cost of ownership of this technology

  18. Influence of ion beam and geometrical parameters on properties of Si thin films grown by Ar ion beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundesmann, Carsten; Feder, Rene; Neumann, Horst [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Ion beam sputtering (IBS) offers, in contrast to other physical vapour deposition techniques, such as magnetron sputtering or electron beam evaporation, the opportunity to change the properties of the layer forming particles (sputtered and scattered particles) by varying ion beam parameters (ion species, ion energy) and geometrical parameters (ion incidence angle, emission angle). Consequently, these effects can be utilized to tailor thin film properties [1]. The goal is to study systematically the correlations between the primary and secondary parameters and, at last, the effects on the properties of Si thin films, such as optical properties, stress, surface topography and composition. First experimental results are presented for Ar-ion sputtering of Si.

  19. Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitively pulsed, intense- ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.; Reass, W.A.; Coates, D.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Schleinitz, H.M.; Greenly, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    A number of intense ion beams applications are emerging requiring repetitive high-average-power beams. These applications include ablative deposition of thin films, rapid melt and resolidification for surface property enhancement, advanced diagnostic neutral beams for the next generation of Tokamaks, and intense pulsed-neutron sources. We are developing a 200-250 keV, 15 kA, 1 μs duration, 1-30 Hz intense ion beam accelerator to address these applications

  20. Control of beam size and polarization time in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.M.; Rees, J.R.; Wiedemann, H.

    1975-07-01

    In this report we describe a method of controlling beam size in which the focusing functions are not altered with beam energy but the curvature function is drastically altered in a few locations which comprise only a very small fraction of the circumference. As will be described in the following paper we are proposing to control the quantum excitation and radiation damping of the particles by means of special excitation magnets or /open quotes/wigglers/close quotes/. Since the mean square energy deviation and radial beam emittance are proportional approximately to E/sup 2//l angle/G/sup 3//r angle//l angle/G/sup 2//r angle//sup /minus/1 while the damping times are proportional to (E/sup 3//l angle/G/sup 2//r angle/)/sup /minus/1/, it is possible to achieve constant beam size in a constant focusing configuration while the damping times vary roughly as E/sup /minus/2/. In addition, it is possible to reduce the beam polarization time with these devices. A scheme for beam-size and damping control based on the same principle was described by M. Bassetti about a year ago, in which all of the storage-ring bending magnets were involved as wigglers, and a substantial increase in magnet cost resulted. The consequences for polarization times were not explored. The design formulae are derived and two specific applications to the PEP design in which the wigglers are installed in three of the six 5-m straight sections are described with attention given to practical magnet design, synchrotron radiation handling and other matters. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. From field evaporation to focused ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This paper report various items of recent progress in the theory of field evaporation and the theory of the liquid-metal ion source. The research has, in part, been driven by a desire to find out how to reduce the beam-spot size in a focused ion beam machine, which is developing as a significant tool of nanotechnology. A major factor in determining beam spot size seems to be the behavior of the liquid-metal ion source (LMIS), and one route might be to reduce the minimum emission current of a LMIS, if this is possible. Theories of LMIS minimum emission current have been re-examined. Some progress has been made, but development of more accurate theory has been constrained by several factors, include the long-known limitations of the present theory of field evaporation (FEV). This, in turn, has stimulated a wider re-examination of FEV theory. As part of some general theoretical remarks, the following items of recent progress will be covered. Various results concerning the prediction of the field F e at which the activation energy Q for field evaporation is zero, including calculations in which vacuum electrostatic energy changes are taken into account, and another look at the views of Kingham and Tsong concerning escape charge-state. Some years ago, the following approximate formula was derived for the dependence of FEV activation energy on field F: Q=B(F e /F - 1) 2 . It has recently been possible to show that the parameter B can be estimated as B= βYΩ/8, where Y is Young's modulus, Ω is the atomic volume, and β is a correction factor of order. In the framework of the charge-draining mechanism, another look at how the activation-energy hump can be modelled, in order to predict/explain the conditions under which FEV becomes dominated by ion tunnelling rather than field evaporation. A review of the changes in LMIS theory that result from applying the equation of continuity to the metal/vacuum interface, including modifications to the theory of minimum

  2. Recent US advances in ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev, E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.

    2007-01-01

    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport, and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by >50X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. We are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy

  3. Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Jiang, Caichao; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST

  4. Biological effect of penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yamashita, Takao

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation with ion beams on biological systems, technique for penetration controlled irradiation has been established. The range in a target was controlled by changing the distance from beam window in the atmosphere, and could be controlled linearly up to about 31 {mu}m in biological material. In addition, the effects of the penetration controlled irradiations with 1.5 MeV/u C and He ions were examined using tobacco pollen. The increased frequency of leaky pollen produced by ion beams suggests that the efficient pollen envelope damages would be induced at the range-end of ion beams. (author)

  5. Design of a negative ion neutral beam system for TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easoz, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    A conceptual design of a neutral beam line based on the neutralization of negative deuterium ions is presented. This work is a detailed design of a complete neutral beam line based on using negative ions from a direct extraction source. Anticipating major technological advancements, beam line components have been scaled including the negative ion sources and components for the direct energy recovery of charged beams and high speed cryogenic pumping. With application to the next step in experimental fusion reactors (TNS), the neutral beam injector system that has been designed provides 10 MW of 200 keV neutral deuterium atoms. Several arms are required for plasma ignition

  6. Informal workshop on intense polarized ion sources: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    An Informal Workshop on Intense Polarized Ion Sources was held on March 6, 1980, at the O'Hare Hilton Hotel, Chicago, Illinois. The purpose of the Workshop was to discuss problems in developing higher-intensity polarized proton sources, particularly the optically-pumped source recently proposed by L.W. Anderson of the University of Wisconsin. A summary of the discussions is reported

  7. The design and performance of the FNAL high-energy polarized-beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosnick, D P; Hill, D A; Laghai, M R; Lopiano, D; Ohashi, Y; Shima, T; Spinka, H; Stanek, R W; Underwood, D G; Yokosawa, A [Argonne National Lab. (USA); Lehar, F; Lesquen, A de; Rossum, L van [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique des Particules Elementaires; Carey, D C; Coleman, R N; Cossairt, J D; Read, A L; Schailey, R [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Derevschikov, A A; Matulenko, Yu A; Meschanin, A P; Nurushev, S B; Rzaev, R A; Solovyanov, V L; Vasiliev, A N [Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Serpukhov (USSR); Akchurin, N; Onel, Y [Iowa Univ., Iowa City (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Imai, K; Makino, S; Masaike, A; Miyake, K; Nagamine, T; Tamura, N; Yoshida, T [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Takashima, R [Kyoto Univ. of Education, Fushimi (Japan); Takeutchi, F [Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan); Maki, T [University of Occupational and Environmental; FNAL-E581/704 Collaboration

    1990-05-10

    A new polarized-proton and -antiproton beam with 185 GeV/c momentum has been built at Fermilab. The design uses the parity-nonconserving decays of lambda and antilambda hyperons to produce polarized protons and antiprotons, respectively, a beam-transport system that minimizes depolarization effects, and a set of twelve dipole magnets that rotate the beam-particle spin direction. A beam-tagging system determines the momentum and polarization of individual beam particles. This allows a selection of particles in definite intervals of momentum and polarization. Measurements performed by two different polarimeters showed that the beam is polarized and the determination of polarization by beam-particle tagging is verified. A new measurement of the analyzing power of large-x{sub F} {pi}{sup 0} production may lead to another beam polarimeter.

  8. Development of Emittance Analysis Software for Ion Beam Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, M.J.; Liu, Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Transverse beam emittance is a crucial property of charged particle beams that describes their angular and spatial spread. It is a figure of merit frequently used to determine the quality of ion beams, the compatibility of an ion beam with a given beam transport system, and the ability to suppress neighboring isotopes at on-line mass separator facilities. Generally, a high-quality beam is characterized by a small emittance. In order to determine and improve the quality of ion beams used at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research, the emittances of the ion beams are measured at the off-line Ion Source Test Facilities. In this project, emittance analysis software was developed to perform various data processing tasks for noise reduction, to evaluate root-mean-square emittance, Twiss parameters, and area emittance of different beam fractions. The software also provides 2D and 3D graphical views of the emittance data, beam profiles, emittance contours, and RMS. Noise exclusion is essential for accurate determination of beam emittance values. A Self-Consistent, Unbiased Elliptical Exclusion (SCUBEEx) method is employed. Numerical data analysis techniques such as interpolation and nonlinear fitting are also incorporated into the software. The software will provide a simplified, fast tool for comprehensive emittance analysis. The main functions of the software package have been completed. In preliminary tests with experimental emittance data, the analysis results using the software were shown to be accurate

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF EMITTANCE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR ION BEAM CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, M. J.; Liu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Transverse beam emittance is a crucial property of charged particle beams that describes their angular and spatial spread. It is a fi gure of merit frequently used to determine the quality of ion beams, the compatibility of an ion beam with a given beam transport system, and the ability to suppress neighboring isotopes at on-line mass separator facilities. Generally a high quality beam is characterized by a small emittance. In order to determine and improve the quality of ion beams used at the Holifi eld Radioactive Ion beam Facility (HRIBF) for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research, the emittances of the ion beams are measured at the off-line Ion Source Test Facilities. In this project, emittance analysis software was developed to perform various data processing tasks for noise reduction, to evaluate root-mean-square emittance, Twiss parameters, and area emittance of different beam fractions. The software also provides 2D and 3D graphical views of the emittance data, beam profi les, emittance contours, and RMS. Noise exclusion is essential for accurate determination of beam emittance values. A Self-Consistent, Unbiased Elliptical Exclusion (SCUBEEx) method is employed. Numerical data analysis techniques such as interpolation and nonlinear fi tting are also incorporated into the software. The software will provide a simplifi ed, fast tool for comprehensive emittance analysis. The main functions of the software package have been completed. In preliminary tests with experimental emittance data, the analysis results using the software were shown to be accurate.

  10. Nanopatterning of swinging substrates by ion-beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sun Mi; Kim, J.-S., E-mail: jskim@sm.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-28

    Graphite substrates are azimuthally swung during ion-beam sputtering (IBS) at a polar angle θ = 78° from the surface normal. The swinging of the substrate not only causes quasi-two-dimensional mass transport but also makes various sputter effects from the different incident angles to work together. Through variation of the swing angle, both the transport and sputtering effects synergistically produce a series of salient patterns, such as asymmetric wall-like structures, which can grow to several tens of nanometers and exhibit a re-entrant orientational change with the increased swing angle. Thus, the present work demonstrates that dynamic variables such as the swing angle, which have been little utilized, offer an additional parameter space that can be exploited to diversify the sputtered patterns, thereby expanding the applicability of an IBS as well as the comprehension of the IBS nano patterning mechanism.

  11. Nanopatterning of swinging substrates by ion-beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sun Mi; Kim, J.-S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphite substrates are azimuthally swung during ion-beam sputtering (IBS) at a polar angle θ = 78° from the surface normal. The swinging of the substrate not only causes quasi-two-dimensional mass transport but also makes various sputter effects from the different incident angles to work together. Through variation of the swing angle, both the transport and sputtering effects synergistically produce a series of salient patterns, such as asymmetric wall-like structures, which can grow to several tens of nanometers and exhibit a re-entrant orientational change with the increased swing angle. Thus, the present work demonstrates that dynamic variables such as the swing angle, which have been little utilized, offer an additional parameter space that can be exploited to diversify the sputtered patterns, thereby expanding the applicability of an IBS as well as the comprehension of the IBS nano patterning mechanism.

  12. Direct acceleration of ions to low and medium energies by a crossed-laser-beam configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef I. Salamin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Calculations show that 10 keV helium and carbon ions, injected midway between two identical 1 TW-power crossed laser beams of radial polarization, can be accelerated in vacuum to energies of utility in ion lithography. As examples, identical laser beams, crossed at 10° and focused to waist radii of 7.42  μm, accelerate He^{2+} and C^{6+} ions to average kinetic energies near 75 and 165 keV over distances averaging less than 7 and 6 mm, respectively. The spread in kinetic energy in both cases is less than 1% and the particle average angular deflection is less than 7 mrad. More energy-demanding industrial applications require higher-power laser beams for their direct ion laser acceleration.

  13. Numerical calculation of ion polarization in the NICA collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2016-02-01

    The NICA Collider with two solenoid Siberian snakes is “transparent” to the spin. The collider transparent to the spin provides a unique capability to control any polarization direction of protons and deuterons using additional weak solenoids without affecting orbital parameters of the beam. The spin tune induced by the control solenoids must significantly exceed the strength of the zero-integer spin resonance, which contains a coherent part associated with errors in the collider's magnetic structure and an incoherent part associated with the beam emittances. We present calculations of the coherent part of the resonance strength in the NICA collider for proton and deuteron beams.

  14. Numerical calculation of ion polarization in the NICA collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A D; Butenko, A V; Kekelidze, V D; Mikhaylov, V A; Filatov, Yu N; Kondratenko, M A; Kondratenko, A M

    2016-01-01

    The NICA Collider with two solenoid Siberian snakes is “transparent” to the spin. The collider transparent to the spin provides a unique capability to control any polarization direction of protons and deuterons using additional weak solenoids without affecting orbital parameters of the beam. The spin tune induced by the control solenoids must significantly exceed the strength of the zero-integer spin resonance, which contains a coherent part associated with errors in the collider's magnetic structure and an incoherent part associated with the beam emittances. We present calculations of the coherent part of the resonance strength in the NICA collider for proton and deuteron beams. (paper)

  15. Prototype ion source for JT-60 neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, M.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype ion source for JT-60 neutral beam injectors has been fabricated and tested. Here, we review the construction of the prototype ion source and report the experimental results about the source characteristics that has been obtained at this time. The prototype ion source is now installed at the prototype unit of JT-60 neutral beam injection units and the demonstration of the performances of the ion source and the prototype unit has just started

  16. Measuring polarization dependent dispersion of non-polarizing beam splitter cubes with spectrally resolved white light interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csonti, K.; Hanyecz, V.; Mészáros, G.; Kovács, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    In this work we have measured the group-delay dispersion of an empty Michelson interferometer for s- and p-polarized light beams applying two different non-polarizing beam splitter cubes. The interference pattern appearing at the output of the interferometer was resolved with two different spectrometers. It was found that the group-delay dispersion of the empty interferometer depended on the polarization directions in case of both beam splitter cubes. The results were checked by inserting a glass plate in the sample arm of the interferometer and similar difference was obtained for the two polarization directions. These results show that to reach high precision, linearly polarized white light beam should be used and the residual dispersion of the empty interferometer should be measured at both polarization directions.

  17. Alteration in non-classicality of light on passing through a linear polarization beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Namrata; Prakash, Ranjana

    2016-06-01

    We observe the polarization squeezing in the mixture of a two mode squeezed vacuum and a simple coherent light through a linear polarization beam splitter. Squeezed vacuum not being squeezed in polarization, generates polarization squeezed light when superposed with coherent light. All the three Stokes parameters of the light produced on the output port of polarization beam splitter are found to be squeezed and squeezing factor also depends upon the parameters of coherent light.

  18. Ballistic-neutralized chamber transport of intense heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Oliver, B.V.; Clark, R.E.; Sharp, W.M.; Friedman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor chamber are presented. The ballistic-neutralized transport scheme studied uses 4 GeV Pb +1 ion beams injected into a low-density, gas-filled reactor chamber and the beam is ballistically focused onto an ICF target before entering the chamber. Charge and current neutralization of the beam is provided by the low-density background gas. The ballistic-neutralized simulations include stripping of the beam ions as the beam traverses the chamber as well as ionization of the background plasma. In addition, a series of simulations are presented that explore the charge and current neutralization of the ion beam in an evacuated chamber. For this vacuum transport mode, neutralizing electrons are only drawn from sources near the chamber entrance

  19. Collective ion acceleration by relativistic electron beams in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, M.; Gisler, G.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code is used to simulate the interaction of a relativistic electron beam injected into a finite-size background neutral plasma. The simulations show that the background electrons are pushed away from the beam path, forming a neutralizing ion channel. Soon after the beam head leaves the plasma, a virtual cathode forms which travels away with the beam. However, at later times a second, quasi-stationary, virtual cathode forms. Its position and strength depends critically on the parameters of the system which critically determines the efficiency of the ion acceleration process. The background ions trapped in the electrostatic well of the virtual cathode are accelerated and at later times, the ions as well as the virtual cathode drift away from the plasma region. The surfing of the ions in the electrostatic well produces an ion population with energies several times the initial electron beam energy. It is found that optimum ion acceleration occurs when the beam-to-plasma density ratio is near unity. When the plasma is dense, the beam is a weak perturbation and accelerates few ions, while when the plasma is tenuous, the beam is not effectively neutralized, and a virtual cathode occurs right at the injection plane. The simulations also show that, at the virtual cathode position, the electron beam is pinched producing a self-focusing phenomena

  20. Development of bipolar-pulse accelerator for intense pulsed ion beam acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masugata, Katsumi [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: masugata@eng.toyama-u.ac.jp; Shimizu, Yuichro [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Fujioka, Yuhki [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kitamura, Iwao [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Tanoue, Hisao [National Institute of Advanced Industry Science and Technology, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Arai, Kazuo [National Institute of Advanced Industry Science and Technology, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2004-12-21

    To improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams, a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator' was proposed. To confirm the principle of the accelerator a prototype of the experimental system was developed. The system utilizes By type magnetically insulated acceleration gap and operated with single polar negative pulse. A coaxial gas puff plasma gun was used as an ion source, which was placed inside the grounded anode. Source plasma (nitrogen) of current density {approx}25A/cm2, duration {approx}1.5{mu}s was injected into the acceleration gap by the plasma gun. The ions were successfully accelerated from the grounded anode to the drift tube by applying negative pulse of voltage 240kV, duration 100ns to the drift tube. Pulsed ion beam of current density {approx}40A/cm2, duration {approx}50ns was obtained at 41mm downstream from the anode surface. To evaluate the irradiation effect of the ion beam to solid material, an amorphous silicon thin film of thickness {approx}500nm was used as the target, which was deposited on the glass substrate. The film was found to be poly-crystallized after 4-shots of the pulsed nitrogen ion beam irradiation.

  1. Pin cushion plasmonic device for polarization beam splitting, focusing, and beam position estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Gilad M; Levy, Uriel

    2013-03-13

    Great hopes rest on surface plasmon polaritons' (SPPs) potential to bring new functionalities and applications into various branches of optics. In this paper, we demonstrate a pin cushion structure capable of coupling light from free space into SPPs, split them based on the polarization content of the illuminating beam of light, and focus them into small spots. We also show that for a circularly or randomly polarized light, four focal spots will be generated at the center of each quarter circle comprising the pin cushion device. Furthermore, following the relation between the relative intensity of the obtained four focal spots and the relative position of the illuminating beam with respect to the structure, we propose and demonstrate the potential use of our structure as a miniaturized plasmonic version of the well-known four quadrant detector. Additional potential applications may vary from multichannel microscopy and multioptical traps to real time beam tracking systems.

  2. Computer aided control of the Bonn Penning polarized ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, N.W.; VonRossen, P.; Eversheim, P.D.; Busch, R.

    1984-01-01

    A CBM computer system is described which has been set up to control the Bonn Polarized Ion Source. The controlling program, besides setting and logging parameters, performs an optimization of the ion source output. A free definable figure of merit, being composed of the current of the ionizer and its variance, has proven to be an effective means in directing the source optimization. The performance that has been reached during the first successful tests is reported

  3. Radiation-Pressure Acceleration of Ion Beams from Nanofoil Targets: The Leaky Light-Sail Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, B.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Dromey, B.; Geissler, M.; Karmakar, A.; Gibbon, P.

    2010-01-01

    A new ion radiation-pressure acceleration regime, the 'leaky light sail', is proposed which uses sub-skin-depth nanometer foils irradiated by circularly polarized laser pulses. In the regime, the foil is partially transparent, continuously leaking electrons out along with the transmitted laser field. This feature can be exploited by a multispecies nanofoil configuration to stabilize the acceleration of the light ion component, supplementing the latter with an excess of electrons leaked from those associated with the heavy ions to avoid Coulomb explosion. It is shown by 2D particle-in-cell simulations that a monoenergetic proton beam with energy 18 MeV is produced by circularly polarized lasers at intensities of just 10 19 W/cm 2 . 100 MeV proton beams are obtained by increasing the intensities to 2x10 20 W/cm 2 .

  4. Radiation-pressure acceleration of ion beams from nanofoil targets: the leaky light-sail regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, B; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M; Dromey, B; Geissler, M; Karmakar, A; Gibbon, P

    2010-10-08

    A new ion radiation-pressure acceleration regime, the "leaky light sail," is proposed which uses sub-skin-depth nanometer foils irradiated by circularly polarized laser pulses. In the regime, the foil is partially transparent, continuously leaking electrons out along with the transmitted laser field. This feature can be exploited by a multispecies nanofoil configuration to stabilize the acceleration of the light ion component, supplementing the latter with an excess of electrons leaked from those associated with the heavy ions to avoid Coulomb explosion. It is shown by 2D particle-in-cell simulations that a monoenergetic proton beam with energy 18 MeV is produced by circularly polarized lasers at intensities of just 10¹⁹  W/cm². 100 MeV proton beams are obtained by increasing the intensities to 2 × 10²⁰  W/cm².

  5. Capillary Ion Concentration Polarization for Power-Free Salt Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmin; Jung, Yeonsu; Cho, Inhee; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Sung Jae

    2014-11-01

    In this presentation, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrated the capillary based ion concentration polarization for power-free salt purification system. Traditional ion concentration polarization phenomenon has been studied for a decade for both fundamental nanoscale fluid dynamics and novel engineering applications such as desalination, preconcentration and energy harvesting devices. While the conventional system utilizes an external power source, the system based on capillary ion concentration polarization is capable of perm-selective ion transportation only by capillarity so that the same ion depletion zone can be formed without any external power sources. An ion concentration profile near the nanostructure was tracked using fluorescent probes and analyzed by solving the modified Nernst-Planck equation. As a result, the concentration in the vicinity of the nanostructure was at least 10 times lower than that of bulk electrolyte and thus, the liquid absorbed into the nanostructure had the low concentration. This mechanism can be used for the power free salt purification system which would be significantly useful in underdeveloped and remote area. This work was supported by Samsung Research Funding Center of Samsung Electronics under Project Number SRFC-MA1301-02.

  6. Passivation of the surfaces of single crystal gadolinium molybdate (Gd2(MoO4)3) against attack by hydrofluoric acid by inert ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, A.; Cross, L.E.; Tongson, L.

    1978-01-01

    The passivation effect from inert ion beam bombardment has been studied on a ferroelectric surface. The mechanism in these materials may have some additional contributions because of the polarization charges of the domains and the dipole effect (ion beam and surface species) on the surfaces. For these studies Gd 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 (GMO) crystals were selected. Two possible mechanisms of passivation of GMO surfaces when bombarded with ion beams are discussed

  7. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L. T.; Shang, Y.; Ma, B. H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, X. X.; Wang, H.; Guo, X. H.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2008-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed

  8. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L T; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, X X; Wang, H; Guo, X H; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed.

  9. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, G. Q.; Lei, G. J.; Cao, J. Y.; Duan, X. R. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, 610041 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage ({approx}100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  10. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, G Q; Lei, G J; Cao, J Y; Duan, X R

    2012-07-01

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage (∼100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  11. Recent experience in accelerating polarized beam at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    The most recent operation of the AGS for polarized protons occurred in December, 1987 and January, 1988. The primary purpose during this period was to tune up the accelerator as soon as possible and to provide a usable polarized beam for high energy physics. We succeeded in providing 1--2 /times/ 10 10 polarized protons per pulse at 18.5 GeV/c with an average polarization of 43 +- 3% and a peak of 52%. The conditions for this run differed in some respects from the previous run done in 1986. Due to problems with the main ring power supply, we were forced to use a back-up MG set which was only capable of 60% of the normal field rate of rise. This, of course enhanced the effect of the depolarizing resonances. A second difference was the fact that a complete horizontal and vertical realignment of the ring magnets was done during the 1987 summer shutdown. In addition, the fast pulsed quadrupole positions were readjusted with respect to the equilibrium orbit. It had been suspected that misalignment of these quads was responsible for large transverse emittance growth in both planes. We will look at the effects of these differences, but the bottom line is that the ''standard correction techniques'' worked as expected. 2 refs., 6 figs

  12. PIXE and ion beam analysis in forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Melanie; Warmenhoven, John; Chrislopher, Matt; Kirkby, Karen; Palitsin, Vladimir; Grime, Geoff; Jeynes, Chris; Jones, Brian; Wenn, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Full text: University of Surrey has, for the past four years, collaborated with police institutions from across Europe and the rest of the world lo scope potential applications of ion beam analysis (IBA) in forensic science. In doing this we have consulted practitioners across a range of forensic disciplines, and critically compared IBA with conventional characterisation techniques to investigate the areas in which IBA can add evidential value. In this talk, the results of this feasibility study will be presented, showing the types of sample for which IBA shows considerable promise. We will show how a combination of PIXE with other IBA techniques (EBS, PIGE, MeV-SIMS) can be used to give unprecedented characterisation of forensic samples and comment on the significance of these results for forensic casework. We will also show cases where IBA not appear to add any significant improvement over conventional techniques. (author)

  13. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  14. Beam-plasma discharge in a Kyoto beam-plasma-ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, J.; Takagi, T.

    1983-01-01

    A beam-plasma type ion source employing an original operating principle has been developed by the present authors. The ion source consists of an ion extraction region with an electron gun, a thin long drift tube as the plasma production chamber, and a primary electron beam collector. An electron beam is effectively utilized for the dual purpose of high density plasma production as a result of beam-plasma discharge, and high current ion beam extraction with ion space-charge compensation. A high density plasma of the order of 10 11 --10 13 cm -3 was produced by virtue of the beam-plasma discharge which was caused by the interaction between a space-charge wave on the electron beam and a high frequency plasma wave. The plasma density then produced was 10 2 --10 3 times the density produced only by collisional ionization by the electron beam. In order to obtain a stable beam-plasma discharge, a secondary electron beam emitted from the electron collector should be utilized. The mechanism of the beam-plasma discharge was analyzed by use of a linear theory in the case of the small thermal energy of the electron beam, and by use of a quasilinear theory in the case of the large thermal energy. High current ion beams of more than 0.1 A were extracted even at a low extraction voltage of 1--5 kV

  15. The emittance of high current heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.R.; Devaney, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ion implantation is the main application for high current heavy ion beams. Transfer ratio is defined as the ratio of the total ion current leaving the ion source to the current delivered to the endstation. This ratio is monitored and logged and its importance is explained. It is also affected by other factors, such as the isotopic and molecular composition of the total ion beam. The transfer ratio reveals the fraction of ions which are intercepted by parts of the beamline system. The effects of these ions are discussed in two categories: processing purity and reliability. In discussing the emittance of ribbon beams, the two orthogonal planes are usually considered separately. Longitudinal emittance is determined by slot length and by plasma ion temperature. It has already been revealed that the longitudinal divergence of the beams from BF3 is perhaps double that of the beam from arsenic vapour or argon, at the same total perveance from the ion source. This poses the question: why is the ion temperature higher for BF3 than for As or Ar? The transverse emittance is in practical terms dominated by the divergence. It is the most fruitful area for improvement in most real-world systems. There is an intrinsic divergence arising from initial ion energies within the plasma, and there is emittance growth that can occur as a result of aberration in the beam extraction optics. (N.K.)

  16. np Elastic-scattering experiments with polarized neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, J.S.; Ditzler, W.R.; Hill, D.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the spin transfer parameters, K/sub NN/ and K/sub LL/, at 500, 650, and 800 MeV are presented for the reaction p-vector d → n-vector pp at 0 0 . The data are useful input to the NN data base and indicate that the quasi-free charge exchange (CEX) reaction is a useful mechanism for producing neutrons with at least 40% polarization at energies as low as 500 MeV. Measurements of np elastic scattering observables C/sub LL/ and C/sub SL/ covering 35 0 to 172 0 are performed using a polarized neutron beam at 500, 650, and 800 MeV. Preliminary results are presented. 3 refs., 6 figs

  17. Nuclear studies at TUNL using polarized neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.L.; Howell, C.R.; Tornow, W.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental data obtained using polarized neutron beams has proven to be essential for determining the nucleon-nucleon and the nucleon-nucleus interaction. The present paper reviews the experimental methods and some results of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory for a variety of polarization experiments involving neutron elastic scattering. A brief introduction to the nucleon-nucleon problem and its relation to the three-nucleon problem is presented; data for n-p and n-d analyzing powers are highlighted. Measurements involving heavier targets ( 93 Nb and 208 Pb) and their connection to the development of conventional and dispersive optical models are shown. The importance of the dispersive model for 27 Al in relation to conclusions about the nucleon-nucleus spin-spin potential is presented. Comparisons of microscopic models to data for 10 B and 28 Si are described

  18. Effects of beam, target and substrate potentials in ion beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Ion beam etching and deposition are normally carried out with beam, target and substrate potentials near ground potential. In this paper, the effects of intentional or unintentional changes in these potentials are described. Examples include beam neutralization, a single extraction grid, substrate bias, and target bias. Each example is described in terms of beam plasma parameters. (Auth.)

  19. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling of electrically insulating specimens using simultaneous primary electron and ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, D J; Vystavel, T; Morrissey, F

    2007-01-01

    There is currently great interest in combining focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscopy technologies for advanced studies of polymeric materials and biological microstructures, as well as for sophisticated nanoscale fabrication and prototyping. Irradiation of electrically insulating materials with a positive ion beam in high vacuum can lead to the accumulation of charge, causing deflection of the ion beam. The resultant image drift has significant consequences upon the accuracy and quality of FIB milling, imaging and chemical vapour deposition. A method is described for suppressing ion beam drift using a defocused, low-energy primary electron beam, leading to the derivation of a mathematical expression to correlate the ion and electron beam energies and currents with other parameters required for electrically stabilizing these challenging materials

  20. Application of ECR ion source beams in atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of intense, high charge state ion beams from ECR ion sources has had significant impact not only on the upgrading of cyclotron and synchrotron facilities, but also on multicharged ion collision research, as evidenced by the increasing number of ECR source facilities used at least on a part time basis for atomic physics research. In this paper one such facility, located at the ORNL ECR source, and dedicated full time to the study of multicharged ion collisions, is described. Examples of applications of ECR ion source beams are given, based on multicharged ion collision physics studies performed at Oak Ridge over the last few years. 21 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Application of Zeeman spatial beam-splitting in polarized neutron reflectometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kozhevnikov, S. V.; Ignatovich, V. K.; Radu, F.

    2017-01-01

    Neutron Zeeman spatial beam-splitting is considered at reflection from magnetically noncollinear films. Two applications of Zeeman beam-splitting phenomenon in polarized neutron reflectometry are discussed. One is the construction of polarizing devices with high polarizing efficiency. Another one is the investigations of magnetically noncollinear films with low spin-flip probability. Experimental results are presented for illustration.

  2. Ion beam analysis and modern materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Leonard C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Modern research has provided the means of creating materials structures controlled at the atomic scale. Familiar examples include the formation of hetero-structures grown with atomic precision, nanostructures with designed electronic properties and new organic structures employing the richness of organic chemistry. The current forefront of such materials research includes the creation of new materials for energy and electronics applications. The electron transport properties of these diverse materials, and hence their performance, is invariably linked by the basic interactions at the interface. Interfaces are the critical component, and least understood aspect, of almost all such materials-based structures. Ion beam analysis, and its role in interfacial definition, will be described in the context of a number of such forefront projects underway at the Rutgers Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology (IAMDN). These include: 1) quantitative analysis of self-assembled monolayers on organic single crystals resulting in enhanced surface mobility and more effective organic field effect transistors, 2) monolayer scale interfacial analysis of complex oxide hetero-structures to elucidate the properties of the enhanced two-dimensional electron mobility and 3) characterization of the semiconductor- dielectric interface in the SiC/SiO2 system, with application for energy efficient power transmission. Despite extraordinary advances in synthesis, interface properties continue as an uncontrolled region of hetero-materials formation. Their understanding requires the detailed analysis of a complement of tools including ion beam analysis. Fellow Researchers: R. A. Bartynski, L.C.Feldman, E. Garfunkel, T. Gustafsson, H.D. Lee, D. Mastrogiovanni, V. Podzorov, L. S. Wielunski, J. R. Williams(Auburn), G. Liu, J. Williams, S. Dhar. (author)

  3. Molecular-beam epitaxial growth and ion-beam analysis systems for functional materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Naramoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental systems for molecular beam epitaxial growth and ion beam analysis have been designed and constructed for the research of inorganic functional materials such as thin films and superlattices. (author)

  4. Beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for ion beam transport line used in applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuratov, V.A.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Arkhipov, A.V.; Illes, A.; Bodnar, K.; Illes, Z.; Havancsak, K.

    1999-01-01

    Ion beam transport line for applied research on U-400 cyclotron, beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for condensed matter studies are described. The main features of Windows-based real time program are considered

  5. Optically pumped polarized 23Na vapor target for use in polarized ion source. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    We are currently measuring relaxation times in an optically pumped 23 Na vapor target. Our research is directed toward improvements in the optically pumped Na vapor targets used for the production of polarized H - ions. In this progress report we review the properties of the optically pumped polarized H - ion source and especially the optically pumped Na vapor target employed in this source as well as discussing the progress of our research on relaxation times in an optically pumped Na vapor target. 30 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  6. Beam polarization during a Siberian snake turn-on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, Vladimir A.

    1999-01-01

    Installing Siberian snakes in a circular proton accelerator allows one to overcome all spin depolarizing resonances even at very high energies. However, Siberian snake application at low energies is technically rather difficult. Turning snake on at some energy during acceleration would allow using Siberian snakes even in rings with low injection energies. It is shown that the beam polarization would be preserved during the snake ramp, provided that the snake is turned on in more than ten turns, and the energy is set near a half-integer Gγ

  7. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED BEAMS USING MULTIPLE STRONG PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSER, T.; AHRENS, L.; BAI, M.

    2004-01-01

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult since depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions. Using a 20-30% partial Siberian snake both imperfection and intrinsic resonances can be overcome. Such a strong partial Siberian snake was designed for the Brookhaven AGS using a dual pitch helical superconducting dipole. Multiple strong partial snakes are also discussed for spin matching at beam injection and extraction

  8. Energy spread in ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, E.

    2000-01-01

    In ion beam analysis (IBA) the depth profiles are extracted from the experimentally determined energy profiles. The spectra, however, are subject to finite energy resolution of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. Calculation of those effects such as instrumental beam, geometry and detection-related energy and angular spreads as well as energy straggling, multiple scattering and Doppler effects in the sample itself is not trivial, especially since it involves treatment of non-independent random processes. A proper account for energy spread is vital in IBA not only for correct extraction of elemental and isotopic depth profiles from the measured spectra, but already prior to data acquisition, in optimising experimental conditions to reach the required depth resolution at a certain depth. After a short review of the literature on the different energy spread contributions experimental examples are given from resonance, RBS, elastic BS and ERDA practice in which an account for energy spread contributions is essential. Some further examples illustrate extraction of structural information (roughness, pore size, etc.) from elaborated depth resolution calculation for such layer structures

  9. Energy spread in ion beam analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, E. E-mail: szilagyi@rmki.kkfki.hu

    2000-03-01

    In ion beam analysis (IBA) the depth profiles are extracted from the experimentally determined energy profiles. The spectra, however, are subject to finite energy resolution of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. Calculation of those effects such as instrumental beam, geometry and detection-related energy and angular spreads as well as energy straggling, multiple scattering and Doppler effects in the sample itself is not trivial, especially since it involves treatment of non-independent random processes. A proper account for energy spread is vital in IBA not only for correct extraction of elemental and isotopic depth profiles from the measured spectra, but already prior to data acquisition, in optimising experimental conditions to reach the required depth resolution at a certain depth. After a short review of the literature on the different energy spread contributions experimental examples are given from resonance, RBS, elastic BS and ERDA practice in which an account for energy spread contributions is essential. Some further examples illustrate extraction of structural information (roughness, pore size, etc.) from elaborated depth resolution calculation for such layer structures.

  10. Generation of an intense ion beam by a pinched relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilad, P.; Zinamon, Z.

    1976-01-01

    The pinched electron beam of a pulsed electron accelerator is used to generate an intense beam of ions. A foil anode and vacuum drift tube are used. The space charge field of the pinched beam in the tube accelerates ions from the foil anode. Ion currents of 10 kA at a density of 5kA/cm 2 with pulse length of 50 ns are obtained using a 5 kJ, 450 kV, 3 Ω diode. (author)

  11. Wave Propagation in an Ion Beam-Plasma System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T. D.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1979-01-01

    The spatial evolution of a velocity- or density-modulated ion beam is calculated for stable and unstable ion beam plasma systems, using the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations. The propagation properties are found to be strongly dependent on the form of modulation. In the case of velocity...

  12. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the results of research carried out in 1986 within the framework of the program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams' which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./HSI)

  13. Spin characteristics of ion beams during the motion of electromagnetic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaika, N. I.; Magal, M. I.

    The matrix method for description of the polarization components for ions moving through different electromagnetic systems: dipole magnets, cycle accelerators, quadrupole lenses, solenoids, wine filters, and electrostatic mirrors is developed in the paper. The expressions for elements of the transportation matrixes for the above-mentioned systems taking account of the projective trajectories are obtained. The program, TRANSPIN, for calculation of the beam polarization components after motion by ions of arbitrary number of electromagnetic elements along any possible trajectory is presented. The calculation results made for some of transportation lines for the isochronous cyclotron U-240 are discussed (trajectories for the ion motion were calculated by CERN-program TRANSPORT). The conditions for decrease of the polarization component dispersion because of difference between trajectories of the particles motion are also defined.

  14. Spin characteristics of ion beams during the motion of electromagnetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.; Magal', M.I.

    1991-01-01

    The matrix method for description of the polarization components for ions moving through different electromagnetic systems: dipole magnets, cycle accelerators, quadrupole lenses, solenoids, wine filters, electrostatic mirrors is developed in the paper. The expressions for elements of the transportation matrixes for the above-mentioned systems taking account of the projective trajectories are obtained. The programme TRANSPIN for calculation of the beam polarization components after motion by ions of arbitrary number of electromagnetic elements along any possible trajectory is worked out. The calculation results made for some of transportation lines for the isochronous cyclotron U-240 are discussed (trajectories for the ion motion were calculated by CERN-programme TRANSPORT). The conditions for decrease of the polarization component dispersion because of difference between trajectories of the particles motion are also defined. 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tables. (author)

  15. Generation and focusing of intense ion beams with an inverse pinch ion diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Morihiko; Yatsuzuka, Mitsuyasu; Nobuhara, Sadao

    1992-01-01

    Generation and focusing of ion beams using an inverse pinch ion diode with a flat anode has been studied. The ion beams generated with the inverse pinch ion diode were found to be focused at 120 mm from the anode by the electrostatic field in the diode. The energy and maximum current density of the ion beams were 180 keV and 420 A/cm 2 , respectively. The focusing angle of the ion beams was 4.3deg. The beam brightness was estimated to be 1.3 GW/cm 2 ·rad 2 . The focusing distance of the ion beams was found to be controllable by changing the diameters of the anode and cathode. (author)

  16. Progress in Polarized 3He Ion Source at RCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Shimoda, T.; Yasui, S.; Yosoi, M.; Takahisa, K.; Shimakura, N.; Plis, Yu. A.; Donets, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    A long history on the polarized 3He ion source developed at RCNP is presented. We started with an 'OPPIS' (Optical Pumping Polarized Ion Source) and later found the fundamental difficulties in the OPPIS. To overcome them an 'EPPIS' (Electron Pumping Polarized Ion Source) was proposed and its validity was experimentally proven. However, a serious technical disadvantage was also found in the EPPIS. To avoid this disadvantage we proposed a new concept, 'SEPIS' (Spin Exchange Polarized Ion Source), which uses an enhanced spin-exchange cross section theoretically expected at low 3He+ incident energies in the 3He+ + Rb system. Next, we describe the present status of the SEPIS development: construction of a bench test device allowing the measurements of not only the spin-exchange cross sections σse but also the electron capture cross sections σec for the 3He+ + Rb system. The latest experimental data on σec are presented and compared with other previous experimental data and the theoretical calculations.Finally, a design study of the SEPIS for practical use in nuclear (cyclotron) and particle physics (synchrotron) is shortly mentioned

  17. Particle confinement by a radially polarized laser Bessel beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredo, Gilad; Kimura, Wayne D.; Schächter, Levi

    2017-03-01

    The stable trajectory of a charged particle in an external guiding field is an essential condition for its acceleration or for forcing it to generate radiation. Examples of possible guiding devices include a solenoidal magnetic field or permanent periodic magnet in klystrons, a wiggler in free-electron lasers, the lattice of any accelerator, and finally the crystal lattice for the case of channeling radiation. We demonstrate that the trajectory of a point-charge in a radially polarized laser Bessel beam may be stable similarly to the case of a positron that bounces back and forth in the potential well generated by two adjacent atomic planes. While in the case of channeling radiation, the transverse motion is controlled by a harmonic oscillator equation, for a Bessel beam the transverse motion is controlled by the Mathieu equation. Some characteristics of the motion are presented.

  18. GPD physics with polarized muon beams at COMPASS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrero, Andrea [CEA-Saclay, DSM/Irfu/SpHN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    A major part of the future COMPASS program is dedicated to the investigation of the nucleon structure through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP). COMPASS will measure DVCS and DVMP reactions with a high intensity muon beam of 160 GeV and a 2.5 m-long liquid hydrogen target surrounded by a new TOF system. The availability of muon beams with high energy and opposite charge and polarization will allow to access the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H and to study the x{sub B}-dependence of the t-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. Projections on the achievable accuracies and preliminary results of pilot measurements will be presented.

  19. GPD physics with polarized muon beams at COMPASS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A major part of the future COMPASS program is dedicated to the investigation of the nucleon structure through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP). COMPASS will measure DVCS and DVMP reactions with a high intensity muon beam of 160 GeV and a 2.5 m-long liquid hydrogen target surrounded by a new TOF system. The availability of muon beams with high energy and opposite charge and polarization will allow to access the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H and to study the x B -dependence of the t-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. Projections on the achievable accuracies and preliminary results of pilot measurements will be presented.

  20. Ion beam induced stress formation and relaxation in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, T., E-mail: Tobias.Steinbach@uni-jena.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Reupert, A.; Schmidt, E.; Wesch, W. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Ion irradiation of crystalline solids leads not only to defect formation and amorphization but also to mechanical stress. In the past, many investigations in various materials were performed focusing on the ion beam induced damage formation but only several experiments were done to investigate the ion beam induced stress evolution. Especially in microelectronic devices, mechanical stress leads to several unwanted effects like cracking and peeling of surface layers as well as changing physical properties and anomalous diffusion of dopants. To study the stress formation and relaxation process in semiconductors, crystalline and amorphous germanium samples were irradiated with 3 MeV iodine ions at different ion fluence rates. The irradiation induced stress evolution was measured in situ with a laser reflection technique as a function of ion fluence, whereas the damage formation was investigated by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The investigations show that mechanical stress builds up at low ion fluences as a direct consequence of ion beam induced point defect formation. However, further ion irradiation causes a stress relaxation which is attributed to the accumulation of point defects and therefore the creation of amorphous regions. A constant stress state is reached at high ion fluences if a homogeneous amorphous surface layer was formed and no further ion beam induced phase transition took place. Based on the results, we can conclude that the ion beam induced stress evolution seems to be mainly dominated by the creation and accumulation of irradiation induced structural modification.