WorldWideScience

Sample records for polarized electromagnetic wave

  1. Excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized electromagnetic wave incident upon a boundary of a dense magnetoactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragila, R.; Vukovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of surfave waves that are associated with a boundary between a rare plasma and a dense magnetoactive plasma and that propagate along a dc magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the presence of the magnetic field introduces symmetry in terms of the polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave that excites the surface waves. A surface wave excited by an incident p-polarized (s-polarized) electromagnetic wave leaks in the form of an s-polarized (p-polarized) electromagnetic wave. The rate of rotation of polarization is independent of the polarization of the incident wave. Because a surface wave can leak in the form of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave, it can also be pumped by such a wave, and conditions were found for excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized incident electromagnetic wave

  2. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  3. Polarization properties of low frequency electromagnetic cyclotron waves associated with magnetic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Feng, H. Q.; Wu, D. J.; Huang, J.

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed that there are a large number of low frequency electromagnetic cyclotron waves (ECWs) occurring in and around magnetic clouds (MCs) that are common magnetic structures in interplanetary space. Using magnetic field data from the STEREO spacecraft, this paper investigates polarization properties of ECWs associated with 120 MCs. Results show that the ECWs are highly transverse, strongly polarized waves with large ellipticities. Specifically, almost all of the waves take place with the ratios of transverse power to total power higher than 0.94, polarization degrees greater than 0.85, and ellipticities larger than 0.5. The mean values of these quantities can be up to 0.99, 0.96, 0.85, respectively. In particular, there is a tendency of ellipticities decreasing with respect to the wave normal angles for ECWs with left handed polarization. The decreasing tendency is consistent with the recent theory and simulation results.

  4. The polarization evolution of electromagnetic waves as a diagnostic method for a motional plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhi, Alireza; Mehdian, Hassan; Hajisharifi, Kamal; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    The polarization evolution of electromagnetic (EM) radiation propagating through an electron beam-ion channel system is studied in the presence of self-magnetic field. Solving the fluid-Maxwell equations to obtain the medium dielectric tensor, the Stokes vector-Mueller matrix approach is employed to determine the polarization of the launched EM wave at any point in the propagation direction, applying the space-dependent Mueller matrix on the initial polarization vector of the wave at the plasma-vacuum interface. Results show that the polarization evolution of the wave is periodic in space along the beam axis with the specified polarization wavelength. Using the obtained results, a novel diagnostic method based on the polarization evolution of the EM waves is proposed to evaluate the electron beam density and velocity. Moreover, to use the mentioned plasma system as a polarizer, the fraction of the output radiation power transmitted through a motional plasma crossed with the input polarization is calculated. The results of the present investigation will greatly contribute to design a new EM amplifier with fixed polarization or EM polarizer, as well as a new diagnostic approach for the electron beam system where the polarimetric method is employed.

  5. Raman backscattering of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves propagating along a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraghechi, B.; Willett, J.e.

    1979-01-01

    The stimulated Raman backscattering of an intense electromagnetic wave propagating in the extraordinary mode along a uniform, static magnetic field is considered. The dispersion relation for a homogeneous magnetized plasma in the presence of the circularly polarized pump waves is developed in the cold-plasma approximation with the pump frequency above the plasma frequency. Formulas are derived for the threshold νsub(OT) of the parametric instability and for the growth rate γ of the backscattered extraordinary wave and Langmuir wave. The effects of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation on νsub(0T) and γ are studied numerically. (author)

  6. Broadband asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves based on chiral metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Lincy; Yogesh, N.; Subramanian, V.

    2018-01-01

    The giant optical activity of chiral metamaterials (CMMs) holds great potential for tailoring the polarization state of an electromagnetic (EM) wave. In controlling the polarization state, the aspect of asymmetric transmission (AT), where a medium allows the EM radiation to pass through in one direction while restricting it in the opposite direction, adds additional degrees of freedom such as one-way channelling functionality. In this work, a CMM formed by a pair of mutually twisted slanted complementary metal strips is realized for broadband AT accompanied with cross-polarization (CP) conversion for linearly polarized EM waves. Numerically, the proposed ultra-thin (˜λ/42) CMM shows broadband AT from 8.58 GHz to 9.73 GHz (bandwidth of 1.15 GHz) accompanied with CP transmission magnitude greater than 0.9. The transmission and reflection spectra reveal the origin of the asymmetric transmission as the direction sensitive cross polarization conversion and anisotropic electric coupling occurring in the structure which is then elaborated with the surface current analysis and electric field distribution within the structure. An experiment is carried out to verify the broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM at microwave frequencies, and a reliable agreement between numerical and experimental results is obtained. Being ultra-thin, the reported broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM is useful for controlling radiation patterns in non-reciprocal EM devices and communication networks.

  7. MECHANISMS OF PRIMARY RECEPTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES OF OPTICAL RANGE AS A BIOPHYSICAL BASIS OF POLARIZED LIGHT THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Hulyar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An existence of separate functional system of electromagnetic balance regulation has been substantiated and a working conception of light puncture has been formulated. As a basis, there is a possibility to use the acupuncture points for input of biologically necessary electromagnetic waves into the system of their conductors in a body that might be considered as a transport facility for energy ofthe polarized electromagnetic waves. Zones-recipients are organs having an electromagnetic disbalance due to excess of biologically inadequate radiation and being the targets for peroxide oxidation, foremost, a body has the neurohormonal and immune regulatory systems. Electromagnetic stimulation or modification of functions of the zones-recipients determines achievement of therapeutic and useful effects, and their combination with local reparative processes allows attaining a clinical goal. We represent own and literary experimental data about development of physiological responses (analgesia, bronchospasm control, immune stimulation and inhibition of peroxide oxidation of lipids to BIOPTRON-light exposure on the acupuncture points or biologically active zones. We show the experimental facts in support of a hypothesis that a living organism can perceive an action of the electromagnetic waves of optical range not only via the visual system, but also through the off-nerve receptors (specific energy-sensitive proteins detecting critical changes of energy in cells and functioning as the "sensory" cell systems, as well as via the acupuncture points. This confirms an important role of the electromagnetic waves of optical range in providing normal vital functions of living organisms. A current approach to BIOPTRON light therapy consists in combined (local and system exposure of the electromagnetic waves within the biologically necessary range.

  8. Analysis of the Influence of a Uniform Hydrometeorological Formation on the Polarization Characteristics of an Electromagnetic Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalov, E. V.; Krivin, N. N.; Eshchenko, S. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    The influence of a homogeneous medium filled with water droplets on the polarization structure of electromagnetic waves propagating in it, emitted in series with horizontal and circular (e.g., right-handed) polarization, is considered. An approach is proposed for estimating the influence of the resulting transformation of the polarization structure on the magnitude of the modified radar reflectivity, based on the use of the functional dependence of the components of the Jones vector on the angle of ellipticity and the tilt angle of the polarization ellipse. A distinguishing feature of the proposed approach consists in the relationships calculated using it for determining the modified radar reflectivity, obtained for the case of backscattering by the medium, where the orientation of the polarization basis of the medium is different from that of the measurement basis. Estimates of the modified radar reflectivity have been obtained, allowing one to determine regions with elevated values of this parameter.

  9. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  10. Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous

  11. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  12. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  13. Two-dimensional s-polarized solitary waves in plasmas. II. Stability, collisions, electromagnetic bursts, and post-soliton evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Arriaga, G.; Lefebvre, E.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of two-dimensional s-polarized solitary waves is investigated with the aid of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Instead of the usual excitation of the waves with a laser pulse, the PIC code was directly initialized with the numerical solutions from the fluid plasma model. This technique allows the analysis of different scenarios including the theoretical problems of the solitary wave stability and their collision as well as features already measured during laser-plasma experiments such as the emission of electromagnetic bursts when the waves reach the plasma-vacuum interface, or their expansion on the ion time scale, usually named post-soliton evolution. Waves with a single density depression are stable whereas multihump solutions decay to several waves. Contrary to solitons, two waves always interact through a force that depends on their relative phases, their amplitudes, and the distance between them. On the other hand, the radiation pattern at the plasma-vacuum interface was characterized, and the evolution of the diameter of different waves was computed and compared with the ''snow plow'' model.

  14. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  15. Coherent scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a polarized particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agre, M.Ya.; Rapoport, L.P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of the theory of coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves by a polarized atom or molecular system. Peculiarities of the angular distribution and polarization peculiarities of scattered radiation are discussed

  16. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  17. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magdy F

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...

  19. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media, specifically in electromagnetic materials. An account is presented of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials. The author presents the theory of time-varying electromagnetic fields, which involves a discussion of Faraday's laws, Maxwell's equations and their application to electromagnetic wave propagation under a variety of conditions. The author gives a discussion of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics. Chapters are included on quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. The mathematical foundation of electromagnetic waves vis a vis partial differential equations is discussed

  20. Electromagnetic waves in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne

  1. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Julian L

    1990-01-01

    This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro­ magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self­ contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...

  2. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  3. Jordan Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, R. D.; Xicoténcatl, M. A.; Granados, V. D.

    2004-02-01

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  4. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, R D [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de IngenierIa y TecnologIas Avanzadas, IPN. Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Xicotencatl, M A [Departamento de Matematicas del Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF, 07000 (Mexico); Granados, V D [Escuela Superior de FIsica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-02-20

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  5. Teaching Electromagnetic Waves in College Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezerashvili, Roman Y.; Leng, L.

    2006-12-01

    One of the important educational advantages of the simultaneous study of the electromagnetic waves and light is to show that light and the electromagnetic radiation have the same properties so that the students can visualize the properties of the electromagnetic radiation through observation of light propagation. In our approach we are suggest to study the properties of a microwave radiation and light in parallel. The following experiments can be easily designed and they provide a methodical introduction to electromagnetic theory using the microwave radiation and light: the study of the inverse square law of the dependence of the intensity of radiation (microwave and light) on the distance, the law of reflection and refraction, investigation of the phenomenon of polarization and how a polarizer can be used to alter the polarization of microwave radiation and light, measuring the Brewster's angle, studying interference by performing double-slit experiment for microwave radiation and light. Finally students measure the wavelength of the laser light and microwave radiation using the corresponding versions the Michelson’s interferometer, and recognize that these two radiations only differ by the wavelength or frequency.

  6. Explaining polarization reversals in STEREO wave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L. B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, Breneman et al. (2011) reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (L plane transverse to the magnetic field showed that the transmitter waves underwent periodic polarization reversals. Specifically, their polarization would cycle through a pattern of right-hand to linear to left-hand polarization at a rate of roughly 200 Hz. The lightning whistlers were observed to be left-hand polarized at frequencies greater than the lower hybrid frequency and less than the transmitter frequency (21.4 kHz) and right-hand polarized otherwise. Only right-hand polarized waves in the inner radiation belt should exist in the frequency range of the whistler mode and these reversals were not explained in the previous paper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by ±200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo (1984) whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by ˜200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al. (2008).

  7. Radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tyras, George; Declaris, Nicholas

    1969-01-01

    Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves serves as a text in electrical engineering or electrophysics. The book discusses the electromagnetic theory; plane electromagnetic waves in homogenous isotropic and anisotropic media; and plane electromagnetic waves in inhomogenous stratified media. The text also describes the spectral representation of elementary electromagnetic sources; the field of a dipole in a stratified medium; and radiation in anisotropic plasma. The properties and the procedures of Green's function method of solution, axial currents, as well as cylindrical boundaries a

  8. Transfer Matrix for Obliquely Incident Electromagnetic Waves Propagating in One Dimension Plasma Photonic Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Bin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the electromagnetic theory and by using an analytical technique-the transfer matrix method, the obliquely incident electromagnetic waves propagating in one-dimension plasma photonic crystals is studied. The dispersion relations for both the P-polarization waves and S-polarization waves, depending on the plasma density, plasma thickness and period, are discussed. (basic plasma phenomena)

  9. Geometry of wave electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarshan, E. C.G.

    1980-10-27

    A challenge to the commonly held view of light as a wave phenomenon is presented. An exact realization of light as generalized pencils or rays is constructed, with stress placed on using pencils of rays rather than single rays. Exact equations of motion are presented for the rays in the pencil, and these rays tend to travel in straight lines in empty space (not too near the edge of the beam). (GHT)

  10. Manipulating electromagnetic waves with metamaterials: Concept and microwave realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qiong; Xiao Shi-Yi; Li Xin; Song Zheng-Yong; Sun Wu-Jiong; Zhou Lei; Sun Shu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Our recent efforts in manipulating electromagnetic (EM) waves using metamaterials (MTMs) are reviewed with emphasis on 1) manipulating wave polarization and transporting properties using homogeneous MTMs, 2) manipulating surface-wave properties using plasmonic MTMs, and 3) bridging propagating and surface waves using inhomogeneous meta-surfaces. For all these topics, we first illustrate the physical concepts and then present several typical practical realizations and applications in the microwave regime. (topical review - plasmonics and metamaterials)

  11. Polarization characteristics of standing wave electromagnetic fields at the ionospheric Alfvén resonator lower harmonics: altitude profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prikner, Karel; Feygin, F. Z.; Raita, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2014), s. 338-341 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : ionospheric Alfvén resonator * EMIC waves * EISCAT measurements Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  12. Interacting electromagnetic waves in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    The problem is considered of finding exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which describe the physical situation of two colliding and subsequently interacting electromagnetic waves. The general theory of relativity predicts a nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic waves. The situation is described using an approximate geometrical method, and a new exact solution describing two interacting electromagnetic waves is given. This describes waves emitted from two sources mutually focusing each other on the opposite source. (author)

  13. Dispersion properties of transverse waves in electrically polarized BECs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A; Kuz'menkov, L S

    2014-01-01

    Further development of the method of quantum hydrodynamics in applications for Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) is presented. To consider the evolution of polarization direction along with particle movement, we have developed a corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. It includes equations of the polarization evolution and the polarization-current evolution along with the continuity equation and the Euler equation (the momentum-balance equation). Dispersion properties of the transverse waves, including the electromagnetic waves propagating through the BECs, are considered. To this end, we consider a full set of the Maxwell equations for the description of electromagnetic field dynamics. This approximation gives us the possibility of considering the electromagnetic waves along with the matter waves. We find a splitting of the electromagnetic-wave dispersion on two branches. As a result, we have four solutions, two for the electromagnetic waves and two for the matter waves; the last two are the concentration-polarization waves appearing as a generalization of the Bogoliubov mode. We also find that if the matter wave propagates perpendicular to the external electric field then the dipolar contribution does not disappear (as it follows from our generalization of the Bogoliubov spectrum). A small dipolar frequency shift exists in this case due to the transverse electric field of perturbation. (paper)

  14. Explaining Polarization Reversals in STEREO Wave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L, B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently Breneman et al. reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (Lpaper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by +/-200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by 200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al.

  15. Electromagnetic scattering from large steady breaking waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, D.B.; Haldeman, P.M.; Morgan, D.G.; Nicolas, K.R.; Penndorf, D.R.; Wetzel, L.B.; Weller, C.S. [David Taylor Model Basin, Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Div., West Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2001-05-01

    A submerged hydrofoil generated large steady breaking waves of 0.3 m and 0.4 m height in a circulating water channel. We measured water fraction in the breakers with conductivity probes. We observed the radar cross-section of the breakers at X-band with a pulsed step-frequency instrumentation radar with high spatial resolution in the downstream direction. The normalized radar cross-section increases with increasing elevation angle of observation for both vertical and horizontal polarization. This variation is consistent with a simple interpretation of the breaking wave as a diffuse (Lambertian) surface. However, the observed sizes and shapes of fluid elements in the breakers clearly show that construction of a theory for electromagnetic scattering from first principles will be challenging. We also obtained the velocity spectrum of the scattering features within the breakers. This spectrum indicates that slower moving small liquid elements rather than the faster moving large disturbances are responsible for most of the electromagnetic scattering. (orig.)

  16. Electromagnetic fields of Nanometer electromagnetic waves and X-ray. New frontiers of electromagnetic wave engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, X-ray microscope, application to medical and information communication technologies, such as interaction between material and nanometer electromagnetic waves of radiated light and X-ray, interaction between microwaves and particle beams, theory and design of high-frequency waveguides for resonator and accelerator, from January 2003 to December 2005. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and Cherenkov radiation, Kyushu synchrotron light source and its technology, nanometer electromagnetic fields in optical region, process of interaction between evanescent waves and near-field light, orthogonal relation of electromagnetic fields including evanescent waves in dispersive dielectrics, optical amplification using electron beam, nanometer electromagnetic fields in focusing waveguide lens device with curved facets, electromagnetic fields in nanometer photonic crystal waveguide consisting of atoms, X-ray scattering and absorption I bio-material for image diagnosis. (author)

  17. Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.B.

    A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.

  18. At the heart of the waves - Electromagnetic fields in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndagijimana, Fabien; Gaudaire, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This document briefly presents a book in which the author describes what an electromagnetic wave is, the use of electromagnetic waves, how an information is transmitted by means of an electromagnetic wave, what wave modulation is, what multiplexing is, what the characteristics of an antenna are, how waves propagate, how electromagnetic shielding works, what the CEM (electromagnetic compatibility) is, and how a cellular phone network works, in the framework of electromagnetic fields risk assessment

  19. [Mechanisms of primary reception of electromagnetic waves of optical range].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huliar, S O; Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P

    2003-01-01

    An existence of separate functional system of regulation of electromagnetic balance of organism has been substantiated and a working conception of light therapy has been formulated. As a basis, there is a possibility to use the acupuncture points for input of biologically necessary electromagnetic waves into the system of their conductors in a body that might be considered as a transport facility for energy of the polarized electromagnetic waves. Zones-recipients are organs having an electromagnetic disbalance due to excess of biologically inadequate radiation and being the targets for peroxide oxidation. Foremost, a body has the neurohormonal and immune regulatory systems. Electromagnetic stimulation or modification of functions of the zones-recipients determines the achievement of therapeutic and useful effects, and their combination with local reparative processes allows to attain a clinical goal. We represent own and literary experimental data about the development of physiological responses (analgesia) to BIOPTRON-light exposure on the acupuncture points or biologically active zones. We show the experimental facts in support of a hypothesis that a living organism can perceive an action of the electromagnetic fields of optical range not only via the visual system, but also through the off-nerve receptors (specific energy-sensitive proteins detecting critical changes of energy in cells and functioning as the "sensory" cell systems), as well as via the acupuncture points. It confirms an important role of the electromagnetic waves of optical range in providing normal vital functions of living organisms. A current approach to BIOPTRON light therapy (by polarized polychromatic coherent low energy light) consists in combined (local and system) exposure of the electromagnetic waves within the biologically necessary range.

  20. Dynamics of a charged particle in a circularly polarized travelling electromagnetic wave. Self-consistent model for the wave-particle dynamical interaction; Dynamique d'une particule chargee dans un champ electromagnetique polarise circulairement. Traitement auto-consistant de l'interaction entre plusieurs particules et l'onde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdier, A

    1999-07-01

    This work concerns mainly the dynamics of a charged particle in an electromagnetic wave. It is a first step in elaborating a more general model permitting to predict the wave-particle interaction. We show how deriving a first integral gives an idea on how to create an electron current in a cold electron plasma. We present results which can be used to test the 2D and 3D Vlasov-Maxwell codes being built up in CEA-DAM. These codes will allow the calcination of the magnetic field created by an electromagnetic wave like the one due to the inverse Faraday effect when a circularly polarized wave drives the electrons of a plasma into circular orbits. (author)

  1. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensson, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.

  2. Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation is studied theoretically and experimentally. This coupling arises because of the electrochemical double layer, which exists along the solid-grain/fluid-electrolyte boundaries of porous media. Within the double layer, charge is redistributed,

  3. Tripling the capacity of wireless communications using electromagnetic polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M R; Mitra, P P; deCarvalho, R

    2001-01-18

    Wireless communications are a fundamental part of modern information infrastructure. But wireless bandwidth is costly, prompting a close examination of the data channels available using electromagnetic waves. Classically, radio communications have relied on one channel per frequency, although it is well understood that the two polarization states of planar waves allow two distinct information channels; techniques such as 'polarization diversity' already take advantage of this. Recent work has shown that environments with scattering, such as urban areas or indoors, also possess independent spatial channels that can be used to enhance capacity greatly. In either case, the relevant signal processing techniques come under the heading of 'multiple-input/multiple-output' communications, because multiple antennae are required to access the polarization or spatial channels. Here we show that, in a scattering environment, an extra factor of three in channel capacity can be obtained, relative to the conventional limit using dual-polarized radio signals. The extra capacity arises because there are six distinguishable electric and magnetic states of polarization at a given point, rather than two as is usually assumed.

  4. Solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the field of a plane electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostin, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    A solution is obtained of the Bethe--Salpeter equation for positronium in the field of linearly and circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves at frequencies much higher than atomic. It is not assumed that the field is weak

  5. Transmission of electromagnetic waves through sub-wavelength channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method of tunneling electromagnetic (EM) waves through a channel with sub-wavelength cross section. By filling the channel with high-ε isotropic material and implementing two matching layers with uniaxial metamterial substrates, the guided waves can go through the narrow channel...... without being cut off, as if it has just passed through the original empty waveguide. Both the magnitude and phase information of the EM fields can be effectively restored after passing this channel, regardless of the polarization of the incoming wave. The performance of this subwavelength channel, which...

  6. Polarization-independent electromagnetically induced transparency-like metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaoou

    2018-01-01

    A classical electromagnetically induced transparency-like (EIT-like) metasurface is numerically simulated. This metasurface is composed of two identical and orthogonal double-end semitoroidals (DESTs) metal resonators. Under the excitation of the normal incidence waves, each of the two DESTs structure exhibits electromagnetic dipole responses at different frequencies, which leads to the polarization-independent EIT-like effect. The features of the EIT-like effect are qualitatively analyzed based on the surface current and magnetic field distribution. In addition, the large index is extracted to verify the slow-light property within the transmission window. The EIT-like metasurface structure with the above-mentioned characteristics may have potential applications in some areas, such as sensing, slow light, and filtering devices.

  7. Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Weiyan

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).

  8. Electromagnetic cloaking devices for TE and TM polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilotti, Filiberto; Tricarico, Simone; Vegni, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of an electromagnetic cloaking device working for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations. The theoretical approach to cloaking used here is inspired by the one presented by Alu and Engheta (2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 016623) for TM polarization. The case of TE polarization is firstly considered and, then, an actual inclusion-based cloak for TE polarization is also designed. In such a case, the cloak is made of a mu-near-zero (MNZ) metamaterial, as the dual counterpart of the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material that can be used for purely dielectric objects. The operation and the robustness of the cloaking device for the TE polarization is deeply investigated through a complete set of full-wave numerical simulations. Finally, the design and an application of a cloak operating for both TE and TM polarizations employing both magnetic inclusions and the parallel plate medium already used by Silveirinha et al (Phys. Rev. E 75 036603) are presented.

  9. Coherent polarization driven by external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, M.; Ganciu, M.

    2010-01-01

    The coherent interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with an ensemble of polarizable, identical particles with two energy levels is investigated in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. The coupled non-linear equations of motion are solved in the stationary regime and in the limit of small coupling constants. It is shown that an external electromagnetic field may induce a macroscopic occupation of both the energy levels of the particles and the corresponding photon states, governed by a long-range order of the quantum phases of the internal motion (polarization) of the particles. A lasing effect is thereby obtained, controlled by the external field. Its main characteristics are estimated for typical atomic matter and atomic nuclei. For atomic matter the effect may be considerable (for usual external fields), while for atomic nuclei the effect is extremely small (practically insignificant), due to the great disparity in the coupling constants. In the absence of the external field, the solution, which is non-analytic in the coupling constant, corresponds to a second-order phase transition (super-radiance), which was previously investigated.

  10. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  11. Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte

  12. Elements particle decay in the field of an intense electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyul'ka, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    The μ +- →E +- +ν+ν tilde, π→μ(e)+ν, π +- →π deg +e +- +ν, decays and also the e +- →e +- +ν+ν tilde process in an intense electromagnetic field of a plane electromagnetic wave with an arbitrary polarization and in a field of linearly polarized waves with mutually perpendicular polarizations and with the same propagation are considered here. Expressions have been obtained for probabilities of the decays for both models of electromagnetic field, and numerical calculations have been carried out for specific values of invariant parameters, that determine the external field effect on elementary particle decays. Characteristic features of the dependence of total probabilities of particle decays on a frequency, and also on an external electromagnetic wave polarization are discussed

  13. A differentiated plane wave as an electromagnetic vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannay, J. H.; Nye, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    Differentiating a complex scalar plane wave with respect to its direction produces an isolated straight vortex line and has a natural extension, described in earlier papers, to the vector waves of electromagnetism—a differentiated plane wave (DPW). It epitomizes destructive interference and will be shown to have the local structure of an electromagnetic vortex. In this paper its polarization structure and Poynting vector field are compared and contrasted with that of the family of linear polynomial waves, of which it is a special member. By definition this wider family has a general linear complex vector function of position multiplying a plane wave, but the function must be such that the combination satisfies Maxwell’s equations. This forces translational invariance of the function along the wavevector direction—in other words the wave is ‘non-diffracting’. In a natural sense all possible polarizations are exhibited once only. But the DPW has a distinctive polarization structure only partly explored previously. Both classes of waves share similar Poynting vector fields, which can be ‘elliptic’ (helix-like flow lines) or ‘hyperbolic’, of a repulsive nature, unexpected for a vortex. Both classes can be considered as a limit in the superposition of three closely parallel ordinary plane waves in destructive interference, and this derivation is supplied in full here.

  14. Spectrum of classes of point emitters of electromagnetic wave fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Román

    2016-09-01

    The spectrum of classes of point emitters has been introduced as a numerical tool suitable for the design, analysis, and synthesis of non-paraxial optical fields in arbitrary states of spatial coherence. In this paper, the polarization state of planar electromagnetic wave fields is included in the spectrum of classes, thus increasing its modeling capabilities. In this context, optical processing is realized as a filtering on the spectrum of classes of point emitters, performed by the complex degree of spatial coherence and the two-point correlation of polarization, which could be implemented dynamically by using programmable optical devices.

  15. Multiphoton ionization of the hydrogen atom by a circularly polarized electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepelitsa, O.B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the multiphoton ionization of the ground state of the hydrogen atom in the field of a circularly polarized intense electromagnetic wave. To describe the states of photoelectrons, quasiclassical wave functions are introduced that partially allow for the effect of an intense electromagnetic wave and that of the Coulomb potential. Expressions are derived for the angular and energy distributions of photoelectrons with energies much lower than the ionization potential of an unperturbed atom. It is found that, due to allowance for the Coulomb potential in the wave function of the final electron states, the transition probability near the ionization threshold tends to a finite value. In addition, the well-known selection rules for multiphoton transitions in a circularly polarized electromagnetic field are derived in a natural way. Finally, the results are compared with those obtained in the Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss approximation

  16. Fundamentals of electromagnetics 2 quasistatics and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Voltmer, David

    2007-01-01

    This book is the second of two volumes which have been created to provide an understanding of the basic principles and applications of electromagnetic fields for electrical engineering students. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics Vol 2: Quasistatics and Waves examines how the low-frequency models of lumped elements are modified to include parasitic elements. For even higher frequencies, wave behavior in space and on transmission lines is explained. Finally, the textbook concludes with details of transmission line properties and applications. Upon completion of this book and its companion Fundame

  17. Passive polarization agile antenna based on the electromagnetically induced transparency-like effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Lei; Meng, Fan-Yi; Wu, Qun; Chen, Wan; Fu, Jia-Hui; Dong, Liang

    2014-01-01

    We propose a design method for a passive polarization agile antenna based on the electromagnetically induced transparency-like (EIT-like) effect. Benefiting from strong dispersion properties governed by EIT-like effects, the proposed structure can endow electromagnetic waves transmitted through it with quite different polarization states at very close frequencies. The experimental measurement was conducted to demonstrate agile polarization controls by placing a designed EIT-like waveplate in front of a standard microwave horn antenna. Results show that the polarization state of radiated waves by the horn antenna with a waveplate can be easily transformed among linear, circular and elliptical polarizations through fine-tuning the operating frequency, which is extremely important for certain special applications, e.g. electronic countermeasures. Our scheme could also be utilized at higher operating frequencies by the simply scaling principle. (paper)

  18. Passive polarization agile antenna based on the electromagnetically induced transparency-like effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Meng, Fan-Yi; Wu, Qun; Dong, Liang; Chen, Wan; Fu, Jia-Hui

    2014-10-01

    We propose a design method for a passive polarization agile antenna based on the electromagnetically induced transparency-like (EIT-like) effect. Benefiting from strong dispersion properties governed by EIT-like effects, the proposed structure can endow electromagnetic waves transmitted through it with quite different polarization states at very close frequencies. The experimental measurement was conducted to demonstrate agile polarization controls by placing a designed EIT-like waveplate in front of a standard microwave horn antenna. Results show that the polarization state of radiated waves by the horn antenna with a waveplate can be easily transformed among linear, circular and elliptical polarizations through fine-tuning the operating frequency, which is extremely important for certain special applications, e.g. electronic countermeasures. Our scheme could also be utilized at higher operating frequencies by the simply scaling principle.

  19. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Random Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of a narrow frequency band beam of electromagnetic waves in a medium with randomly varying index of refraction is considered. A novel formulation of the governing equation is proposed. An equation for the average Green function (or transition probability) can then be derived...

  20. MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Mauk, B.; Le Contel, O.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Harmonically related electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with the fundamental frequency near the O+ cyclotron frequency were observed by the four MMS spacecraft on May 20, 2016. The wave activity was detected by the spacecraft on their inbound passage through the Earth's morning magnetosphere during generally quiet geomagnetic conditions but enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. It was also associated with an enhancement of energetic H+ and O+ ions. The waves are seen in both magnetic and electric fields, formed by over ten higher order harmonics, most pronounced in the electric field. The wave activity lasted for about an hour with some wave packets giving rise to short-lived structures extending from Hz to kHz range. These observations are particularly interesting since they suggest cross-frequency coupling between the lower and higher frequency modes. Further work will focus on examining the nature and role of these waves in the energetic particle dynamics from a theoretical perspective.

  1. Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert; Stenflo, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background, is investigated by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse, we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density, there is focusing and the subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed

  2. Multiband Circular Polarizer Based on Fission Transmission of Linearly Polarized Wave for X-Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Mangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband circular polarizer based on fission transmission of linearly polarized wave for x-band application is proposed, which is constructed of 2 × 2 metallic strips array. The linear-to-circular polarization conversion is obtained by decomposing the linearly incident x-polarized wave into two orthogonal vector components of equal amplitude and 90° phase difference between them. The innovative approach of “fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarized wave” is firstly introduced to obtain giant circular dichroism based on decomposition of orthogonal vector components through the structure. It means that the incident linearly polarized wave is converted into two orthogonal components through lower printed metallic strips layer and two transmitted waves impinge on the upper printed strips layer to convert into four orthogonal vector components at the end of structure. This projection and transmission sequence of orthogonal components sustain the chain transmission of electromagnetic wave and can achieve giant circular dichroism. Theoretical analysis and microwave experiments are presented to validate the performance of the structure. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation results. In addition, the proposed circular polarizer exhibits the optimal performance with respect to the normal incidence. The right handed circularly polarized wave is emitted ranging from 10.08 GHz to 10.53 GHz and 10.78 GHz to 11.12 GHz, while the left handed circular polarized wave is excited at 10.54 GHz–10.70 GHz and 11.13 GHz–11.14 GHz, respectively.

  3. Tailoring polarization of electromagnetically induced transparency based on non-centrosymmetric metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-ming; Xue, Feng

    2017-09-01

    In this manuscript, tailoring polarization of analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT-like) based on non-centrosymmetric metasurfaces has been numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The EIT-like metamaterial is composed of a rectangle ring and two cut wires. The rectangle ring and the cut wire are chosen as the bright mode and the quasi-dark mode, respectively. Under the incident electromagnetic wave excitation, a polarization insensitive EIT-like transmission window can be observed at specific polarization angles. Within the transmission window, the phase steeply changes, which leads to the large group index. Tailoring polarization of EIT-like metamaterial with large group index at specific polarization angles may have potential application in slow light devices.

  4. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasr Esfahani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available   Replacing the wormhole geometry with an equivalent medium using the perturbation theory of scattering and the Born approximation, we have calculated the differential scattering cross section of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole. It is shown that scattering at long wavelenghts can essentially distinguish wormhole from ordinary scattering object. Some of the zeros of the scattering cross section are determined which can be used for estimating the radius of the throat of wormholes. The known result that in this kind of scattering the linear polarization remains unchanged is verified here.

  5. Geometric Phase Of The Faraday Rotation Of Electromagnetic Waves In Magnetized Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Liu and Hong Qin

    2011-11-07

    The geometric phase of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves in nonuniform magnetized plasmas is studied theoretically. The variation of the propagation direction of circularly polarized waves results in a geometric phase, which also contributes to the Faraday rotation, in addition to the standard dynamical phase. The origin and properties of the geometric phase is investigated. The in uence of the geometric phase to plasma diagnostics using Faraday rotation is also discussed as an application of the theory.

  6. Circularly polarized millimeter-wave imaging for personnel screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Lechelt, Wayne M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.

    2005-05-01

    A novel polarimetric millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for concealed weapon detection applications. Wideband millimeter-wave imaging systems developed at PNNL utilize low-power, coherent, millimeter-wave illumination in the 10-100 GHz range to form high-resolution images of personnel. Electromagnetic waves in these frequency ranges easily penetrate most clothing materials and are reflected from the body and any concealed items. Three-dimensional images are formed using computer image reconstruction algorithms developed to mathematically focus the received wavefronts scattered from the target. Circular polarimetric imaging can be employed to obtain additional information from the target. Circularly polarized waves incident on relatively smooth reflecting targets are typically reversed in their rotational handedness, e.g. left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) is reflected to become right-hand circular polarization (RHCP). An incident wave that is reflected twice (or any even number) of times prior to returning to the transceiver, has its handedness preserved. Sharp features such as wires and edges tend to return linear polarization, which can be considered to be a sum of both LHCP and RHCP. These characteristics can be exploited for personnel screening by allowing differentiation of smooth features, such as the body, and sharper features present in many concealed items. Additionally, imaging artifacts due to multipath can be identified and eliminated. Laboratory imaging results have been obtained in the 10-20 GHz frequency range and are presented in this paper.

  7. The solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, Sergey V.; Kukhar', Egor I.

    2013-01-01

    d’Alembert equation written for the electromagnetic waves propagating in the graphene superlattice is analyzed. The possibility of the propagation of the solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice is discussed. The amplitude and the width of the electromagnetic pulse are calculated. The drag current induced by such wave across the superlattice axis is investigated. The numerical estimate of the charge dragged by the solitary wave is made.

  8. Electromagnetic wave interaction with the auroral plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Jacqueline Tze-Ho

    High power radio electromagnetic waves interaction with the auroral plasma has been investigated. Plasma in this auroral region can be illuminated by EM waves for a prolonged period of time and thus, experiences accumulative perturbations and resonances because of its long plasma lifetime, slow transport rates, and weak convection, especially near the peak of the ionospheric electron density profile. A plasma resonance at a specific height in the ionosphere has a corresponding EM wave frequency. These plasma resonances can enhance the local electromagnetic fields, and therefore their interactions with plasma particles leading to turbulences, local heating, density perturbations, and field aligned striations. The non-linear process at the resonance layer also stimulates the emission of electromagnetic waves which appear as the sidebands of the reflected EM wave. These effects are more pronounced when the EM wave frequency is near foF2, the frequency for the resonance near the peak of the ionospheric electron density profile. Optical emissions are also enhanced under such conditions. This thesis describes two major experiments performed at the HIPAS and HAARP facilities, namely the preconditioning and the second harmonic matching experiments. The experimental data confirms the region where the most efficient interaction between the EM waves and the auroral plasma are near the peak of the ionospheric density profile and where the EM wave frequency matches both the local plasma frequency and the second harmonic of the ionospheric electron cyclotron frequency. In the preconditioning experiments, the ionosphere is first pre-conditioned with high power EM wave. This generates field-aligned striations, which in turn reduces the threshold level of the non-linear process at the resonance layer. The spectral features of the sidebands are excited with an effective radiation power (ERP) level of 24 dB less than that normally required. We observed that using the preconditioning

  9. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency: Stereo observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Klecker, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Omidi, N. [Solana Scientific Inc., Solana Beach, CA 92075 (United States); Isenberg, P. A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Goldstein, M. L.; Figueroa-Viñas, A. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD 20771 (United States); Blanco-Cano, X., E-mail: lan.jian@nasa.gov [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-05-10

    Transverse, near-circularly polarized, parallel-propagating electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency were found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They could play an important role in heating and accelerating the solar wind. These low-frequency waves (LFWs) are intermittent but often occur in prolonged bursts lasting over 10 minutes, named 'LFW storms'. Through a comprehensive survey of them from Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory A using dynamic spectral wave analysis, we have identified 241 LFW storms in 2008, present 0.9% of the time. They are left-hand (LH) or right-hand (RH) polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, probably due to Doppler shift of the same type of waves or waves of intrinsically different polarities. In rare cases, the opposite polarities are observed closely in time or even simultaneously. Having ruled out interplanetary coronal mass ejections, shocks, energetic particles, comets, planets, and interstellar ions as LFW sources, we discuss the remaining generation scenarios: LH ion cyclotron instability driven by greater perpendicular temperature than parallel temperature or by ring-beam distribution, and RH ion fire hose instability driven by inverse temperature anisotropy or by cool ion beams. The investigation of solar wind conditions is compromised by the bias of the one-dimensional Maxwellian fit used for plasma data calibration. However, the LFW storms are preferentially detected in rarefaction regions following fast winds and when the magnetic field is radial. This preference may be related to the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in fast wind and the minimum in damping along the radial field.

  10. Theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in ferromagnetic Rashba conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Junya; Takeuchi, Akihito; Kohno, Hiroshi; Tatara, Gen

    2018-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of various electromagnetic wave propagation phenomena in a ferromagnetic bulk Rashba conductor from the perspective of quantum mechanical transport. In this system, both the space inversion and time reversal symmetries are broken, as characterized by the Rashba field α and magnetization M, respectively. First, we present a general phenomenological analysis of electromagnetic wave propagation in media with broken space inversion and time reversal symmetries based on the dielectric tensor. The dependence of the dielectric tensor on the wave vector q and M is retained to first order. Then, we calculate the microscopic electromagnetic response of the current and spin of conduction electrons subjected to α and M, based on linear response theory and the Green's function method; the results are used to study the system optical properties. First, it is found that a large α enhances the anisotropic properties of the system and enlarges the frequency range in which the electromagnetic waves have hyperbolic dispersion surfaces and exhibit unusual propagations known as negative refraction and backward waves. Second, we consider the electromagnetic cross-correlation effects (direct and inverse Edelstein effects) on the wave propagation. These effects stem from the lack of space inversion symmetry and yield q-linear off-diagonal components in the dielectric tensor. This induces a Rashba-induced birefringence, in which the polarization vector rotates around the vector (α ×q ) . In the presence of M, which breaks time reversal symmetry, there arises an anomalous Hall effect and the dielectric tensor acquires off-diagonal components linear in M. For α ∥M , these components yield the Faraday effect for the Faraday configuration q ∥M and the Cotton-Mouton effect for the Voigt configuration ( q ⊥M ). When α and M are noncollinear, M- and q-induced optical phenomena are possible, which include nonreciprocal directional dichroism in the

  11. Electromagnetic Fields and Waves in Fractional Dimensional Space

    CERN Document Server

    Zubair, Muhammad; Naqvi, Qaisar Abbas

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the concept of fractional dimensional space applied to the use of electromagnetic fields and waves. It provides demonstrates the advantages in studying the behavior of electromagnetic fields and waves in fractal media. The book presents novel fractional space generalization of the differential electromagnetic equations is provided as well as a new form of vector differential operators is formulated in fractional space. Using these modified vector differential operators, the classical Maxwell's electromagnetic equations are worked out. The Laplace's, Poisson's and Helmholtz's

  12. Parametric excitation of electromagnetic waves by electron Bernstein waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    A parametric instability involving the decay of a standing electron Bernstein pump into electromagnetic sidebands and lower-hybrid decay waves is studied. A general dispersion relation is derived and analyzed. Threshold fields and growth rates are obtained for the two cases that the electron Bernstein pump is introduced near the X-mode cutoff layer or introduced in the region between the upper-hybrid resonance layer and the O-mode cutoff layer. Applications of these results to the recent observation [P. Stubbe and H. Kopka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 183 (1990)] of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) with a broad symmetrical structure (BSS) in the ionospheric modifications by powerful high-frequency (HF) wave are discussed

  13. The effect of gravitational wave on electromagnetic field and the possibility about electromagnetic detection of gravitational wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Fuzhen; He Zhiqiang

    1983-01-01

    If the effect of gravitational wave on electromagnetic fields is used, and the gravitational wave is detected through the changes in electromagnetic fields, one can expect that the difficulty about the weakness of the signal of mechanical receiver can be avoided. Because of the effect of gravitational wave, the electromagnetic field emits energy, therefore, the energy which is detected will be higher than that by the mechanical receiver. The authors consider the Maxwell equations on the curved spacetime. They give solutions when the detecting fields are a free electromagnetic wave, standing wave and a constant field. (Auth.)

  14. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin

    2010-01-01

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  15. Spectrum of harmonic emission by inhomogeneous plasma in intense electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The spectrum and angular distribution of the harmonics of arbitrary index emitted by a cold, inhomogeneous electron plasma subjected to a p-polarized electromagnetic wave have been studied analytically. The results are shown in graphical form. The intensity of the wave was varied over a wide range. At energy flux densities of the electromagnetic wave at which the inverse effect of the higher harmonics on the lower harmonics becomes appreciable, it becomes possible to observe a decay of the absolute value of the complex amplitude of a harmonic with increasing harmonic index in vacuum which is substantially slower than that predicted by the theory for a weak nonlinearity

  16. Energy density and velocity of electromagnetic waves in lossy chiral medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyev, O B

    2014-01-01

    The average energy density of the macroscopic quasimonochromatic electromagnetic field U ts (t,r) in a linear passive chiral lossy medium described by the constitutive E–H relations is determined using a microscopic model. According to the model, U ts (t,r) is equal to the sum of the average energy densities of the electromagnetic field in free space U t0 (t,r) and electromagnetic oscillations in structural elements U s (t,r) induced by the electromagnetic wave. Making use of the Poynting theorem, the energy density U ts (t,r)≥U t0 (t,r) and power density of losses are derived as functions of the Poynting vector, polarization of the electromagnetic waves, phase shift between the field vectors and refractive index of a chiral medium. The exact energy velocity of the quasimonochromatic electromagnetic waves satisfying relativistic causality is determined using U ts (t,r). The approximate energy velocities of the quasimonochromatic electromagnetic wave are determined using energy density components approximating U ts (t,r) (e.g., the sum of the positive energy densities of the macroscopic electric and magnetic fields as well as the energy density of magnetoelectric cross-coupling). Comparison of the exact and approximate energy velocities with the group velocity in the case of a chiral lossy medium with a single-resonant frequency clarifies the concept of the electromagnetic energy and demonstrates the fundamental significance of the exact energy velocity. (paper)

  17. Electro-magnetic waves within a model for charged solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisyuk, Dmitry; Faber, Manfried; Kobushkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the model of topological fermions (MTF), where charged fermions are treated as soliton solutions of the field equations. In the region far from the sources we find plane waves solutions with the properties of electro-magnetic waves

  18. New material equations for electromagnetism with toroid polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovik, V.M.; Martsenyuk, M.A.; Saha, B.

    1999-09-01

    With regard to the toroid contributions, a modified system of equations of electrodynamics moving continuous media has been obtained. Alternative formalisms to introduce the toroid moment contributions in the equations of electromagnetism has been worked out. The two four-potential formalism has been developed. Lorentz transformation laws for the toroid polarizations has been given. Covariant form of equations of electrodynamics of continuous media with toroid polarizations has been written. (author)

  19. Stochastic electromagnetic plane-wave pulse with non-uniform correlation distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Chaoliang; Cai, Yangjian; Zhang, Yongtao; Wang, Haixia; Zhao, Zhiguo; Pan, Liuzhan

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic electromagnetic plane-wave (SEPW) pulse with non-uniform correlation distribution is introduced. The realizability condition for such pulse is derived. It is found that the evolution properties of the intensity and the degree of polarization of an SEPW pulse with non-uniform correlation distribution in dispersive media are much different from those of an SEPW pulse with uniform correlation distribution.

  20. To the theory of quantum processes in the field of an intense electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajer, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.; Mil'shtejn, A.I.; Strakhovenko, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    The operator diagram technique, developed earlier for considering phenomena in a homogeneous external field, is applied to processes occurring in a plane electromagnetic wave field. Calculations are carried out on the basis of a specific technique of ''entangling'' of operator expressions. The mass operator of scalar and spinor particles determined by a double integral is found in the field of an elliptically polarized wave of a general type. Imaginary part of the operator presents a new concept of the full probability of a particle emission in a wave field. Polarization effects are analyzed for spinor particles

  1. Polarization-dependent electromagnetic responses in an A-shape metasurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Xu, Quan; Li, Shaoxian; Ouyang, Chunmei; Zhang, Xueqian; Li, Yanfeng; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2017-08-21

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrate polarization-dependent terahertz responses in a proposed metasurface of A-shape resonators. With the horizontal polarization incidence, the observed transmission window is formed by two resonance dips, corresponding to the inductive-capacitive resonance at the lower frequency and the high-order antisymmetric resonance at a higher frequency, respectively. When the incident wave is perpendicularly polarized, the transmission window arises from the plasmon-induced transparency spectral response. The origin of the polarization-sensitive resonance properties is revealed by mapping the electric field and terahertz-induced surface current in the proposed metamaterials. Moreover, the influence of the geometry of the A-shape microstructures on the transmission spectra is analyzed. These polarization-dependent metamaterials may provide more degrees of freedom in tuning the electromagnetic responses, thus offering a path toward robust metamaterials design.

  2. influence of electromagnetic waves produced by an amplitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    This article presents a one dimensional modeling of the influence of electromagnetic waves on the electric power delivered by a silicon solar cell under monochromatic illumination in steady state. The electromagnetic waves are produced by an amplitude modulation radio antenna of 2MW power of radiation and located at a ...

  3. Influence of electromagnetic waves produced by an amplitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents a one dimensional modeling of the influence of electromagnetic waves on the electric power delivered by a silicon solar cell under monochromatic illumination in steady state. The electromagnetic waves are produced by an amplitude modulation radio antenna of 2MW power of radiation and located at a ...

  4. Weak-electromagnetic interference in polarized eD scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    Observation of parity non-conservation in deep-inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from deuterium was reported in an experiment at SLAC in 1978. The events at SLAC and elsewhere leading to the successful search for parity non-conservation in the electromagnetic processes are described

  5. Electromagnetic wave scattering by aerial and ground radar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Sukharevsky, Oleg I

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Aerial and Ground Radar Objects presents the theory, original calculation methods, and computational results of the scattering characteristics of different aerial and ground radar objects. This must-have book provides essential background for computing electromagnetic wave scattering in the presence of different kinds of irregularities, as well as Summarizes fundamental electromagnetic statements such as the Lorentz reciprocity theorem and the image principleContains integral field representations enabling the study of scattering from various layered structur

  6. Cometary dust dynamics and polarization in electromagnetic radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranen, J.; Markkanen, J.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-09-01

    In our work, we apply a fast solution of electromagnetic scattering to determine the induced spin and movement of a dust particle in a cometary coma. The resulted aligned spinning state is then used to determine the observable polarization of the dust, and compared against the randomly averaged polarization of the same particle. We find that measurable effects arise due to the alignment. In the future, similar methods can be used to model the dynamics and in turn the polarization of the whole coma.

  7. Electromagnetic solitary waves in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Holm, D.D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1985-03-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation, in terms of noncanonical Poisson bracket, is presented for a nonlinear fluid system that includes reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the Hasegawa-Mima equation as limiting cases. The single-helicity and axisymmetric versions possess three nonlinear Casimir invariants, from which a generalized potential can be constructed. Variation of the generalized potential yields a description of exact nonlinear stationary states. The new equilibria, allowing for plasma flow as well as partial electron adiabaticity, are distinct from those found in conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. They differ from electrostatic stationary states in containing plasma current and magnetic field excitation. One class of steady-state solutions is shown to provide a simple electromagnetic generalization of drift-solitary waves

  8. investigating electromagnetic waves to enhance bone healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agayan, Ali.

    1996-09-01

    Bone formation of fractured tibia stimulated by pulsed electromagnetic fields were studied and results assessed by roentgenography. A total of 89 male New Zealand rabbits was osteotomized by creating a 1.5-2 mm gap at right and left tibia, one for control and another for treatment by PEMF. The radiography of bone imaging with X-ray (60 k vp) was performs to observe the course of fracture healing and to establish criteria for distinguishing PEMF from normal healing. This paper also gives a theoretical model to calculate the field produced in bone for simple geometry. The induced electrical field need not have complex wave forms to be osteogenic and frequency suggested to be very low frequency

  9. Width of electromagnetic wave instability spectrum in tungsten plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkevich, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the study of high-frequency signal modulation and spectrum analysis of the envelope a measurement of spectrum width for electromagnetic wave instability was carried out under conditions of current pulse action on tungsten plate in magnetic field. The existence of amplitude-frequency wave modulation was revealed. The width of current disturbance spectrum in a specimen was evaluated. Current disturbances are shown to cause the instability of electromagnetic wave. 11 refs.; 6 figs

  10. Scattering of electromagnetic waves into plasma oscillations via plasma particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.T.; Dawson, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A plasma subjected to an intense electromagnetic wave can exhibit a large number of parametric instabilities. An interesting example which has received little attention is the decay of the electromagnetic wave into a plasma oscillation with the excess energy and momentum being carried off by electrons. This process has been simulated on a one-and-two-halves dimensional electromagnetic code. The incident electromagnetic wave had a frequency near the plasma frequency so that decay into a plasma oscillation and a backscattered electromagnetic wave was excluded. As expected, the threshold for this instability was very large , so it is unlikely that this instability is competitive in most laser plasmas. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism involved provides a means for absorption of laser light and acceleration of particles in a plasma containing large amplitude plasma oscillations

  11. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Detected by Kaguya and Geotail in the Earth's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tomoko; Nishino, Masaki N.; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Matsushima, Masaki; Saito, Yoshifumi

    2018-02-01

    Narrowband electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves first discovered by the Apollo 15 and 16 Lunar Surface Magnetometers were surveyed in the magnetic field data obtained by the Kaguya satellite at an altitude of ˜100 km above the Moon in the tail lobe and plasma sheet boundary layer of the Earth's magnetosphere. The frequencies of the waves were typically 0.7 times the local proton cyclotron frequency, and 75% of the waves were left hand polarized with respect to the background magnetic field. They had a significant compressional component and comprised several discrete packets. They were detected on the dayside, nightside, and above the terminator of the Moon, irrespective of the lunar magnetic anomaly, or the magnetic connection to the lunar surface. The waves with the same characteristics were detected by Geotail in the absence of the Moon in the magnetotail. The most likely energy source of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves is the ring beam ions in the plasma sheet boundary layer.

  12. Electrical access to critical coupling of circularly polarized waves in graphene chiral metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Teun-Teun; Oh, Sang Soon; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Park, Hyun Sung; Hess, Ortwin; Min, Bumki; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-09-01

    Active control of polarization states of electromagnetic waves is highly desirable because of its diverse applications in information processing, telecommunications, and spectroscopy. However, despite the recent advances using artificial materials, most active polarization control schemes require optical stimuli necessitating complex optical setups. We experimentally demonstrate an alternative-direct electrical tuning of the polarization state of terahertz waves. Combining a chiral metamaterial with a gated single-layer sheet of graphene, we show that transmission of a terahertz wave with one circular polarization can be electrically controlled without affecting that of the other circular polarization, leading to large-intensity modulation depths (>99%) with a low gate voltage. This effective control of polarization is made possible by the full accessibility of three coupling regimes, that is, underdamped, critically damped, and overdamped regimes by electrical control of the graphene properties.

  13. Landau Quasi-energy Spectrum Destruction for an Electron in Both a Static Magnetic Field and a Resonant Electromagnetic Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoblin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Free nonrelativistic electrons in both a static magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave are considered. A plane-polarized wave propagates along a magnetic field, its frequency is close to the electron rotation frequency in a magnetic field. Electron spin is taken into account. An electron quasi energy spectrum and steady states (quasi energy states) are constructed. 6 refs

  14. Electromagnetic waves in optical fibres in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V S; Burdanova, M G

    2016-01-01

    A new method is reported of recording the secondary radiation of luminescent substances based on the use of capillary fibres of great length. Theoretical analysis of the dispersion curves of electromagnetic radiation in capillary fibres doped with erbium ions Er 3+ has been established. The Lorentz model is used for describing the dispersion properties of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous medium doped with rare-earth ions. The dispersion dependencies of polariton and axion–polariton waves in erbium nitrate hydrate are determined on the basis of the model of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the resonance electronic states of erbium ions in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. (paper)

  15. Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, A. [Dept. of Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Postnov, K., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: kpostnov@gmail.com [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University, Universitetskij pr. 13, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-01

    The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.

  16. Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Coating Material with Self-Healing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Min; Pan, Min; Liang, Xiang-Yong; Li, Bang-Jing; Zhang, Sheng

    2017-12-01

    Electromagnetic wave absorption coatings can effectively minimize electromagnetic radiation and are widely used in the military and civil field. However, even small scratches on the coating can lead to a large decline of absorption ability and bring serious consequences. To enhance the lifetime of electromagnetic wave absorbing coating, a kind of self-healing electromagnetic wave absorbing coating is developed by introducing host-guest interactions between the absorbing fillers and polymer matrix. After being damaged, the cracks on this coating can be healed completely with the aid of small amounts of water. Simultaneously, the electromagnetic absorbing ability of the coating is restored along with the self-healing process. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Electromagnetic Lead Screw for Potential Wave Energy Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new type electromagnetic lead screw (EMLS) intended for wave energy application. Similar to the mechanical lead screw, this electromagnetic version can transfer slow linear motion to high-rotational motion, offering gearing effects. Compared with the existing pure magnetic...

  18. Metasurfaces for Terahertz Waves Polarization Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    in the visible, near infrared or microwave regimes these issues in principle have strong alternatives via a conventional optics or electromagnetic approaches, at terahertz (THz) frequencies metamaterials are often considered as being the unique solution for the encountered problems. Several approaches involving...... that the maximal conversion efficiency with a single metamaterial surface is 50 % in transmission and up to 90% in reflection. However, a double layer transmission converter and a single layer with a metallic mirror can have 100% polarization conversion efficiency. We tested our conclusions numerically reaching...

  19. Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.

  20. Nonlinear multi-frequency electromagnetic wave propagation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovik, Dmitry V.

    2017-11-01

    A generalisation of the concept of monochromatic electromagnetic waves guided by layered waveguide structures filled with non-linear medium is introduced. This generalisation leads to guided waves of a novel type: a non-linear multi-frequency guided wave. The existence of such waves, in particular guide structures, is proven using the perturbation method. Numerical experiments are presented for non-linear 1- and 2-frequency guided waves in plane and cylindrical (with a circular cross-section) waveguides. Numerically, a novel non-linear effect is found for particular cases of non-linear multi-frequency guided waves. The suggested generalisation gives not only a unified approach to treat various electromagnetic wave propagation problems but also paves the way to study non-linear interactions of guided waves.

  1. Birefringence induced by pp-wave modes in an electromagnetically active dynamic aether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpin, Timur Yu.; Balakin, Alexander B.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-aether theory we study the birefringence effect, which can occur in the pp-wave symmetric dynamic aether. The dynamic aether is considered to be a latently birefringent quasi-medium, which displays this hidden property if and only if the aether motion is non-uniform, i.e., when the aether flow is characterized by the non-vanishing expansion, shear, vorticity or acceleration. In accordance with the dynamo-optical scheme of description of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the dynamic aether, we shall model the susceptibility tensors by the terms linear in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector. When the pp-wave modes appear in the dynamic aether, we deal with a gravitationally induced degeneracy removal with respect to hidden susceptibility parameters. As a consequence, the phase velocities of electromagnetic waves possessing orthogonal polarizations do not coincide, thus displaying the birefringence effect. Two electromagnetic field configurations are studied in detail: longitudinal and transversal with respect to the aether pp-wave front. For both cases the solutions are found, which reveal anomalies in the electromagnetic response on the action of the pp-wave aether mode. (orig.)

  2. Birefringence induced by pp-wave modes in an electromagnetically active dynamic aether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpin, Timur Yu.; Balakin, Alexander B. [Kazan Federal University, Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-aether theory we study the birefringence effect, which can occur in the pp-wave symmetric dynamic aether. The dynamic aether is considered to be a latently birefringent quasi-medium, which displays this hidden property if and only if the aether motion is non-uniform, i.e., when the aether flow is characterized by the non-vanishing expansion, shear, vorticity or acceleration. In accordance with the dynamo-optical scheme of description of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the dynamic aether, we shall model the susceptibility tensors by the terms linear in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector. When the pp-wave modes appear in the dynamic aether, we deal with a gravitationally induced degeneracy removal with respect to hidden susceptibility parameters. As a consequence, the phase velocities of electromagnetic waves possessing orthogonal polarizations do not coincide, thus displaying the birefringence effect. Two electromagnetic field configurations are studied in detail: longitudinal and transversal with respect to the aether pp-wave front. For both cases the solutions are found, which reveal anomalies in the electromagnetic response on the action of the pp-wave aether mode. (orig.)

  3. The electromagnetic interferent antennae for gravitational waves detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, A.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic wave propagating in the toroidal waveguide is considered as an electromagnetic gravitational antenna. An interferometric method is applied to measure the disturbances of phase of the electromagnetic field caused by the incident gravitational wave. The calculations presented take into account the dispersive and dissipative phenomena occurring during the interaction between electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The active cross-section of the antenna interacting with coherent and pulsed gravitational radiation is estimated. Experimental possibilities presently available are discussed. Limiting fluxes in the astrophysical range of frequencies measured by the interferometric electromagnetic antenna are a factor of ten or so smaller than in the case of a classic mechanical antenna. Moreover the antenna could be used for carrying out a gravitational Hertz experiment. (author)

  4. Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Yucel, Abdulkadir C.

    2013-01-01

    A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier transform and fast multipole method accelerated surface integral equation-based EM simulator to statistically characterize fields from wireless transmitters in complex mine environments. 1536-1225 © 2013 IEEE.

  5. On scattering of electromagnetic waves by a wormhole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.A.; Savelova, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    We consider scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a wormhole. It is found that the scattered wave is depolarized and has a specific interference picture depending on parameters of the wormhole and the distance to the observer. It is proposed that such features can be important in the direct search of wormholes.

  6. On scattering of electromagnetic waves by a wormhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, A.A., E-mail: ka98@mail.ru [Dubna International University of Nature, Society and Man, Universitetskaya Str. 19, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation); Savelova, E.P. [Dubna International University of Nature, Society and Man, Universitetskaya Str. 19, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-20

    We consider scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a wormhole. It is found that the scattered wave is depolarized and has a specific interference picture depending on parameters of the wormhole and the distance to the observer. It is proposed that such features can be important in the direct search of wormholes.

  7. Parametric study of uniformly polarized stochastic electromagnetic beam and its imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xinyue; Zhao Daomu

    2009-01-01

    A parametric study is performed in investigating the stochastic electromagnetic beam generated by a uniformly polarized electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model source and passing through ABCD optical systems. Through theoretical analysis, the requirement is derived that the uniformly polarized electromagnetic field can be obtained at the output plane of the imaging optical system. Furthermore, the general imaging formula of the stochastic electromagnetic beam is derived. Numerical examples are also presented to illustrate the application.

  8. Resonant emission of electromagnetic waves by plasma solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.A.; Sergeev, A.M.; Khimich, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of plasma-wave solitons to radiate electromagnetic waves at the frequency of the natural oscillations of the field is considered. It is shown that this radiation is the main energy dissipation channel for strong plasma turbulence in a magnetoactive plasma. An interpretation is proposed for the artificial radio emission produced when the ionosphere is acted upon by beams of strong electromagnetic waves. The use of this phenomenon for plasma turbulence, particularly in the outer-space plasma near the earth, is discussed

  9. Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory - General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    A formal theory is developed for the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from impenetrable immobile obstacles with given linear, homogeneous, and generally nonlocal boundary conditions of Leontovich (impedance) type for the wave of the obstacle's surface. The theory is modeled on the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator in time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. An expression for the differential scattering cross section for plane electromagnetic waves is derived in terms of certain matrix elements of the T operator for the obstacle.

  10. All-dielectric metasurface realizing giant asymmetric transmission for linearly polarized wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weikang; Kang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Chuan; Tang, Dengfei; Dong, Jianfeng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of chiral all-dielectric metasurface is demonstrated numerically to achieve giant asymmetric transmission (AT) in fiber communication region. The incoming polarized electromagnetic wave excites magnetic and electric resonances and the resonances in AT spectrum coincide with eigen frequencies of this structure. The all dielectric metasurface shows more excellent properties compared with its metal counterpart. AT is influenced significantly by material permittivity as well as unit cell period. The concept of all-dielectric metasurface offers a new way to manipulate electromagnetic waves and the phenomenon remains effective in other frequencies.

  11. Wave electromagnetic fields induced by instantaneous braking of charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon'kov, V.L.; Novikova, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    Exact expressions for wave electromagnetic fields during instantaneous braking of two differently charged discs uniformly moving in the opposite directions have been derived. Analysis of their properties has been made. It is shown that electromagnetic wave fields during instantaneous braking of charges have a tearing nature and the Umov-Poynting theorem in the integral form is realized only at a certain value of parameter α which determines charges rates at the moment of braking. The value of parameter α is in the ranges from 0.5 to √3/2. The wave field is formed already in the absence of motion of charged discs. It is a good example confirming the conclusion that in the case of nonstationary electromagnetic fields, performance of reaction force of the wave field can differ fram radiation energy [ru

  12. Induced polarization and electromagnetic field surveys of sedimentary uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.L.; Smith, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Induced polarization (IP) and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical surveys were made over three areas of sedimentary uranium deposits in the western United States. The EM techniques were sometimes useful for investigating general structural settings, but not for finding uranium deposits per se. IP techniques were useful to help pinpoint zones of disseminated pyrite associated with the uranium deposits. In one case no clear differences were seen between the IP signatures of oxidized and reduced ground. Spectral (multi-frequency) IP showed no particular advantages over conventional IP for exploration applications. A sediment mineralization factor is introduced comparable to the ''metal factor'' used to detect porphyry copper mineralization. (author)

  13. [Effect of decimeter polarized electromagnetic radiation on germinating capacity of seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevik, N D

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a polarization structure of electromagnetic radiation on the germinating capacity of seeds of such weeds as Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) and Green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus) has been studied. Seeds have been exposed to impulse electromagnetic radiation in a frequency of 896 MHz with linear, elliptical right-handed and elliptical left-handed polarizations at different power flux density levels. It is determined that the effect of the right-handed polarized electromagnetic radiation increases and the influence of the left-handed polarized one reduces the germinating capacity of seeds compared to the effect of the linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the seeds have an amplitude polarization selectivity as evinced by the major effect of the right-handed polarized radiation on seeds. An electrodynamic model as the right-handed elliptically polarized antenna with the given quantity of the ellipticity of polarization is suggested to use in description of this selectivity.

  14. Electron Cyclotron Waves Polarization in the TJII Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, A.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Wagner, D.

    2013-05-01

    This report describes the theoretical calculations related with the electron cyclotron (EC) waves polarization control in the TJII stellarator. Two main aspects will be distinguished: the determination of the vacuum polarization that the wave must exhibit if a given propagation mode in a cold plasma is desired and the calculation of the behavior of the grooved polarizers and other transmission systems used to launch the vacuum wave with the required polarization. (Author) 13 refs.

  15. Light-matter interactions in a polarization standing wave

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, X.; MacDonald, K.F.; Zheludev, N.I.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the application of polarization standing waves (PSW) to the coherent control of light-matter interactions in planar photonic nanostructures. Such waves, formed by counter-propagating (linear or circular) orthogonally polarized beams can uniquely detect polarization conversion, planar chirality and related asymmetric transmission effects.

  16. Electromagnetic Wave Chaos in Gradient Refractive Index Optical Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P. B.; Fromhold, T. M.; Taylor, R. P.; Micolich, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave chaos is investigated using two-dimensional optical cavities formed in a cylindrical gradient refractive index lens with reflective surfaces. When the planar ends of the lens are cut at an angle to its axis, the geometrical ray paths are chaotic. In this regime, the electromagnetic mode spectrum of the cavity is modulated by both real and ghost periodic ray paths, which also 'scar' the electric field intensity distributions of many modes. When the cavity is coupled to waveguides, the eigenmodes generate complex series of resonant peaks in the electromagnetic transmission spectrum

  17. Manipulating the loss in electromagnetic cloaks for perfect wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Kallos, Efthymios; Zhao, Yan; Hao, Yang

    2009-05-11

    We examine several ways to manipulate the loss in electro-magnetic cloaks, based on transformation electromagnetics. It is found that, by utilizing inherent electric and magnetic losses of metamaterials, perfect wave absorption can be achieved based on several popular designs of electromagnetic cloaks. A practical implementation of the absorber, consisting of ten discrete layers of metamaterials, is proposed. The new devices demonstrate super-absorptivity over a moderate wideband range, suitable for both microwave and optical applications. It is corroborated that the device is functional with a subwavelength thickness and, hence, advantageous compared to the conventional absorbers.

  18. Electromagnetic internal gravity waves in the Earth's ionospheric E-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaladze, T.D.; Tsamalashvili, L.V.; Kaladze, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    In the Earth's ionospheric E-layer existence of the new waves connecting with the electromagnetic nature of internal gravity waves is shown. They represent the mixture of the ordinary internal gravity waves and the new type of dispersive Alfven waves. -- Highlights: ► Existence of electromagnetic internal gravity waves in the ionospheric E-layer is shown. ► Electromagnetic nature of internal gravity waves is described. ► Appearance of the new dispersive Alfven waves is shown.

  19. Global Characteristics of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Deduced From Swarm Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyangpyo; Hwang, Junga; Park, Jaeheung; Bortnik, Jacob; Lee, Jaejin

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in controlling particle dynamics inside the Earth's magnetosphere, especially in the outer radiation belt. In order to understand the results of wave-particle interactions due to EMIC waves, it is important to know how the waves are distributed and what features they have. In this paper, we present some statistical analyses on the spatial distribution of EMIC waves in the low Earth orbit by using Swarm satellites from December 2013 to June 2017 ( 3.5 years) as a function of magnetic local time, magnetic latitude, and magnetic longitude. We also study the wave characteristics such as ellipticity, wave normal angle, peak frequency, and wave power using our automatic wave detection algorithm based on the method of Bortnik et al. (2007, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JA011900). We also investigate the geomagnetic control of the EMIC waves by comparing with geomagnetic activity represented by Kp and Dst indices. We find that EMIC waves are detected with a peak occurrence rate at midlatitude including subauroral region, dawn sector (3-7 magnetic local time), and linear polarization dominated with an oblique propagating direction to the background magnetic field. In addition, our result shows that the waves have some relation with geomagnetic activity; that is, they occur preferably during the geomagnetic storm's late recovery phase at low Earth orbit.

  20. Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Rothwell, Edward J

    2009-01-01

    Introductory concepts Notation, conventions, and symbology The field concept of electromagneticsThe sources of the electromagnetic field Problems Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism The postulate Maxwell's equations in moving frames The Maxwell-Boffi equations Large-scale form of Maxwell's equationsThe nature of the four field quantities Maxwell's equations with magnetic sources Boundary (jump) conditions Fundamental theorems The wave nature of the electromagnetic field ProblemsThe static electromagnetic field Static fields and steady currents ElectrostaticsMagnetostatics Static field theorem

  1. Propagation of electromagnetic radiation in a random field of gravitational waves and space radio interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginsky, V.B.; Kardashev, N.S.; Polnarev, A.G.; Novikov, I.D.

    1989-12-01

    Propagation of an electromagnetic wave in the field of gravitational waves is considered. Attention is given to the principal difference between the electromagnetic wave propagation in the field of random gravitational waves and the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a randomly-inhomogeneous refraction index. It is shown that in the case of the gravitation wave field the phase shift of an electromagnetic wave does not increase with distance. The capability of space radio interferometry to detect relic gravitational waves as well as gravitational wave bursts of non cosmological origin are analyzed. (author). 64 refs, 2 figs

  2. Switching the response of metasurfaces in polarization standing waves

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, X.; MacDonald, K.F.; Zheludev, N.I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that standing waves of polarization, as opposed to intensity, can be engaged to coherently control light-matter interactions in planar photonic nanostructures, presenting unique opportunities for all-optical data processing and polarization-dependent molecular spectroscopy. Such waves, formed by counter-propagating (linear or circular) orthogonally polarized beams can, for example, uniquely detect polarization conversion, planar chirality and related asymmetric t...

  3. An investigation into underground navigation using electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tillema, N J

    2000-01-01

    findings. The lateral wave starts at the source underground, travels to the boundary, follows the air-ground boundary and then propagates back into the ground to the receiver antenna. As the wave travels a significant part of its path in air, it was less susceptible to irregularities underground. Measurement of the phase has shown it to be sensitive to errors caused by reflections. This was the reason why reliable information of the phase was not always available during the measurements. The field trials have shown the possibility of using electromagnetic waves to track a moving transmitter underground. Any system that estimates the underground displacement of the transmitter should have two or more receiver antennas. The experiments have shown a possible accuracy of such a system of approximately 2 m or less. This thesis explores the possibility of measuring the movement of an underground transmitter using electromagnetic waves. The displacement of the transmitter was estimated based on the magnitude and pha...

  4. Propagation of an ionizing surface electromagnetic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boev, A.G.; Prokopov, A.V.

    1976-11-01

    The propagation of an rf surface wave in a plasma which is ionized by the wave itself is analyzed. The exact solution of the nonlinear Maxwell equations is discussed for the case in which the density of plasma electrons is an exponential function of the square of the electric field. The range over which the surface wave exists and the frequency dependence of the phase velocity are found. A detailed analysis is given for the case of a plasma whose initial density exceeds the critical density at the wave frequency. An increase in the wave amplitude is shown to expand the frequency range over which the plasma is transparent; The energy flux in the plasma tends toward a certain finite value which is governed by the effective ionization field.

  5. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  6. Cellular and molecular effects of electromagnetic radiation and sonic waves

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Froes Meyer; Oscar Ariel Ronzio; Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca; Sebastiao David Santos-Filho; Mario Bernardo-Filho

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (in the form of pulsed magnetic fields, radiofrequency and intense pulsed light) and mechanical agents (such as sonic waves) have been used in physical therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity magnetic fields, sonic and radiofrequency waves, and intense pulsed light on the survival of Escherichia coli cultures and on the electrophoretic mobility of plasmid DNA. Exponentially growing E. coli AB1157 cultures and plasmid DNA samples were...

  7. FDTD modelling of induced polarization phenomena in transient electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commer, Michael; Petrov, Peter V.; Newman, Gregory A.

    2017-04-01

    The finite-difference time-domain scheme is augmented in order to treat the modelling of transient electromagnetic signals containing induced polarization effects from 3-D distributions of polarizable media. Compared to the non-dispersive problem, the discrete dispersive Maxwell system contains costly convolution operators. Key components to our solution for highly digitized model meshes are Debye decomposition and composite memory variables. We revert to the popular Cole-Cole model of dispersion to describe the frequency-dependent behaviour of electrical conductivity. Its inversely Laplace-transformed Debye decomposition results in a series of time convolutions between electric field and exponential decay functions, with the latter reflecting each Debye constituents' individual relaxation time. These function types in the discrete-time convolution allow for their substitution by memory variables, annihilating the otherwise prohibitive computing demands. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and practicality of our algorithm.

  8. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jun

    2015-06-09

    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

  9. Polarization properties of Gendrin mode waves observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: observations and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Verkhoglyadova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We show a case of an outer zone magnetospheric electromagnetic wave propagating at the Gendrin angle, within uncertainty of the measurements. The chorus event occurred in a "minimum B pocket". For the illustrated example, the measured angle of wave propagation relative to the ambient magnetic field θkB was 58°±4°. For this event the theoretical Gendrin angle was 62°. Cold plasma model is used to demonstrate that Gendrin mode waves are right-hand circularly polarized, in excellent agreement with the observations.

  10. Shock wave polarizations and optical metrics in the Born and the Born–Infeld electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minz, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.minz@alumni.tu-berlin.de [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Borzeszkowski, Horst-Heino von, E-mail: borzeszk@mailbox.tu-berlin.de [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Chrobok, Thoralf, E-mail: tchrobok@mailbox.tu-berlin.de [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Schellstede, Gerold, E-mail: schellst@physik.fu-berlin.de [ZARM (Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity), Universität Bremen, Am Fallturm, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    We analyze the behavior of shock waves in nonlinear theories of electrodynamics. For this, by use of generalized Hadamard step functions of increasing order, the electromagnetic potential is developed in a series expansion near the shock wave front. This brings about a corresponding expansion of the respective electromagnetic field equations which allows for deriving relations that determine the jump coefficients in the expansion series of the potential. We compute the components of a suitable gauge-normalized version of the jump coefficients given for a prescribed tetrad compatible with the shock front foliation. The solution of the first-order jump relations shows that, in contrast to linear Maxwell’s electrodynamics, in general the propagation of shock waves in nonlinear theories is governed by optical metrics and polarization conditions describing the propagation of two differently polarized waves (leading to a possible appearance of birefringence). In detail, shock waves are analyzed in the Born and Born–Infeld theories verifying that the Born–Infeld model exhibits no birefringence and the Born model does. The obtained results are compared to those ones found in literature. New results for the polarization of the two different waves are derived for Born-type electrodynamics.

  11. Ground receiving station (GRS) of UMS - receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave data from satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Syahmi Nordin; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2007-01-01

    The low resolution Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is being received and recorded in real-time mode at ground receiving station in School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The system is suitable for the developing and undeveloped countries in south and Southeast Asia and is said to be acceptable for engineering, agricultural, climatological and environmental applications. The system comprises a personal computer attached with a small APT receiver. The data transmission between the ground receiving station and NOAA satellites is using the electromagnetic wave. The relation for receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave in the transmission will be discussed. (Author)

  12. THE SIMULATION OF SCATTERING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES ON ANGULAR STRUCTURES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Preobrazhensky

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the characteristics of scattering of electromagnetic waves on the angular diffraction structures. The solution of the problem is based on the method of integral equations. A comparative analysis of the scattering characteristics of structures with different shape is carried out.

  13. FDTD Modelling of Electromagnetic waves in Stratified Medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The technique is an adaptation of the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) approach usually applied to model electromagnetic wave propagation. In this paper a simple 2D implementation of FDTD algorithm in mathematica environment is presented. Source implementation and the effect of conductivity on the incident field ...

  14. Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies. - Highlights: • Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves. • Non-resonant excitation of surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. • Sonic artificially metallic structures transparent for broadband acoustic waves

  15. Three-dimensional accelerating electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandres, Miguel A; Alonso, Miguel A; Kaminer, Ido; Segev, Mordechai

    2013-06-17

    We present a general theory of three-dimensional non-paraxial spatially-accelerating waves of the Maxwell equations. These waves constitute a two-dimensional structure exhibiting shape-invariant propagation along semicircular trajectories. We provide classification and characterization of possible shapes of such beams, expressed through the angular spectra of parabolic, oblate and prolate spheroidal fields. Our results facilitate the design of accelerating beams with novel structures, broadening scope and potential applications of accelerating beams.

  16. MAGIC electromagnetic follow-up of gravitational wave alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lotto, Barbara; Ansoldi, Stefano; Antonelli, Angelo; Berti, Alessio; Carosi, Alessandro; Longo, Francesco; Stamerra, Antonio

    The year 2015 witnessed the first direct observations of a transient gravitational-wave (GW) signal from binary black hole mergers by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) Collaboration with the Virgo Collaboration. The MAGIC two 17m diameter Cherenkov telescopes system joined since 2014 the vast collaboration of electromagnetic facilities for follow-up of gravitational wave alerts. During the 2015 LIGO-Virgo science run we set up the procedure for GW alerts follow-up and took data following the last GW alert. MAGIC results on the data analysis and prospects for the forthcoming run are presented.

  17. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic Alfven waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.R.; Sharma, R.C.; Sharma, O.P.

    1981-01-01

    The phenomenon of stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic Alfven waves in a plasma is investigated by employing fluid model approach. The low frequency nonlinearity of ion acoustic wave arises through the ponderomotive force on ions and high frequency nonlinearity arises through the equation of continuity. For a typical isothermal plasma (Tsub(e)/Tsub(i)approx.=10), Alfven wave frequency ω 0 approx.=10 6 rad. sec -1 , the threshold for this instability in a uniform plasma is approx.= milliwatt cm -2 . Above the threshold, the growth rate for forward and back scatterings are approx.=10 -3 rad.sec -1 and approx.=10 -4 rad.sec. -1 , respectively. (author)

  18. Precision cosmology from future lensed gravitational wave and electromagnetic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kai; Fan, Xi-Long; Ding, Xuheng; Biesiada, Marek; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2017-10-27

    The standard siren approach of gravitational wave cosmology appeals to the direct luminosity distance estimation through the waveform signals from inspiralling double compact binaries, especially those with electromagnetic counterparts providing redshifts. It is limited by the calibration uncertainties in strain amplitude and relies on the fine details of the waveform. The Einstein telescope is expected to produce 10 4 -10 5 gravitational wave detections per year, 50-100 of which will be lensed. Here, we report a waveform-independent strategy to achieve precise cosmography by combining the accurately measured time delays from strongly lensed gravitational wave signals with the images and redshifts observed in the electromagnetic domain. We demonstrate that just 10 such systems can provide a Hubble constant uncertainty of 0.68% for a flat lambda cold dark matter universe in the era of third-generation ground-based detectors.

  19. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  20. Success of electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter asmonotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as monotherapy for solitary renalstones larger than 2 cm without ureteral stenting. Hence, if our study result demonstrates acceptable successand safety, we can recommend ESWL as a treatment option for patients with large renal calculi. Subjects and ...

  1. Modeling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation with Tapered Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-A.; Ko, Kwang-Cheol

    2012-09-01

    Tapered transmission line was used for impedance matching, for high voltage pulse, and atmospheric medium is applied to characteristic equation of tapered transmission line and reflection coefficient so that nonlinear load and circuit modeling of atmospheric medium was simulated by electromagnetic transient program (EMTP). A characteristic of atmospheric medium and Time delay are decided by inductance and capacitance of tapered transmission line. For electromagnetic wave propagation modeling, in this paper, tapered transmission line is implemented. It is difficult to model tapered transmission line directly. Other transmission line that can be expressed by the circuit is used. So object of this paper is efficient modeling of tapered transmission line.

  2. Absorption of Electro-magnetic Waves in a Magnetized Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly, Avijit K.; Konar, Sushan

    2000-01-01

    In continuation to our earlier work, in which the structure of the vacuum polarisation tensor in a medium was analysed in presence of a background electro-magnetic field, we discuss the absorptive part of the vacuum polarization tensor. Using the real time formalism of finite temperature field theory we calculate the absorptive part of 1-loop vacuum polarisation tensor in the weak field limit ($eB < m^2$). Estimates of the absorption probability are also made for different physical conditions...

  3. Polarization monotones of two-dimensional and three-dimensional random electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosyk, G. M.; Bellomo, G.; Luis, A.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a formal resource-theoretic approach to quantify the degree of polarization of two- and three-dimensional random electromagnetic fields. This endows the space of spectral polarization matrices with the orders induced by majorization or convex mixing that naturally recover the best-known polarization measures.

  4. Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xu, Di-Hu; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-02-18

    A freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband terahertz waves is demonstrated using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized terahertz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. This low-cost, high-efficiency, and freely tunable device has potential applications as material analysis, wireless communication, and THz imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Depolarization and Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-30

    ely th quasi-specular terme iszpoT- gb l tes o.r i4 retoroed beeoue th Lb. ’ .s1ot. Is let. 12 it is sbown that the sap - ksigbly ii~l - d eps lar...Cbeltun and Xeo~be (Plet. 61 etablished a new 4;hading is elsa of ourt. identically the model for altimeoter Os’ vs wind speed by sap - spocalar-point...and theory for scatter and produce the ame result rises rsar) through the gravity-wave diaper - s the apsoslar-peist model across the ci1n relation: k

  6. Modified Clemmow-Mullaly-Allis diagram for large-amplitude electromagnetic waves in magnetoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, K.; Mori, Y.; Takeda, S.

    1975-02-01

    A possible modification to the well known Clemmow- Mullaly-Allis diagram is analysed taking into account the radiation pressure force due to a large-amplitude electromagnetic field E in magnetoplasmas. We restrict ourselves here to the propagations parallel (the right and left-hand circularly polarized waves) and/or perpendicular (the ordinary and extraordinary modes) to the static magnetic field Bsub(o). We analyse electromagnetic waves incident normally on a semi-infinite uniform plasma, on which Bsub(o) is applied parallel and/or perpendicular to the surface. Considerations are limited to a cold collisionless plasma where the incident waves are evanescent. Simple expressions are obtained for the cut-off conditions of the waves except the extraordinary mode. In the latter case, the cut-off condition is calculated numerically solving an integral equation. The results are demonstrated in the usual Clemmow-Mullaly-Allis diagram for the various values of b=2Esub(i) 2 e 2 /mω 2 kappaTsub(e') where Esub(i) and ω are, respectively, the amplitude and the angular frequency of the incident wave. The cut-off lines are shown to move towards the higher densities with increasing b. (auth.)

  7. Interaction of the electromagnetic waves and non-magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Aiping; Qiu Xiaoming; Dong Yuying; Li Liqiong

    2002-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves with 0.5 - 10 GHz in a non-magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. The change in the absorbed power, reflected power and transmitted power of the electromagnetic wave with collisional frequency of electrons and neutral atoms in plasma from 0.1 - 10 GHz, is calculated, in the condition of the uniform plasma with density of 10 10 or 10 11 cm -3 and depth of 10 cm, and the non-uniform plasma with density distribution of n = n 0 exp[2(z/d-1)] and depth of 10 cm, respectively. The results show that the absorbed power in either uniform or non-uniform plasma is large when the plasma density is large and collision frequency is high, and the peak value is 90%

  8. Stimulated brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Sen, A.

    1991-08-01

    The stimulated Brilluoin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous, unmagnetized and collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated theoretically. The Vlasov equation has been solved perturbatively to find the nonlinear response of the plasma particles. The presence of the dust particles introduces a background inhomogeneous electric field which significantly influences the dispersive properties of the plasma. At the ion acoustic branch we find the usual scattering slightly modified by the charged dust grains. However, at the frequency lower than the ion acoustic branch we find a new mode of the plasma arising from the oscillations of the ions in the static structure of the dust distribution. This low frequency branch causes enhanced stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma. (author). 15 refs

  9. Electromagnetic wave propagation in relativistic magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, I.

    1985-01-01

    An improved mathematical technique and a new code for deriving the conductivity tensor for collisionless plasmas have been developed. The method is applicable to a very general case, including both hot (relativistic) and cold magnetized plasmas, with only isotropic equilibrium distributions being considered here. The usual derivation starts from the relativistic Vlasov equation and leads to an integration over an infinite sum of Bessel functions which has to be done numerically. In the new solution the integration is carried out over a product of two Bessel functions only. This reduces the computing time very significantly. An added advantage over existing codes is our capability to perform the computations for waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. Both improvements greatly facilitate investigations of properties of the plasma under conditions hitherto unexplored

  10. Diffraction of electromagnetic waves by a rectangular wedge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, G. I.; Sozonov, A. P.

    A theoretical problem of electromagnetic wave diffraction in a system of two rectangular wedges is examined: a perfectly conducting wedge and a wedge with finite relative permittivity, the two wedges having a common face. For the Fourier component of the diffraction field, a shifting Riemann boundary value problem is obtained. This problem is reduced to a convolution-type integral equation for the semiaxis, with the kernel taking the form of the sum of the difference and regular kernels.

  11. Detecting electromagnetic cloaks using backward-propagating waves

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    A novel approach for detecting transformation-optics invisibility cloaks is proposed. The detection method takes advantage of the unusual backward-propagation characteristics of recently reported beams and pulses to induce electromagnetic scattering from the cloak. Even though waves with backward-propagating energy flux cannot penetrate the cloaking shell and interact with the cloaked objects (i.e., they do not make the cloaked object visible), they provide a mechanism for detecting the presence of cloaks. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. INTEGRAL results on the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mereghetti, S.; Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.

    2018-01-01

    Thanks to its high orbit and a set of complementary detectors providing continuous coverage of the whole sky, the INTEGRAL satellite has unique capabilities for the identification and study of the electromagnetic radiation associated to gravitational waves signals and, more generally, for multi......-messenger astrophysics. Here we briefly review the results obtained during the first two observing runs of the advanced LIGO/Virgo interferometers....

  13. Division of the momentum of electromagnetic waves in linear media into electromagnetic and material parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Pablo L

    2010-02-01

    It is proposed a natural and consistent division of the momentum of electromagnetic waves in linear, non-dispersive and non-absorptive dielectric and magnetic media into material and electromagnetic parts. The material part is calculated using directly the Lorentz force law and the electromagnetic momentum density has the form epsilon(0)E x B, without an explicit dependence on the properties of the media. The consistency of the treatment is verified through the obtention of a correct momentum balance equation in many examples and showing the compatibility of the division with the Einstein's theory of relativity by the use of a gedanken experiment. An experimental prediction for the radiation pressure on mirrors immersed in linear dielectric and magnetic media is also made.

  14. Electromagnetic wave theory for boundary-value problems an advanced course on analytical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Eom, Hyo J

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave theory is based on Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic boundary-value problems must be solved to understand electromagnetic scattering, propagation, and radiation. Electromagnetic theory finds practical applications in wireless telecommunications and microwave engineering. This book is written as a text for a two-semester graduate course on electromagnetic wave theory. As such, Electromagnetic Wave Theory for Boundary-Value Problems is intended to help students enhance analytic skills by solving pertinent boundary-value problems. In particular, the techniques of Fourier transform, mode matching, and residue calculus are utilized to solve some canonical scattering and radiation problems.

  15. Particle Dynamics under Quasi-linear Interaction with Electromagnetic Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castejon, F.; Eguilior, S.

    2003-07-01

    Langevin equations for quasi-linear wave particle interaction are obtained taking advantage of the unique vocal equivalence between Fokker-Plank equation and the former ones. Langevin equations are solved numerically and, hence, the evolution of a single particle embedded in an electromagnetic field in momentum space is obtained. The equations are relativistic and valid for any wave. It is also shown that the stochastic part of the equations is negligible in comparison with the deterministic term, except for the momentum to the resonance condition for the main parallel refractive index. (Author) 24 refs.

  16. Particle Dynamics under Quasi-linear Interaction with Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejon, F.; Eguilior, S.

    2003-01-01

    Langevin equations for quasi-linear wave particle interaction are obtained taking advantage of the unique vocal equivalence between Fokker-Plank equation and the former ones. Langevin equations are solved numerically and, hence, the evolution of a single particle embedded in an electromagnetic field in momentum space is obtained. The equations are relativistic and valid for any wave. It is also shown that the stochastic part of the equations is negligible in comparison with the deterministic term, except for the momentum to the resonance condition for the main parallel refractive index. (Author) 24 refs

  17. Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves at a temporal boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuzhe; Maywar, Drew N; Agrawal, Govind P

    2014-02-01

    We consider propagation of an electromagnetic (EM) wave through a dynamic optical medium whose refractive index varies with time. Specifically, we focus on the reflection and transmission of EM waves from a temporal boundary and clarify the two different physical processes that contribute to them. One process is related to impedance mismatch, while the other results from temporal scaling related to a sudden change in the speed of light at the temporal boundary. Our results show that temporal scaling of the electric field must be considered for light propagation in dynamic media. Numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations are in full agreement with our theory.

  18. Early electromagnetic waves from earthquake rupturing: I. theoretical formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxin; Chen, Xiaofei; Hu, Hengshan; Zhang, Jie

    2013-03-01

    Earthquake taking place in a fluid-saturated porous medium can generate electromagnetic (EM) waves because of the electrokinetic effect. These generated EM waves arrive at a distant observatory much earlier than the seismic waves because their velocities are much faster than those of the seismic waves. They may explain the early EM signals which have been detected before the detection of the seismic waves after the occurrences of earthquakes. In this study, we attempt to analyse such a kind of early EM signals induced by an earthquake because of the electrokinetic effect. The earthquake is assumed to be a fault slip and is modelled by a moment tensor point source. With Pride's equations quantifying the coupling between seismic and EM waves, we first present a real-axis integration (RAI) algorithm to calculate the seismoelectric wavefields in a layered porous formation. Although full waveforms can be calculated by such a RAI technique, individual waves cannot be easily separated from the full waveforms. The need to compute the individual waves is eminent for the purpose of investigating the early EM waves, because these EM waves are usually several orders weaker than and are masked by the EM signals accompanying the seismic waves in the full waveforms. Therefore, we further develop a branch-cut integration (BCI) algorithm, by transforming the original wavenumber integral along the real axis in the complex wavenumber plane for the RAI technique to a sum of integrals along the vertical branch cuts and the residues of the poles. For performing the integrations along the vertical branch cuts, determination of the Riemann sheets are explained and displayed. Finally, the seismoelectric wavefields are represented in forms allowing calculating individual waves.

  19. Ring Current-Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves, generated by ion temperature anisotropy in Earth s ring current (RC), is the best known example of wave- particle interaction in the magnetosphere. Also, there is much controversy over the importance of EMIC waves on RC depletion. Under certain conditions, relativistic electrons, with energies 21 MeV, can be removed from the outer radiation belt (RB) by EMIC wave scattering during a magnetic storm. That is why the calculation of EMIC waves must be a very critical part of the space weather studies. The new RC model that we have developed and present for the first time has several new features that we have combine together in a one single model: (a) several lower frequency cold plasma wave modes are taken into account; (b) wave tracing of these wave has been incorporated in the energy EMIC wave equation; (c) no assumptions regarding wave shape spectra have been made; (d) no assumptions regarding the shape of particle distribution have been made to calculate the growth rate; (e) pitch-angle, energy, and mix diffusions are taken into account together for the first time; (f) the exact loss-cone RC analytical solution has been found and coupled with bounce-averaged numerical solution of kinetic equation; (g) the EMIC waves saturation due to their modulation instability and LHW generation are included as an additional factor that contributes to this process; and (h) the hot ions were included in the real part of dielectric permittivity tensor. We compare our theoretical results with the different EMIC waves models as well as RC experimental data.

  20. Electromagnetic waves in irregular multilayered spheroidal structures of finite conductivity: full wave solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahar, E.

    1976-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves excited by electric dipoles oriented along the axis of multilayered spheroidal structures of finite conductivity is investigated. The electromagnetic parameters and the thickness of the layers of the structure are assumed to be functions of the latitude. In the analysis, electric and magnetic field transforms that constitute a discrete and a continuous spectrum of spherical waves are used to provide a suitable basis for the expansion of the electromagnetic fields at any point in the irregular spheroidal structure. For spheroidal structures with good conducting cores, the terms in the solutions associated with the continuous part of the wave spectrum vanish. In general, however, when the skin depth for the core is large compared to its dimensions or when the sources are located in the core of the structure and propagation in the core is of special interest, the contribution from the continuous part of the wave spectrum cannot be neglected. At each interface between the layers of the irregular spheroidal structure, exact boundary conditions are imposed. Since the terms of the field expansions in the irregular structure do not individually satisfy the boundary conditions, Maxwell's equations are reduced to sets of coupled ordinary first-order differential equations for the wave amplitudes. The solutions are shown to satisfy the reciprocity relationships in electromagnetic theory. The analysis may be applied to problems of radio wave propagation in a nonuniform model of the earth-ionosphere waveguide, particularly when focusing effects at the antipodes are important

  1. Stability of strong electromagnetic waves in overdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiras, F.J. (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Electrodinamica)

    1982-04-01

    The stability against small perturbations of a class of exact wave solutions of the equations that describe an unmagnetized relativistic cold electron plasma is considered. The main feature of these nonlinear waves is a transverse circularly polarized electric field with periodic amplitude modulation in the longitudinal direction. Floquet's theory of linear differential equations with periodic coefficients is used to solve the perturbation equations and obtain the instability growth rates. Both an approximate solution for small modulation depth and a numerical treatment for arbitrary depth are presented. It is shown that the well-known small-wavenumber instability of the purely transverse circularly polarized waves of constant amplitude is reduced as the modulation depth increases from zero to its maximum allowed value.

  2. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  3. Time-dependent Occurrence Rate of Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Evidence for the Effect of Alpha Particles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Feng, H. Q. [Institute of Space Physics, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang (China); Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing (China); Chu, Y. H. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); Huang, J. [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing (China)

    2017-09-20

    Previous studies revealed that electromagnetic cyclotron waves (ECWs) near the proton cyclotron frequency exist widely in the solar wind, and the majority of ECWs are left-handed (LH) polarized waves. Using the magnetic field data from the STEREO mission, this Letter carries out a survey of ECWs over a long period of 7 years and calculates the occurrence rates of ECWs with different polarization senses. Results show that the occurrence rate is nearly a constant for the ECWs with right-handed polarization, but it varies significantly for the ECWs with LH polarization. Further investigation of plasma conditions reveals that the LH ECWs take place preferentially in a plasma characterized by higher temperature, lower density, and larger velocity. Some considerable correlations between the occurrence rate of LH ECWs and the properties of ambient plasmas are discussed. The present research may provide evidence for the effect of alpha particles on the generation of ECWs.

  4. Low frequency electromagnetic radiation from gravitational waves generated by neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Preston; Gretarsson, Andri; Singleton, Douglas

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the possibility of observing very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic radiation produced from the vacuum by gravitational waves. We review the calculations leading to the possibility of vacuum conversion of gravitational waves into electromagnetic waves and show how this process evades the well-known prohibition against particle production from gravitational waves. Using Newman-Penrose scalars, we estimate the luminosity of this proposed electromagnetic counterpart radiation coming from gravitational waves produced by neutron star oscillations. The detection of electromagnetic counterpart radiation would provide an indirect way of observing gravitational radiation with future spacecraft missions, especially lunar orbiting probes.

  5. Dust-acoustic waves modulational instability and rogue waves in a polarized dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzit, Omar; Tribeche, Mouloud [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Plasma Physics Group, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2015-10-15

    The polarization force-induced changes in the dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) modulational instability (MI) are examined. Using the reductive perturbation method, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation that governs the MI of the DAWs is obtained. It is found that the effect of the polarization term R is to narrow the wave number domain for the onset of instability. The amplitude of the wave envelope decreases as R increases, meaning that the polarization force effects render weaker the associated DA rogue waves. The latter may therefore completely damp in the vicinity of R ∼ 1, i.e., as the polarization force becomes close to the electrostatic one (the net force acting on the dust particles becomes vanishingly small). The DA rogue wave profile is very sensitive to any change in the restoring force acting on the dust particles. It turns out that the polarization effects may completely smear out the DA rogue waves.

  6. Interaction of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in a stochastic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, N.; Peterson, A. M.

    1979-01-01

    In the Stanford radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) an electromagnetic signal is made to scatter from a moving acoustic pulse train. Under a Bragg-scatter condition maximum electromagnetic scattering occurs. The scattered radio signal contains temperature and wind information as a function of the acoustic-pulse position. In this investigation RASS performance is assessed in an atmosphere characterized by the presence of turbulence and mean atmospheric parameters. The only assumption made is that the electromagnetic wave is not affected by stochastic perturbations in the atmosphere. It is concluded that the received radio signal depends strongly on the intensity of turbulence for altitudes of the acoustic pulse greater than the coherence length of propagation. The effect of mean vertical wind and mean temperature on the strength of the received signal is also demonstrated to be insignificant. Mean horizontal winds, however, shift the focus of the reflected electromagnetic energy from its origin, resulting in a decrease in received signal level when a monostatic radio-frequency (RF) system is used. For a bistatic radar configuration with space diversified receiving antennas, the shifting of the acoustic pulse makes possible the remote measurement of the horizontal wind component.

  7. Electromagnetic signals produced by elastic waves in the Earth's crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrigna, V.; Buzzi, A.; Conti, L.; Guglielmi, A. V.; Pokhotelov, O. A.

    2004-03-01

    The paper describes the excitation of geoelectromagnetic-field oscillations caused by elastic waves propagating in the Earth's crust and generated by natural and anthropogenic phenomena, such as earthquakes, explosions, etc. Two mechanisms of electromagnetic signal generation, i.e. induction and electrokinetics ones, are considered and a comparative analysis between them is carried out. The first mechanism is associated with the induction of Foucault currents due to movements of the Earth's crust in the core geomagnetic field. The second mechanism is connected with movements of liquids filling pores and cracks of rocks. An equation is derived for describing in a uniform way these two manifestations of seismomagnetism. The equation is solved for body and surface waves. The study shows that a magnetic precursor signal is moving in the front of elastic waves.

  8. Utilization Of Carbon Nanotubes In Electromagnetic Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanis Zakariah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct detection of hydrocarbon by an active source using electromagnetic (EM energy termed seabed logging (SBL has shown very promising results. However, currently available electromagnetic wave technology has a number of challenges include sensitivity and frequency matching. This paper presents development of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs as electromagnetic wave detector due to outstanding properties of carbon nanotubes. They are currently one of the desired materials for advanced technologies. Two types of detectors were developed in this work, carbon nanotube-based (D1 and without nanotube-based (D2 detectors. Various configuration and arrangement for each type of detector were investigated to determine the one with the highest detection measurement and stability of frequency stability of detection system. It was found that 20 turn-coils coil placed at its centre gives the maximum detection of induction voltage, 39.61 mV. However, the 20 turn- coils with CNTs which gives 36.50 mV is the preferred EM detectors due to the stability in frequency of the detection system.

  9. Interaction of the electromagnetic precursor from a relativistic shock with the upstream flow - I. Synchrotron absorption of strong electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2018-02-01

    This paper is the first in the series of papers aiming to study interaction of the electromagnetic precursor waves generated at the front of a relativistic shock with the upstream flow. It is motivated by a simple consideration showing that the absorption of such an electromagnetic precursor could yield an efficient transformation of the kinetic energy of the upstream flow to the energy of accelerated particles. Taking into account that the precursor is a strong wave, in which electrons oscillate with relativistic velocities, the standard plasma-radiation interaction processes should be reconsidered. In this paper, I calculate the synchrotron absorption of strong electromagnetic waves.

  10. THE GENERATION OF THERMOELASTIC STRESS WAVES BY IMPULSIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , ABSORPTION), (*STRESSES, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ), SURFACE PROPERTIES, INTERACTIONS, HEAT TRANSFER, ELASTIC PROPERTIES, ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES, LASERS, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS, SOLIDS

  11. Interaction of plane gravitational and electromagnetic waves in an external gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Interaction of gravitational and electromagnetic waves in an external gravitational field for two classes of metric gravitation theories is considered. As a result conditions for resonance interaction are determined, and possibility of continuous amplification of plane electromagnetic wave with plane gravitational wave is shown

  12. Langmuir wave turbulence generated by electromagnetic waves in the laboratory and the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Riddolls, R.J.; Moriarty, D.T.; Dalrymple, N.E.; Rowlands, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The authors will present some recent results of the laboratory experiments at MIT, using a large plasma device known as the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF). These experiments are aimed at cross-checking the ionospheric plasma heating experiments at Arecibo, Puerto Rico using an HF heating facility (heater). The plasma phenomenon under investigation is the spectral characteristic of Langmuir wave turbulence produced by ordinary (o-mode) electromagnetic pump waves. The Langmuir waves excited by o-mode heaters waves at Arecibo have both a frequency-upshifted spectrum and a frequency-downshifted (viz., cascading) spectrum. While the cascading spectrum can be well explained in terms of the parametric decay instability (PDI), the authors have interpreted the frequency-upshifted Langmuir waves to be anti-Stokes Langmuir waves produced by a nonlinear scattering process as follows. Lower hybrid waves creates presumably by lightning-induced whistler waves can scatter nonlinearly the PDI-excited mother langmuir waves, yielding obliquely propagating langmuir waves with frequencies as the summation of the mother Langmuir wave frequencies and the lower hybrid wave frequencies. This suggested process has been confirmed in the laboratory experiments, that can reproduce the characteristic spectra of Langmuir wave turbulence observed in the Arecibo experiments

  13. A pulse programmable parahydrogen polarizer using a tunable electromagnet and dual channel NMR spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Aaron M; Shchepin, Roman V; Feng, Bibo; Colon, Raul D; Wilkens, Ken; Waddell, Kevin W; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2017-11-01

    Applications of parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) often warrant conversion of the chemically-synthesized singlet-state spin order into net heteronuclear magnetization. In order to obtain optimal yields from the overall hyperpolarization process, catalytic hydrogenation must be tightly synchronized to subsequent radiofrequency (RF) transformations of spin order. Commercial NMR consoles are designed to synchronize applied waves on multiple channels and consequently are well-suited as controllers for these types of hyperpolarization experiments that require tight coordination of RF and non-RF events. Described here is a PHIP instrument interfaced to a portable NMR console operating with a static field electromagnet in the milliTesla regime. In addition to providing comprehensive control over chemistry and RF events, this setup condenses the PHIP protocol into a pulse-program that in turn can be readily shared in the manner of traditional pulse sequences. In this device, a TTL multiplexer was constructed to convert spectrometer TTL outputs into 24 VDC signals. These signals then activated solenoid valves to control chemical shuttling and reactivity in PHIP experiments. Consolidating these steps in a pulse-programming environment speeded calibration and improved quality assurance by enabling the B 0 /B 1 fields to be tuned based on the direct acquisition of thermally polarized and hyperpolarized NMR signals. Performance was tested on the parahydrogen addition product of 2-hydroxyethyl propionate-1- 13 C-d 3 , where the 13 C polarization was estimated to be P 13C =20±2.5% corresponding to 13 C signal enhancement approximately 25 million-fold at 9.1 mT or approximately 77,000-fold 13 C enhancement at 3 T with respect to thermally induced polarization at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence of L-mode electromagnetic wave pumping of ionospheric plasma near geomagnetic zenith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyser, Thomas B.; James, H. Gordon; Gustavsson, Björn; Rietveld, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    The response of ionospheric plasma to pumping by powerful HF (high frequency) electromagnetic waves transmitted from the ground into the ionosphere is the strongest in the direction of geomagnetic zenith. We present experimental results from transmitting a left-handed circularly polarized HF beam from the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter association) Heating facility in magnetic zenith. The CASSIOPE (CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer) spacecraft in the topside ionosphere above the F-region density peak detected transionospheric pump radiation, although the pump frequency was below the maximum ionospheric plasma frequency. The pump wave is deduced to arrive at CASSIOPE through L-mode propagation and associated double (O to Z, Z to O) conversion in pump-induced radio windows. L-mode propagation allows the pump wave to reach higher plasma densities and higher ionospheric altitudes than O-mode propagation so that a pump wave in the L-mode can facilitate excitation of upper hybrid phenomena localized in density depletions in a larger altitude range. L-mode propagation is therefore suggested to be important in explaining the magnetic zenith effect.

  15. Evidence of L-mode electromagnetic wave pumping of ionospheric plasma near geomagnetic zenith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Leyser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The response of ionospheric plasma to pumping by powerful HF (high frequency electromagnetic waves transmitted from the ground into the ionosphere is the strongest in the direction of geomagnetic zenith. We present experimental results from transmitting a left-handed circularly polarized HF beam from the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter association Heating facility in magnetic zenith. The CASSIOPE (CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer spacecraft in the topside ionosphere above the F-region density peak detected transionospheric pump radiation, although the pump frequency was below the maximum ionospheric plasma frequency. The pump wave is deduced to arrive at CASSIOPE through L-mode propagation and associated double (O to Z, Z to O conversion in pump-induced radio windows. L-mode propagation allows the pump wave to reach higher plasma densities and higher ionospheric altitudes than O-mode propagation so that a pump wave in the L-mode can facilitate excitation of upper hybrid phenomena localized in density depletions in a larger altitude range. L-mode propagation is therefore suggested to be important in explaining the magnetic zenith effect.

  16. Radio wave propagation in the Martian polar deposits: models and implications for radar sounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyushin, Ya. A.

    In the present study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the northern polar ice sheet of Mars is considered Several different scenarios of the structure of the polar deposits and composition of the ice compatible with previously published observational data are proposed Both analytical and numerical simulations of ultra wide band chirp radar pulse propagating through the cap are performed Approximate approach based on the non-coherent theory of the radiative transfer in layered media has been applied to the problem of the propagation of radar pulses in the polar caps Both 1D and 2D and 3D geometry applicable to the orbital and landed radar instruments are studied The side clutter and phase distortions of the signal are also addressed analyzed The possibilities of retrieval of the geological information depending on transparency of the polar cap for radio waves are discussed If the polar cap is relatively transparent the echo from the base of the sheet should be clearly distinctive and interpretable in terms of basal topography of the cap In the case of moderate optical thickness coherent basal echo is corrupted by strong multiple scattering in the layered structure However some conclusions about basal conditions could be made from the signals for example the subglacial lakes may be detected Finally optically thick polar caps prevent any sounding of the base so only the medium itself can be characterized by GPR measurements e g the impurity content in the ice can be found Ilyushin Y A R Seu

  17. Amplification of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves along a wave path in the Earth's multicomponent magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y.D.; Fraser, B.J.; Olson, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    In this report, the authors consider the amplification of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves along a geomagnetic field line in the multicomponent magnetosphere, assuming that the waves propagate parallel to the background magnetic field. The find it is possible for the ring-current protons (energy ∼ 10-100 keV), which supply the free energy to stimulate the waves, to resonate with the waves not only in the equatorial region but also off the equator. An instability, caused by a thermal anisotropy, may occur in separated regions on and/or off the equator. The positions of the source regions along the wave path depend on the concentration of cold heavy ion species. The significant off-equator source regions may be located at geomagnetic latitudes where the waves, with frequencies greater than the He + gyrofrequency on the equator, are in a local He + pass band

  18. Wave fields in real media wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic, porous and electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Carcione, José M

    2014-01-01

    Authored by the internationally renowned José M. Carcione, Wave Fields in Real Media: Wave Propagation in Anisotropic, Anelastic, Porous and Electromagnetic Media examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, starting with the introduction of relevant stress-strain relations. The combination of this relation and the equations of momentum conservation lead to the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. This book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and ...

  19. Model of the electromagnetic waves processing in ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrego L, J.; Azorin N, J.; Siles A, S.; Cruz O, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a model to process the electromagnetic waves in ultrasonic equipment is proposed and it is experimentally demonstrated that, the origin of the ultrasound is electronic and non mechanic. The above mentioned, it has been demonstrated when making in an electronic equipment a spectral analysis the one that indicated an unfolding of the original ultrasonic pulses of 17 K Hz., to 88 K Hz., and of 5 MHz., to 23 GHz. Also, it was obtained the degradation with ultrasound of particles of Hematite and of Galena, as well as the fading of the methylene blue and the generation of an electric current exciting with ultrasound. (Author)

  20. Motivating Non-science Majors: The Technology of Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Victor E.

    2018-01-01

    To address the need for physics courses that stimulate non-STEM majors' interest in, and appreciation of, science, the Department of Applied Physics has developed a popular course for Yale College undergraduates, The Technological World, that explains the physics behind technologies that students use every day. The course provides an in-depth development of electromagnetic waves, applying them to technologies as diverse as LCD displays, GPS, fiber optics, CAT scans, LEDs, and stealth aircraft. It utilizes a conventional lecture format, with many in-class demonstrations.

  1. RF electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ferrite polymer composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosoudil, Rastislav; Usakova, Marianna; Franek, Jaroslav; Slama, Jozef; Olah, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    The frequency dispersion of complex initial (relative) permeability (μ * =μ ' -jμ ' ') and the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of composite materials based on NiZn sintered ferrite and a polyvinylchloride (PVC) polymer matrix have been studied in frequency range from 1MHz to 1GHz. The complex permeability of the composites was found to increase as the ferrite content increased, and was characterized by frequency dispersion localized above 50MHz. The variation of return loss (RL) of single-layer RF absorbers using the prepared composite materials has been investigated as a function of frequency, ferrite content and the thickness of the absorbers

  2. Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetic and Elastic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, Weng; Hu, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetic and Elastic Waves is an outgrowth of several years of work. There have been no recent books on integral equation methods. There are books written on integral equations, but either they have been around for a while, or they were written by mathematicians. Much of the knowledge in integral equation methods still resides in journal papers. With this book, important relevant knowledge for integral equations are consolidated in one place and researchers need only read the pertinent chapters in this book to gain important knowledge needed for integral eq

  3. Electromagnetic plasma wave emissions from the auroral field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The most important types of auroral radio emissions are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the following four types of electromagnetic emissions: auroral hiss, saucers, ELF noise bands, and auroral kilometric radiation. It is shown that the auroral hiss and auroral kilometric radiation are generated along the auroral field lines relatively close to the earth, at radial distances in the range of 2.5-5 earth radii, probably in direct association with auroral-particle acceleration by parallel electric fields. The auroral hiss appears to be generated by amplified Cerenkov radiation. Several mechanisms are proposed for the auroral kilometric radiation, usually involving the intermediate generation of electrostatic waves by the precipitating electrons.

  4. Statistics of polarization and Stokes parameters of stochastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, M. J.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2004-09-01

    Several theories now exist to describe the probability distribution functions (PDFs) for the electric field strength, intensity, and power of signals. In this work, a model is developed for the PDFs of the polarization properties of the superposition of multiple transverse wave populations. The polarization of each transverse wave population is described by a polarization ellipse with fixed axial ratio and polarization angle, and PDFs for the field strength and phase. Wave populations are vectorially added, and expressions found for the Stokes parameters I , U , Q , and V , as well as the degrees of linear and circular polarization, and integral expressions for their statistics. In this work, lognormal distributions are chosen for the electric field, corresponding to stochastic growth, and polarization PDFs are numerically calculated for the superposition of orthonormal mode populations, which might represent the natural modes emitted by a source. Examples are provided of the superposition of linear, circular, and elliptically polarized wave populations in cases where the component field strength PDFs are the same, and where one field strength PDF is dominant.

  5. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those......We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....

  6. Electromagnetic waves in complex systems selected theoretical and applied problems

    CERN Document Server

    Velychko, Lyudmyla

    2016-01-01

    This book gives guidance to solve problems in electromagnetics, providing both examples of solving serious research problems as well as the original results to encourage further investigations. The book contains seven chapters on various aspects of resonant wave scattering, each solving one original problem. All of them are unified by the authors’ desire to show advantages of rigorous approaches at all stages, from the formulation of a problem and the selection of a method to the interpretation of results. The book reveals a range of problems associated with wave propagation and scattering in natural and artificial environments or with the design of antennas elements. The authors invoke both theoretical (analytical and numerical) and experimental techniques for handling the problems. Attention is given to mathematical simulations, computational efficiency, and physical interpretation of the experimental results. The book is written for students, graduate students and young researchers. .

  7. High-efficiency passive full wave rectification for electromagnetic harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Tunkar, Bassam A.; Park, Sangtak; Elrayes, Karim; Mahmoud, Mohamed A. E.; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2014-10-01

    We compare the performance of four types of full-wave bridge rectifiers designed for electromagnetic energy harvesters based on silicon diodes, Schottky diodes, passive MOSFETs, and active MOSFETs. Simulation and experimental results show that MOSFET-type rectifiers are more efficient than diode-type rectifiers, reaching voltage and power efficiency of 99% for ideal voltage source with input amplitudes larger than 800 mV. Since active MOSFETs require extra components and an external DC power supply, we conclude that passive MOSFETs are superior for micro-power energy harvesting systems. We demonstrate passive MOSFET rectifiers implemented using discrete, off-shelf components and show that they outperform all electromagnetic harvester rectifiers hitherto reported obtaining a power efficiency of 95%. Furthermore, we show that passive MOSFET rectifiers do not affect the center frequency, harvesting bandwidth, or optimal resistance of electromagnetic harvesters. We demonstrate a complete power management module by adding a capacitor to the rectifier output terminal. We found that this configuration changed the optimal resistive load from 40 Ω to 55 Ω and decreased output power efficiency to 86%.

  8. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by counter-rotating vortex streets in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, R.; Mendonca, J.T. [Centro de Electrodinamica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1096 Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Dendy, R.O. [UKAEA Government Division, Fusion (UKAEA---Euratom Fusion Association), Culham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Shukla, P.K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic waves from counter-rotating vortex streets associated with nonlinear convective cells in uniform plasmas has been considered. The vortex street solution of the Navier{endash}Stokes or the Hasegawa{endash}Mima (and of the {open_quote}{open_quote}sinh-Poisson{close_quote}{close_quote}) equation is adopted as a scatterer. Assuming arbitrary polarization and profile function for the incident electromagnetic field, a compact expression for the scattering cross section has been obtained. Specific results for the differential cross section are obtained for the case in which the incident beam has a Gaussian profile and propagates as an ordinary mode. The results show that when the characteristic wavelength of the vortex street ({lambda}{sub {ital v}}=2{pi}/{ital a}) is larger than that of the incident electromagnetic wave ({lambda}{sub {ital i}}=2{pi}/{ital k}{sub {ital i}}), the differential cross section {ital d}{sigma}/{ital d}{Omega} has a very well-defined angular periodicity; in fact, it is a collection of Gaussians varying as exp[{minus}{ital f}({ital k}{sub {ital iw}}){sup 2}], where {ital w} is the waist and {ital f} is a function expressing a kind of {open_quote}{open_quote}Bragg condition.{close_quote}{close_quote} On the other hand, for {lambda}{sub {ital i}}{approx_gt}{lambda}{sub {ital v}} the incident electromagnetic beam is unable to distinguish the periodic structure of the vortex street. The effects of the vortex street as well as the incident beam parameters on the scattering cross section are examined. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Excitation of planetary electromagnetic waves in the inhomogeneous ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Rapoport

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a new method for the analysis of excitation and propagation of planetary electromagnetic waves (PEMW in the ionosphere of the Earth. The nonlinear system of equations for PEMW, valid for any height, from D to F regions, including intermediate altitudes between D and E and between E and F regions, is derived. In particular, we have found the system of nonlinear one-fluid MHD equations in the β-plane approximation valid for the ionospheric F region (Aburjania et al., 2003a, 2005. The series expansion in a "small" (relative to the local geomagnetic field non-stationary magnetic field has been applied only at the last step of the derivation of the equations. The small mechanical vertical displacement of the media is taken into account. We have shown that obtained equations can be reduced to the well-known system with Larichev–Reznik vortex solution in the equatorial region (see e.g. Aburjania et al., 2002. The excitation of planetary electromagnetic waves by different initial perturbations has been investigated numerically. Some means for the PEMW detection and data processing are discussed.

  10. Electromagnetic wave propagation through a graphene-based photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Oleg; Boyko, Vladimir S.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.

    2011-03-01

    A novel type of photonic crystal formed by embedding a periodic array of constituent stacks of alternating graphene and dielectric discs into a background dielectric medium is proposed. The frequency band structure of a 2D photonic crystal with the square lattice of the metamaterial stacks of the alternating graphene and dielectric discs is obtained. The electromagnetic wave transmittance of such photonic crystal is calculated. The graphene-based photonic crystals have the following advantages that distinguish them from the other types of photonic crystals. They can be used as the frequency filters and waveguides for the far infrared region of spectrum at the wide range of the temperatures including the room temperatures. The photonic band structure of the graphene-based photonic crystals can be controlled by changing the thickness of the dielectric layers between the graphene discs and by the doping. The sizes of the graphene-based photonic crystals can be much larger than the sizes of metallic photonic crystals due to the small dissipation of the electromagnetic wave. The advantages of the graphene-based photonic crystal are discussed.

  11. Spiky soliton in circular polarized Alfven wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Sanuki, H.; Konno, K.; Wadati, M.

    1979-06-01

    A new type of nonlinear evolution equation for the Alfven waves, propagating parallel to the magnetic field, is now registered to the completely integrable family of nonlinear evolution equations. In spite of the extensive studies of Kaup and Newell, and of Kawata and Inoue, these analysis have been dealing with solutions for restricted boundary conditions. The present paper presents full account of stationary solitary wave solutions for the plane wave boundary condition. The obtained results exhibit peculiar structure of spiky modulation of amplitude and phase, which arises from the derivative nonlinear coupling term. A nonlinear equation for complex amplitude associated with the carrier wave is shown to be a mixed type of nonlinear Schroedinger equation, having and ordinary cubic nonlinear term and the derivative of cubic nonlinear term. (author)

  12. Unpolarized nucleon structure studies utilizing polarized electromagnetic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrington, J.

    2009-01-01

    By the mid-1980s, measurements of the nucleon form factors had reached a stage where only slow, incremental progress was possible using unpolarized electron scattering. The development of high quality polarized beams, polarized targets, and recoil polarimeters led to a renaissance in the experimental program. I provide an overview of the changes in the field in the last ten years, which were driven by the dramatically improved data made possible by a new family of tools to measure polarization observables

  13. Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.

  14. Electromagnetic scattering by underground targets using the cylindrical-wave approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezza, Fabrizio; Pajewski, Lara; Ponti, Cristina; Schettini, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The electromagnetic detection of buried cylindrical targets, as structures encountered in the inspection of archaeological sites, or pipes, conduits, and tunnels, has been recently addressed in several works. The development of techniques for investigating cylindrical inhomogeneities embedded in a dielectric medium, is a challenging topic also in several other applications, including non-destructive evaluation and testing in civil engineering, and medical imaging. Ground-penetrating radars (GPRs) are extremely useful in probing subsurface targets through electromagnetic waves. These tools solve an inverse problem, to estimate the electromagnetic properties of a target from field measurements. Different algorithms are employed to post-process the collected experimental data: most of them need a fast and accurate forward solver, to perform repeated evaluations of the scattered field due to known targets, and to be used in combination with some optimization techniques. In this paper, we present an efficient spectral-domain method that we developed for the solution of the two-dimensional electromagnetic plane-wave forward scattering by a finite set of perfectly-conducting or dielectric cylinders, buried in a dielectric half-space or in a finite-thickness slab. The technique is called Cylindrical-Wave Approach (CWA), because the field scattered by the targets is represented in terms of a superposition of cylindrical waves. Use is made of the plane-wave spectrum to take into account the interaction of such waves with the planar interfaces. Suitable reflected and transmitted cylindrical functions are defined; adaptive integration procedures of Gaussian type, together with acceleration algorithms, are employed for the numerical solution of the relevant spectral integrals. All the multiple-reflection phenomena are taken into account. The method may deal with both TM and TE polarization fields; it can be applied for arbitrary values of permittivity, radius, and depth, of the

  15. Theory of a ring laser. [electromagnetic field and wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegozzi, L. N.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Development of a systematic formulation of the theory of a ring laser which is based on first principles and uses a well-known model for laser operation. A simple physical derivation of the electromagnetic field equations for a noninertial reference frame in uniform rotation is presented, and an attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Fox-Li modes for an open polygonal resonator. The polarization of the active medium is obtained by using a Fourier-series method which permits the formulation of a strong-signal theory, and solutions are given in terms of continued fractions. It is shown that when such a continued fraction is expanded to third order in the fields, the familiar small-signal ring-laser theory is obtained.

  16. Ionospheric electron acceleration by electromagnetic waves near regions of plasma resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalon, E.

    1989-01-01

    Electron acceleration by electromagnetic fields propagating in the inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma is investigated. It is found that high-amplitude short wavelength electrostatic waves are generated by the incident electromagnetic fields that penetrate the radio window. These waves can very efficiently transfer their energy to the electrons if the incident frequency is near the second harmonic of the cyclotron frequency

  17. Coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media: Theory, Modeling, and Interferometric Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Grobbe, N.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, I study coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media. The focus is two-fold:1. Increase the theoretical and physical understanding of the seismo-electromagnetic phenomenon by analytically-based numerical modeling.2. Investigate the potential of seismo-electromagnetic interferometry.After presenting the governing equations that form the basis of the theoretical framework, I capture this system into a matrix-vector representation of the wave equation. I ...

  18. Polarizer design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Salewski, Mirko; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2013-01-01

    by birefringent windows, the microwave receivers can be designed to be more compact at lower cost. Sapphire windows (a-cut) as well as grooved high density polyethylene windows can serve this purpose. The sapphire window can be designed such that the calculated transmission of the wave energy is better than 99......Radiation from magnetized plasmas is in general elliptically polarized. In order to convert the elliptical polarization to linear polarization, mirrors with grooved surfaces are currently employed in our collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade. If these mirrors can be substituted...

  19. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Four Wave Mixing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukkara, I.

    2008-01-01

    We have theoretically studied Four Wave Mixing (FWM) process in VUV (Vacuum Ultraviolet) region enhanced by Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Krypton gas medium at room temperature. One of the mixing fields, in the ultraviolet region at 212.5 nm was in two-photon resonance with the 4p 6 1 S 0 -4p 5 5p[0,1/2] transition of Krypton and the second field (coupling field) at 759 nm was resonant with the 4p 5 5p[0,1/2]-4p 5 5s[1,1/2] transition in scheme. This coupling field produced an electromagnetically induced transparency and thus the efficiency of the generation of the field at 123.6 nm on the 4p 5 5s[1,1/2] to 4p 6 1 S 0 transition is enhanced. We modified the computer program previously written by changing some variables like pressure, interaction region length, UV energy, IR energy. As demonstrated by the intensity generated VUV light versus Krypton pressure graphic, the most efficient intensity value, which was approximately 4.2x10 1 6 arbitrary units, was obtained while IR energy was 3x10 - 4 J and the pressure was 2x10 - 3 bar

  20. Next wave EM technology : Electromagnetic communication technology continues to progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwick, J.

    1998-01-01

    Alpine Oil Services Corp. and Ryan Energy Technologies Inc., have made technological advances in the use of real time electromagnetic (EM) data transmission, using low frequency radio waves to transmit well commands or geological information. The development of the telemetry activated tool was done in two steps. The first technology was real time EM data transmission from the subsurface which used the wellbore to transfer information. The second step was constructing a memory pack which involved an electronic instrument installed in the wellbore which was programmed to perform certain tasks at certain times by transmitting signals back and forth. The use of EM communication allows the geological steering information to come back faster. The EM signal is much faster compared to MWD systems for deeper directional wells. The EM technology also has immediate applications in underbalanced drilling. 1 fig

  1. Scattering and attenuation of electromagnetic waves by partly charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jùn; Dou, X.; Xie, Li

    2018-02-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) by partly charged particles is investigated by Mie theory. For particles much smaller than the wavelength of EMW, the scattering properties are significantly affected by the net surface charges but are not affected by the location of charged area, and the extinction cross section and scattering cross section, as well as the signal attenuation due to charged particles, monotonously increase with the size of charged area and reach maximum when the particle is overall charged, as the surface charge densities is within several hundred μC/m2. Moreover, given the distribution of particle sizes a closer agreement between the theory and measurement of signal attenuation due to charged sand/dust storms can be achieved by taking the charges into consideration and assuming all particles have the same size of charged area and surface charge density in theory calculations.

  2. ELF Electromagnetic Waves from Lightning: The Schumann Resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Price

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lightning produces electromagnetic fields and waves in all frequency ranges. In the extremely low frequency (ELF range below 100 Hz, the global Schumann Resonances (SR are excited at frequencies of 8 Hz, 14 Hz, 20 Hz, etc. This review is aimed at the reader generally unfamiliar with the Schumann Resonances. First some historical context to SR research is given, followed by some theoretical background and examples of the extensive use of Schumann resonances in a variety of lightning-related studies in recent years, ranging from estimates of the spatial and temporal variations in global lighting activity, connections to global climate change, transient luminous events and extraterrestrial lightning. Both theoretical and experimental results of the global resonance phenomenon are presented. It is our hope that this review will increase the interest in SR among researchers previously unfamiliar with this phenomenon.

  3. An application of the method of geometrical optics to the scattering of plane electromagnetic waves off cylindrically confined cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegsmann, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper we apply the method of geometrical optics to study the scattering of plane electromagnetic waves off a cylindrically confined cold plasma. For simplicity, we assume two types of incident polarization. In both cases scalar second order elliptic partial differential equations describe the fields. These problems are studied in the asymptotic limit aω/c→infinity (where a is the radius of the cylinder, ω is the frequency of the incident plane wave, and c is the velocity of light in free space). We furthermore assume a quadratic plasma density. This allows us to calculate explicitly the rays, amplitudes, caustics, and other features which arise in the geometrical optics approach. The assumed density also gives rise to the interesting cutoff and resonance phenomenon. Thus the amplification of the electromagnetic fields is observed. This phenomenon may have applications in laser fusion

  4. Coupling of a Trivelpiece-Gould wave to a new type of electromagnetic wave observed around the electron cyclotron frequency in an inhomogeneous plasma column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, J.A.C. (Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Electrodinamica)

    1989-02-01

    The coupling between a Trivelpiece-Gould wave with a frequency close to the electron cyclotron frequency to a fast wave, propagating with almost the light velocity in vacuum inside a metallic cylindrical waveguide much below cutoff, is observed along a magnetized plasma column with a strong axial density gradient. The fast wave is characterized by the experimental determination of its dispersion as well as by measurements of its electric and magnetic field radial structures and associated polarization. A preliminary theoretical description of this electromagnetic wave, consistent with all the relevant experimental observations, is presented, strongly suggesting that it belongs to a kind of radially evanescent modified cold plasma ''left-ordinary'' mode. (author).

  5. Responses of Polystyrene/MWCNT Nanocomposites to Electromagnetic Waves and the Effect of Nanotubes Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Aghajari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC and electromagnetic interference (EMI have emerged as key issues with respect to commercial and military purposes in association with electromagnetic waves. The importance of protection against electromagnetic interference in wireless communication and electronic toll collection (ETC systems has undoubtedly increased over the years. Generally, the electromagnetic absorption properties of material depend on their intrinsic electromagnetic properties such as conductivity, magnetic permeability and dielectric constant and also factors such as thickness and frequency. The effect of each parameter on the absorption performance is yet difficult to comprehend due to the complexity of electromagnetic waves propagation in different media. Addition of pure dielectric or magnetic material to a polymer matrix is a possible way to change electromagnetic properties of the materials. In this study nanocomposites of polystyrene/multi-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared using a solution method with three different homogenizer speeds for the purpose of nanotube dispersion and evaluation of the effect of nanotube dispersion on the electromagnetic wave absorption properties. The morphology of the nanocomposits was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The capability and properties of electromagnetic wave absorption of nanocomposites were studied in the frequency range of 5 to 8 GHz using a vector network analyzer and finally the results of their absorption were compared with each other. It was found that by improving the dispersion of nanoparticles, both the amount and bandwidth of absorption increase. Moreover, by increasing the homogenizer speed up to 10000 rpm the maximum reflection loss was reported to occur at 8 GHz.

  6. Conversion of electromagnetic to gravitational waves in the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crispino, Luis C.B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Higuchi, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Wave scattering by black holes is a subject that has received much attention in the 1970s, and has been extensively studied since then. Some recent works have been devoted to computing the scalar absorption and scattering cross sections of charged black holes. The presence of a background electromagnetic field leads to a coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations. To study the propagation of the electromagnetic field in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime, one has to take into account this electromagnetic-gravitational mixing. In this work we compute numerically the absorption cross section of Reissner-Nordstroem black holes for the electromagnetic field for arbitrary frequencies, taking into account the coupling of the electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations. We also compute the conversion coefficients of electromagnetic to gravitational waves by scattering from a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. (author)

  7. Detectability of inflationary gravitational waves with microwave background polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamionkowski, M.; Kosowsky, A.

    1998-01-01

    Inflation predicts specific relations between the amplitudes and spectral indices of the primordial spectrum of density (scalar metric) perturbations and gravitational waves (tensor metric perturbations). Detection of a stochastic gravitational-wave background is essential for identifying this unmistakable signature. Polarization of the cosmic microwave background can isolate these tensor modes in a model-independent way and thereby circumvent the cosmic-variance limit to detecting a small tensor signal with only a temperature map. Here we assess the detectability of a gravity-wave background with a temperature and polarization map. For detector sensitivities better than 10 endash 20μK√ (sec) , the sensitivity to a tensor signal is always dominated by the polarization map. With a detector sensitivity of order 1μK√ (sec) , polarization could improve on a temperature-map sensitivity to tensor modes by two to three orders of magnitude. Even a small amount of reionization substantially enhances tensor-mode detectability. We also argue that the sensitivity of the Planck Surveyor to tensor modes is significantly improved with polarization, even taking into account the resulting degradation of the intensity determination in the high-frequency channels. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Estimation of the gravitational wave polarizations from a nontemplate search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Irene; Drago, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is just beginning, after the recent success of the four direct detections of binary black hole (BBH) mergers and the first observation from a binary neutron star inspiral, with the expectation of many more events to come. Given the possibility to detect waves from not exactly modeled astrophysical processes, it is fundamental to be ready to calculate the polarization waveforms in the case of searches using nontemplate algorithms. In such a case, the waveform polarizations are the only quantities that contain direct information about the generating process. We present the performance of a new valuable tool to estimate the inverse solution of gravitational wave transient signals, starting from the analysis of the signal properties of a nontemplate algorithm that is open to a wider class of gravitational signals not covered by template algorithms. We highlight the contributions to the wave polarization associated with the detector response, the sky localization, and the polarization angle of the source. In this paper we present the performances of such a method and its implications by using two main classes of transient signals, resembling the limiting case for most simple and complicated morphologies. The performances are encouraging for the tested waveforms: the correlation between the original and the reconstructed waveforms spans from better than 80% for simple morphologies to better than 50% for complicated ones. For a nontemplate search these results can be considered satisfactory to reconstruct the astrophysical progenitor.

  9. An analysis of the electromagnetic field in multi-polar linear induction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervenkova, Todorka; Chervenkov, Atanas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a new method for determination of the electromagnetic field vectors in a multi-polar linear induction system (LIS) is described. The analysis of the electromagnetic field has been done by four dimensional electromagnetic potentials in conjunction with theory of the magnetic loops . The electromagnetic field vectors are determined in the Minkovski's space as elements of the Maxwell's tensor. The results obtained are compared with those got from the analysis made by the finite elements method (FEM).With the method represented in this paper one can determine the electromagnetic field vectors in the multi-polar linear induction system using four-dimensional potential. A priority of this method is the obtaining of analytical results for the electromagnetic field vectors. These results are also valid for linear media. The dependencies are valid also at high speeds of movement. The results of the investigated linear induction system are comparable to those got by the finite elements method. The investigations may be continued in the determination of other characteristics such as drag force, levitation force, etc. The method proposed in this paper for an analysis of linear induction system can be used for optimization calculations. (Author)

  10. Modeling Gravitational Waves to Test GR Dispersion and Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Rhondale; Chen, Yanbei; Isi, Maximilliano

    2017-01-01

    Given continued observation runs from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory Scientific Collaboration, further gravitational wave (GW) events will provide added constraints on beyond-general relativity (b-GR) theories. One approach, independent of the GW generation mechanism at the source, is to look at modification to the GW dispersion and propagation, which can accumulate over vast distances. Generic modification of GW propagation can also, in certain b-GR theories, impact the polarization content of GWs. To this end, a comprehensive approach to testing the dispersion and polarization content is developed by modeling anisotropic deformations to the waveforms' phase, along with birefringence effects and corollary consequences for b-GR polarizations, i.e., breathing, vector, and longitudinal modes. Such an approach can be mapped to specific theories like Lorentz violation, amplitude birefringence in Chern-Simons, and provide hints at additional theories to be included. An overview of data analysis routines to be implemented will also be discussed.

  11. Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.

  12. Study of an ultrasonic generation by the electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juillard, J.

    2000-01-01

    The main subject of this work is the development of a bulk-wave EMAT (Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer) semi-analytical model. At first, we consider the general theory behind this type of transduction, especially in the case of P-Waves; this is followed by an experimental study which points out the need of modelling for the design of EMAT probes. Under certain hypotheses, this modelling can be reduced to three separate models: one model giving the eddy currents, another one the permanent magnetic field and one for the acoustic field generated by a surface density of forces. For each of these phenomena, 3-D semi-analytical models are built: they are based on a decomposition of the source terms into elementary sources. The final solutions are obtained through a convolution of the elementary solutions and of the sources. The implementation of these models is then given, as well as some applications to the field of EC and of EMAT. (author)

  13. Cellular and molecular effects of electromagnetic radiation and sonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Froes Meyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic radiation (in the form of pulsed magnetic fields, radiofrequency and intense pulsed light and mechanical agents (such as sonic waves have been used in physical therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity magnetic fields, sonic and radiofrequency waves, and intense pulsed light on the survival of Escherichia coli cultures and on the electrophoretic mobility of plasmid DNA. Exponentially growing E. coli AB1157 cultures and plasmid DNA samples were exposed to these physical agents and 0.9% NaCl (negative control and SnCl2 (positive control solutions. Aliquots of the cultures were diluted and spread onto a solidified rich medium. The colony-forming units were counted after overnight incubation and the survival fraction was calculated. Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed to visualise and quantify the plasmid topological forms. The results suggest that these agents do not alter the survival of E. coli cells or plasmid DNA electrophoresis mobility. Moreover, they do not protect against the lesive action of SnCl2. These physical agents therefore had no cytotoxic or genotoxic effects under the conditions studied.

  14. Effect of magnetic field on nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic and surface waves in a plasma layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Sh.M.; El-Sherif, N.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Tanta Univ.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Alexandria Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Investigation is made for nonlinear interaction between incident radiation and a surface wave in a magnetized plasma layer. Both interacting waves are of P polarization. The generated currents and fields at combination frequencies are obtained analytically. Unlike the S-polarized interacting waves, the magnetic field affects the fundamental waves and leads to an amplification of generated waves when their frequencies approach the cyclotron frequency. (author)

  15. Wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide incident angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic energy and wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui-Teng; Yang, Xue-Xia; Song, Xing-Tang; Guo, Zhen-Yue; Yu, Fan

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we introduced the design, demonstration, and discussion of a wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide-angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic (EM) energy and wireless power transfer. The array consists of unit cells with one square ring and four metal bars. In comparison to the published metamaterial arrays for harvesting EM energy or wireless transfer, this design had the wide operation bandwidth with the HPBW (Half Power Band Width) of 110% (6.2 GHz-21.4 GHz), which overcomes the narrow-band operation induced by the resonance characteristic of the metamaterial. On the normal incidence, the simulated maximum harvesting efficiency was 96% and the HPBW was 110% for the random polarization wave. As the incident angle increases to 45°, the maximum efficiency remained higher than 88% and the HPBW remained higher than 83% for the random polarization wave. Furthermore, the experimental verification of the designed metamaterial array was conducted, and the measured results were in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones.

  16. Stimulated polarization wave process in spin 3/2 chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G. B.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulated wave of polarization, triggered by a flip of a single spin, presents a simple model of quantum amplification. Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in an idealized one-dimensional Ising spin 1/2 chain with nearest-neighbor interactions and realistic spin 1/2 chain including the natural dipole-dipole interactions, irradiated by a weak resonant transverse field, a wave of flipped spins can be triggered by a single spin flip. Here we focuse on control of polarization wave in chain of spin 3/2, where the nuclear quadrupole interaction is dominant. Results of simulations for 1D spin chains and rings with up to five spins are presented.

  17. Metamaterials, from electromagnetic waves to water waves, bending waves and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, G.

    2015-08-04

    We will review our recent work on metamaterials for different types of waves. Transposition of transform optics to water waves and bending waves on plates will be considered with potential applications of cloaking to water waves protection and anti-vibrating systems.

  18. Electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves scattering from planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength

  19. Risk perception and public concerns of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Hae-Joon; Song, Dae Jong; Cho, Yong Min; Choi, Jae Wook

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the difference between the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones and the risk perception of other factors such as environment and food was analyzed. The cause of the difference in the psychological and social factors that affect the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves was also analyzed. A questionnaire survey on the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was carried out on 1001 subjects (men and women) over the age of 20. In the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones, women had higher risk perception than men. Logistic regression analysis, where the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves and the group with low risk perception were used as dependent variables, indicated that the risk perception of electromagnetic waves in women was 1.815 times statistically significantly higher than the risk perception of men (95% CI: 1.340-2.457). Also, high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was observed when the subjects considered that they had more personal knowledge (OR: 1.416, 95% CI: 1.216-1.648), that the seriousness of the risk to future generations was high (OR: 1.410, 95% CI: 1.234-1.611), and their outrage for the occurrence of accidents related to electromagnetic waves was high (OR: 1.460, 95% CI: 1.264-1.686). The results of this study need to be sufficiently considered and reflected in designing the risk communication strategies and communication methods for the preventive measures and advice on electromagnetic waves from cellular phones. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Nonlinear waves and coherent structures in quasi-neutral plasmas excited by external electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzenov, Stephan I.

    2017-12-01

    Starting from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations describing the dynamics of various species in a quasi-neutral plasma, an exact relativistic hydrodynamic closure for a special type of water-bag distribution satisfying the Vlasov equation has been derived. It has been shown that the set of equations for the macroscopic hydrodynamic variables coupled to the wave equations for the self-consistent electromagnetic field is fully equivalent to the Vlasov-Maxwell system. Based on the method of multiple scales, a system comprising a vector nonlinear Schrodinger equation for the transverse envelopes of the self-consistent plasma wakefield, coupled to a scalar nonlinear Schrodinger equation for the electron current velocity envelope, has been derived. Using the method of formal series of Dubois-Violette, a traveling wave solution of the derived set of coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations in the case of circular wave polarization has been obtained. This solution is represented as a ratio of two formal Volterra series. The terms of these series can be calculated explicitly to every desired order.

  1. A review of nondestructive testing approaches using mechanical and electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Denvid; Qiu, Qiwen

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical and electromagnetic waves are commonly used in nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques for evaluating the materials and structures in civil engineering industry, due to their good examination of defects inside the matter. However, the individual use of mechanical wave or electromagnetic wave in NDT methods sometimes does not fulfill the satisfactory detection in practice because of the operational inconvenience and low sensitivity. It has been demonstrated that the combination of using both types of waves can achieve a better performance for NDT application and would be the future direction for defect detection, as the advantages of each physical wave are picked out whereas the weaknesses are mitigated. This paper discusses the fundamental mechanisms and the current applications of using mechanical and electromagnetic waves for defect detection, with the goal of providing the physical knowledge and the perspectives of developing the NDT applications with these two types of waves. Typical mechanical-wave-based NDT methods such as acoustic emission, ultrasonic technique, and impact-echo method are reviewed. In addition, NDT methods using electromagnetic wave, which include optical fiber sensing technique, laser speckle interferometry and laser reflection technique are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are outlined. In particular, we focus on a recent NDT method called acoustic-laser technique, which utilizes both the mechanical and electromagnetic waves. The basic principles and some important experimental data recorded by the acoustic-laser technique are described and its future development in the field of defect detection in civil infrastructure is presented.

  2. A wave guide model of lightning currents and their electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, H.

    1980-01-01

    Lightning channels are considered as resonant wave guides in which only standing resonant wave modes can be excited. Two types of discharging currents develop. Type 1 is an aperiodic wave; type 2 is a damped oscillation. The electromagnetic radiation field of both types of currents is calculated and compared with the observation.

  3. Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in a graphene-based Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; Zeng, Shuwen; Shang, Jingzhi; Yong, Ken-Tye; Yu, Ting

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the fabrication of a graphene-based Bragg grating (one-dimensional photonic crystal) and experimentally demonstrate the excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in the periodic structure using prism coupling technique. Surface electromagnetic waves are non-radiative electromagnetic modes that appear on the surface of semi-infinite 1D photonic crystal. In order to fabricate the graphene-based Bragg grating, alternating layers of high (graphene) and low (PMMA) refractive index materials have been used. The reflectivity plot shows a deepest, narrow dip after total internal reflection angle corresponds to the surface electromagnetic mode propagating at the Bragg grating/air boundary. The proposed graphene based Bragg grating can find a variety of potential surface electromagnetic wave applications such as sensors, fluorescence emission enhancement, modulators, etc. PMID:23071901

  4. Geodetic refraction effects of electromagnetic wave propagation through the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    With very few exceptions, geodetic measurements use electro­ magnetic radiation in order to measure directions, distances, time delays, and Doppler frequency shifts, to name the main ter­ restrial and space observables. Depending on the wavelength of the radiation and the purpose of the measurements, the follow­ ing parameters of the electromagnetic wave are measured: ampli­ tude, phase, angle-of-arrival, polarisation and frequency. Ac­ curate corrections have to be applied to the measurements in order to take into account the effects of the intervening medium between transmitter and receiver. The known solutions use at­ mospheric models, special observation programs, remote sensing techniques and instrumental methods. It has been shown that the effects of the earth's atmospheric envelope present a fundamental limitation to the accuracy and precision of geodetic measurements. This applies equally to ter­ restrial and space applications. Instrumental accuracies are al­ ready below the atmospherically i...

  5. Impact of Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Waves on Brainwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chien Kao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the era of wireless communication, cellular phone becomes an indispensable accessory to most people. People use cellular phone to interact with others, perform commercial and financial transactions, or conducting recreational activities, etc. The advance in wireless technology and escalate of broadband networks not only flourish communications industry and application service providers but also encourage people perform prolonged wireless network activities under the risk of over exposing themselves in long term high frequency electromagnetic waves. For example, some people conduct excessive phone-trading activities, as it is necessary to the job, and some people exercise the non-stop e-learning or recreation activities on mobile devices with long hours. However, would prolonged exposure to high frequency EMW environment bring adverse effects on human health? This research from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience investigates the effect of EMW from cellular phone to the energy distribution of human brainwave characteristic band by examine brainwave changes of test subjects when exposing to high frequency EMW environment. Experiment uses left ear and right ear to answer the phone separately. The calling session is divided into three stages: the instant of call connection, during the call, and after the call. On each ear, the brainwave signal of each calling stage is extracted and analyzed. The experiment shows at the instant of call connection stage, resulting maximum EMW strength, having extreme effect on the energy distribution of the human brainwave characteristic band, and causing severe changes on the energy of human brainwave.

  6. Controlling Energy Radiations of Electromagnetic Waves via Frequency Coding Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-09-01

    Metamaterials are artificial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells to control electromagnetic (EM) waves. The spatial coding representation of metamaterial has the ability to describe the material in a digital way. The spatial coding metamaterials are typically constructed by unit cells that have similar shapes with fixed functionality. Here, the concept of frequency coding metamaterial is proposed, which achieves different controls of EM energy radiations with a fixed spatial coding pattern when the frequency changes. In this case, not only different phase responses of the unit cells are considered, but also different phase sensitivities are also required. Due to different frequency sensitivities of unit cells, two units with the same phase response at the initial frequency may have different phase responses at higher frequency. To describe the frequency coding property of unit cell, digitalized frequency sensitivity is proposed, in which the units are encoded with digits "0" and "1" to represent the low and high phase sensitivities, respectively. By this merit, two degrees of freedom, spatial coding and frequency coding, are obtained to control the EM energy radiations by a new class of frequency-spatial coding metamaterials. The above concepts and physical phenomena are confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments.

  7. Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Many Nano-Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Ramm

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic wave scattering by many parallel to the z−axis, thin, impedance, parallel, infinite cylinders is studied asymptotically as a → 0. Let Dm be the cross-section of the m−th cylinder, a be its radius and xˆm = (xm1, xm2 be its center, 1 ≤ m ≤ M , M =   M (a. It is assumed that the points, xˆm, are distributed, so that N (∆  = (1 / 2πa * ∫∆ N (xˆdxˆ[1 + o(1], where N (∆ is the number of points, xˆm, in an arbitrary open subset, ∆, of the plane, xoy. The function, N (xˆ ≥ 0, is a continuous function, which an experimentalist can choose. An equation for the self-consistent (effective field is derived as a → 0. A formula is derived for the refraction coefficient in the medium in which many thin impedance cylinders are distributed. These cylinders may model nano-wires embedded in the medium. One can produce a desired refraction coefficient of the new medium by choosing a suitable boundary impedance of the thin cylinders and their distribution law.

  8. Electromagnetic ion beam instabilities - Growth at cyclotron harmonic wave numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles W.; Gary, S. Peter

    1987-01-01

    The linear theory of electromagnetic ion beam instabilities for arbitrary angles of propagation is studied, with an emphasis on the conditions necessary to generate unstable modes at low harmonics of the ion cyclotron resonance condition. The present results extend the analysis of Smith et al. (1985). That paper considered only the plasma parameters at a time during which harmonic wave modes were observed in the earth's foreshock. The parameters of that paper are used as the basis of parametric variations here to establish the range of beam properties which may give rise to observable harmonic spectra. It is shown that the growth rates of both left-hand and right-hand cyclotron harmonic instabilities are enhanced by an increase in the beam temperature anisotropy and/or the beam speed. Decreases in the beam density and/or the core-ion beta reduce the overall growth of the cyclotron harmonic instabilities but favor the growth of these modes over the growth of the nonresonant instability and thereby enhance the observability of the harmonics.

  9. Coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media : Theory, Modeling, and Interferometric Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobbe, N.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, I study coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media. The focus is two-fold:
    1. Increase the theoretical and physical understanding of the seismo-electromagnetic phenomenon by analytically-based numerical modeling.
    2. Investigate the potential of

  10. Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

    2005-10-01

    The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)

  11. Electromagnetic surface waves at the interface of a relativistic electron beam with vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoucri, M.M.; Gagne, R.R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The dispersion relation for electromagnetic surface waves propagating at the interface between a relativistic electron beam and vacuum is derived. The excitation of surface modes in a plasma at rest by a relativistic electron beam is discussed

  12. Primordial gravitational waves measurements and anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yu Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching for the signal of primordial gravitational waves in the B-modes (BB power spectrum is one of the key scientific aims of the cosmic microwave background (CMB polarization experiments. However, this could be easily contaminated by several foreground issues, such as the interstellar dust grains and the galactic cyclotron electrons. In this paper we study another mechanism, the cosmic birefringence, which can be introduced by a CPT-violating interaction between CMB photons and an external scalar field. Such kind of interaction could give rise to the rotation of the linear polarization state of CMB photons, and consequently induce the CMB BB power spectrum, which could mimic the signal of primordial gravitational waves at large scales. With the recently released polarization data of BICEP2 and the joint analysis data of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck, we perform a global fitting analysis on constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by considering the polarization rotation angle [α(nˆ] which can be separated into a background isotropic part [α¯] and a small anisotropic part [Δα(nˆ]. Since the data of BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments have already been corrected by using the “self-calibration” method, here we mainly focus on the effects from the anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation angle. We find that including Δα(nˆ in the analysis could slightly weaken the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, when using current CMB polarization measurements. We also simulate the mock CMB data with the BICEP3-like sensitivity. Very interestingly, we find that if the effects of the anisotropic polarization rotation angle could not be taken into account properly in the analysis, the constraints on r will be dramatically biased. This implies that we need to break the degeneracy between the anisotropies of the CMB polarization rotation angle and the CMB primordial tensor perturbations, in order to measure the signal of primordial

  13. Influence of Sea Surface Roughness on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Duct Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, X.; Huang, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with a study of the influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. The problem of electromagnetic wave propagation is modeled by using the parabolic equation method. The roughness of the sea surface is computed by modifying the smooth surface Fresnel reflection coefficient to account for the reduction in the specular reflection due to the roughness resulting from sea wind speed. The propagation model is solved by the mixed ...

  14. Wake-Field Wave Resonant Excitation in Magnetized Plasmas by Electromagnetic Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milant'ev, V.P.; Turikov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the space charge wave excitation process at electromagnetic pulse propagation along external magnetic field in vicinity of electron cyclotron resonance. In hydrodynamic approach it is obtained an equation for plasma density under ponderomotive force action. With help of this equation we investigated a wake-field wave amplitude dependence from resonance detuning. The numerical simulation using a PIC method electromagnetic pulse propagation process in the resonant conditions was done

  15. Dissipation of a power electromagnetic wave in an inhomogeneous plasma and ''superstrong'' plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Shapiro, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made to analyze two assumptions of the present theory of plasma turbulence, initiated by an electromagnetic wave, as applied to the problem of heating the plasma target. It has been assumed that in the long-scale region (the region of an electromagnetic wave source) and in the inertia range, separating the source region and the short-wave absorption region, there is a permanent pumping. The first assumption consists in simulating a situation in a plasma target when the Langmuir turbulence arises due to an electromagnetic wave incident on the target. The second assumption is valid only at a very high intensity of plasma waves when their energy is significantly less than the thermal energy of plasma W/nsub(c)T 0 is the frequency of an incident electromagnetic wave). At W approximately equal to nsub(c)T the plasma oscillations, arising due to modulation instability from the electromagnetic pumping wave, fall immediately into the absorption region. A phenomenological theory of such a turbulence, called ''superstrong'', is formulated on the assumption that there is a mechanism of ''mixing up'' plasmon phases as a result of their populating the long-wave density fluctuations

  16. Electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a progressive sinusoidal fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Ito, Akinari

    1984-01-01

    Study was made on the rigorous solutions for electromagnetic waves transmitted and reflected by a medium of finite length with time-space periodic fluctuation, loaded in a rectangular waveguide. When an electromagnetic wave is incident upon the medium modulated in a travelling wave fashion by a pump wave, the reflected and transmitted waves are shifted in frequency by +nω 1 (where n is an integer, ω 1 is the angular frequency of fluctuation). The harmonic level of the reflected waves is much increased as the frequency of the incident wave approaches the cutoff-frequency of TE 10 mode of the rectangular waveguide. Measurement of the spectrum of the reflected waves can be utilized as a diagnosis of even a very slightly fluctuating medium. The theoretical results have been verified on examining experimentally the harmonic level of the microwave reflected by a plasma, weakly modulated (about 10 -4 ) by RF signal and loaded in the WRJ-10 waveguide. (author)

  17. Gravitational Wave Polarizations in f (R Gravity and Scalar-Tensor Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Yungui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory opens a new era to use gravitational waves to test alternative theories of gravity. We investigate the polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R gravity and Horndeski theory, both containing scalar modes. These theories predict that in addition to the familiar + and × polarizations, there are transverse breathing and longitudinal polarizations excited by the massive scalar mode and the new polarization is a single mixed state. It would be very difficult to detect the longitudinal polarization by interferometers, while pulsar timing array may be the better tool to detect the longitudinal polarization.

  18. Gravitational Wave Polarizations in f (R) Gravity and Scalar-Tensor Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yungui; Hou, Shaoqi

    2018-01-01

    The detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory opens a new era to use gravitational waves to test alternative theories of gravity. We investigate the polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R) gravity and Horndeski theory, both containing scalar modes. These theories predict that in addition to the familiar + and × polarizations, there are transverse breathing and longitudinal polarizations excited by the massive scalar mode and the new polarization is a single mixed state. It would be very difficult to detect the longitudinal polarization by interferometers, while pulsar timing array may be the better tool to detect the longitudinal polarization.

  19. Conversion of terahertz wave polarization at the boundary of a layered superconductor due to the resonance excitation of oblique surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averkov, Yu O; Yakovenko, V M; Yampol'skii, V A; Nori, Franco

    2012-07-13

    We predict a complete TM↔TE transformation of the polarization of terahertz electromagnetic waves reflected from a strongly anisotropic boundary of a layered superconductor. We consider the case when the wave is incident on the superconductor from a dielectric prism separated from the sample by a thin vacuum gap. The physical origin of the predicted phenomenon is similar to the Wood anomalies known in optics and is related to the resonance excitation of the oblique surface waves. We also discuss the dispersion relation for these waves, propagating along the boundary of the superconductor at some angle with respect to the anisotropy axis, as well as their excitation by the attenuated-total-reflection method.

  20. Analysis of multidimensional measurements of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Pechal, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Title: Analysis of multidimensional measurements of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere Author: Radim Pechal Department: Department of Surface and Plasma Science Supervisor: doc. RNDr. Lubomír Přech, Dr. Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: The thesis introduces into basic knowledge of waves in plasma, especially waves in the Earth's magnetosphere. There are mentioned some space projects focused on chorus waves. The second part of this thesis is a la...

  1. Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging With Cascaded Dual-Polarity Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Guo, Yuexin; Lee, Wei-Ning

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound imaging using plane or diverging waves, instead of focused beams, has advanced greatly the development of novel ultrasound imaging methods for evaluating tissue functions beyond anatomical information. However, the sonographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ultrafast imaging remains limited due to the lack of transmission focusing, and thus insufficient acoustic energy delivery. We hereby propose a new ultrafast ultrasound imaging methodology with cascaded dual-polarity waves (CDWs), which consists of a pulse train with positive and negative polarities. A new coding scheme and a corresponding linear decoding process were thereby designed to obtain the recovered signals with increased amplitude, thus increasing the SNR without sacrificing the frame rate. The newly designed CDW ultrafast ultrasound imaging technique achieved higher quality B-mode images than coherent plane-wave compounding (CPWC) and multiplane wave (MW) imaging in a calibration phantom, ex vivo pork belly, and in vivo human back muscle. CDW imaging shows a significant improvement in the SNR (10.71 dB versus CPWC and 7.62 dB versus MW), penetration depth (36.94% versus CPWC and 35.14% versus MW), and contrast ratio in deep regions (5.97 dB versus CPWC and 5.05 dB versus MW) without compromising other image quality metrics, such as spatial resolution and frame rate. The enhanced image qualities and ultrafast frame rates offered by CDW imaging beget great potential for various novel imaging applications.

  2. Optimal Design of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Used to Generate Lamb Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan LIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer is the core component of the electromagnetic ultrasonic testing equipment. This paper establishes a three-dimensional model of the electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer used to generate Lamb wave, then by uniform design experiment and finite element analysis, the paper obtains the law between the eddy current density, the conductor width, length of the coil, the lift off distance, and the permanent magnets thickness. The law is verified by the experiment. It provides an overall principle for the optimal design of electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer.

  3. Electromagnetic pulse measurement system based on optical fiber transmission under radiated-wave test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shunkun; Nie Xin; Chen Xiangyue; Xiang Hui

    2010-01-01

    Radiated-wave Electromagnetic Pulse Simulator is an important device used to study Electromagnetic Pulse effect of large electronic equipment in test. On the characteristic of radiated-EMP simulator test and the needs to measurement system, Electromagnetic Pulse measurement system based on optical fiber transmission and its composition are introduced in the paper. Sort of measurement system and Calibration method of its are present. The expression of uncertainty in Electromagnetic Pulse measurement system is discussed also. The measurement results are analyzed which be gained by radiated field test. (authors)

  4. Electromagnetism, magnetic monopoles and matter-waves in space-time algebra (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daviau, C.

    1989-01-01

    The formalism of space-time algebra of Hestenes is used: - in the first part to write the equations of electromagnetism of Maxwell and Louis de Broglie, when magnetic monopoles exist; - second to explain equivalence between the equations of Dirac and Hestenes, and to extend this equivalence to Lochak's theory of magnetic monopoles; - to establish that monopoles can exist with very small magnetic charge; - in this second part, to compare waves of fermions and electromagnetism, to associate an electromagnetic field to Dirac's waves and to join the equation of Maxwell - de Broglie to the equation of Dirac - Hestenes [fr

  5. Interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasma in the radiation-dominated regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; Koga, J.; Tajima, T.

    2004-01-01

    A study is made of the main regimes of interaction of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves with plasma under conditions in which the radiation from particles plays a dominant role. The discussion is focused on such issues as the generation of short electromagnetic pulses in the interaction of laser light with clusters and highly efficient ion acceleration in a thin plasma slab under the action of the ponderomotive pressure of the wave. An approach is developed for generating superintense electromagnetic pulses by means of up-to-date laser devices

  6. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field measurements for direct detection of electron Bernstein waves in a torus plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, Eiichi; Kinjo, Kiyotake; Morikawa, Junji; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2009-02-01

    To identify the mode-converted electron Bernstein wave (EBW) in a torus plasma directly, we have developed an interferometry system, in which a diagnostic microwave injected outside of the plasma column was directly detected with the probing antenna inserted into the plasma. In this work, plasma production and heating are achieved with 2.45 GHz, 2.5 kW electron cyclotron heating (ECH), whereas diagnostics are carried out with a lower power (10 W) separate frequency (1-2.1 GHz) microwave. Three components, i.e., two electromagnetic (toroidal and poloidal directions) and an electrostatic (if refractive index is sufficiently higher than unity, it corresponds to radial component), of ECRF electric field are simultaneously measured with three probing antennas, which are inserted into plasma. Selectivities of each component signal were checked experimentally. Excitation antennas have quite high selectivity of direction of linear polarization. As probing antennas for detecting electromagnetic components, we employed a monopole antenna with a length of 35 mm, and the separation of the poloidal (O-wave) and toroidal (X-wave) components of ECRF electric field could be available with this antenna. To detect EBW, which is an electrostatic wave, a small tip (1 mm) antenna was used. As the preliminary results, we detected signals that have three characteristics of EBW, i.e., short wavelength, backward propagation, and electrostatic.

  7. Effects of chronic exposure to electromagnetic waves on the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Abdulkadir; Tümkaya, Levent; Terzi, Suat; Kalkan, Yıldıray; Erdivanlı, Özlem Çelebi; Dursun, Engin

    2015-08-01

    The results support that chronic electromagnetic field exposure may cause damage by leading to neuronal degeneration of the auditory system. Numerous researches have been done about the risks of exposure to the electromagnetic fields that occur during the use of these devices, especially the effects on hearing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic waves emitted by the mobile phones through the electrophysiological and histological methods. Twelve adult Wistar albino rats were included in the study. The rats were divided into two groups of six rats. The study group was exposed to the electromagnetic waves over a period of 30 days. The control group was not given any exposure to the electromagnetic fields. After the completion of the electromagnetic wave application, the auditory brainstem responses of both groups were recorded under anesthesia. The degeneration of cochlear nuclei was graded by two different histologists, both of whom were blinded to group information. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis showed neuronal degeneration signs, such as increased vacuolization in the cochlear nucleus, pyknotic cell appearance, and edema in the group exposed to the electromagnetic fields compared to the control group. The average latency of wave in the ABR was similar in both groups (p > 0.05).

  8. On the new modes of planetary-scale electromagnetic waves in the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Aburjania

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an analogy method the frequencies of new modes of the electromagnetic planetary-scale waves (with a wavelength of 103 km or more, having a weather forming nature, are found at different ionospheric altitudes. This method gives the possibility to determine spectra of ionospheric electromagnetic perturbations directly from the dynamic equations without solving the general dispersion equation. It is shown that the permanently acting factor-latitude variation of the geomagnetic field generates fast and slow weakly damping planetary electromagnetic waves in both the E- and F-layers of the ionosphere. The waves propagate eastward and westward along the parallels. The fast waves have phase velocities (1–5km s–1 and frequencies (10–1–10–4, and the slow waves propagate with velocities of the local winds with frequencies (10–4–10–6s–1 and are generated in the E-region of the ionosphere. Fast waves having phase velocities (10-1500km s–1 and frequencies (1–10–3s–1 are generated in the F-region of the ionosphere. The waves generate the geomagnetic pulsations of the order of one hundred nanoTesla by magnitude. The properties and parameters of the theoretically studied electromagnetic waves agree with those of large-scale ultra-low frequency perturbations observed experimentally in the ionosphere. Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; waves propagation; ionosphere atmosphere interactions

  9. Electromagnetic counterparts to structured jets from gravitational wave detected mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Gavin P.; Kobayashi, Shiho

    2017-12-01

    We show the peak magnitude for orphan afterglows from the jets of gravitational wave (GW) detected black hole/neutron star - neutron star (BH/NS-NS) mergers highly depend on the jet half-opening angle θj. Short γ-ray bursts (GRBs) with a homogeneous jet structure and θj > 10°, the orphan afterglow viewed at the typical inclination for a GW detected event, 38°, are brighter at optical frequencies than the comparable macronova emission. Structured jets, where the energetics and Lorentz factor Γ vary with angle from the central axis, may have low-Γ components where the prompt emission is suppressed; GW electromagnetic (EM) counterparts may reveal a population of failed-GRB orphan afterglows. Using a Monte Carlo method assuming an NS-NS detection limit we show the fraction of GW-EM counterparts from homogeneous, two-component, power-law structured and Gaussian jets where the variable structure models include a wide low energy and Γ component: for homogeneous jets, with a θj = 6° and typical short GRB parameters, we find r-band magnitude mr ≤ 21 counterparts for ∼13.6 per cent of GW detected mergers; where jet structure extends to a half-opening angle of 25°, two-component jets produce mr ≤ 21 counterparts in ∼30 per cent of GW detected mergers, power-law structured-jets result in ∼37 per cent and Gaussian jets with our parameters ∼13 per cent. We show the features in the light curves from orphan afterglows can be used to indicate the presence of extended structure.

  10. Electromagnetic waves in an axion-active relativistic plasma non-minimally coupled to gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, Alexander B.; Muharlyamov, Ruslan K.; Zayats, Alexei E.

    2013-01-01

    We consider cosmological applications of a new self-consistent system of equations, accounting for a non-minimal coupling of the gravitational, electromagnetic and pseudoscalar (axion) fields in a relativistic plasma. We focus on dispersion relations for electromagnetic perturbations in an initially isotropic ultrarelativistic plasma coupled to the gravitational and axion fields in the framework of isotropic homogeneous cosmological model of the de Sitter type. We classify the longitudinal and transversal electromagnetic modes in an axionically active plasma and distinguish between waves (damping, instable or running), and nonharmonic perturbations (damping or instable). We show that for the special choice of the guiding model parameters the transversal electromagnetic waves in the axionically active plasma, non-minimally coupled to gravity, can propagate with the phase velocity smaller than the speed of light in vacuum, thus displaying a possibility for a new type of resonant particle-wave interactions. (orig.)

  11. Effects of astigmatism on spectra, coherence and polarization of stochastic electromagnetic beams passing through an astigmatic optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liuzhan; Sun, Mengle; Ding, Chaoliang; Zhao, Zhiguo; Lü, Baida

    2009-04-27

    Analytical formulas for the cross-spectral density matrix of stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beams passing through an astigmatic optical system are derived. We show both analytically and by numerical examples the effects of astigmatism on spectra, coherence and polarization of stochastic electromagnetic EGSM beams propagating through an astigmatic lens. A comparison with the aberration-free case is made, and shows that the astigmatism has significant effect on the spectra, coherence and polarization.

  12. Particle acceleration through the resonance of high magnetic field and high frequency electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; He, X.T.; Chen, S.G.; Zhang, W.Y.; He, X.T.; Hong, Liu

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new particle acceleration mechanism. Electrons can be accelerated to relativistic energy within a few electromagnetic wave cycles through the mechanism which is named electromagnetic and magnetic field resonance acceleration (EMRA). We find that the electron acceleration depends not only on the electromagnetic wave intensity, but also on the ratio between electron Larmor frequency and electromagnetic wave frequency. As the ratio approaches to unity, a clear resonance peak is observed, corresponding to the EMRA. Near the resonance regime, the strong magnetic fields still affect the electron acceleration dramatically. We derive an approximate analytical solution of the relativistic electron energy in adiabatic limit, which provides a full understanding of this phenomenon. In typical parameters of pulsar magnetospheres, the mechanism allows particles to increase their energies through the resonance of high magnetic field and high frequency electromagnetic wave in each electromagnetic wave period. The energy spectra of the accelerated particles exhibit the synchrotron radiation behavior. These can help to understand the remaining emission of high energy electron from radio pulsar within supernova remnant. The other potential application of our theory in fast ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion is also discussed. (authors)

  13. Polarization speed meter for gravitational-wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew R.; McKenzie, Kirk; Chen, Yanbei; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Chow, Jong H.; McClelland, David E.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a modified configuration of an advanced gravitational-wave detector that is a speed-meter-type interferometer with improved sensitivity with respect to quantum noise. With the addition of polarization-controlling components to the output of an arm cavity Michelson interferometer, an orthogonal polarization state of the interferometer can be used to store signal, returning it later with opposite phase to cancel position information below the storage bandwidth of the opposite mode. This modification provides an alternative to an external kilometer-scale Fabry-Pérot cavity, as presented in earlier work of Purdue and Chen [Phys. Rev. D 66, 122004 (2002)]. The new configuration requires significantly less physical infrastructure to achieve speed meter operation. The quantity of length and alignment degrees of freedom is also reduced. We present theoretical calculations to show that such a speed meter detector is capable of beating the strain sensitivity imposed by the standard quantum limit over a broad range of frequencies for Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory-like parameters. The benefits and possible difficulties of implementing such a scheme are outlined. We also present results for tuning of the speed meter by adjusting the degree of polarization coupling, a novel possibility that does not exist in previously proposed designs, showing that there is a smooth transition from speed meter operation to that of a signal-recycling Michelson behavior.

  14. Controllable Fabricating Dielectric-Dielectric SiC@C Core-Shell Nanowires for High-Performance Electromagnetic Wave Attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Caiyun; Wang, Zhijiang

    2017-11-22

    Heterostructured dielectric-dielectric nanowires of SiC core and carbon shell (SiC@C) with high-performance electromagnetic wave absorption were synthesized by combining an interfacial in situ polymer encapsulation and carbonization process. This approach overcomes the shortcomings of previous reported methods to prepare carbon shell that both carbon shell and free carbon particles are formed simultaneously. In our developed approach, the core of SiC nanowires are first positively charged. Then the negative resorcinol-formaldehyde polymers as the carbon source are anchored on SiC nanowires under the attraction of electrostatic force, which well suppresses the nucleation of free carbon particles. The thickness of the carbon shell could be modulated from 4 to 20 nm by simply adjusting the moral ratio of resorcinol to SiC nanowires. The resulting SiC@C core-shell nanostructures without free carbon particles offer synergism among the SiC nanowires and the carbon shells, generating multiple dipolar polarization, surfaced polarization, and associated relaxations, which endow SiC@C hybrid nanowires with a minimum reflection loss (R L ) value of -50 dB at the frequency of 12 GHz and an effective absorption bandwidth of 8 GHz with R L value under -10 dB at the optimized state. Our results demonstrate that SiC@C hybrid nanowires are promising candidates for electromagnetic wave absorption applications.

  15. Effect of radio frequency waves of electromagnetic field on the tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghi, Mousavi; Gholamhosein, Riazi; Saeed, Rezayi-Zarchi

    2013-09-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are macromolecular structures consisting of tubulin heterodimers and present in almost every eukaryotic cell. MTs fulfill all conditions for generation of electromagnetic field and are electrically polar due to the electrical polarity of a tubulin heterodimer. The calculated static electric dipole moment of about 1000 Debye makes them capable of being aligned parallel to the applied electromagnetic field direction. In the present study, the tubulin heterodimers were extracted and purified from the rat brains. MTs were obtained by polymerization in vitro. Samples of microtubules were adsorbed in the absence and in the presence of electromagnetic fields with radio frequency of 900 Hz. Our results demonstrate the effect of electromagnetic field with 900 Hz frequency to change the structure of MTs. In this paper, a related patent was used that will help to better understand the studied subject.

  16. geometric optics and WKB method for electromagnetic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma near cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Max Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-04-13

    This report outlines the theory underlying electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in an unmagnetized, inhomogeneous plasma. The inhomogeneity is given by a spatially nonuniform plasma electron density ne(r), which will modify the wave propagation in the direction of the gradient rne(r).

  17. Teaching the Common Aspects in Mechanical, Electromagnetic and Quantum Waves at Interfaces and Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, R.; Robles, P.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss common features in mechanical, electromagnetic and quantum systems, supporting identical results for the transmission and reflection coefficients of waves arriving perpendicularly at a plane interface. Also, we briefly discuss the origin of special notions such as refractive index in quantum mechanics, massive photons in wave guides and…

  18. Self-generation and management of spin-electromagnetic wave solitons and chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Kondrashov, Alexandr V.; Nikitin, Andrey A.; Kalinikos, Boris A.

    2014-01-01

    Self-generation of microwave spin-electromagnetic wave envelope solitons and chaos has been observed and studied. For the investigation, we used a feedback active ring oscillator based on artificial multiferroic, which served as a nonlinear waveguide. We show that by increasing the wave amplification in the feedback ring circuit, a transition from monochromatic auto-generation to soliton train waveform and then to dynamical chaos occurs in accordance with the Ruelle-Takens scenario. Management of spin-electromagnetic-wave solitons and chaos parameters by both dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the multiferroic waveguiding structure is demonstrated.

  19. Electromagnetic wave propagation in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran and Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules are investigated, within the framework of the classical electrodynamics. Electronic excitations over the each C{sub 60} molecule surface are modeled by a spherical layer of electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account the different nature of the π and σ electrons. It is found that the present medium supports four modes of electromagnetic waves, where they can be divided into two groups: one group with shorter wavelength than the light waves of the same frequency and the other with longer wavelength than the free-space radiation.

  20. Dispersion characteristics of spin-electromagnetic waves in planar multiferroic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Andrey A.; Ustinov, Alexey B. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53850 (Finland); Vitko, Vitaliy V.; Semenov, Alexander A.; Mironenko, Igor G. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Belyavskiy, Pavel Yu.; Kalinikos, Boris A. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “MultiferrLab,” ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Stashkevich, Andrey A. [International Laboratory “MultiferrLab,” ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Lähderanta, E. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53850 (Finland)

    2015-11-14

    A method of approximate boundary conditions is used to derive dispersion relations for spin-electromagnetic waves (SEWs) propagating in thin ferrite films and in multiferroic layered structures. A high accuracy of this method is proven. It was shown that the spin-electromagnetic wave propagating in the structure composed of a thin ferrite film, a thin ferroelectric film, and a slot transmission line is formed as a result of hybridization of the surface spin wave in the ferrite film and the electromagnetic wave in the slot-line. The structure demonstrates dual electric and magnetic field tunability of the SEW spectrum. The electric field tunability is provided by the thin ferroelectric film. Its efficiency increases with an increase in the thicknesses of the ferrite and ferroelectric films and with a decrease in the slot-line gap width. The theory is confirmed by experimental data.

  1. Wireless system controlling of electromagnetic wave distribution in nuclear power plant use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Hidehiko; Kume, Naoto; Oshima, Tomomi; Takakura, Kei; Oda, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Odanaka, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Recently, wireless technologies have rapidly spread by cellular phones, smartphones and tablet devices. Wireless systems in the nuclear power plant are expected to bring various advantages such as shortening of the inspection time, online monitoring, remote control and cable reduction, etc. However, wireless systems have hardly applied to the nuclear power plant, from the point of security and electromagnetic interference (EMI). We propose a new wireless system controlling automatically electromagnetic wave distribution. In our wireless system, the transmitter / receiver modules automatically measure the wave strength and adjust the power and directivity of the wave, resulting in wireless communication only in target zones, i.e. non-influence to safety-related instruments and non-leakage of information. We will present the algorithm of the electromagnetic wave controlling and experimental results about the proposed system. (author)

  2. Optical coating on a corrugated surface to align the polarization of an unpolarized wave without loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Yi Jun

    2017-12-01

    A multilayer comprising birefringent thin films is devised to present to function as a polarization beam splitter and waveplate simultaneously. By arranging such a multilayer on a right triangle-shaped corrugated surface, a polarizer is realized to align the randomly oscillating electric field of an unpolarized wave into a linear polarized wave without loss.

  3. Thermal effects on the propagation of large-amplitude electromagnetic waves in magnetized relativistic electron-positron plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Macarena; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2012-05-01

    The propagation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves along a constant background magnetic field in an electron-positron plasma is calculated by means of both a fluid and a kinetic theory treatment. In the fluid theory, relativistic effects are included in the particle motion, the wave field, and in the thermal motion by means of a function f, which depends only on the plasma temperature. In this work we analyze the consistency of the fluid results with those obtained from a kinetic treatment, based on the relativistic Vlasov equation. The corresponding kinetic dispersion relation is numerically studied for various temperatures, and results are compared with the fluid treatment. Analytic expressions for the Alfvén velocity are obtained for the fluid and kinetic models, and it is shown that, in the kinetic treatment, the Alfvén branch is suppressed for large temperatures.

  4. Electromagnetic near-field coupling induced polarization conversion and asymmetric transmission in plasmonic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Kai-Jun; He, Meng-Dong; Luo, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xin-Min; Li, Jian-Bo; Tan, Shi-Hua; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Hu, Wei-Da; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of polarization conversion in a plasmonic metasurface structure, in which each unit cell consists of a metal bar and four metal split-ring resonators (SRRs). Such effect is attributed to the fact that the dark plasmon mode of SRRs (bar), which radiates cross-polarized component, is induced by the bright plasmon mode of bar (SRRs) due to the electromagnetic near-field coupling between bar and SRRs. We find that there are two ways to achieve a large cross-polarized component in our proposed metasurface structure. The first way is realized when the dark plasmon mode of bar (SRRs) is in resonance, while at this time the bright plasmon mode of SRRs (bar) is not at resonant state. The second way is realized when the bright plasmon mode of SRRs (bar) is resonantly excited, while the dark plasmon mode of bar (SRRs) is at nonresonant state. It is also found that the linearly polarized light can be rotated by 56.50 after propagation through the metasurface structure. Furthermore, our proposed metasurface structure exhibits an asymmetric transmission for circularly polarized light. Our findings take a further step in developing integrated metasurface-based photonics devices for polarization manipulation and modulation.

  5. Traveling waves in a free-electron laser with an electromagnetic wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olumi, Mohsen; Maraghechi, B; Rouhani, M H

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic traveling wave in a free-electron laser (FEL) with an electromagnetic wiggler is investigated using the relativistic fluid-Maxwell formulation. By adapting the traveling-wave ansatz, three coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations are obtained describing the nonlinear propagation of the coupled wave. These equations may be used to study saturation in FELs. By linearizing the nonlinear equations dispersion relations for the traveling wave are obtained. Numerical solution of the small-signal traveling dispersion relation reveals the coupling of radiation to both slow and fast space-charge waves. It is shown that the traveling wave, which is not a normal mode in a laboratory frame, becomes a normal mode in terms of a transformed variable.

  6. Ion hole formation and nonlinear generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves: THEMIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Keika, Kunihiro; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Kasahara, Satoshi; Asamura, Kazushi; Nakamura, Satoko; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2017-09-01

    Electromagnetic plasma waves are thought to be responsible for energy exchange between charged particles in space plasmas. Such an energy exchange process is evidenced by phase space holes identified in the ion distribution function and measurements of the dot product of the plasma wave electric field and the ion velocity. We develop a method to identify ion hole formation, taking into consideration the phase differences between the gyromotion of ions and the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Using this method, we identify ion holes in the distribution function and the resulting nonlinear EMIC wave evolution from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations. These ion holes are key to wave growth and frequency drift by the ion currents through nonlinear wave-particle interactions, which are identified by a computer simulation in this study.

  7. Modulation of a compressional electromagnetic wave in a magnetized electron-positron quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M. R.

    2015-09-01

    Amplitude modulation of a compressional electromagnetic wave in a strongly magnetized electron-positron pair plasma is considered in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the external strong magnetic field, Fermi quantum degeneracy pressure, particle exchange potential, quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential, and dissipative effect due to collision of the charged carriers. A modified-nonlinear Schödinger equation is developed for the compressional magnetic field of the electromagnetic wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. The linear and nonlinear dispersions of the electromagnetic wave are discussed in detail. For some parameter ranges, relevant to dense astrophysical objects such as the outer layers of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and magnetars, etc., it is found that the compressional electromagnetic wave is modulationally unstable and propagates as a dissipated electromagnetic wave. It is also found that the quantum effects due to the particle exchange potential and the Bohm potential are negligibly small in comparison to the effects of the Fermi quantum degeneracy pressure. The numerical results on the growth rate of the modulation instability is also presented.

  8. Speed of Gravitational Waves from Strongly Lensed Gravitational Waves and Electromagnetic Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xi-Long; Liao, Kai; Biesiada, Marek; Piórkowska-Kurpas, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2017-03-03

    We propose a new model-independent measurement strategy for the propagation speed of gravitational waves (GWs) based on strongly lensed GWs and their electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. This can be done in two ways: by comparing arrival times of GWs and their EM counterparts and by comparing the time delays between images seen in GWs and their EM counterparts. The lensed GW-EM event is perhaps the best way to identify an EM counterpart. Conceptually, this method does not rely on any specific theory of massive gravitons or modified gravity. Its differential setting (i.e., measuring the difference between time delays in GW and EM domains) makes it robust against lens modeling details (photons and GWs travel in the same lensing potential) and against internal time delays between GW and EM emission acts. It requires, however, that the theory of gravity is metric and predicts gravitational lensing similar to general relativity. We expect that such a test will become possible in the era of third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, when about 10 lensed GW events would be observed each year. The power of this method is mainly limited by the timing accuracy of the EM counterpart, which for kilonovae is around 10^{4}  s. This uncertainty can be suppressed by a factor of ∼10^{10}, if strongly lensed transients of much shorter duration associated with the GW event can be identified. Candidates for such short transients include short γ-ray bursts and fast radio bursts.

  9. Bow Wave from Ultraintense Electromagnetic Pulses in Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kato, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We show a new effect of the bow-wave excitation by an intense short laser pulse propagating in underdense plasma. Because of spreading of the laser pulse energy in transverse direction, the bow wave causes a large-scale transverse modulation of the electron density. This can significantly increase the electric potential of the wake wave since the wake wave is generated in the region much wider than the laser pulse waist

  10. Polarization-induced interference within electromagnetically induced transparency for atoms of double-V linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Chen, Ping-Xing; Liu, Liang

    2018-02-01

    People have been paying attention to the role of atoms' complex internal level structures in the research of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) for a long time, where the various degenerate Zeeman levels usually generate complex linkage patterns for the atomic transitions. It turns out, with special choices of the atomic states and the atomic transitions' linkage structure, clear signatures of quantum interference induced by the probe and coupling light's polarizations can emerge from a typical EIT phenomena. We propose to study a four-state system with double-V linkage pattern for the transitions and analyze the polarization-induced interference under the EIT condition. We show that such interference arises naturally under mild conditions on the optical field and atom manipulation techniques. Moreover, we construct a variation form of double-M linkage pattern where the polarization-induced interference enables polarization-dependent cross modulation between incident weak lights that can be effective even at the few-photon level. The theme is to gain more insight into the essential question: how can we build a nontrivial optical medium where incident lights experience polarization-dependent nonlinear optical interactions, valid for a wide range of incidence intensities down to the few-photon level?

  11. A Review of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena Related to Tropospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.

  12. Three-dimensional electromagnetic strong turbulence. II. Wave packet collapse and structure of wave packets during strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D. B.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Skjaeraasen, O.

    2011-07-01

    Large-scale simulations of wave packet collapse are performed by numerically solving the three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic Zakharov equations, focusing on individual wave packet collapses and on wave packets that form in continuously driven strong turbulence. The collapse threshold is shown to decrease as the electron thermal speed νe/c increases and as the temperature ratio Ti/Te of ions to electrons decreases. Energy lost during wave packet collapse and dissipation is shown to depend on νe/c. The dynamics of density perturbations after collapse are studied in 3D electromagnetic strong turbulence for a range of Ti/Te. The structures of the Langmuir, transverse, and total electric field components of wave packets during strong turbulence are investigated over a range of νe/c. For νe/c ≲0.17, strong turbulence is approximately electrostatic and wave packets have very similar structure to purely electrostatic wave packets. For νe/c ≳0.17, transverse modes become trapped in density wells and contribute significantly to the structure of the total electric field. At all νe/c, the Langmuir energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly oblate (pancake shaped). The transverse energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly prolate (sausage shaped), with the major axis being perpendicular to the major axes of the Langmuir component. This results in the wave packet becoming more nearly spherical as νe/c increases, and in turn generates more spherical density wells during collapse. The results obtained are compared with previous 3D electrostatic results and 2D electromagnetic results.

  13. Theory of reflection reflection and transmission of electromagnetic, particle and acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lekner, John

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the reflection of electromagnetic and particle waves by interfaces. The interfaces can be sharp or diffuse. The topics of the book contain absorption, inverse problems, anisotropy, pulses and finite beams, rough surfaces, matrix methods, numerical methods,  reflection of particle waves and neutron reflection. Exact general results are presented, followed by long wave reflection, variational theory, reflection amplitude equations of the Riccati type, and reflection of short waves. The Second Edition of the Theory of Reflection is an updated and much enlarged revision of the 1987 monograph. There are new chapters on periodically stratified media, ellipsometry, chiral media, neutron reflection and reflection of acoustic waves. The chapter on anisotropy is much extended, with a complete treatment of the reflection and transmission properties of arbitrarily oriented uniaxial crystals. The book gives a systematic and unified treatment reflection and transmission of electromagnetic and particle...

  14. Influence of Sea Surface Roughness on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Duct Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a study of the influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. The problem of electromagnetic wave propagation is modeled by using the parabolic equation method. The roughness of the sea surface is computed by modifying the smooth surface Fresnel reflection coefficient to account for the reduction in the specular reflection due to the roughness resulting from sea wind speed. The propagation model is solved by the mixed Fourier split-step algorithm. Numerical experiments indicate that wind-driven roughened sea surface has an impact on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment, and the strength is intensified along with the increment of sea wind speeds and/or the operating frequencies. In a fixed duct environment, however, proper disposition of the transmitter could reduce these impacts.

  15. Features of whistling electromagnetic wave propagation descending from above upon the night ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, P. A.; Mizonova, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    The results of numerical solution of the wave equations for the oblique incidence of whistling electromagnetic waves upon the night ionosphere from above have been obtained and analyzed. In the studied region of altitudes, within the wavelength scale, charged particle concentration varies drastically, and damping caused by collisions between the charged and neutral particles decreases considerably. Below, the sharp lower boundary of the ionosphere, the refractive index of the whistler wave approaches unity, and plasma turbulence transform into atmospheric electromagnetic waves. The dependences of the whistler reflection factor are found in terms of energy and horizontal magnetic component of the electromagnetic wave near the Earth's surface on the frequency and the wave vector transverse component for the plain-layered medium model at two values of latitude. Strong dependences have been found on the wave angle of incidence and frequency. At rather small angles of incidence, the wave disturbances reach the Earth's surface, and the module of reflection coefficient logarithm is in the range of 0.4-1. At large angles of incidence, the reflection coefficient module varies over a wide range depending on specific conditions. The obtained results explain the absence of oscillation modes of plasma magnetosphere maser in the night magnetosphere.

  16. Shear wave induced resonance elastography of spherical masses with polarized torsional waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj Henni, Anis; Schmitt, Cédric; Trop, Isabelle; Cloutier, Guy

    2012-03-01

    Shear wave induced resonance (SWIR) is a technique for dynamic ultrasound elastography of confined mechanical inclusions. It was developed for breast tumor imaging and tissue characterization. This method relies on the polarization of torsional shear waves modeled with the Helmholtz equation in spherical coordinates. To validate modeling, an invitro set-up was used to measure and image the first three eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a soft sphere. A preliminary invivo SWIR measurement on a breast fibroadenoma is also reported. Results revealed the potential of SWIR elastography to detect and mechanically characterize breast lesions for early cancer detection.

  17. Effects of astigmatism on spectra and polarization of aberrant electromagnetic nonuniformly correlated beams in turbulent ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Miaomiao; Zhao, Daomu

    2014-12-01

    Analytical formulas are derived, for the cross spectral density matrix of electromagnetic nonuniformly correlated (EMUNC) beams, with astigmatic aberration propagating through oceanic turbulence. We investigate the effects of astigmatism on the spectral density, and the spectral degree of polarization, in great detail. It can be seen that, unlike for an aberration-free case, the lateral shifted intensity maximum (of an astigmatic EMUNC beam) does not return back to the on-axis position, after propagating at sufficiently large distances in the turbulence. Furthermore, in the far-zone, the deviation of its maximum value (from the optical axis) gradually increases, in accordance with growing propagation distance.

  18. Adiabatic description of capture into resonance and surfatron acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vainchtein, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analytical and numerical study of the surfatron acceleration of nonrelativistic charged particles by electromagnetic waves. The acceleration is caused by capture of particles into resonance with one of the waves. We investigate capture for systems with one or two waves and provide conditions under which the obtained results can be applied to systems with more than two waves. In the case of a single wave, the once captured particles never leave the resonance and their velocity grows linearly with time. However, if there are two waves in the system, the upper bound of the energy gain may exist and we find the analytical value of that bound. We discuss several generalizations including the relativistic limit, different wave amplitudes, and a wide range of the waves' wavenumbers. The obtained results are used for qualitative description of some phenomena observed in the Earth's magnetosphere.

  19. Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.

  20. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  1. Vector magnetometry based on electromagnetically induced transparency in linearly polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, V. I.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Dudin, Y. O.; Velichansky, V. L.; Zibrov, A. S.; Zibrov, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a generalized principle of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) vector magnetometry based on high-contrast EIT resonances and the symmetry of atom-light interaction in the linearly polarized bichromatic fields. Operation of such vector magnetometer on the D 1 line of 87 Rb has been demonstrated. The proposed compass-magnetometer has an increased immunity to shifts produced by quadratic Zeeman and ac-Stark effects, as well as by atom-buffer gas and atom-atom collisions. In our proof-of-principle experiment the detected angular sensitivity to magnetic field orientation is 10 -3 deg/Hz 1/2 , which is limited by laser intensity fluctuations, light polarization quality, and magnitude of the magnetic field.

  2. Numerical modelling of the structure of electromagnetic disturbances generated by acoustic-gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorel'tsev, A.I.; Bidlingmajer, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    A numeric model of electromagnetic field disturbances generated under the interaction of acoustic-gravitational waves with ionospheric plasma is elaborated and vertical structure of the above disturbances is calculated. The estimates shown that electromagnetic disturbances can penetrate into neutral atmosphere and can be recorded through measurements of the variation of magnetic field and electron field vertical component near the earth is surface. A conclusion is made on a feasibility of monitoring of acoustic-gravitational wave activity in the lower thermosphere through land measurements of magnetic and electric field variations

  3. Condition for invariant spectrum of an electromagnetic wave scattered from an anisotropic random media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping

    2015-08-24

    Within the accuracy of the first-order Born approximation, sufficient conditions are derived for the invariance of spectrum of an electromagnetic wave, which is generated by the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from an anisotropic random media. We show that the following restrictions on properties of incident fields and the anisotropic media must be simultaneously satisfied: 1) the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media must obey the scaling law; 2) the spectral components of the incident field are proportional to each other; 3) the second moments of the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media are inversely proportional to the frequency.

  4. Interaction of the superconducting domains induced by external electric field with electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of a superconductor in time-independent electric field perpendicular to the surface and in the external electromagnetic wave is theoretically investigated. A new type of the resonance interaction between superconducting domains localized along the magnetic field (if the superconducting phase transition takes place in the external magnetic field perpendicular to the surface) and electromagnetic waves is predicted. The surface impedance of the superconductor with domains is calculated. It is shown that the real part of the impedance has a saturation if the skin length equals the domain size. (orig.)

  5. Development of electromagnetic wave absorbers with alnico magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jae Man; Kim, Dong Il; Shin, Seung Jae; Moon, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Man; Rhyu, Keel Soo

    2004-01-01

    We suggest a cast Alnico magnet as a new EM wave absorber. The proposed Alnico EM wave absorber shows advanced EM wave absorption properties of 24 dB at 15 GHz, 24 dB at 8.1 GHz, and 24 dB at 5.1 GHz for thicknesses of 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm respectively. We also investigated the effects of the carbon and the Alnico contents and of the thickness dependence on the EM wave absorption properties.

  6. Mathieu functions describing particles evolving in electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihu, Denisa-Andreea; Dariescu, Marina-Aura

    2017-12-01

    Solutions of Klein-Gordon equation for particles moving in a standing wave configuration bring into attention an intricate and complicated category of special functions, namely the Mathieu functions. The stability of the solutions governed by the intercorrelation between Mathieu equation' parameters is discussed. For specific intervals of the wave number, the instability regime installs, pointing out the tendency of exponential growth for the oscillatory wave functions, as a consequence of parametric resonance phenomenon. The expression of the wave function allows the computation of the four-dimensional conserved current density components.

  7. On the new modes of planetary-scale electromagnetic waves in the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Aburjania

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an analogy method the frequencies of new modes of the electromagnetic planetary-scale waves (with a wavelength of 103 km or more, having a weather forming nature, are found at different ionospheric altitudes. This method gives the possibility to determine spectra of ionospheric electromagnetic perturbations directly from the dynamic equations without solving the general dispersion equation. It is shown that the permanently acting factor-latitude variation of the geomagnetic field generates fast and slow weakly damping planetary electromagnetic waves in both the E- and F-layers of the ionosphere. The waves propagate eastward and westward along the parallels. The fast waves have phase velocities (1–5km s–1 and frequencies (10–1–10–4, and the slow waves propagate with velocities of the local winds with frequencies (10–4–10–6s–1 and are generated in the E-region of the ionosphere. Fast waves having phase velocities (10-1500km s–1 and frequencies (1–10–3s–1 are generated in the F-region of the ionosphere. The waves generate the geomagnetic pulsations of the order of one hundred nanoTesla by magnitude. The properties and parameters of the theoretically studied electromagnetic waves agree with those of large-scale ultra-low frequency perturbations observed experimentally in the ionosphere.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; waves propagation; ionosphere atmosphere interactions

  8. Electromagnetic waves reflection, transmission and absorption by graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene sandwich-structure in magnetic field: Faraday geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bychkov, Igor V.; Shavrov, Vladimir G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrodynamic properties of the graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene sandwich-structure have been investigated theoretically with taking into account the dissipation processes. Influence of graphene layers on electromagnetic waves propagation in graphene - semi-infinte magnetic semiconductor and graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene sandwich-structure has been analyzed. Frequency and field dependences of the reflectance, transmittance and absorbtance of electromagnetic waves b...

  9. Transient Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in a Plasma Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    T. Van Duzer , Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, pp 395-455 (1994). 15. G.F. Miner, Lines...Whinnery, & T. Van Duzer , Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics, 1st edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, pp 432-434 (1965). 18. Ibid. p

  10. Attosecond electromagnetic pulse generation due to the interaction of a relativistic soliton with a breaking-wake plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isanin, A.V.; Kamenets, F.F.; Bulanov, S.S.; Pegoraro, F.

    2005-01-01

    During the interaction of a low-frequency relativistic soliton with the electron density modulations of a wake plasma wave, part of the electromagnetic energy of the soliton is reflected in the form of an extremely short and ultraintense electromagnetic pulse. We calculate the spectra of the reflected and of the transmitted electromagnetic pulses analytically. The reflected wave has the form of a single cycle attosecond pulse

  11. Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves Recorded by the Four CLUSTER Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrot, M.; Santolik, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Maksimovic, M.; Harvey, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the methods we use to determine the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves observed by the four CLUSTER satellites. The data is recorded aboard CLUSTER by the STAFF (Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations) spectrum analyser. This instrument has several modes of operation, and can provide the spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric components. This spectral matrix is processed by a dedicated software (PRASSADCO: Propagation Analysis of STAFF-SA Data with Coherency Tests) in order to determine the wave normal directions with respect to the DC magnetic field. PRASSADCO also provides a number of alternative methods to estimate wave polarisation and propagation parameters, such as the Poynting vector, and the refractive index. It is therefore possible to detect the source extension of various electromagnetic waves using the 4 satellites. Results of this data processing will be shown here for one event observed by one satellite. (author)

  12. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride photonic crystals for improved-performance surface electromagnetic wave biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Descrovi, Emiliano; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Dominici, Lorenzo; Ballarini, Mirko; Mandracci, Pietro; Danz, Norbert; Michelotti, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We exploit the properties of surface electromagnetic waves propagating at the surface of finite one dimensional photonic crystals to improve the performance of optical biosensors with respect to the standard surface plasmon resonance approach. We demonstrate that the hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride technology is a versatile platform for fabricating one dimensional photonic crystals with any desirable design and operating in a wide wavelength range, from the visible to the near infrared. We prepared sensors based on photonic crystals sustaining either guided modes or surface electromagnetic waves, also known as Bloch surface waves. We carried out for the first time a direct experimental comparison of their sensitivity and figure of merit with surface plasmon polaritons on metal layers, by making use of a commercial surface plasmon resonance instrument that was slightly adapted for the experiments. Our measurements demonstrate that the Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride photonic crystals outperform surface plasmon polaritons by a factor 1.3 in terms of figure of merit.

  13. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 coated Fe nanofibers for electromagnetic wave absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dae-Hwan; Song, Hanbok; Lee, Young-In; Lee, Kun-Jae; Kim, Ki Hyeon; Oh, Sung-Tag; Lee, Sang-Kwan; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Recently, electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) have become serious problems due to the growth of electronic device and next generation telecommunication. It is necessary to develop new electromagnetic wave absorbing material to overcome the limitation of electromagnetic wave shielding materials. The EMI attenuation is normally related to magnetic loss and dielectric loss. Therefore, magnetic material coating dielectric materials are required in this reason. In this study, TiO2 coated Fe nanofibers were prepared to improve their properties for electromagnetic wave absorption. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and Iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate (Fe(NO3)3 x 9H2O) were used as starting materials for the synthesis of Fe oxide nanofibers. Fe oxide nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning in an electric field and heat treatment. TiO2 layer was coated on the surface of Fe oxide nanofibers using sol-gel process. After the reduction of TiO2 coated Fe oxide nanofibers, Fe nanofibers with a TiO2 coating layer of about 10 nm were successfully obtained. The morphology and structure of fibers were characterized by SEM, TEM, and XRD. In addition, the absorption properties of TiO2 coated Fe nanofibers were measured by network analyzer.

  14. Transmission and total reflection of subhertz electromagnetic waves at the earth-atmosphere interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of providing for a theoretical background for the study of electromagnetic fields generated by precursory effects of earthquakes, the problem of transmission and total reflection at the earth-atmosphere interface is investigated in detail for a subhertz plane electromagnetic wave incident from the earth's crust. The term ''subhertz'' means 'below 1 Hz'. First, for the special case of normal incidence, the overall power transmission coefficient at the earth-atmosphere interface is found to take a maximum value at a definite frequency f 0 which is inversely proportional to the square of the depth of a virtual hypocenter. A typical value of f 0 falls around 0.01 Hz. For oblique incidence as well, this feature of the overall power transmission coefficient is retained except in the vicinity of the critical angle of incidence for the H-wave. At the critical angle of incidence, the power flow carried by a surface wave along the interface becomes anomalously large for the H-wave. However, over a wide range of angles of incidence greater than the critical angle, the power flow carried by the E-wave exceeds that carried by the H-wave by orders of magnitude. Finally, the energy conservation relations for the incident, reflected, and transmitted waves at the earth-atmosphere interface are discussed. For an incident wave coming from the earth's crust, the interactive power between the incident and reflected waves plays a crucial role for the conservation of energy at the interface.

  15. Electromagnetic time reversal focusing of near field waves in metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalko, Matthew J.; Sample, Alanson P.

    2016-12-01

    Precise control of electromagnetic energy on a deeply subwavelength scale in the near field regime is a fundamentally challenging problem. In this letter we demonstrate the selective focusing of electromagnetic energy via the electromagnetic time reversal in the near field of a metamaterial. Our analysis begins with fundamental mathematics, and then is extended to the experimental realm where focusing in space and time of the magnetic fields in the near field of a 1-Dimensional metamaterial is shown. Under time reversal focusing, peak instantaneous fields at receiver locations are at minimum ˜200% greater than other receivers. We then leverage the strong selective focusing capabilities of the system to show individual and selective powering of light emitting diodes connected to coil receivers placed in the near field of the metamaterial. Our results show the possibility of improving display technologies, near field imaging systems, increasing channel capacity of near field communication systems, and obtaining a greater control of energy delivery in wireless power transfer systems.

  16. Electromagnetic Power Harvester Using Wide-Angle and Polarization-Insensitive Metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanming Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new wide-angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface (MS instead of traditional antenna is built as the primary ambient energy harvester in this paper. The MS is a two-dimensional energy harvesting array that is composed of subwavelength electrical small ring resonator that is working at 2.5 GHz (LTE/WiFi. In the case of different polarization and incidence angles, we demonstrate the metasurface can achieve high harvesting efficiency of 90%. The fabricated prototype of 9 × 9 MS energy harvesting array is measured, and the experimental results validate that the proposed MS has a good performance more than 80% of energy harvesting efficiency for arbitrary polarization and wide-angle incident waves. The good agreement of the simulation with the experiment results verifies the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed MS structure, which will provide a new source of supply in wireless sensor networks (WSN.

  17. Effect of environment on the propagation of electromagnetic waves in GRC 408E digital radiorelay devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojkan M. Radonjić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality transmission of digital signals from a transmitting radio-relay device to a receiving one depends on the impact of environmental effects on the propagation of electromagnetic waves. In this paper some of the most important effects are explained and modeled, especially those characteristic for the frequency range within which the GRC 408E operates. The modeling resulted in the conclusions about the quality of transmission of digital signals in the GRC 408E radio-relay equipment. Propagation of electromagnetic waves A radio-relay link is achieved by direct electromagnetic waves, provided there is a line of sight between the transmitting and receiving antenna of a radio-relay device. Electromagnetic waves on the road are exposed to various environmental influences causing phenomena such as bending, reflection, refraction, absorption and multiple propagation. Due to these environmental effects, the quality of information transmission is not satisfactory and a radio-relay link is not reliable. The approach to the analysis of the quality of links in digital radiorelay devices is different from the one in analog radio-relay devices. Therefore, the quality is seen through errors in the received bit ( BER , the propagation conditions are taken into account, a reservation for the fading is determined by other means, etc.. Phenomena which accompany the propagation of electromagnetic waves in digital radio-relay links The propagation of direct EM waves is followed by the following phenomena: - attenuation due to propagation, - diffraction (changing table, - refraction (refraction, - reflection (refusing, - absorption (absorption and - multiple wave propagation. Each of these has a negative effect on the quality of the received signal at the receiving antenna of the radio-relay device. Attenuation due to propagation of electromagnetic waves The main parameter for evaluating the quality of radio-relay links is the level of the field at the reception

  18. Measurement of the environmental broadband electromagnetic waves in a mid-size European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, R; Gil, I

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the level of exposure to broadband radiofrequency electromagnetic field in a mid-size European city was evaluated in accordance with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines from 1998. With the aim to analyse all the potential electromagnetic waves present in the city up to 18GHz, a total of 271 locations distributed along Terrassa (Spain) have been measured. To show the results in an easy-to-interpret way by the citizen, the results have been represented in a set of raster maps. The measurement results obtained showed that the electromagnetic wave measured in all broadband frequency range along the city is much lower than the safety level according to the international regulations for both public and occupational sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electromagnetic effects on the self-modulation of nonlinear lower hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.; Kuehl, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Electromagnetic effects on the self-modulation of nonlinear lower hybrid waves in an inhomogeneous plasma are studied for both broad and narrow spectrum excitations. For broad spectrum excitation, the complex modified Korteweg--de Vries equation is modified by two additional terms due to the electromagnetic correction and inhomogeneity. Numerical solutions of this equation for typical tokamak parameters show that these terms suppress soliton formation. For narrow spectrum excitation, the electromagnetic correction produces an additional dispersive term in the differential equation governing the wave envelope. This term opposes thermal dispersion, resulting in significant self-modulation. Numerical solutions show constriction and splitting of the envelope as well as spreading of the Fourier spectrum

  20. Physical optics and full-wave simulations of transmission of electromagnetic fields through electrically large planar meta-sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Öziş

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-thin metamaterials, called meta-surfaces or meta-sheets, open up new opportunities in designing microwave radomes, including an improved transmission over a broader range of antenna scan angles, tailorable and reconfigurable frequency bands, polarization transformations, one-way transmission and switching ability. The smallness of the unit cells combined with the large electrical size of microwave radomes significantly complicates full-wave numerical simulations as a very fine sampling over an electrically large area is required. Physical optics (PO can be used to approximately describe transmission through the radome in terms of the homogenized transmission coefficient of the radome wall. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of electromagnetic transmission through planar meta-sheets (infinite and circularly shaped obtained by using a full-wave electromagnetic field simulator and a PO-based solution.

  1. Assessment methodology of counter-personnel high power electromagnetic millimeter wave effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente, F.; Horst, M.J. van der; Paulissen, J.J.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Toet, A.

    2013-01-01

    The group of NLW that arguably offers the largest amount of useful applications are based on high power electromagnetic millimetre wave technology. This group is often referred to as ‘Active Denial Systems’ (ADS), since they are primarily aimed at deterring and dispersing people out of an area. The

  2. High energy particle acceleration by coherent electromagnetic waves propagating across the magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Y.; Sugihara, R.

    1985-02-01

    New schemes are proposed for obtaining effective interaction between coherent electromagnetic wave and free electrons, both being traveling across the magnetic field. These schemes use the principle of the Vsub(p) x B acceleration of electrons originally observed in the plasma. Potential applications of the schemes are optical particle accelerators without using plasma. (author)

  3. Linear GPR Imaging Based on Electromagnetic Plane-Wave Spectra and Diffraction Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    in the forward model. The two inversion schemes include an accurate electromagnetic description of the GPR antennas through their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra. The performance of the FTM is investigated through a numerical example involving a 2.5-dimensional configuration in which the GPR...

  4. Modelling Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Layered Media: An Up-to-Date Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Imperatore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the subject of electromagnetic wave scattering in layered media, thus covering the recent progress achieved with different approaches. Existing theories and models are analyzed, classified, and summarized on the basis of their characteristics. Emphasis is placed on both theoretical and practical application. Finally, patterns and trends in the current literature are identified and critically discussed.

  5. 3-D Forward modeling of Induced Polarization Effects of Transient Electromagnetic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Ji, Y.; Guan, S.; Li, D.; Wang, A.

    2017-12-01

    In transient electromagnetic (TEM) detection, Induced polarization (IP) effects are so important that they cannot be ignored. The authors simulate the three-dimensional (3-D) induced polarization effects in time-domain directly by applying the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) based on Cole-Cole model. Due to the frequency dispersion characteristics of the electrical conductivity, the computations of convolution in the generalized Ohm's law of fractional order system makes the forward modeling particularly complicated. Firstly, we propose a method to approximate the fractional order function of Cole-Cole model using a lower order rational transfer function based on error minimum theory in the frequency domain. In this section, two auxiliary variables are introduced to transform nonlinear least square fitting problem of the fractional order system into a linear programming problem, thus avoiding having to solve a system of equations and nonlinear problems. Secondly, the time-domain expression of Cole-Cole model is obtained by using Inverse Laplace transform. Then, for the calculation of Ohm's law, we propose an e-index auxiliary equation of conductivity to transform the convolution to non-convolution integral; in this section, the trapezoid rule is applied to compute the integral. We then substitute the recursion equation into Maxwell's equations to derive the iterative equations of electromagnetic field using the FDTD method. Finally, we finish the stimulation of 3-D model and evaluate polarization parameters. The results are compared with those obtained from the digital filtering solution of the analytical equation in the homogeneous half space, as well as with the 3-D model results from the auxiliary ordinary differential equation method (ADE). Good agreements are obtained across the three methods. In terms of the 3-D model, the proposed method has higher efficiency and lower memory requirements as execution times and memory usage were reduced by 20

  6. A New Kind of Circular Polarization Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of circular polarization leaky-wave antenna with N-shaped slots cut in the upper side of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW is investigated and presented. The radiation pattern and polarization axial ratio of the leaky-wave antenna are studied. The results show that the width of N-shaped slots has significant effect on the circular polarization property of the antenna. By properly choosing structural parameters, the SIW based leaky-wave antenna can realize circular polarization with excellent axial ratio in 8 GHz satellite band.

  7. Quantitative Understanding on the Amplitude Decay Characteristic of the Evanescent Electromagnetic Waves Generated by Seismoelectric Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hengxin; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Xiaofei

    2018-03-01

    We conduct numerical simulations and theoretical analyses to quantitatively study the amplitude decay characteristic of the evanescent electromagnetic (EM) waves, which has been neglected in previous studies on the seismoelectric conversion occurring at a porous-porous interface. Time slice snapshots of seismic and EM wave-fields generated by a vertical single force point source in a two-layer porous model show that evanescent EM waves can be induced at a porous-porous interface. The seismic and EM wave-fields computed for a receiver array located in a vertical line nearby the interface are investigated in detail. In addition to the direct and interface-response radiation EM waves, we identify three groups of coseismic EM fields and evanescent EM waves associated with the direct P, refracted SV-P and direct SV waves, respectively. Thereafter, we derive the mathematical expression of the amplitude decay factor of the evanescent EM waves. This mathematical expression is further validated by our numerical simulations. It turns out the amplitude decay of the evanescent EM waves generated by seismoelectric conversion is greatly dependent on the horizontal wavenumber of seismic waves. It is also found the evanescent EM waves have a higher detectability at a lower frequency range. This work provides a better understanding on the EM wave-fields generated by seismoelectric conversion, which probably will help improve the interpretation of the seismoelectric coupling phenomena associated with natural earthquakes or possibly will inspire some new ideas on the application of the seismoelectric coupling effect.

  8. Collective scattering of electromagnetic waves from a relativistic magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Quankang

    1998-01-01

    Recently, laser and microwave scattering has become one of the important diagnostic means for plasma. Laser and microwave correlative scattering spectrum is determined by particle-density fluctuations in a weak turbulent plasma. In a relativistic plasma, on the basis of complete electromagnetic-interaction between particles, a general expression for particle density fluctuations and spectrums of laser and microwave scattering from a magnetized plasma are derived. The laser and microwave scattering spectrums provide informations on electron density and temperature, ion temperature, resonance and nonresonance effects. (author)

  9. Breathers in Josephson junction ladders: Resonances and electromagnetic wave spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnichenko, A. E.; Flach, S.; Fistul, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the resonant interaction between dynamical localized states (discrete breathers) and linear electromagnetic excitations (EE's) in Josephson junction ladders. By making use of direct numerical simulations we find that such an interaction manifests itself by resonant...... steps and various sharp switchings (voltage jumps) in the current-voltage characteristics. Moreover, the power of ac oscillations away from the breather center (the breather tail) displays singularities as the externally applied dc bias decreases. All these features may be mapped to the spectrum of EE...

  10. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in amorphous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin Peng [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Tianjin Binhai New Area Finance Bureau, Tianjin 300450 (China); Wang, Cheng Guo, E-mail: sduwangchg@gmail.com [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang, Wen [Norinco Group China North Material Science and Engineering Technology Group Corporation, Jinan 250031 (China); Yu, Mei Jie; Gao, Rui; Chen, Yang; Xiang Wang, Yan [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in amorphous carbon were fabricated conveniently and economically by carbonizing polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers mixed with micro-sized iron particles under different temperatures. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The electromagnetic (EM) properties were measured by a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz based on which analog computations of EM wave absorption properties were carried out. The influences of temperature on phase composition and EM wave absorption properties were also investigated, indicating that the composites had good electromagnetic absorption properties with both electrical loss and magnetic loss. Effective reflection loss (RL<−10 dB) was observed in a large frequency range of 7.5–18 GHz with the absorber thickness of 2.0–3.0 mm for the paraffin samples with composite powders heated up to 750 °C and the minimum absorption peak around −40 dB appeared at approximately 10 GHz with matching thickness of 2.0 mm for the paraffin sample with composite powders heated up to 800 °C. - Highlights: • High-performance electromagnetic wave absorption materials were fabricated conveniently and economically. • The materials are composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in porous amorphous carbon. • The influences of temperature on phase composition and electromagnetic wave absorption properties were investigated. • The composites heated up to 750 °C and 800 °C had good electromagnetic wave absorption property.

  11. Inclusive π0 Production in Polarized pp Collisions using the STAR Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Jason C.

    2007-01-01

    The two-spin helicity asymmetry for inclusive π0 production in polarized pp collisions probes the gluon's contribution to the spin of the proton with sensitivity comparable to that attainable with full jet reconstruction. Measurements of A LL (π0) at larger rapidity provide information about a different set of partonic subprocesses and are subject to different theoretical and experimental uncertainties than midrapidity jet measurements, providing an important cross-check. The STAR Endcap Electromagnetic calorimeter provides the capability to reconstruct high-pT π0 decays in the range 1 < η < 2 with full azimuthal coverage using a fine-grained scintillating-strip Shower-Maximum detector. Data with longitudinally polarized beams were accumulated in 2005 (sampled luminosity 3 pb-1 with beam polarizations ≅ 45 - 50%), and in 2006 (L ≅ 6pb-1, P-bar ≅ 60%) after the installation of additional shielding to reduce backgrounds. We present preliminary results from the 2005 data, and discuss the current status of the 2006 analysis

  12. Coupled equations of electromagnetic waves in nonlinear metamaterial waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Mina; Hatami, Mohsen; Meygoli, Vahid; Yousefi, Elham

    2016-11-01

    Over the past decades, scientists have presented ways to manipulate the macroscopic properties of a material at levels unachieved before, and called them metamaterials. This research can be considered an important step forward in electromagnetics and optics. In this study, higher-order nonlinear coupled equations in a special kind of metamaterial waveguides (a planar waveguide with metamaterial core) will be derived from both electric and magnetic components of the transverse electric mode of electromagnetic pulse propagation. On the other hand, achieving the refractive index in this research is worthwhile. It is also shown that the coupled equations are not symmetric with respect to the electric and magnetic fields, unlike these kinds of equations in fiber optics and dielectric waveguides. Simulations on the propagation of a fundamental soliton pulse in a nonlinear metamaterial waveguide near the resonance frequency (a little lower than the magnetic resonant frequency) are performed to study its behavior. These pulses are recommended to practice in optical communications in controlled switching by external voltage, even in low power.

  13. Ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the Earth's crust and magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, A V

    2007-01-01

    Research on natural intra- and extraterrestrially produced electromagnetic waves with periods ranging from 0.2 to 600 s is reviewed. The way in which the energy of rock movements transforms into the energy of an alternating magnetic field is analyzed. Methods for detecting seismomagnetic signals against a strong background are described. In discussing the physics of ultra-low-frequency waves in the magnetosphere, the 11-year activity modulation of 1-Hz waves and ponderomotive forces affecting plasma distribution are emphasized. (reviews of topical problems)

  14. Theory of Nonlinear Guided Electromagnetic Waves in a Plane Two-Layered Dielectric Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Yu. Kurseeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of transverse electric electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plane two-layered dielectric waveguide filled with a nonlinear medium is considered. The original wave propagation problem is reduced to a nonlinear eigenvalue problem for an equation with discontinuous coefficients. The eigenvalues are propagation constants (PCs of the guided waves that the waveguide supports. The existence of PCs that do not have linear counterparts and therefore cannot be found with any perturbation method is proven. PCs without linear counterparts correspond to a novel propagation regime that arises due to the nonlinearity. Numerical results are also presented; the comparison between linear and nonlinear cases is made.

  15. Luminous phenomena and electromagnetic VHF wave emission originated from earthquake-related radon exhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, A.; Tobo, I.; Omori, Y.; Muto, J.; Nagahama, H.

    2013-12-01

    Anomalous luminous phenomena and electromagnetic wave emission before or during earthquakes have been reported (e.g., the 1965 Matsushiro earthquake swarm). However, their mechanism is still unsolved, in spite of many models for these phenomena. Here, we propose a new model about luminous phenomena and electromagnetic wave emission during earthquake by focusing on atmospheric radon (Rn-222) and its daughter nuclides (Po-218 and Po-214). Rn-222, Po-218 and Po-214 are alpha emitters, and these alpha particles ionize atmospheric molecules. A light emission phenomenon, called 'the air luminescence', is caused by de-excitation of the ionized molecules of atmospheric nitrogen due to electron impact ionization from alpha particles. The de-excitation is from the second positive system of neutral nitrogen molecules and the first negative system of nitrogen molecule ion. Wavelengths of lights by these transitions include the visible light wavelength. So based on this mechanism, we proposed a new luminous phenomenon model before or during earthquake: 1. The concentration of atmospheric radon and its daughter nuclides increase anomalously before or during earthquakes, 2. Nitrogen molecules and their ions are excited by alpha particles emitted from Rn-222, Po-218 and Po-214, and air luminescence is generated by their de-excitation. Similarly, electromagnetic VHF wave emission can be explained by ionizing effect of radon and its daughter nuclides. Boyarchuk et al. (2005) proposed a model that electromagnetic VHF wave emission is originated when excited state of neutral clusters changes. Radon gas ionizes atmosphere and forms positively and negatively charged heavy particles. The process of ion hydration in ordinary air can be determined by the formation of complex chemically active structures of the various types of ion radicals. As a result of the association of such hydration radical ions, a neutral cluster, which is dipole quasi-molecules, is formed. A neutral cluster

  16. Gamma decay and nuclear reactions in a field of an intensive electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrynin, Yu.L.; Zaretskij, D.F.; Lomonosov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a laser radiation field on the value of nuclear reaction cross sections is investigated. In the dipole nonrelativistic approximation considered is the interaction of an electromagnetic field with an ion, in the nucleus of which γ transition occurs from one energy level to another. The expression for the probability of γ transition in the laser field has been obtained. Resonance neutron scattering on the isolated level of a compound nucleus is considered. The conclusion has been done, that in strong electromagnetic fields the amplitudes of inelastic neutron scattering at the excited level of the compound nucleus obtain additional satellites, which are away the value, equal to +-ω (approximately 0.12 eV energy of CO 2 laser) from the main pole. It is shown, that in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave a nonrecoil emission of γ quanta is possible in laser plasma resulted from the stimulated emission (absorption) of quanta of an electromagnetic field by an ion. Considered is the effect of a strong electromagnetic wave on the value of the cross sections of inelastic neutron interaction with nucleus near the level of the compound nucleus. Laser parameters, which is necessary for the observation of the effects considered, are estimated

  17. A wormhole-like porous carbon/magnetic particles composite as an efficient broadband electromagnetic wave absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiyong; Liu, Tao; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Yue, Xigui; Jiang, Zhenhua

    2016-04-28

    A method combining liquid-liquid phase separation and the pyrolysis process has been developed to fabricate the wormhole-like porous carbon/magnetic nanoparticles composite with a pore size of about 80 nm (WPC/MNPs-80). In this work, the porous structure was designed to enhance interaction between the electromagnetic (EM) wave and the absorber, while the magnetic nanoparticles were used to bring about magnetic loss ability. The structure, morphology, porosity and magnetic properties of WPC/MNPs-80 were investigated in detail. To evaluate its EM wave attenuation performance, the EM parameters of the absorber and wax composite were measured at 2-18 GHz. WPC/MNPs-80 has an excellent EM wave absorbency with a wide absorption band at a relatively low loading and thin absorber thickness. At the absorber thickness of 1.5 and 2.0 mm, minimum RL values of -29.2 and -47.9 dB were achieved with the RL below -10 dB in 12.8-18 and 9.2-13.3 GHz, respectively. The Co and Fe nanoparticles derived from the chemical reduction of Co0.2Fe2.8O4 can enhance the graphitization process of carbon and thus improve dielectric loss ability. Polarizations in the nanocomposite absorber also play an important role in EM wave absorption. Thus, EM waves can be effectively attenuated by dielectric loss and magnetic loss through multiple reflections and absorption in the porous structure. WPC/MNPs-80 could be an excellent absorber for EM wave attenuation; and the design strategy could be extended as a general method to synthesize other high-performance absorbers.

  18. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of an electromagnetic wave in weakly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The importance of the laser–plasma interaction becomes an active field of research in the laser-fusion experiments, charged particle acceleration experiments, X-ray generation, propagation of EM waves in ionosphere etc. and the stimulated Bril- louin scattering (SBS) plays an important role in laser–plasma interaction as it.

  19. Success of electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter as monotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.S. Meitei

    Abstract. Objectives: To evaluate the success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as monotherapy for solitary renal stones larger than 2 cm without ureteral stenting. Hence, if our study result demonstrates acceptable success and safety, we can recommend ESWL as a treatment option for patients with large renal calculi.

  20. Integrable parameter regimes and stationary states of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the stationary propagation of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma via the ponderomotive force is carried out. For small but finite amplitudes, the governing equations have a Hamiltonian structure, but with a kinetic energy term that is not positive definite. The Hamiltonian is similar to the well-known Hacute enon endash Heiles Hamiltonian of nonlinear dynamics, and is completely integrable in three regimes of the allowed parameter space. The corresponding second invariants of motion are also explicitly obtained. The integrable parameter regimes correspond to supersonic values of the Mach number, which characterizes the propagation speed of the coupled waves. On the other hand, in the sub- as well as near-sonic regimes, the coupled mode equations admit different types of exact analytical solutions, which represent nonlinear localized eigenstates of the electromagnetic field trapped in the density cavity due to the ponderomotive potential. While the density cavity has always a single-dip structure, for larger amplitudes it can support higher-order modes having a larger number of nodes in the electromagnetic field. In particular, we show the existence of a new type of localized electromagnetic wave whose field intensity has a triple-hump structure. For typical parameter values, the triple-hump solitons propagate with larger Mach numbers that are closer to the sonic limit than the single- as well as the double-hump solitons, but carry a lesser amount of the electromagnetic field energy. A comparison between the different types of solutions is carried out. The possibility of the existence of trapped electromagnetic modes having a larger number of humps is also discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  1. Possible electromagnetic interference with electronic medical equipment by radio waves coming from outside the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, E; Kodama, K; Takano, K; Watanabe, Y; Nose, Y

    2001-08-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) with electronic medical equipment by radio waves from mobile telephone handsets has been reported and is currently receiving wide attention. The possibility of EMI with electronic medical equipment by radio waves coming into the hospital has also been pointed out. But so far, there are no reports measuring the frequency distribution of electric field intensity induced by incoming radio waves. Therefore, we measured electric field intensity induced by radio waves coming into our 11-floor hospital, which was under construction. The maximum intensity observed was about 200 V/m at 2.79 GHz, from airport surveillance radar waves. The maximum intensity induced by radio waves from cellular phone base stations was 1.78 V/m. These data show that various frequencies of radio waves are common in this urban area, and that they induce strong electricfield intensity. This strong electric field intensity might cause EMI with electronic medical equipment. Measurement of the electromagnetic environment should be done by each hospital in urban areas to prevent EMI with electronic medical equipment.

  2. Finite element modeling of electromagnetic fields and waves using NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, E. Thomas, Jr.; Schroeder, Erwin

    1989-01-01

    The various formulations of Maxwell's equations are reviewed with emphasis on those formulations which most readily form analogies with Navier's equations. Analogies involving scalar and vector potentials and electric and magnetic field components are presented. Formulations allowing for media with dielectric and conducting properties are emphasized. It is demonstrated that many problems in electromagnetism can be solved using the NASTRAN finite element code. Several fundamental problems involving time harmonic solutions of Maxwell's equations with known analytic solutions are solved using NASTRAN to demonstrate convergence and mesh requirements. Mesh requirements are studied as a function of frequency, conductivity, and dielectric properties. Applications in both low frequency and high frequency are highlighted. The low frequency problems demonstrate the ability to solve problems involving media inhomogeneity and unbounded domains. The high frequency applications demonstrate the ability to handle problems with large boundary to wavelength ratios.

  3. On the effects of geometry on guided electromagnetic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Robin W.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of moving (Cartan coframes is used to analyze the influence of geometry on the behavior of electromagnetic fields in confining guides and the effect of such fields on their ultra-relativistic sources. Such issues are of relevance to a number of topical problems in accelerator science where the need to control the motion of high current-density micro-meter size bunches of relativistic radiating charge remains a technical and theoretical challenge. By dimensionally reducing the exterior equations for the sources and fields on spacetime using symmetries exhibited by the confining guides one achieves a unifying view that offers natural perturbative approaches for dealing with smooth non-uniform and curved guides. The issue of the back-reaction of radiation fields on the sources is approached in terms of a simple charged relativistic fluid model. .

  4. Polarization and Compressibility of Oblique Kinetic Alfven Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunana, Peter; Goldstein, M. L.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Laveder, D.; Zank, G. P.

    2012-01-01

    Even though solar wind, as a collisionless plasma, is properly described by the kineticMaxwell-Vlasov description, it can be argued that much of our understanding of solar wind observational data comes from an interpretation and numerical modeling which is based on a fluid description of magnetohydrodynamics. In recent years, there has been a significant interest in better understanding the importance of kinetic effects, i.e. the differences between the kinetic and usual fluid descriptions. Here we concentrate on physical properties of oblique kinetic Alfvn waves (KAWs), which are often recognized as one of the key ingredients in the solar wind turbulence cascade. We use three different fluid models with various degrees of complexity and calculate polarization and magnetic compressibility of oblique KAWs (propagation angle q = 88), which we compare to solutions derived from linear kinetic theory. We explore a wide range of possible proton plasma b = [0.1,10.0] and a wide range of length scales krL = [0.001,10.0]. It is shown that the classical isotropic two-fluid model is very compressible in comparison with kinetic theory and that the largest discrepancy occurs at scales larger than the proton gyroscale. We also show that the two-fluid model contains a large error in the polarization of electric field, even at scales krL 1. Furthermore, to understand these discrepancies between the two-fluid model and the kinetic theory, we employ two versions of the Landau fluid model that incorporate linear low-frequency kinetic effects such as Landau damping and finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections into the fluid description. It is shown that Landau damping significantly reduces the magnetic compressibility and that FLR corrections (i.e. nongyrotropic contributions) are required to correctly capture the polarization.We also show that, in addition to Landau damping, FLR corrections are necessary to accurately describe the damping rate of KAWs. We conclude that kinetic effects

  5. Modeling induced polarization effects in helicopter time domain electromagnetic data: Synthetic case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viezzoli, Andrea; Kaminskiy, Vladislav; Fiandaca, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a synthetic multiparametric modeling and inversion exercise undertaken to study the robustness of inverting airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) data to extract Cole-Cole parameters. The following issues were addressed: nonuniqueness, ill posedness, dependency on manual...... constrained multiparametric inversion was evaluated, including recovery of chargeability distributions from shallow and deep targets based on analysis of induced polarization (IP) effects, simulated in airborne TDEM data. Different scenarios were studied, including chargeable targets associated...... by a shallower chargeable target, became possible only when full Cole-Cole modeling was used in the inversion. Lateral constraints improved the recoverability of model parameters. Finally, modeling IP effects increased the accuracy of recovered electrical resistivity models....

  6. Polarization attraction using counter-propagating waves in optical fiber at telecommunication wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, S; Fatome, J; Millot, G

    2008-04-28

    In this work, we report the experimental observation of a polarization attraction process which can occur in optical fibers at telecommunication wavelengths. More precisely, we have numerically and experimentally shown that a polarization attractor, based on the injection of two counter-propagating waves around 1.55microm into a 2-m long high nonlinear fiber, can transform any input polarization state into a unique well-defined output polarization state.

  7. Surface solitons of four-wave mixing in an electromagnetically induced lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanpeng; Yuan, Chenzhi; Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Wang, Zhiguo; Xiao, Min

    2013-01-01

    By creating lattice states with two-dimensional spatial periodic atomic coherence, we report an experimental demonstration of generating two-dimensional surface solitons of a four-wave mixing signal in an electromagnetically induced lattice composed of two electromagnetically induced gratings with different orientations in an atomic medium, each of which can support a one-dimensional surface soliton. The surface solitons can be well controlled by different experimental parameters, such as probe frequency, pump power, and beam incident angles, and can be affected by coherent induced defect states. (letter)

  8. A model of non-homogeneous damped electromagnetic wave and heat equation in ferrite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tung, M J; Hsu, C H; Tseng, T Y

    2002-01-01

    This study uses a closely coupled model to treat the core loss of ferrite by the combination of non-homogeneous damped electromagnetic wave and heat equation. The heat dissipation of ferrites is caused by the core loss, which is a summation of magnetic, dielectric and eddy current losses. Explicit finite difference method solves the coupled equations to calculate core loss and compares it with the measured results. Those results show that this method can be used to analyze electromagnetic and thermal field with temperature dependence of ferrites.

  9. The SEM description of interaction of a transient electromagnetic wave with an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, L. W.; Wilton, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The singularity expansion method (SEM), proposed as a means for determining and representing the transient surface current density induced on a scatterer by a transient electromagnetic wave is described. The resulting mathematical description of the transient surface current on the object is discussed. The data required to represent the electromagnetic scattering properties of a given object are examined. Experimental methods which were developed for the determination of the SEM description are discussed. The feasibility of characterizing the surface current induced on aircraft flying in proximity to a lightning stroke by way of SEM is examined.

  10. Inferring electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave intensity from low altitude POES proton flux measurements: A detailed case study with conjugate Van Allen Probes observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shi, Run; Ni, Binbin; Gu, Xudong; Zhang, Xianguo; Zuo, Pingbing; Fu, Song; Xiang, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Cao, Xing; Zou, Zhengyang

    2017-03-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in the magnetospheric particle dynamics and can lead to resonant pitch-angle scattering and ultimate precipitation of ring current protons. Commonly, the statistics of in situ EMIC wave measurements is adopted for quantitative investigation of wave-particle interaction processes, which however becomes questionable for detailed case studies especially during geomagnetic storms and substorms. Here we establish a novel technique to infer EMIC wave amplitudes from low-altitude proton measurements onboard the Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). The detailed procedure is elaborated regarding how to infer the EMIC wave intensity for one specific time point. We then test the technique with a case study comparing the inferred root-mean-square (RMS) EMIC wave amplitude with the conjugate Van Allen Probes EMFISIS wave measurements. Our results suggest that the developed technique can reasonably estimate EMIC wave intensities from low-altitude POES proton flux data, thereby providing a useful tool to construct a data-based, near-real-time, dynamic model of the global distribution of EMIC waves once the proton flux measurements from multiple POES satellites are available for any specific time period.

  11. Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alfred Y.

    1999-09-01

    The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO2 through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  12. A multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with subcapsular hematoma formation following electromagnetic shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Nivedita Bhatta; Thornton, Julie; Karafa, Matthew T; Streem, Stevan B

    2004-12-01

    Subcapsular or perinephric hematoma is one of the most frequent and potentially serious complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We determined the incidence of and risk factors for renal hematomas following electromagnetic shock wave lithotripsy. Between February 1999 and August 2003, 570 SWL treatments were performed using a Modulith SLX electromagnetic lithotriptor (Storz, St. Louis, Missouri). A total of 415 of these treatments in 317 patients were performed for stones in the renal pelvis or calices and these treatment episodes represent the study group reported. Treatment episodes were reviewed from a prospective institutional review board approved registry and analyzed for patient age, gender, body mass index, mean arterial pressure at induction, stone location, total number of shock waves and peak shock wave intensity. Following these 415 episodes subcapsular or perinephric hematomas developed in 17 patients for an overall incidence of 4.1%. The probability of hematoma after shock wave lithotripsy increased significantly as patient age at treatment increased, such that the probability of hematoma was estimated to be 1.67 times greater for each 10-year incremental increase in patient age. None of the other variables analyzed were significantly related to the incidence of hematoma formation at the 0.05 level. The incidence of renal hematoma formation following electromagnetic SWL for renal calculus was 4.1%. The probability of hematoma increased significantly with increasing patient age but it was not associated with increasing mean arterial pressure at treatment. These findings are in contrast to previous reports of hematoma associated with electrohydraulic SWL. These differences may be a consequence of the smaller focal zone and higher peak pressure associated with Storz Modulith electromagnetic SWL and, just as importantly, a consequence of the difference in the manner in which blood pressure was defined.

  13. Polarization-Based Tests of Gravity with the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Callister

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The direct observation of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo offers novel opportunities to test general relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. One such opportunity is the measurement of gravitational-wave polarizations. While general relativity predicts only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories of gravity allow for up to four additional vector and scalar modes. The detection of these alternative polarizations would represent a clear violation of general relativity. The LIGO-Virgo detection of the binary black hole merger GW170814 has recently offered the first direct constraints on the polarization of gravitational waves. The current generation of ground-based detectors, however, is limited in its ability to sensitively determine the polarization content of transient gravitational-wave signals. Observation of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, in contrast, offers a means of directly measuring generic gravitational-wave polarizations. The stochastic background, arising from the superposition of many individually unresolvable gravitational-wave signals, may be detectable by Advanced LIGO at design sensitivity. In this paper, we present a Bayesian method with which to detect and characterize the polarization of the stochastic background. We explore prospects for estimating parameters of the background and quantify the limits that Advanced LIGO can place on vector and scalar polarizations in the absence of a detection. Finally, we investigate how the introduction of new terrestrial detectors like Advanced Virgo aid in our ability to detect or constrain alternative polarizations in the stochastic background. We find that, although the addition of Advanced Virgo does not notably improve detection prospects, it may dramatically improve our ability to estimate the parameters of backgrounds of mixed polarization.

  14. Sound absorption in a field of a strong electromagnetic wave in a quantizied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajkovskij, I.A.

    1974-01-01

    A coefficient of sound absorption GAMMA in a semiconductor and semi-metal in the quantized magnetic field is calculated for a system exposed to a field of strong electromagnetic radiation. The cases E parallel H and E orthogonal H are considered. Along with the already known strong oscillations of sound absorption in magnetic fields, the absorption spectrum GAMMAsub(par) and GAMMAsub(orth) shows new oscillations representing a manifestation of the quasi-energetic electron spectrum in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. The oscillation height at E parallel H is modulated by the electromagnetic field. It is shown that the ratio GAMMAsub(par)/GAMMAsub(orth) allows the determination of the effective mass of the carriers

  15. Effects of Millimeter-Wave Electromagnetic Radiation on the Experimental Model of Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivachenko, I B; Medvedev, D S; Molodtsova, I D; Panteleev, S S; Sokolov, A Yu; Lyubashina, O A

    2016-02-01

    Effects of millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation (40 GHz frequency, 0.01 mW power) on the spontaneous fi ring of convergent neurons of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and their responses to electrical stimulation of the dura mater were studied in neurophysiological experiments on rats. Irradiation of the area of cutaneous receptive fields of spinal trigeminal nucleus reversibly inhibited both spontaneous discharges and activity induced by electrical stimulation of the dura mater. The second and third exposures to electromagnetic radiation with an interval of 10 min were ineffective. These results suggest that suppression of neuronal excitability in the spinal trigeminal ganglion can be a mechanism of the anti-migraine effects of electromagnetic radiation observed in clinical practice.

  16. The nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity wave packets: dispersion and polarization relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-D. Zhang

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the results of the numerical simulations of nonlinear propagation of three Gaussian gravity-wave packets in isothermal atmosphere individually, the nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity waves are studied quantitatively. The analyses show that during the nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packets the mean flows are accelerated and the vertical wavelengths show clear reduction due to nonlinearity. On the other hand, though nonlinear effects exist, the time variations of the frequencies of gravity wave packets are close to those derived from the dispersion relation and the amplitude and phase relations of wave-associated disturbance components are consistent with the predictions of the polarization relation of gravity waves. This indicates that the dispersion and polarization relations based on the linear gravity wave theory can be applied extensively in the nonlinear region.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides

  17. Analytical treatment of particle motion in circularly polarized slab-mode wave fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Cedric; Vainio, Rami; Spanier, Felix

    2018-02-01

    Wave-particle interaction is a key process in particle diffusion in collisionless plasmas. We look into the interaction of single plasma waves with individual particles and discuss under which circumstances this is a chaotic process, leading to diffusion. We derive the equations of motion for a particle in the fields of a magnetostatic, circularly polarized, monochromatic wave and show that no chaotic particle motion can arise under such circumstances. A novel and exact analytic solution for the equations is presented. Additional plasma waves lead to a breakdown of the analytic solution and chaotic particle trajectories become possible. We demonstrate this effect by considering a linearly polarized, monochromatic wave, which can be seen as the superposition of two circularly polarized waves. Test particle simulations are provided to illustrate and expand our analytical considerations.

  18. Lorentz invariance violation and simultaneous emission of electromagnetic and gravitational waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Passos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we compute some phenomenological bounds for the electromagnetic and massive gravitational high-derivative extensions supposing that it is possible to have an astrophysical process that generates simultaneously gravitational and electromagnetic waves. We present Lorentz invariance violating (LIV higher-order derivative models, following the Myers–Pospelov approach, to electrodynamics and massive gravitational waves. We compute the corrected equation of motion of these models, their dispersion relations and the velocities. The LIV parameters for the gravitational and electromagnetic sectors, ξg and ξγ, respectively, were also obtained for three different approaches: luminal photons, time delay of flight and the difference of graviton and photon velocities. These LIV parameters depend on the mass scales where the LIV-terms become relevant, M for the electromagnetic sector and M1 for the gravitational one. We obtain, using the values for M and M1 found in the literature, that ξg∼10−2, which is expected to be phenomenologically relevant and ξγ∼103, which cannot be suitable for an effective LIV theory. However, we show that ξγ can be interesting in a phenomenological point of view if M≫M1. Finally the relation between the variation of the velocities of the photon and the graviton in relation to the speed of light was calculated and resulted in Δvg/Δvγ≲1.82×10−3.

  19. On the Possibility of the Existence of a Surface Electromagnetic Wave in the Permafrost Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhanov, V. K.; Bashkuev, Yu. B.; Advokatov, V. R.

    2018-01-01

    The results of measurements of the vertical component of electric field at a radio path with the permafrost at a frequency of 255 kHz have been interpreted. An analysis of the results has shown that the considered radio path exhibits the properties of a two-part impedance surface, i.e., it consists of two sections. At a distance of 70 km from a radiation source and at a frequency of 255 kHz of the electromagnetic wave, the field decreases with the distance R according to the power law as R -1.5 and a power index takes an intermediate value between the power indices for decreasing the field in free space R -2 and for the decrease in the field above an ideal conducting surface R -1. With further propagation at a distance of 70-220 km, the field shows the specific behavior of a surface electromagnetic wave.

  20. Beta Decay in the Field of an Electromagnetic Wave and Experiments on Measuring the Neutrino Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, O.F.; Lobanov, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    Investigations of the effect of an electromagnetic wave field on the beta-decay process are used to analyze the tritium-decay experimental data on the neutrino mass. It is shown that the electromagnetic wave can distort the beta spectrum, shifting the end point to the higher energy region. This phenomenon is purely classical and it is associated with the electron acceleration in the radiation field. Since strong magnetic fields exist in setups for precise measurement of the neutrino mass, the indicated field can appear owing to the synchrotron radiation mechanism. The phenomenon under consideration can explain the experimentally observed anomalies in the spectrum of the decay electrons; in particular, the effect of the 'negative square of the neutrino mass'

  1. Effects of trapped electrons on electromagnetic fields in an oblique shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toida, Mieko; Shikii, Kenta

    2009-01-01

    A magnetosonic shock wave propagating obliquely to an external magnetic field can trap electrons and accelerate them to ultrarelativistic energies. The effect of trapped electrons on electromagnetic fields in a shock wave is studied by theory and particle simulations. The expressions for field strengths are analytically obtained, including the number of trapped electrons n t as a factor. It is shown that as n t increases, the magnitude of F increases, where F is the integral of the parallel electric field, E || =(E·B)/B, along B. Theoretical analysis also suggests that the increase in F causes the electrons to be trapped deeper and accelerated to higher kinetic energies. These theoretical predictions are verified with relativistic electromagnetic particle simulations.

  2. Breatherlike electromagnetic wave propagation in an antiferromagnetic medium with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha, L.; Saravanan, M.; Srividya, B.; Gopi, D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the nature of propagation of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) in an antiferromagnetic medium with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction environment. The interplay of bilinear and DM exchange spin coupling with the magnetic field component of the EMW has been studied by solving Maxwell's equations coupled with a nonlinear spin equation for the magnetization of the medium. We made a nonuniform expansion of the magnetization and magnetic field along the direction of propagation of EMW, in the framework of reductive perturbation method, and the dynamics of the system is found to be governed by a generalized derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. We employ the Jacobi-elliptic function method to solve the DNLS equation, and the electromagnetic wave propagation in an antiferromagnetic medium is governed by the breatherlike spatially and temporally coherent localized modes under the influence of DM interaction parameter.

  3. The involvement of cutaneous receptors in the biological effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Emil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of peripheral nerve terminations in the mechanisms of action of electromagnetic millimeter waves (mmW was assessed. It is currently thought that mmW could be used in noninvasive complementary therapy because of their analgesic effect. However, the mechanisms of their antinociceptive effect and non-ionizing radiation are the subjects of controversy. The mechanisms of interaction of mmW and the cutaneous tissue have not been elucidated. We observed mast cell degranulation at the place of mmW action, a decrease of chronaxie and Turck reflex time, an increase in the number of afferent impulses after sciatic nerve at stimulation, as well as an increase electrocardiogram R-R interval of isolated frog heart after application of mmW. Based on these investigations, we propose that electromagnetic waves of millimeter length modify, through indirect mechanisms, the excitability and reactivity of peripheral nerve terminations.

  4. Pitch-angle diffusion of electrons through growing and propagating along a magnetic field electromagnetic wave in Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.-R.; Dokgo, K.; Min, K.-W.; Woo, M.-H.; Choi, E.-J.; Hwang, J.; Park, Y.-D.; Lee, D.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion of electrons via a linearly polarized, growing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagating along a uniform magnetic field is investigated. The diffusion of electrons that interact with the growing EM wave is investigated through the autocorrelation function of the parallel electron acceleration in several tens of electron gyration timescales, which is a relatively short time compared with the bounce time of electrons between two mirror points in Earth's radiation belts. Furthermore, the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient is derived for the resonant and non-resonant electrons, and the effect of the wave growth on the electron diffusion is discussed. The results can be applied to other problems related to local acceleration or the heating of electrons in space plasmas, such as in the radiation belts

  5. Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grison

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 RE cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.

  6. Electromagnetic Waves Reflectance of Graphene -- Magnetic Semiconductor Superlattice in Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bychkov, Igor V.; Shavrov, Vladimir G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrodynamic properties of the graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene superlattice placed in magnetic field have been investigated theoretically in Faraday geometry with taking into account dissipation processes. Frequency and field dependences of the reflectance, transmittance and absorbtance of electromagnetic waves by such superlattice have been calculated for different numbers of periods of the structure and different sizes of the periods with using a transfer matrix method. The p...

  7. Perturbation theory for the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the field of a plane electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostin, V.S.; Litskevich, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    The completeness and orthogonality of the solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation is proven. A correct derivation of perturbation-theory equations is given. A generalization that includes the field of a plane electromagnetic wave is proposed. The rate of one-photon annihilation of positronium in this field is calculated. If the one-photon decay is allowed, the stationary states of the system are found (states of light-positronium)

  8. Simultaneous monitoring of radon gas and electromagnetic wave in search of earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadauria, V.P.S.; Singh, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is still very tough task among the scientists. Being a source of terror and destruction, it is an urgent need to establish full proof technique for the earthquake prediction. Many techniques have been employed for the study of the earthquake prediction including the monitoring of Electromagnetic Waves and Radon gas emanated during the occurrence of earthquake. Radon is an inert gas, is produced in the decay series of 238 U. The total uranium content of the earth crust is about 3-4 ppm (Parts per Million) which is significant in terms of total mass and its radiological contribution to our atmosphere. The concentration of the radon gas in the atmosphere has a correlation with the earthquake occurrence. It is found that there is proportionality between a surge in emission of radon gas within a particular area and high probability of earthquake occurring in that area. Monitoring of the concentration of radon gas can be done by using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD), Ionization Chamber, Alpha Scintillation Cell, Alpha Track Detector, Silicon Solid State Detectors, Gamma Spectroscopy or by Liquid Scintillation Counting. Simultaneous monitoring of the radon gas and ULF/VLF electromagnetic waves generated during the earthquakes may be helpful for the study of the earthquake predictions as electromagnetic waves have been correlated with earthquake and being monitored continuously in DC-HF range at different stations using Search Coil Magnetometer, Borehole antenna, VLF receiver etc. In this paper we tried to explore the possibilities of the earthquake prediction by monitoring of the radon gas and electromagnetic waves simultaneously. (author)

  9. Nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in negative-refraction-index composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in left-handed materials. For this purpose, we consider a set of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations, which govern the dynamics of coupled electric and magnetic field envelopes. The CNLS equations are used to obtain a nonlinear dispersion, which depicts the modulational stability profile of the coupled plane-wave solutions in left-handed materials. An exact (in)stability criterion for modulational interactions is derived, and analytical expressions for the instability growth rate are obtained.

  10. Unprecedentedly strong and narrow electromagnetic emissions stimulated by high-frequency radio waves in the ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, L; Leyser, T B; Nordblad, E; Thidé, B; McCarrick, M

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA.

  11. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a nonuniform cylindrical plasma in the eikonal approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.K.; Dasgupta, B.

    1987-01-01

    The scattering of a uniform plane electromagnetic wave from an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma in the presence of an axial static magnetic field is treated in the eikonal approximation. A simple expression is presented for the scattering function for ordinary wave scattering. This expression is expected to be a good approximation at small angles and for refractive indices close to unity (ω 2 >> ω 2 sub(p)). In order to show the accuracy of the eikonal approximation numerical comparisons with the exact results are presented for the simple model of homogeneous plasma. Implications of the eikonal results in the plasma diagnostics are discussed. (author)

  12. Electromagnetic scattering of a plane wave by a radially inhomogeneous sphere in the short wavelength limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James A.

    2017-11-01

    The formulas of ray theory and Airy theory for scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a radially inhomogeneous sphere are obtained from the generalization of exact Lorenz-Mie wave scattering theory using the WKB approximation to determine the radial portion of the partial wave scalar radiation potential, carrying out a Debye series expansion of it, approximating the sum over partial waves by an integral over an associated impact parameter, and approximately evaluating the integral using either the method of stationary phase or mapping it into one of the phase integrals that describe optical caustics. Various features of the results are commented on, and the procedure is extended to the merging of two rainbows in a given Debye series channel in the context of the longitudinal cusp caustic.

  13. Polarization Statistics on 0.01 Hz Waves in the Lunar Plasma Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S. K.; Halekas, J. S.; Harada, Y.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    One generating mechanism for waves in the lunar plasma environment is through the process of resonant interactions with non-solar wind ions. In particular, this mechanism is believed to be a main generator of waves that lie near the ion cyclotron frequency; around 0.01 Hz. Both left-handed and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame has been observed for waves in this frequency range. Due to the effects of Doppler shift from the solar wind, the intrinsic polarization of the waves is not necessarily the same as their polarization in the spacecraft frame. A significant source of non-solar wind ions is incoming solar wind protons that are reflected by localized crustal magnetic fields on the lunar surface. Previous statistical studies have looked at the distribution of non-solar wind ions and 0.01 Hz waves around the Moon, and how they are influenced by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction. Here we investigate the polarization statistics of 0.01 Hz waves around the Moon using ARTEMIS data from August 2011 through December 2016. Initial statistics on observation rates and location indicate that waves that appear left-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame are more common and have a broader spatial distribution around the Moon; waves that appear right-hand polarized are less frequently observed and are more centralized to the dawn side of the Moon. We further investigate how the distributions are related to IMF direction and lunar phase, and we make comparisons between non-solar wind ion distributions and polarization distributions. Additionally, we use a combination of wave analysis and ion tracing simulations to examine the intrinsic properties of these waves.

  14. Fabrication process and electromagnetic wave absorption characterization of a CNT/Ni/epoxy nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seongwoo; Mo, Chan Bin; Lee, Haeshin; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Since carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered in 1991, it has been considered as a viable type of conductive filler for electromagnetic wave absorption materials in the GHz range. In this paper, pearl-necklace-structure CNT/Ni nano-powders were fabricated by a polyol process as conductive fillers. Compared to synthesized CNT, pearl-necklace Ni-decorated CNT increased the electrical conductivity by an order of 1 due to the enhancement of the Ni-conductive network. Moreover, the decorated Ni particles prevented the agglomeration of CNTs by counterbalancing the Van der Walls interaction between the CNTs. A CNT/Ni nanocomposite showed a homogeneous dispersion in an epoxy-based matrix. This enhanced physical morphology and electrical properties lead to an increase in the loss tangent and reflection loss in the CNT/Ni/Epoxy nanocomposite compared to these characteristics of a CNT/Epoxy nanocomposite in range of 8-12 GHz. The electromagnetic wave absorption properties of CNT/Ni/epoxy nanocomposites will provide enormous opportunities for electronic applications where lightweight EMI shielding or electro-magnetic wave absorption properties are necessary.

  15. Probing extra dimension through gravitational wave observations of compact binaries and their electromagnetic counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Gu, Bao-Min; Huang, Fa Peng; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Meng, Xin-He; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2017-02-01

    The future gravitational wave (GW) observations of compact binaries and their possible electromagnetic counterparts may be used to probe the nature of the extra dimension. It is widely accepted that gravitons and photons are the only two completely confirmed objects that can travel along null geodesics in our four-dimensional space-time. However, if there exist extra dimensions and only GWs can propagate freely in the bulk, the causal propagations of GWs and electromagnetic waves (EMWs) are in general different. In this paper, we study null geodesics of GWs and EMWs in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time in the presence of the curvature of the universe. We show that for general cases the horizon radius of GW is longer than EMW within equal time. Taking the GW150914 event detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and the X-ray event detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor as an example, we study how the curvature k and the constant curvature radius l affect the horizon radii of GW and EMW in the de Sitter and Einstein-de Sitter models of the universe. This provides an alternative method for probing extra dimension through future GW observations of compact binaries and their electromagnetic counterparts.

  16. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin; Liu Yanming

    2013-01-01

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a “black out” phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm× 260 mm× 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damez, Jean-Louis; Clerjon, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. Besides laboratory researches, food scientists often try to adapt their tools to industrial conditions and easy handling devices useable on-line and in slaughterhouses already exist. This paper overviews the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts related to assessing the quality of different meat products by electromagnetic waves and examines the potential for their deployment. The main meat quality traits that can be assessed using electromagnetic waves are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of techniques, from low frequency, high frequency impedance measurement, microwaves, NMR, IR and UV light, to X-ray interaction, involves a wide range of physical interactions between the electromagnetic wave and the sample. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolution of full stokes parameters in polarized radiative transfer of electron cyclotron waves on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idei, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Tsumori, K.; Watari, T.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Takita, Y.; Yoshimura, Y.; Ohkubo, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Tanaka, K.; Morisaki, T.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Nakanishi, H.; Ohdachi, S.; Emoto, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Motojima, O.; Fujiwara, M. [LHD Experimental Group, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, 509-5292 (Japan); Notake, T. [Nagoya University, Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    To study polarized radiative transfer of electron cyclotron waves, a general equation of polarization evolution that includes the effects of both birefringence and dichroism is dealt with. Full Stokes parameters are used to describe the polarization state and the absorption rate in the equation. The evolution equation on polarization state is able to treat general cases in which two polarization states of Eigenmodes are not necessary to be orthogonal. Using this equation, a single absorption rate in second harmonic electron cyclotron heating is investigated on the Large Helical Device. (authors)

  19. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  20. Mode Conversion of Langmuir to Electromagnetic Waves with Parallel Inhomogeneity in the Solar Wind and the Corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Linear mode conversion of Langmuir waves to radiation near the plasma frequency at density gradients is potentially relevant to multiple solar radio emissions, ionospheric radar experiments, laboratory plasma devices, and pulsars. Here we study mode conversion in warm magnetized plasmas using a numerical electron fluid simulation code with the density gradient parallel to the ambient magnetic field B0 for a range of incident Langmuir wavevectors. Our results include: (1) Both o- and x-mode waves are produced for (Omega) ∝ (ωL) 1/3 (ω c /ω) ∼ 1.5. Here ω c is the (angular) electron cyclotron frequency, ω the angular wave frequency, and L the length scale of the (linear) density gradient. (2) In the unmagnetized limit, equal amounts of o- and x-mode radiation are produced. (3) The mode conversion window narrows as (Omega) increases. (4) As (Omega) increases the total electromagnetic field changes from linear to circular polarization, with the o- and x- mode signals remaining circularly polarized. (5) The conversion efficiency to the x mode decreases monotonically as (Omega) increases while the o-mode conversion efficiency oscillates due to an interference phenomenon between incoming and reflected Langmuir/z modes. (6) The total conversion efficiency for wave energy from the Langmuir/z mode to radiation is typically less than 10%, but the corresponding power efficiencies differ by the ratio of the group speeds for each mode and are of order 50-70%. (7) The interference effect and the disappearance of the x mode at (Omega) ∼> 1 can be accounted for semiquantitatively using a WKB-like analysis. (8) Constraints on density turbulence are developed for the x mode to be generated and be able to propagate from the source. (9) Standard parameters for the corona and the solar wind near 1 AU suggest that linear mode conversion should produce both o- and x- mode radiation for solar and interplanetary radio bursts. It is therefore possible that linear mode conversion

  1. Spin-wave propagation and spin-polarized electron transport in single-crystal iron films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladii, O.; Halley, D.; Henry, Y.; Bailleul, M.

    2017-11-01

    The techniques of propagating spin-wave spectroscopy and current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift are applied to a 20-nm-thick Fe/MgO(001) film. The magnetic parameters extracted from the position of the spin-wave resonance peaks are very close to those tabulated for bulk iron. From the zero-current propagating wave forms, a group velocity of 4 km/s and an attenuation length of about 6 μ m are extracted for 1.6-μ m -wavelength spin wave at 18 GHz. From the measured current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift, we extract a surprisingly high degree of spin polarization of the current of 83 % , which constitutes the main finding of this work. This set of results makes single-crystalline iron a promising candidate for building devices utilizing high-frequency spin waves and spin-polarized currents.

  2. Topological events in polarization resolved angular patterns of nematic liquid crystal cells at varying ellipticity of incident wave

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Vovk, Roman G.

    2008-01-01

    We study the angular structure of polarization of light transmitted through a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell by analyzing the polarization state as a function of the incidence angles and the polarization of the incident wave. The polarization resolved angular patterns emerging after the NLC cell illuminated by the convergent light beam are described in terms of the polarization singularities such as C-points (points of circular polarization) and L-lines (lines of linear polarization). For ...

  3. Polarization Insensitive Wavelength Conversion Based on Four-Wave Mixing in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements.......We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements....

  4. Effects of silicic spheres for the suppression of radiation heating using on electromagnetic wave scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawa, E.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.; Onishi, K.; Taniguchi, K.; Ashida, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The temperature of external materials of buildings rises when they are exposed to sunlight, and the room temperature rises too if the buildings’ external wall is in the sunlight. Therefore the crisis of electric power supply is frequently caused by air conditioning in midsummer. Recently, it has been experimentally confirmed that such temperature rising of such building materials may be suppressed when they are coated with paint including fine silicic spheres whose diameters are in micron to submicron scale. So we are able to reduce the energy consumption if room temperature is controlled not with any air conditioning but with these paints, and the heat island effects would be lowered. However, the mechanism of this temperature suppression has not been investigated. Experimental consideration of this paint has been done, but the mechanism how the paint controls the temperature rise has hardly been clarified theoretically. Since the best composition of the spheres and their best size are not understood well, it is necessary to theoretically clarify the controlling mechanism for the temperature rise to develop efficient paint. In this study, we aimed to find out the mechanism of the temperature suppression. When the electromagnetic wave at a frequency near eigenfrequencies of atoms, molecules or bindings enters the atoms or the molecules, they resonate and move intensely, and finally rise the temperature. Therefore, we presume that the temperature rise could be controlled if the electromagnetic waves around the eigenfrequencies could be removed. Here, we consider electromagnetic wave of light. Then we assumed that the electromagnetic waves in a certain range of frequencies were scattered to shield the radiated heat energy in the insolation and that the transmitted light through the paint layer is weakened. For verifying the hypotheses and finding the range of effective size, we used the Mie theory of a light scattering theory to calculate the intensity of scattered

  5. Nonplanar electrostatic shock waves in an opposite polarity dust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Amina

    2017-05-30

    May 30, 2017 ... The coexistence of positively and negatively charged dust grains has been observed in the Earth's mesosphere [11,12] as well as in cometary tails and comae [6]. The propagation of various types of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas, viz., dust-acoustic (DA) waves [13], dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) waves [14,15] ...

  6. Slot-dimer babinet metamaterials as polarization shapers for terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Chigrin, D. N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically study optical properties of free-standing metallic membranes patterned with an array of two-slot elements (dimers) comprising two rectangular slots of different dimensions and orientation. It is shown that these structures feature extraordinary optical transmission with strong...... and spectrally selective polarization conversion capabilities. The output polarization is highly dependent on the dimer geometry, which can be used in the design of compact polarization shapers for terahertz waves....

  7. Vector wave diffraction pattern of slits masked by polarizing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This calls for a systematic study of diffraction properties of different apertures using polarization-sensitive devices. In the present paper, we have studied the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of slits masked by different kinds of polarizing devices which introduce a phase difference between the two orthogonal components of the ...

  8. Bistable polarization switching in a continuous wave ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawandy, N. M.; Afzal, R. Sohrab

    1988-01-01

    Bistability in the output power, polarization state, and mode volume of an argon-ion laser pumped single mode ruby laser at 6943 A has been observed. The laser operates in a radially confined mode which exhibits hysteresis and bistability only when the pump polarization is parallel to the c-axis.

  9. Formation of whispering gallery modes by scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by two cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, Arnold, E-mail: qulaser@gmail.com [Kuang-Chi Institute of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen, 518057 (China); Kostikov, Alexander [Donbass State Engineering Academy, 84303, Kramatorsk, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2017-03-26

    We report the effect of scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders on whispering gallery mode (WGM) formation in a cylinder. WGM can occur because of the presence of additional cylinder scatterers at specific location, while WGMs can only form in a single cylinder for specific cylinder radius and/or wavelength values, the matching accuracy required would be much greater than that required in our model for the additional cylinders locations. Analysis of the general solution to the problem showed that the effect can be explained by the interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main cylinder. - Highlights: • We consider scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders. • WGMs occur because of the presence of additional cylinder at specific location. • The accuracy for the locations is much less than required for specific values of single cylinder. • The interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main is responsible for the effect.

  10. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteinopoulou, Stavroula [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates

  11. Induced scattering due to nonlinear Landau and cyclotron damping of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Reiji

    1989-01-01

    General expressions of the matrix elements for nonlinear wave-particle scattering (nonlinear Landau and cyclotron damping) of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a homogeneous magnetized plasma are derived from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The kinetic wave equations obtained for electromagnetic waves are expressed by four-order tensors in the rotating and cartesian coordinates. No restrictions are imposed on the propagation angle to a uniform magnetic field, the Larmor radius, the frequencies, or the wave numbers. By electrostatic approximation of the dielectric tensor and the matrix elements the kinetic wave equations can be applied to the case in which two scattering waves are electrostatic or they are partially electrostatic. Further, the matrix elements in the limit of parallel or perpendicular propagation to the magnetic field are given. (author)

  12. On the Feasibility of Gap Detection of Power Transformer Partial Discharge UHF Signals: Gap Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the transformer electromagnetic gap propagation characteristics. The influence of gap size is also analyzed, and the results experimentally verified. The obtained results indicated that the gap propagation characteristics of electromagnetic wave signals radiated by the partial discharge (PD source in different directions are substantially different. The intensity of the electromagnetic wave in the gap reaches a maximum at a gap height of 1 cm; and inside the gap, the intensity of the electromagnetic wave depicted an increasing trend at the tail area of the gap. Finally, from the obtained results, some suggestions on where to install sensors in practical systems for ultra high frequency (UHF PD signal detection in the transformer gap are provided. The obtained results confirmed the feasibility of using this approach. These results can be seen as a benchmark and a challenge for further research in this field.

  13. Monitoring dynamic reactions of red blood cells to UHF electromagnetic waves radiation using a novel micro-imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ping; Yong, Junguang; Shen, Hongtao; Zheng, Xianrong

    2012-12-01

    Multiple state-of-the-art techniques, such as multi-dimensional micro-imaging, fast multi-channel micro-spetrophotometry, and dynamic micro-imaging analysis, were used to dynamically investigate various effects of cell under the 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Cell changes in shape, size, and parameters of Hb absorption spectrum under different power density electromagnetic waves radiation were presented in this article. Experimental results indicated that the isolated human red blood cells (RBCs) do not have obviously real-time responses to the ultra-low density (15 μW/cm(2), 31 μW/cm(2)) electromagnetic wave radiation when the radiation time is not more than 30 min; however, the cells do have significant reactions in shape, size, and the like, to the electromagnetic waves radiation with power densities of 1 mW/cm(2) and 5 mW/cm(2). The data also reveal the possible influences and statistical relationships among living human cell functions, radiation amount, and exposure time with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The results of this study may be significant on protection of human being and other living organisms against possible radiation affections of the high-frequency electromagnetic waves.

  14. Arbitrary amplitude dust kinetic Alfvén solitary waves in the presence of polarization force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Kaur, Nimardeep; Saini, N. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this investigation, the effect of polarization force on dust kinetic Alfvén solitary waves (DKASWs) in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of dust fluid, electrons, and positively charged ions is studied. By incorporating density non-uniformity and polarization force in the fluid model equations, the energy balance equation is derived, and from the expression for Sagdeev pseudopotential, the existence conditions for solitary structures in terms of Mach number are determined. From the numerical analysis of Sagdeev pseudopotential, compressive and rarefactive DKASWs at sub- and super-Alfvénic speeds are observed. These waves are significantly affected by varying polarization force, angle of propagation, plasma beta, and Mach number.

  15. Analogy between electromagnetic potentials and wave-like dynamic variables with connections to quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen

    2018-05-01

    The transitions from classical theories to quantum theories have attracted many interests. This paper demonstrates the analogy between the electromagnetic potentials and wave-like dynamic variables with their connections to quantum theory for audiences at advanced undergraduate level and above. In the first part, the counterpart relations in the classical electrodynamics (e.g. gauge transform and Lorenz condition) and classical mechanics (e.g. Legendre transform and free particle condition) are presented. These relations lead to similar governing equations of the field variables and dynamic variables. The Lorenz gauge, scalar potential and vector potential manifest a one-to-one similarity to the action, Hamiltonian and momentum, respectively. In the second part, the connections between the classical pictures of electromagnetic field and particle to quantum picture are presented. By characterising the states of electromagnetic field and particle via their (corresponding) variables, their evolution pictures manifest the same algebraic structure (isomorphic). Subsequently, pictures of the electromagnetic field and particle are compared to the quantum picture and their interconnections are given. A brief summary of the obtained results are presented at the end of the paper.

  16. Three-Dimensional Transient Electromagnetic Modeling Based on Fictitious Wave Domain Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanju; Hu, Yanpu; Imamura, Naoto

    2017-05-01

    Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) methods, which have been widely employed in three-dimensional transient electromagnetic (TEM) modeling, require very small time steps to simulate the electromagnetic fields and this will be time consuming. We present an efficient numerical method for three-dimensional TEM forward modeling. Its key features are based on a correspondence principle between the diffusive and fictitious wave fields. The diffusive Maxwell's equations are transformed and solved in a so-called fictitious wave domain. This scheme allows larger time steps than conventional FDTD methods, allows including air layers, and allows simulating topography. The need for initial field calculations is avoided by including an electric current source in the governing equations. This also avoids a traditional assumption of a flat earth surface in TEM modeling. We test the accuracy of the electromagnetic fields' responses using our method with the spectral differential difference (SLDM) solutions. The results show good agreement even under the existence of air layers and topography in the model.

  17. Hunting Electromagnetic Counterparts of Gravitational-wave Events Using the Zwicky Transient Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shaon; Chatterjee, Deep; Kaplan, David L.; Brady, Patrick R.; Van Sistine, Angela

    2017-11-01

    Detections of coalescing binary black holes by LIGO have opened a new window of transient astronomy. With increasing sensitivity of LIGO and participation of the Virgo detector in Cascina, Italy, we expect to soon detect coalescence of compact binary systems with one or more neutron stars. These are the prime targets for electromagnetic follow-up of gravitational wave triggers, which holds enormous promise of rich science. However, hunting for electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events is a non-trivial task due to the sheer size of the error regions, which could span hundreds of square degrees. This may require deep observation with large field-of-view telescopes and/or use of galaxy catalogs. The Zwicky Transient facility (ZTF), scheduled to begin operation in 2017, is designed to cover such large sky-localization areas. In this work, we present the strategies of efficiently tiling the sky to facilitate the observation of the gravitational wave error regions using ZTF. To do this, we used simulations consisting of 475 binary neutron star coalescences detected using a mix of two- and three-detector networks. Our studies reveal that, using two overlapping sets of ZTF tiles and a (modified) ranked-tiling algorithm, we can cover the gravitational-wave sky-localization regions with half as many pointings as a simple contour-covering algorithm. We then incorporated the ranked-tiling strategy to study our ability to observe the counterparts. This requires optimization of observation depth and localization area coverage. Our results show that observation in r-band with ˜600 seconds of integration time per pointing seems to be optimum for typical assumed brightnesses of electromagnetic counterparts, if we plan to spend equal amount of time per pointing. However, our results also reveal that we can gain by as much as 50% in detection efficiency if we linearly scale our integration time per pointing based on the tile probability.

  18. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of composites with ultrafine hollow magnetic fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jin Woo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (BK21 Granted Program), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Composites Research Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 66 Sang-nam-dong, Changwon, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Bok; Kim, Jin Bong; Lee, Sang Kwan [Composites Research Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 66 Sang-nam-dong, Changwon, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, O Ok, E-mail: oopark@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (BK21 Granted Program), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 50-1, Sang-ri, Hyeongpung-myeon, Dalseong-gun, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Ultrafine hollow magnetic fibers were prepared by electroless plating using hydrolyzed polyester fiber as a sacrificial substrate. These hollow fibers can be served for lightweight and efficient electromagnetic (EM) absorbing materials. As observed from SEM and EDS analysis, hollow structures consisting of Ni inner layer and Fe or Fe–Co outer layer were obtained. By introducing Co onto Fe, oxidation of the Fe layer was successfully prevented making it possible to enhance the complex permeability compared to a case in which only Fe was used. Polymeric composites containing the hollow fibers with different weight fractions and fiber lengths were prepared by a simple mixing process. The electromagnetic wave properties of the composites were measured by a vector network analyzer and it was found that the hollow magnetic fibers show a clear resonance peak of the complex permittivity around the X-band range (8–12 GHz) and the resonance frequency strongly depends on the fiber concentration and length. A possible explanation for the unique resonance is that the hollow fibers possess relatively low electrical conductivity and a long mean free path due to their oxidized phase and hollow structure. The calculated EM wave absorption with the measured EM wave properties showed that the composite containing 30 wt% hollow Ni/Fe–Co (7:3) fibers in length of 180 μm exhibited multiple absorbance peaks resulting in a broad absorption bandwidth of 4.2 GHz. It is obvious that this multiple absorbance is attributed to the resonance characteristic of the composite. - Highlights: • The ultrafine hollow fibers consist of inner Ni layer (∼100 nm) and outer Fe or Fe–Co layer (500–700 nm). • Composites with the fibers show a high permittivity as well as permeability at low weight fractions (10–30 wt%). • The composites show a permittivity resonance and the resonance frequency can be controlled by fiber content and length. • The composite absorber exhibits a double

  19. Photon polarization in Compton scattering: pulse shape effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boca, M; Stoica, C; Dumitriu, A; Florescu, V

    2015-01-01

    We study in the framework of quantum electrodynamics the scattering of a plane wave electromagnetic field on free electrons in the low intensity limit. We derive analytic formulas describing the polarization properties of the emitted photons. We discuss and illustrate with a numerical example the effects of the electromagnetic pulse duration on their polarization

  20. Scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kerker, Milton

    1969-01-01

    The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation discusses the theory of electromagnetic scattering and describes some practical applications. The book reviews electromagnetic waves, optics, the interrelationships of main physical quantities and the physical concepts of optics, including Maxwell's equations, polarization, geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction. The text explains the Rayleigh2 theory of scattering by small dielectric spheres, the Bessel functions, and the Legendre functions. The author also explains how the scattering functions for a homogenous sphere chan

  1. Modifications of Surface Wave Discrimination Filter Based on the Polarization Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutlu, Y. A.; Sayil, N.

    2007-01-01

    The polarization properties of Love and Rayleigh waves are utilized to design Surface Wave Discrimination Filter. Filtering process for a selected window length and moving interval is that the amplitudes at each frequency on vertical, radial and transverse components are weighted according to how closely the theoretical three-dimensional particle motion pattern. In this study, weighted functions have been modified for epicenteral distances smaller than about 2200 km to corresponding with angular distribution of polarization parameters obtained from computed synthetic seismograms. Modified Surface Wave Discrimination Filter has been tested on synthetic seismograms and digital three-components broadband records at Trabzon earthquake station

  2. Energy transfer between energetic ring current H(+) and O(+) by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Richard M.; Horne, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the frequency range below the helium gyrofrequency can be excited in the equatorial region of the outer magnetosphere by cyclotron resonant instability with anisotropic ring current H(+) ions. As the unducted waves propagate to higher latitudes, the wave normal should become highly inclined to the ambient magnetic field. Under such conditions, wave energy can be absorbed by cyclotron resonant interactions with ambient O(+), leading to ion heating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Resonant wave absorption peaks in the vicinity of the bi-ion frequency and the second harmonic of the O(+) gyrofrequrency. This absorption should mainly occur at latitudes between 10 deg and 30 deg along auroral field lines (L is greater than or equal to 7) in the postnoon sector. The concomitant ion heating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field can contribute to the isotropization and geomagnetic trapping of collapsed O(+) ion conics (or beams) that originate from a low-altitude ionospheric source region. During geomagnetic storms when the O(+) content of the magnetosphere is significantly enhanced, the absorption of EMIC waves should become more efficient, and it may contribute to the observed acceleration of O(+) ions of ionospheric origin up to ring current energies.

  3. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by an non-uniform cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.E.

    1966-12-01

    The problem of the scattering of plane electromagnetic waves from a non-uniform, cylindrically symmetrical plasma is solved analytically, by a self-consistent field method, for a wave with the electric field parallel to the cylinder axis. Numerical results for the diffracted field are plotted for interesting ranges of the parameters involved: diameter, density on the axis, radial profile of the density, and collision frequencies. The case where the incident field is cylindric (waves surfaces parallel to the cylinder axis) is examined - this permits to connect theoretical calculations and experimental diffraction patterns, and also to explain the diffraction effects observed in a classical microwave interferometry experiment. These results, and the possibility of measuring exactly the diffracted field (showed by experiments with dielectric and metallic rods) lead to a new plasma diagnostic method, based on the diffraction, which has no theoretical limitations and it usable when the classical free-space wave methods are not (plasma diameter lower than 10 wave lengths). The feasibility of this method is tested with a plasma at atmospheric pressure and a 2 mm incident wavelength. The plasma is obtained by the laminar flow of a plasma torch, with a working gas (He or Ar) seeded by potassium (density continuously variable between 10 11 and 10 15 e/cm 3 . Some diffraction patterns by this plasma and for various incident waves, are also given and explained with theoretical calculations. (author) [fr

  4. PECULIARITIES OF THE EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES OF THE VISIBLE RANGE ON LIVING ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gulyar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our experimental studies and a set of the published data allow one to conclude that animals and humans can perceive visible light not only with mediation of the visual sensory system, but also due to the existence of specific extraocular photoreceptors. In the latter system, we can classify three separate stable levels of interaction with exogeneous electromagnetic waves (EMW of the visible range. The first, most simple level is the cellular level (cells possessing sensor proteins reactable to EMW. The next, higher level is based on interaction of EVW with specialized electromagnetoreceptors; acupuncture points and meridians providing the maintenance of electromagnetic homeostasis of the organism cam be considered such a receptor system. Finally, the most complex level involves specialized sensory pathways and central brain structures controlling general homeostasis of the organism with mediation of the processes of metabolism.

  5. Depth of anisotropy in the North American craton from surface wave polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, V.; Pettersen, O.

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of P-wave traveltimes has shown the the North American craton is characterized by a coherent pattern of anisotropy with significant dip of the fast axis in some regions. The depth distribution of the anisotropy is however little constrained by P-wave analysis, limiting the geodynamical interpretation of the model. Surface wave polarizations are very sensitive to dip of anisotropy and can provide the missing depth-constraint to the model. We present an analysis of surface wave polarizations recorded at a number of stations on the North American craton. We show that the frequency range in which we do not observe polarization anomalies implies that the dipping anisotropy is not located in the upper part of the lithosphere.

  6. Electromagnetic dust-lower-hybrid and dust-magnetosonic waves and their instabilities in a dusty magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Rahman, M. M.; Zeba, I.; Shah, H. A.; Murtaza, G.; Shukla, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic waves below the ion-cyclotron frequency have been examined in a collisionless and homogeneous dusty plasma in the presence of a dust beam parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. The low-frequency mixed electromagnetic dust-lower-hybrid and purely transverse magnetosonic waves become unstable for the sheared flow of dust grains and grow in amplitude when the drift velocity of the dust grains exceeds the parallel phase velocity of the waves. The growth rate depends dominantly upon the thermal velocity and density of the electrons

  7. Collision effects on propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves in a sub-wavelength plasma slab of partially ionized dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, LI; Zhibin, WANG; Qiuyue, NIE; Xiaogang, WANG; Fanrong, KONG; Zhenyu, WANG

    2018-01-01

    Intensive collisions between electrons and neutral particles in partially ionized plasmas generated in atmospheric/sub-atmospheric pressure environments can sufficiently affect the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves, particularly in the sub-wavelength regime. To investigate the collisional effect in such plasmas, we introduce a simplified plasma slab model with a thickness on the order of the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave. The scattering matrix method (SMM) is applied to solve the wave equation in the plasma slab with significant nonuniformity. Results show that the collisions between the electrons and the neutral particles, as well as the incident angle and the plasma thickness, can disturb the transmission and reduce reflection significantly.

  8. Rac1 regulates neuronal polarization through the WAVE complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahirovic, Sabina; Hellal, Farida; Neukirchen, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    the physiological function of Rac1 in neuronal development, we have generated a conditional knock-out mouse, in which Rac1 is ablated in the whole brain. Rac1-deficient cerebellar granule neurons, which do not express other Rac isoforms, showed impaired neuronal migration and axon formation both in vivo...... and in vitro. In addition, Rac1 ablation disrupts lamellipodia formation in growth cones. The analysis of Rac1 effectors revealed the absence of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) complex from the plasma membrane of knock-out growth cones. Loss of WAVE...... function inhibited axon growth, whereas overexpression of a membrane-tethered WAVE mutant partially rescued axon growth in Rac1-knock-out neurons. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of the WAVE complex effector Arp2/3 also reduced axon growth. We propose that Rac1 recruits the WAVE complex...

  9. Wave fields in real media wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic, porous and electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Carcione, José M

    2007-01-01

    This book examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, where ideal means an elastic (lossless), isotropic and single-phase medium, and real means an anelastic, anisotropic and multi-phase medium. The analysis starts by introducing the relevant stress-strain relation. This relation and the equations of momentum conservation are combined to give the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. The book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and solids - may als...

  10. Atomic layer lithography of wafer-scale nanogap arrays for extreme confinement of electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoshu; Park, Hyeong-Ryeol; Pelton, Matthew; Piao, Xianji; Lindquist, Nathan C; Im, Hyungsoon; Kim, Yun Jung; Ahn, Jae Sung; Ahn, Kwang Jun; Park, Namkyoo; Kim, Dai-Sik; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Squeezing light through nanometre-wide gaps in metals can lead to extreme field enhancements, nonlocal electromagnetic effects and light-induced electron tunnelling. This intriguing regime, however, has not been readily accessible to experimentalists because of the lack of reliable technology to fabricate uniform nanogaps with atomic-scale resolution and high throughput. Here we introduce a new patterning technology based on atomic layer deposition and simple adhesive-tape-based planarization. Using this method, we create vertically oriented gaps in opaque metal films along the entire contour of a millimetre-sized pattern, with gap widths as narrow as 9.9 Å, and pack 150,000 such devices on a 4-inch wafer. Electromagnetic waves pass exclusively through the nanogaps, enabling background-free transmission measurements. We observe resonant transmission of near-infrared waves through 1.1-nm-wide gaps (λ/1,295) and measure an effective refractive index of 17.8. We also observe resonant transmission of millimetre waves through 1.1-nm-wide gaps (λ/4,000,000) and infer an unprecedented field enhancement factor of 25,000.

  11. Full-wave algorithm to model effects of bedding slopes on the response of subsurface electromagnetic geophysical sensors near unconformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a full-wave pseudo-analytical numerical electromagnetic (EM) algorithm to model subsurface induction sensors, traversing planar-layered geological formations of arbitrary EM material anisotropy and loss, which are used, for example, in the exploration of hydrocarbon reserves. Unlike past pseudo-analytical planar-layered modeling algorithms that impose parallelism between the formation's bed junctions, our method involves judicious employment of Transformation Optics techniques to address challenges related to modeling relative slope (i.e., tilting) between said junctions (including arbitrary azimuth orientation of each junction). The algorithm exhibits this flexibility, both with respect to loss and anisotropy in the formation layers as well as junction tilting, via employing special planar slabs that coat each ;flattened; (i.e., originally tilted) planar interface, locally redirecting the incident wave within the coating slabs to cause wave fronts to interact with the flattened interfaces as if they were still tilted with a specific, user-defined orientation. Moreover, since the coating layers are homogeneous rather than exhibiting continuous material variation, a minimal number of these layers must be inserted and hence reduces added simulation time and computational expense. As said coating layers are not reflectionless however, they do induce artificial field scattering that corrupts legitimate field signatures due to the (effective) interface tilting. Numerical results, for two half-spaces separated by a tilted interface, quantify error trends versus effective interface tilting, material properties, transmitter/receiver spacing, sensor position, coating slab thickness, and transmitter and receiver orientation, helping understand the spurious scattering's effect on reliable (effective) tilting this algorithm can model. Under the effective tilting constraints suggested by the results of said error study, we finally exhibit responses of sensors

  12. Multi‐instrument observations from Svalbard of a traveling convection vortex, electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave burst, and proton precipitation associated with a bow shock instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Yeoman, T. K.; Oksavik, K.

    2013-01-01

    of Earth observed a steady solar wind and predominantly radial interplanetary magnetic field orientation before and during this event, data from Geotail (near the morning bow shock) showed large reorientations of the interplanetary magnetic field and substantial decreases in ion density several minutes......An isolated burst of 0.35 Hz electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves was observed at four sites on Svalbard from 0947 to 0954 UT 2 January 2011, roughly 1 h after local noon. This burst was associated with one of a series of ~50 nT magnetic impulses observed at the northernmost stations...... satellite indicated that the EMIC burst was located on closed field lines, but near to the polar cap boundary. We believe these are the first simultaneous observations of EMIC waves and precipitating energetic protons so near to the boundary of the dayside magnetosphere. Although several spacecraft upstream...

  13. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a graphene-coated thin cylinder of left-handed metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaeiadl, Hamid; Naserpour, Mahin; Zapata-Rodríguez, Carlos J.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we explored the scattering behavior of thin cylinders made of LHM and coated by a monoatomic graphene layer. A spectral tunability of the resonance peaks is evidenced by altering the chemical potential of the graphene coating, a fact that occurs at any state of polarization of the incident plane wave in opposition to the case of scatterers of dielectric core. On the contrary, no invisibility condition can be satisfied for dielectric environments. A singular performance is also found for cylinders with permittivity and permeability near zero. Practical implementations of our results can be carried out in sensing and wave manipulation driven by metamaterials.

  14. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy: a comparative study of electrohydraulic and electromagnetic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, S F; Yost, A; Streem, S B

    2001-12-01

    We determined the results of shock wave lithotripsy with a newer electromagnetic lithotriptor and compared them with those in a contemporary series of cases managed by an electrohydraulic lithotriptor using identical treatment and followup criteria at a single center. Between 1995 and 1999, 356 patients (375 renal units, 483 upper urinary tract stones) meeting study inclusion criteria were treated with an MFL 5000 electrohydraulic shock wave lithotripsy unit (Dornier Medical Systems, Inc., Marietta, Georgia). From 1999 to 2000, 173 patients (175 renal units; 218 upper urinary tract stones) meeting identical study inclusion criteria were treated using an electromagnetic Modulith SLX shock wave lithotripsy unit (Karl Storz Lithotripsy, Atlanta, Georgia). In each group stone-free results were determined by plain abdominal x-ray and renal ultrasound 1 month after lithotripsy and efficiency quotients were developed. Baseline patient and stone characteristics were compared by the Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher exact tests. All variables significant at p <0.05 were included in subsequent outcome analysis using multivariate logistic regression. Baseline characteristics were equivalent, including patient age, gender, stone number and location, although patients treated with the electrohydraulic unit had a significantly larger median stone burden (103 versus 71 mm.2, p = 0.015). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated a higher stone-free rate in the electrohydraulic group (77% versus 67%, p = 0.01) but also a higher rate of total adjunctive measures (56% versus 47%, p = 0.04). Consequently the efficiency quotients were comparable for the electrohydraulic and electromagnetic lithotripsy units (0.45 and 0.42, respectively, p = 0.43). Electrohydraulic lithotripsy resulted in a higher stone-free rate at 1 month, although it was associated with a higher rate of auxiliary measures. Ultimately the efficiency quotients were equivalent, implying that these 2 contemporary energy

  15. A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, S J; Chen, T-W; Jerkstrand, A; Coughlin, M; Kankare, E; Sim, S A; Fraser, M; Inserra, C; Maguire, K; Chambers, K C; Huber, M E; Krühler, T; Leloudas, G; Magee, M; Shingles, L J; Smith, K W; Young, D R; Tonry, J; Kotak, R; Gal-Yam, A; Lyman, J D; Homan, D S; Agliozzo, C; Anderson, J P; Angus, C R; Ashall, C; Barbarino, C; Bauer, F E; Berton, M; Botticella, M T; Bulla, M; Bulger, J; Cannizzaro, G; Cano, Z; Cartier, R; Cikota, A; Clark, P; De Cia, A; Della Valle, M; Denneau, L; Dennefeld, M; Dessart, L; Dimitriadis, G; Elias-Rosa, N; Firth, R E; Flewelling, H; Flörs, A; Franckowiak, A; Frohmaier, C; Galbany, L; González-Gaitán, S; Greiner, J; Gromadzki, M; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Gutiérrez, C P; Hamanowicz, A; Hanlon, L; Harmanen, J; Heintz, K E; Heinze, A; Hernandez, M-S; Hodgkin, S T; Hook, I M; Izzo, L; James, P A; Jonker, P G; Kerzendorf, W E; Klose, S; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Kowalski, M; Kromer, M; Kuncarayakti, H; Lawrence, A; Lowe, T B; Magnier, E A; Manulis, I; Martin-Carrillo, A; Mattila, S; McBrien, O; Müller, A; Nordin, J; O'Neill, D; Onori, F; Palmerio, J T; Pastorello, A; Patat, F; Pignata, G; Podsiadlowski, Ph; Pumo, M L; Prentice, S J; Rau, A; Razza, A; Rest, A; Reynolds, T; Roy, R; Ruiter, A J; Rybicki, K A; Salmon, L; Schady, P; Schultz, A S B; Schweyer, T; Seitenzahl, I R; Smith, M; Sollerman, J; Stalder, B; Stubbs, C W; Sullivan, M; Szegedi, H; Taddia, F; Taubenberger, S; Terreran, G; van Soelen, B; Vos, J; Wainscoat, R J; Walton, N A; Waters, C; Weiland, H; Willman, M; Wiseman, P; Wright, D E; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Yaron, O

    2017-11-02

    Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate. Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short γ-ray burst. The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 ± 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 ± 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 ± 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.

  16. A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, S. J.; Chen, T.-W.; Jerkstrand, A.; Coughlin, M.; Kankare, E.; Sim, S. A.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Maguire, K.; Chambers, K. C.; Huber, M. E.; Krühler, T.; Leloudas, G.; Magee, M.; Shingles, L. J.; Smith, K. W.; Young, D. R.; Tonry, J.; Kotak, R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Lyman, J. D.; Homan, D. S.; Agliozzo, C.; Anderson, J. P.; Angus, C. R.; Ashall, C.; Barbarino, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Berton, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Bulla, M.; Bulger, J.; Cannizzaro, G.; Cano, Z.; Cartier, R.; Cikota, A.; Clark, P.; De Cia, A.; Della Valle, M.; Denneau, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Dessart, L.; Dimitriadis, G.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Firth, R. E.; Flewelling, H.; Flörs, A.; Franckowiak, A.; Frohmaier, C.; Galbany, L.; González-Gaitán, S.; Greiner, J.; Gromadzki, M.; Guelbenzu, A. Nicuesa; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hamanowicz, A.; Hanlon, L.; Harmanen, J.; Heintz, K. E.; Heinze, A.; Hernandez, M.-S.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Hook, I. M.; Izzo, L.; James, P. A.; Jonker, P. G.; Kerzendorf, W. E.; Klose, S.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Kowalski, M.; Kromer, M.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Lawrence, A.; Lowe, T. B.; Magnier, E. A.; Manulis, I.; Martin-Carrillo, A.; Mattila, S.; McBrien, O.; Müller, A.; Nordin, J.; O'Neill, D.; Onori, F.; Palmerio, J. T.; Pastorello, A.; Patat, F.; Pignata, G.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Pumo, M. L.; Prentice, S. J.; Rau, A.; Razza, A.; Rest, A.; Reynolds, T.; Roy, R.; Ruiter, A. J.; Rybicki, K. A.; Salmon, L.; Schady, P.; Schultz, A. S. B.; Schweyer, T.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Smith, M.; Sollerman, J.; Stalder, B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sullivan, M.; Szegedi, H.; Taddia, F.; Taubenberger, S.; Terreran, G.; van Soelen, B.; Vos, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Walton, N. A.; Waters, C.; Weiland, H.; Willman, M.; Wiseman, P.; Wright, D. E.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yaron, O.

    2017-11-01

    Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate. Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short γ-ray burst. The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 ± 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 ± 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 ± 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.

  17. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by a collection of plasma drift turbulent vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resendes, D.

    1995-01-01

    An application of the self-consistent multiple-scattering theory of electro-magnetic waves to drift turbulent vortices is presented. Using the known single-vortex solution, the integral equation describing the scattering from a finite density of drift turbulent vortices is obtained. Rather than solving this equation and then averaging, the averaging operation is taken first to obtain statistical moment equations, from which the coherent and incoherent scattering follow. These results are expressed in a Fourier basis, and the cross-section is evaluated. Limiting forms of the theory and straightforward generalizations are discussed. (Author)

  18. Polyaniline-stabilized electromagnetic wave absorption composites of reduced graphene oxide on magnetic carbon nanotube film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinsong; Duan, Yan; Lu, Weibang; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2018-04-02

    A multi-layered composite with exceptionally high electromagnetic wave-absorbing capacity and performance stability was fabricated via the facile electrophoresis of a reduced graphene oxide network on carbon nanotube (CNT)-Fe 3 O 4 -polyaniline (PANI) film. Minimum reflection loss (RL) of -53.2 dB and absorbing bandwidth of 5.87 GHz (< -10 dB) are achieved, surpassing most recently reported CNT- and graphene-based absorbers. In particular, comparing to the original composites, the minimum RL and bandwidth (< -10 dB) maintains 82.5% and 99.7%, respectively, after 20 h charge/discharge cycling, demonstrating high environmental suitability.

  19. Graphene as a high impedance surface for ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrigo, Martino; Costanzo, Alessandra [Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi” – DEI, University of Bologna, Viale del Risorgimento, 2, 40132 Bologna (Italy); Dragoman, Mircea [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnology (IMT), P.O. Box 38-160, 023573 Bucharest (Romania); Dragoman, Daniela [Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-11-14

    The metals are regularly used as reflectors of electromagnetic fields emitted by antennas ranging from microwaves up to THz. To enhance the reflection and thus the gain of the antenna, metallic high impedance surfaces (HIS) are used. HIS is a planar array of continuous metallic periodic cell surfaces able to suppress surface waves, which cause multipath interference and backward radiation in a narrow bandwidth near the cell resonance. Also, the image currents are reduced, and therefore the antenna can be placed near the HIS. We demonstrate that graphene is acting as a HIS surface in a very large bandwidth, from microwave to THz, suppressing the radiation leakages better than a metal.

  20. Fluorescence and Four-Wave Mixing in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Guo; Li Cheng; Zhang Zhao-Yang; Che Jun-Ling; Qin Meng-Zhe; He Jia-Nan; Zhang Yan-Peng

    2013-01-01

    We simultaneously compare the probe transmission, Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) and fluorescence signals with dressing effects in a four-level atomic system. The variation rules of three types of signals are exhibited by changing the frequency detuning and power of incident laser beams. The interplay between two ladder subsystems is investigated in the Y-type atomic system. In particular, the fluorescence signal with ultra-narrow linewidth is obtained due to being sheared twice by the electromagnetically induced transparency window. Such fluorescence with very high coherence and monochromaticity can be used for the quantum correlation and narrow linewidth laser

  1. Exploring superluminal transmission of electromagnetic waves through dielectric barriers and causality: a pedagogical insight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, P

    2014-01-01

    A pedagogical insight into models for determining the transit time of electromagnetic waves through dielectric barriers is presented. The meaning of this time is analyzed and the issue of superluminal propagation (propagation with a velocity higher than light velocity) is discussed in relation to the principle of causality. These analyses are illustrated with examples and comparison of results obtained with the models presented here. This paper is addressed to postgraduate physics students in the their early studies who have acquired a suitable grounding in classical electrodynamics. The main objective is to motivate these students to research these subjects further. (paper)

  2. Polyaniline-stabilized electromagnetic wave absorption composites of reduced graphene oxide on magnetic carbon nanotube film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinsong; Duan, Yan; Lu, Weibang; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2018-04-01

    A multi-layered composite with exceptionally high electromagnetic wave-absorbing capacity and performance stability was fabricated via the facile electrophoresis of a reduced graphene oxide network on carbon nanotube (CNT)-Fe3O4-polyaniline (PANI) film. Minimum reflection loss (RL) of -53.2 dB and absorbing bandwidth of 5.87 GHz (< -10 dB) are achieved, surpassing most recently reported CNT- and graphene-based absorbers. In particular, comparing to the original composites, the minimum RL and bandwidth (< -10 dB) maintains 82.5% and 99.7%, respectively, after 20 h charge/discharge cycling, demonstrating high environmental suitability.

  3. Spectrum of an electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Zhenfei; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-04-01

    Spectral shifts and spectral switches of a polychromatic electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium are discussed. It is shown that both the property of the incident field and the character of the scattering medium play roles in the change of the spectrum of the far-zone scattered field. It is also shown that the distribution of the far-zone scattered spectrum, including the magnitude of the spectral shift and the direction at which the spectral switch occurs, is rotationally nonsymmetric.

  4. Compact dispersion relations for parametric instabilities of electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.

    1987-01-01

    The existence of compact dispersion relations for parametric instabilities of coherent electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas is addressed here. In general, comprehensive dispersion relations for parametric instabilities in unmagnetized plasmas become more complicated in the presence of an applied time-independent magnetic field. This is demonstrated with a fluid perturbation theory. A compact dispersion relation for parametric instabilities in unmagnetized plasma is heuristically extended here to the case of a magnetized plasma. This dispersion relation gives the correct results in a variety of circumstances of interest in considering electron cyclotron heating applications

  5. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of electromagnetic scattering from lamellar grating with defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Koki; Pištora, Jaromír; Nakatake, Yoshimasa

    2011-12-05

    This paper proposes a spectral-domain approach to the electromagnetic scattering problem of lamellar grating with defects. The fields in imperfectly periodic structures have continuous spectra in the wavenumber space, and the main problem of the spectral-domain approach is connected to the discretization scheme on the wavenumber. The present approach introduces the pseudo-periodic Fourier transform to consider the discretization scheme in the Brillouin zone. This transformation also makes it possible to apply the conventional grating formulations to the problems of imperfectly periodic structures. The present formulation is based on the rigorous coupled-wave analysis with the help of pseudo-periodic Fourier transform.

  6. Model of the electromagnetic waves processing in ultrasound; Modelo de procesamiento de ondas electromagneticas en ultrasonido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrego L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Siles A, S. [CICATA, IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cruz O, A. [CINVESTAV, IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, a model to process the electromagnetic waves in ultrasonic equipment is proposed and it is experimentally demonstrated that, the origin of the ultrasound is electronic and non mechanic. The above mentioned, it has been demonstrated when making in an electronic equipment a spectral analysis the one that indicated an unfolding of the original ultrasonic pulses of 17 K Hz., to 88 K Hz., and of 5 MHz., to 23 GHz. Also, it was obtained the degradation with ultrasound of particles of Hematite and of Galena, as well as the fading of the methylene blue and the generation of an electric current exciting with ultrasound. (Author)

  7. Polarization-resolved characterization of plasmon waves supported by an anisotropic metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samusev, Anton; Mukhin, Ivan; Malureanu, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Optical metasurfaces have great potential to form a platform for manipulation of surface waves. A plethora of advanced surface-wave phenomena such as negative refraction, self-collimation and channeling of 2D waves can be realized through on-demand engineering of dispersion properties of a periodic...... metasurface. In this letter, we report on polarization-resolved measurement of dispersion of plasmon waves supported by an anisotropic metasurface. We demonstrate that a subdiffractive array of strongly coupled resonant plasmonic nanoparticles supports both TE and TM plasmon modes at optical frequencies...... polarization degree of freedom for surface waves, our results open new routes for designing planar on-chip devices for surface photonics....

  8. Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, Kyle S., E-mail: sprattkyle@gmail.com; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F. [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, P. O. Box 8029, Austin, Texas 78713–8029, US (United States)

    2015-10-28

    A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic.

  9. Polarized Microwave Background Technologies for Inflationary Gravitational Wave Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of primordial gravitational waves (PGWs) from the epoch of inflation is one of the next majors goals in cosmology. These PGWs leave a signature on the...

  10. First evidence of patchy flickering aurora modulated by multi-ion electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yoko; Kataoka, Ryuho; Uchida, Herbert Akihito; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Hampton, Donald; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Ebihara, Yusuke; Whiter, Daniel; Iwagami, Naomoto; Seki, Kanako

    2017-05-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, one of the possible origins of flickering aurora, have been thought to modulate the electron flux at a few thousand kilometers. In fact, flickering aurora with a frequency range of 3-15 Hz has often been identified by ground-based optical observations and has been interpreted to be caused by O+-band EMIC waves. However, extant research to date has not identified possible signatures of H+-band EMIC waves due to technical limitations of ground-based high-speed imagers. The present study shows the first evidence that patchy flickering aurora could be modulated by H+-band EMIC waves, based on the data obtained from imaging observations at 160 frames per second. The sporadic appearance of the flickering aurora in the frequency range of 50-80 Hz coexisted with typical flickering auroras of approximately 10 Hz. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that flickering auroras are generated by multi-ion EMIC waves.

  11. Plasmonic Dimer Metamaterials and Metasurfaces for Polarization Control of Terahertz and Optical Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu

    2013-01-01

    We explore the capabilities of planar metamaterials and metasurfaces to control and transform the polarization of electromagnetic radiation, and present a detailed covariant multipole theory of dimer-based metamaterials. We show that various optical properties, such as optical activity, elliptical...... dichroism or polarization conversion can be achieved in metamaterials made of simple shapes, such as nanorods, just by varying their geometrical arrangement. By virtue of the Babinet principle, the proposed theory is extended to inverted structures (membranes) where rods are replaced by slots. Such free...

  12. Interaction of whispering-gallery electromagnetic waves with acoustic waves in tapered quartz rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sychugov, V A; Magdich, L N; Torchigin, V P

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of whispering-gallery waves in a dynamic cavity formed by a tapered quartz rod and the plane interface between two regions of the rod with different refractive indices moving along the axis of the rod is analysed. It is shown that the limiting frequency shift of light in such a cavity is determined by its Q factor and the attainable refractive index discontinuity. The possibility of using acoustic waves for obtaining a dynamic cavity is considered. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Guided Wave Inspection of Supported Pipe Locations Using Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruschak, Nicholas

    The goal of the work in this thesis is to develop a rapid and reliable NDT system to detect hidden corrosion at pipe-support interfaces using Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs). Since there are often many support interfaces over a piping run, information is needed on the support interface conditions to optimize subsequent detailed inspections. In this work it is important to be able to isolate the effects produced from the support interface and the incident guided wave. To do this an optimum EMAT operating point is first selected, then the support interfaces and wall loss type defects are independently analyzed through experimentally validated finite element models. It is found that operating the SH1 plate wave mode near the `knee' of its dispersion curve gives a high sensitivity to wall loss type defects while experiencing a minimal effect from the support contact region.

  14. Bilinear Time-frequency Analysis for Lamb Wave Signal Detected by Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenxiu; Liu, Guoqiang; Xia, Hui; Xia, Zhengwu

    2018-03-01

    Accurate acquisition of the detection signal travel time plays a very important role in cross-hole tomography. The experimental platform of aluminum plate under the perpendicular magnetic field is established and the bilinear time-frequency analysis methods, Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) and the pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD), are applied to analyse the Lamb wave signals detected by electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). By extracting the same frequency component of the time-frequency spectrum as the excitation frequency, the travel time information can be obtained. In comparison with traditional linear time-frequency analysis method such as short-time Fourier transform (STFT), the bilinear time-frequency analysis method PWVD is more appropriate in extracting travel time and recognizing patterns of Lamb wave.

  15. High Temperature Shear Horizontal Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer for Guided Wave Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kogia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Guided Wave Testing (GWT using novel Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs is proposed for the inspection of large structures operating at high temperatures. To date, high temperature EMATs have been developed only for thickness measurements and they are not suitable for GWT. A pair of water-cooled EMATs capable of exciting and receiving Shear Horizontal (SH0 waves for GWT with optimal high temperature properties (up to 500 °C has been developed. Thermal and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD simulations of the EMAT design have been performed and experimentally validated. The optimal thermal EMAT design, material selection and operating conditions were calculated. The EMAT was successfully tested regarding its thermal and GWT performance from ambient temperature to 500 °C.

  16. Prediction and measurement of the electromagnetic environment of high-power medium-wave and short-wave broadcast antennas in far field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Zhanghong; Wang, Qun; Ji, Zhijiang; Hou, Guoyan; Tan, Danjun; Wang, Pengqi; Shi, Meiwu; Qiu, Xianbo

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing city size, high-power electromagnetic radiation devices such as high-power medium-wave (MW) and short-wave (SW) antennas have been inevitably getting closer and closer to buildings, which resulted in the pollution of indoor electromagnetic radiation becoming worsened. To avoid such radiation exceeding the exposure limits by national standards, it is necessary to predict and survey the electromagnetic radiation by MW and SW antennas before constructing the buildings. In this paper, a modified prediction method for the far-field electromagnetic radiation is proposed and successfully applied to predict the electromagnetic environment of an area close to a group of typical high-power MW and SW wave antennas. Different from currently used simplified prediction method defined in the Radiation Protection Management Guidelines (H J/T 10. 3 -1996), the new method in this article makes use of more information such as antennas' patterns to predict the electromagnetic environment. Therefore, it improves the prediction accuracy significantly by the new feature of resolution at different directions. At the end of this article, a comparison between the prediction data and the measured results is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method. (authors)

  17. Prediction and measurement of the electromagnetic environment of high-power medium-wave and short-wave broadcast antennas in far field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhanghong; Wang, Qun; Ji, Zhijiang; Shi, Meiwu; Hou, Guoyan; Tan, Danjun; Wang, Pengqi; Qiu, Xianbo

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing city size, high-power electromagnetic radiation devices such as high-power medium-wave (MW) and short-wave (SW) antennas have been inevitably getting closer and closer to buildings, which resulted in the pollution of indoor electromagnetic radiation becoming worsened. To avoid such radiation exceeding the exposure limits by national standards, it is necessary to predict and survey the electromagnetic radiation by MW and SW antennas before constructing the buildings. In this paper, a modified prediction method for the far-field electromagnetic radiation is proposed and successfully applied to predict the electromagnetic environment of an area close to a group of typical high-power MW and SW wave antennas. Different from currently used simplified prediction method defined in the Radiation Protection Management Guidelines (H J/T 10. 3-1996), the new method in this article makes use of more information such as antennas' patterns to predict the electromagnetic environment. Therefore, it improves the prediction accuracy significantly by the new feature of resolution at different directions. At the end of this article, a comparison between the prediction data and the measured results is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Nanostructured Barium Titanate/Carbon Nanotubes Incorporated Polyaniline as Synergistic Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujun Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D conductive network structures formed by barium titanate/carbon nanotubes incorporated polyaniline were favorable for strengthening electromagnetic absorption capability. Herein, an easy and flexible method consisting of sol-gel technique, in situ polymerization, and subsequent mechanical method have been developed to prepare the barium titanate/carbon nanotubes incorporated polyaniline (CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI or CBP ternary composites. The dielectric properties and microwave absorption properties of CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI composites were investigated in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz by vector network analyzer. Interestingly, it is found that the CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI composites with 3D conductive network structures presented outstanding electromagnetic absorption properties, which may be attributed to the high impedance matching behavior and improved dielectric loss ability and novel synergistic effect. Additionally, it also can be supposed that the “geometrical effect” of composite was more beneficial to absorbing the incident electromagnetic wave. The CNTs/BaTiO3/PANI composite (the mass ratio of CNTs/BaTiO3 to PANI is 2 : 3 exhibits the best microwave absorption properties, of which the minimum reflection loss value can reach −30.9 dB at 8 GHz and the absorption bandwidth with a reflection loss blew −10 dB ranges from 7.5 to 10.2 GHz.

  19. Effect of hot injections on electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in inner magnetosphere of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Jyoti; Kaur, Rajbir; Pandey, R. S.

    2018-02-01

    Encounter of Voyager with Saturn's environment revealed the presence of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves (EMIC) in Saturnian magnetosphere. Cassini provided the evidence of dynamic particle injections in inner magnetosphere of Saturn. Also inner magnetosphere of Saturn has highest rotational flow shear as compared to any other planet in our solar system. Hence during these injections, electrons and ions are transported to regions of stronger magnetic field, thus gaining energy. The dynamics of the inner magnetosphere of Saturn are governed by wave-particle interaction. In present paper we have investigated those EMIC waves pertaining in background plasma which propagates obliquely with respect to the magnetic field of Saturn. Applying kinetic approach, the expression for dispersion relation and growth rate has been derived. Magnetic field model has been used to incorporate magnetic field strength at different latitudes for radial distance of 6.18 R_{{s}} (1 R_{{s}}= 60{,}268 km). Various parameters affecting the growth of EMIC waves in cold bi-Maxwellian background and after the hot injections has been studied. Parametric analysis inferred that after hot injections, growth rate of EMIC waves increases till 10° and decreases eventually with increase in latitude due to ion density distribution in near-equatorial region. Also, growth rate of EMIC waves increases with increasing value of temperature anisotropy and AC frequency, but the growth rate decreases as the angle of propagation with respect to B0 (Magnetic field at equator) increases. The injection events which assume the Loss-cone distribution of particles, affect the lower wave numbers of the spectra.

  20. Circular Polarizations of Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae: A Clear Indication of Rapid Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Nakamura, Ko; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-04-15

    We propose to employ the circular polarization of gravitational waves emitted by core-collapse supernovae as an unequivocal indication of rapid rotation deep in their cores just prior to collapse. It has been demonstrated by three dimensional simulations that nonaxisymmetric accretion flows may develop spontaneously via hydrodynamical instabilities in the postbounce cores. It is not surprising, then, that the gravitational waves emitted by such fluid motions are circularly polarized. We show, in this Letter, that a network of the second generation detectors of gravitational waves worldwide may be able to detect such polarizations up to the opposite side of the Galaxy as long as the rotation period of the core is shorter than a few seconds prior to collapse.

  1. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S

    1990-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  2. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in amorphous carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin Peng; Wang, Cheng Guo; Wang, Wen; Yu, Mei Jie; Gao, Rui; Chen, Yang; Xiang Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    Composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in amorphous carbon were fabricated conveniently and economically by carbonizing polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers mixed with micro-sized iron particles under different temperatures. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The electromagnetic (EM) properties were measured by a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz based on which analog computations of EM wave absorption properties were carried out. The influences of temperature on phase composition and EM wave absorption properties were also investigated, indicating that the composites had good electromagnetic absorption properties with both electrical loss and magnetic loss. Effective reflection loss (RL<-10 dB) was observed in a large frequency range of 7.5-18 GHz with the absorber thickness of 2.0-3.0 mm for the paraffin samples with composite powders heated up to 750 °C and the minimum absorption peak around -40 dB appeared at approximately 10 GHz with matching thickness of 2.0 mm for the paraffin sample with composite powders heated up to 800 °C.

  3. Experience of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for kidney and upper ureteric stones by electromagnetic lithotripter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wazir, B.G.; Haq, M.I.H.; Faheem-ul-Haq; Nawaz, A.; Nawaz, A.; Ikramullah; Jamil, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is a non-invasive treatment of urinary stones which breaks them, by using externally applied, focused, high intensity acoustic pulse, into smaller pieces so that they can pass easily through ureter. Shock wave generation, focusing, coupling and stone localisation by fluoroscope or ultrasound are the basic components of ESWL. ESWL has some complications and is contraindicated in certain situations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ESWL in kidney and upper ureteric stones by Electromagnetic Lithotriptor. Methods: All adult patients with renal and upper ureteric stones having a diameter of up to 1 Cm were included in the study. Basic evaluation such as history, examination, ultrasound and excretory urography were performed. Electromagnetic lithotripsy was done and data were collected on a printed proforma from January 1, 2008 to March 30, 2009 in Institute of Kidney Diseases, Peshawar. Results: Out of a total of 625 patients 463 were male and 162 were female; 67.36% of patients were having renal stones, 23.84% upper ureteric and 8.8% both renal and ureteric stones. Complications noted were renal colic in 9.76%, haematuria in 3.2%, stein strasse in 2.72%, and fever in 1.12% of patients. The stone free rate was 89% and 7% of patients were having stone fragments <4 mm. ESWL failed in 4% of patients. Conclusion: ESWL is a safe and effective way of treating kidney and upper ureteric stones. (author)

  4. Carbon Hollow Microspheres with a Designable Mesoporous Shell for High-Performance Electromagnetic Wave Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hailong; Yin, Xiaowei; Zhu, Meng; Han, Meikang; Hou, Zexin; Li, Xinliang; Zhang, Litong; Cheng, Laifei

    2017-02-22

    In this work, mesoporous carbon hollow microspheres (PCHMs) with designable mesoporous shell and interior void are constructed by a facile in situ stöber templating approach and a pyrolysis-etching process. The PCHMs are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, Raman spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption system. A uniform mesoporous shell (pore size 4.7 nm) with a thickness of 55 nm and a cavity size of 345 nm is realized. The composite of paraffin mixed with 20 wt % PCHMs exhibits a minimum reflection coefficient (RC min ) of -84 dB at 8.2 GHz with a sample thickness of 3.9 mm and an effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) of 4.8 GHz below -10 dB (>90% electromagnetic wave is attenuated). Moreover, the composite of phenolic resin mixed with 20 wt % PCHMs exhibits an ultrawide EAB of 8 GHz below -10 dB with a thinner thickness of 2.15 mm. Such excellent electromagnetic wave absorption properties are ascribed to the large carbon-air interface in the mesoporous shell and interior void, which is favorable for the matching of characteristic impedance as compared with carbon hollow microspheres and carbon solid microspheres. Considering the excellent performance of PCHMs, we believe the as-fabricated PCHMs can be promising candidates as highly effective microwave absorbers, and the design philosophy can be extended to other spherical absorbers.

  5. Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation by Apertures: II. Oblique Incidence on the Slotted Plane for Parallel Polarization,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is the second in a series of investigations into the diffraction of electromagnetic radiation by apertures in conducting screens. Herein...is presented a technique for obtaining the fields everywhere for plane electromagnetic radiation incident obliquely on a slotted conducting plane. The

  6. Feasibility study of the plasma electron density measurement by electromagnetic radiation from the laser-driven plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, D G; Kim, J J; Suk, H; Hur, M S

    2012-01-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused in a plasma, a plasma wake wave is generated and the oscillatary motion of the plasma electrons produces a strong electromagnetic wave by a Cherenkov-like process. Spectrum of the genetated electromagnetic wave has dependence on the plasma density. In this paper, we propose to use the emitted electromagnetic radiation for plasma diagnostic, which may provide an accurate information for local electron densities of the plasma and will be very useful for three-dimensional plasma density profiles by changing the focal point location of the laser beam. Two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the correlation between the spectrum of the emitted radiation and plasma density, and the results demonstrate that this method is promising for the electron density measurement in the plasma.

  7. Reflection and Transmission of Plane Electromagnetic Waves by a Geologic Layer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Electric field and magnetic field reflection and transmission responses generated by a plane wave normally incident onto a finite - thickness geologic layer are mathematically derived and numerically evaluated. A thin layer with enhanced electric current conductivity and/or magnetic permeability is a reasonable geophysical representation of a hydraulic fracture inject ed with a high - contrast proppant pack. Both theory and numerics indicate that backward - and forward - scattered electromagnetic wavefields are potentially observable in a field experiment, despite the extreme thinness of a fracture compared to a typical low - frequency electromagnetic wavelength. The First Born Approximation (FBA) representation of layer scattering, significant for inversion studies, is shown to be accurate for a thin layer with mild medium parameter (i.e., conductivity, permeability, and per mittivity) contrasts with the surrounding homogeneous wholespace. However, FBA scattering theory breaks down for thick layers and strong parameter contrasts. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. This research is conducted under the auspices of CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) SC11/01780.00 between Carbo Ceramics Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories. The author acknowledges former Carbo R&D Vic e - President Mr. Chad Cannan and former SNL Geophysics Department manage r Ms. Amy Halloran for their interest i n and support of this work. Technical discussions with Project Manager and Principal Investigator Dr. Chester J. Weiss of the SNL Geophysics Department greatly benefited this work. Dr. Lewis C. Bartel, formerly with S NL and presently a consultant to Carbo Ceramics, provided many useful and intuitive insights, and

  8. Polarization of concave domains by traveling wave pinning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Bialecki

    Full Text Available Pattern formation is one of the most fundamental yet puzzling phenomena in physics and biology. We propose that traveling front pinning into concave portions of the boundary of 3-dimensional domains can serve as a generic gradient-maintaining mechanism. Such a mechanism of domain polarization arises even for scalar bistable reaction-diffusion equations, and, depending on geometry, a number of stationary fronts may be formed leading to complex spatial patterns. The main advantage of the pinning mechanism, with respect to the Turing bifurcation, is that it allows for maintaining gradients in the specific regions of the domain. By linking the instant domain shape with the spatial pattern, the mechanism can be responsible for cellular polarization and differentiation.

  9. Efficient heat generation in large-area graphene films by electromagnetic wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangmin; Choi, Haehyun; Lee, Soo Bin; Park, Seong Chae; Park, Jong Bo; Lee, Sangkyu; Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Byung Hee

    2017-06-01

    Graphene has been intensively studied due to its outstanding electrical and thermal properties. Recently, it was found that the heat generation by Joule heating of graphene is limited by the conductivity of graphene. Here we suggest an alternative method to generate heat on a large-area graphene film more efficiently by utilizing the unique electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption property of graphene. The EM wave induces an oscillating magnetic moment generated by the orbital motion of moving electrons, which efficiently absorbs the EM energy and dissipate it as a thermal energy. In this case, the mobility of electron is more important than the conductivity, because the EM-induced diamagnetic moment is directly proportional to the speed of electron in an orbital motion. To control the charge carrier mobility of graphene we functionalized substrates with self-assembled monolayers (SAM). As the result, we find that the graphene showing the Dirac voltage close to zero can be more efficiently heated by EM waves. In addition, the temperature gradient also depends on the number of graphene. We expect that the efficient and fast heating of graphene films by EM waves can be utilized for smart heating windows and defogging windshields.

  10. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of cement based composites using helical carbon fibers as absorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuai; Wang, Jing; Wang, Wufeng; Hou, Guoyan; Li, Bin; Shui, Zhonghe; Ji, Zhijiang

    2018-02-01

    In order to develop a cement based composites with high electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbing performance, helical carbon fibers (HCFs) were added into the cement matrix as an absorbent. The reflection loss (RL) of the prepared HCFs/cement based composites was studied by arched testing method in the frequency ranges of 1–8 GHz and 8–18 GHz. The results show that the EM wave absorption properties of the cement based composites can be evidently enhanced by the addition of HCFs. The composites with 1.5% HCFs exhibits optimum EM wave absorption performance in the frequency range of 1–8 GHz. However, in 8–18 GHz frequency range, the EM wave absorption performance of the cement composites with 1% HCFs is much better than others. The RL values of the prepared HCFs/cement based composites are less than ‑5 dB in the whole testing frequency regions, which can be attributed to the strong dielectric loss ability and unique chiral structure of HCFs.

  11. Self-focusing of electromagnetic surface waves on a nonlinear impedance surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Zhangjie, E-mail: zhangjie-luo-cn@126.com [College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Applied Electromagnetics Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Chen, Xing [College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Long, Jiang; Quarfoth, Ryan; Sievenpiper, Daniel, E-mail: dsievenpiper@eng.ucsd.edu [Applied Electromagnetics Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2015-05-25

    The self-focusing effect of optical beams has been a popular topic of study for quite a while, but such a nonlinear phenomenon at microwave frequencies has never been realized, partially due to the underdevelopment of nonlinear material. In this research, self-focused electromagnetic (EM) surface waves are demonstrated on a circuit-based, power-dependent impedance surface. The formation of a self-focused beam is investigated using a series of discrete-time simulations, and the result is further validated in measurement. It is experimentally observed that, in contrast to the normal scattering of low-power surface waves, high-power waves propagate through the surface while maintaining narrow beam width, and even converge extremely tightly to create a hot spot with higher power. The result is essentially a nonlinear effect of the surface that compensates for the natural tendency of surface waves to diffract. This intriguing experiment can be extended to various potential EM applications such as power-dependent beam steering antennas and nonlinear microwave propagation or dissipation.

  12. Nonplanar electrostatic shock waves in an opposite polarity dust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A rigorous theoretical investigation has been carried out on the propagation of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-acoustic shock waves (DASHWs) in a collisionless four-component unmagnetized dusty plasmasystem containing massive, micron-sized, positively and negatively charged inertial dust grains along with ...

  13. Electromagnetic energy deposition rate in the polar upper thermosphere derived from the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS Finland radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fujiwara

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available From simultaneous observations of the European incoherent scatter Svalbard radar (ESR and the Cooperative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System (CUTLASS Finland radar on 9 March 1999, we have derived the height distributions of the thermospheric heating rate at the F region height in association with electromagnetic energy inputs into the dayside polar cap/cusp region. The ESR and CUTLASS radar observations provide the ionospheric parameters with fine time-resolutions of a few minutes. Although the geomagnetic activity was rather moderate (Kp=3+~4, the electric field obtained from the ESR data sometimes shows values exceeding 40 mV/m. The estimated passive energy deposition rates are also larger than 150 W/kg in the upper thermosphere over the ESR site during the period of the enhanced electric field. In addition, enhancements of the Pedersen conductivity also contribute to heating the upper thermosphere, while there is only a small contribution for thermospheric heating from the direct particle heating due to soft particle precipitation in the dayside polar cap/cusp region. In the same period, the CUTLASS observations of the ion drift show the signature of poleward moving pulsed ionospheric flows with a recurrence rate of about 10–20 min. The estimated electromagnetic energy deposition rate shows the existence of the strong heat source in the dayside polar cap/cusp region of the upper thermosphere in association with the dayside magnetospheric phenomena of reconnections and flux transfer events.

  14. Electromagnetic energy deposition rate in the polar upper thermosphere derived from the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS Finland radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fujiwara

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available From simultaneous observations of the European incoherent scatter Svalbard radar (ESR and the Cooperative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System (CUTLASS Finland radar on 9 March 1999, we have derived the height distributions of the thermospheric heating rate at the F region height in association with electromagnetic energy inputs into the dayside polar cap/cusp region. The ESR and CUTLASS radar observations provide the ionospheric parameters with fine time-resolutions of a few minutes. Although the geomagnetic activity was rather moderate (Kp=3+~4, the electric field obtained from the ESR data sometimes shows values exceeding 40 mV/m. The estimated passive energy deposition rates are also larger than 150 W/kg in the upper thermosphere over the ESR site during the period of the enhanced electric field. In addition, enhancements of the Pedersen conductivity also contribute to heating the upper thermosphere, while there is only a small contribution for thermospheric heating from the direct particle heating due to soft particle precipitation in the dayside polar cap/cusp region. In the same period, the CUTLASS observations of the ion drift show the signature of poleward moving pulsed ionospheric flows with a recurrence rate of about 10–20 min. The estimated electromagnetic energy deposition rate shows the existence of the strong heat source in the dayside polar cap/cusp region of the upper thermosphere in association with the dayside magnetospheric phenomena of reconnections and flux transfer events.

  15. Effect of polarization force on large amplitude dust kinetic Alfvén waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Kohli, R.; Kaur, N.; Saini, N. S.

    2018-01-01

    Effect of polarization force on dust kinetic Alfvén waves (DKAWs) has been studied in this paper. We incorporated the effect of polarization in fluid model equations and derived the expression for Sagdeev pseudopotential. From the numerical analysis, it is seen that DKAWs are significantly affected by the variation of polarization force, plasma beta and Mach number. This study may be useful in understanding the formation of coherent nonlinear structures and diagnostics of dusts in laboratory as well as in space/astrophysical plasma environments.

  16. Modulation of electromagnetic fields by a depolarizer of random polarizer array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers with ran......The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers...... with randomly distributed polarization angles, where the incident fields experience a random polarization modulation after passing through the depolarizer. The propagation of the modulated electric fields through any quadratic optical system is examined within the framework of the complex ABCD matrix to show...

  17. Polarization state of an inhomogenously refracted compressional-wave induced at interface between two anisotropic rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Lin; Li, Wenya; Zhao, Jie; Han, Yonglan; Liang, Meng; Ding, Pengfei; Zhao, Meishan

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the polarization states of an inhomogenously refracted P-wave induced from the interface of two anisotropic rocks. Two realistic physical models have been studied: Model-1 is an interface between anisotropic shale and Taylor sandstone; Model-2 is an interface between anisotropic shale and oil shale. For each model, an analytical expression of the polarization states was derived and its elliptical-polarization trajectory was examined. It is shown that an anomalous incident-angle leads not only to a sudden elliptical-polarization directional variation but also to an abrupt change in size and shape of its elliptical-polarization trajectory. The calculated results and analyses provide a theoretical base for the understandings of an anomalous incident-angle recently reported in the literature [e.g., Fa, Fa, Zhang, Ding, Gong, Li, Li, Tang, and Zhao (2015). Sci. Rep. 5, 12700].

  18. Parametric excitation of very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic whistler waves and interaction with energetic electrons in radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Caplinger, J.; Main, D.; Mishin, E.; Gershenzon, N.; Genoni, T.; Paraschiv, I.; Rose, D.

    2018-04-01

    The concept of a parametric antenna in ionospheric plasma is analyzed. Such antennas are capable of exciting electromagnetic radiation fields, specifically the creation of whistler waves generated at the very low frequency (VLF) range, which are also capable of propagating large distances away from the source region. The mechanism of whistler wave generation is considered a parametric interaction of quasi-electrostatic whistler waves (also known as low oblique resonance (LOR) oscillations) excited by a conventional loop antenna. The interaction of LOR waves with quasi-neutral density perturbations in the near field of an antenna gives rise to electromagnetic whistler waves on combination frequencies. It is shown in this work that the amplitude of these waves can considerably exceed the amplitude of whistler waves directly excited by a loop. Additionally, particle-in-cell simulations, which demonstrate the excitation and spatial structure of VLF waves excited by a loop antenna, are presented. Possible applications including the wave-particle interactions to mitigate performance anomalies of low Earth orbit satellites, active space experiments, communication via VLF waves, and modification experiments in the ionosphere will be discussed.

  19. An Empirical Algorithm for Wave Retrieval from Co-Polarization X-Band SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizeng Shao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed an empirical algorithm for significant wave height (SWH retrieval from TerraSAR-X/TanDEM (TS-X/TD-X X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR co-polarization (vertical-vertical (VV and horizontal-horizontal (HH images. As the existing empirical algorithm at X-band, i.e., XWAVE, is applied for wave retrieval from HH-polarization TS-X/TD-X image, polarization ratio (PR has to be used for inverting wind speed, which is treated as an input in XWAVE. Wind speed encounters saturation in tropical cyclone. In our work, wind speed is replaced by normalized radar cross section (NRCS to avoiding using SAR-derived wind speed, which does not work in high winds, and the empirical algorithm can be conveniently implemented without converting NRCS in HH-polarization to NRCS in VV-polarization by using X-band PR. A total of 120 TS-X/TD-X images, 60 in VV-polarization and 60 in HH-polarization, with homogenous wave patterns, and the coincide significant wave height data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF reanalysis field at a 0.125° grid were collected as a dataset for tuning the algorithm. The range of SWH is from 0 to 7 m. We then applied the algorithm to 24 VV and 21 HH additional SAR images to extract SWH at locations of 30 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA National Data Buoy Center (NDBC buoys. It is found that the algorithm performs well with a SWH stander deviation (STD of about 0.5 m for both VV and HH polarization TS-X/TD-X images. For large wave validation (SWH 6–7 m, we applied the empirical algorithm to a tropical cyclone Sandy TD-X image acquired in 2012, and obtained good result with a SWH STD of 0.3 m. We concluded that the proposed empirical algorithm works for wave retrieval from TS-X/TD-X image in co-polarization without external sea surface wind information.

  20. Vector wave diffraction pattern of slits masked by polarizing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (7) where X = πud is the observation plane coordinate. If an analyser P(θ) is placed at the output side whose transmission axis makes an angle θ with the chosen x-axis, the vector wave amplitude obtained at the observation plane is then given by. F(u)WA = P(θ)F(u), where. P(θ) = ∣. ∣. ∣. ∣ cos2 θ sin θ cos θ sin θ cos θ.

  1. Radiation of terahertz electromagnetic waves from build-in nano Josephson junctions of cuprate high-T(c) superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-Zeng; Hu, Xiao

    2011-04-01

    The nano-scale intrinsic Josephson junctions in highly anisotropic cuprate superconductors have potential for generation of terahertz electromagnetic waves. When the thickness of a superconductor sample is much smaller than the wavelength of electromagnetic waves in vacuum, the superconductor renders itself as a cavity. Unlike conventional lasers, the presence of the cavity does not guarantee a coherent emission because of the internal degree of freedom of the superconductivity phase in long junctions. We study the excitation of terahertz wave by solitons in a stack of intrinsic Josephson junctions, especially for relatively short junctions. Coherent emission requires a rectangular configuration of solitons. However such a configuration is unstable against weak fluctuations, contrarily solitons favor a triangular lattice corresponding to an out-phase oscillation of electromagnetic waves. To utilize the cavity, we propose to use an array of stacks of short intrinsic Josephson junctions to generate powerful terahertz electromagnetic waves. The cavity synchronizes the plasma oscillation in different stacks and the emission intensity is predicted to be proportional to the number of stacks squared.

  2. The production of He-3 and heavy ion enrichment in He-3-rich flares by electromagnetic hydrogen cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temerin, M.; Roth, I.

    1992-01-01

    A new model is presented for the production of He-3 and heavy ion enrichments in He-3-rich flares using a direct single-stage mechanism. In analogy with the production of electromagnetic hydrogen cyclotron waves in earth's aurora by electron beams, it is suggested that such waves should exist in the electron acceleration region of impulsive solar flares. Both analytic and test-particle models of the effect of such waves in a nonuniform magnetic field show that these waves can selectively accelerate He-3 and heavy ions to MeV energies in a single-stage process, in contrast to other models which require a two-stage mechanism.

  3. Three-dimensional electromagnetic solitary waves in an underdense plasma in PIC simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, Sergei; Esirkepov, Timur; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional sub-cycle relativistic electromagnetic soliton has been observed for the first time in a 3D Particle-in-Cell simulation of the propagation of an intense short laser pulse in an underdense plasma. The structure of the 3D soliton is identified. It resembles an oscillating electric dipole and has a strong charge separation and toroidal magnetic field component. We call this structure a TM-soliton (transverse magnetic). The 3D TM-soliton resembles a 2D P-soliton in the plane of electric field polarization, and a 2D S-soliton in the perpendicular plane. The core of the soliton is positively charged on average in time, and this results in its Coulomb explosion and in ion heating. Then the soliton evolves into a post-soliton, which is a slowly expanding quasi-neutral cavity in the plasma

  4. Polarization observables in the process d + p → d+ X and electromagnetic form factors of N → N* transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the properties of the inclusive d + p-reactions, with particular interest in the domain of nucleonic resonances excitation. The calculated cross section and polarization observables show that it is possible to disentangle the different reaction mechanisms (ω-,σ-, n- exchange) and bring new information about the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron as well as of the nucleonic resonances excitation. Existing data on the tensor analyzing power are in agreement with the predictions based on the ω-exchange model. (authors)

  5. Polarization observables in the process d + p {yields} d+ X and electromagnetic form factors of N {yields} N* transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.

    1996-12-31

    We analyze the properties of the inclusive d + p-reactions, with particular interest in the domain of nucleonic resonances excitation. The calculated cross section and polarization observables show that it is possible to disentangle the different reaction mechanisms ({omega}-,{sigma}-, n- exchange) and bring new information about the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron as well as of the nucleonic resonances excitation. Existing data on the tensor analyzing power are in agreement with the predictions based on the {omega}-exchange model. (authors). 18 refs.

  6. Effects of electric field and light polarization on the electromagnetically induced transparency in an impurity doped quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, D.; Stan, C.; Niculescu, E. C.

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the effects of the impurity position, in-plane electric field, intensity and polarization of the probe and control lasers on the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in GaAs/GaAlAs disc shaped quantum ring. Our study reveals that, depending on the impurity position, the quantum system presents two specific configurations for the EIT occurrence even in the absence of the external electric field, i.e. ladder-configuration or V-configuration, and changes the configuration from ladder to V for specific electric field values. The polarization of the probe and control lasers plays a crucial role in obtaining a good transparency. The electric field controls the red-shift (blue-shift) of the transparency window and modifies its width. The system exhibits birefringence for the probe light in a limited interval of electric field values.

  7. Induced Electromagnetic Field by Seismic Waves in Stratified Media in Earth's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic waves accompany electromagnetic (EM) variations because Earth's crust involves a variety of EM properties such as finite electrical conductivity and ion contents. If we can catch the EM variations just after the earthquake rupture, we will know the occurrence of earthquake before the arrival of seismic waves at observation point. However, quantitative aspects of EM variations arising from seismic waves have not sufficiently understood. Together with observational works, theoretical works have been made to simulate EM variations arising from seismic waves. The generation mechanisms of EM variations include electrokinetic effect (Pride, 1994), motional induction (Gao et al., 2014), piezo-electric effect (Ogawa and Utada, 2000), piezo-magnetic effect (Yamazaki, 2016), etc. It is widely accepted that the electrokinetic effect is the dominant mechanism. Theoretical calculation of EM variations assuming the electrokinetic effect roughly explains the observed EM variations accompanying with earthquake ground motions (e.g. Gao et al. 2016). However, there are a significant disagreement between observed and predicted EM variations. In the present study, I focus on the motional induction mechanism that possibly explain some parts of EM variations accompanying with seismic waves. A theoretical work on EM variations arising from the motional induction has been presented by Gao et al. (2014), but their work assumed uniform full-space medium. In contrast, the present work assumes stratified media which correctly incorporate the effect of the ground surface. I apply a calculating method developed in seismology (e.g. Kennett, 2013) and in EM studies (Haartsen and Pride, 1997), and derive a set of expressions describing the spatial-temporal variations of the EM field after the onset of rupture. The derived formula is used to calculate EM variations for actual earthquakes to compare the theoretical prediction to observed EM variations.

  8. Dispersion and Polarization of Surface Waves Trapped in High Aspect Ratio Electrode Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laude, Vincent; Dühring, Maria Bayard; Moubchir, Hanane

    2007-01-01

    .Phys., 90(5):2492, 2001; Appl. Phys. Lett., 89:083515, 2006.) an experimental and theoretical analysis of the transduction of SAW under a metallic array of electrodes with a large aspect ratio on a piezoelectric substrate, whereby allowing the electrode height to become larger than one wavelength...... additional results on the polarization and the dispersion of the surface waves trapped by high aspect ratio electrode arrays. A finite element model, including periodic boundary conditions along the propagation direction and a perfectly matched layer (PML) to absorb waves away from the surface...... wave vector values....

  9. Circularly polarized few-optical-cycle solitons in the short-wave-approximation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblond, Herve [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers, EA 4464, Universite d' Angers, 2 Boulevard Lavoisier, F-49045 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Triki, Houria [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokhtar University, Post Office Box 12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Mihalache, Dumitru [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers, EA 4464, Universite d' Angers, 2 Boulevard Lavoisier, F-49045 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), 407 Atomistilor, RO-077125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientists, 54 Splaiul Independentei, RO-050094 Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-08-15

    We consider the propagation of few-cycle pulses (FCPs) beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation in media in which the dynamics of constituent atoms is described by a two-level Hamiltonian by taking into account the wave polarization. We consider the short-wave approximation, assuming that the resonance frequency of the two-level atoms is well below the inverse of the characteristic duration of the optical pulse. By using the reductive perturbation method (multiscale analysis), we derive from the Maxwell-Bloch-Heisenberg equations the governing evolution equations for the two polarization components of the electric field in the first order of the perturbation approach. We show that propagation of circularly polarized (CP) few-optical-cycle solitons is described by a system of coupled nonlinear equations, which reduces in the scalar case to the standard sine Gordon equation describing the dynamics of linearly polarized FCPs in the short-wave-approximation regime. By direct numerical simulations, we calculate the lifetime of CP FCPs, and we study the transition to two orthogonally polarized single-humped pulses as a generic route of their instability.

  10. Electromagnetic surface waves for large-area RF plasma productions between large-area planar electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, large-area plasma production has been tested by means of a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (RF) discharge between a pair of large-area planar electrodes, approximately 0.5 m x 1.4 m, as one of the semiconductor technologies for fabrication of large-area amorphous silicon solar cells in the ''Sunshine Project'' of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology in Japan. We also confirmed long plasma production between a pair of long electrodes. In this paper, normal electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating in a region between a planar waveguide with one plasma and two dielectric layers are analyzed in order to study the feasibility of large-area plasma productions by EM wave-discharges between a pair of large-area RF electrodes larger than the half-wavelength of RF wave. In conclusion, plasmas higher than an electron plasma frequency will be produced by an odd TMoo surface mode. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. Latitudinal dependence of nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave and radiation belt relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Shen, Chao; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2013-06-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are long suggested to account for the rapid loss of radiation belt relativistic electrons. Here we perform both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to comprehensively investigate the nonlinear interaction between EMIC wave and relativistic electrons. In particular, we emphasize the dependence of nonlinear processes on the electron initial latitude. The nonlinear phase trapping yields negative equatorial pitch angle transport, with efficiency varying over the electron initial latitude, implying that it can increase the loss rate predicted by quasilinear theory. The nonlinear channel effect phase bunching produces positive equatorial pitch angle transport, less dependent on the electron initial latitude, suggesting that it can decrease the loss rate predicted by quasilinear theory. The nonlinear cluster effect phase bunching alternately causes positive and negative equatorial pitch angle transport, quasi-periodically dependent on the electron initial latitude, suggesting that it can either decrease or increase the loss rate predicted by the quasilinear theory. Such latitudinal dependence of nonlinear processes should be taken into account in the evaluation of radiation belt electron loss rate driven by EMIC waves.

  12. Development of an Omnidirectional-Capable Electromagnetic Shock Wave Generator for Lipolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Hau Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods for adipose tissue removal have progressed from invasive methods such as liposuction to more modern methods of noninvasive lipolysis. This research entails the development and evaluation of an omnidirectional-capable flat-coil electromagnetic shock wave generator (EMSWG for lipolysis. The developed EMSWG has the advantage of omnidirectional-capable operation. This capability increases the eventual clinical usability by adding three designed supports to the aluminum disk of the EMSWG to allow omnidirectional operation. The focal pressures of the developed EMSWG for different operating voltages were measured, and its corresponding energy intensities were calculated. The developed EMSWG was mounted in a downward orientation for lipolysis and evaluated as proof of concept. In vitro tests on porcine fatty tissues have been carried out. It is found that at a 6 kV operating voltage with 1500 shock wave exposures, a 2 cm thick subcutaneous hypodermis of porcine fatty tissue can be ruptured, resulting in a damaged area of 1.39 mm2. At a 6.5 kV operating voltage with 2000 shock wave exposures, the damaged area is increased to about 5.20 mm2, which can be enlarged by changing the focal point location, resulting in significant lipolysis for use in clinical applications.

  13. Mechanisms of amplification of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in gyrotron traveling wave tube with helically corrugated waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Mishakin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of the incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by “fresh” electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam

  14. Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranen, Martti; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Malcuit, Michelle S.; Boyd, Robert W.

    1989-08-01

    We develop a semiclassical theory of the polarization properties of phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing. The theory includes the effects of saturation by the pump waves. We solve the density-matrix equations of motion in steady state for a nonlinear medium consisting of stationary atoms with a ground and excited state connected by two-photon transitions. As an illustration of the general results, we consider an S0-->S0 two-photon transition, which is known to lead to perfect polarization conjugation in the limit of third-order theory. We show that the fidelity of the polarization-conjugation process is degraded for excessively large pump intensities. The degradation can occur both due to transfer of population to the excited state and due to nonresonant Stark shifts. Theoretical results are compared to those of a recent experiment [Malcuit, Gauthier, and Boyd, Opt. Lett. 13, 663 (1988)].

  15. Unidirectional evanescent-wave coupling from circularly polarized electric and magnetic dipoles: An angular spectrum approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Michela F.; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Zayats, Anatoly V.; Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J.

    2017-06-01

    Unidirectional evanescent-wave coupling from circularly polarized dipole sources is one of the most striking types of evidence of spin-orbit interactions of light and an inherent property of circularly polarized dipoles. Polarization handedness self-determines propagation direction of guided modes. In this paper, we compare two different approaches currently used to describe this phenomenon: the first requires the evaluation of the coupling amplitude between dipole and waveguide modes, while the second is based on the calculation of the angular spectrum of the dipole. We present an analytical expression of the angular spectrum of dipole radiation, unifying the description for both electric and magnetic dipoles. The symmetries unraveled by the implemented formalism show the existence of specific terms in the dipole spectrum which can be recognized as being directly responsible for directional evanescent-wave coupling. This provides a versatile tool for both a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon and a fully controllable engineering of directionality of guided modes.

  16. Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs. Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of  ∼ 20–60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent  =  −3.2 and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of −2.9 and −2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.

  17. Universal power law of the gravity wave manifestation in the AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Pingping; Yue, Jia; Russell, James M., III; Siskind, David E.; Randall, Cora E.

    2018-01-01

    We aim to extract a universal law that governs the gravity wave manifestation in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Gravity wave morphology and the clarity level of display vary throughout the wave population manifested by the PMC albedo data. Higher clarity refers to more distinct exhibition of the features, which often correspond to larger variances and a better-organized nature. A gravity wave tracking algorithm based on the continuous Morlet wavelet transform is applied to the PMC albedo data at 83 km altitude taken by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument to obtain a large ensemble of the gravity wave detections. The horizontal wavelengths in the range of ˜ 20-60 km are the focus of the study. It shows that the albedo (wave) power statistically increases as the background gets brighter. We resample the wave detections to conform to a normal distribution to examine the wave morphology and display clarity beyond the cloud brightness impact. Sample cases are selected at the two tails and the peak of the normal distribution to represent the full set of wave detections. For these cases the albedo power spectra follow exponential decay toward smaller scales. The high-albedo-power category has the most rapid decay (i.e., exponent = -3.2) and corresponds to the most distinct wave display. The wave display becomes increasingly blurrier for the medium- and low-power categories, which hold the monotonically decreasing spectral exponents of -2.9 and -2.5, respectively. The majority of waves are straight waves whose clarity levels can collapse between the different brightness levels, but in the brighter background the wave signatures seem to exhibit mildly turbulent-like behavior.

  18. Effects of Medium Characteristics on Laser RCS of Airplane with E-Wave Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam El-Ocla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plane wave incidence should be postulated to have an authentic target detection. Practically, the plane wave is incapable usually of keeping its power in the far field especially when propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. Consequently, we assume an incident beam wave with a finite width around the target. In this work, we calculate numerically a laser radar cross section (LRCS of conducting targets having smooth cross sections with inflection points such as airplane in random media. Effects of fluctuations intensity of random media on the LRCS performance are studied in this paper. E-wave polarization (E-wave incidence is considered while the mean target size is approximately twice the wavelength.

  19. Combining Gravitational Wave Events with their Electromagnetic Counterparts: A Realistic Joint False-Alarm Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen; Klimenko, Sergey; LIGO Team

    2017-01-01

    We present a false-alarm rate for a joint detection of gravitational wave (GW) events and associated electromagnetic (EM) counterparts for Advanced LIGO and Virgo (LV) observations during the first years of operation. Using simulated GW events and their recostructed probability skymaps, we tile over the error regions using sets of archival wide-field telescope survey images and recover the number of astrophysical transients to be expected during LV-EM followup. With the known GW event injection coordinates we inject artificial electromagnetic (EM) sources at that site based on theoretical and observational models on a one-to-one basis. We calculate the EM false-alarm probability using an unsupervised machine learning algorithm based on shapelet analysis which has shown to be a strong discriminator between astrophysical transients and image artifacts while reducing the set of transients to be manually vetted by five orders of magnitude. We also show the performance of our method in context with other machine-learned transient classification and reduction algorithms, showing comparability without the need for a large set of training data opening the possibility for next-generation telescopes to take advantage of this pipeline for LV-EM followup missions.

  20. Ku-band electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of polysiloxane derived Si-O-C bulk ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Donghai; Li, Zipei; Xiao, Guoqing; Yang, Shaoyu

    2018-02-01

    The bulk Si-O-C ceramics were prepared by polymer derived ceramics (PDCs) route using polysiloxane as precursor and their properties were investigated for electromagnetic wave absorbing in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). It was found that the catalytic pyrolysis can enhance substantially the absorbing properties by in situ formation of turbostratic carbon network, ordered carbon, and multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The matching thickness of sample containing 1.5 wt% FeCl3 (FPSO-1.5) is 2.2 mm, and its reflection loss exceeds -10 dB in the whole Ku-band with an absorption peak of -35.48 dB at 14.16 GHz. For sample containing 1.5 wt% FeCl3, its absorption peak increases to -15.78 dB, but its matching thickness decreases significantly to 2.2 mm. The polymer derived Si-O-C ceramics could be used as excellent electromagnetic functional devices working in harsh environments.

  1. Modelling of Anti-Tumour Immune Response: Immunocorrective Effect of Weak Centimetre Electromagnetic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Isaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate the dynamical model for the anti-tumour immune response based on intercellular cytokine-mediated interactions with the interleukin-2 (IL-2 taken into account. The analysis shows that the expression level of tumour antigens on antigen presenting cells has a distinct influence on the tumour dynamics. At low antigen presentation, a progressive tumour growth takes place to the highest possible value. At high antigen presentation, there is a decrease in tumour size to some value when the dynamical equilibrium between the tumour and the immune system is reached. In the case of the medium antigen presentation, both these regimes can be realized depending on the initial tumour size and the condition of the immune system. A pronounced immunomodulating effect (the suppression of tumour growth and the normalization of IL-2 concentration is established by considering the influence of low-intensity electromagnetic microwaves as a parametric perturbation of the dynamical system. This finding is in qualitative agreement with the recent experimental results on immunocorrective effects of centimetre electromagnetic waves in tumour-bearing mice.

  2. Electromagnetic excitation of anomalous acoustic waves in metals subjected to a transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, I.E.; Irklienko, T.I.; Korolyuk, A.P.; Fal'ko, V.L.; Khizhnyi, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were made of electromagnetic excitation of sound in a metal plate, characterized by a complex dispersion law in a magnetic field H perpendicular to the surface. Experiments were carried out on tungsten at frequencies ω/2π = 400-800 MHz in magnetic fields H ∼ 100-4,000 Oe. Acoustic vibrations of two types were excited: an acoustic normal mode traveling at the velocity of sound s 0 in the metal and an anomalous (fast) sound with a phase velocity equal to the Fermi velocity of the conduction electrons υ much-gt s 0 . The interaction between these two acoustic signals led to the following effects: (1) oscillations of the output acoustic signal in the magnetic field H with a constant period governed by ballistic transport of energy of the electromagnetic wave into the metal by specific electron groups; (2) resonant changes in the amplitude of these oscillations in a field H near a diamagnetic resonance at ω∼Ω (Ω = eH/mc); (3) an inversion of the acoustic signal lines due to a change in the frequency by an amount Δ line-integral ∼s 0 /2d (d is the plate thickness) and a periodic recovery of the line profiles with a period 2Δ line-integral. This theory is in good agreement with the experimental results

  3. Electrosmog. Effects of high-frequency electromagnetic waves on health. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, R.

    1993-01-01

    1) The concept of Electrosmog concerns technically electromagnetic waves and fields of variable frequency and intensity. In our environment, high frequency fields come almost entirely from man-made sources. 2) High frequency electromagnetic fields can cause physical effects either directly or indirectly - eg through conductive materials. Thermal effects are the most prominent. The action of force mediated by the field can cause the loadig of there electric charges in the body. 3) The amount of energy absorbed by a fabric can be calculated from the intensity of the yield and the conductivity of the material. 4) In-vitro studies have suggested that high frequency fields affect the cell membranes and can cause changes in their permeability, enzyme activity and immune responses; although there are no proven results blaming high frequency fields for such mutations, and effects on cell proliferation have not been ascertained. 5) A basic limit of O-4 W/kg has been set internationally for work-related exposure, according to public health considerations, and the limit for the general public is 0.08 W/kg. 6) These basic limits are generally kept as a minimum requirement, and generally exposure is a hot lower. When high frequency equipment is in use nearby, measures must be taken to ensure that sefety limits are upheld and injury avoided, to the eyes in particular. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Multiple bio-monitoring system using visible light for electromagnetic-wave free indoor healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jinyoung; Pham, Ngoc Quan; Chung, Wan-Young

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a multiple biomedical data transmission system with visible light communication (VLC) is proposed for an electromagnetic-wave-free indoor healthcare. VLC technology has emerged as an alternative solution to radio-frequency (RF) wireless systems, due to its various merits, e.g., ubiquity, power efficiency, no RF radiation, and security. With VLC, critical bio-medical signals, including electrocardiography (ECG), can be transmitted in places where RF radiation is restricted. This potential advantage of VLC could save more lives in emergency situations. A time hopping (TH) scheme is employed to transfer multiple medical-data streams in real time with a simple system design. Multiple data streams are transmitted using identical color LEDs and go into an optical detector. The received multiple data streams are demodulated and rearranged using a TH-based demodulator. The medical data is then monitored and managed to provide the necessary medical care for each patient.

  5. Observations of the First Electromagnetic Counterpart to a Gravitational-wave Source by the TOROS Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M. C.; Macri, L. M.; Garcia Lambas, D.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Nilo Castellón, J. L.; Ribeiro, T.; Sánchez, B.; Schoenell, W.; Abramo, L. R.; Akras, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Artola, R.; Beroiz, M.; Bonoli, S.; Cabral, J.; Camuccio, R.; Castillo, M.; Chavushyan, V.; Coelho, P.; Colazo, C.; Costa-Duarte, M. V.; Cuevas Larenas, H.; DePoy, D. L.; Domínguez Romero, M.; Dultzin, D.; Fernández, D.; García, J.; Girardini, C.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Gonçalves, T. S.; Gurovich, S.; Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Kanaan, A.; Lares, M.; Lopes de Oliveira, R.; López-Cruz, O.; Marshall, J. L.; Melia, R.; Molino, A.; Padilla, N.; Peñuela, T.; Placco, V. M.; Quiñones, C.; Ramírez Rivera, A.; Renzi, V.; Riguccini, L.; Ríos-López, E.; Rodriguez, H.; Sampedro, L.; Schneiter, M.; Sodré, L.; Starck, M.; Torres-Flores, S.; Tornatore, M.; Zadrożny, A.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of prompt optical follow-up of the electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational-wave event GW170817 by the Transient Optical Robotic Observatory of the South Collaboration. We detected highly significant dimming in the light curves of the counterpart ({{Δ }}g=0.17+/- 0.03 mag, {{Δ }}r=0.14+/- 0.02 mag, {{Δ }}I=0.10+/- 0.03 mag) over the course of only 80 minutes of observations obtained ˜35 hr after the trigger with the T80-South telescope. A second epoch of observations, obtained ˜59 hr after the event with the EABA 1.5 m telescope, confirms the fast fading nature of the transient. The observed colors of the counterpart suggest that this event was a “blue kilonova” relatively free of lanthanides.

  6. Generation of higher derivatives operators and electromagnetic wave propagation in a Lorentz-violation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, L.H.C., E-mail: luizhenriqueunifei@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Dias, A.G., E-mail: alex.dias@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Ferrari, A.F., E-mail: alysson.ferrari@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Nascimento, J.R., E-mail: jroberto@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, João Pessoa, Paraíba, 58051-970 (Brazil); Petrov, A.Yu., E-mail: petrov@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, João Pessoa, Paraíba, 58051-970 (Brazil)

    2016-05-10

    We study the perturbative generation of higher-derivative Lorentz violating operators as quantum corrections to the photon effective action, originated from a specific Lorentz violation background, which has already been studied in connection with the physics of light pseudoscalars. We calculate the complete one loop effective action of the photon field through the proper-time method, using the zeta function regularization. This result can be used as a starting point to study possible effects of the Lorentz violating background we are considering in photon physics. As an example, we focus on the lowest order corrections and investigate whether they could influence the propagation of electromagnetic waves through the vacuum. We show, however, that no effects of the kind of Lorentz violation we consider can be detected in such a context, so that other aspects of photon physics have to be studied.

  7. FD_BH: a program for simulating electromagnetic waves from a borehole antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2002-01-01

    Program FD_BH is used to simulate the electromagnetic waves generated by an antenna in a borehole. The model representing the antenna may include metallic parts, a coaxial cable as a feed to the driving point, and resistive loading. The program is written in the C programming language, and the program has been tested on both the Windows and the UNIX operating systems. This Open-File Report describes • The contents and organization of the Zip file (section 2). • The program files, the installation of the program, the input files, and the execution of the program (section 3). • Address to which suggestions for improving the program may be sent (section 4).

  8. Review of FD-TD numerical modeling of electromagnetic wave scattering and radar cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflove, Allen; Umashankar, Korada R.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method for numerical modeling of electromagnetic wave interactions with structures are reviewed, concentrating on scattering and radar cross section (RCS). A number of two- and three-dimensional examples of FD-TD modeling of scattering and penetration are provided. The objects modeled range in nature from simple geometric shapes to extremely complex aerospace and biological systems. Rigorous analytical or experimental validatons are provided for the canonical shapes, and it is shown that FD-TD predictive data for near fields and RCS are in excellent agreement with the benchmark data. It is concluded that with continuing advances in FD-TD modeling theory for target features relevant to the RCS problems and in vector and concurrent supercomputer technology, it is likely that FD-TD numerical modeling will occupy an important place in RCS technology in the 1990s and beyond.

  9. ASYMPTOTICAL CALCULATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES SCATTERED FROM A DIELECTRIC COATED CYLINDRICAL SURFACE WITH PHYSICAL OPTICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur YALÇIN

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quasi-optical scattering of finite source electromagnetic waves from a dielectric coated cylindrical surface is analysed with Physical Optics (PO approach. A linear electrical current source is chosen as the finite source. Reflection coefficient of the cylindrical surface is derived by using Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD. Then, with the help of this coefficient, fields scattered from the surface are obtained. These field expressions are used in PO approach and surface scattering integral is determined. Evaluating this integral asymptotically, fields reflected from the surface and surface divergence coefficient are calculated. Finally, results obtained in this study are evaluated numerically and effects of the surface impedance to scattered fields are analysed. The time factor is taken as j te? in this study.

  10. Generation of higher derivatives operators and electromagnetic wave propagation in a Lorentz-violation scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.C. Borges

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the perturbative generation of higher-derivative Lorentz violating operators as quantum corrections to the photon effective action, originated from a specific Lorentz violation background, which has already been studied in connection with the physics of light pseudoscalars. We calculate the complete one loop effective action of the photon field through the proper-time method, using the zeta function regularization. This result can be used as a starting point to study possible effects of the Lorentz violating background we are considering in photon physics. As an example, we focus on the lowest order corrections and investigate whether they could influence the propagation of electromagnetic waves through the vacuum. We show, however, that no effects of the kind of Lorentz violation we consider can be detected in such a context, so that other aspects of photon physics have to be studied.

  11. Finite element analysis of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional transformed bianisotropic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Gralak, Boris; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2016-11-14

    We analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional bianisotropic media with the Finite Element Method (FEM). Starting from the Maxwell-Tellegen's equations in bianisotropic media, we derive some system of coupled Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) for longitudinal electric and magnetic field components. These PDEs are implemented in FEM using a solid mechanics formulation. Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) are also discussed to model unbounded bianisotropic media. The PDEs and PMLs are then implemented in a finite element software, and transformation optics is further introduced to design some bianisotropic media with interesting functionalities, such as cloaks, concentrators and rotators. In addition, we propose a design of metamaterial with concentric layers made of homogeneous media with isotropic permittivity, permeability and magnetoelectric parameters that mimic the required effective anisotropic tensors of a bianisotropic cloak in the long wavelength limit (homogenization approach). Our numerical results show that transformation based electromagnetic metamaterials can be extended to bianisotropic media.

  12. In vitro effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves on bovine spermatozoa motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Norbert; Massanyi, Peter; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Capcarova, Marcela; Tvrda, Eva; Knazicka, Zuzana; Kolesarova, Anna; Danko, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) exposure on bovine semen was monitored. The experimental samples were analyzed in vitro in four time periods (0, 30, 120 and 420 min) and compared with unexposed samples (control). Spermatozoa motility was determined by computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Evaluation of the percentage of motile spermatozoa showed significant (P radiation suggested that the parameters of path and velocity at the beginning of the culture significantly increase, but after longer culture (420 minutes) a significant decrease occur in the experimental group as compared to control. In general, results of this experiment indicate a negative time-dependent effect of 1800 MHz RF-EMW radiation on bovine spermatozoa motility.

  13. Electromagnetic Wave Shielding Effectiveness Based on Carbon Microcoil-Polyurethane Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-Hwan Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon microcoils (CMCs were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates using C2H2/H2 as source gases and SF6 as an incorporated additive gas in a thermal chemical vapor deposition system. CMC-polyurethane (PU composites were obtained by dispersing the CMCs in the PU with a dimethylformamide additive. The electromagnetic wave shielding properties of the CMC-PU composites were examined in the frequency range of 0.25–1.5 GHz. The shielding effectiveness (SE of the CMCs-PU systematically increases with increasing the content of CMCs and/or the layer thickness. Based on these results, the main SE mechanism for this work was suggested and discussed.

  14. Visualizing the phenomena of wave interference, phase-shifting and polarization by interactive computer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ortega, Uriel; Dirckx, Joris

    2015-09-01

    In this manuscript a computer based simulation is proposed for teaching concepts of interference of light (under the scheme of a Michelson interferometer), phase-shifting and polarization states. The user can change some parameters of the interfering waves, such as their amplitude and phase difference in order to graphically represent the polarization state of a simulated travelling wave. Regarding to the interference simulation, the user is able to change the wavelength and type of the interfering waves by selecting combinations between planar and Gaussian profiles, as well as the optical path difference by translating or tilting one of the two mirrors in the interferometer setup, all of this via a graphical user interface (GUI) designed in MATLAB. A theoretical introduction and simulation results for each phenomenon will be shown. Due to the simulation characteristics, this GUI can be a very good non-formal learning resource.

  15. Upper mantle anisotropy beneath Australia and Tahiti from P wave polarization: Implications for real-time earthquake location

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Fabrice R.,; Barruol, Guilhem; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Bokelmann, Goetz; Reymond, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    International audience; We report measurements of long-period P wave polarization (P pol) in Australia and Tahiti made by combining modeling of the polarization deviation and harmonic analysis. The analysis of the deviation of the horizontal polarization of the P wave as a function of event back azimuth may be used to obtain information about (1) sensor misorientation, (2) dipping discontinuities, (3) seismic anisotropy, and (4) velocity heterogeneities beneath a seismic station. The results ...

  16. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas; Dinamica nao linear de ondas de Langmuir e eletromagneticas em plasmas espaciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  17. The First Unambiguous Electromagnetic Counterpart to a Gravitational-Wave Signal: GRB 170817A and GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Adam

    2018-01-01

    On 2017 August 17 at 12:41:06 UTC the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) detected and triggered on the short gamma-ray burst (GRB) 170817A. Approximately 2 s prior to this GRB, the LIGO gravitational-wave observatory triggered on a binary compact merger candidate associated with the GRB. This is the first unambiguous coincident observation of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation from a single astrophysical source and marks the start of gravitational-wave multi-messenger astronomy. We report the GBM observations and analysis of this short GRB and the joint science that results from this discovery.

  18. The focusing effect of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals with gradually varying lattice constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bakhshi Garmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the focusing effect of electromagnetic wave in the two-dimensional graded photonic crystal consisting of Silicon rods in the air background with gradually varying lattice constant. The results showed that graded photonic crystal can focus wide beams on a narrow area at frequencies near the lower edge of the band gap, where equal frequency contours are not concave. For calculation of photonic band structure and equal frequency contours, we have used plane wave expansion method and revised plane wave expansion method, respectively. The calculation of the electric and magnetic fields was performed by finite difference time domain method.

  19. Plane-wave spectrum approach for the calculation of electromagnetic absorption under near-field exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, I.; Gandhi, O.P.; Hagmann, M.J.; Riazi, A.

    1980-01-01

    The exposure of humans to electromagnetic near fields has not been sufficiently emphasized by researcher. We have used the plane-wave-spectrum approach to evaluate the electromagnetic field and determine the energy deposited in a lossy, homogeneous, semi-infinite slab placed in the near field of a source leaking radiation. Values of the fields and absorbed energy in the target are obtained by vector summation of the contributions of all the plane waves into which the prescribed field is decomposed. Use of a fast Fourier transform algorithm contributes to the high efficiency of the computations. The numerical results show that, for field distributions that are nearly constant over a physical extent of at least a free-space wavelength, the energy coupled into the target is approximately equal to the resulting from plane-wave exposed

  20. Guiding electromagnetic waves around sharp corners: topologically protected photonic transport in meta-waveguides (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvets, Gennady B.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Ma, Tzuhsuan; Lai, Kueifu

    2015-09-01

    Science thrives on analogies, and a considerable number of inventions and discoveries have been made by pursuing an unexpected connection to a very different field of inquiry. For example, photonic crystals have been referred to as "semiconductors of light" because of the far-reaching analogies between electron propagation in a crystal lattice and light propagation in a periodically modulated photonic environment. However, two aspects of electron behavior, its spin and helicity, escaped emulation by photonic systems until recent invention of photonic topological insulators (PTIs). The impetus for these developments in photonics came from the discovery of topologically nontrivial phases in condensed matter physics enabling edge states immune to scattering. The realization of topologically protected transport in photonics would circumvent a fundamental limitation imposed by the wave equation: inability of reflections-free light propagation along sharply bent pathway. Topologically protected electromagnetic states could be used for transporting photons without any scattering, potentially underpinning new revolutionary concepts in applied science and engineering. I will demonstrate that a PTI can be constructed by applying three types of perturbations: (a) finite bianisotropy, (b) gyromagnetic inclusion breaking the time-reversal (T) symmetry, and (c) asymmetric rods breaking the parity (P) symmetry. We will experimentally demonstrate (i) the existence of the full topological bandgap in a bianisotropic, and (ii) the reflectionless nature of wave propagation along the interface between two PTIs with opposite signs of the bianisotropy.

  1. Theory of electromagnetic cyclotron wave growth in a time-varying magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gail, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent growth rate for parallel propagating electromagnetic cyclotron waves is derived for a magnetoplasma which is characterized by a time dependent compressional perturbation superimposed on an equilibrium configuration. Such perturbations are commonly observed in the Earth's magnetosphere as a consequence of resonant field line oscillations, solar-wind disturbances, and other phenomena. The time dependencies of the magnetic field, thermal plasma density, energetic particle distribution function, and resonance condition are first related through a single dimensionless time parameter b(t) using the ideal MHD assumption. For cases in which the particle distribution can be described by F(α, E) = f(E)sin a(E) α, the time dependent wave growth rate is then given by γ≅ γ 0 (1 + Λ) where γ 0 is the equilibrium growth rate and Λ(b) is a function of the equilibrium parameters and the time parameter b. The term |Λ| is generally small compared to 1, and the effect is a small modulation of the equilibrium growth rate by Λ. If the particle distribution is locally near marginal stability, however, |Λ| is large compared to 1, and the growth rate modulation can be much larger than for a distribution which is not near marginal stability. The results suggest that particle populations which are near marginal stability may be strongly influenced by perturbations in the magnetic field and plasma. Marginally stable distributions may thus play an important role in magnetospheric dynamics as well as determination of radiation belt characteristics

  2. Growth Retardation of Chick Embryo Exposed to a Low Dose of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, N.; Norrish, M.; Heming, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of low dose of the non-ionizing (REW) emitted by a mobile phone on the development of chick embryo. Methods: one hundred and twenty chick fertilized eggs were equally divided into a control and an exposed group. Sixty fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone (SAR US: 1.10W/kg (head) 0.47 W/kg body) in silent mode having vibration disable mode. Mobile was called for a total of 20 minutes in 24 hours. Twenty embryos each were sacrificed at day 5, 10 and 15, mortality, wet body weight, head to rump length, eye diameter and morphological changes were noted. The control group, 60 eggs were incubated in the same conditions, having removed the phone. Results: No mortality was noted. The experimental group exposed to REW showed subcutaneous haemorrhagic areas and significant growth retardation at day 10 as evidence by smaller eye diameter, wet weight and CR length than the control group. There were no significant growth differences at either day 5 or at day 15. Conclusion: Electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones even though for a very short duration of 20 minutes per day have affected the growth of the chick embryo at day 10 of incubation, Hence exposure of these waves are not 100 percent safe. (author)

  3. Electromagnetic wave energy and momentum equations in transparent, dispersive, space- and time-varying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katou, Kanemitsu

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the transport equations for the electromagnetic wave energy density W sub(k) and momentum density P sub(k) in transparent, dispersive, space- and time-varying media are given by dW sub(k)/dt = ωsub(k)sup(-1)deltaωsub(k)/delta t W sub(k) + 2γsub(k)W sub(k) and by dP sub(k)/dt = -k -1 .deltaωsub(k)/delta r P sub(k) + 2γsub(k)P sub(k), respectively, where d/dt denotes the total time derivative along the ray trajectory and γsub(k) is the growth rate. The terms ωsub(k)sup(-1)deltaωsub(k)/delta t W sub(k) and -k -1 .deltaωsub(k)/delta r P sub(k) result from the fact that the wave energy and momentum density are not adiabatic invariants in space- and time-varying media. It is assumed that the geometric optics approximation and the nonlocal linear response theory are valid. (author)

  4. Vacuum polarization effects in the (μ-4He)+ atom and the Born-Infeld electromagnetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacopini, E.; Zavattini, E.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the Born-Infeld nonlinear electromagnetic theory predicts the n = 2 fine-structure differences in the (μ -4 He) + system in fair agreement with the experimental results. A discussion on the birifrangence induced in vacuum by a static magnetic field within the frame of classical Born-Infeld-type theories is also presented

  5. Investigating Gravity Waves in Polar Mesospheric Clouds Using Tomographic Reconstructions of AIM Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, V. P.; Taylor, M. J.; Doyle, T. E.; Zhao, Y.; Pautet, P.-D.; Carruth, B. L.; Rusch, D. W.; Russell, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    This research presents the first application of tomographic techniques for investigating gravity wave structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) imaged by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument on the NASA AIM satellite. Albedo data comprising consecutive PMC scenes were used to tomographically reconstruct a 3-D layer using the Partially Constrained Algebraic Reconstruction Technique algorithm and a previously developed "fanning" technique. For this pilot study, a large region (760 × 148 km) of the PMC layer (altitude 83 km) was sampled with a 2 km horizontal resolution, and an intensity weighted centroid technique was developed to create novel 2-D surface maps, characterizing the individual gravity waves as well as their altitude variability. Spectral analysis of seven selected wave events observed during the Northern Hemisphere 2007 PMC season exhibited dominant horizontal wavelengths of 60-90 km, consistent with previous studies. These tomographic analyses have enabled a broad range of new investigations. For example, a clear spatial anticorrelation was observed between the PMC albedo and wave-induced altitude changes, with higher-albedo structures aligning well with wave troughs, while low-intensity regions aligned with wave crests. This result appears to be consistent with current theories of PMC development in the mesopause region. This new tomographic imaging technique also provides valuable wave amplitude information enabling further mesospheric gravity wave investigations, including quantitative analysis of their hemispheric and interannual characteristics and variations.

  6. Observation of nuclear spin waves in spin-polarized atomic hydrogen gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johson, B.R.; Denker, J.S.; Bigelow, N.; Levy, L.P.; Freed, J.H.; Lee, D.M.

    1984-04-23

    We have observed narrow, distinct resonances in the NMR spectrum of dilute spin-polarized atomic hydrogen gas (nroughly-equal10/sup 16/ atoms/cm/sup 3/). The dependence of the observed spectra on temperature, density, polarization, and magnetic field gradient is consistent with theoretical predictions for spin-wave excitations damped by diffusion. We have measured the parameter ..mu.., which is a measure of the importance of exchange effects in spin transport processes, and the diffusion coefficient D/sub 0/, both of which are in reasonable agreement with theory.

  7. Pitch Angle Scattering of Upgoing Electron Beams in Jupiter's Polar Regions by Whistler Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Clark, G.; Mauk, B. H.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The Juno spacecraft's Jupiter Energetic-particle Detector Instrument has observed field-aligned, unidirectional (upgoing) electron beams throughout most of Jupiter's entire polar cap region. The Waves instrument detected intense broadband whistler mode emissions occurring in the same region. In this paper, we investigate the pitch angle scattering of the upgoing electron beams due to interactions with the whistler mode waves. Profiles of intensity versus pitch angle for electron beams ranging from 2.53 to 7.22 Jovian radii show inconsistencies with the expected adiabatic invariant motion of the electrons. It is believed that the observed whistler mode waves perturb the electron motion and scatter them away from the magnetic field line. The diffusion equation has been solved by using diffusion coefficients which depend on the magnetic intensity of the whistler mode waves.

  8. Generation of Zonal Flow and Magnetic Field by Electromagnetic Planetary Waves in the Ionospheric E-Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, L. Z.; Kaladze, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    We review the excitation of zonal flow and magnetic field by coupled electromagnetic (EM) ULF planetary waves in the Earth's ionospheric E layer. Coupling of different planetary low-frequency electromagnetic waves under the typical ionospheric E-layer conditions is revealed. Propagation of coupled internal-gravity-Alfvén (CIGA), coupled Rossby-Khantadze (CRK) and coupled Rossby-Alfvén-Khantadze (CRAK) waves is shown and studied. A set of appropriate nonlinear equations describing the interaction of such waves with sheared zonal flow is derived. The conclusion on the instability of short wavelength turbulence of such coupled waves with respect to the excitation of low-frequency and large-scale perturbation of the sheared zonal flow and sheared magnetic field is inferred. This nonlinear instability's mechanism is depended on the parametric excitation of triple finite-amplitude coupled waves leading to the inverse energy cascade towards the longer wavelength. The possibility of generation of the intense mean magnetic field is shown. Obtained growth rates are discussed for each considered coupled waves.

  9. Electromagnetic fields of an ultra-short tightly-focused radially-polarized laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Yousef I.; Li, Jian-Xing

    2017-12-01

    Fully analytic expressions, for the electric and magnetic fields of an ultrashort and tightly focused laser pulse of the radially polarized category, are presented to lowest order of approximation. The fields are derived from scalar and vector potentials, along the lines of our earlier work for a similar pulse of the linearly polarized variety. A systematic program is also described from which the fields may be obtained to any desired accuracy, analytically or numerically.

  10. Nonlinear radiation of waves at combination frequencies due to radiation-surface wave interaction in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.

    1992-09-01

    Electromagnetic waves radiated with combination frequencies from a semi-bounded plasma due to nonlinear interaction of radiation with surface wave (both of P-polarization) has been investigated. Waves are radiated both into vacuum and plasma are found to be P-polarized. We take into consideration the continuity at the plasma boundary of the tangential components of the electric field of the waves. The case of normal incidence of radiation and rarefield plasma layer is also studied. (author). 7 refs

  11. Unpinning of rotating spiral waves in cardiac tissues by circularly polarized electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Pan, De-Bei; Li, Bing-Wei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Spiral waves anchored to obstacles in cardiac tissues may cause lethal arrhythmia. To unpin these anchored spirals, comparing to high-voltage side-effect traditional therapies, wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by the uniform electric field (UEF) has provided a low-voltage alternative. Here we provide a new approach using WEH induced by the circularly polarized electric field (CPEF), which has higher success rate and larger application scope than UEF, even with a lower voltage. And we also study the distribution of the membrane potential near an obstacle induced by CPEF to analyze its mechanism of unpinning. We hope this promising approach may provide a better alternative to terminate arrhythmia.

  12. Anomalous Tunneling of Spin Wave in Polar State of Spin-1 BEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Shohei; Ohashi, Yoji; Kato, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    We investigate tunneling properties of collective spin-wave excitations in the polar state of a spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Within the mean-field theory at T = 0, we show that when the condensate is in the critical supercurrent state, the spin wave mode exhibits perfect transmission through a nonmagnetic potential barrier in the low energy limit, unless the strength of a spin-independent interaction c o equals that of a spin-dependent interaction c o Such an anomalous tunneling behavior is absent in the case of a magnetic barrier. We also clarify a scaling law of the transmission probability as a function of the mode energy.

  13. Anomalous Tunneling of Spin Wave in Polar State of Spin-1 BEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Shohei; Kato, Yusuke; Ohashi, Yoji

    2012-12-01

    We investigate tunneling properties of collective spin-wave excitations in the polar state of a spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Within the mean-field theory at T = 0, we show that when the condensate is in the critical supercurrent state, the spin wave mode exhibits perfect transmission through a nonmagnetic potential barrier in the low energy limit, unless the strength of a spin-independent interaction co equals that of a spin-dependent interaction co Such an anomalous tunneling behavior is absent in the case of a magnetic barrier. We also clarify a scaling law of the transmission probability as a function of the mode energy.

  14. Generation of neutron standing waves at total reflection of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.; Kozhevnikov, S.V.; Radu, F.; Kruijs, R.; Rekveldt, M.Th.

    1999-01-01

    The regime of neutron standing waves at reflection of polarized thermal neutrons from the structure glass/Cu (1000 A Angstrom)/Ti (2000 A Angstrom)/Co (60 A Angstrom)/Ti (300 A Angstrom) in a magnetic field directed at an angle to the sample plane is realized. The intensity of neutrons with a particular spin projection on the external magnetic field direction appears to be a periodic function of the neutron wavelength and the glancing angle of the reflected beam. It is shown that the neutron standing wave regime can be a very sensitive method for the determination of changes in the spatial position of magnetic noncollinear layers. (author)

  15. Steady bound electromagnetic eigenstate arises in a homogeneous isotropic linear metamaterial with zero-real-part-of-impedance and nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangwei; Dai, Yuyao; Yan, Lin; Zhao, Huimin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we shall demonstrate theoretically that steady bound electromagnetic eigenstate can arise in an infinite homogeneous isotropic linear metamaterial with zero-real-part-of-impedance and nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector, which is partly attributed to that, here, nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector is not involved with energy losses or gain. Altering value of real-part-of-impedance of the metamaterial, the bound electromagnetic eigenstate may become to be a progressive wave. Our work may be useful to further understand energy conversion and conservation properties of electromagnetic wave in the dispersive and absorptive medium and provides a feasible route to stop, store and release electromagnetic wave (light) conveniently by using metamaterial with near-zero-real-part-of-impedance.

  16. Ultra-High-Speed Travelling Wave Protection of Transmission Line Using Polarity Comparison Principle Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional polarity comparison based travelling wave protection, using the initial wave information, is affected by initial fault angle, bus structure, and external fault. And the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave is ignored. Because of the protection tripping and malfunction, the further application of this protection principle is affected. Therefore, this paper presents an ultra-high-speed travelling wave protection using integral based polarity comparison principle. After empirical mode decomposition of the original travelling wave, the first-order intrinsic mode function is used as protection object. Based on the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of using travelling wave magnitude which contains polar information as direction criterion. And the paper integrates the direction criterion in a period after fault to avoid wave head detection failure. Through PSCAD simulation with the typical 500 kV transmission system, the reliability and sensitivity of travelling wave protection were verified under different factors’ affection.

  17. Formulation of electromagnetic-wave analysis by boundary element method and its application to the analysis of RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washizu, Masao; Tanabe, Yoshio.

    1986-01-01

    In a system handling the electromagnetic waves of large power such as the cavity resonator for a high energy accelerator and the high frequency heater for a nuclear fusion apparatus, the margin in the thermal and mechanical design of a wave guide system cannot be taken large, accordingly, the detailed analysis of electromagnetic waves is required. When the analysis in a general form is carried out, boundary element method may be a useful method of solution. This time, the authors carried out the formulation of steady electromagnetic wave problems by boundary element method, and it was shown that the formulation was able to be carried out under the physically clear boundary condition also in this case, and especially in the case of a perfect conductor system, a very simple form was obtained. In this paper, first, the techniques of formulation in a general case, and next, as a special case, the formulation for a perfect conductor system are described. Taking the analysis of the cavity resonators of cylindrical and rectangular parallelepiped forms as examples, the comparison with the analytical solution was carried out. (Kako, I.)

  18. Large-area electromagnetic enhancement by a resonant excitation of surface waves on a metallic surface with periodic subwavelength patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Haitao; Zhong, Ying

    2013-10-07

    We theoretically investigate the electromagnetic enhancement on a metallic surface patterned with periodic subwavelength structures. Fully-vectorial calculations show a large-area electromagnetic enhancement (LAEE) on the surface, which strongly contrasts with the previously reported "hot spots" that occur in specific tiny regions and which relieves the rigorous requirement of the nano-scale location of sample molecules. The LAEE allows for designing more practicable substrates for many enhanced-spectra applications. By building up microscopic models, the LAEE is shown due to a resonant excitation of surface waves that include both the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and a quasi-cylindrical wave (QCW). The surface waves propagate on the substrate over a long distance and thus greatly enlarge the area of electromagnetic enhancement compared to the nano-sized hot spots caused by localized modes. Gain medium is introduced to further strengthen the large-area surface-wave resonance, with which an enhancement factor (EF) of electric-field intensity up to a few thousands is achieved.

  19. Polarization dependence of the spin-density-wave excitations in single-domain chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Roessli, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France); Sternlieb, B.J. [Brookhaven (United States); Lorenzo, E. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France); Werner, S.A. [Missouri (United States)

    1997-09-01

    A polarized neutron scattering experiment has been performed with a single-Q, single domain sample of chromium in a magnetic field of 4 T. It is confirmed that the longitudinal fluctuations are enhanced for small energy transfers and that the spin wave modes with {delta}S parallel to Q and {delta}S perpendicular to Q are similar. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  20. Wave normal angles of magnetospheric chorus emissions observed on the Polar spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haque, N.; Spasojevic, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Inan, U. S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 115, - (2010), A00F07/1-A00F07/12 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA301120601 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME 842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : chorus * wave normal * Polar spacecraft Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 3.303, year: 2010