On the polarization and depolarization of the electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borghese, Ferdinando; Denti, Paolo; Saija, Rosalba; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare
2005-01-01
We discuss a general description of the polarization of monochromatic electromagnetic waves that proves useful when the customary description in terms of Stokes parameters does not apply. We also show how this description can be exploited to study the depolarization of linearly polarized waves in the interior of porous model cosmic dust grains. The results that we discuss may affect our understanding of several problems that are relevant for astrobiology
Dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Dobrowolny, M [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleaire, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Plasma Spazio
1975-12-15
A numerical study is presented of the dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves in a cold electron plasma. The nonlinear effects introduced by the relativistic motion of electrons are: (1) the dispersion relation depends explicitly on the field strength ..cap alpha..=eE/sub 0//mc..omega../sub 0/, and (2) the propagation of modes with frequencies below the formal electron plasma frequency is allowed.
Dispersion of linearly polarized electromagnetic wave in magnetized quantum plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Abhisek Kumar; Kumar, Punit
2015-01-01
The generation of harmonic radiation is significant in terms of laser-plasma interaction and has brought interesting notice due to the diversity of its applications. The odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated in the majority of laser interactions with homogenous plasma. It has been remarked that second harmonic generation takes place in the presence of density gradient which gives rise to perturbation in the electron density at the laser frequency. The density perturbation coupled with the quiver motion of the electrons produces a source current at the second harmonic frequency. Second harmonic generation has also been related with filamentation. In the present paper, a study of second harmonic generation by propagation of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave through homogeneous high density quantum plasma in the presence of transverse magnetic field. The nonlinear current density and dispersion relations for the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies have been obtained using the recently developed quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. The effect of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and the electron spin have been taken into account. The second harmonic is found to be less dispersed than the first. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dragila, R.; Vukovic, S.
1988-01-01
The properties of surfave waves that are associated with a boundary between a rare plasma and a dense magnetoactive plasma and that propagate along a dc magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the presence of the magnetic field introduces symmetry in terms of the polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave that excites the surface waves. A surface wave excited by an incident p-polarized (s-polarized) electromagnetic wave leaks in the form of an s-polarized (p-polarized) electromagnetic wave. The rate of rotation of polarization is independent of the polarization of the incident wave. Because a surface wave can leak in the form of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave, it can also be pumped by such a wave, and conditions were found for excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized incident electromagnetic wave
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....
Multiphoton processes in the field of two-frequency circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, An
1997-01-01
The authors solve Dirac's equation for an electron in the field of a two-frequency plane electromagnetic wave, deriving general formulae for the probabilities of radiation of a photon by the electron, and for the probabilities for pair production by a photon when the two-frequency wave is circularly polarized. In contrast to the case of a monochromatic-plane electromagnetic wave, when an electron is in the field of a two-frequency circularly polarized wave, besides the absorption of multiphotons and emission of simple harmonics of the individual waves, stimulated multiphoton emission processes and various composite harmonic-photon emission processes are occurred: when a high-energy photon is in a such a field, multiphoton processes also follow the pair production processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodin, G.; Lundberg, J.
1990-01-01
To study the stability of a finite amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in a plasma with pressure anisotropy we make use of a generalized version of the Chew-Goldberger-Low equations. The dispersion relation is derived. Special attention is focused on the MHD-limit. (orig.)
Elastic metamaterials for tuning circular polarization of electromagnetic waves.
Zárate, Yair; Babaee, Sahab; Kang, Sung H; Neshev, Dragomir N; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Bertoldi, Katia; Powell, David A
2016-06-20
Electromagnetic resonators are integrated with advanced elastic material to develop a new type of tunable metamaterial. An electromagnetic-elastic metamaterial able to switch on and off its electromagnetic chiral response is experimentally demonstrated. Such tunability is attained by harnessing the unique buckling properties of auxetic elastic materials (buckliballs) with embedded electromagnetic resonators. In these structures, simple uniaxial compression results in a complex but controlled pattern of deformation, resulting in a shift of its electromagnetic resonance, and in the structure transforming to a chiral state. The concept can be extended to the tuning of three-dimensional materials constructed from the meta-molecules, since all the components twist and deform into the same chiral configuration when compressed.
Bulakhov, M. G.; Buyanov, Yu. I.; Yakubov, V. P.
1996-10-01
It has been shown that a full vector measurement of the total field allows one to uniquely distinguish the incident and reflected waves at each observation point without the use of a spatial difference based on an analysis of the polarization structure of the interference pattern which arises during reflection of electromagnetic waves from an intermedia boundary. We have investigated the stability of these procedures with respect to measurement noise by means of numerical modeling.
Brewster angle for an E-polarized electromagnetic wave interacting with a moving dielectric medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukherjee, P.K.
1977-01-01
The Brewster-angle phenomena of total transmission has been investigated with reference to an E-polarized electromagnetic wave interacting with a dielectric half-space moving along the interface. Analytic conditions are derived for the existence of Brewster angles. We also discuss how the Brewster angles are modified by replacing the incident region (in which the incident electromagnetic wave is propagated) with an isotropic or a uniaxially anisotropic plasma. The Brewster angles are found to behave in a remarkably different fashion under various conditions. Numerical results for the Brewster angles, showing their dependence on the nondimensional velocity of the medium β, are presented for several values of the physical parameters
Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katsuragawa, Naoki; Hojo, Hitoshi; Mase, Atushi
1996-11-01
Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves due to magnetic fluctuations is presented. One-dimensional coupled wave equations for the ordinary and extraordinary modes are solved for incident unipolar sub-cycle pulses in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. It is shown that the peak frequencies in the frequency-spectral signals of the mode-converted reflected waves are determined from the Bragg resonance condition in the wave numbers of the ordinary mode, the extraordinary mode and the magnetic fluctuations for relatively short-wavelength localized magnetic fluctuations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maraghechi, B.; Willett, J.e.
1979-01-01
The stimulated Raman backscattering of an intense electromagnetic wave propagating in the extraordinary mode along a uniform, static magnetic field is considered. The dispersion relation for a homogeneous magnetized plasma in the presence of the circularly polarized pump waves is developed in the cold-plasma approximation with the pump frequency above the plasma frequency. Formulas are derived for the threshold νsub(OT) of the parametric instability and for the growth rate γ of the backscattered extraordinary wave and Langmuir wave. The effects of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation on νsub(0T) and γ are studied numerically. (author)
Wigner functions for nonparaxial, arbitrarily polarized electromagnetic wave fields in free space.
Alonso, Miguel A
2004-11-01
New representations are defined for describing electromagnetic wave fields in free space exactly in terms of rays for any wavelength, level of coherence or polarization, and numerical aperture, as long as there are no evanescent components. These representations correspond to tensors assigned to each ray such that the electric and magnetic energy densities, the Poynting vector, and the polarization properties of the field correspond to simple integrals involving these tensors for the rays that go through the specified point. For partially coherent fields, the ray-based approach provided by the new representations can reduce dramatically the computation times for the physical properties mentioned earlier.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Yukimasa
1977-01-01
The transient reflection and transmission waves of E polarized electromagnetic waves coming into the boundary surface between air and moving isotropic plasma were theoretically investigated. By using the Laplace transformation in the moving system, the formulae of Lorentz and inverse Lorentz transformations concerning electromagnetic field were transformed, thus the transient reflection and transmission waves were obtained. These waves were normalized with the angular frequency of the incident waves, and the variation of the wave form was obtained. Examples of the numerical calculation of reflected waves are shown for the plasma moving in parallel to the boundary surface. (Kato, T.)
Stephen, Lincy; Yogesh, N.; Subramanian, V.
2018-01-01
The giant optical activity of chiral metamaterials (CMMs) holds great potential for tailoring the polarization state of an electromagnetic (EM) wave. In controlling the polarization state, the aspect of asymmetric transmission (AT), where a medium allows the EM radiation to pass through in one direction while restricting it in the opposite direction, adds additional degrees of freedom such as one-way channelling functionality. In this work, a CMM formed by a pair of mutually twisted slanted complementary metal strips is realized for broadband AT accompanied with cross-polarization (CP) conversion for linearly polarized EM waves. Numerically, the proposed ultra-thin (˜λ/42) CMM shows broadband AT from 8.58 GHz to 9.73 GHz (bandwidth of 1.15 GHz) accompanied with CP transmission magnitude greater than 0.9. The transmission and reflection spectra reveal the origin of the asymmetric transmission as the direction sensitive cross polarization conversion and anisotropic electric coupling occurring in the structure which is then elaborated with the surface current analysis and electric field distribution within the structure. An experiment is carried out to verify the broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM at microwave frequencies, and a reliable agreement between numerical and experimental results is obtained. Being ultra-thin, the reported broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM is useful for controlling radiation patterns in non-reciprocal EM devices and communication networks.
Electromagnetic frozen waves with radial, azimuthal, linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations
Corato-Zanarella, Mateus; Zamboni-Rached, Michel
2016-11-01
Frozen waves (FWs) are a class of diffraction- and attenuation-resistant beams whose intensity pattern along the direction of propagation can be chosen arbitrarily, thus making them relevant for engineering the spatial configuration of optical fields. To date, analyses of such beams have been done essentially for the scalar case, with the vectorial nature of the electromagnetic fields often neglected. Although it is expected that the field components keep the fundamental properties of the scalar FWs, a deeper understanding of their electromagnetic counterparts is mandatory in order to exploit their different possible polarization states. The purpose of this paper is to study the properties of electromagnetic FWs with radial, azimuthal, linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations under paraxial and nonparaxial regimes in nonabsorbing media. An intensity pattern is chosen for a scalar FW, and the vectorial solutions are built after it via the use of Maxwell's equations. The results show that the field components and the longitudinal component of the time-averaged Poynting vector closely follow the pattern chosen even under highly nonparaxial conditions, showing the robustness of the FW structure to parameters variations.
Electromagnetic Components of Auroral Hiss and Lower Hybrid Waves in the Polar Magnetosphere
Wong, H. K.
1995-01-01
DE-1 has frequently observed waves in the whistler and lower hybrid frequencies range. Besides the electrostatic components, these waves also exhibit electromagnetic components. It is generally believed that these waves are excited by the electron acoustic instability and the electron-beam-driven lower hybrid instability. Because the electron acoustic and the lower hybrid waves are predominately electrostatic waves, they cannot account for the observed electromagnetic components. In this work, it is suggested that these electromagnetic components can be explained by waves that are generated near the resonance cone and that propagate away from the source. The role that these electromagnetic waves can play in particle acceleration processes at low altitude is discussed.
Chui, S T; Wang, Weihua; Zhou, L; Lin, Z F
2009-07-22
We study the propagation of plane electromagnetic waves through different systems consisting of arrays of split rings of different orientations. Many extraordinary EM phenomena were discovered in such systems, contributed by the off-diagonal magnetoelectric susceptibilities. We find a mode such that the electric field becomes elliptically polarized with a component in the longitudinal direction (i.e. parallel to the wavevector). Even though the group velocity [Formula: see text] and the wavevector k are parallel, in the presence of damping, the Poynting vector does not just get 'broadened', but can possess a component perpendicular to the wavevector. The speed of light can be real even when the product ϵμ is negative. Other novel properties are explored.
Yasumatsu, Naoya; Watanabe, Shinichi
2012-02-01
We propose and develop a method to quickly and precisely determine the polarization direction of coherent terahertz electromagnetic waves generated by femtosecond laser pulses. The measurement system consists of a conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system with the electro-optic (EO) sampling method, but we add a new functionality in the EO crystal which is continuously rotating with the angular frequency ω. We find a simple yet useful formulation of the EO signal as a function of the crystal orientation, which enables a lock-in-like detection of both the electric-field amplitude and the absolute polarization direction of the terahertz waves with respect to the probe laser pulse polarization direction at the same time. The single measurement finishes around two periods of the crystal rotations (∼21 ms), and we experimentally prove that the accuracy of the polarization measurement does not suffer from the long-term amplitude fluctuation of the terahertz pulses. Distribution of the measured polarization directions by repeating the measurements is excellently fitted by a gaussian distribution function with a standard deviation of σ = 0.56°. The developed technique is useful for the fast direct determination of the polarization state of the terahertz electromagnetic waves for polarization imaging applications as well as the precise terahertz Faraday or Kerr rotation spectroscopy.
Nonlinear Electromagnetic Waves and Spherical Arc-Polarized Waves in Space Plasmas
Tsurutani, B.; Ho, Christian M.; Arballo, John K.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Neubauer, Fritz M.
1997-01-01
We review observations of nonlinear plasma waves detected by interplanetary spacecraft. For this paper we will focus primarily on the phase-steepened properties of such waves. Plasma waves at comet Giacobini-Zinner measured by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), at comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup measured by Giotto, and interplanetary Alfven waves measured by Ulysses, will be discussed and intercompared.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. O. Hulyar
2015-09-01
Full Text Available An existence of separate functional system of electromagnetic balance regulation has been substantiated and a working conception of light puncture has been formulated. As a basis, there is a possibility to use the acupuncture points for input of biologically necessary electromagnetic waves into the system of their conductors in a body that might be considered as a transport facility for energy ofthe polarized electromagnetic waves. Zones-recipients are organs having an electromagnetic disbalance due to excess of biologically inadequate radiation and being the targets for peroxide oxidation, foremost, a body has the neurohormonal and immune regulatory systems. Electromagnetic stimulation or modification of functions of the zones-recipients determines achievement of therapeutic and useful effects, and their combination with local reparative processes allows attaining a clinical goal. We represent own and literary experimental data about development of physiological responses (analgesia, bronchospasm control, immune stimulation and inhibition of peroxide oxidation of lipids to BIOPTRON-light exposure on the acupuncture points or biologically active zones. We show the experimental facts in support of a hypothesis that a living organism can perceive an action of the electromagnetic waves of optical range not only via the visual system, but also through the off-nerve receptors (specific energy-sensitive proteins detecting critical changes of energy in cells and functioning as the "sensory" cell systems, as well as via the acupuncture points. This confirms an important role of the electromagnetic waves of optical range in providing normal vital functions of living organisms. A current approach to BIOPTRON light therapy consists in combined (local and system exposure of the electromagnetic waves within the biologically necessary range.
Borzdov, G. N.
2017-10-01
The family of solutions to the Dirac equation for an electron moving in an electromagnetic lattice with the chiral structure created by counterpropagating circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves is obtained. At any nonzero quasimomentum, the dispersion equation has two solutions which specify bispinor wave functions describing electron states with different energies and mean values of momentum and spin operators. The inversion of the quasimomentum results in two other linearly independent solutions. These four basic wave functions are uniquely defined by eight complex scalar functions (structural functions), which serve as convenient building blocks of the relations describing the electron properties. These properties are illustrated in graphical form over a wide range of quasimomenta. The superpositions of two basic wave functions describing different spin states and corresponding to (i) the same quasimomentum (unidirectional electron states with the spin precession) and (ii) the two equal-in-magnitude but oppositely directed quasimomenta (bidirectional electron states) are also treated.
Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations
Le, Guan; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow band waves at frequencies approximately 0.2 to 3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency, and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both lefthanded and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.
Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High-Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations
Le, G.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.
2005-01-01
High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow-band waves at frequencies approx. 0.2-3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both left-handed and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle, and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.
Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Lundin
Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.
Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous
Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Lundin
2002-08-01
Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous
Electromagnetic wave matching device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.
1997-01-01
The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)
Gorodnichev, E E
2018-04-01
The problem of multiple scattering of polarized light in a two-dimensional medium composed of fiberlike inhomogeneities is studied. The attenuation lengths for the density matrix elements are calculated. For a highly absorbing medium it is found that, as the sample thickness increases, the intensity of waves polarized along the fibers decays faster than the other density matrix elements. With further increase in the sample thickness, the off-diagonal elements which are responsible for correlations between the cross-polarized waves disappear. In the asymptotic limit of very thick samples the scattered light proves to be polarized perpendicular to the fibers. The difference in the attenuation lengths between the density matrix elements results in a nonmonotonic depth dependence of the degree of polarization. In the opposite case of a weakly absorbing medium, the off-diagonal element of the density matrix and, correspondingly, the correlations between the cross-polarized fields are shown to decay faster than the intensity of waves polarized along and perpendicular to the fibers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shahmansouri, M., E-mail: mshmansouri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 38156-8 8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Misra, A. P., E-mail: apmisra@visva-bharati.ac.in, E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, West Bengal (India)
2016-07-15
The dispersion properties of elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in a magnetized electron-positron-pair (EP-pair) plasma are studied with the effects of particle dispersion associated with the Bohm potential, the Fermi degenerate pressure, and the exchange-correlation force. Two possible modes of the extraordinary or X wave, modified by these quantum effects, are identified and their propagation characteristics are investigated numerically. It is shown that the upper-hybrid frequency and the cutoff and resonance frequencies are no longer constants but are dispersive due to these quantum effects. It is found that the particle dispersion and the exchange-correlation force can have different dominating roles on each other depending on whether the X waves are of short or long wavelengths (in comparison with the Fermi Debye length). The present investigation should be useful for understanding the collective behaviors of EP plasma oscillations and the propagation of extraordinary waves in magnetized dense EP-pair plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourdier, A.
1999-01-01
This work concerns mainly the dynamics of a charged particle in an electromagnetic wave. It is a first step in elaborating a more general model permitting to predict the wave-particle interaction. We show how deriving a first integral gives an idea on how to create an electron current in a cold electron plasma. We present results which can be used to test the 2D and 3D Vlasov-Maxwell codes being built up in CEA-DAM. These codes will allow the calcination of the magnetic field created by an electromagnetic wave like the one due to the inverse Faraday effect when a circularly polarized wave drives the electrons of a plasma into circular orbits. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellan, P. M.
2013-01-01
The interaction between a circularly polarized wave and an energetic gyrating particle is described using a relativistic pseudo-potential that is a function of the frequency mismatch. Analysis of the pseudo-potential provides a means for interpreting numerical results. The pseudo-potential profile depends on the initial mismatch, the normalized wave amplitude, and the initial angle between the wave magnetic field and the particle perpendicular velocity. For zero initial mismatch, the pseudo-potential consists of only one valley, but for finite mismatch, there can be two valleys separated by a hill. A large pitch angle scattering of the energetic electron can occur in the two-valley situation but fast scattering can also occur in a single valley. Examples relevant to magnetospheric whistler waves show that the energetic electron pitch angle can be deflected 5°towards the loss cone when transiting a 10 ms long coherent wave packet having realistic parameters.
Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves
Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing
2016-01-01
This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.
Effect of multi-ions on electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves with a hot plasma around the polar cusp
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, Soniya; Varma, P; Tiwari, M S
2011-01-01
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instabilities with an isotropic ion beam and general loss-cone distribution of hot core plasmas are discussed. The growth rate of the wave, perpendicular heating of ions, parallel resonant energy and marginal instability of the EMIC waves in homogeneous plasmas are obtained using the dispersion relation for hot plasmas consisting of H + , He + ,O + ions and electrons. The wave is assumed to propagate parallel to the static magnetic field. The whole plasma is considered to consist of resonant and non-resonant particles permeated by the isotropic ion beam. It is assumed that the resonant particles and the ion beam participate in energy exchange with the wave, whereas the non-resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave. We determined the variation in energies and growth rate in hot plasmas by the energy conservation method with a general loss-cone distribution function. We also discuss the effect of positive and negative ion beam velocity on the growth rate of the wave. The thermal anisotropy of the ions of the core plasma acts as a source of free energy for EMIC waves and enhances the growth rate. Heating of ions perpendicular to the magnetic field is discussed along with EMIC wave emission in the polar cusp region.
Electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hamamatsu, K.
1981-09-01
Electromagnetic electron cyclotron harmonic waves just below the electron cyclotron harmonics are investigated numerically and experimentally. Backward waves which are observed to propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field just below the electron cyclotron frequency in a high density magnetoplasma are confirmed to be in accord with the theoretical electromagnetic cyclotron waves. (author)
Khazanov, G. V.; Boardsen, S.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Sibeck, D.; Chen, S.; Breneman, A.
2017-01-01
We analyze a wave event that occurred near noon between 07:03 and 07:08 UT on 23 February 2014 detected by the Van Allen Probes B spacecraft, where waves in the lower hybrid frequency range (LHFR) and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are observed to be highly correlated, with Pearson correlation coefficient of approximately 0.86. We assume that the correlation is the result of LHFR wave generation by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of the EMIC waves. To check this assumption the drift velocities of electrons and H+, He+, and O+ ions in the measured EMIC wave electric field were modeled. Then the LHFR wave linear instantaneous growth rates for plasma with these changing drift velocities and different plasma compositions were calculated. The time distribution of these growth rates, their frequency distribution, and the frequency dependence of the ratio of the LHFR wave power spectral density (PSD)parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic eld to the total PSD were found. These characteristics of the growth rates were compared with the corresponding characteristics of the observed LHFR activity. Reasonable agreement between these features and the strong correlation between EMIC and LHFR energy densities support the assumption that the LHFR wave generation can be caused by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of an EMIC wave.
Electromagnetic wave matching device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.
1997-01-01
The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)
Electromagnetic waves in gravitational wave spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haney, M.; Bini, D.; Ortolan, A.; Fortini, P.
2013-01-01
We have considered the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a space-time representing an exact gravitational plane wave and calculated the induced changes on the four-potential field Aμ of a plane electromagnetic wave. By choosing a suitable photon round-trip in a Michelson interferometer, we have been able to identify the physical effects of the exact gravitational wave on the electromagnetic field, i.e. phase shift, change of the polarization vector, angular deflection and delay. These results have been exploited to study the response of an interferometric gravitational wave detector beyond the linear approximation of the general theory of relativity. A much more detailed examination of this problem can be found in our paper recently published in Classical and Quantum Gravity (28 (2011) 235007).
Coherent scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a polarized particle system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agre, M.Ya.; Rapoport, L.P.
1996-01-01
The paper deals with the development of the theory of coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves by a polarized atom or molecular system. Peculiarities of the angular distribution and polarization peculiarities of scattered radiation are discussed
Electromagnetic wave energy converter
Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)
1973-01-01
Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.
"Hearing" Electromagnetic Waves
Rojo, Marta; Munoz, Juan
2014-01-01
In this work, an educational experience is described in which a microwave communication link is used to make students aware that all electromagnetic waves have the same physical nature and properties. Experimental demonstrations are linked to theoretical concepts to increase comprehension of the physical principles underlying electromagnetic…
Wave fronts of electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.
1982-01-01
In an inhomogeneous high-density magnetized plasma, the spatial properties of the wave fronts and ray trajectories of electromagnetic ordinary and extraordinary cyclotron harmonic waves are investigated. Those waves which are radiated from a local source are found to have wave fronts which are almost parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the reflective properties of the electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves are confirmed
Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode
Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.
2010-01-01
An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...
Scattering theory of stochastic electromagnetic light waves.
Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu
2010-07-15
We generalize scattering theory to stochastic electromagnetic light waves. It is shown that when a stochastic electromagnetic light wave is scattered from a medium, the properties of the scattered field can be characterized by a 3 x 3 cross-spectral density matrix. An example of scattering of a spatially coherent electromagnetic light wave from a deterministic medium is discussed. Some interesting phenomena emerge, including the changes of the spectral degree of coherence and of the spectral degree of polarization of the scattered field.
Davis, Brynmor; Kim, Edward; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Many new Earth remote-sensing instruments are embracing both the advantages and added complexity that result from interferometric or fully polarimetric operation. To increase instrument understanding and functionality a model of the signals these instruments measure is presented. A stochastic model is used as it recognizes the non-deterministic nature of any real-world measurements while also providing a tractable mathematical framework. A stationary, Gaussian-distributed model structure is proposed. Temporal and spectral correlation measures provide a statistical description of the physical properties of coherence and polarization-state. From this relationship the model is mathematically defined. The model is shown to be unique for any set of physical parameters. A method of realizing the model (necessary for applications such as synthetic calibration-signal generation) is given and computer simulation results are presented. The signals are constructed using the output of a multi-input multi-output linear filter system, driven with white noise.
Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.
Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J
2012-06-19
The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Electromagnetic fields and waves
Iskander, Magdy F
2013-01-01
The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Remya, B.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Kalamboli Highway, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Echer, E. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Avenida Astronautas, 1758, P.O. Box 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Glassmeier, K.-H., E-mail: remyaphysics@gmail.com [Institute for Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics (IGEP), Mendelssohnstr.3, D-38106, Braunschweig (Germany)
2014-09-20
During 1999 August 18, both Cassini and WIND were in the Earth's magnetosheath and detected transverse electromagnetic waves instead of the more typical mirror-mode emissions. The Cassini wave amplitudes were as large as ∼14 nT (peak to peak) in a ∼55 nT ambient magnetic field B {sub 0}. A new method of analysis is applied to study these waves. The general wave characteristics found were as follows. They were left-hand polarized and had frequencies in the spacecraft frame (f {sub scf}) below the proton cyclotron frequency (f{sub p} ). Waves that were either right-hand polarized or had f {sub scf} > f{sub p} are shown to be consistent with Doppler-shifted left-hand waves with frequencies in the plasma frame f{sub pf} < f{sub p} . Thus, almost all waves studied are consistent with their being electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves. Most of the waves (∼55%) were found to be propagating along B {sub 0} (θ{sub kB{sub 0}}<30{sup ∘}), as expected from theory. However, a significant fraction of the waves were found to be propagating oblique to B {sub 0}. These waves were also circularly polarized. This feature and the compressive ([B {sub max} – B {sub min}]/B {sub max}, where B {sub max} and B {sub min} are the maximum and minimum field magnitudes) nature (ranging from 0.27 to 1.0) of the waves are noted but not well understood at this time. The proton cyclotron waves were shown to be quasi-coherent, theoretically allowing for rapid pitch-angle transport of resonant protons. Because Cassini traversed the entire subsolar magnetosheath and WIND was in the dusk-side flank of the magnetosheath, it is surmised that the entire region was filled with these waves. In agreement with past theory, it was the exceptionally low plasma β (0.35) that led to the dominance of the proton cyclotron wave generation during this interval. A high-speed solar wind stream ((V{sub sw} ) = 598 km s{sup –1}) was the source of this low-β plasma.
Wave propagation in electromagnetic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, J.L.
1990-01-01
This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media, specifically in electromagnetic materials. An account is presented of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials. The author presents the theory of time-varying electromagnetic fields, which involves a discussion of Faraday's laws, Maxwell's equations and their application to electromagnetic wave propagation under a variety of conditions. The author gives a discussion of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics. Chapters are included on quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. The mathematical foundation of electromagnetic waves vis a vis partial differential equations is discussed
Electromagnetic wave propagating along a space curve
Lai, Meng-Yun; Wang, Yong-Long; Liang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Fan; Zong, Hong-Shi
2018-03-01
By using the thin-layer approach, we derive the effective equation for the electromagnetic wave propagating along a space curve. We find intrinsic spin-orbit, extrinsic spin-orbit, and extrinsic orbital angular-momentum and intrinsic orbital angular-momentum couplings induced by torsion, which can lead to geometric phase, spin, and orbital Hall effects. And we show the helicity inversion induced by curvature that can convert a right-handed circularly polarized electromagnetic wave into a left-handed polarized one, vice versa. Finally, we demonstrate that the gauge invariance of the effective dynamics is protected by the geometrically induced gauge potential.
Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I
2011-01-01
An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of rotation of the polarization state and is also a key component in optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinarily strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as the electronic diode function is provided by the nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differs by a factor of 65.
Electromagnetic waves in stratified media
Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R
2013-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benova, E.; Staikov, P.; Zhelyazkov, I.
1992-01-01
A set of equations modelling a low-pressure plasma column sustained by a travelling electromagnetic wave in the dipolar mode in the presence of a constant external magnetic field is presented. It is shown that, from a practical point of view, only the m = 1 mode (the right-hand-polarized wave) can sustain plasma columns in a wide region of gas-discharge conditions: plasma radius R, wave frequency ω, magnetic field B 0 and low pressures, irrespective of the nature of the gas. The main result of this study is that the magnetic field makes it possible to sustain a plasma column for values of σ smaller than σ cr = 0.3726, below which, in the absence of a magnetic field, the dipolar wave cannot produce a plasma. Moreover, at a fixed wave power, the magnetic field - in contrast with the case of plasma columns sustained by azimuthally symmetric waves - increases the plasma density and its axial gradient. The limit of an infinite external magnetic field (Ω → ∞) is also considered. A three-dimensional wave structure is obtained, and it indicates that the wave can be a generalized surface mode, a pure surface or a pseudosurface one. (author)
Wave propagation in electromagnetic media
Davis, Julian L
1990-01-01
This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...
Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research
Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.
1975-01-01
Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.
Focusing of electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhayalan, V.
1996-01-01
The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs
Zhu, P. Y.
1991-01-01
The effective-medium approximation is applied to investigate scattering from a half-space of randomly and densely distributed discrete scatterers. Starting from vector wave equations, an approximation, called effective-medium Born approximation, a particular way, treating Green's functions, and special coordinates, of which the origin is set at the field point, are used to calculate the bistatic- and back-scatterings. An analytic solution of backscattering with closed form is obtained and it shows a depolarization effect. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in the cases of snow, multi- and first-year sea-ice. The root product ratio of polarization to depolarization in backscattering is equal to 8; this result constitutes a law about polarized scattering phenomena in the nature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Nitin; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.
2007-01-01
By using the two fluid and Maxwell equations, the properties of electromagnetic waves in a rotating positive-negative dusty magnetoplasmas are investigated. It is found that the cross-coupling between the equilibrium dust flows and the perturbed magnetic field produces a Lorentz force that separates positive and negative dust grains. A new dispersion relation is derived and analyzed numerically. The effects of the dust grain radius, the equilibrium streaming speed, Jeans frequency, and the rotational frequency on the behavior of the real and imaginary parts of the wave frequency are examined. It is found that for small dust grain radius, the growth rate (the real frequency) increases (decreases) with the increase of the streaming dust speed and Jeans frequency. However, the dust rotational frequency does not have an important role in this case. For large dust grain radius, only the imaginary part of the wave frequency is presented. It is found that the rotational frequency (Jeans frequency and dust streaming speed) decreases (increase) the growth rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mota, R D; Xicotencatl, M A; Granados, V D
2004-01-01
In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse
Mota, R. D.; Xicoténcatl, M. A.; Granados, V. D.
2004-02-01
In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mota, R D [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de IngenierIa y TecnologIas Avanzadas, IPN. Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Xicotencatl, M A [Departamento de Matematicas del Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF, 07000 (Mexico); Granados, V D [Escuela Superior de FIsica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)
2004-02-20
In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.
Averbukh, B. B.; Averbukh, I. B.
2016-11-01
The refraction of a plane s-polarized electromagnetic wave on the vacuum-metamaterial interface is considered. Point particles with electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities are scattering elements of a medium. The medium consists of plane-parallel monolayers of electric or magnetic dipoles or Huygens elements influencing one another. Dipole fields are completely taken into account. The fields inside the medium and the reflected fields are calculated. The extinction theorem is analyzed in detail. The mechanism of rotation of the magnetic field vector during refraction is elucidated. A reason for the absence of the fourth wave propagating from the medium toward the boundary in the conventionally employed boundary conditions is elucidated. It is shown that, under certain conditions, this medium can behave as possessing a unity refractive index or zero refractive index at a preset frequency. In the case of a metamaterial layer of finite thickness shows the output region of the existence of backward waves outside metamaterial layer. It is shown that the refraction of the field in a homogeneous medium after the dielectric corresponds to Fermat's principle, and the interference nature of Fermat's principle is justified.
Electromagnetic resonance waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villaba, J.M.; Manjon, F.J.; Guirao, A.; Andres, M.V.
1994-01-01
We describe in this paper a set of experiments designed to make qualitative and quantitative measurements on electromagnetic resonances of several simple systems. The experiments are designed for the undergraduate laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism in Physics. These experiments can help the students understanding the concept of resonance, which appears in different fields of Physics. (Author) 8 refs
Teaching Electromagnetic Waves in College Physics Laboratory
Kezerashvili, Roman Y.; Leng, L.
2006-12-01
One of the important educational advantages of the simultaneous study of the electromagnetic waves and light is to show that light and the electromagnetic radiation have the same properties so that the students can visualize the properties of the electromagnetic radiation through observation of light propagation. In our approach we are suggest to study the properties of a microwave radiation and light in parallel. The following experiments can be easily designed and they provide a methodical introduction to electromagnetic theory using the microwave radiation and light: the study of the inverse square law of the dependence of the intensity of radiation (microwave and light) on the distance, the law of reflection and refraction, investigation of the phenomenon of polarization and how a polarizer can be used to alter the polarization of microwave radiation and light, measuring the Brewster's angle, studying interference by performing double-slit experiment for microwave radiation and light. Finally students measure the wavelength of the laser light and microwave radiation using the corresponding versions the Michelson’s interferometer, and recognize that these two radiations only differ by the wavelength or frequency.
Radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves
Tyras, George; Declaris, Nicholas
1969-01-01
Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves serves as a text in electrical engineering or electrophysics. The book discusses the electromagnetic theory; plane electromagnetic waves in homogenous isotropic and anisotropic media; and plane electromagnetic waves in inhomogenous stratified media. The text also describes the spectral representation of elementary electromagnetic sources; the field of a dipole in a stratified medium; and radiation in anisotropic plasma. The properties and the procedures of Green's function method of solution, axial currents, as well as cylindrical boundaries a
Proposed electromagnetic wave energy converter
Bailey, R. L.
1973-01-01
Device converts wave energy into electric power through array of insulated absorber elements responsive to field of impinging electromagnetic radiation. Device could also serve as solar energy converter that is potentially less expensive and fragile than solar cells, yet substantially more efficient.
Geometry of wave electromagnetics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudarshan, E. C.G.
1980-10-27
A challenge to the commonly held view of light as a wave phenomenon is presented. An exact realization of light as generalized pencils or rays is constructed, with stress placed on using pencils of rays rather than single rays. Exact equations of motion are presented for the rays in the pencil, and these rays tend to travel in straight lines in empty space (not too near the edge of the beam). (GHT)
Terahertz wave manipulation based on multi-bit coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces
Li, Jiu-Sheng; Zhao, Ze-Jiang; Yao, Jian-Quan
2018-05-01
A polarization insensitive multi-bit coding artificial electromagnetic surface is proposed for terahertz wave manipulation. The coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces composed of four-arrow-shaped particles with certain coding sequences can generate multi-bit coding in the terahertz frequencies and manipulate the reflected terahertz waves to the numerous directions by using of different coding distributions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our coding artificial electromagnetic surfaces have strong abilities to reduce the radar cross section with polarization insensitive for TE and TM incident terahertz waves as well as linear-polarized and circular-polarized terahertz waves. This work offers an effectively strategy to realize more powerful manipulation of terahertz wave.
Millimeter waves: acoustic and electromagnetic.
Ziskin, Marvin C
2013-01-01
This article is the presentation I gave at the D'Arsonval Award Ceremony on June 14, 2011 at the Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It summarizes my research activities in acoustic and electromagnetic millimeter waves over the past 47 years. My earliest research involved acoustic millimeter waves, with a special interest in diagnostic ultrasound imaging and its safety. For the last 21 years my research expanded to include electromagnetic millimeter waves, with a special interest in the mechanisms underlying millimeter wave therapy. Millimeter wave therapy has been widely used in the former Soviet Union with great reported success for many diseases, but is virtually unknown to Western physicians. I and the very capable members of my laboratory were able to demonstrate that the local exposure of skin to low intensity millimeter waves caused the release of endogenous opioids, and the transport of these agents by blood flow to all parts of the body resulted in pain relief and other beneficial effects. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Manipulating electromagnetic waves with metamaterials: Concept and microwave realizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Qiong; Xiao Shi-Yi; Li Xin; Song Zheng-Yong; Sun Wu-Jiong; Zhou Lei; Sun Shu-Lin
2014-01-01
Our recent efforts in manipulating electromagnetic (EM) waves using metamaterials (MTMs) are reviewed with emphasis on 1) manipulating wave polarization and transporting properties using homogeneous MTMs, 2) manipulating surface-wave properties using plasmonic MTMs, and 3) bridging propagating and surface waves using inhomogeneous meta-surfaces. For all these topics, we first illustrate the physical concepts and then present several typical practical realizations and applications in the microwave regime. (topical review - plasmonics and metamaterials)
Production of gravitation waves by electromagnetic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchner, K.; Rosca, R.
1980-01-01
An exact solution of Einstein's equations is presented that corresponds to an axisymmetric bundle of electromagnetic waves with finite cross section. Outside this bundle, there is gravitational radiation parallel to the electromagnetic radiation. If no static electromagnetic fields are present, the frequency of the gravitational waves is twice the frequency of the electromagnetic waves. Einstein's energy complex vanishes identically. The covariant energy complex, however, yields also a radial momentum. (author)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Prikner, Karel; Feygin, F. Z.; Raita, T.
2014-01-01
Roč. 58, č. 2 (2014), s. 338-341 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : ionospheric Alfvén resonator * EMIC waves * EISCAT measurements Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014
Interacting electromagnetic waves in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J.B.
1976-01-01
The problem is considered of finding exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which describe the physical situation of two colliding and subsequently interacting electromagnetic waves. The general theory of relativity predicts a nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic waves. The situation is described using an approximate geometrical method, and a new exact solution describing two interacting electromagnetic waves is given. This describes waves emitted from two sources mutually focusing each other on the opposite source. (author)
Radiation Safety of Electromagnetic Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, A.Z.
2009-01-01
The wide spread of Electromagnetic Waves (EMW) through the power lines, multimedia, communications, devices, appliances, etc., are well known. The probable health hazards associated with EMW and the radiation safety criteria are to be reviewed. However, the principles of the regulatory safety are based on radiation protection procedure, intervention to combat the relevant risk and to mitigate consequences. The oscillating electric magnetic fields (EMF) of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induce electrical hazards. The extremely high power EMR can cause fire hazards and explosions of pyrotechnic (Rad Haz). Biological hazards of EMF result as dielectric heat, severe burn, as well as the hazards of eyes. Shielding is among the technical protective measures against EMR hazards. Others are limitation of time of exposure and separation distance apart of the EMR source. Understanding and safe handling of the EMR sources are required to feel safety.
Science 101: Can Electromagnetic Waves Affect Emotions?
Robertson, Bill
2017-01-01
The answer to this month's question, "Can electromagnetic waves affect emotions," is yes. Wherever there are electromagnetic (EM) waves (basically everywhere!), there is the potential for them directly or indirectly to affect the emotions. But what about the likely motivation behind the originally-posed question? Can EM waves affect your…
Dispersion properties of transverse waves in electrically polarized BECs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreev, Pavel A; Kuz'menkov, L S
2014-01-01
Further development of the method of quantum hydrodynamics in applications for Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) is presented. To consider the evolution of polarization direction along with particle movement, we have developed a corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. It includes equations of the polarization evolution and the polarization-current evolution along with the continuity equation and the Euler equation (the momentum-balance equation). Dispersion properties of the transverse waves, including the electromagnetic waves propagating through the BECs, are considered. To this end, we consider a full set of the Maxwell equations for the description of electromagnetic field dynamics. This approximation gives us the possibility of considering the electromagnetic waves along with the matter waves. We find a splitting of the electromagnetic-wave dispersion on two branches. As a result, we have four solutions, two for the electromagnetic waves and two for the matter waves; the last two are the concentration-polarization waves appearing as a generalization of the Bogoliubov mode. We also find that if the matter wave propagates perpendicular to the external electric field then the dipolar contribution does not disappear (as it follows from our generalization of the Bogoliubov spectrum). A small dipolar frequency shift exists in this case due to the transverse electric field of perturbation. (paper)
Generating gravity waves with matter and electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P A.
2008-01-01
If a homogeneous plane lightlike shell collides head on with a homogeneous plane electromagnetic shock wave having a step-function profile then no backscattered gravitational waves are produced. We demonstrate, by explicit calculation, that if the matter is accompanied by a homogeneous plane electromagnetic shock wave with a step-function profile then backscattered gravitational waves appear after the collision
Selective wave-transmitting electromagnetic absorber through composite metasurface
Sun, Zhiwei; Zhao, Junming; Zhu, Bo; Jiang, Tian; Feng, Yijun
2017-11-01
Selective wave-transmitting absorbers which have one or more narrow transmission bands inside a wide absorption band are often demanded in wireless communication and radome applications for reducing the coupling between different systems, improving anti-jamming capability, and reducing antennas' radar cross section. Here we propose a feasible method that utilizing composite of two metasurfaces with different polarization dependent characteristics, one works as electromagnetic polarization rotator and the other as a wideband polarization dependent electromagnetic wave absorber. The polarization rotator produces a cross polarization output in the wave-transmitting band, while preserves the polarization of the incidence outside the band. The metasurface absorber works for certain linear polarization with a much wider absorption band covering the wave-transmitting frequency. When combining these two metasurfaces properly, the whole structure behaves as a wideband absorber with a certain frequency transmission window. The proposal may be applied in radome designs to reduce the radar cross section of antenna or improving the electromagnetic compatibility in communication devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.
2012-01-01
Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.
Explaining Polarization Reversals in STEREO Wave Data
Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L, B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.
2012-01-01
Recently Breneman et al. reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (Lpaper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by +/-200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by 200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al.
Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasovitskiy, V. B.
2009-01-01
Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2009-01-01
The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, X-ray microscope, application to medical and information communication technologies, such as interaction between material and nanometer electromagnetic waves of radiated light and X-ray, interaction between microwaves and particle beams, theory and design of high-frequency waveguides for resonator and accelerator, from January 2003 to December 2005. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and Cherenkov radiation, Kyushu synchrotron light source and its technology, nanometer electromagnetic fields in optical region, process of interaction between evanescent waves and near-field light, orthogonal relation of electromagnetic fields including evanescent waves in dispersive dielectrics, optical amplification using electron beam, nanometer electromagnetic fields in focusing waveguide lens device with curved facets, electromagnetic fields in nanometer photonic crystal waveguide consisting of atoms, X-ray scattering and absorption I bio-material for image diagnosis. (author)
Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves
Miller, R.B.
A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.
Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma
Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.
1987-01-01
High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.
Interaction between electromagnetic waves and plasma waves in motional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S. Y.; Gao, M.; Tang, C. J.; Peng, X. D.
2009-01-01
The electromagnetic wave (EM wave) behavior and the electromagnetic instability caused by the interaction between an EM wave and a plasma wave in motional plasma are studied. The dispersion relation of EM waves and the dielectric tensor of motional plasma are derived by magnetohydrodynamics, and the wave phenomenon in motional plasma is displayed. As a result, the electromagnetic instability, which is excited by the interaction between the EM waves and the plasma waves, is revealed. The mechanism of the instability is the coupling between high frequency electromagnetic field and the transverse electron oscillation derived from the deflection of longitudinal electron oscillation due to self-magnetic field. The present research is useful with regard to the new type of plasma radiation source, ion-focusing accelerator, and plasma diagnostic technique.
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the plasma depletion layer
Denton, Richard E.; Hudson, Mary K.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Anderson, Brian J.
1993-01-01
Results of a study of the theoretical properties of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves which occur in the plasma depletion layer are presented. The analysis assumes a homogeneous plasma with the characteristics which were measured by the AMPTE/CCE satellite at 1450-1501 UT on October 5, 1984. Waves were observed in the Pc 1 frequency range below the hydrogen gyrofrequency, and these waves are identified as EMIC waves. The higher-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the H(+) ions, while the lower-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the He(2+) ions. It is argued that the higher-frequency waves will have k roughly parallel to B(0) and will be left-hand polarized, while the lower frequency wave band will have k oblique to B(0) and will be linearly polarized, in agreement with observations.
[Mechanisms of primary reception of electromagnetic waves of optical range].
Huliar, S O; Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P
2003-01-01
An existence of separate functional system of regulation of electromagnetic balance of organism has been substantiated and a working conception of light therapy has been formulated. As a basis, there is a possibility to use the acupuncture points for input of biologically necessary electromagnetic waves into the system of their conductors in a body that might be considered as a transport facility for energy of the polarized electromagnetic waves. Zones-recipients are organs having an electromagnetic disbalance due to excess of biologically inadequate radiation and being the targets for peroxide oxidation. Foremost, a body has the neurohormonal and immune regulatory systems. Electromagnetic stimulation or modification of functions of the zones-recipients determines the achievement of therapeutic and useful effects, and their combination with local reparative processes allows to attain a clinical goal. We represent own and literary experimental data about the development of physiological responses (analgesia) to BIOPTRON-light exposure on the acupuncture points or biologically active zones. We show the experimental facts in support of a hypothesis that a living organism can perceive an action of the electromagnetic fields of optical range not only via the visual system, but also through the off-nerve receptors (specific energy-sensitive proteins detecting critical changes of energy in cells and functioning as the "sensory" cell systems), as well as via the acupuncture points. It confirms an important role of the electromagnetic waves of optical range in providing normal vital functions of living organisms. A current approach to BIOPTRON light therapy (by polarized polychromatic coherent low energy light) consists in combined (local and system) exposure of the electromagnetic waves within the biologically necessary range.
At the heart of the waves - Electromagnetic fields in question
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ndagijimana, Fabien; Gaudaire, Francois
2013-01-01
This document briefly presents a book in which the author describes what an electromagnetic wave is, the use of electromagnetic waves, how an information is transmitted by means of an electromagnetic wave, what wave modulation is, what multiplexing is, what the characteristics of an antenna are, how waves propagate, how electromagnetic shielding works, what the CEM (electromagnetic compatibility) is, and how a cellular phone network works, in the framework of electromagnetic fields risk assessment
Chiral retrieval method based on right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martín, Ernesto; Muñoz, Juan; Margineda, José; Molina-Cuberos, Gregorio J; García-Collado, Ángel J
2014-01-01
The free-wave characterization of metamaterials is usually carried out by illuminating a sample with a linearly polarized plane electromagnetic wave. At points before and after the sample, sensors are introduced to measure the transverse components of the field, in order to compute the reflection and transmission coefficients related with the co- and cross-polar field components. Based on this information, retrieval algorithms allow parameters like rotation angle, effective chirality and refraction index to be calculated. Here we propose to use the transmission signals under illumination with plane circularly polarized waves, without sensing the reflection signal, to calculate the chirality parameter and the rotation angle due to the electromagnetic activity of the material. This new method, which allows a simpler characterization of a chiral slab, is applied to the study of metamaterials composed of both periodic and random distributions of metallic structures with chiral symmetry. The experimental results are contrasted with simulations and alternative measurements obtained using linearly polarized waves. (paper)
A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erofeev, V. I.
2015-01-01
The concept of informativeness of nonlinear plasma physics scenarios is explained. Natural ideas of developing highly informative models of plasma kinetics are spelled out. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves in a weakly turbulent inhomogeneous plasma is developed with consideration of possible changes in wave polarization. In addition, a new formula for wave drift in spatial positions and wave vectors is derived. New scenarios of the respective wave drift and inelastic scattering are compared with the previous visions. The results indicate the need for further revision of the traditional understanding of nonlinear plasma phenomena
Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation
Schakel, M.D.
2011-01-01
Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation is studied theoretically and experimentally. This coupling arises because of the electrochemical double layer, which exists along the solid-grain/fluid-electrolyte boundaries of porous media. Within the double layer, charge is redistributed,
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles
Kristensson, Gerhard
2016-01-01
The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.
Solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the field of a plane electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starostin, V.S.
1988-01-01
A solution is obtained of the Bethe--Salpeter equation for positronium in the field of linearly and circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves at frequencies much higher than atomic. It is not assumed that the field is weak
Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu
2014-01-01
A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete
Transmission of electromagnetic waves through sub-wavelength channels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger
2010-01-01
We propose a method of tunneling electromagnetic (EM) waves through a channel with sub-wavelength cross section. By filling the channel with high-ε isotropic material and implementing two matching layers with uniaxial metamterial substrates, the guided waves can go through the narrow channel...... without being cut off, as if it has just passed through the original empty waveguide. Both the magnitude and phase information of the EM fields can be effectively restored after passing this channel, regardless of the polarization of the incoming wave. The performance of this subwavelength channel, which...
Polarization-independent electromagnetically induced transparency-like metasurface
Jia, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaoou
2018-01-01
A classical electromagnetically induced transparency-like (EIT-like) metasurface is numerically simulated. This metasurface is composed of two identical and orthogonal double-end semitoroidals (DESTs) metal resonators. Under the excitation of the normal incidence waves, each of the two DESTs structure exhibits electromagnetic dipole responses at different frequencies, which leads to the polarization-independent EIT-like effect. The features of the EIT-like effect are qualitatively analyzed based on the surface current and magnetic field distribution. In addition, the large index is extracted to verify the slow-light property within the transmission window. The EIT-like metasurface structure with the above-mentioned characteristics may have potential applications in some areas, such as sensing, slow light, and filtering devices.
Electromagnetic cloaking devices for TE and TM polarizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilotti, Filiberto; Tricarico, Simone; Vegni, Lucio
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present the design of an electromagnetic cloaking device working for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations. The theoretical approach to cloaking used here is inspired by the one presented by Alu and Engheta (2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 016623) for TM polarization. The case of TE polarization is firstly considered and, then, an actual inclusion-based cloak for TE polarization is also designed. In such a case, the cloak is made of a mu-near-zero (MNZ) metamaterial, as the dual counterpart of the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material that can be used for purely dielectric objects. The operation and the robustness of the cloaking device for the TE polarization is deeply investigated through a complete set of full-wave numerical simulations. Finally, the design and an application of a cloak operating for both TE and TM polarizations employing both magnetic inclusions and the parallel plate medium already used by Silveirinha et al (Phys. Rev. E 75 036603) are presented.
Coherent polarization driven by external electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostol, M.; Ganciu, M.
2010-01-01
The coherent interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with an ensemble of polarizable, identical particles with two energy levels is investigated in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. The coupled non-linear equations of motion are solved in the stationary regime and in the limit of small coupling constants. It is shown that an external electromagnetic field may induce a macroscopic occupation of both the energy levels of the particles and the corresponding photon states, governed by a long-range order of the quantum phases of the internal motion (polarization) of the particles. A lasing effect is thereby obtained, controlled by the external field. Its main characteristics are estimated for typical atomic matter and atomic nuclei. For atomic matter the effect may be considerable (for usual external fields), while for atomic nuclei the effect is extremely small (practically insignificant), due to the great disparity in the coupling constants. In the absence of the external field, the solution, which is non-analytic in the coupling constant, corresponds to a second-order phase transition (super-radiance), which was previously investigated.
Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves
Pan, Weiyan
2014-01-01
This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).
Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves
Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A
2013-01-01
Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer
Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.
1991-01-01
Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.
Current generation by monochromatic electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belikov, V.S.; Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Plotnik, I.S.
1983-01-01
The generation of longitudinal currents in a magnetically confined plasma with travelling monochromatic electromagnetic waves of finite amplitude propagating at some angle to the external magnetic field is considered. By averaging over the particle cyclotron gyration period, the kinetic equation for the distribution function of electrons interacting with an electromagnetic wave is derived. This equation is solved for the case of low-frequency waves, on the assumption that the bounce period of electrons trapped by the wave field is small compared to the typical times of Coulomb collisions (in which case, the driving current is largest). From the solution obtained, analytic expressions for the driving current and the absorbed power, which are valid for a wide range of wave phase velocities, are found. The current drive method considered and the method using the wave packet are compared. (author)
A differentiated plane wave as an electromagnetic vortex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hannay, J H; Nye, J F
2015-01-01
Differentiating a complex scalar plane wave with respect to its direction produces an isolated straight vortex line and has a natural extension, described in earlier papers, to the vector waves of electromagnetism—a differentiated plane wave (DPW). It epitomizes destructive interference and will be shown to have the local structure of an electromagnetic vortex. In this paper its polarization structure and Poynting vector field are compared and contrasted with that of the family of linear polynomial waves, of which it is a special member. By definition this wider family has a general linear complex vector function of position multiplying a plane wave, but the function must be such that the combination satisfies Maxwell’s equations. This forces translational invariance of the function along the wavevector direction—in other words the wave is ‘non-diffracting’. In a natural sense all possible polarizations are exhibited once only. But the DPW has a distinctive polarization structure only partly explored previously. Both classes of waves share similar Poynting vector fields, which can be ‘elliptic’ (helix-like flow lines) or ‘hyperbolic’, of a repulsive nature, unexpected for a vortex. Both classes can be considered as a limit in the superposition of three closely parallel ordinary plane waves in destructive interference, and this derivation is supplied in full here. (paper)
Spectrum of classes of point emitters of electromagnetic wave fields.
Castañeda, Román
2016-09-01
The spectrum of classes of point emitters has been introduced as a numerical tool suitable for the design, analysis, and synthesis of non-paraxial optical fields in arbitrary states of spatial coherence. In this paper, the polarization state of planar electromagnetic wave fields is included in the spectrum of classes, thus increasing its modeling capabilities. In this context, optical processing is realized as a filtering on the spectrum of classes of point emitters, performed by the complex degree of spatial coherence and the two-point correlation of polarization, which could be implemented dynamically by using programmable optical devices.
Multiphoton ionization of the hydrogen atom by a circularly polarized electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prepelitsa, O.B.
1999-01-01
This paper examines the multiphoton ionization of the ground state of the hydrogen atom in the field of a circularly polarized intense electromagnetic wave. To describe the states of photoelectrons, quasiclassical wave functions are introduced that partially allow for the effect of an intense electromagnetic wave and that of the Coulomb potential. Expressions are derived for the angular and energy distributions of photoelectrons with energies much lower than the ionization potential of an unperturbed atom. It is found that, due to allowance for the Coulomb potential in the wave function of the final electron states, the transition probability near the ionization threshold tends to a finite value. In addition, the well-known selection rules for multiphoton transitions in a circularly polarized electromagnetic field are derived in a natural way. Finally, the results are compared with those obtained in the Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss approximation
Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Wind Observation and Wave Dispersion Analysis
Jian, L. K.; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A. F.; Stevens, M.
2016-01-01
Wind observed long-lasting electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency on 11 March 2005, in the descending part of a fast wind stream. Bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions are fitted for core protons, beam protons, and alpha-particles. Using the fitted plasma parameters we conduct kinetic linear dispersion analysis and find ion cyclotron and/or firehose instabilities grow in six of 10 wave intervals. After Doppler shift, some of the waves have frequency and polarization consistent with observation, thus may be correspondence to the cyclotron waves observed.
Fundamentals of electromagnetics 2 quasistatics and waves
Voltmer, David
2007-01-01
This book is the second of two volumes which have been created to provide an understanding of the basic principles and applications of electromagnetic fields for electrical engineering students. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics Vol 2: Quasistatics and Waves examines how the low-frequency models of lumped elements are modified to include parasitic elements. For even higher frequencies, wave behavior in space and on transmission lines is explained. Finally, the textbook concludes with details of transmission line properties and applications. Upon completion of this book and its companion Fundame
Polarization phenomena in electromagnetic interactions at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkert, V.
1990-01-01
Recent results of polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions at intermediate energies are discussed. Prospects of polarization experiments at the new CW electron accelerators, as well as on upgraded older machines are outlined. It is concluded that polarization experiments will play a very important role in the study of the structure of the nucleon and of light nuclei. 72 refs
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Random Media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans
1984-01-01
The propagation of a narrow frequency band beam of electromagnetic waves in a medium with randomly varying index of refraction is considered. A novel formulation of the governing equation is proposed. An equation for the average Green function (or transition probability) can then be derived...
MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves
Usanova, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Mauk, B.; Le Contel, O.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J.; Strangeway, R. J.
2017-12-01
Harmonically related electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with the fundamental frequency near the O+ cyclotron frequency were observed by the four MMS spacecraft on May 20, 2016. The wave activity was detected by the spacecraft on their inbound passage through the Earth's morning magnetosphere during generally quiet geomagnetic conditions but enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. It was also associated with an enhancement of energetic H+ and O+ ions. The waves are seen in both magnetic and electric fields, formed by over ten higher order harmonics, most pronounced in the electric field. The wave activity lasted for about an hour with some wave packets giving rise to short-lived structures extending from Hz to kHz range. These observations are particularly interesting since they suggest cross-frequency coupling between the lower and higher frequency modes. Further work will focus on examining the nature and role of these waves in the energetic particle dynamics from a theoretical perspective.
Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert; Stenflo, Lennart
2003-01-01
The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background, is investigated by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse, we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density, there is focusing and the subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed
Velocity Memory Effect for polarized gravitational waves
Zhang, P.-M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.
2018-05-01
Circularly polarized gravitational sandwich waves exhibit, as do their linearly polarized counterparts, the Velocity Memory Effect: freely falling test particles in the flat after-zone fly apart along straight lines with constant velocity. In the inside zone their trajectories combine oscillatory and rotational motions in a complicated way. For circularly polarized periodic gravitational waves some trajectories remain bounded, while others spiral outward. These waves admit an additional "screw" isometry beyond the usual five. The consequences of this extra symmetry are explored.
Contributions of polarizabilities to four basis polarizations of electromagnetic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bukina, E.N.; Dubovik, V.M.
1999-01-01
All contributions to four basis polarizations of an arbitrary electromagnetic medium at the expense of mixed polarizabilities up to fourth rank tensors are presented. Some concrete examples are considered
Effect of electromagnetic waves on human reproduction.
Wdowiak, Artur; Mazurek, Paweł A; Wdowiak, Anita; Bojar, Iwona
2017-03-31
Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitting from the natural environment, as well as from the use of industrial and everyday appliances, constantly influence the human body. The effect of this type of energy on living tissues may exert various effects on their functioning, although the mechanisms conditioning this phenomenon have not been fully explained. It may be expected that the interactions between electromagnetic radiation and the living organism would depend on the amount and parameters of the transmitted energy and type of tissue exposed. Electromagnetic waves exert an influence on human reproduction by affecting the male and female reproductive systems, the developing embryo, and subsequently, the foetus. Knowledge concerning this problem is still being expanded; however, all the conditionings of human reproduction still remain unknown. The study presents the current state of knowledge concerning the problem, based on the latest scientific reports.
Li, Hai-ming; Xue, Feng
2017-09-01
In this manuscript, tailoring polarization of analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT-like) based on non-centrosymmetric metasurfaces has been numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The EIT-like metamaterial is composed of a rectangle ring and two cut wires. The rectangle ring and the cut wire are chosen as the bright mode and the quasi-dark mode, respectively. Under the incident electromagnetic wave excitation, a polarization insensitive EIT-like transmission window can be observed at specific polarization angles. Within the transmission window, the phase steeply changes, which leads to the large group index. Tailoring polarization of EIT-like metamaterial with large group index at specific polarization angles may have potential application in slow light devices.
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Nasr Esfahani
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Replacing the wormhole geometry with an equivalent medium using the perturbation theory of scattering and the Born approximation, we have calculated the differential scattering cross section of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole. It is shown that scattering at long wavelenghts can essentially distinguish wormhole from ordinary scattering object. Some of the zeros of the scattering cross section are determined which can be used for estimating the radius of the throat of wormholes. The known result that in this kind of scattering the linear polarization remains unchanged is verified here.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farman Ali Mangi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A multiband circular polarizer based on fission transmission of linearly polarized wave for x-band application is proposed, which is constructed of 2 × 2 metallic strips array. The linear-to-circular polarization conversion is obtained by decomposing the linearly incident x-polarized wave into two orthogonal vector components of equal amplitude and 90° phase difference between them. The innovative approach of “fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarized wave” is firstly introduced to obtain giant circular dichroism based on decomposition of orthogonal vector components through the structure. It means that the incident linearly polarized wave is converted into two orthogonal components through lower printed metallic strips layer and two transmitted waves impinge on the upper printed strips layer to convert into four orthogonal vector components at the end of structure. This projection and transmission sequence of orthogonal components sustain the chain transmission of electromagnetic wave and can achieve giant circular dichroism. Theoretical analysis and microwave experiments are presented to validate the performance of the structure. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation results. In addition, the proposed circular polarizer exhibits the optimal performance with respect to the normal incidence. The right handed circularly polarized wave is emitted ranging from 10.08 GHz to 10.53 GHz and 10.78 GHz to 11.12 GHz, while the left handed circular polarized wave is excited at 10.54 GHz–10.70 GHz and 11.13 GHz–11.14 GHz, respectively.
Electromagnetic Wave Attenuation in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Shu; Hu Xiwei; Liu Minghai; Luo Fang; Feng Zelong
2007-01-01
When an electromagnetic (EM) wave propagates in an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) layer, its attenuation depends on the APP parameters such as the layer width, the electron density and its profile and collision frequency between electrons and neutrals. This paper proposes that a combined parameter-the product of the line average electron density n-bar and width d of the APP layer (i.e., the total number of electrons in a unit volume along the wave propagation path) can play a more explicit and decisive role in the wave attenuation than any of the above individual parameters does. The attenuation of the EM wave via the product of n-bar and d with various collision frequencies between electrons and neutrals is presented
Electromagnetic Waves Broadcast by a VCR.
Brown, Michael H.
1996-01-01
Presents experiments that use a video cassette recorder (VCR) to demonstrate polarization of radio waves using two dipole antennas and a spark gap transmitter tuned to a frequency of either 60-66 MHz or 66-72 MHz with wavelengths of 5 or 4.3 meters, close to the wavelengths of the original work done by Heinrich Hertz. (JRH)
The solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kryuchkov, Sergey V.; Kukhar', Egor I.
2013-01-01
d’Alembert equation written for the electromagnetic waves propagating in the graphene superlattice is analyzed. The possibility of the propagation of the solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice is discussed. The amplitude and the width of the electromagnetic pulse are calculated. The drag current induced by such wave across the superlattice axis is investigated. The numerical estimate of the charge dragged by the solitary wave is made.
Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency: Stereo observations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Klecker, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Omidi, N. [Solana Scientific Inc., Solana Beach, CA 92075 (United States); Isenberg, P. A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Goldstein, M. L.; Figueroa-Viñas, A. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD 20771 (United States); Blanco-Cano, X., E-mail: lan.jian@nasa.gov [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán D.F. (Mexico)
2014-05-10
Transverse, near-circularly polarized, parallel-propagating electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency were found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They could play an important role in heating and accelerating the solar wind. These low-frequency waves (LFWs) are intermittent but often occur in prolonged bursts lasting over 10 minutes, named 'LFW storms'. Through a comprehensive survey of them from Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory A using dynamic spectral wave analysis, we have identified 241 LFW storms in 2008, present 0.9% of the time. They are left-hand (LH) or right-hand (RH) polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, probably due to Doppler shift of the same type of waves or waves of intrinsically different polarities. In rare cases, the opposite polarities are observed closely in time or even simultaneously. Having ruled out interplanetary coronal mass ejections, shocks, energetic particles, comets, planets, and interstellar ions as LFW sources, we discuss the remaining generation scenarios: LH ion cyclotron instability driven by greater perpendicular temperature than parallel temperature or by ring-beam distribution, and RH ion fire hose instability driven by inverse temperature anisotropy or by cool ion beams. The investigation of solar wind conditions is compromised by the bias of the one-dimensional Maxwellian fit used for plasma data calibration. However, the LFW storms are preferentially detected in rarefaction regions following fast winds and when the magnetic field is radial. This preference may be related to the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in fast wind and the minimum in damping along the radial field.
Theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in ferromagnetic Rashba conductor
Shibata, Junya; Takeuchi, Akihito; Kohno, Hiroshi; Tatara, Gen
2018-02-01
We present a comprehensive study of various electromagnetic wave propagation phenomena in a ferromagnetic bulk Rashba conductor from the perspective of quantum mechanical transport. In this system, both the space inversion and time reversal symmetries are broken, as characterized by the Rashba field α and magnetization M, respectively. First, we present a general phenomenological analysis of electromagnetic wave propagation in media with broken space inversion and time reversal symmetries based on the dielectric tensor. The dependence of the dielectric tensor on the wave vector q and M is retained to first order. Then, we calculate the microscopic electromagnetic response of the current and spin of conduction electrons subjected to α and M, based on linear response theory and the Green's function method; the results are used to study the system optical properties. First, it is found that a large α enhances the anisotropic properties of the system and enlarges the frequency range in which the electromagnetic waves have hyperbolic dispersion surfaces and exhibit unusual propagations known as negative refraction and backward waves. Second, we consider the electromagnetic cross-correlation effects (direct and inverse Edelstein effects) on the wave propagation. These effects stem from the lack of space inversion symmetry and yield q-linear off-diagonal components in the dielectric tensor. This induces a Rashba-induced birefringence, in which the polarization vector rotates around the vector (α ×q ) . In the presence of M, which breaks time reversal symmetry, there arises an anomalous Hall effect and the dielectric tensor acquires off-diagonal components linear in M. For α ∥M , these components yield the Faraday effect for the Faraday configuration q ∥M and the Cotton-Mouton effect for the Voigt configuration ( q ⊥M ). When α and M are noncollinear, M- and q-induced optical phenomena are possible, which include nonreciprocal directional dichroism in the
Generation of Elliptically Polarized Terahertz Waves from Antiferromagnetic Sandwiched Structure.
Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Shu-Fang; Wang, Xuan-Zhang; Song, Yu-Ling; Wang, Xiang-Guang; Qu, Xiu-Rong
2018-04-01
The generation of elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave of an antiferromagnetic (AF)/dielectric sandwiched structure in the terahertz range is studied. The frequency and external magnetic field can change the AF optical response, resulting in the generation of elliptical polarization. An especially useful geometry with high levels of the generation of elliptical polarization is found in the case where an incident electromagnetic wave perpendicularly illuminates the sandwiched structure, the AF anisotropy axis is vertical to the wave-vector and the external magnetic field is pointed along the wave-vector. In numerical calculations, the AF layer is FeF2 and the dielectric layers are ZnF2. Although the effect originates from the AF layer, it can be also influenced by the sandwiched structure. We found that the ZnF2/FeF2/ZnF2 structure possesses optimal rotation of the principal axis and ellipticity, which can reach up to about thrice that of a single FeF2 layer.
Parametric excitation of electromagnetic waves by electron Bernstein waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo, S.P.
1992-01-01
A parametric instability involving the decay of a standing electron Bernstein pump into electromagnetic sidebands and lower-hybrid decay waves is studied. A general dispersion relation is derived and analyzed. Threshold fields and growth rates are obtained for the two cases that the electron Bernstein pump is introduced near the X-mode cutoff layer or introduced in the region between the upper-hybrid resonance layer and the O-mode cutoff layer. Applications of these results to the recent observation [P. Stubbe and H. Kopka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 183 (1990)] of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) with a broad symmetrical structure (BSS) in the ionospheric modifications by powerful high-frequency (HF) wave are discussed
Studies on anti-tumor effect of electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadota, Ikuhito; Wakabayashi, Toshio; Ogoshi, Kyoji; Kamijo, Akemi
1995-01-01
Hyperthermia have treated cancer with thermal effect of electromagnetic waves for biological systems, but the expected effect is not shown. Also non-thermal effect of electromagnetic waves is out of consideration. If irradiation conditions of electromagnetic waves with non-thermal anti-tumor effect are obtained, we can expect newly spread in cancer therapy. We had in vivo experiments that electromagnetic waves were irradiated to mice. In some irradiation conditions, the non-thermal anti-tumor effect of electromagnetic waves showed. In order to specify the irradiation conditions, we had in vitro experiments. We found that activity ratio of tumor cells which was measured by MTT method depended on irradiation time and power of electromagnetic waves. These results are useful for the cancer therapy. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tao Fuzhen; He Zhiqiang
1983-01-01
If the effect of gravitational wave on electromagnetic fields is used, and the gravitational wave is detected through the changes in electromagnetic fields, one can expect that the difficulty about the weakness of the signal of mechanical receiver can be avoided. Because of the effect of gravitational wave, the electromagnetic field emits energy, therefore, the energy which is detected will be higher than that by the mechanical receiver. The authors consider the Maxwell equations on the curved spacetime. They give solutions when the detecting fields are a free electromagnetic wave, standing wave and a constant field. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin
2010-01-01
In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.
Electromagnetic wave scattering by many small particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramm, A.G.
2007-01-01
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by many small particles of arbitrary shapes is reduced rigorously to solving linear algebraic system of equations bypassing the usual usage of integral equations. The matrix elements of this linear algebraic system have physical meaning. They are expressed in terms of the electric and magnetic polarizability tensors. Analytical formulas are given for calculation of these tensors with any desired accuracy for homogeneous bodies of arbitrary shapes. An idea to create a 'smart' material by embedding many small particles in a given region is formulated
Characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yaghjian, A D; Maci, S; Martini, E
2009-01-01
We investigate the characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks, namely, phase, ray, group and energy-transport velocities. After deriving explicit expressions for the phase and ray velocities (the latter defined as the phase velocity along the direction of the Poynting vector), special attention is given to the determination of group and energy-transport velocities, because a cursory application of conventional formulae for local group and energy-transport velocities can lead to a discrepancy between these velocities if the permittivity and permeability dyadics are not equal over a frequency range about the center frequency. In contrast, a general theorem can be proven from Maxwell's equations that the local group and energy-transport velocities are equal in linear, lossless, frequency dispersive, source-free bianisotropic material. This apparent paradox is explained by showing that the local fields of the spherical cloak uncouple into an E wave and an H wave, each with its own group and energy-transport velocities, and that the group and energy-transport velocities of either the E wave or the H wave are equal and thus satisfy the general theorem.
Spectrum of harmonic emission by inhomogeneous plasma in intense electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.
1989-01-01
The spectrum and angular distribution of the harmonics of arbitrary index emitted by a cold, inhomogeneous electron plasma subjected to a p-polarized electromagnetic wave have been studied analytically. The results are shown in graphical form. The intensity of the wave was varied over a wide range. At energy flux densities of the electromagnetic wave at which the inverse effect of the higher harmonics on the lower harmonics becomes appreciable, it becomes possible to observe a decay of the absolute value of the complex amplitude of a harmonic with increasing harmonic index in vacuum which is substantially slower than that predicted by the theory for a weak nonlinearity
Local electromagnetic waves in layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gvozdikov, V.M.; Vega-Monroy, R.
1999-01-01
A dispersion equation for electromagnetic waves localized on a defect layer of a layered superconductor is obtained in the frame of a model which neglects electron hopping between layers but assumes an arbitrary current-current response function within the layers. The defect layer differs from the rest of the layers by density and mass of charge carriers. It is shown that near the critical temperature in the London limit the local mode lies within the superconducting gap and has a wave vector threshold depending on the layered crystal and defect layer parameters. In the case of highly anisotropic layered superconductors, like Bi- or Tl-based high-T c cuprates, the local mode exists within a narrow range of positive variations of the mass and charge carriers. (author)
New material equations for electromagnetism with toroid polarizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubovik, V.M.; Martsenyuk, M.A.; Saha, B.
1999-09-01
With regard to the toroid contributions, a modified system of equations of electrodynamics moving continuous media has been obtained. Alternative formalisms to introduce the toroid moment contributions in the equations of electromagnetism has been worked out. The two four-potential formalism has been developed. Lorentz transformation laws for the toroid polarizations has been given. Covariant form of equations of electrodynamics of continuous media with toroid polarizations has been written. (author)
On the possibility of the autoresonant motion of an electron in a slow electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milantiev, V.P.
1994-01-01
By autoresonant motion one usually means the motion when the condition of cyclotron resonance of gyrating particle with electromagnetic wave is conserved during all the time of the motion in spite of the relativistic mass increase. Such a motion takes place only in the case of vacuum wave, when the phase velocity ν p is equal to the speed of light in a vacuum C. Otherwise autoresonance is impossible, and energy of the particle oscillates in time. The authors now discuss the possibility of the autoresonance in a slow electromagnetic wave (ν p < c) propagating along the straight lines of the external magnetic field. It turns out that the autoresonant regime of the motion in a slow electromagnetic wave possible if some rather restrictive relations between the electric drift velocity and the phase velocity of wave take place. It depends also on the polarization of wave. The general case of the elliptical polarization is considered. The optimal regime corresponds to the wave with linear polarization in the direction of the constant electric field. For this case the calculations show that energy of the particle can unlimitedly increase (or decrease). The rate of acceleration can be even larger than in the case of vacuum wave. Radiation forces will restrict this process
Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments
Yucel, Abdulkadir C.; Liu, Yang; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric
2013-01-01
A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier
Electromagnetic waves in single- and multi-Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Hideki; Koyama, Tomio; Machida, Masahiko
2008-01-01
The terahertz wave emission from the intrinsic Josephson junctions is one of recent topics in high T c superconductors. We investigate, by numerical simulation, properties of the electromagnetic waves excited by a constant bias current in the single- and multi-Josephson junctions. Nonlinear equations of phase-differences are solved numerically by treating the effects of the outside electromagnetic fields as dynamical boundary conditions. It is shown that the emitted power of the electromagnetic wave can become large near certain retrapping points of the I-V characteristics. An instability of the inside phase oscillation is related to large amplitude of the oscillatory waves. In the single- (or homogeneous mutli-) Josephson junctions, electromagnetic oscillations can occur either in a form of standing waves (shorter junctions) or by formation of vortex-antivortex pairs (longer junctions). How these two effects affects the behavior of electromagnetic waves in the intrinsic Josephson junctions is discussed
Weak-electromagnetic interference in polarized eD scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prescott, C.Y.
1992-09-01
Observation of parity non-conservation in deep-inelastic scattering of polarized electrons from deuterium was reported in an experiment at SLAC in 1978. The events at SLAC and elsewhere leading to the successful search for parity non-conservation in the electromagnetic processes are described
Attenuation bands and cut-off frequencies for ELF electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rauch, J.L.; Lefeuvre, F.; Cerisier, J.C.; Berthelier, J.J.; Boud'ko, N.; Michailova, G.; Kapustina, O.
1985-01-01
The propagation characteristic of ELF (10 Hz - 1500 Hz) electromagnetic waves observed on ARCAD 3, in three different zones: low L value (L 6). Unambiguous determinations of the wave normal directions are obtained from the interpretations of the measurements of four (3 magnetic, 1 electric) wave field components. The technique that is used, is based on the Means method in the cases of highly polarized waves and on the Storey and Lefeuvre WDF method in the other cases. A particular emphasis is put on the propagation characteristics of the waves, in a multiple ion plasma, and on the cut-off frequencies which appear at and below the local proton gyrofrequency
To the theory of quantum processes in the field of an intense electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bajer, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.; Mil'shtejn, A.I.; Strakhovenko, V.M.
1975-01-01
The operator diagram technique, developed earlier for considering phenomena in a homogeneous external field, is applied to processes occurring in a plane electromagnetic wave field. Calculations are carried out on the basis of a specific technique of ''entangling'' of operator expressions. The mass operator of scalar and spinor particles determined by a double integral is found in the field of an elliptically polarized wave of a general type. Imaginary part of the operator presents a new concept of the full probability of a particle emission in a wave field. Polarization effects are analyzed for spinor particles
Absorption of low-frequency electromagnetic waves by plasma in electromagnetic trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'yakov, V.E.
1984-01-01
Absorption of electromagnetic waves in plasma of the electromagnetic trap is investigated. An integro-differential equation describing the behaviour of the electrical and magnetic fields of the wave is obtained. The wave has a component along the plasma inhomogeneity axis. Solution of this equation is found within the low frequency range corresponding to the anomalous skin-effect. The possibility of ion-acoustic waves excitation is demonstrated. Expressions are found for reflection, absorption and transformation coefficients
Electromagnetic wave scattering by aerial and ground radar objects
Sukharevsky, Oleg I
2014-01-01
Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Aerial and Ground Radar Objects presents the theory, original calculation methods, and computational results of the scattering characteristics of different aerial and ground radar objects. This must-have book provides essential background for computing electromagnetic wave scattering in the presence of different kinds of irregularities, as well as Summarizes fundamental electromagnetic statements such as the Lorentz reciprocity theorem and the image principleContains integral field representations enabling the study of scattering from various layered structur
2D full wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojo, Hitoshi; Uruta, Go; Nakayama, Kazunori; Mase, Atsushi
2002-01-01
Global full-wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma with an external magnetic field imaging a tokamak configuration is performed in two dimensions. The temporal behavior of an electromagnetic wave launched into plasma from a wave-guiding region is obtained. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvets, G.; Tushentsov, M.; Tokman, M.D.; Kryachko, A.
2005-01-01
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma near the electron cyclotron frequency can be strongly modified by adding a weak magnetic undulator. For example, both right- and left-hand circularly polarized waves can propagate along the magnetic field without experiencing resonant absorption. This effect of entirely eliminating electron cyclotron heating is referred to as the undulator-induced transparency (UIT) of the plasma, and is the classical equivalent of the well-known quantum mechanical effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. The basics of UIT are reviewed, and various ways in which UIT can be utilized to achieve exotic propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in plasmas are discussed. For example, UIT can dramatically slow down the waves' group velocity, resulting in the extreme compression of the wave energy in the plasma. Compressed waves are polarized along the propagation direction, and can be used for synchronous electron or ion acceleration. Strong coupling between the two wave helicities are explored to impart the waves with high group velocities ∂ω/∂k for vanishing wave numbers k. Cross-helicity coupling for realistic density and magnetic field profiles are examined using a linearized fluid code, particle-in-cell simulations, and ray-tracing WKB calculations
Polarization experiments with hadronic and electromagnetic probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Punjabi, V.
1993-01-01
The following research activities were carried out during the past year Calibration of focal plane polarimeter POMME up to 2.4 GeV at Saturne National Laboratory (LNS) in Saclay. Measurement of tensor analyzing power T 20 and polarization transfer κ 0 at Saturne up to 2.1 GeV in elastic backward dp scattering rvec dp → rvec pd. Measurement of tensor analyzing power T 20 at synchrophasotron in Dubha up to 4.4 Gev in elastic backward dp scattering rvec dp → pd. Resubmission of conditionally Approved G EP proposal 89-14 at CEBAF. Start construction of focal plane polarimeter (FPP) for CEBAF hall A hadron spectrometer. The planned work for the next year includes: Construction of FPP for CEBAF hall A hadron spectrometer; measurement of polarization transfer κ 0 and tensor analyzing power T 20 in elastic backward dp scattering at Saturne; measurements of tensor analyzing power in 1 H( 6 Li,d)X, 1 H( 6 Li,α)X, 1 H( 6 Li,t)X and 1 H( 6 Li, 3 He)X reactions at Saturne; and study of polarization transfer in 2 H(rvec e,e'rvec p)n reaction at Bates
Electromagnetic solitary waves in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Holm, D.D.; Morrison, P.J.
1985-03-01
A Hamiltonian formulation, in terms of noncanonical Poisson bracket, is presented for a nonlinear fluid system that includes reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the Hasegawa-Mima equation as limiting cases. The single-helicity and axisymmetric versions possess three nonlinear Casimir invariants, from which a generalized potential can be constructed. Variation of the generalized potential yields a description of exact nonlinear stationary states. The new equilibria, allowing for plasma flow as well as partial electron adiabaticity, are distinct from those found in conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. They differ from electrostatic stationary states in containing plasma current and magnetic field excitation. One class of steady-state solutions is shown to provide a simple electromagnetic generalization of drift-solitary waves
Novel Aspects of Evolution of the Stokes Parameters for an Electromagnetic Wave in Anisotropic Media
Botet, R.; Kuratsuji, H.; Seto, R.
2006-08-01
Polarization of a plane electromagnetic wave travelling through a medium is studied in the slowly-varying field envelope approximation. It is shown that the problem is identical to the 4-momentum evolution of a negatively-charged massless relativistic particle in an electromagnetic field. The approach is exemplified by the resonant oscillations of circular polarization in a medium embedded in a static magnetic field and a modulated electric field. The effect of dissipation in the medium is discussed. It is shown that the Rabi oscillations are stable below a threshold depending on the absorption coefficient. Above it, oscillations disappear.
Polarization dynamics and polarization time of random three-dimensional electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voipio, Timo; Setaelae, Tero; Shevchenko, Andriy; Friberg, Ari T.
2010-01-01
We investigate the polarization dynamics of random, stationary three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic fields. For analyzing the time evolution of the instantaneous polarization state, two intensity-normalized polarization autocorrelation functions are introduced, one based on a geometric approach with the Poincare vectors and the other on energy considerations with the Jones vectors. Both approaches lead to the same conclusions on the rate and strength of the polarization dynamics and enable the definition of a polarization time over which the state of polarization remains essentially unchanged. For fields obeying Gaussian statistics, the two correlation functions are shown to be expressible in terms of quantities characterizing partial 3D polarization and electromagnetic coherence. The 3D degree of polarization is found to have the same meaning in the 3D polarization dynamics as the usual two-dimensional (2D) degree of polarization does with planar fields. The formalism is demonstrated with several examples, and it is expected to be useful in applications dealing with polarization fluctuations of 3D light.
WKB solution 4×4 for electromagnetic waves in a planar magnetically anisotropic inhomogeneous layer
Moiseeva, Natalya Michailovna; Moiseev, Anton Vladimirovich
2018-04-01
In the paper, an oblique incidence of a plane electromagnetic wave on a planar magnetically anisotropic inhomogeneous layer is considered. We consider the case when all the components of the magnetic permeability tensor are non zero and vary with distance from the interface of media. The WKB method gives a matrix 4 × 4 solution for the projections of the electromagnetic wave fields during its propagation. The dependence of the cross-polarized components on the orientation of the anisotropic medium relative to the plane of incidence of the medium is analyzed.
Electromagnetic waves in dusty magnetoplasmas using two-potential theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zubia, K.; Jamil, M.; Salimullah, M.
2009-01-01
The low-frequency long wavelength electromagnetic waves, viz., shear Alfven waves in a cold dusty plasma, have been examined employing two-potential theory and plasma fluid model. The presence of the unmagnetized dust particles and magnetized plasma components gives rise to a new ion-dust lower hybrid cutoff frequency for the electromagnetic shear Alfven wave propagation. The importance and relevance of the present work to the space dusty plasma environments are also pointed out.
Width of electromagnetic wave instability spectrum in tungsten plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rinkevich, A.B.
1995-01-01
Based on the study of high-frequency signal modulation and spectrum analysis of the envelope a measurement of spectrum width for electromagnetic wave instability was carried out under conditions of current pulse action on tungsten plate in magnetic field. The existence of amplitude-frequency wave modulation was revealed. The width of current disturbance spectrum in a specimen was evaluated. Current disturbances are shown to cause the instability of electromagnetic wave. 11 refs.; 6 figs
Scattering of electromagnetic waves into plasma oscillations via plasma particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, A.T.; Dawson, J.M.
1975-01-01
A plasma subjected to an intense electromagnetic wave can exhibit a large number of parametric instabilities. An interesting example which has received little attention is the decay of the electromagnetic wave into a plasma oscillation with the excess energy and momentum being carried off by electrons. This process has been simulated on a one-and-two-halves dimensional electromagnetic code. The incident electromagnetic wave had a frequency near the plasma frequency so that decay into a plasma oscillation and a backscattered electromagnetic wave was excluded. As expected, the threshold for this instability was very large , so it is unlikely that this instability is competitive in most laser plasmas. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism involved provides a means for absorption of laser light and acceleration of particles in a plasma containing large amplitude plasma oscillations
Relativistic harmonic content of nonlinear electromagnetic waves in underdense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, W.B.; Decker, C.D.; Leemans, W.P.
1993-01-01
The relativistic harmonic content of large amplitude electromagnetic waves propagating in underdense plasmas is investigated. The steady state harmonic content of nonlinear linearly polarized waves is calculated for both the very underdense (w p /w o ) much-lt 1 and critical density (w p /w o ) ≅ 1 limits. For weak nonlinearities, eE o /mcw o p /w o . Arguments are given for extending these results for arbitrary wave amplitudes. The authors also show that the use of the variable x-ct and the quasi-static approximation leads to errors in both magnitude and sign when calculating the third harmonic. In the absence of damping or density gradients the third harmonic's amplitude is found to oscillate between zero and twice the steady state value. Preliminary PIC simulation results are presented. The simulation results are in basic agreement with the uniform plasma predictions for the third harmonic amplitude. However, the higher harmonics are orders of magnitude larger than expected and the presence of density ramps significantly modifies the results
Analytic descriptions of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium
Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying
2015-01-01
A simple but highly efficient approach for dealing with the problem of cylindrical electromagnetic waves propagation in a nonlinear medium is proposed based on an exact solution proposed recently. We derive an analytical explicit formula, which exhibiting rich interesting nonlinear effects, to describe the propagation of any amount of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium. The results obtained by using the present method are accurately concordant with the results of using traditional coupled-wave equations. As an example of application, we discuss how a third wave affects the sum- and difference-frequency generation of two waves propagation in the nonlinear medium. PMID:26073066
Do electromagnetic waves always propagate along null geodesics?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asenjo, Felipe A; Hojman, Sergio A
2017-01-01
We find exact solutions to Maxwell equations written in terms of four-vector potentials in non–rotating, as well as in Gödel and Kerr spacetimes. We show that Maxwell equations can be reduced to two uncoupled second-order differential equations for combinations of the components of the four-vector potential. Exact electromagnetic waves solutions are written on given gravitational field backgrounds where they evolve. We find that in non–rotating spherical symmetric spacetimes, electromagnetic waves travel along null geodesics. However, electromagnetic waves on Gödel and Kerr spacetimes do not exhibit that behavior. (paper)
Electromagnetic waves in optical fibres in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorelik, V S; Burdanova, M G
2016-01-01
A new method is reported of recording the secondary radiation of luminescent substances based on the use of capillary fibres of great length. Theoretical analysis of the dispersion curves of electromagnetic radiation in capillary fibres doped with erbium ions Er 3+ has been established. The Lorentz model is used for describing the dispersion properties of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous medium doped with rare-earth ions. The dispersion dependencies of polariton and axion–polariton waves in erbium nitrate hydrate are determined on the basis of the model of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the resonance electronic states of erbium ions in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. (paper)
Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Detected by Kaguya and Geotail in the Earth's Magnetotail
Nakagawa, Tomoko; Nishino, Masaki N.; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Matsushima, Masaki; Saito, Yoshifumi
2018-02-01
Narrowband electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves first discovered by the Apollo 15 and 16 Lunar Surface Magnetometers were surveyed in the magnetic field data obtained by the Kaguya satellite at an altitude of ˜100 km above the Moon in the tail lobe and plasma sheet boundary layer of the Earth's magnetosphere. The frequencies of the waves were typically 0.7 times the local proton cyclotron frequency, and 75% of the waves were left hand polarized with respect to the background magnetic field. They had a significant compressional component and comprised several discrete packets. They were detected on the dayside, nightside, and above the terminator of the Moon, irrespective of the lunar magnetic anomaly, or the magnetic connection to the lunar surface. The waves with the same characteristics were detected by Geotail in the absence of the Moon in the magnetotail. The most likely energy source of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves is the ring beam ions in the plasma sheet boundary layer.
Transversality of electromagnetic waves in the calculus-based introductory physics course
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burko, Lior M
2008-01-01
Introductory calculus-based physics textbooks state that electromagnetic waves are transverse and list many of their properties, but most such textbooks do not bring forth arguments why this is so. Both physical and theoretical arguments are at a level appropriate for students of courses based on such books, and could be readily used by instructors of such courses. Here, we discuss two physical arguments (based on polarization experiments and on lack of monopole electromagnetic radiation) and the full argument for the transversality of (plane) electromagnetic waves based on the integral Maxwell equations. We also show, at a level appropriate for the introductory course, why the electric and magnetic fields in a wave are in phase and the relation of their magnitudes
Transversality of electromagnetic waves in the calculus-based introductory physics course
Burko, Lior M.
2008-11-01
Introductory calculus-based physics textbooks state that electromagnetic waves are transverse and list many of their properties, but most such textbooks do not bring forth arguments why this is so. Both physical and theoretical arguments are at a level appropriate for students of courses based on such books, and could be readily used by instructors of such courses. Here, we discuss two physical arguments (based on polarization experiments and on lack of monopole electromagnetic radiation) and the full argument for the transversality of (plane) electromagnetic waves based on the integral Maxwell equations. We also show, at a level appropriate for the introductory course, why the electric and magnetic fields in a wave are in phase and the relation of their magnitudes.
Transversality of Electromagnetic Waves in the Calculus--Based Introductory Physics Course
Burko, Lior M.
2009-05-01
Introductory calculus--based physics textbooks state that electromagnetic waves are transverse and list many of their properties, but most such textbooks do not bring forth arguments why this is so. Both physical and theoretical arguments are at a level appropriate for students of courses based on such books, and could be readily used by instructors of such courses. Here, we discuss two physical arguments (based on polarization experiments and on lack of monopole electromagnetic radiation), and the full argument for the transversality of (plane) electromagnetic waves based on the integral Maxwell equations. We also show, at a level appropriate for the introductory course, why the electric and magnetic fields in a wave are in phase and the relation of their magnitudes. We have successfully integrated this approach in the calculus--based introductory physics course at the University of Alabama in Huntsville.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skoblin, A.A.
1994-01-01
Free nonrelativistic electrons in both a static magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave are considered. A plane-polarized wave propagates along a magnetic field, its frequency is close to the electron rotation frequency in a magnetic field. Electron spin is taken into account. An electron quasi energy spectrum and steady states (quasi energy states) are constructed. 6 refs
Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dolgov, A. [Dept. of Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Postnov, K., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: kpostnov@gmail.com [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University, Universitetskij pr. 13, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-09-01
The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.
Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgov, A.; Postnov, K.
2017-01-01
The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.
Kim, Teun-Teun; Oh, Sang Soon; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Park, Hyun Sung; Hess, Ortwin; Min, Bumki; Zhang, Shuang
2017-09-01
Active control of polarization states of electromagnetic waves is highly desirable because of its diverse applications in information processing, telecommunications, and spectroscopy. However, despite the recent advances using artificial materials, most active polarization control schemes require optical stimuli necessitating complex optical setups. We experimentally demonstrate an alternative-direct electrical tuning of the polarization state of terahertz waves. Combining a chiral metamaterial with a gated single-layer sheet of graphene, we show that transmission of a terahertz wave with one circular polarization can be electrically controlled without affecting that of the other circular polarization, leading to large-intensity modulation depths (>99%) with a low gate voltage. This effective control of polarization is made possible by the full accessibility of three coupling regimes, that is, underdamped, critically damped, and overdamped regimes by electrical control of the graphene properties.
Small discussion of electromagnetic wave anomalies preceding earthquakes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1980-01-01
Six brief pieces on various aspects of electromagnetic wave anomalies are presented. They cover: earthquake electromagnetic emanations; the use of magnetic induction information for earthquake forecasting; electromagnetic pulse emissions as pre-earthquake indicators; the use of magnetic sensors to determine medium-wavelength field strength for earthquake prediction purposes; magnetic deviation indicators inside reinforced-concrete buildings; and a discussion of the general physical principles involved.
Polarization reversal of electron cyclotron wave due to radial boundary condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, K.; Kaneko, T.; Hatakeyama, R.
2004-01-01
The electron cyclotron wave is an important plasma wave in the fields of basic plasma physics and nuclear fusion. Propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) frequency are experimentally and theoretically investigated for the case of inhomogeneously magnetized plasma column with peripheral vacuum layer, when a left-hand polarized wave (LHPW) is selectively launched. The polarization reversal from the LHPW to the right-hand polarized wave is found to occur near the ECR point. As a result, it is clarified that the LHPW, which has been considered not to be absorbed at the ECR point, is absorbed near the ECR point. The phenomena can be explained by taking into account the effects of the radial boundary conditions. In addition, it is found that the polarization reversal point can be adjusted by the external parameters, for example, plasma radius. (authors)
Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2015-07-15
The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.
Coupled elasto-electromagnetic waves in bounded piezoelectric structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darinskii, A N [Institute of Crystallography RAS, Leninskiy pr. 59, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation); Clezio, E Le [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, ENI Val de Loire, LUSSI, FRE CNRS 2448, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP3410, 41034 Blois (France); Feuillard, G [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, ENI Val de Loire, LUSSI, FRE CNRS 2448, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP3410, 41034 Blois (France)
2007-12-15
The work studies theoretically the effect of electromagnetic wave generation on the acoustic wave reflection/transmission in anisotropic materials possessing piezoelectric properties. We are concerned with quasi-normal incidence at angles {theta}{sub i} {>=} v{sub a}/v{sub el} {approx} 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5}, where v{sub a} and v{sub el} are the typical velocities of the acoustic and electromagnetic waves. It is shown that electromagnetic and acoustic waves are able to interact strongly despite a huge difference in velocities so that the wave behavior of time-dependent electric fields can drastically change the coefficients of mode conversion. In particular, examples exist of the situations where the acoustic wave must be totally reflected but quasi-electrostatic calculations predict almost total transmission.
Electromagnetic Lead Screw for Potential Wave Energy Application
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Weimin
2014-01-01
This paper presents a new type electromagnetic lead screw (EMLS) intended for wave energy application. Similar to the mechanical lead screw, this electromagnetic version can transfer slow linear motion to high-rotational motion, offering gearing effects. Compared with the existing pure magnetic...
Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances
Kupfer, Klaus
2006-01-01
This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.
Long wave polar modes in semiconductor heterostructures
Trallero-Giner, C; García-Moliner, F; Garc A-Moliner, F; Perez-Alvarez, R; Garcia-Moliner, F
1998-01-01
Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is concerned with the study of polar optical modes in semiconductor heterostructures from a phenomenological approach and aims to simplify the model of lattice dynamics calculations. The book provides useful tools for performing calculations relevant to anyone who might be interested in practical applications. The main focus of Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is planar heterostructures (quantum wells or barriers, superlattices, double barrier structures etc) but there is also discussion on the growing field of quantum wires and dots. Also to allow anyone reading the book to apply the techniques discussed for planar heterostructures, the scope has been widened to include cylindrical and spherical geometries. The book is intended as an introductory text which guides the reader through basic questions and expands to cover state-of-the-art professional topics. The book is relevant to experimentalists wanting an instructive presentatio...
Coherent states of an electron in a quantized electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagrov, V.G.; Bukhbinder, I.L.; Gitman, D.M.; Lavrov, P.M.
1977-01-01
Coherent states for interacting electrons and photons in a plane elecmagnetic wave are found. Trajectories of the electron and the characteristics of the electromagnetic field are investigated. Limiting transition to the given external field is studied
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tian, Yuan; Han, Yiping, E-mail: yphan@xidian.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Ai, Xia [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Test physics and Numerical Mathematical, Beijing 100076 (China); Liu, Xiuxiang [Science and Technology on Space Physics Laboratory, Beijing 100076 (China)
2014-12-15
In this paper, we investigate the propagation of terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave in an anisotropic magnetized plasma by JE convolution-finite difference time domain method. The anisotropic characteristic of the plasma, which leads to right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) and right-hand circularly polarized (LCP) waves, has been taken into account. The interaction between electromagnetic waves and magnetized plasma is illustrated by reflection and transmission coefficients for both RCP and LCP THz waves. The effects of both the magnetized plasma thickness and the external magnetized field are analyzed and numerical results demonstrate that the two factors could influence the THz wave greatly. It is worthy to note that besides the reflection and transmission coefficients in the frequency domain, the waveform of the electric field in the time domain varying with thicknesses and external magnetic fields for different polarized direction has been studied.
An electromagnetic helical undulator for polarized X-rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gluskin, E.; Vinokurov, N.; Tcheskidov, V.; Medvedko, A.; Evtushenko, Y.; Kolomogorov, V.; Vobly, P.; Antokhin, E.; Ivanov, P.; Vasserman, I. B.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.
1999-01-01
Linearly and circularly polarized x-rays have been very successfully applied to the study of the properties of materials. Many applications can benefit from the availability of energy-turnable, high-brilliance x-ray beams with adjustable polarization properties. A helical undulator that can generate beams of variable (linear to circular) polarization has been designed and built by the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and the Advanced Photon Source. The first harmonic of this 12.8-cm-period device will cover the energy range from 0.4 keV to 3.5 keV. An important feature of this fully electromagnetic device is that it will allow one to generate 100% horizontally (K x =O)or vertically (K y =O) plane-polarized radiation, which will enable many experiments otherwise not technically feasible. With symmetric deflection parameters (K x =K y ), the on-axis radiation will be circularly polarized, with a user-selectable handedness. The polarization can be changed at rates up to 10 Hz
Birefringence induced by pp-wave modes in an electromagnetically active dynamic aether
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alpin, Timur Yu.; Balakin, Alexander B.
2017-01-01
In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-aether theory we study the birefringence effect, which can occur in the pp-wave symmetric dynamic aether. The dynamic aether is considered to be a latently birefringent quasi-medium, which displays this hidden property if and only if the aether motion is non-uniform, i.e., when the aether flow is characterized by the non-vanishing expansion, shear, vorticity or acceleration. In accordance with the dynamo-optical scheme of description of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the dynamic aether, we shall model the susceptibility tensors by the terms linear in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector. When the pp-wave modes appear in the dynamic aether, we deal with a gravitationally induced degeneracy removal with respect to hidden susceptibility parameters. As a consequence, the phase velocities of electromagnetic waves possessing orthogonal polarizations do not coincide, thus displaying the birefringence effect. Two electromagnetic field configurations are studied in detail: longitudinal and transversal with respect to the aether pp-wave front. For both cases the solutions are found, which reveal anomalies in the electromagnetic response on the action of the pp-wave aether mode. (orig.)
Birefringence induced by pp-wave modes in an electromagnetically active dynamic aether
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alpin, Timur Yu.; Balakin, Alexander B. [Kazan Federal University, Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation)
2017-10-15
In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-aether theory we study the birefringence effect, which can occur in the pp-wave symmetric dynamic aether. The dynamic aether is considered to be a latently birefringent quasi-medium, which displays this hidden property if and only if the aether motion is non-uniform, i.e., when the aether flow is characterized by the non-vanishing expansion, shear, vorticity or acceleration. In accordance with the dynamo-optical scheme of description of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the dynamic aether, we shall model the susceptibility tensors by the terms linear in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector. When the pp-wave modes appear in the dynamic aether, we deal with a gravitationally induced degeneracy removal with respect to hidden susceptibility parameters. As a consequence, the phase velocities of electromagnetic waves possessing orthogonal polarizations do not coincide, thus displaying the birefringence effect. Two electromagnetic field configurations are studied in detail: longitudinal and transversal with respect to the aether pp-wave front. For both cases the solutions are found, which reveal anomalies in the electromagnetic response on the action of the pp-wave aether mode. (orig.)
Parametric trapping of electromagnetic waves in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silin, V.P.; Starodub, A.N.
1977-01-01
Considered is parametric instability in an inhomogeneous plasma at which a pumping wave is transformed to an electromagnetic wave and aperiodically in-time-growing disturbances. It is shown that after achievement of some boundary pumping value by electric field intensity an absolute parametric instability evolution becomes possible. In-time growing plasma disturbances are localized near electric field extremums of a pumping wave. Such localization areas are small as compared to characteristic size of pumping inhomogeneity in a plasma. The secondary electromagnetic waves stay within the localization areas and, therefore, are not scattered by a plasma. As following from this it has been established, that due to parametric instability electromagnetic radiation trapping by a plasma occurs. Such a trapping is considerably connected with a spatial structure of a pumping field and it cannot arise within the field of a running wave in the theoretical model considered. However parametric trapping turns out to be possible even with very small reflection coefficients
Weakly nonlinear electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion positron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizzato, F.B.; Schneider, R.S.; Dillenburg, D.
1987-01-01
The modulation of a high-frequency electromagnetic wave which is circulary polarized and propagates in a plasma made up of electrons, ions and positrons is investigated. The coefficient of the cubic nonlinear term in the Schroedinger equation may change sign as the relative particle concentrations vary, and consequently a marginal state of modulation instability may exist. To described the system in the neighbourhood of this state an appropriate equation is derived. Particular stationary solutions of this equation are envelope solitary waves, envelope Kinks and envelope hole solitary waves. The dependence of the amplitude of the solutions on the propagation velocity and the particle concentrations is discussed. (author) [pt
The electromagnetic interferent antennae for gravitational waves detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulak, A.
1984-01-01
An electromagnetic wave propagating in the toroidal waveguide is considered as an electromagnetic gravitational antenna. An interferometric method is applied to measure the disturbances of phase of the electromagnetic field caused by the incident gravitational wave. The calculations presented take into account the dispersive and dissipative phenomena occurring during the interaction between electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The active cross-section of the antenna interacting with coherent and pulsed gravitational radiation is estimated. Experimental possibilities presently available are discussed. Limiting fluxes in the astrophysical range of frequencies measured by the interferometric electromagnetic antenna are a factor of ten or so smaller than in the case of a classic mechanical antenna. Moreover the antenna could be used for carrying out a gravitational Hertz experiment. (author)
Planar passive electromagnetic deflector for millimeter-wave frequencies
Kastelijn, M.C.T.; Akkermans, J.A.G.
2008-01-01
A novel passive planar structure is proposed that is able to deflect an incoming electromagnetic (EM) wave into a desired direction. The direction of the outgoing EM wave is determined by the design of this deflector. The deflector can be used to extend coverage of a steerable source with limited
On scattering of electromagnetic waves by a wormhole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirillov, A.A.; Savelova, E.P.
2012-01-01
We consider scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a wormhole. It is found that the scattered wave is depolarized and has a specific interference picture depending on parameters of the wormhole and the distance to the observer. It is proposed that such features can be important in the direct search of wormholes.
On scattering of electromagnetic waves by a wormhole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirillov, A.A., E-mail: ka98@mail.ru [Dubna International University of Nature, Society and Man, Universitetskaya Str. 19, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation); Savelova, E.P. [Dubna International University of Nature, Society and Man, Universitetskaya Str. 19, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation)
2012-04-20
We consider scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a wormhole. It is found that the scattered wave is depolarized and has a specific interference picture depending on parameters of the wormhole and the distance to the observer. It is proposed that such features can be important in the direct search of wormholes.
Statistical Characterization of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Mine Environments
Yucel, Abdulkadir C.
2013-01-01
A computational framework for statistically characterizing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through mine tunnels and galleries is presented. The framework combines a multi-element probabilistic collocation method with a full-wave fast Fourier transform and fast multipole method accelerated surface integral equation-based EM simulator to statistically characterize fields from wireless transmitters in complex mine environments. 1536-1225 © 2013 IEEE.
An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model
Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William
2015-01-01
In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…
On new electromagnetic waves in a multicomponent insulator
Dubovik, V. M.
The dispersion equation for additional transverse electromagnetic waves in a multicomponent amorphous insulator is analyzed in the vicinity of a narrow absorption line. Such waves can be excited due to spatial dispersion associated with fluctuation of the polarizability of insulator molecules. The
Induced polarization and electromagnetic field surveys of sedimentary uranium deposits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, D.L.; Smith, B.D.
1985-01-01
Induced polarization (IP) and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical surveys were made over three areas of sedimentary uranium deposits in the western United States. The EM techniques were sometimes useful for investigating general structural settings, but not for finding uranium deposits per se. IP techniques were useful to help pinpoint zones of disseminated pyrite associated with the uranium deposits. In one case no clear differences were seen between the IP signatures of oxidized and reduced ground. Spectral (multi-frequency) IP showed no particular advantages over conventional IP for exploration applications. A sediment mineralization factor is introduced comparable to the ''metal factor'' used to detect porphyry copper mineralization. (author)
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraser, B.J.; Samson, J.C.; Hu, Y.D.; McPherron, R.L.; Russell, C.T.
1992-01-01
Pc 2 electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves at 0.1 waves at 0.1 Hz, near the oxygen cyclotron frequency, have been observed by ISEE 1 and 2 between L = 7.6 and 5.8 on an inbound near-equatorial pass in the dusk sector. The waves occurred in a thick plasmapause of width ∼ 1.5 R E and penetrated ∼1 R E into the plasmasphere. Wave onset was accompanied by significant increases in the thermal (0-100 eV) He + and the warm (0.1-16 keV/e) O + and He + heavy ion populations. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities (E x B)/B 2 were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Poynting fluxes calculated during the first 15 min of the event show wave energy propagation directions both parallel and antiparallel to the field. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event may be attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time. Overall, the results are considered an example of an electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-particle interaction occurring during the outer plasmasphere refilling process at the time of the substorm recovery phase
Resonant emission of electromagnetic waves by plasma solitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mironov, V.A.; Sergeev, A.M.; Khimich, A.V.
1988-01-01
The ability of plasma-wave solitons to radiate electromagnetic waves at the frequency of the natural oscillations of the field is considered. It is shown that this radiation is the main energy dissipation channel for strong plasma turbulence in a magnetoactive plasma. An interpretation is proposed for the artificial radio emission produced when the ionosphere is acted upon by beams of strong electromagnetic waves. The use of this phenomenon for plasma turbulence, particularly in the outer-space plasma near the earth, is discussed
Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory - General theory
Hahne, G. E.
1992-01-01
A formal theory is developed for the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from impenetrable immobile obstacles with given linear, homogeneous, and generally nonlocal boundary conditions of Leontovich (impedance) type for the wave of the obstacle's surface. The theory is modeled on the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator in time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. An expression for the differential scattering cross section for plane electromagnetic waves is derived in terms of certain matrix elements of the T operator for the obstacle.
[Effect of decimeter polarized electromagnetic radiation on germinating capacity of seeds].
Polevik, N D
2013-01-01
The effect of a polarization structure of electromagnetic radiation on the germinating capacity of seeds of such weeds as Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) and Green amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus) has been studied. Seeds have been exposed to impulse electromagnetic radiation in a frequency of 896 MHz with linear, elliptical right-handed and elliptical left-handed polarizations at different power flux density levels. It is determined that the effect of the right-handed polarized electromagnetic radiation increases and the influence of the left-handed polarized one reduces the germinating capacity of seeds compared to the effect of the linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the seeds have an amplitude polarization selectivity as evinced by the major effect of the right-handed polarized radiation on seeds. An electrodynamic model as the right-handed elliptically polarized antenna with the given quantity of the ellipticity of polarization is suggested to use in description of this selectivity.
Second harmonic electromagnetic emission via Langmuir wave coalescence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willes, A.J.; Robinson, P.A.; Melrose, D.B.
1996-01-01
The coalescence of Langmuir waves to produce electromagnetic waves at twice the plasma frequency is considered. A simplified expression for the rate of production of second harmonic electromagnetic waves is obtained for a broad class of Langmuir spectra. In addition, two different analytic approximations are considered. The validity of the commonly used head-on approximation is explored, in which the two coalescing Langmuir waves are assumed to approach from opposite directions. This approximation breaks down at low Langmuir wavenumbers, and for narrow Langmuir wave spectra. A second, more general, approximation is introduced, called the narrow-spectrum approximation, which requires narrow spectral widths of the Langmuir spectra. The advantages of this approximation are that it does not break down at low Langmuir wavenumbers, and that it remains valid for relatively broad Langmuir wave spectra. Finally, the applicability of these approximations in treating harmonic radiation in type III solar radio bursts is discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saigusa, Mikio
1991-08-01
Mode separation ratio from an arbitrary elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave to an ordinary and an extraordinary modes on a plasma surface for oblique launch is evaluated quantitatively for designing an electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) antenna. An optimized elliptical polarization for the wide range of injection angles and magnetic fields is firstly investigated for ECCD and ECH experiments. (author)
Capture of charged particles by transverse electromagnetic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davydovskii, V Ya; Sapogin, V G; Ukolov, A S
1975-01-01
An estimate is made of the maximum possible number of resonance particles interacting with a plane, transverse electromagnetic wave. The estimate is obtained by means of a distribution function, which is expressed in terms of the integrals of motion of the particles in the wave. Values of proton fluxes accelerated by an amplitude-modulated wave in the solar corona coincide with those observed during bursts of sporadic radioemission. (SJR)
Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets.
Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak
2015-09-10
Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials.
Yu, Tianbao; Wang, Zhong; Liu, Wenxing; Wang, Tongbiao; Liu, Nianhua; Liao, Qinghua
2016-04-18
We report numerically large and complete photonic and phononic band gaps that simultaneously exist in eight-fold phoxonic quasicrystals (PhXQCs). PhXQCs can possess simultaneous photonic and phononic band gaps over a wide range of geometric parameters. Abundant localized modes can be achieved in defect-free PhXQCs for all photonic and phononic polarizations. These defect-free localized modes exhibit multiform spatial distributions and can confine simultaneously electromagnetic and elastic waves in a large area, thereby providing rich selectivity and enlarging the interaction space of optical and elastic waves. The simulated results based on finite element method show that quasiperiodic structures formed of both solid rods in air and holes in solid materials can simultaneously confine and tailor electromagnetic and elastic waves; these structures showed advantages over the periodic counterparts.
Electron Cyclotron Waves Polarization in the TJII Stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cappa, A.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Wagner, D.
2013-05-01
This report describes the theoretical calculations related with the electron cyclotron (EC) waves polarization control in the TJII stellarator. Two main aspects will be distinguished: the determination of the vacuum polarization that the wave must exhibit if a given propagation mode in a cold plasma is desired and the calculation of the behavior of the grooved polarizers and other transmission systems used to launch the vacuum wave with the required polarization. (Author) 13 refs.
Electromagnetic forces and torques in nanoparticles irradiated by plane waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia de Abajo, F.J.
2004-01-01
Optical tweezers and optical lattices are making it possible to control small particles by means of electromagnetic forces and torques. In this context, a method is presented in this work to calculate electromagnetic forces and torques for arbitrarily-shaped objects in the presence of other objects illuminated by a plane wave. The method is based upon an expansion of the electromagnetic field in terms of multipoles around each object, which are in turn used to derive forces and torques analytically. The calculation of multipole coefficients are obtained numerically by means of the boundary element method. Results are presented for both spherical and non-spherical objects
Electromagnetic Wave Chaos in Gradient Refractive Index Optical Cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilkinson, P. B.; Fromhold, T. M.; Taylor, R. P.; Micolich, A. P.
2001-01-01
Electromagnetic wave chaos is investigated using two-dimensional optical cavities formed in a cylindrical gradient refractive index lens with reflective surfaces. When the planar ends of the lens are cut at an angle to its axis, the geometrical ray paths are chaotic. In this regime, the electromagnetic mode spectrum of the cavity is modulated by both real and ghost periodic ray paths, which also 'scar' the electric field intensity distributions of many modes. When the cavity is coupled to waveguides, the eigenmodes generate complex series of resonant peaks in the electromagnetic transmission spectrum
Manipulating the loss in electromagnetic cloaks for perfect wave absorption.
Argyropoulos, Christos; Kallos, Efthymios; Zhao, Yan; Hao, Yang
2009-05-11
We examine several ways to manipulate the loss in electro-magnetic cloaks, based on transformation electromagnetics. It is found that, by utilizing inherent electric and magnetic losses of metamaterials, perfect wave absorption can be achieved based on several popular designs of electromagnetic cloaks. A practical implementation of the absorber, consisting of ten discrete layers of metamaterials, is proposed. The new devices demonstrate super-absorptivity over a moderate wideband range, suitable for both microwave and optical applications. It is corroborated that the device is functional with a subwavelength thickness and, hence, advantageous compared to the conventional absorbers.
A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves.
Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng
2016-01-29
We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak.
Electromagnetic internal gravity waves in the Earth's ionospheric E-layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaladze, T.D.; Tsamalashvili, L.V.; Kaladze, D.T.
2011-01-01
In the Earth's ionospheric E-layer existence of the new waves connecting with the electromagnetic nature of internal gravity waves is shown. They represent the mixture of the ordinary internal gravity waves and the new type of dispersive Alfven waves. -- Highlights: ► Existence of electromagnetic internal gravity waves in the ionospheric E-layer is shown. ► Electromagnetic nature of internal gravity waves is described. ► Appearance of the new dispersive Alfven waves is shown.
Electromagnetic resonance waves. Resonancias de ondas electromagneticas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villaba, J.M.; Manjon, F.J.; Guirao, A.; Andres, M.V.
1994-01-01
We describe in this paper a set of experiments designed to make qualitative and quantitative measurements on electromagnetic resonances of several simple systems. The experiments are designed for the undergraduate laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism in Physics. These experiments can help the students understanding the concept of resonance, which appears in different fields of Physics. (Author) 8 refs.
Cell therapy for spinal cord injury informed by electromagnetic waves.
Finnegan, Jack; Ye, Hui
2016-10-01
Spinal cord injury devastates the CNS, besetting patients with symptoms including but not limited to: paralysis, autonomic nervous dysfunction, pain disorders and depression. Despite the identification of several molecular and genetic factors, a reliable regenerative therapy has yet to be produced for this terminal disease. Perhaps the missing piece of this puzzle will be discovered within endogenous electrotactic cellular behaviors. Neurons and stem cells both show mediated responses (growth rate, migration, differentiation) to electromagnetic waves, including direct current electric fields. This review analyzes the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury, the rationale for regenerative cell therapy and the evidence for directing cell therapy via electromagnetic waves shown by in vitro experiments.
Spectrum of the seismic-electromagnetic and acoustic waves caused by seismic and volcano activity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Koshevaya
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Modeling of the spectrum of the seismo-electromagnetic and acoustic waves, caused by seismic and volcanic activity, has been done. This spectrum includes the Electromagnetic Emission (EME, due to fracturing piezoelectrics in rocks and the Acoustic Emission (AE, caused by the excitation and the nonlinear passage of acoustic waves through the Earth's crust, the atmosphere, and the ionosphere. The investigated mechanism of the EME uses the model of fracturing and the crack motion. For its analysis, we consider a piezoelectric crystal under mechanical stresses, which cause the uniform crack motion, and, consequently, in the vicinity of the moving crack also cause non-stationary polarization currents. A possible spectrum of EME has been estimated. The underground fractures produce Very Low (VLF and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF acoustic waves, while the acoustic waves at higher frequencies present high losses and, on the Earth's surface, they are quite small and are not registered. The VLF acoustic wave is subject to nonlinearity under passage through the lithosphere that leads to the generation of higher harmonics and also frequency down-conversion, namely, increasing the ELF acoustic component on the Earth's surface. In turn, a nonlinear propagation of ELF acoustic wave in the atmosphere and the ionosphere leads to emerging the ultra low frequency (ULF acousto-gravity waves in the ionosphere and possible local excitation of plasma waves.
Global Characteristics of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Deduced From Swarm Satellites
Kim, Hyangpyo; Hwang, Junga; Park, Jaeheung; Bortnik, Jacob; Lee, Jaejin
2018-02-01
It is well known that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in controlling particle dynamics inside the Earth's magnetosphere, especially in the outer radiation belt. In order to understand the results of wave-particle interactions due to EMIC waves, it is important to know how the waves are distributed and what features they have. In this paper, we present some statistical analyses on the spatial distribution of EMIC waves in the low Earth orbit by using Swarm satellites from December 2013 to June 2017 ( 3.5 years) as a function of magnetic local time, magnetic latitude, and magnetic longitude. We also study the wave characteristics such as ellipticity, wave normal angle, peak frequency, and wave power using our automatic wave detection algorithm based on the method of Bortnik et al. (2007, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JA011900). We also investigate the geomagnetic control of the EMIC waves by comparing with geomagnetic activity represented by Kp and Dst indices. We find that EMIC waves are detected with a peak occurrence rate at midlatitude including subauroral region, dawn sector (3-7 magnetic local time), and linear polarization dominated with an oblique propagating direction to the background magnetic field. In addition, our result shows that the waves have some relation with geomagnetic activity; that is, they occur preferably during the geomagnetic storm's late recovery phase at low Earth orbit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalaee, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: mjkalaee@ut.ac.ir [Space Physics Group, Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Katoh, Yuto, E-mail: yuto@stpp.gp.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University (Japan)
2016-07-15
One of the mechanisms for generating electromagnetic plasma waves (Z-mode and LO-mode) is mode conversion from electrostatic waves into electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous plasma. Herein, we study a condition required for mode conversion of electrostatic waves propagating purely perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, by numerically solving the full dispersion relation. An approximate model is derived describing the coupling between electrostatic waves (hot plasma Bernstein mode) and Z-mode waves at the upper hybrid frequency. The model is used to study conditions required for mode conversion from electrostatic waves (electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves, including Bernstein mode) into electromagnetic plasma waves (LO-mode). It is shown that for mode conversion to occur in inhomogeneous plasma, the angle between the boundary surface and the magnetic field vector should be within a specific range. The range of the angle depends on the norm of the k vector of waves at the site of mode conversion in the inhomogeneous region. The present study reveals that inhomogeneity alone is not a sufficient condition for mode conversion from electrostatic waves to electromagnetic plasma waves and that the angle between the magnetic field and the density gradient plays an important role in the conversion process.
Self-reflection of intense electromagnetic waves in plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tewari, D P; Kumar, A; Sharma, J K [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi. Dept. of Physics
1977-10-01
A uniform electromagnetic wave of high power density, propagating in a collisional plasma gives rise to a modification in temperature-dependent collision frequency and in turn induces a gradient in the complex refractive index of the medium. A WKB solution of the problem predicts a backward propagating wave on account of the self-induced inhomogeneity. The amplitude of the backward (i.e. reflected) wave increases with increasing power density of the wave. This is a volume nonlinear effect and is appreciable for usually employed power densities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, B.; Chakraborty, B.
1979-01-01
Nonlinear corrections of a left and a right circularly polarized electromagnetic wave of the same frequency, propagating in the direction of a static and uniform magnetic field in a cold and collisionally damped two-component plasma, have been evaluated. The nonlinearly correct dispersion relation, self-generating nonlinear precessional rotation of the polarization ellipse of the wave and the shift in a wave parameter depend on linear combinations of products of the amplitude components taken two at a time and hence on the energies of the waves. Both in the low frequency resonance (that is when the ion cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency) and in the high frequency resonance (that is when the electron cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency), the self-precessional rate and wavenumber shift are found to be large and so have the possibility of detection in laboratory experiments. Moreover, for the limit leading to Alfven waves, these nonlinear effects have been found to have some interesting and significant properties. (Auth.)
Propagation of an ionizing surface electromagnetic wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boev, A.G.; Prokopov, A.V.
1976-11-01
The propagation of an rf surface wave in a plasma which is ionized by the wave itself is analyzed. The exact solution of the nonlinear Maxwell equations is discussed for the case in which the density of plasma electrons is an exponential function of the square of the electric field. The range over which the surface wave exists and the frequency dependence of the phase velocity are found. A detailed analysis is given for the case of a plasma whose initial density exceeds the critical density at the wave frequency. An increase in the wave amplitude is shown to expand the frequency range over which the plasma is transparent; The energy flux in the plasma tends toward a certain finite value which is governed by the effective ionization field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braginsky, V.B.; Kardashev, N.S.; Polnarev, A.G.; Novikov, I.D.
1989-12-01
Propagation of an electromagnetic wave in the field of gravitational waves is considered. Attention is given to the principal difference between the electromagnetic wave propagation in the field of random gravitational waves and the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a randomly-inhomogeneous refraction index. It is shown that in the case of the gravitation wave field the phase shift of an electromagnetic wave does not increase with distance. The capability of space radio interferometry to detect relic gravitational waves as well as gravitational wave bursts of non cosmological origin are analyzed. (author). 64 refs, 2 figs
FDTD modelling of induced polarization phenomena in transient electromagnetics
Commer, Michael; Petrov, Peter V.; Newman, Gregory A.
2017-04-01
The finite-difference time-domain scheme is augmented in order to treat the modelling of transient electromagnetic signals containing induced polarization effects from 3-D distributions of polarizable media. Compared to the non-dispersive problem, the discrete dispersive Maxwell system contains costly convolution operators. Key components to our solution for highly digitized model meshes are Debye decomposition and composite memory variables. We revert to the popular Cole-Cole model of dispersion to describe the frequency-dependent behaviour of electrical conductivity. Its inversely Laplace-transformed Debye decomposition results in a series of time convolutions between electric field and exponential decay functions, with the latter reflecting each Debye constituents' individual relaxation time. These function types in the discrete-time convolution allow for their substitution by memory variables, annihilating the otherwise prohibitive computing demands. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and practicality of our algorithm.
Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves
Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.
1994-01-01
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.
Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak
Xu, Jun
2015-06-09
We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.
Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak.
Xu, Jun; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Nicholas; Georget, Elodie; Abdeddaim, Redha; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Farhat, Mohamed; Sabouroux, Pierre; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sébastien
2015-06-09
We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves.
Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak
Xu, Jun; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Nicholas; Georget, Elodie; Abdeddaim, Redha; Geffrin, Jean Michel; Farhat, Mohamed; Sabouroux, Pierre; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sé bastien
2015-01-01
We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.
Design of a bounded wave EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) simulator
Sevat, P. A. A.
1989-06-01
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) simulators are used to simulate the EMP generated by a nuclear weapon and to harden equipment against the effects of EMP. At present, DREO has a 1 m EMP simulator for testing computer terminal size equipment. To develop the R and D capability for testing larger objects, such as a helicopter, a much bigger threat level facility is required. This report concerns the design of a bounded wave EMP simulator suitable for testing large size equipment. Different types of simulators are described and their pros and cons are discussed. A bounded wave parallel plate type simulator is chosen for it's efficiency and the least environmental impact. Detailed designs are given for 6 m and 10 m parallel plate type wire grid simulators. Electromagnetic fields inside and outside the simulators are computed. Preliminary specifications for a pulse generator required for the simulator are also given. Finally, the electromagnetic fields radiated from the simulator are computed and discussed.
INTEGRAL results on the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mereghetti, S.; Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.
2018-01-01
Thanks to its high orbit and a set of complementary detectors providing continuous coverage of the whole sky, the INTEGRAL satellite has unique capabilities for the identification and study of the electromagnetic radiation associated to gravitational waves signals and, more generally, for multi...
THE SIMULATION OF SCATTERING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES ON ANGULAR STRUCTURES.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Preobrazhensky
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses the characteristics of scattering of electromagnetic waves on the angular diffraction structures. The solution of the problem is based on the method of integral equations. A comparative analysis of the scattering characteristics of structures with different shape is carried out.
FDTD Modelling of Electromagnetic waves in Stratified Medium ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The technique is an adaptation of the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) approach usually applied to model electromagnetic wave propagation. In this paper a simple 2D implementation of FDTD algorithm in mathematica environment is presented. Source implementation and the effect of conductivity on the incident field ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammad Syahmi Nordin; Fauziah Abdul Aziz
2007-01-01
The low resolution Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is being received and recorded in real-time mode at ground receiving station in School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The system is suitable for the developing and undeveloped countries in south and Southeast Asia and is said to be acceptable for engineering, agricultural, climatological and environmental applications. The system comprises a personal computer attached with a small APT receiver. The data transmission between the ground receiving station and NOAA satellites is using the electromagnetic wave. The relation for receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave in the transmission will be discussed. (Author)
Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu
2015-01-01
In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies. - Highlights: • Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves. • Non-resonant excitation of surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. • Sonic artificially metallic structures transparent for broadband acoustic waves
Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Ren-Hao [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Peng, Ru-Wen, E-mail: rwpeng@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Huang, Xian-Rong [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wang, Mu [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2015-07-15
In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies. - Highlights: • Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves. • Non-resonant excitation of surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. • Sonic artificially metallic structures transparent for broadband acoustic waves.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. P. Verkhoglyadova
2009-12-01
Full Text Available We show a case of an outer zone magnetospheric electromagnetic wave propagating at the Gendrin angle, within uncertainty of the measurements. The chorus event occurred in a "minimum B pocket". For the illustrated example, the measured angle of wave propagation relative to the ambient magnetic field θkB was 58°±4°. For this event the theoretical Gendrin angle was 62°. Cold plasma model is used to demonstrate that Gendrin mode waves are right-hand circularly polarized, in excellent agreement with the observations.
Precision cosmology from future lensed gravitational wave and electromagnetic signals.
Liao, Kai; Fan, Xi-Long; Ding, Xuheng; Biesiada, Marek; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2017-10-27
The standard siren approach of gravitational wave cosmology appeals to the direct luminosity distance estimation through the waveform signals from inspiralling double compact binaries, especially those with electromagnetic counterparts providing redshifts. It is limited by the calibration uncertainties in strain amplitude and relies on the fine details of the waveform. The Einstein telescope is expected to produce 10 4 -10 5 gravitational wave detections per year, 50-100 of which will be lensed. Here, we report a waveform-independent strategy to achieve precise cosmography by combining the accurately measured time delays from strongly lensed gravitational wave signals with the images and redshifts observed in the electromagnetic domain. We demonstrate that just 10 such systems can provide a Hubble constant uncertainty of 0.68% for a flat lambda cold dark matter universe in the era of third-generation ground-based detectors.
Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions
Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.
1990-01-01
The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.
Success of electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter asmonotherapy ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Objectives: To evaluate the success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as monotherapy for solitary renalstones larger than 2 cm without ureteral stenting. Hence, if our study result demonstrates acceptable successand safety, we can recommend ESWL as a treatment option for patients with large renal calculi. Subjects and ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimbovskaya, Natalya A
2011-01-01
We theoretically analyze weakly attenuated electromagnetic waves in quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) metals in high magnetic fields. Within the chosen geometry, the magnetic field is directed perpendicular to the conducting layers of a Q2D conductor. We have shown that longitudinal collective modes could propagate along the magnetic field provided that the Fermi surface is moderately corrugated. The considered wave speeds strongly depend on the magnetic field magnitude. Also, we have analyzed interactions of these quantum waves with sound waves of suitable polarization and propagation direction, and we have shown that such interaction may bring significant changes to the low temperature magnetoacoustic response of Q2D conductors.
Absorption of Electro-magnetic Waves in a Magnetized Medium
Ganguly, Avijit K.; Konar, Sushan
2000-01-01
In continuation to our earlier work, in which the structure of the vacuum polarisation tensor in a medium was analysed in presence of a background electro-magnetic field, we discuss the absorptive part of the vacuum polarization tensor. Using the real time formalism of finite temperature field theory we calculate the absorptive part of 1-loop vacuum polarisation tensor in the weak field limit ($eB < m^2$). Estimates of the absorption probability are also made for different physical conditions...
Selective generation of ultrasonic Lamb waves by electromagnetic acoustic transducers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ming-Liang; Deng Ming-Xi; Gao Guang-Jian
2016-01-01
In this paper, we describe a modal expansion approach for the analysis of the selective generation of ultrasonic Lamb waves by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). With the modal expansion approach for waveguide excitation, an analytical expression of the Lamb wave’s mode expansion coefficient is deduced, which is related to the driving frequency and the geometrical parameters of the EMAT’s meander coil, and lays a theoretical foundation for exactly analyzing the selective generation of Lamb waves with EMATs. The influences of the driving frequency on the mode expansion coefficient of ultrasonic Lamb waves are analyzed when the EMAT’s geometrical parameters are given. The numerical simulations and experimental examinations show that the ultrasonic Lamb wave modes can be effectively regulated (strengthened or restrained) by choosing an appropriate driving frequency of EMAT, with the geometrical parameters given. This result provides a theoretical and experimental basis for selectively generating a single and pure Lamb wave mode with EMATs. (special topic)
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves stimulated by modest magnetospheric compressions
Anderson, B. J.; Hamilton, D. C.
1993-01-01
AMPTE/CCE magnetic field and particle data are used to test the suggestion that increased hot proton temperature anisotropy resulting from convection during magnetospheric compression is responsible for the enhancement in Pc 1 emission via generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the dayside outer equatorial magnetosphere. The relative increase in magnetic field is used to gauge the strength of the compression, and an image dipole model is used to estimate the motion of the plasma during compression. Proton data are used to analyze the evolution of the proton distribution and the corresponding changes in EMIC wave activity expected during the compression. It is suggested that enhancements in dynamic pressure pump the energetic proton distributions in the outer magnetosphere, driving EMIC waves. Waves are expected to be generated most readily close to the magnetopause, and transient pressure pulses may be associated with bursts of EMIC waves, which would be observed on the ground in association with ionospheric transient signatures.
Kim, Hyomin; Clauer, C. Robert; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Hartinger, Michael D.; Lessard, Marc R.; Matzka, Jürgen; Sibeck, David G.; Singer, Howard J.; Stolle, Claudia; Weimer, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhonghua
2017-07-01
We report on simultaneous observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves associated with traveling convection vortex (TCV) events caused by transient solar wind dynamic pressure (Pd) impulse events. The Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft located near the magnetopause observed radial fluctuations of the magnetopause, and the GOES spacecraft measured sudden compressions of the magnetosphere in response to sudden increases in Pd. During the transient events, EMIC waves were observed by interhemispheric conjugate ground-based magnetometer arrays as well as the GOES spacecraft. The spectral structures of the waves appear to be well correlated with the fluctuating motion of the magnetopause, showing compression-associated wave generation. In addition, the wave features are remarkably similar in conjugate hemispheres in terms of bandwidth, quasiperiodic wave power modulation, and polarization. Proton precipitation was also observed by the DMSP spacecraft during the wave events, from which the wave source region is estimated to be 72°-74° in magnetic latitude, consistent with the TCV center. The confluence of space-borne and ground instruments including the interhemispheric, high-latitude, fluxgate/induction coil magnetometer array allows us to constrain the EMIC source region while also confirming the relationship between EMIC waves and the TCV current system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dong-Hoon [Basic Science Research Institute, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Trippe, Sascha, E-mail: ki13130@gmail.com, E-mail: trippe@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-20
Understanding the interaction of primordial gravitational waves (GWs) with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) plasma is important for observational cosmology. In this article, we provide an analysis of an apparently as-yet-overlooked effect. We consider a single free electric charge and suppose that it can be agitated by primordial GWs propagating through the CMB plasma, resulting in periodic, regular motion along particular directions. Light reflected by the charge will be partially polarized, and this will imprint a characteristic pattern on the CMB. We study this effect by considering a simple model in which anisotropic incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation is rescattered by a charge sitting in spacetime perturbed by GWs, and becomes polarized. As the charge is driven to move along particular directions, we calculate its dipole moment to determine the leading-order rescattered EM radiation. The Stokes parameters of the rescattered radiation exhibit a net linear polarization. We investigate how this polarization effect can be schematically represented out of the Stokes parameters. We work out the representations of gradient modes (E-modes) and curl modes (B-modes) to produce polarization maps. Although the polarization effect results from GWs, we find that its representations, the E- and B-modes, do not practically reflect the GW properties such as strain amplitude, frequency, and polarization states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugaya, Reija
1991-01-01
The velocity-space diffusion equation describing distortion of the velocity distribution function due to resonant wave-wave scattering of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized plasma is derived from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations by perturbation theory. The conservation laws for total energy and momentum densities of waves and particles are verified, and the time evolutions of the energy and momentum densities of particles are given in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave coupling coefficient in the kinetic wave equation. (author)
RCS Diversity of Electromagnetic Wave Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum.
Zhang, Chao; Chen, Dong; Jiang, Xuefeng
2017-11-13
An electromagnetic (EM) wave with orbital angular momentum (OAM) has a helical wave front, which is different from that of the plane wave. The phase gradient can be found perpendicular to the direction of propagation and proportional to the number of OAM modes. Herein, we study the backscattering property of the EM wave with different OAM modes, i.e., the radar cross section (RCS) of the target is measured and evaluated with different OAM waves. As indicated by the experimental results, different OAM waves have the same RCS fluctuation for the simple target, e.g., a small metal ball as the target. However, for complicated targets, e.g., two transverse-deployed small metal balls, different RCSs can be identified from the same incident angle. This valuable fact helps to obtain RCS diversity, e.g., equal gain or selective combining of different OAM wave scattering. The majority of the targets are complicated targets or expanded targets; the RCS diversity can be utilized to detect a weak target traditionally measured by the plane wave, which is very helpful for anti-stealth radar to detect the traditional stealth target by increasing the RCS with OAM waves.
Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves.
Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xu, Di-Hu; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu
2015-02-18
A freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband terahertz waves is demonstrated using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized terahertz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. This low-cost, high-efficiency, and freely tunable device has potential applications as material analysis, wireless communication, and THz imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Modified Clemmow-Mullaly-Allis diagram for large-amplitude electromagnetic waves in magnetoplasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minami, K.; Mori, Y.; Takeda, S.
1975-02-01
A possible modification to the well known Clemmow- Mullaly-Allis diagram is analysed taking into account the radiation pressure force due to a large-amplitude electromagnetic field E in magnetoplasmas. We restrict ourselves here to the propagations parallel (the right and left-hand circularly polarized waves) and/or perpendicular (the ordinary and extraordinary modes) to the static magnetic field Bsub(o). We analyse electromagnetic waves incident normally on a semi-infinite uniform plasma, on which Bsub(o) is applied parallel and/or perpendicular to the surface. Considerations are limited to a cold collisionless plasma where the incident waves are evanescent. Simple expressions are obtained for the cut-off conditions of the waves except the extraordinary mode. In the latter case, the cut-off condition is calculated numerically solving an integral equation. The results are demonstrated in the usual Clemmow-Mullaly-Allis diagram for the various values of b=2Esub(i) 2 e 2 /mω 2 kappaTsub(e') where Esub(i) and ω are, respectively, the amplitude and the angular frequency of the incident wave. The cut-off lines are shown to move towards the higher densities with increasing b. (auth.)
Stimulated brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Sen, A.
1991-08-01
The stimulated Brilluoin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous, unmagnetized and collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated theoretically. The Vlasov equation has been solved perturbatively to find the nonlinear response of the plasma particles. The presence of the dust particles introduces a background inhomogeneous electric field which significantly influences the dispersive properties of the plasma. At the ion acoustic branch we find the usual scattering slightly modified by the charged dust grains. However, at the frequency lower than the ion acoustic branch we find a new mode of the plasma arising from the oscillations of the ions in the static structure of the dust distribution. This low frequency branch causes enhanced stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma. (author). 15 refs
Interaction of the electromagnetic waves and non-magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Aiping; Qiu Xiaoming; Dong Yuying; Li Liqiong
2002-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic waves with 0.5 - 10 GHz in a non-magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. The change in the absorbed power, reflected power and transmitted power of the electromagnetic wave with collisional frequency of electrons and neutral atoms in plasma from 0.1 - 10 GHz, is calculated, in the condition of the uniform plasma with density of 10 10 or 10 11 cm -3 and depth of 10 cm, and the non-uniform plasma with density distribution of n = n 0 exp[2(z/d-1)] and depth of 10 cm, respectively. The results show that the absorbed power in either uniform or non-uniform plasma is large when the plasma density is large and collision frequency is high, and the peak value is 90%
On the self-trapping of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Ashry, M.Y.; Berezhiani, V.I.; Pichkhadze, Sh.D.
1987-06-01
The possibility of relativistic self-trapping of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that in the case of propagation of fast wave packet of electromagnetic wave in plasma, self-trapping is possible due to the effect of relativistic non-linearity, which is effective even for small amplitudes of the pumping wave. (author). 7 refs
Electromagnetic wave propagation in relativistic magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, I.
1985-01-01
An improved mathematical technique and a new code for deriving the conductivity tensor for collisionless plasmas have been developed. The method is applicable to a very general case, including both hot (relativistic) and cold magnetized plasmas, with only isotropic equilibrium distributions being considered here. The usual derivation starts from the relativistic Vlasov equation and leads to an integration over an infinite sum of Bessel functions which has to be done numerically. In the new solution the integration is carried out over a product of two Bessel functions only. This reduces the computing time very significantly. An added advantage over existing codes is our capability to perform the computations for waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. Both improvements greatly facilitate investigations of properties of the plasma under conditions hitherto unexplored
Saldanha, Pablo L
2010-02-01
It is proposed a natural and consistent division of the momentum of electromagnetic waves in linear, non-dispersive and non-absorptive dielectric and magnetic media into material and electromagnetic parts. The material part is calculated using directly the Lorentz force law and the electromagnetic momentum density has the form epsilon(0)E x B, without an explicit dependence on the properties of the media. The consistency of the treatment is verified through the obtention of a correct momentum balance equation in many examples and showing the compatibility of the division with the Einstein's theory of relativity by the use of a gedanken experiment. An experimental prediction for the radiation pressure on mirrors immersed in linear dielectric and magnetic media is also made.
Detecting electromagnetic cloaks using backward-propagating waves
Salem, Mohamed
2011-08-01
A novel approach for detecting transformation-optics invisibility cloaks is proposed. The detection method takes advantage of the unusual backward-propagation characteristics of recently reported beams and pulses to induce electromagnetic scattering from the cloak. Even though waves with backward-propagating energy flux cannot penetrate the cloaking shell and interact with the cloaked objects (i.e., they do not make the cloaked object visible), they provide a mechanism for detecting the presence of cloaks. © 2011 IEEE.
Detecting electromagnetic cloaks using backward-propagating waves
Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan
2011-01-01
A novel approach for detecting transformation-optics invisibility cloaks is proposed. The detection method takes advantage of the unusual backward-propagation characteristics of recently reported beams and pulses to induce electromagnetic scattering from the cloak. Even though waves with backward-propagating energy flux cannot penetrate the cloaking shell and interact with the cloaked objects (i.e., they do not make the cloaked object visible), they provide a mechanism for detecting the presence of cloaks. © 2011 IEEE.
Magnesiothermic reduction of rice husk ash for electromagnetic wave adsorption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Shu-Ting; Yan, Kang-kang; Zhang, Yuan hu; Jin, Shi-di; Ye, Ying; Chen, Xue-Gang, E-mail: chenxg83@zju.edu.cn
2015-11-15
The increase in electromagnetic pollution due to the extensive exploitation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in modern technology creates correspondingly urgent need for developing effective EM wave absorbers. In this study, we carried out the magnesiothermic reduced the rice husk ash under different temperatures (400–800 °C) and investigated the electromagnetic wave adsorption of the products. The EM absorbing for all samples are mainly depend on the dielectric loss, which is ascribed to the carbon and silicon carbide content. RA samples (raw rice husk ashed in air and was magesiothermic reduced in different temperatures) exhibit poor dielectric properties, whereas RN samples (raw rice husk ashed in nitrogen and was magesiothermic reduced in different temperatures) with higher content of carbon and silicon carbide display considerable higher dielectric loss values and broader bandwidth for RL<−5 dB and −10 dB. For RN samples, the maximum bandwidth for −5 dB and −10 dB decrease with carbon contents, while the optimum thickness decrease with increasing SiC content. The optimum thickness of RN400–800 for EM absorption is 1.5–2.0 mm, with maximum RL of between −28.9 and −68.4 dB, bandwidth of 6.7–13 GHz for RL<−5 dB and 3.2–6.2 GHz for RL<−10 dB. The magnesiothermic reduction will enhance the potential application of rice husk ash in EM wave absorption and the samples benefited from low bulk density and low thickness. With the advantages of light-weight, high EM wave absorption, low cost, RN400–800 could be promising candidates for light-weight EM wave absorption materials over many conventional EM wave absorbers. - Highlights: • RN400–800 samples are potential light-weight electromagnetic absorbers. • Carbon and SiC are considered as dominating contributions for the dielectric loss. • Magnesiumothermic reduction extends the EM wave absorption potential of RHN.
Particle Dynamics under Quasi-linear Interaction with Electromagnetic Waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castejon, F.; Eguilior, S.
2003-07-01
Langevin equations for quasi-linear wave particle interaction are obtained taking advantage of the unique vocal equivalence between Fokker-Plank equation and the former ones. Langevin equations are solved numerically and, hence, the evolution of a single particle embedded in an electromagnetic field in momentum space is obtained. The equations are relativistic and valid for any wave. It is also shown that the stochastic part of the equations is negligible in comparison with the deterministic term, except for the momentum to the resonance condition for the main parallel refractive index. (Author) 24 refs.
Particle Dynamics under Quasi-linear Interaction with Electromagnetic Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castejon, F.; Eguilior, S.
2003-01-01
Langevin equations for quasi-linear wave particle interaction are obtained taking advantage of the unique vocal equivalence between Fokker-Plank equation and the former ones. Langevin equations are solved numerically and, hence, the evolution of a single particle embedded in an electromagnetic field in momentum space is obtained. The equations are relativistic and valid for any wave. It is also shown that the stochastic part of the equations is negligible in comparison with the deterministic term, except for the momentum to the resonance condition for the main parallel refractive index. (Author) 24 refs
Electromagnetic wave theory for boundary-value problems an advanced course on analytical methods
Eom, Hyo J
2004-01-01
Electromagnetic wave theory is based on Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic boundary-value problems must be solved to understand electromagnetic scattering, propagation, and radiation. Electromagnetic theory finds practical applications in wireless telecommunications and microwave engineering. This book is written as a text for a two-semester graduate course on electromagnetic wave theory. As such, Electromagnetic Wave Theory for Boundary-Value Problems is intended to help students enhance analytic skills by solving pertinent boundary-value problems. In particular, the techniques of Fourier transform, mode matching, and residue calculus are utilized to solve some canonical scattering and radiation problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahar, E.
1976-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic waves excited by electric dipoles oriented along the axis of multilayered spheroidal structures of finite conductivity is investigated. The electromagnetic parameters and the thickness of the layers of the structure are assumed to be functions of the latitude. In the analysis, electric and magnetic field transforms that constitute a discrete and a continuous spectrum of spherical waves are used to provide a suitable basis for the expansion of the electromagnetic fields at any point in the irregular spheroidal structure. For spheroidal structures with good conducting cores, the terms in the solutions associated with the continuous part of the wave spectrum vanish. In general, however, when the skin depth for the core is large compared to its dimensions or when the sources are located in the core of the structure and propagation in the core is of special interest, the contribution from the continuous part of the wave spectrum cannot be neglected. At each interface between the layers of the irregular spheroidal structure, exact boundary conditions are imposed. Since the terms of the field expansions in the irregular structure do not individually satisfy the boundary conditions, Maxwell's equations are reduced to sets of coupled ordinary first-order differential equations for the wave amplitudes. The solutions are shown to satisfy the reciprocity relationships in electromagnetic theory. The analysis may be applied to problems of radio wave propagation in a nonuniform model of the earth-ionosphere waveguide, particularly when focusing effects at the antipodes are important
Quantifying Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Environment Using Measurements From A Small Buoy
2017-06-01
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT USING MEASUREMENTS FROM A SMALL BUOY by Andrew E. Sweeney June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Qing Wang...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE QUANTIFYING ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT USING MEASUREMENTS FROM A...the Coupled Air Sea Processes and Electromagnetic (EM) ducting Research (CASPER), to understand air-sea interaction processes and their representation
Seomun, GyeongAe; Kim, YoungHwan; Lee, Jung-Ah; Jeong, KwangHoon; Park, Seon-A; Kim, Miran; Noh, Wonjung
2014-01-01
To better understand environmental electromagnetic wave exposure during the use of digital textbooks by elementary school students, we measured numeric values of the electromagnetic fields produced by tablet personal computers (TPCs). Specifically, we examined the distribution of the electromagnetic waves for various students' seating positions in…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tagirov, Eh.A.
1985-01-01
A model of resonance parametric transformation of a gravitational wave to electromagnetic one is considered. Two plane monochromatic waves: a strong electromagnetic and weak gravitational - interacting in a medium generate at difference and sum frequencies an electromagnetic wave in a direction determined with the condition of spatial wave synchronism. Rarefied cold gas or beam of elementary emitters (''molecules'') serve as a medium model. Coefficients of parametric transformation have been determined
Electron beam injection during active experiments. 1. Electromagnetic wave emissions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winglee, R.M.; Kellogg, P.J.
1990-01-01
During the active injection of an electron beam, a broad spectrum of waves is generated. In this paper examples of spectra from the recent Echo 7 experiment are presented. These results show that the characteristics of the emissions can change substantially with altitude. Two-dimensional (three velocity) relativistic electromagnetic particle simulations are used to investigate the changes in the plasma conditions required to account for the observed spectral variations. It is shown that many of these variations can be accounted for by assuming that the ratio of the electron plasma frequency ω pe to cyclotron frequency Ω e is less than unity at the lower altitudes of about 200 km and near or above unity at apogee of about 300 km. In the former case, whistlers with a cutoff at ω pe , lower hybrid and plasma waves are driven by the parallel beam energy while electromagnetic fundamental z mode and second harmonic x mode and electrostatic upper hybrid waves are driven by the perpendicular beam energy through the master instability. E x B drifts driven by perpendicular electric fields associated with the beam-plasma interaction can also be important in generating maser emission, particularly for field-aligned injection where there is no intrinsic perpendicular beam energy. The power in the electrostatic waves is a few percent of the beam energy and that in the electromagnetic waves a few tenths of a percent. In the latter case, where ω pe /Ω e increases above unity, emission in the fundamental z mode and second harmonic x mode become suppressed
Optimization of incident EC wave polarization in real-time polarization scan experiments on LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsujimura, Toru I.; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Makino, Ryohei
2016-01-01
Real-time polarization scan experiments were performed on the Large Helical Device (LHD) to search an optimal incident wave polarization for electron cyclotron resonance heating. The obtained optimal polarization state to maximize the power absorption to the LHD plasma is compared with the ray-tracing code that includes mode content analyses, which indicates that the calculated results are generally in good agreement with the experimental results. The analyses show that optimal coupling to plasma waves requires a fine adjustment for an incident wave polarization even for perpendicular injection due to the finite density profile and the magnetic shear at the peripheral region. (author)
Electromagnetic waves with frequencies near the local proton gyrofrequency: ISEE-3 1 AU observations
Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Arballo, John K.; Mok, John; Smith, Edward J.; Mason, Glenn M.; Tan, Lun C.
1994-01-01
Low Frequency (LF) electromagnetic waves with periods near the local proton gyrofrequency have been detected in interplanetary space by the magnetometer onboard International-Sun-Earth-Explorer-3 (ISEE-3). Transverse peak-to-peak amplitudes as large as delta vector B/absolute value of B approximately 0.4 have been noted with compressional components (Delta absolute value of B/absolute value of B) typically less than or = 0.1. Generally, the waves have even smaller amplitudes, or are not detectable within the solar wind turbulence. The waves are elliptically/linearly polarized and are often, but not always, found to propagate nearly along vector B(sub zero). Both right- and left-hand polarizations in the spacecraft-frame have been detected. The waves are observed during all orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field, with the Parker spiral orientation being the most common case. Because the waves are detected at and near the local proton cyclotron frequency, the generation mechanism must almost certainly be solar wind pickup of freshly created hydrogen ions. Possible sources for the hydrogen are the Earth's atmosphere, coronal mass ejections from the Sun, comets and interstellar neutral atoms. At this time it is not obvious which potential source is the correct one. Statistical tests employing over one year of ISEE-3 data will be done in the near future to eliminate/confirm some of these possibilities.
Near-surface compressional and shear wave speeds constrained by body-wave polarization analysis
Park, Sunyoung; Ishii, Miaki
2018-06-01
A new technique to constrain near-surface seismic structure that relates body-wave polarization direction to the wave speed immediately beneath a seismic station is presented. The P-wave polarization direction is only sensitive to shear wave speed but not to compressional wave speed, while the S-wave polarization direction is sensitive to both wave speeds. The technique is applied to data from the High-Sensitivity Seismograph Network in Japan, and the results show that the wave speed estimates obtained from polarization analysis are compatible with those from borehole measurements. The lateral variations in wave speeds correlate with geological and physical features such as topography and volcanoes. The technique requires minimal computation resources, and can be used on any number of three-component teleseismic recordings, opening opportunities for non-invasive and inexpensive study of the shallowest (˜100 m) crustal structures.
Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde
1995-11-01
The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, G. Q.; Feng, H. Q. [Institute of Space Physics, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang (China); Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing (China); Chu, Y. H. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); Huang, J. [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing (China)
2017-09-20
Previous studies revealed that electromagnetic cyclotron waves (ECWs) near the proton cyclotron frequency exist widely in the solar wind, and the majority of ECWs are left-handed (LH) polarized waves. Using the magnetic field data from the STEREO mission, this Letter carries out a survey of ECWs over a long period of 7 years and calculates the occurrence rates of ECWs with different polarization senses. Results show that the occurrence rate is nearly a constant for the ECWs with right-handed polarization, but it varies significantly for the ECWs with LH polarization. Further investigation of plasma conditions reveals that the LH ECWs take place preferentially in a plasma characterized by higher temperature, lower density, and larger velocity. Some considerable correlations between the occurrence rate of LH ECWs and the properties of ambient plasmas are discussed. The present research may provide evidence for the effect of alpha particles on the generation of ECWs.
On propagation of electromagnetic and gravitational waves in the expanding Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gladyshev, V O
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study was to obtain an equation for the propagation time of electromagnetic and gravitational waves in the expanding Universe. The velocity of electromagnetic waves propagation depends on the velocity of the interstellar medium in the observer's frame of reference. Gravitational radiation interacts weakly with the substance, so electromagnetic and gravitational waves propagate from a remote astrophysical object to the terrestrial observer at different time. Gravitational waves registration enables the inverse problem solution - by the difference in arrival time of electromagnetic and gravitational-wave signal, we can determine the characteristics of the emitting area of the astrophysical object. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhukovsky, Sergei; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu
2013-01-01
We explore the capabilities of planar metamaterials and metasurfaces to control and transform the polarization of electromagnetic radiation, and present a detailed covariant multipole theory of dimer-based metamaterials. We show that various optical properties, such as optical activity, elliptical...... dichroism or polarization conversion can be achieved in metamaterials made of simple shapes, such as nanorods, just by varying their geometrical arrangement. By virtue of the Babinet principle, the proposed theory is extended to inverted structures (membranes) where rods are replaced by slots. Such free......-standing “metasurface membranes” can act as thin-film spectrally sensitive polarization shapers for THz radiation. Proof-of-principle devices (a linear polarizer and a structure with giant optical activity) are fabricated and characterized. Experimental results coincide with those of full-wave numerical simulations...
Interaction of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in a stochastic atmosphere
Bhatnagar, N.; Peterson, A. M.
1979-01-01
In the Stanford radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) an electromagnetic signal is made to scatter from a moving acoustic pulse train. Under a Bragg-scatter condition maximum electromagnetic scattering occurs. The scattered radio signal contains temperature and wind information as a function of the acoustic-pulse position. In this investigation RASS performance is assessed in an atmosphere characterized by the presence of turbulence and mean atmospheric parameters. The only assumption made is that the electromagnetic wave is not affected by stochastic perturbations in the atmosphere. It is concluded that the received radio signal depends strongly on the intensity of turbulence for altitudes of the acoustic pulse greater than the coherence length of propagation. The effect of mean vertical wind and mean temperature on the strength of the received signal is also demonstrated to be insignificant. Mean horizontal winds, however, shift the focus of the reflected electromagnetic energy from its origin, resulting in a decrease in received signal level when a monostatic radio-frequency (RF) system is used. For a bistatic radar configuration with space diversified receiving antennas, the shifting of the acoustic pulse makes possible the remote measurement of the horizontal wind component.
Studying Lorentz-violating electromagnetic waves in confined media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viana, Davidson R.; Gomes, Andre H.; Fonseca, Jakson M.; Moura-Melo, Winder A.
2009-01-01
Full text. Planck energy scale is still far beyond current possibilities. A question of interest is whether the Lorentz symmetry remains valid at these extremely high energies, whose answer certainly would be useful whenever building grand unified theories, in which general relativity is consistently accommodated. Here, we study a reminiscent of this possible symmetry violation, incorporated in the body of the so-called Standard Model Extension (SME). More precisely, we deal with the pure (Abelian) gauge sector, so that we have a modified classical electromagnetism in (3+1) dimensions, whose Lagrangian include a term proportional to a (constant) background tensor that breaks the Lorentz symmetry, but respecting CPT. Our attention is devoted to the wave-like solutions constrained to propagate inside confined media, like waveguides and resonant cavities. Our preliminary findings indicate that Lorentz-breaking implies in modifications of the standard results which are proportional to the (very small) violating parameters, but could be largely enhanced by diminishing the size of the confined media. Under study is the case of a toroidal cavity where the electromagnetic field should respect the additional requirement of being single-valued in the (toroidal) angular variable. Perhaps, such an extra feature combined with the usual boundary conditions could lead us to large effects of this violation, somewhat similar to those predicted for CPT- and Lorentz-odd electromagnetic waves constrained to propagate along a hollow conductor waveguide. (author)
Utilization Of Carbon Nanotubes In Electromagnetic Wave Detectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Hanis Zakariah
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Direct detection of hydrocarbon by an active source using electromagnetic (EM energy termed seabed logging (SBL has shown very promising results. However, currently available electromagnetic wave technology has a number of challenges include sensitivity and frequency matching. This paper presents development of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs as electromagnetic wave detector due to outstanding properties of carbon nanotubes. They are currently one of the desired materials for advanced technologies. Two types of detectors were developed in this work, carbon nanotube-based (D1 and without nanotube-based (D2 detectors. Various configuration and arrangement for each type of detector were investigated to determine the one with the highest detection measurement and stability of frequency stability of detection system. It was found that 20 turn-coils coil placed at its centre gives the maximum detection of induction voltage, 39.61 mV. However, the 20 turn- coils with CNTs which gives 36.50 mV is the preferred EM detectors due to the stability in frequency of the detection system.
Electromagnetic signals produced by elastic waves in the Earth's crust
Sgrigna, V.; Buzzi, A.; Conti, L.; Guglielmi, A. V.; Pokhotelov, O. A.
2004-03-01
The paper describes the excitation of geoelectromagnetic-field oscillations caused by elastic waves propagating in the Earth's crust and generated by natural and anthropogenic phenomena, such as earthquakes, explosions, etc. Two mechanisms of electromagnetic signal generation, i.e. induction and electrokinetics ones, are considered and a comparative analysis between them is carried out. The first mechanism is associated with the induction of Foucault currents due to movements of the Earth's crust in the core geomagnetic field. The second mechanism is connected with movements of liquids filling pores and cracks of rocks. An equation is derived for describing in a uniform way these two manifestations of seismomagnetism. The equation is solved for body and surface waves. The study shows that a magnetic precursor signal is moving in the front of elastic waves.
Nonlinear electromagnetic waves in a degenerate electron-positron plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Labany, S.K., E-mail: skellabany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta (Egypt); El-Taibany, W.F., E-mail: eltaibany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls in Abha, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); El-Samahy, A.E.; Hafez, A.M.; Atteya, A., E-mail: ahmedsamahy@yahoo.com, E-mail: am.hafez@sci.alex.edu.eg, E-mail: ahmed_ateya2002@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)
2015-08-15
Using the reductive perturbation technique (RPT), the nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic solitary waves in an ultracold, degenerate (extremely dense) electron-positron (EP) plasma (containing ultracold, degenerate electron, and positron fluids) is investigated. The set of basic equations is reduced to a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the lowest-order perturbed magnetic field and to a KdV type equation for the higher-order perturbed magnetic field. The solutions of these evolution equations are obtained. For better accuracy and searching on new features, the new solutions are analyzed numerically based on compact objects (white dwarf) parameters. It is found that including the higher-order corrections results as a reduction (increment) of the fast (slow) electromagnetic wave amplitude but the wave width is increased in both cases. The ranges where the RPT can describe adequately the total magnetic field including different conditions are discussed. (author)
Coffey, Aaron M.; Shchepin, Roman V.; Feng, Bibo; Colon, Raul D.; Wilkens, Ken; Waddell, Kevin W.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.
2017-11-01
Applications of parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) often warrant conversion of the chemically-synthesized singlet-state spin order into net heteronuclear magnetization. In order to obtain optimal yields from the overall hyperpolarization process, catalytic hydrogenation must be tightly synchronized to subsequent radiofrequency (RF) transformations of spin order. Commercial NMR consoles are designed to synchronize applied waves on multiple channels and consequently are well-suited as controllers for these types of hyperpolarization experiments that require tight coordination of RF and non-RF events. Described here is a PHIP instrument interfaced to a portable NMR console operating with a static field electromagnet in the milliTesla regime. In addition to providing comprehensive control over chemistry and RF events, this setup condenses the PHIP protocol into a pulse-program that in turn can be readily shared in the manner of traditional pulse sequences. In this device, a TTL multiplexer was constructed to convert spectrometer TTL outputs into 24 VDC signals. These signals then activated solenoid valves to control chemical shuttling and reactivity in PHIP experiments. Consolidating these steps in a pulse-programming environment speeded calibration and improved quality assurance by enabling the B0/B1 fields to be tuned based on the direct acquisition of thermally polarized and hyperpolarized NMR signals. Performance was tested on the parahydrogen addition product of 2-hydroxyethyl propionate-1-13C-d3, where the 13C polarization was estimated to be P13C = 20 ± 2.5% corresponding to 13C signal enhancement approximately 25 million-fold at 9.1 mT or approximately 77,000-fold 13C enhancement at 3 T with respect to thermally induced polarization at room temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shumeiko, N.M.; Timoshin, S.I.
1991-01-01
Compact formulae for a total 1-loop electromagnetic corrections, including the contribution of electromagnetic hadron effects to the deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons on polarized nucleons in the quark-parton model have been obtained. The cases of longitudinal and transverse nucleon polarization are considered in detail. A thorough numerical calculation of corrections to cross sections and polarization asymmetries at muon (electron) energies over the range of 200-2000 GeV (10-16 GeV) has been made. It has been established that the contribution of corrections to the hadron current considerably affects the behaviour of longitudinal asymmetry. A satisfactory agreement is found between the model calculations of corrections to the lepton current and the phenomenological calculation results, which makes it possible to find the total 1-loop correction within the framework of a common approach. (Author)
Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves in planarly stratified media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caviglia, G.
1999-01-01
Propagation of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves in planarly stratified multilayers is investigated. Each layer is allowed to be inhomogeneous and the layers are separated by interfaces. The procedure is based on the representation of the electromagnetic field in the basis of the eigenvectors of the matrix characterizing the first-order system. Hence the local reflection and transmission matrices are defined and the corresponding differential equations, in the pertinent space variable are determined. The jump conditions at interfaces are also established. The present model incorporates dissipative materials and the procedure holds without any restrictions to material symmetries. Differential equations appeared in the literature are shown to hold in particular (one-dimensional) cases or to represent homogeneous layers only
Optimizing searches for electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave triggers
Coughlin, Michael W.; Tao, Duo; Chan, Man Leong; Chatterjee, Deep; Christensen, Nelson; Ghosh, Shaon; Greco, Giuseppe; Hu, Yiming; Kapadia, Shasvath; Rana, Javed; Salafia, Om Sharan; Stubbs11, Christopher
2018-04-01
With the detection of a binary neutron star system and its corresponding electromagnetic counterparts, a new window of transient astronomy has opened. Due to the size of the sky localization regions, which can span hundreds to thousands of square degrees, there are significant benefits to optimizing tilings for these large sky areas. The rich science promised by gravitational-wave astronomy has led to the proposal for a variety of proposed tiling and time allocation schemes, and for the first time, we make a systematic comparison of some of these methods. We find that differences of a factor of 2 or more in efficiency are possible, depending on the algorithm employed. For this reason, with future surveys searching for electromagnetic counterparts, care should be taken when selecting tiling, time allocation, and scheduling algorithms to optimize counterpart detection.
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yaoze; Gao, Junying; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Sun, Xiudong; Li, Hui; Wu, Jian; Pu, Shaozhi
2015-01-01
Propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in weakly ionized dusty plasmas are the subject of this study. Dielectric relation for EM waves propagating at a weakly ionized dusty plasma is derived based on the Boltzmann distribution law while considering the collision and charging effects of dust grains. The propagation properties of EM energy in dusty plasma of rocket exhaust are numerically calculated and studied, utilizing the parameters of rocket exhaust plasma. Results indicate that increase of dust radius and density enhance the reflection and absorption coefficient. High dust radius and density make the wave hardly transmit through the dusty plasmas. Interaction enhancements between wave and dusty plasmas are developed through effective collision frequency improvements. Numerical results coincide with observed results by indicating that GHz band wave communication is effected by dusty plasma as the presence of dust grains significantly affect propagation of EM waves in the dusty plasmas. The results are helpful to analyze the effect of dust in plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for the experiments. (paper)
Explaining Electromagnetic Plane Waves in a Vacuum at the Introductory Level
Allred, Clark L.; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Flusche, Brian M.; Kiziah, Rex R.; Lee, David J.
2010-01-01
A typical introduction to electromagnetic waves in vacuum is illustrated by the following quote from an introductory physics text: "Maxwell's equations predict that an electromagnetic wave consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. The changing fields induce each other, which maintains the propagation of the wave; a changing electric…
Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C. E.; Rudakov, L.; Mithaiwala, M.
2014-12-01
Velocity ring instabilities are a common naturally occuring magnetospheric phenomenon that can also be generated by man made ionospheric experiments. These instabilities are known to generate lower-hybrid waves, which generally cannot propagte out of the source region. However, nonlinear wave physics can convert these linearly driven electrostatic lower-hybrid waves into electromagnetic waves that can escape the source region. These nonlinearly generated waves can be an important source of VLF turbulence that controls the trapped electron lifetime in the radiation belts. We develop numerical solutions to the wave-kinetic equation in a periodic box including the effects of nonlinear (NL) scattering (nonlinear Landau damping) of Lower-hybrid waves giving the evolution of the wave-spectra in wavenumber space. Simultaneously we solve the particle diffusion equation of both the background plasma particles and the ring ions, due to both linear and nonlinear Landau resonances. At initial times for cold ring ions, an electrostatic beam mode is excited, while the kinetic mode is stable. As the instability progresses the ring ions heat, the beam mode is stabilized, and the kinetic mode destabilizes. When the amplitude of the waves becomes sufficient the lower-hybrid waves are scattered (by either nearly unmagnetized ions or magnetized electrons) into electromagnetic magnetosonic waves [Ganguli et al 2010]. The effect of NL scattering is to limit the amplitude of the waves, slowing down the quasilinear relaxation time and ultimately allowing more energy from the ring to be liberated into waves [Mithaiwala et al. 2011]. The effects of convection out of the instability region are modeled, additionally limiting the amplitude of the waves, allowing further energy to be liberated from the ring [Scales et al., 2012]. Results are compared to recent 3D PIC simulations [Winske and Duaghton 2012].
Evidence of L-mode electromagnetic wave pumping of ionospheric plasma near geomagnetic zenith
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. B. Leyser
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The response of ionospheric plasma to pumping by powerful HF (high frequency electromagnetic waves transmitted from the ground into the ionosphere is the strongest in the direction of geomagnetic zenith. We present experimental results from transmitting a left-handed circularly polarized HF beam from the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter association Heating facility in magnetic zenith. The CASSIOPE (CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer spacecraft in the topside ionosphere above the F-region density peak detected transionospheric pump radiation, although the pump frequency was below the maximum ionospheric plasma frequency. The pump wave is deduced to arrive at CASSIOPE through L-mode propagation and associated double (O to Z, Z to O conversion in pump-induced radio windows. L-mode propagation allows the pump wave to reach higher plasma densities and higher ionospheric altitudes than O-mode propagation so that a pump wave in the L-mode can facilitate excitation of upper hybrid phenomena localized in density depletions in a larger altitude range. L-mode propagation is therefore suggested to be important in explaining the magnetic zenith effect.
Langmuir wave turbulence generated by electromagnetic waves in the laboratory and the ionosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, M.C.; Riddolls, R.J.; Moriarty, D.T.; Dalrymple, N.E.; Rowlands, M.J.
1996-01-01
The authors will present some recent results of the laboratory experiments at MIT, using a large plasma device known as the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF). These experiments are aimed at cross-checking the ionospheric plasma heating experiments at Arecibo, Puerto Rico using an HF heating facility (heater). The plasma phenomenon under investigation is the spectral characteristic of Langmuir wave turbulence produced by ordinary (o-mode) electromagnetic pump waves. The Langmuir waves excited by o-mode heaters waves at Arecibo have both a frequency-upshifted spectrum and a frequency-downshifted (viz., cascading) spectrum. While the cascading spectrum can be well explained in terms of the parametric decay instability (PDI), the authors have interpreted the frequency-upshifted Langmuir waves to be anti-Stokes Langmuir waves produced by a nonlinear scattering process as follows. Lower hybrid waves creates presumably by lightning-induced whistler waves can scatter nonlinearly the PDI-excited mother langmuir waves, yielding obliquely propagating langmuir waves with frequencies as the summation of the mother Langmuir wave frequencies and the lower hybrid wave frequencies. This suggested process has been confirmed in the laboratory experiments, that can reproduce the characteristic spectra of Langmuir wave turbulence observed in the Arecibo experiments
Virtual Singular Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Transformation Media Concept
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Y. Barabanenkov
2012-07-01
Full Text Available If a scatterer and an observation point (receive both approach the so-called near field zone of a source of electromagnetic waves, the scattering process becomes singular one which is mathematically attributed to the spatial singularity of the free space Green function at the origin. Starting from less well known property of left-handed material slab to transfer the singularity of the free space Green function by implementing coordinate transformation, we present a phenomenon of virtual singular scattering of electromagnetic wave on an inhomogeneity located in the volume of left – handed material slab. Virtual singular scattering means that a scatterer is situated only virtually in the near field zone of a source, being, in fact, positioned in the far field zone. Such a situation is realized if a scatterer is embedded into a flat Veselago’s lens and approaches the lens’s inner focus because a slab of Veselago medium produces virtual sources inside and behind the slab and virtual scatterer (as a source of secondary waves from both slab sides. Considering a line-like dielectric scatterer we demonstrate that the scattering efficiency is proportional to product of singular quasistatic parts of two empty space Green functions that means a multiplicative quasistatic singularity of the Green function for a slab of inhomogeneous Veselago medium. We calculate a resonance value of the scattering amplitude in the regime similar to the known Mie resonance scattering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding Chao-Liang; Zhao Zhi-Guo; Li Xiao-Feng; Pan Liu-Zhan; Yuan Xiao
2011-01-01
Using the coherence theory of non-stationary fields and the characterization of stochastic electromagnetic pulsed beams, the analytical expression for the spectral degree of polarization of stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model pulsed (GSMP) beams in turbulent atmosphere is derived and is used to study the polarization properties of stochastic electromagnetic GSMP beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere. The results of numerical calculation are given to illustrate the dependence of spectral degree of polarization on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length. It is shown that, compared with free-space case, in turbulent atmosphere propagation there are two positions at which the on-axis spectral degree of polarization P is equal to zero. The position change depends on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))
Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum in quantum plasmas.
Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B; Stenflo, L
2012-07-01
We investigate stimulated scattering instabilities of coherent circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons and nondegenerate ions. For this purpose, we employ the coupled equations for the CPEM wave vector potential and the driven (by the ponderomotive force of the CPEM waves) equations for the electron and ion plasma oscillations. The electrons are significantly affected by the quantum forces (viz., the quantum statistical pressure, the quantum Bohm potential, as well as the electron exchange and electron correlations due to electron spin), which are included in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamical description of the electrons. Furthermore, our investigation of the stimulated Brillouin instability of coherent CPEM waves uses the generalized ion momentum equation that includes strong ion coupling effects. The nonlinear equations for the coupled CPEM and quantum plasma waves are then analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations which exhibit stimulated Raman, stimulated Brillouin, and modulational instabilities of CPEM waves carrying OAM. The present results are useful for understanding the origin of scattered light off low-frequency density fluctuations in high-energy density plasmas where quantum effects are eminent.
RF electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ferrite polymer composite materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dosoudil, Rastislav; Usakova, Marianna; Franek, Jaroslav; Slama, Jozef; Olah, Vladimir
2006-01-01
The frequency dispersion of complex initial (relative) permeability (μ * =μ ' -jμ ' ') and the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of composite materials based on NiZn sintered ferrite and a polyvinylchloride (PVC) polymer matrix have been studied in frequency range from 1MHz to 1GHz. The complex permeability of the composites was found to increase as the ferrite content increased, and was characterized by frequency dispersion localized above 50MHz. The variation of return loss (RL) of single-layer RF absorbers using the prepared composite materials has been investigated as a function of frequency, ferrite content and the thickness of the absorbers
Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetic and Elastic Waves
Chew, Weng; Hu, Bin
2008-01-01
Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetic and Elastic Waves is an outgrowth of several years of work. There have been no recent books on integral equation methods. There are books written on integral equations, but either they have been around for a while, or they were written by mathematicians. Much of the knowledge in integral equation methods still resides in journal papers. With this book, important relevant knowledge for integral equations are consolidated in one place and researchers need only read the pertinent chapters in this book to gain important knowledge needed for integral eq
Application of electromagnetic and sound waves in nutritional assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heymsfield, S.B.; Rolandelli, R.; Casper, K.; Settle, R.G.; Koruda, M.
1987-01-01
Four relatively new techniques that apply electromagnetic or sound waves promise to play a major role in the study of human body composition and in clinical nutritional assessment. Computerized axial tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared interactance, and ultrasonography provide capabilities for measuring the following: total body and regional fat volume; regional skeletal muscle volume; brain, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and tumor volume; lean tissue content of triglyceride, iron, and high-energy intermediates; bone density; and cardiac function. Each method is reviewed with regard to basic principles, research and clinical applications, strengths, and limitations.33 references
Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves on a Waveguide Joint
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malykh Mikhail
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In general, the investigation of the electromagnetic field in an inhomogeneous waveguide doesn’t reduce to the study of two independent boundary value problems for the Helmholtz equation. We show how to rewrite the Helmholtz equations in the “Hamiltonian form” to express the connection between these two problems explicitly. The problem of finding monochromatic waves in an arbitrary waveguide is reduced to an infinite system of ordinary differential equations in a properly constructed Hilbert space. The calculations are performed in the computer algebra system Sage.
Model of the electromagnetic waves processing in ultrasound
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrego L, J.; Azorin N, J.; Siles A, S.; Cruz O, A.
2004-01-01
In this work, a model to process the electromagnetic waves in ultrasonic equipment is proposed and it is experimentally demonstrated that, the origin of the ultrasound is electronic and non mechanic. The above mentioned, it has been demonstrated when making in an electronic equipment a spectral analysis the one that indicated an unfolding of the original ultrasonic pulses of 17 K Hz., to 88 K Hz., and of 5 MHz., to 23 GHz. Also, it was obtained the degradation with ultrasound of particles of Hematite and of Galena, as well as the fading of the methylene blue and the generation of an electric current exciting with ultrasound. (Author)
Graphene-based magnetless converter of terahertz wave polarization
Melnikova, Veronica S.; Polischuk, Olga V.; Popov, Vyacheslav V.
2016-04-01
The polarization conversion of terahertz radiation by the periodic array of graphene nanoribbons located at the surface of a high-refractive-index dielectric substrate (terahertz prism) is studied theoretically. Giant polarization conversion at the plasmon resonance frequencies takes place without applying external DC magnetic field. It is shown that the total polarization conversion can be reached at the total internal reflection of THz wave from the periodic array of graphene nanoribbons even at room temperature.
Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Drift Vortex in Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dong; Chen Yinhua; Wang Ge
2008-01-01
In a quasi-two-dimensional model, the scattering of incident ordinary electromagnetic waves by a dipole-electrostatic drift vortex is studied with first-order Born approximation. The distribution of the scattering cross-section and total cross-section are evaluated analytically in different approximate conditions, and the physical interpretations are discussed. When the wavelength of incident wave is much longer than the vortex radius (k i a || 1), it is found that the angle at which the scattering cross-section reaches its maxim depends significantly on the approximation of the parameters of the vortex used. It is also found that the total scattering cross-section has an affinitive relation with the parameters of the plasma, while it is irrelevant to the frequency of the incident wave in a wide range of parameters of the vortex. In a totally different range of parameters when incident wave is in the radar-frequency range (then k i a || 1, the wavelength of incident wave is much shorter than the vortex radius), the numerical procedure is conducted with computer in order to obtain the distribution and the total expression of the scattering cross-section. Then it is found that the total scattering cross-section in the low frequency range is much larger than that in high frequency range, so the scattering is more effective in the low frequency range than in high frequency range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Y.D.; Fraser, B.J.; Olson, J.V.
1990-01-01
In this report, the authors consider the amplification of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves along a geomagnetic field line in the multicomponent magnetosphere, assuming that the waves propagate parallel to the background magnetic field. The find it is possible for the ring-current protons (energy ∼ 10-100 keV), which supply the free energy to stimulate the waves, to resonate with the waves not only in the equatorial region but also off the equator. An instability, caused by a thermal anisotropy, may occur in separated regions on and/or off the equator. The positions of the source regions along the wave path depend on the concentration of cold heavy ion species. The significant off-equator source regions may be located at geomagnetic latitudes where the waves, with frequencies greater than the He + gyrofrequency on the equator, are in a local He + pass band
Carcione, José M
2014-01-01
Authored by the internationally renowned José M. Carcione, Wave Fields in Real Media: Wave Propagation in Anisotropic, Anelastic, Porous and Electromagnetic Media examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, starting with the introduction of relevant stress-strain relations. The combination of this relation and the equations of momentum conservation lead to the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. This book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and ...
Terminal load response law of coaxial cable to continuous wave electromagnetic irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan Xiaodong; Wei Guanghui; Li Xinfeng; Lu Xinfu
2012-01-01
In order to study the coupling response law of continuous wave electromagnetic irradiation to coaxial cable, the typical RF coaxial cable is selected as the object under test. The equipment or subsystem connected by coaxial cable is equivalent to a lumped load. Continuous wave irradiation effect experiments under different conditions are carried out to analyze the terminal load response law of coaxial cable. The results indicate that the coaxial cable has a frequency selecting characteristic under electromagnetic irradiation, and the terminal load response voltage peak appears at a series of discrete frequency points where the test cable's relative lengths equal to semi-integers. When the coaxial cable is irradiated by continuous wave, the induced sheath current converts to the differential-mode induced voltage between inner conductor and shielding layer through transfer impedance, and the internal resistance of induced voltage source is the characteristic impedance of the coaxial cable. The change in terminal load value has no influence on the response curve. The voltages on the terminal load and the internal resistance of equivalent induced voltage source obey the principle of voltage division. Moreover, when the sheath current on the coaxial cable is in resonance, the distributed induced voltage between adjacent current nodes is in the same polarity, which can be equivalent to a single induced voltage source. The induced voltage source which is adjacent to the terminal load plays the leading role in the irradiation response process. (authors)
Parametric decay of an extraordinary electromagnetic wave in relativistic plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dorofeenko, V. G. [Institute for Advanced Studies (Austria); Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)
2015-03-15
Parametric instability of an extraordinary electromagnetic wave in plasma preheated to a relativistic temperature is considered. A set of self-similar nonlinear differential equations taking into account the electron “thermal” mass is derived and investigated. Small perturbations of the parameters of the heated plasma are analyzed in the linear approximation by using the dispersion relation determining the phase velocities of the fast and slow extraordinary waves. In contrast to cold plasma, the evanescence zone in the frequency range above the electron upper hybrid frequency vanishes and the asymptotes of both branches converge. Theoretical analysis of the set of nonlinear equations shows that the growth rate of decay instability increases with increasing initial temperature of plasma electrons. This result is qualitatively confirmed by numerical simulations of plasma heating by a laser pulse injected from vacuum.
Electromagnetic waves in complex systems selected theoretical and applied problems
Velychko, Lyudmyla
2016-01-01
This book gives guidance to solve problems in electromagnetics, providing both examples of solving serious research problems as well as the original results to encourage further investigations. The book contains seven chapters on various aspects of resonant wave scattering, each solving one original problem. All of them are unified by the authors’ desire to show advantages of rigorous approaches at all stages, from the formulation of a problem and the selection of a method to the interpretation of results. The book reveals a range of problems associated with wave propagation and scattering in natural and artificial environments or with the design of antennas elements. The authors invoke both theoretical (analytical and numerical) and experimental techniques for handling the problems. Attention is given to mathematical simulations, computational efficiency, and physical interpretation of the experimental results. The book is written for students, graduate students and young researchers. .
High-efficiency passive full wave rectification for electromagnetic harvesters
Yilmaz, Mehmet; Tunkar, Bassam A.; Park, Sangtak; Elrayes, Karim; Mahmoud, Mohamed A. E.; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa
2014-10-01
We compare the performance of four types of full-wave bridge rectifiers designed for electromagnetic energy harvesters based on silicon diodes, Schottky diodes, passive MOSFETs, and active MOSFETs. Simulation and experimental results show that MOSFET-type rectifiers are more efficient than diode-type rectifiers, reaching voltage and power efficiency of 99% for ideal voltage source with input amplitudes larger than 800 mV. Since active MOSFETs require extra components and an external DC power supply, we conclude that passive MOSFETs are superior for micro-power energy harvesting systems. We demonstrate passive MOSFET rectifiers implemented using discrete, off-shelf components and show that they outperform all electromagnetic harvester rectifiers hitherto reported obtaining a power efficiency of 95%. Furthermore, we show that passive MOSFET rectifiers do not affect the center frequency, harvesting bandwidth, or optimal resistance of electromagnetic harvesters. We demonstrate a complete power management module by adding a capacitor to the rectifier output terminal. We found that this configuration changed the optimal resistive load from 40 Ω to 55 Ω and decreased output power efficiency to 86%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez, J.
1997-09-01
In this work, LSM and LSE modes are proposed as a didactic alternative for modeling the propagation of guided electromagnetic waves. Our considerations can be applied to the most common electromagnetic waves guiding systems: empty metallic waveguides, metallic waveguides partially filled with dielectrics, dielectric sheet waveguides and 3-D dielectric waveguides. In all cases, our interest is focussed on modes with a defined polarization; therefore the teaching activity can be treated from the scalar wave approximation point of view. (Author)
Spectrum of spin waves in cold polarized gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreeva, T. L., E-mail: phdocandreeva@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2017-02-15
The spin dynamics of cold polarized gases are investigated using the Boltzmann equation. The dispersion relation for spin waves (transverse component of the magnetic moment) and the spin diffusion coefficient of the longitudinal component of the magnetic moment are calculated without using fitting parameters. The spin wave frequency and the diffusion coefficient for rubidium atoms are estimated numerically.
Shoji, M.; Omura, Y.; Grison, B.; Pickett, J. S.; Dandouras, I. S.; Engebretson, M. J.
2011-12-01
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) triggered emissions with rising tones between the H+ and He+ cyclotron frequencies were found in the inner magnetosphere by the recent Cluster observations. Another type of EMIC wave with a constant frequency is occasionally observed below the He+ cyclotron frequency after the multiple EMIC triggered emissions. We performed a self-consistent hybrid simulation with a one-dimensional cylindrical magnetic flux model approximating the dipole magnetic field of the Earth's inner magnetosphere. In the presence of energetic protons with a sufficient density and temperature anisotropy, multiple EMIC triggered emissions are reproduced due to the nonlinear wave growth mechanism of rising-tone chorus emissions, and a constant frequency wave in the He+ EMIC branch is subsequently generated. Through interaction with the multiple EMIC rising-tone emissions, the velocity distribution function of the energetic protons is strongly modified. Because of the pitch angle scattering of the protons, the gradient of the distribution in velocity phase space is enhanced along the diffusion curve of the He+ branch wave, resulting in the linear growth of the EMIC wave in the He+ branch.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muminov, A.T.
2004-01-01
Full text: As it shown in the work [1,2], interaction of electromagnetic wave with rotating cylindrical shell of conductor leads to an interesting phenomenon of energy transmission from rotating body to the wave. We study influence of the gravitational field of the string on the process of interaction of electromagnetic waves with infinitesimally thin conducting cylindrical shell. Since in the outer space and inside the shell electromagnetic field satisfies source free Maxwell equations we start with constructing the most general solutions of this equation. Then we match the fields on the cylinder with account of boundary conditions on it. Matching the fields gives expressions for reflection factors of cylindrical waves for two cases of polarization. The reflection factors for distinct wave polarizations show the ratio of outgoing energy flux to in going one. Curved cylindrical symmetric space-time with weakly gravitating string-like source is described by static metric: δs 2 = f(r)δt 2 - h(r)(δz 2 + δr 2 ) - l(r)δψ 2 ; f(r) = r ε ; h(r) = r -ε ; l(r) = r 2 /f(r). Which corresponds to low line density of mass ε on the string. The metric is particular case of Lewis metric [3,4] with zero angular momentum of the string and its weak gravity. The boundary value problem for electromagnetic waves interaction with thin conducting rotating cylindrical shell in static cylindrical metric with weakly gravitating string has been solved analytically. It is found that character of dependence of the factors on Ω at ω R<<1 and ΩR<<1 approximation remains the same as in flat space-time ε =0. Analysis of expressions for the reflection factors in frames of considered approximation has been done
Polarization-dependent ponderomotive gradient force in a standing wave
Smorenburg, P.W.; Kanters, J.H.M.; Lassise, A.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Luiten, O.J.
2011-01-01
The ponderomotive force is derived for a relativistic charged particle entering an electromagnetic standing wave with a general three-dimensional field distribution and a nonrelativistic intensity, using a perturbation expansion method. It is shown that the well-known ponderomotive gradient force
Electromagnetic interactions in relativistic infinite component wave equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerry, C.C.
1979-01-01
The electromagnetic interactions of a composite system described by relativistic infinite-component wave equations are considered. The noncompact group SO(4,2) is taken as the dynamical group of the systems, and its unitary irreducible representations, which are infinite dimensional, are used to find the energy spectra and to specify the states of the systems. First the interaction mechanism is examined in the nonrelativistic SO(4,2) formulation of the hydrogen atom as a heuristic guide. A way of making a minimal relativistic generalization of the minimal ineractions in the nonrelativistic equation for the hydrogen atom is proposed. In order to calculate the effects of the relativistic minimal interactions, a covariant perturbation theory suitable for infinite-component wave equations, which is an algebraic and relativistic version of the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory, is developed. The electric and magnetic polarizabilities for the ground state of the hydrogen atom are calculated. The results have the correct nonrelativistic limits. Next, the relativistic cross section of photon absorption by the atom is evaluated. A relativistic expression for the cross section of light scattering corresponding to the seagull diagram is derived. The Born amplitude is combusted and the role of spacelike solutions is discussed. Finally, internal electromagnetic interactions that give rise to the fine structure splittings, the Lamb shifts and the hyperfine splittings are considered. The spin effects are introduced by extending the dynamical group
Excitation of planetary electromagnetic waves in the inhomogeneous ionosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. Rapoport
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper we develop a new method for the analysis of excitation and propagation of planetary electromagnetic waves (PEMW in the ionosphere of the Earth. The nonlinear system of equations for PEMW, valid for any height, from D to F regions, including intermediate altitudes between D and E and between E and F regions, is derived. In particular, we have found the system of nonlinear one-fluid MHD equations in the β-plane approximation valid for the ionospheric F region (Aburjania et al., 2003a, 2005. The series expansion in a "small" (relative to the local geomagnetic field non-stationary magnetic field has been applied only at the last step of the derivation of the equations. The small mechanical vertical displacement of the media is taken into account. We have shown that obtained equations can be reduced to the well-known system with Larichev–Reznik vortex solution in the equatorial region (see e.g. Aburjania et al., 2002. The excitation of planetary electromagnetic waves by different initial perturbations has been investigated numerically. Some means for the PEMW detection and data processing are discussed.
Shaping electromagnetic waves using software-automatically-designed metasurfaces.
Zhang, Qian; Wan, Xiang; Liu, Shuo; Yuan Yin, Jia; Zhang, Lei; Jun Cui, Tie
2017-06-15
We present a fully digital procedure of designing reflective coding metasurfaces to shape reflected electromagnetic waves. The design procedure is completely automatic, controlled by a personal computer. In details, the macro coding units of metasurface are automatically divided into several types (e.g. two types for 1-bit coding, four types for 2-bit coding, etc.), and each type of the macro coding units is formed by discretely random arrangement of micro coding units. By combining an optimization algorithm and commercial electromagnetic software, the digital patterns of the macro coding units are optimized to possess constant phase difference for the reflected waves. The apertures of the designed reflective metasurfaces are formed by arranging the macro coding units with certain coding sequence. To experimentally verify the performance, a coding metasurface is fabricated by automatically designing two digital 1-bit unit cells, which are arranged in array to constitute a periodic coding metasurface to generate the required four-beam radiations with specific directions. Two complicated functional metasurfaces with circularly- and elliptically-shaped radiation beams are realized by automatically designing 4-bit macro coding units, showing excellent performance of the automatic designs by software. The proposed method provides a smart tool to realize various functional devices and systems automatically.
Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner
2010-01-01
We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....
Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves by magnetosonic modes in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenflo, L.
1985-01-01
The dispersion relation for magnetosonic waves in a dissipative plasma, which is penetrated by a high-frequency electromagnetic wave, is derived. Previous results are generalized and discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leyser, T.B.
1994-01-01
A nonlinear dispersion relation for the parametric decay of an electrostatic upper hybrid wave into an ordinary mode electromagnetic wave, propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and an electrostatic low frequency wave, being either a lower hybrid wave or a high harmonic ion Bernstein wave, is derived. The coherent and resonant wave interaction is considered to take place in a weakly magnetized and collisionless Vlasov plasma. The instability growth rate is computed for parameter values typical of ionospheric modification experiments, in which a powerful high frequency electromagnetic pump wave is injected into the ionospheric F-region from ground-based transmitters. The electromagnetic radiation which is excited by the decaying upper hybrid wave is found to be consistent with the prominent and commonly observed downshifted maximum (DM) emission in the spectrum of stimulated electromagnetic emission
Nakata, Yosuke; Urade, Yoshiro; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao
2013-11-01
We investigate theoretically electromagnetic plane-wave scattering by self-complementary metasurfaces. By using Babinet's principle extended to metasurfaces with resistive elements, we show that the frequency-independent transmission and reflection are realized for normal incidence of a circularly polarized plane wave onto a self-complementary metasurface, even if there is diffraction. Next, we consider two special classes of self-complementary metasurfaces. We show that self-complementary metasurfaces with rotational symmetry can act as coherent perfect absorbers, and those with translational symmetry compatible with their self-complementarity can split the incident power equally, even for oblique incidences.
Karam, Mostafa A.; Amar, Faouzi; Fung, Adrian K.
1993-01-01
The Wave Scattering Research Center at the University of Texas at Arlington has developed a scattering model for forest or vegetation, based on the theory of electromagnetic-wave scattering in random media. The model generalizes the assumptions imposed by earlier models, and compares well with measurements from several forest canopies. This paper gives a description of the model. It also indicates how the model elements are integrated to obtain the scattering characteristics of different forest canopies. The scattering characteristics may be displayed in the form of polarimetric signatures, represented by like- and cross-polarized scattering coefficients, for an elliptically-polarized wave, or in the form of signal-distribution curves. Results illustrating both types of scattering characteristics are given.
Development of a Ferrite-Based Electromagnetic Wave Detector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Hanish Zakariah
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Direct detection of hydrocarbon by an active source using electromagnetic (EM wave termed Sea Bed Logging (SBL has shown very promising results. However, currently available electromagnetic wave technology has a number of challenges including sensitivity and lapsed time. Our initial response to this issue is to develop a ferrite-based EM wave detector for Sea Bed Logging (SBL. Ferrite bar and copper rings in various diameters were used as detector 1 (D1. For Detector 2 (D2, toroid added with copper wires in different lengths at the centre of it were used. The first experiment is to determine the inductance and resistance for both detectors by using LCR meter. We obtained the highest inductance value of 0.02530 mH at the ferrite bar when it was paired with a 15 cm diameter copper ring and 0.00526 mH for D2 using a 100 cm copper wire placed at the centre of the toroid. The highest resistivity for D1 was measured at ferrite bar paired with a 15 cm diameter copper ring and 1.099 Ω when using 20 cm length of copper wire. The second interest deals with voltage peak-to-peak (Vp-p value for both detectors by using oscilloscope. The highest voltage value at the ferrite bar of D1 was 25.30 mV. While at D2, the highest voltage measured was 27.70 mV when using a 100 cm copper wire. The third premise is the comparison of sensitivity and lapsed time for both detectors. It was found that D1 was 61% more sensitive than D2 but had higher lapsed time than D2.
Whistler Observations on DEMETER Compared with Full Electromagnetic Wave Simulations
Compston, A. J.; Cohen, M.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Said, R.; Parrot, M.
2014-12-01
Terrestrial Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic radiation, which strongly impacts the Van Allen radiation belt electron dynamics, is injected across the ionosphere into the Earth's plasmasphere from two primary sources: man-made VLF transmitters and lightning discharges. Numerical models of trans-ionospheric propagation of such waves remain unvalidated, and early models may have overestimated the absorption, hindering a comprehensive understanding of the global impact of VLF waves in the loss of radiation belt electrons. In an attempt to remedy the problem of a lack of accurate trans-ionospheric propagation models, we have used a full electromagnetic wave method (FWM) numerical code to simulate the propagation of lightning-generated whistlers into the magnetosphere and compared the results with whistlers observed on the DEMETER satellite and paired with lightning stroke data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). We have identified over 20,000 whistlers occuring in 14 different passes of DEMETER over the central United States during the summer of 2009, and 14,000 of those occured within the 2000 km x 2000 km simulation grid we used. As shown in the attached figure, which shows a histogram of the ratio of the simulated whistler energy to the measured whistler energy for the 14,000 whistlers we compared, the simulation tends to slightly underestimate the total whistler energy injected by about 5 dB. However, the simulation underestimates the DEMETER measurements more as one gets further from the source lightning stroke, so since the signal to noise ratio of more distant whistlers will be smaller, possibly additive noise in the DEMETER measurements (which of course is not accounted for in the model) may explain some of the observed discrepancy.
Ionospheric electron acceleration by electromagnetic waves near regions of plasma resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villalon, E.
1989-01-01
Electron acceleration by electromagnetic fields propagating in the inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma is investigated. It is found that high-amplitude short wavelength electrostatic waves are generated by the incident electromagnetic fields that penetrate the radio window. These waves can very efficiently transfer their energy to the electrons if the incident frequency is near the second harmonic of the cyclotron frequency
Adrian, Mark L.; Wendel, D. E.
2011-01-01
We investigate observations of intense bursts of electromagnetic waves in association with magnetic reconnection in the turbulent magnetosheath. These structured, broadband bursts occur above 80-Hz, often displaying features reminiscent of absorption bands and are observed at local minima in the magnetic field. We present detailed analyses of these intense bursts of electromagnetic waves and quantify their proximity to X- and O-nulls.
The modulational and filamentational instabilities of two coupled electromagnetic waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, P.K.
1992-01-01
The modulational and filamentational instabilities of two coupled electromagnetic waves have been investigated, taking into account the combined effect of relativistic electron mass variations and nonresonant density fluctuations that are driven by the ponderomotive force. The relevance of our investigation to phenomena related with nonlinear mixing of electromagnetic waves is pointed out. (orig.)
O Electromagnetic Power Waves and Power Density Components.
Petzold, Donald Wayne
1980-12-01
On January 10, 1884 Lord Rayleigh presented a paper entitled "On the Transfer of Energy in the Electromagnetic Field" to the Royal Society of London. This paper had been authored by the late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, Professor J. H. Poynting and in it he claimed that there was a general law for the transfer of electromagnetic energy. He argued that associated with each point in space is a quantity, that has since been called the Poynting vector, that is a measure of the rate of energy flow per unit area. His analysis was concerned with the integration of this power density vector at all points over an enclosing surface of a specific volume. The interpretation of this Poynting vector as a true measure of the local power density was viewed with great skepticism unless the vector was integrated over a closed surface, as the development of the concept required. However, within the last decade or so Shadowitz indicates that a number of prominent authors have argued that the criticism of the interpretation of Poynting's vector as a local power density vector is unjustified. The present paper is not concerned with these arguments but instead is concerned with a decomposition of Poynting's power density vector into two and only two components: one vector which has the same direction as Poynting's vector and which is called the forward power density vector, and another vector, directed opposite to the Poynting vector and called the reverse power density vector. These new local forward and reverse power density vectors will be shown to be dependent upon forward and reverse power wave vectors and these vectors in turn will be related to newly defined forward and reverse components of the electric and magnetic fields. The sum of these forward and reverse power density vectors, which is simply the original Poynting vector, is associated with the total electromagnetic energy traveling past the local point. Another vector which is the difference between the forward
Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)
2012-09-26
The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.
THz-waves channeling in a monolithic saddle-coil for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced NMR
Macor, A.; de Rijk, E.; Annino, G.; Alberti, S.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.
2011-10-01
A saddle coil manufactured by electric discharge machining (EDM) from a solid piece of copper has recently been realized at EPFL for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiments (DNP-NMR) at 9.4 T. The corresponding electromagnetic behavior of radio-frequency (400 MHz) and THz (263 GHz) waves were studied by numerical simulation in various measurement configurations. Moreover, we present an experimental method by which the results of the THz-wave numerical modeling are validated. On the basis of the good agreement between numerical and experimental results, we conducted by numerical simulation a systematic analysis on the influence of the coil geometry and of the sample properties on the THz-wave field, which is crucial in view of the optimization of DNP-NMR in solids.
Self-modulation and filamentation of electromagnetic waves in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bingham, R.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.
1976-01-01
Self-modulation and filamentation of an electromagnetic wave is considered as a problem of the non-linear interaction between electromagnetic and ion waves. A new electro-magnetic modulational instability is obtained, whose threshold is the same as that of the oscillating two-stream instability. A simple geometrical model is given of filamentation when the non-linearity is due to the ponderomotive force. The relationship between the filamentation and electromagnetic modulational instabilities and other parametric instabilities is considered. In particular, it is shown that both electromagnetic modulational and filamentation instabilities can occur at the critical density where they have the same threshold as the modulational instability of a Langmuir wave. Finally, a conservation relation (a generalization of the Manley-Rowe relation) for the wave action density is obtained for the filamentation instability. This shows clearly that this instability results from a four wave interaction. (author)
The scattering properties of anisotropic dielectric spheres on electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Hui; Zhang Weiyi; Wang Zhenlin; Ming Naiben
2004-01-01
The scattering coefficients of spheres with dielectric anisotropy are calculated analytically in this paper using the perturbation method. It is found that the different modes of vector spherical harmonics and polarizations are coupled together in the scattering coefficients (c-matrix) in contrast to the isotropic case where all modes are decoupled from each other. The generalized c-matrix is then incorporated into our codes for a vector wave multiple scattering program; the preliminary results on face centred cubic structure show that dielectric anisotropy reduces the symmetry of the scattering c-matrix and removes the degeneracy in photonic band structures composed of isotropic dielectric spheres
Electron Bernstein wave excitation by counterpropagating electromagnetic waves in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Asheel; Tripathi, V.K.
2005-01-01
Two high-power counterpropagating electromagnetic waves (ω 1 ,k 1 x) and (ω 2 ,-k 2 x) in a low-density plasma in the presence of a static magnetic field B s z, drive an electron Bernstein wave at the beat frequency ω=ω 1 -ω 2 and k=(k 1 +k 2 )x, when ω∼ω c 1 ,ω 2 and kρ≥1, where ω c is the electron cyclotron frequency and ρ is the Larmor radius. The electromagnetic waves exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons and resonantly drive the Bernstein mode(ω,k). When the pump waves have finite z extent, the Bernstein wave has an effective k z and a component of group velocity in the direction of the magnetic field, leaking it out of the interaction region, limiting the level of the Bernstein mode. Plasma inhomogeneity also introduces convection losses. However, the electron Bernstein mode potential could still be significantly greater than the ponderomotive potential
Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Four Wave Mixing Process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kucukkara, I.
2008-01-01
We have theoretically studied Four Wave Mixing (FWM) process in VUV (Vacuum Ultraviolet) region enhanced by Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Krypton gas medium at room temperature. One of the mixing fields, in the ultraviolet region at 212.5 nm was in two-photon resonance with the 4p 6 1 S 0 -4p 5 5p[0,1/2] transition of Krypton and the second field (coupling field) at 759 nm was resonant with the 4p 5 5p[0,1/2]-4p 5 5s[1,1/2] transition in scheme. This coupling field produced an electromagnetically induced transparency and thus the efficiency of the generation of the field at 123.6 nm on the 4p 5 5s[1,1/2] to 4p 6 1 S 0 transition is enhanced. We modified the computer program previously written by changing some variables like pressure, interaction region length, UV energy, IR energy. As demonstrated by the intensity generated VUV light versus Krypton pressure graphic, the most efficient intensity value, which was approximately 4.2x10 1 6 arbitrary units, was obtained while IR energy was 3x10 - 4 J and the pressure was 2x10 - 3 bar
Scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by a buried vertical dike
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Batista Lurimar S.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The complete and exact solution of the scattering of a TE mode frequency domain electromagnetic plane wave by a vertical dike under a conductive overburden has been established. An integral representation composed of one-sided Fourier transforms describes the scattered electric field components in each one of the five media: air, overburden, dike, and the country rocks on both sides of the dike. The determination of the terms of the series that represents the spectral components of the Fourier integrals requires the numerical inversion of a sparse matrix, and the method of successive approaches. The zero-order term of the series representation for the spectral components of the overburden, for given values of the electrical and geometrical parameters of the model, has been computed. This result allowed to determine an approximate value of the variation of the electric field on the top of the overburden in the direction perpendicular to the strike of the dike. The results demonstrate the efficiency of this forward electromagnetic modeling, and are fundamental for the interpretation of VLF and Magnetotelluric data.
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Through the ZR Z-Pinch Accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Madrid, E. A.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Struve, K.; Corcoran, P. A.; Whitney, B.
2009-01-01
A fully three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the major pulsed power components of the 26-MA ZR accelerator is presented. This large-scale simulation model tracks the evolution of electromagnetic waves through the intermediate storage capacitors, laser-triggered gas switches, pulse-forming lines, water switches, tri-plate transmission lines, and water convolute to the vacuum insulator stack. The plates at the insulator stack are coupled to a transmission line circuit model of the four-level magnetically-insulated transmission line section and post-hole convolutes. The vacuum section circuit model is terminated by either a short-circuit load or dynamic models of imploding z-pinch loads. The simulations results are compared with electrical measurements made throughout the ZR accelerator and good agreement is found, especially for times before and up to peak load power. This modeling effort represents new opportunities for modeling existing and future large-scale pulsed power systems used in a variety of high energy density physics and radiographic applications.
Next wave EM technology : Electromagnetic communication technology continues to progress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ludwick, J.
1998-01-01
Alpine Oil Services Corp. and Ryan Energy Technologies Inc., have made technological advances in the use of real time electromagnetic (EM) data transmission, using low frequency radio waves to transmit well commands or geological information. The development of the telemetry activated tool was done in two steps. The first technology was real time EM data transmission from the subsurface which used the wellbore to transfer information. The second step was constructing a memory pack which involved an electronic instrument installed in the wellbore which was programmed to perform certain tasks at certain times by transmitting signals back and forth. The use of EM communication allows the geological steering information to come back faster. The EM signal is much faster compared to MWD systems for deeper directional wells. The EM technology also has immediate applications in underbalanced drilling. 1 fig
Design of Metamaterials for control of electromagnetic waves
Koschny, Thomas
2014-03-01
Metamaterials are artificial effective media supporting propagating waves that derive their properties form the average response of deliberately designed and arranged, usually resonant scatterers with structural length-scales much smaller than the wavelength inside the material. Electromagnetic metamaterials are the most important implementation of metamaterials, which are made from deeply sub-wavelength electric, magnetic and chiral resonators and can be designed to work from radio frequencies all the way to visible light. Metamaterials have been major new development in physics and materials science over the last decade and are still attracting more interest as they enable us to create materials with unique properties like negative refraction, flat and super lenses, impedance matching eliminating reflection, perfect absorbers, deeply sub-wavelength sized wave guides and cavities, tunability, enhanced non-linearity and gain, chirality and huge optical activity, control of Casimir forces, and spontaneous emission, etc. In this talk, I will discuss the design, numerical simulation, and mathematical modeling of metamaterials. I will survey the current state of the art and discuss challenges, possible solutions and perspectives. In particular, the problem of dissipative loss and their possible compensation by incorporating spatially distributed gain in metamaterials. If the gain sub-system is strongly coupled to the sub-wavelength resonators of the metamaterial loss compensation and undamping of the resonant response of the metamaterials can occur. I will explore new, alternative dielectric low loss resonators for metamaterials as well as the potential of new conducting materials such as Graphene to replace metals as the conducting material in resonant metamaterials. Two dimensional metamaterials or metasurfaces, implementations of effective electromagnetic current sheets in which both electric and magnetic sheet conductivities are controlled by the average response
Nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, P.K.
1993-01-01
The nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas is considered. Stimulated scattering mechanisms involving electromagnetic and acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma are investigated. The growth rate and threshold for three-wave decay interactions as well as modulational and filamentation instabilities are presented. Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave modulation theory is generalized for weakly ionized collisional magnetoplasmas. Here, the radiation envelope is generally governed by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Accounting for the dependence of the attachment frequency on the radiation intensity, ponderomotive force, as well as the differential Joule heating nonlinearity, the authors derive the equations for the nonthermal electron density and temperature perturbations. The various nonlinear terms in the electron motion are compared. The problems of self-focusing and wave localization are discussed. The relevance of the investigation to ionospheric modification by powerful electromagnetic waves is pointed out
An analysis of the electromagnetic field in multi-polar linear induction system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chervenkova, Todorka; Chervenkov, Atanas
2002-01-01
In this paper a new method for determination of the electromagnetic field vectors in a multi-polar linear induction system (LIS) is described. The analysis of the electromagnetic field has been done by four dimensional electromagnetic potentials in conjunction with theory of the magnetic loops . The electromagnetic field vectors are determined in the Minkovski's space as elements of the Maxwell's tensor. The results obtained are compared with those got from the analysis made by the finite elements method (FEM).With the method represented in this paper one can determine the electromagnetic field vectors in the multi-polar linear induction system using four-dimensional potential. A priority of this method is the obtaining of analytical results for the electromagnetic field vectors. These results are also valid for linear media. The dependencies are valid also at high speeds of movement. The results of the investigated linear induction system are comparable to those got by the finite elements method. The investigations may be continued in the determination of other characteristics such as drag force, levitation force, etc. The method proposed in this paper for an analysis of linear induction system can be used for optimization calculations. (Author)
Conversion of electromagnetic to gravitational waves in the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crispino, Luis C.B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Higuchi, Atsushi
2011-01-01
Full text: Wave scattering by black holes is a subject that has received much attention in the 1970s, and has been extensively studied since then. Some recent works have been devoted to computing the scalar absorption and scattering cross sections of charged black holes. The presence of a background electromagnetic field leads to a coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations. To study the propagation of the electromagnetic field in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime, one has to take into account this electromagnetic-gravitational mixing. In this work we compute numerically the absorption cross section of Reissner-Nordstroem black holes for the electromagnetic field for arbitrary frequencies, taking into account the coupling of the electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations. We also compute the conversion coefficients of electromagnetic to gravitational waves by scattering from a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, J.I.; Haruki, T.; Kazimura, Y.
2000-01-01
It is shown by using a 2-D fully relativistic electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code that the tearing instability in a current sheet of pair plasmas is caused by Landau resonances of both electrons and positrons. Strong magnetic flux can be generated during coalescence of magnetic islands in the nonlinear phase of the tearing instability. The magnetic flux produced in an O-type magnetic island is caused from the counter-streaming instability found by Kazimura et al. (1998). It is also shown that charge separation with a quadrupole-like structure is generated from the localized strong magnetic flux. During the decay of the quadrupole-like charge structure as well as the magnetic flux, there appear wave emission with high-frequency electromagnetic waves and Alfven waves as well as Langmuir waves. We also show by using a 3-D PIC code that current filaments associated with the O-type magnetic islands become unstable against the kink instability during the coalescence of current filaments. (orig.)
Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas: Final Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvets, G.
2008-01-01
The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.
Electromagnetic Waves and Bursty Electron Acceleration: Implications from Freja
Andersson, Laila; Ivchenko, N.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Clemmons, J.; Gustavsson, B.; Eliasson, L.
2000-01-01
Dispersive Alfven wave activity is identified in four dayside auroral oval events measured by the Freja satellite. The events are characterized by ion injection, bursty electron precipitation below about I keV, transverse ion heating and broadband extremely low frequency (ELF) emissions below the lower hybrid cutoff frequency (a few kHz). The broadband emissions are observed to become more electrostatic towards higher frequencies. Large-scale density depletions/cavities, as determined by the Langmuir probe measurements, and strong electrostatic emissions are often observed simultaneously. A correlation study has been carried out between the E- and B-field fluctuations below 64 Hz (the dc instrument's upper threshold) and the characteristics of the precipitating electrons. This study revealed that the energization of electrons is indeed related to the broadband ELF emissions and that the electrostatic component plays a predominant role during very active magnetospheric conditions. Furthermore, the effect of the ELF electromagnetic emissions on the larger scale field-aligned current systems has been investigated, and it is found that such an effect cannot be detected. Instead, the Alfvenic activity creates a local region of field-aligned currents. It is suggested that dispersive Alfven waves set up these local field-aligned current regions and in turn trigger more electrostatic emissions during certain conditions. In these regions ions are transversely heated, and large-scale density depletions/cavities may be created during especially active periods.
Cellular and molecular effects of electromagnetic radiation and sonic waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patricia Froes Meyer
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic radiation (in the form of pulsed magnetic fields, radiofrequency and intense pulsed light and mechanical agents (such as sonic waves have been used in physical therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity magnetic fields, sonic and radiofrequency waves, and intense pulsed light on the survival of Escherichia coli cultures and on the electrophoretic mobility of plasmid DNA. Exponentially growing E. coli AB1157 cultures and plasmid DNA samples were exposed to these physical agents and 0.9% NaCl (negative control and SnCl2 (positive control solutions. Aliquots of the cultures were diluted and spread onto a solidified rich medium. The colony-forming units were counted after overnight incubation and the survival fraction was calculated. Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed to visualise and quantify the plasmid topological forms. The results suggest that these agents do not alter the survival of E. coli cells or plasmid DNA electrophoresis mobility. Moreover, they do not protect against the lesive action of SnCl2. These physical agents therefore had no cytotoxic or genotoxic effects under the conditions studied.
Zhong, Hui-Teng; Yang, Xue-Xia; Song, Xing-Tang; Guo, Zhen-Yue; Yu, Fan
2017-11-01
In this work, we introduced the design, demonstration, and discussion of a wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide-angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic (EM) energy and wireless power transfer. The array consists of unit cells with one square ring and four metal bars. In comparison to the published metamaterial arrays for harvesting EM energy or wireless transfer, this design had the wide operation bandwidth with the HPBW (Half Power Band Width) of 110% (6.2 GHz-21.4 GHz), which overcomes the narrow-band operation induced by the resonance characteristic of the metamaterial. On the normal incidence, the simulated maximum harvesting efficiency was 96% and the HPBW was 110% for the random polarization wave. As the incident angle increases to 45°, the maximum efficiency remained higher than 88% and the HPBW remained higher than 83% for the random polarization wave. Furthermore, the experimental verification of the designed metamaterial array was conducted, and the measured results were in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, Sh.M.; El-Sherif, N.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Tanta Univ.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Alexandria Univ.
1985-01-01
Investigation is made for nonlinear interaction between incident radiation and a surface wave in a magnetized plasma layer. Both interacting waves are of P polarization. The generated currents and fields at combination frequencies are obtained analytically. Unlike the S-polarized interacting waves, the magnetic field affects the fundamental waves and leads to an amplification of generated waves when their frequencies approach the cyclotron frequency. (author)
Spontaneous generation of electromagnetic waves in plasmas with electron thermal flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okada, Toshio
1977-01-01
Spontaneous generation of propagating electromagnetic fields due to a microinstability is investigated for plasmas which convey electron thermal fluxes. The following two cases are examined: 1) Electromagnetic fields spontaneously excited by electrons in a velocity distribution of skewed Maxwellian type. 2) Electromagnetic waves generated by electrons in a velocity distribution which consists of a main part and a high energy part. In this case, the electron thermal flux can be very high. In both cases, induced electromagnetic waves with relatively low frequencies propagate parallel to the direction of Thermal flux. (auth.)
Lagrange and Noether analysis of polarization laws of conservation for electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivskij, I.Yu.; Simulik, V.M.
1988-01-01
Both well-known Bessel-Hagen conservation laws and conservation laws of polarized character are derived for electromagnetic field in the Lagrange approach to electrodynamics in terms of intensities (without using the A μ potentials as variation variables). The laws mentioned are derived according to Noether theorem because symmetry to which such concervation laws correspond is lost during the transition from intensities to potentials. Based on Noether theorem (and its generalization for Naeik's symmetries) and Lagrange function scalar in relation to complete Poincare group in terms of intensity tensor, a convenient formula for calculating and values conserved for electromagnetic field is derived which sets up a physically adequate symmetry operator -conservation law correlation and thus links the presence of conservation laws of polarized character with symmetry properties of Maxwell equations. Adiabaticity of conservation laws of polarized character under the presence of interaction with currents and charges is indicated
Detectability of inflationary gravitational waves with microwave background polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamionkowski, M.; Kosowsky, A.
1998-01-01
Inflation predicts specific relations between the amplitudes and spectral indices of the primordial spectrum of density (scalar metric) perturbations and gravitational waves (tensor metric perturbations). Detection of a stochastic gravitational-wave background is essential for identifying this unmistakable signature. Polarization of the cosmic microwave background can isolate these tensor modes in a model-independent way and thereby circumvent the cosmic-variance limit to detecting a small tensor signal with only a temperature map. Here we assess the detectability of a gravity-wave background with a temperature and polarization map. For detector sensitivities better than 10 endash 20μK√ (sec) , the sensitivity to a tensor signal is always dominated by the polarization map. With a detector sensitivity of order 1μK√ (sec) , polarization could improve on a temperature-map sensitivity to tensor modes by two to three orders of magnitude. Even a small amount of reionization substantially enhances tensor-mode detectability. We also argue that the sensitivity of the Planck Surveyor to tensor modes is significantly improved with polarization, even taking into account the resulting degradation of the intensity determination in the high-frequency channels. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Estimation of the gravitational wave polarizations from a nontemplate search
Di Palma, Irene; Drago, Marco
2018-01-01
Gravitational wave astronomy is just beginning, after the recent success of the four direct detections of binary black hole (BBH) mergers and the first observation from a binary neutron star inspiral, with the expectation of many more events to come. Given the possibility to detect waves from not exactly modeled astrophysical processes, it is fundamental to be ready to calculate the polarization waveforms in the case of searches using nontemplate algorithms. In such a case, the waveform polarizations are the only quantities that contain direct information about the generating process. We present the performance of a new valuable tool to estimate the inverse solution of gravitational wave transient signals, starting from the analysis of the signal properties of a nontemplate algorithm that is open to a wider class of gravitational signals not covered by template algorithms. We highlight the contributions to the wave polarization associated with the detector response, the sky localization, and the polarization angle of the source. In this paper we present the performances of such a method and its implications by using two main classes of transient signals, resembling the limiting case for most simple and complicated morphologies. The performances are encouraging for the tested waveforms: the correlation between the original and the reconstructed waveforms spans from better than 80% for simple morphologies to better than 50% for complicated ones. For a nontemplate search these results can be considered satisfactory to reconstruct the astrophysical progenitor.
Risk perception and public concerns of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones in Korea.
Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Hae-Joon; Song, Dae Jong; Cho, Yong Min; Choi, Jae Wook
2014-05-01
In this study, the difference between the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones and the risk perception of other factors such as environment and food was analyzed. The cause of the difference in the psychological and social factors that affect the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves was also analyzed. A questionnaire survey on the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was carried out on 1001 subjects (men and women) over the age of 20. In the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones, women had higher risk perception than men. Logistic regression analysis, where the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves and the group with low risk perception were used as dependent variables, indicated that the risk perception of electromagnetic waves in women was 1.815 times statistically significantly higher than the risk perception of men (95% CI: 1.340-2.457). Also, high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was observed when the subjects considered that they had more personal knowledge (OR: 1.416, 95% CI: 1.216-1.648), that the seriousness of the risk to future generations was high (OR: 1.410, 95% CI: 1.234-1.611), and their outrage for the occurrence of accidents related to electromagnetic waves was high (OR: 1.460, 95% CI: 1.264-1.686). The results of this study need to be sufficiently considered and reflected in designing the risk communication strategies and communication methods for the preventive measures and advice on electromagnetic waves from cellular phones. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Metamaterials, from electromagnetic waves to water waves, bending waves and beyond
Dupont, G.
2015-08-04
We will review our recent work on metamaterials for different types of waves. Transposition of transform optics to water waves and bending waves on plates will be considered with potential applications of cloaking to water waves protection and anti-vibrating systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.
1990-01-01
Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugaya, R.; Ue, A.; Maehara, T.; Sugawa, M.
1996-01-01
Acceleration and heating of a relativistic electron beam by cascading nonlinear Landau damping involving three or four intense electromagnetic waves in a plasma are studied theoretically based on kinetic wave equations and transport equations derived from relativistic Vlasov endash Maxwell equations. Three or four electromagnetic waves excite successively two or three nonresonant beat-wave-driven relativistic electron plasma waves with a phase velocity near the speed of light [v p =c(1-γ -2 p ) 1/2 , γ p =ω/ω pe ]. Three beat waves interact nonlinearly with the electron beam and accelerate it to a highly relativistic energy γ p m e c 2 more effectively than by the usual nonlinear Landau damping of two electromagnetic waves. It is proved that the electron beam can be accelerated to more highly relativistic energy in the plasma whose electron density decreases temporally with an appropriate rate because of the temporal increase of γ p . copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Coherence for vectorial waves and majorization
Luis, Alfredo
2016-01-01
We show that majorization provides a powerful approach to the coherence conveyed by partially polarized transversal electromagnetic waves. Here we present the formalism, provide some examples and compare with standard measures of polarization and coherence of vectorial waves.
Scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by a Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabbri, R.
1975-01-01
The scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by a spherically symmetric nonrotating black hole is studied in the Schwarzschild background, by means of the known expansion of the modified Debye potentials in partial waves. The power reflection coefficients and the phase shifts of the partial waves are evaluated at both high and low frequencies. Then the scattering and absorption cross sections of the black hole are determined. It is shown that the black hole is almost unable to absorb electromagnetic waves when the wave length of the radiation is greater than the Schwarzschild radius
Sensor for electromagnetic waves caused by nuclear detonation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weischedel, R.C.
1980-01-01
An electronic sensor is disclosed, having circuits for identifying electromagnetic radiation signals caused by nuclear detonations. Circuits also are provided for discriminating against false indications due to electromagnetic radiation caused by lightning
Stimulated polarization wave process in spin 3/2 chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, G. B.
2007-01-01
Stimulated wave of polarization, triggered by a flip of a single spin, presents a simple model of quantum amplification. Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in an idealized one-dimensional Ising spin 1/2 chain with nearest-neighbor interactions and realistic spin 1/2 chain including the natural dipole-dipole interactions, irradiated by a weak resonant transverse field, a wave of flipped spins can be triggered by a single spin flip. Here we focuse on control of polarization wave in chain of spin 3/2, where the nuclear quadrupole interaction is dominant. Results of simulations for 1D spin chains and rings with up to five spins are presented.
Probing the f(R) formalism through gravitational wave polarizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves, M.E.S.; Miranda, O.D.; Araujo, J.C.N. de
2009-01-01
The direct observation of gravitational waves (GW) in the near future, and the corresponding determination of the number of independent polarizations, is a powerful tool to test general relativity and alternative theories of gravity. In the present work we use the Newman-Penrose formalism to characterize GWs in quadratic gravity and in a particular class of f(R) Lagrangians. We find that both quadratic gravity and the f(R) theory belong to the most general invariant class of GWs, i.e., they can present up to six independent polarizations of GWs. For a particular combination of the parameters, we find that quadratic gravity can present up to five polarizations states. On the other hand, if we use the Palatini approach for f(R) theories, GWs present only the usual two transverse-traceless polarizations such as in general relativity. Thus, we conclude that the observation of GWs can strongly constrain the suitable formalism for these theories.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gulyaev, Yu.V. [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Barabanenkov, Yu.N. [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: yu.barab@mail.ip.sitek.net; Barabanenkov, M.Yu. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Nikitov, S.A. [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2005-02-21
We present an optical theorem for evanescent (near field) electromagnetic wave scattering by a dielectric structure. The derivation is based on the formalism of angular spectrum wave amplitudes. The optical theorem shows that an energy flux at scattering is emitted in the direction of incident evanescent wave decay.
On the nature of electromagnetic waves in the vicinity of auroral archs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volokitin, A.S.; Mordovskaya, V.G.
1988-01-01
Excitation of kinetic Alfven waves by longitudinal current in the vicinity of auroral arcs is considered in the framework of quasilinear theory. It is shown that experimentally observed low-frequency electromagnetic waves with f<2Hz frequency in the vicinity of uniform auroral arcs represent the Alfven waves, excited at altitudes of three Earth radii and above by longitudinal electric current
Damping and scattering of electromagnetic waves by small ferrite spheres suspended in an insulator
Englert, Gerald W.
1992-01-01
The intentional degradation of electromagnetic waves by their penetration into a media comprised of somewhat sparsely distributed energy absorbing ferrite spheres suspended in an electrical insulator is investigated. Results are presented in terms of generalized parameters involving wave length and sphere size, sphere resistivity, permeability, and spacing; their influence on dissipation of wave power by eddy currents, magnetic hysteresis, and scattering is shown.
Localized structures of electromagnetic waves in hot electron-positron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kartal, S.; Tsintsadze, L.N.; Berezhiani, V.I.
1995-08-01
The dynamics of relatively strong electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in hot electron-positron plasma is investigated. The possibility of finding localized stationary structures of EM waves is explored. It it shown that under certain conditions the EM wave forms a stable localized soliton-like structures where plasma is completely expelled from the region of EM field location. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs
Electromagnetically induced transparency in the case of elliptic polarization of interacting fields
Parshkov, Oleg M.
2018-04-01
The theoretical investigation results of disintegration effect of elliptic polarized shot probe pulses of electromagnetically induced transparency in the counterintuitive superposed elliptic polarized control field and in weak probe field approximation are presented. It is shown that this disintegration occurs because the probe field in the medium is the sum of two normal modes, which correspond to elliptic polarized pulses with different speeds of propagation. The polarization ellipses of normal modes have equal eccentricities and mutually perpendicular major axes. Major axis of polarization ellipse of one normal mode is parallel to polarization ellipse major axis of control field, and electric vector of this mode rotates in the opposite direction, than electric vector of the control field. The electric vector other normal mode rotates in the same direction that the control field electric vector. The normal mode speed of the first type aforementioned is less than that of the second type. The polarization characteristics of the normal mode depend uniquely on the polarization characteristics of elliptic polarized control field and remain changeless in the propagation process. The theoretical investigation is performed for Λ-scheme of degenerated quantum transitions between 3P0, 3P10 and 3P2 energy levels of 208Pb isotope.
Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in a graphene-based Bragg grating.
Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; Zeng, Shuwen; Shang, Jingzhi; Yong, Ken-Tye; Yu, Ting
2012-01-01
Here, we report the fabrication of a graphene-based Bragg grating (one-dimensional photonic crystal) and experimentally demonstrate the excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in the periodic structure using prism coupling technique. Surface electromagnetic waves are non-radiative electromagnetic modes that appear on the surface of semi-infinite 1D photonic crystal. In order to fabricate the graphene-based Bragg grating, alternating layers of high (graphene) and low (PMMA) refractive index materials have been used. The reflectivity plot shows a deepest, narrow dip after total internal reflection angle corresponds to the surface electromagnetic mode propagating at the Bragg grating/air boundary. The proposed graphene based Bragg grating can find a variety of potential surface electromagnetic wave applications such as sensors, fluorescence emission enhancement, modulators, etc.
Bagci, Fulya; Akaoglu, Baris
2018-05-01
In this study, a classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) that is completely independent of the polarization direction of the incident waves is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The unit cell of the employed planar symmetric metamaterial structure consists of one square ring resonator and four split ring resonators (SRRs). Two different designs are implemented in order to achieve a narrow-band and wide-band EIT-like response. In the unit cell design, a square ring resonator is shown to serve as a bright resonator, whereas the SRRs behave as a quasi-dark resonator, for the narrow-band (0.55 GHz full-width at half-maximum bandwidth around 5 GHz) and wide-band (1.35 GHz full-width at half-maximum bandwidth around 5.7 GHz) EIT-like metamaterials. The observed EIT-like transmission phenomenon is theoretically explained by a coupled-oscillator model. Within the transmission window, steep changes of the phase result in high group delays and the delay-bandwidth products reach 0.45 for the wide-band EIT-like metamaterial. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the bandwidth and group delay of the EIT-like band can be controlled by changing the incidence angle of electromagnetic waves. These features enable the proposed metamaterials to achieve potential applications in filtering, switching, data storing, and sensing.
Electromagnetic waves destabilized by runaway electrons in near-critical electric fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Komar, A.; Pokol, G. I. [Department of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Association EURATOM, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Fueloep, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, Goeteborg (Sweden)
2013-01-15
Runaway electron distributions are strongly anisotropic in velocity space. This anisotropy is a source of free energy that may destabilize electromagnetic waves through a resonant interaction between the waves and the energetic electrons. In this work, we investigate the high-frequency electromagnetic waves that are destabilized by runaway electron beams when the electric field is close to the critical field for runaway acceleration. Using a runaway electron distribution appropriate for the near-critical case, we calculate the linear instability growth rate of these waves and conclude that the obliquely propagating whistler waves are most unstable. We show that the frequencies, wave numbers, and propagation angles of the most unstable waves depend strongly on the magnetic field. Taking into account collisional and convective damping of the waves, we determine the number density of runaways that is required to destabilize the waves and show its parametric dependences.
Properties of backward electromagnetic waves and negative reflection in ferrite films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vashkovsky, Anatolii V; Lock, Edwin H
2006-01-01
For a backward electromagnetic wave (magnetostatic wave) in a ferrite film, reflection from a perfect mirror formed by the straight edge of the film is investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is found that when the incident wave is collinear (the group velocity vector and the wave vector have opposite directions), negative reflection occurs at any angle of incidence, i.e., the incident and reflected beams are on the same side of the normal to the boundary. It is discovered that a noncollinear backward wave is nonreciprocal in the sense that its energy can be localized both near the surface and in the middle of the film. This property, previously observed only for surface magnetostatic waves, provides both the efficiency of generating and receiving the wave and the possibility of observing the reflected beam. A situation is realized where wave reflection results in two reflected beams. The properties of backward electromagnetic waves propagating in ferrite films are briefly analyzed. (methodological notes)
Reciprocity in quantum, electromagnetic and other wave scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deák, L.; Fülöp, T.
2012-01-01
The reciprocity principle is that, when an emitted wave gets scattered on an object, the scattering transition amplitude does not change if we interchange the source and the detector—in other words, if incoming waves are interchanged with appropriate outgoing ones. Reciprocity is sometimes confused with time reversal invariance, or with invariance under the rotation that interchanges the location of the source and the location of the detector. Actually, reciprocity covers the former as a special case, and is fundamentally different from–but can be usefully combined with–the latter. Reciprocity can be proved as a theorem in many situations and is found violated in other cases. The paper presents a general treatment of reciprocity, discusses important examples, shows applications in the field of photon (Mössbauer) scattering, and establishes a fruitful connection with a recently developing area of mathematics. - Highlights: ► A frame independent generalized reciprocity theorem of scattering theory is given. ► Reciprocity for two spin/polarization degrees of freedom is detailed. ► Relationship of reciprocity to time reversal and to 180 degree rotation is discussed. ► Reciprocal and nonreciprocal settings in Mossbauer spectroscopy are studied. ► The symmetry of diffuse omega-scans is explained with the aid of reciprocity.
Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.
2005-10-01
The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandt, C; Grulke, O; Klinger, T, E-mail: christian.brandt@lpmi.uhp-nancy.f [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)
2010-05-15
Experiments in a cylindrical magnetized plasma on the control of drift waves by means of two different spatiotemporal open-loop control systems-an electrostatic and an electromagnetic exciter-are reported. The drift wave dynamics is controlled by a mode-selective signal created with azimuthal arrangements of eight electrodes and eight saddle coils, respectively. Nonlinear interaction between the control signals and drift waves is observed, leading to synchronization of coherent drift waves and suppression of broadband drift wave turbulence. The cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations reduces from {approx}{pi}/2 in turbulence to {approx}0 in controlled turbulence. Hence, the cross-field transport is reduced to the level of coherent drift waves. For both control systems the coupling to the drift wave can be ascribed to the drive of parallel currents, on the one hand via direct electric contact and, on the other hand, via electromagnetic induction.
Geodetic refraction effects of electromagnetic wave propagation through the atmosphere
1984-01-01
With very few exceptions, geodetic measurements use electro magnetic radiation in order to measure directions, distances, time delays, and Doppler frequency shifts, to name the main ter restrial and space observables. Depending on the wavelength of the radiation and the purpose of the measurements, the follow ing parameters of the electromagnetic wave are measured: ampli tude, phase, angle-of-arrival, polarisation and frequency. Ac curate corrections have to be applied to the measurements in order to take into account the effects of the intervening medium between transmitter and receiver. The known solutions use at mospheric models, special observation programs, remote sensing techniques and instrumental methods. It has been shown that the effects of the earth's atmospheric envelope present a fundamental limitation to the accuracy and precision of geodetic measurements. This applies equally to ter restrial and space applications. Instrumental accuracies are al ready below the atmospherically i...
Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Many Nano-Wires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander G. Ramm
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic wave scattering by many parallel to the z−axis, thin, impedance, parallel, infinite cylinders is studied asymptotically as a → 0. Let Dm be the cross-section of the m−th cylinder, a be its radius and xˆm = (xm1, xm2 be its center, 1 ≤ m ≤ M , M = M (a. It is assumed that the points, xˆm, are distributed, so that N (∆ = (1 / 2πa * ∫∆ N (xˆdxˆ[1 + o(1], where N (∆ is the number of points, xˆm, in an arbitrary open subset, ∆, of the plane, xoy. The function, N (xˆ ≥ 0, is a continuous function, which an experimentalist can choose. An equation for the self-consistent (effective field is derived as a → 0. A formula is derived for the refraction coefficient in the medium in which many thin impedance cylinders are distributed. These cylinders may model nano-wires embedded in the medium. One can produce a desired refraction coefficient of the new medium by choosing a suitable boundary impedance of the thin cylinders and their distribution law.
Controlling Energy Radiations of Electromagnetic Waves via Frequency Coding Metamaterials.
Wu, Haotian; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun
2017-09-01
Metamaterials are artificial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells to control electromagnetic (EM) waves. The spatial coding representation of metamaterial has the ability to describe the material in a digital way. The spatial coding metamaterials are typically constructed by unit cells that have similar shapes with fixed functionality. Here, the concept of frequency coding metamaterial is proposed, which achieves different controls of EM energy radiations with a fixed spatial coding pattern when the frequency changes. In this case, not only different phase responses of the unit cells are considered, but also different phase sensitivities are also required. Due to different frequency sensitivities of unit cells, two units with the same phase response at the initial frequency may have different phase responses at higher frequency. To describe the frequency coding property of unit cell, digitalized frequency sensitivity is proposed, in which the units are encoded with digits "0" and "1" to represent the low and high phase sensitivities, respectively. By this merit, two degrees of freedom, spatial coding and frequency coding, are obtained to control the EM energy radiations by a new class of frequency-spatial coding metamaterials. The above concepts and physical phenomena are confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments.
Impact of Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Waves on Brainwaves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fu-Chien Kao
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In the era of wireless communication, cellular phone becomes an indispensable accessory to most people. People use cellular phone to interact with others, perform commercial and financial transactions, or conducting recreational activities, etc. The advance in wireless technology and escalate of broadband networks not only flourish communications industry and application service providers but also encourage people perform prolonged wireless network activities under the risk of over exposing themselves in long term high frequency electromagnetic waves. For example, some people conduct excessive phone-trading activities, as it is necessary to the job, and some people exercise the non-stop e-learning or recreation activities on mobile devices with long hours. However, would prolonged exposure to high frequency EMW environment bring adverse effects on human health? This research from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience investigates the effect of EMW from cellular phone to the energy distribution of human brainwave characteristic band by examine brainwave changes of test subjects when exposing to high frequency EMW environment. Experiment uses left ear and right ear to answer the phone separately. The calling session is divided into three stages: the instant of call connection, during the call, and after the call. On each ear, the brainwave signal of each calling stage is extracted and analyzed. The experiment shows at the instant of call connection stage, resulting maximum EMW strength, having extreme effect on the energy distribution of the human brainwave characteristic band, and causing severe changes on the energy of human brainwave.
Radiation of planar electromagnetic waves by a line source in anisotropic metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Qiang; Jiang Weixiang; Cui Tiejun
2010-01-01
We show experimentally that a line source in an anisotropic metamaterial directly radiates planar electromagnetic waves instead of cylindrical waves, when one component of the permeability tensor approaches zero. The impedance of this material can be perfectly matched to that of free space, which can significantly reduce the reflections between the source and the superstrate, as in traditional highly directive antennas based on zero index metamaterials. Such a unique property determines the two-way propagation of electromagnetic waves excited by a line source, instead of all-way propagation. From this feature, a highly directive emission of electromagnetic waves is achieved using the anisotropic metamaterial with arbitrary shape. We have designed and fabricated the anisotropic metamaterial in the microwave region, and observed the generation of plane waves and their highly directive emission. The proposed plane-wave emission is independent of the shape variance of the anisotropic metamaterial, which can be utilized in the design of conformal antennas.
Effect of a gravitational wave on electromagnetic radiation confined in a cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tourrenc, P.
1978-01-01
Gravitational radiation is considered within the first-order approximation. A pattern of an electromagnetic cavity is studied: Gravitational waves give rise to a deformation of the planes limiting the cavity. This deformation alters the electromagnetic radiation. Several cases are studied and orders of magnitude are put forward. (author)
Grobbe, N.
2016-01-01
In this thesis, I study coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media. The focus is two-fold:
1. Increase the theoretical and physical understanding of the seismo-electromagnetic phenomenon by analytically-based numerical modeling.
2. Investigate the potential of
Simulation study of localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional random dipolar systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye Zhen
2003-01-01
We study the propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by random arrays of dipolar cylinders in a uniform medium. A set of self-consistent equations, incorporating all orders of multiple scattering of the electromagnetic waves, is derived from first principles and then solved numerically for electromagnetic fields. For certain ranges of frequencies, spatially localized electromagnetic waves appear in such a simple but realistic disordered system. Dependence of localization on the frequency, radiation damping, and filling factor is shown. The spatial behavior of the total, coherent, and diffusive waves is explored in detail, and found to comply with a physical intuitive picture. A phase diagram characterizing localization is presented, in agreement with previous investigations on other systems
Bai, Zhengyang; Xu, Datang; Huang, Guoxiang
2017-01-23
We propose a scheme to realize the storage and retrieval of high-dimensional electromagnetic waves with orbital angular momentum (OAM) via plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in a metamaterial, which consists of an array of meta-atoms constructed by a metallic structure loaded with two varactors. We show that due to PIT effect the system allows the existence of shape-preserving dark-mode plasmonic polaritons, which are mixture of electromagnetic-wave modes and dark oscillatory modes of the meta-atoms and may carry various OAMs. We demonstrate that the slowdown, storage and retrieval of multi-mode electromagnetic waves with OAMs can be achieved through the active manipulation of a control field. Our work raises the possibility for realizing PIT-based spatial multi-mode memory of electromagnetic waves and is promising for practical application of information processing with large capacity by using room-temperature metamaterials.
Simulation study of localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional random dipolar systems.
Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen
2003-12-01
We study the propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by random arrays of dipolar cylinders in a uniform medium. A set of self-consistent equations, incorporating all orders of multiple scattering of the electromagnetic waves, is derived from first principles and then solved numerically for electromagnetic fields. For certain ranges of frequencies, spatially localized electromagnetic waves appear in such a simple but realistic disordered system. Dependence of localization on the frequency, radiation damping, and filling factor is shown. The spatial behavior of the total, coherent, and diffusive waves is explored in detail, and found to comply with a physical intuitive picture. A phase diagram characterizing localization is presented, in agreement with previous investigations on other systems.
Electromagnetic surface waves at the interface of a relativistic electron beam with vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoucri, M.M.; Gagne, R.R.J.
1977-01-01
The dispersion relation for electromagnetic surface waves propagating at the interface between a relativistic electron beam and vacuum is derived. The excitation of surface modes in a plasma at rest by a relativistic electron beam is discussed
Wave-vector and polarization dependence of conical refraction.
Turpin, A; Loiko, Yu V; Kalkandjiev, T K; Tomizawa, H; Mompart, J
2013-02-25
We experimentally address the wave-vector and polarization dependence of the internal conical refraction phenomenon by demonstrating that an input light beam of elliptical transverse profile refracts into two beams after passing along one of the optic axes of a biaxial crystal, i.e. it exhibits double refraction instead of refracting conically. Such double refraction is investigated by the independent rotation of a linear polarizer and a cylindrical lens. Expressions to describe the position and the intensity pattern of the refracted beams are presented and applied to predict the intensity pattern for an axicon beam propagating along the optic axis of a biaxial crystal.
Influence of Sea Surface Roughness on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Duct Environment
Zhao, X.; Huang, S.
2010-01-01
This paper deals with a study of the influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. The problem of electromagnetic wave propagation is modeled by using the parabolic equation method. The roughness of the sea surface is computed by modifying the smooth surface Fresnel reflection coefficient to account for the reduction in the specular reflection due to the roughness resulting from sea wind speed. The propagation model is solved by the mixed ...
Wake-Field Wave Resonant Excitation in Magnetized Plasmas by Electromagnetic Pulse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milant'ev, V.P.; Turikov, V.A.
2006-01-01
In this paper the space charge wave excitation process at electromagnetic pulse propagation along external magnetic field in vicinity of electron cyclotron resonance. In hydrodynamic approach it is obtained an equation for plasma density under ponderomotive force action. With help of this equation we investigated a wake-field wave amplitude dependence from resonance detuning. The numerical simulation using a PIC method electromagnetic pulse propagation process in the resonant conditions was done
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagdeev, R.Z.; Shapiro, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.I.
1980-01-01
An attempt is made to analyze two assumptions of the present theory of plasma turbulence, initiated by an electromagnetic wave, as applied to the problem of heating the plasma target. It has been assumed that in the long-scale region (the region of an electromagnetic wave source) and in the inertia range, separating the source region and the short-wave absorption region, there is a permanent pumping. The first assumption consists in simulating a situation in a plasma target when the Langmuir turbulence arises due to an electromagnetic wave incident on the target. The second assumption is valid only at a very high intensity of plasma waves when their energy is significantly less than the thermal energy of plasma W/nsub(c)T 0 is the frequency of an incident electromagnetic wave). At W approximately equal to nsub(c)T the plasma oscillations, arising due to modulation instability from the electromagnetic pumping wave, fall immediately into the absorption region. A phenomenological theory of such a turbulence, called ''superstrong'', is formulated on the assumption that there is a mechanism of ''mixing up'' plasmon phases as a result of their populating the long-wave density fluctuations
An Electromagnet for Precession of the Polarization of Fast-Neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aspesund, O.; Bjorkman, J.; Trumpy, G.
1965-05-01
The advantages of using a transverse magnetic field for precessing the polarization of fast-neutrons are discussed. Design details of a powerful electromagnet supplying a transverse field of approximately 20 kGauss are given. Precession characteristics for polarized fast neutrons obtained at 50 deg (lab. syst.) from the Li 7 (p, n) Be 7 reaction are reported, using elastic scattering at 42 deg (lab. syst.) off natural carbon as an analyser. Correlation of the precession data with theoretical predictions presented elsewhere is made, and good agreement is found
An Electromagnet for Precession of the Polarization of Fast-Neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aspesund, O; Bjorkman, J; Trumpy, G
1965-05-15
The advantages of using a transverse magnetic field for precessing the polarization of fast-neutrons are discussed. Design details of a powerful electromagnet supplying a transverse field of approximately 20 kGauss are given. Precession characteristics for polarized fast neutrons obtained at 50 deg (lab. syst.) from the Li{sup 7} (p, n) Be{sup 7} reaction are reported, using elastic scattering at 42 deg (lab. syst.) off natural carbon as an analyser. Correlation of the precession data with theoretical predictions presented elsewhere is made, and good agreement is found.
Electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a progressive sinusoidal fluctuation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Hiroshi; Ito, Akinari
1984-01-01
Study was made on the rigorous solutions for electromagnetic waves transmitted and reflected by a medium of finite length with time-space periodic fluctuation, loaded in a rectangular waveguide. When an electromagnetic wave is incident upon the medium modulated in a travelling wave fashion by a pump wave, the reflected and transmitted waves are shifted in frequency by +nω 1 (where n is an integer, ω 1 is the angular frequency of fluctuation). The harmonic level of the reflected waves is much increased as the frequency of the incident wave approaches the cutoff-frequency of TE 10 mode of the rectangular waveguide. Measurement of the spectrum of the reflected waves can be utilized as a diagnosis of even a very slightly fluctuating medium. The theoretical results have been verified on examining experimentally the harmonic level of the microwave reflected by a plasma, weakly modulated (about 10 -4 ) by RF signal and loaded in the WRJ-10 waveguide. (author)
Conversion of electromagnetic waves at the ionisation front
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chegotov, M V
2001-01-01
It is shown that a weak electromagnetic pulse interacting with a copropagating ionisation front is converted in the general case into three electromagnetic pulses with higher and lower frequencies, which propagate in different directions. The coefficients of conversion to these pulses (for intensities) were found as functions of the frequency. The electromagnetic energy is shown to decrease during this conversion because of the losses for the residual electron energy. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)
Sound excitation at reflection of two electromagnetic waves from dence semibounded plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Livdan, D.O.; Muratov, V.I.; Shuklin, A.P.
1988-01-01
The problem of two electromagnetic waves reflection by semibounded plasma which is nontransparent for each of these waves is solved. The reflection coefficients are obtained for normally incident waves. It is shown that the moduli of the reflection coefficients differ from the unit and this is due to the interaction of the external raiation with the acoustic wave excited in plasma. The energy flux in plasma is calculated
Analysis of multidimensional measurements of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere
Pechal, Radim
2011-01-01
Title: Analysis of multidimensional measurements of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere Author: Radim Pechal Department: Department of Surface and Plasma Science Supervisor: doc. RNDr. Lubomír Přech, Dr. Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: The thesis introduces into basic knowledge of waves in plasma, especially waves in the Earth's magnetosphere. There are mentioned some space projects focused on chorus waves. The second part of this thesis is a la...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashimoto, K.; Yamaashi, K.; Kimura, I.; Kyoto Univ., Japan)
1987-01-01
Three-dimensional ray tracing is performed for electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves and Z mode electromagnetic waves in the earth's magnetosphere using the hot dispersion relation. Propagation characteristics of cyclotron harmonic waves under the electrostatic approximation are considered, and it is noted that waves starting near the equator can propagate over a long distance without damping. Ray tracing without the electrostatic approximation confirms mode conversion from cyclotron harmonic waves to Z mode electromagnetic waves, and the conditions for the conversion are clarified. It is suggested that further conversion to the L-O mode continuum radiation is possible under strict constraints. The present results are not inconsistent with the conversion mechanism for the generation of escaping continuum radiation in the magnetosphere. 20 references
Primordial gravitational waves measurements and anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Si-Yu Li
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Searching for the signal of primordial gravitational waves in the B-modes (BB power spectrum is one of the key scientific aims of the cosmic microwave background (CMB polarization experiments. However, this could be easily contaminated by several foreground issues, such as the interstellar dust grains and the galactic cyclotron electrons. In this paper we study another mechanism, the cosmic birefringence, which can be introduced by a CPT-violating interaction between CMB photons and an external scalar field. Such kind of interaction could give rise to the rotation of the linear polarization state of CMB photons, and consequently induce the CMB BB power spectrum, which could mimic the signal of primordial gravitational waves at large scales. With the recently released polarization data of BICEP2 and the joint analysis data of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck, we perform a global fitting analysis on constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by considering the polarization rotation angle [α(nˆ] which can be separated into a background isotropic part [α¯] and a small anisotropic part [Δα(nˆ]. Since the data of BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments have already been corrected by using the “self-calibration” method, here we mainly focus on the effects from the anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation angle. We find that including Δα(nˆ in the analysis could slightly weaken the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, when using current CMB polarization measurements. We also simulate the mock CMB data with the BICEP3-like sensitivity. Very interestingly, we find that if the effects of the anisotropic polarization rotation angle could not be taken into account properly in the analysis, the constraints on r will be dramatically biased. This implies that we need to break the degeneracy between the anisotropies of the CMB polarization rotation angle and the CMB primordial tensor perturbations, in order to measure the signal of primordial
Interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasma in the radiation-dominated regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; Koga, J.; Tajima, T.
2004-01-01
A study is made of the main regimes of interaction of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves with plasma under conditions in which the radiation from particles plays a dominant role. The discussion is focused on such issues as the generation of short electromagnetic pulses in the interaction of laser light with clusters and highly efficient ion acceleration in a thin plasma slab under the action of the ponderomotive pressure of the wave. An approach is developed for generating superintense electromagnetic pulses by means of up-to-date laser devices
Seomun, GyeongAe; Kim, YoungHwan; Lee, Jung-Ah; Jeong, KwangHoon; Park, Seon-A; Kim, Miran; Noh, Wonjung
2014-04-01
To better understand environmental electromagnetic wave exposure during the use of digital textbooks by elementary school students, we measured numeric values of the electromagnetic fields produced by tablet personal computers (TPCs). Specifically, we examined the distribution of the electromagnetic waves for various students' seating positions in an elementary school that uses digital textbooks. Electric and magnetic fields from TPCs were measured using the HI-3603 Visual Display Terminal/ Very Low Frequency (VDT/VLF) radiation measurement system. Electromagnetic field values from TPCs measured at a student's seat and at a teacher's computer were deemed not harmful to health. However, electromagnetic field values varied based on the distance between students, other electronic devices such as a desktop computers, and student posture while using a TPC. Based on these results, it is necessary to guide students to observe proper posture and to arrange seats at an appropriate distance in the classroom.
Effects of chronic exposure to electromagnetic waves on the auditory system.
Özgür, Abdulkadir; Tümkaya, Levent; Terzi, Suat; Kalkan, Yıldıray; Erdivanlı, Özlem Çelebi; Dursun, Engin
2015-08-01
The results support that chronic electromagnetic field exposure may cause damage by leading to neuronal degeneration of the auditory system. Numerous researches have been done about the risks of exposure to the electromagnetic fields that occur during the use of these devices, especially the effects on hearing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic waves emitted by the mobile phones through the electrophysiological and histological methods. Twelve adult Wistar albino rats were included in the study. The rats were divided into two groups of six rats. The study group was exposed to the electromagnetic waves over a period of 30 days. The control group was not given any exposure to the electromagnetic fields. After the completion of the electromagnetic wave application, the auditory brainstem responses of both groups were recorded under anesthesia. The degeneration of cochlear nuclei was graded by two different histologists, both of whom were blinded to group information. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis showed neuronal degeneration signs, such as increased vacuolization in the cochlear nucleus, pyknotic cell appearance, and edema in the group exposed to the electromagnetic fields compared to the control group. The average latency of wave in the ABR was similar in both groups (p > 0.05).
Gravitational Wave Polarizations in f (R Gravity and Scalar-Tensor Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gong Yungui
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory opens a new era to use gravitational waves to test alternative theories of gravity. We investigate the polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R gravity and Horndeski theory, both containing scalar modes. These theories predict that in addition to the familiar + and × polarizations, there are transverse breathing and longitudinal polarizations excited by the massive scalar mode and the new polarization is a single mixed state. It would be very difficult to detect the longitudinal polarization by interferometers, while pulsar timing array may be the better tool to detect the longitudinal polarization.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Wei; Zhao, Juan; Hu, Xiaoying
2017-01-01
All optical fields undergo random fluctuation and the underlying theory referred to as coherence and polarization of optical fields has played a fundamental role as an important manifestation of the random fluctuations of the electric fields. In this paper, we reviewed our recent theoretical...... and experimental work on the unified theory of polarization and coherence including coherence tensor wave, degree of coherence tensor, degree of generalized Stokes parameters, and their applications including coherence tensor holography and two-point resolution of polarimetric imaging....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Liu; He, X.T.; Chen, S.G.; Zhang, W.Y.; He, X.T.; Hong, Liu
2004-01-01
We propose a new particle acceleration mechanism. Electrons can be accelerated to relativistic energy within a few electromagnetic wave cycles through the mechanism which is named electromagnetic and magnetic field resonance acceleration (EMRA). We find that the electron acceleration depends not only on the electromagnetic wave intensity, but also on the ratio between electron Larmor frequency and electromagnetic wave frequency. As the ratio approaches to unity, a clear resonance peak is observed, corresponding to the EMRA. Near the resonance regime, the strong magnetic fields still affect the electron acceleration dramatically. We derive an approximate analytical solution of the relativistic electron energy in adiabatic limit, which provides a full understanding of this phenomenon. In typical parameters of pulsar magnetospheres, the mechanism allows particles to increase their energies through the resonance of high magnetic field and high frequency electromagnetic wave in each electromagnetic wave period. The energy spectra of the accelerated particles exhibit the synchrotron radiation behavior. These can help to understand the remaining emission of high energy electron from radio pulsar within supernova remnant. The other potential application of our theory in fast ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion is also discussed. (authors)
Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging With Cascaded Dual-Polarity Waves.
Zhang, Yang; Guo, Yuexin; Lee, Wei-Ning
2018-04-01
Ultrafast ultrasound imaging using plane or diverging waves, instead of focused beams, has advanced greatly the development of novel ultrasound imaging methods for evaluating tissue functions beyond anatomical information. However, the sonographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ultrafast imaging remains limited due to the lack of transmission focusing, and thus insufficient acoustic energy delivery. We hereby propose a new ultrafast ultrasound imaging methodology with cascaded dual-polarity waves (CDWs), which consists of a pulse train with positive and negative polarities. A new coding scheme and a corresponding linear decoding process were thereby designed to obtain the recovered signals with increased amplitude, thus increasing the SNR without sacrificing the frame rate. The newly designed CDW ultrafast ultrasound imaging technique achieved higher quality B-mode images than coherent plane-wave compounding (CPWC) and multiplane wave (MW) imaging in a calibration phantom, ex vivo pork belly, and in vivo human back muscle. CDW imaging shows a significant improvement in the SNR (10.71 dB versus CPWC and 7.62 dB versus MW), penetration depth (36.94% versus CPWC and 35.14% versus MW), and contrast ratio in deep regions (5.97 dB versus CPWC and 5.05 dB versus MW) without compromising other image quality metrics, such as spatial resolution and frame rate. The enhanced image qualities and ultrafast frame rates offered by CDW imaging beget great potential for various novel imaging applications.
Electromagnetic torques in the core and resonant excitation of decadal polar motion
Mound, Jon E.
2005-02-01
Motion of the rotation axis of the Earth contains decadal variations with amplitudes on the order of 10 mas. The origin of these decadal polar motions is unknown. A class of rotational normal modes of the core-mantle system termed torsional oscillations are known to affect the length of day (LOD) at decadal periods and have also been suggested as a possible excitation source for the observed decadal polar motion. Torsional oscillations involve relative motion between the outer core and the surrounding solid bodies, producing electromagnetic torques at the inner-core boundary (ICB) and core-mantle boundary (CMB). It has been proposed that the ICB torque can explain the excitation of the approximately 30-yr-period polar motion termed the Markowitz wobble. This paper uses the results of a torsional oscillation model to calculate the torques generated at Markowitz and other decadal periods and finds, in contrast to previous results, that electromagnetic torques at the ICB can not explain the observed polar motion.
Conditions for sustaining low-pressure plasma columns by travelling electromagnetic UHF waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benova, E.; Zhelyazkov, I.
1997-01-01
The paper considers the conditions for sustaining low-pressure plasma columns by travelling electromagnetic waves in symmetric and dipolar modes, respectively. The treatment is fully electrodynamic. It is shown that the wave energy flux along the plasma column determines the conditions for sustaining the discharge. In particular as the plasma is sustained by a symmetric wave whose flux depends mainly on the radial distribution of the wave electric field whilst for a dipolar wave sustained plasma the flux is specified by the magnitude of the axial wave field component at the plasma-dielectric interface. (orig.)
Effect of radio frequency waves of electromagnetic field on the tubulin.
Taghi, Mousavi; Gholamhosein, Riazi; Saeed, Rezayi-Zarchi
2013-09-01
Microtubules (MTs) are macromolecular structures consisting of tubulin heterodimers and present in almost every eukaryotic cell. MTs fulfill all conditions for generation of electromagnetic field and are electrically polar due to the electrical polarity of a tubulin heterodimer. The calculated static electric dipole moment of about 1000 Debye makes them capable of being aligned parallel to the applied electromagnetic field direction. In the present study, the tubulin heterodimers were extracted and purified from the rat brains. MTs were obtained by polymerization in vitro. Samples of microtubules were adsorbed in the absence and in the presence of electromagnetic fields with radio frequency of 900 Hz. Our results demonstrate the effect of electromagnetic field with 900 Hz frequency to change the structure of MTs. In this paper, a related patent was used that will help to better understand the studied subject.
Rojas, R.; Robles, P.
2011-01-01
We discuss common features in mechanical, electromagnetic and quantum systems, supporting identical results for the transmission and reflection coefficients of waves arriving perpendicularly at a plane interface. Also, we briefly discuss the origin of special notions such as refractive index in quantum mechanics, massive photons in wave guides and…
Electromagnetic waves in a layer of hot plasma with negligible collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vacca, J.
1975-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic waves in a plane plasma layer in a uniform magnetic field has been studied, following the hypothesis of immoble ions and negligible ion-electron interactions. Waves dependent on one spatial coordinate are considered and all the parameters of the problems are considered. The cases of perpendicular and parallel magnetic field are treated
The Relativistic Transformation for an Electromagnetic Plane Wave with General Time Dependence
Smith, Glenn S.
2012-01-01
In special relativity, the transformation between inertial frames for an electromagnetic plane wave is usually derived for the time-harmonic case (the field is a sinusoid of infinite duration), even though all practical waves are of finite duration and may not even contain a dominant sinusoid. This paper presents an alternative derivation in which…
Berberyan, A. Kh; Garakov, V. G.
2018-04-01
A large number of works have been devoted to investigation of the influence of the piezoelectric properties of a material on the propagation of elastic waves [1–3]. Herewith, the quasi-static piezoelasticity model was mainly used. In the problem of an electromagnetic wave reflection from an elastic medium with piezoelectric properties, it is necessary to consider hyperbolic equations [4].
Tokman, M. D.; Westerhof, E.; Gavrilova, M. A.
2000-01-01
The special features of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in gyrotropic medium with dispersion and resonant dissipation (specifically, in a magnetoactive plasma) are studied. Even though the anti-Hermitian components of the permittivity tensor are substantial in magnitude, weakly damped waves
Electromagnetic Waves with Frequencies Near the Local Proton Gryofrequency: ISEF-3 1 AU Observations
Tsurutani, B.
1993-01-01
Low Frequency electromagnetic waves with periods near the local proton gyrofrequency have been detected near 1 AU by the magnetometer onboard ISEE-3. For these 1 AU waves two physical processes are possible: solar wind pickup of nuetral (interstellar?) particles and generation by relativistic electron beams propagating from the Sun.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Light, Max Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2017-04-13
This report outlines the theory underlying electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in an unmagnetized, inhomogeneous plasma. The inhomogeneity is given by a spatially nonuniform plasma electron density n_{e}(r), which will modify the wave propagation in the direction of the gradient rn_{e}(r).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alinejad, H.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Skjaeraasen, O.; Sobhanian, S.
2007-01-01
Nucleating and collapsing wave packets relevant to electromagnetic strong plasma turbulence are studied theoretically in two dimensions. Model collapsing Langmuir and transverse potentials are constructed as superpositions of approximate eigenstates of a spherically symmetric density well. Electrostatic and electromagnetic potentials containing only components with azimuthal quantum numbers m=0, 1, 2 are found to give a good representation of the electric fields of nucleating collapsing wave packets in turbulence simulations. The length scales of these trapped states are related to the electron thermal speed v e and the length scale of the density well. It is shown analytically that the electromagnetic trapped states change with v e and that for v e e > or approx. 0.17c, the Langmuir and transverse modes remain coupled during collapse, with autocorrelation lengths in a constant ratio. An investigation of energy transfer to packets localized in density wells shows that the strongest power transfer to the nucleating state occurs for Langmuir waves. Energy transitions between different trapped and free states for collapsing wave packets are studied, and the transition rate from trapped Langmuir to free plane electromagnetic waves is calculated and related to the emission of electromagnetic waves at the plasma frequency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graham, D. B.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Skjaeraasen, O.
2011-01-01
Large-scale simulations of wave packet collapse are performed by numerically solving the three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic Zakharov equations, focusing on individual wave packet collapses and on wave packets that form in continuously driven strong turbulence. The collapse threshold is shown to decrease as the electron thermal speed ν e /c increases and as the temperature ratio T i /T e of ions to electrons decreases. Energy lost during wave packet collapse and dissipation is shown to depend on ν e /c. The dynamics of density perturbations after collapse are studied in 3D electromagnetic strong turbulence for a range of T i /T e . The structures of the Langmuir, transverse, and total electric field components of wave packets during strong turbulence are investigated over a range of ν e /c. For ν e /c e /c > or approx. 0.17, transverse modes become trapped in density wells and contribute significantly to the structure of the total electric field. At all ν e /c, the Langmuir energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly oblate (pancake shaped). The transverse energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly prolate (sausage shaped), with the major axis being perpendicular to the major axes of the Langmuir component. This results in the wave packet becoming more nearly spherical as ν e /c increases, and in turn generates more spherical density wells during collapse. The results obtained are compared with previous 3D electrostatic results and 2D electromagnetic results.
Peng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Kai-Jun; He, Meng-Dong; Luo, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xin-Min; Li, Jian-Bo; Tan, Shi-Hua; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Hu, Wei-Da; Chen, Xiaoshuang
2018-04-01
In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of polarization conversion in a plasmonic metasurface structure, in which each unit cell consists of a metal bar and four metal split-ring resonators (SRRs). Such effect is attributed to the fact that the dark plasmon mode of SRRs (bar), which radiates cross-polarized component, is induced by the bright plasmon mode of bar (SRRs) due to the electromagnetic near-field coupling between bar and SRRs. We find that there are two ways to achieve a large cross-polarized component in our proposed metasurface structure. The first way is realized when the dark plasmon mode of bar (SRRs) is in resonance, while at this time the bright plasmon mode of SRRs (bar) is not at resonant state. The second way is realized when the bright plasmon mode of SRRs (bar) is resonantly excited, while the dark plasmon mode of bar (SRRs) is at nonresonant state. It is also found that the linearly polarized light can be rotated by 56.50 after propagation through the metasurface structure. Furthermore, our proposed metasurface structure exhibits an asymmetric transmission for circularly polarized light. Our findings take a further step in developing integrated metasurface-based photonics devices for polarization manipulation and modulation.
Self-generation and management of spin-electromagnetic wave solitons and chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ustinov, Alexey B.; Kondrashov, Alexandr V.; Nikitin, Andrey A.; Kalinikos, Boris A.
2014-01-01
Self-generation of microwave spin-electromagnetic wave envelope solitons and chaos has been observed and studied. For the investigation, we used a feedback active ring oscillator based on artificial multiferroic, which served as a nonlinear waveguide. We show that by increasing the wave amplification in the feedback ring circuit, a transition from monochromatic auto-generation to soliton train waveform and then to dynamical chaos occurs in accordance with the Ruelle-Takens scenario. Management of spin-electromagnetic-wave solitons and chaos parameters by both dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the multiferroic waveguiding structure is demonstrated.
Wireless system controlling of electromagnetic wave distribution in nuclear power plant use
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuroda, Hidehiko; Kume, Naoto; Oshima, Tomomi; Takakura, Kei; Oda, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Odanaka, Shigeru
2017-01-01
Recently, wireless technologies have rapidly spread by cellular phones, smartphones and tablet devices. Wireless systems in the nuclear power plant are expected to bring various advantages such as shortening of the inspection time, online monitoring, remote control and cable reduction, etc. However, wireless systems have hardly applied to the nuclear power plant, from the point of security and electromagnetic interference (EMI). We propose a new wireless system controlling automatically electromagnetic wave distribution. In our wireless system, the transmitter / receiver modules automatically measure the wave strength and adjust the power and directivity of the wave, resulting in wireless communication only in target zones, i.e. non-influence to safety-related instruments and non-leakage of information. We will present the algorithm of the electromagnetic wave controlling and experimental results about the proposed system. (author)
On electromagnetic wave propagation through a plasma sheath produced by a moving ionization source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semenova, V.I.
1977-01-01
Features of the interaction of electromagnetic waves are considered with a nonstationary plasma layer of a finite thickness, produced in an immovable gas by a movable ionization source. It is shown that a static magnetic field excited on the ionization front in build-up of electrons produced in the incident wave field reemits the energy to the electromagnetic wave during the plasma relaxation caused by recombination processes. As a result the electromagnetic wave of a finite amplitude may propagate behind the nonstationary layer of an ''opaque'' (ωsub(p)sup(2)>>ωsub(urc)sup((0))sup(2)) plasma as distinct from the layer of a movable stationary plasma with the same parameters
Controlling of the electromagnetic solitary waves generation in the wake of a two-color laser
Pan, K. Q.; Li, S. W.; Guo, L.; Yang, D.; Li, Z. C.; Zheng, C. Y.; Jiang, S. E.; Zhang, B. H.; He, X. T.
2018-05-01
Electromagnetic solitary waves generated by a two-color laser interaction with an underdense plasma are investigated. It is shown that, when the former wave packet of the two-color laser is intense enough, it will excite nonlinear wakefields and generate electron density cavities. The latter wave packets will beat with the nonlinear wakefield and generate both high-frequency and low-frequency components. When the peak density of the cavities exceeds the critical density of the low-frequency component, this part of the electromagnetic field will be trapped to generate electromagnetic solitary waves. By changing the laser and plasma parameters, we can control the wakefield generation, which will also control the generation of the solitary waves. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed to prove the controlling of the solitary waves. The simulation results also show that solitary waves generated by higher laser intensities will become moving solitary waves. The two-dimensional particle-in-cell also shows the generation of the solitary waves. In the two-dimensional case, solitary waves are distributed in the transverse directions because of the filamentation instability.
Excitation of Surface Electromagnetic Waves on Railroad Rail
1978-03-31
UMTA's Office of Rail Technology research programs aim to improve urban rail transportation systems safety. This rail-transit research study attempts to develop an onboard, separate and independent obstacle-detection system--Surface Electromagnetic W...
CMB polarization systematics, cosmological birefringence, and the gravitational waves background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pagano, Luca; Bernardis, Paolo de; Gubitosi, Giulia; Masi, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Piacentini, Francesco; De Troia, Grazia; Natoli, Paolo; Polenta, Gianluca
2009-01-01
Cosmic microwave background experiments must achieve very accurate calibration of their polarization reference frame to avoid biasing the cosmological parameters. In particular, a wrong or inaccurate calibration might mimic the presence of a gravitational wave background, or a signal from cosmological birefringence, a phenomenon characteristic of several nonstandard, symmetry breaking theories of electrodynamics that allow for in vacuo rotation of the polarization direction of the photon. Noteworthly, several authors have claimed that the BOOMERanG 2003 (B2K) published polarized power spectra of the cosmic microwave background may hint at cosmological birefringence. Such analyses, however, do not take into account the reported calibration uncertainties of the BOOMERanG focal plane. We develop a formalism to include this effect and apply it to the BOOMERanG dataset, finding a cosmological rotation angle α=-4.3 deg. ±4.1 deg. We also investigate the expected performances of future space borne experiment, finding that an overall miscalibration larger then 1 deg. for Planck and 0.2 deg. for the Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology, if not properly taken into account, will produce a bias on the constraints on the cosmological parameters and could misleadingly suggest the presence of a gravitational waves background.
Polarization speed meter for gravitational-wave detection
Wade, Andrew R.; McKenzie, Kirk; Chen, Yanbei; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Chow, Jong H.; McClelland, David E.
2012-09-01
We propose a modified configuration of an advanced gravitational-wave detector that is a speed-meter-type interferometer with improved sensitivity with respect to quantum noise. With the addition of polarization-controlling components to the output of an arm cavity Michelson interferometer, an orthogonal polarization state of the interferometer can be used to store signal, returning it later with opposite phase to cancel position information below the storage bandwidth of the opposite mode. This modification provides an alternative to an external kilometer-scale Fabry-Pérot cavity, as presented in earlier work of Purdue and Chen [Phys. Rev. D 66, 122004 (2002)]. The new configuration requires significantly less physical infrastructure to achieve speed meter operation. The quantity of length and alignment degrees of freedom is also reduced. We present theoretical calculations to show that such a speed meter detector is capable of beating the strain sensitivity imposed by the standard quantum limit over a broad range of frequencies for Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory-like parameters. The benefits and possible difficulties of implementing such a scheme are outlined. We also present results for tuning of the speed meter by adjusting the degree of polarization coupling, a novel possibility that does not exist in previously proposed designs, showing that there is a smooth transition from speed meter operation to that of a signal-recycling Michelson behavior.
Shoji, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Keika, Kunihiro; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Kasahara, Satoshi; Asamura, Kazushi; Nakamura, Satoko; Omura, Yoshiharu
2017-09-01
Electromagnetic plasma waves are thought to be responsible for energy exchange between charged particles in space plasmas. Such an energy exchange process is evidenced by phase space holes identified in the ion distribution function and measurements of the dot product of the plasma wave electric field and the ion velocity. We develop a method to identify ion hole formation, taking into consideration the phase differences between the gyromotion of ions and the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Using this method, we identify ion holes in the distribution function and the resulting nonlinear EMIC wave evolution from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations. These ion holes are key to wave growth and frequency drift by the ion currents through nonlinear wave-particle interactions, which are identified by a computer simulation in this study.
Traveling waves in a free-electron laser with an electromagnetic wiggler
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olumi, Mohsen; Maraghechi, B; Rouhani, M H
2011-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic traveling wave in a free-electron laser (FEL) with an electromagnetic wiggler is investigated using the relativistic fluid-Maxwell formulation. By adapting the traveling-wave ansatz, three coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations are obtained describing the nonlinear propagation of the coupled wave. These equations may be used to study saturation in FELs. By linearizing the nonlinear equations dispersion relations for the traveling wave are obtained. Numerical solution of the small-signal traveling dispersion relation reveals the coupling of radiation to both slow and fast space-charge waves. It is shown that the traveling wave, which is not a normal mode in a laboratory frame, becomes a normal mode in terms of a transformed variable.
On the influence of electromagnetic wave and relativistic electron beam on a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Ashry, M.Y.; Berezhiani, V.I.; Javakhishvili, J.L.
1993-08-01
The dynamics of nonlinear wave in plasma under the influence of high-frequency electromagnetic pump and relativistic electron beam is considered. It is shown that the electrons of the beam play the role of the heavy plasma component, the matter which creates a possibility of formation of wave of a soliton type in a pure electron plasma. The wave structure is investigated and the characteristic parameters of the soliton are obtained. (author). 8 refs
Research on levitation coupled with standing wave levitation and electromagnetic levitation:
Jiao, Xiao Yang; Li, Xinbo; Liu, GuoJun; Liu, JianFang; Liu, XiaoLun; Lu, Song
2013-01-01
In order to solve the problem caused by metal materials' inability to be cooled without contact with other materials after being heated by electromagnetic levitation, a new method is proposed: using a standing wave levitator to levitate the melted metal. The standing wave levitator adopts a concave spherical surface on the emitter and the reflector. Using ANSYS software, the transducer and the standing wave fields were simulated. Based on the simulation, the distribution and the maximum acous...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
de Jong, G.
1975-01-01
With the aid of a two-dimensional integral equation formulation, the ground wave propagation of electromagnetic waves transmitted by a vertical electric dipole over an inhomogeneous flat earth is investigated. For the configuration in which a ground wave is propagating across an ''island'' on a flat earth, the modulus and argument of the attenuation function have been computed. The results for the two-dimensional treatment are significantly more accurate in detail than the calculations using a one-dimensional integral equation
Modulation of a compressional electromagnetic wave in a magnetized electron-positron quantum plasma.
Amin, M R
2015-09-01
Amplitude modulation of a compressional electromagnetic wave in a strongly magnetized electron-positron pair plasma is considered in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the external strong magnetic field, Fermi quantum degeneracy pressure, particle exchange potential, quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential, and dissipative effect due to collision of the charged carriers. A modified-nonlinear Schödinger equation is developed for the compressional magnetic field of the electromagnetic wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. The linear and nonlinear dispersions of the electromagnetic wave are discussed in detail. For some parameter ranges, relevant to dense astrophysical objects such as the outer layers of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and magnetars, etc., it is found that the compressional electromagnetic wave is modulationally unstable and propagates as a dissipated electromagnetic wave. It is also found that the quantum effects due to the particle exchange potential and the Bohm potential are negligibly small in comparison to the effects of the Fermi quantum degeneracy pressure. The numerical results on the growth rate of the modulation instability is also presented.
Vacuum polarization of the electromagnetic field near a rotating black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, V.P.; Zel'nikov, A.I.
1985-01-01
The electromagnetic field contribution to the vacuum polarization near a rotating black hole is considered. It is shown that the problem of calculating the renormalized average value of the stress-energy tensor /sup ren/ for the Hartle-Hawking vacuum state at the pole of the event horizon can be reduced to the problem of electro- and magnetostatics in the Kerr spacetime. An explicit expression for /sup ren/ at the pole of the event horizon is obtained and its properties are discussed. It is shown that in the case of a nonrotating black hole the Page-Brown approximation for the electromagnetic stress-energy tensor gives a result which coincides at the event horizon with the exact value of /sup ren/. .AE
Sun, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Chen, Ping-Xing; Liu, Liang
2018-02-01
People have been paying attention to the role of atoms' complex internal level structures in the research of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) for a long time, where the various degenerate Zeeman levels usually generate complex linkage patterns for the atomic transitions. It turns out, with special choices of the atomic states and the atomic transitions' linkage structure, clear signatures of quantum interference induced by the probe and coupling light's polarizations can emerge from a typical EIT phenomena. We propose to study a four-state system with double-V linkage pattern for the transitions and analyze the polarization-induced interference under the EIT condition. We show that such interference arises naturally under mild conditions on the optical field and atom manipulation techniques. Moreover, we construct a variation form of double-M linkage pattern where the polarization-induced interference enables polarization-dependent cross modulation between incident weak lights that can be effective even at the few-photon level. The theme is to gain more insight into the essential question: how can we build a nontrivial optical medium where incident lights experience polarization-dependent nonlinear optical interactions, valid for a wide range of incidence intensities down to the few-photon level?
Speed of Gravitational Waves from Strongly Lensed Gravitational Waves and Electromagnetic Signals.
Fan, Xi-Long; Liao, Kai; Biesiada, Marek; Piórkowska-Kurpas, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2017-03-03
We propose a new model-independent measurement strategy for the propagation speed of gravitational waves (GWs) based on strongly lensed GWs and their electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. This can be done in two ways: by comparing arrival times of GWs and their EM counterparts and by comparing the time delays between images seen in GWs and their EM counterparts. The lensed GW-EM event is perhaps the best way to identify an EM counterpart. Conceptually, this method does not rely on any specific theory of massive gravitons or modified gravity. Its differential setting (i.e., measuring the difference between time delays in GW and EM domains) makes it robust against lens modeling details (photons and GWs travel in the same lensing potential) and against internal time delays between GW and EM emission acts. It requires, however, that the theory of gravity is metric and predicts gravitational lensing similar to general relativity. We expect that such a test will become possible in the era of third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, when about 10 lensed GW events would be observed each year. The power of this method is mainly limited by the timing accuracy of the EM counterpart, which for kilonovae is around 10^{4} s. This uncertainty can be suppressed by a factor of ∼10^{10}, if strongly lensed transients of much shorter duration associated with the GW event can be identified. Candidates for such short transients include short γ-ray bursts and fast radio bursts.
Instability of drift Alfven wave accompanying polar magnetic storm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higuchi, Yoshihiro
1974-01-01
As the micro plasma instability due to the plasma non-uniformity in magnetosphere, there is the instability of drift Alfven wave. With the data obtained with the network of multiple observation points for geomagnetism, attempt was made to prove the hypothesis that the instability of drift Alfven wave due to the electron temperature gradient at the inner boundary of plasma sheet may be one of the causes for the geomagnetic pulsation (Pi 1) accompanying polar magnetic storm. Up to date, final conclusion is yet impossible as to the problems in it due to the discussion based on the data from widely separated observation points. The installation of economically efficient multi-point observation network is necessary for the solution. (Mori, K.)
Limitations of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Observations in Low Earth Orbit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junga Hwang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Pc1 pulsations are geomagnetic fluctuations in the frequency range of 0.2 to 5 Hz. There have been several observations of Pc1 pulsations in low earth orbit by MAGSAT, DE-2, Viking, Freja, CHAMP, and SWARM satellites. However, there has been a clear limitation in resolving the spatial and temporal variations of the pulsation by using a single-point observation by a single satellite. To overcome such limitations of previous observations, a new space mission was recently initiated, using the concept of multi-satellites, named the Small scale magNetospheric and Ionospheric Plasma Experiments (SNIPE. The SNIPE mission consists of four nanosatellites (~10 kg, which will be launched into a polar orbit at an altitude of 600 km (TBD in 2020. Four satellites will be deployed in orbit, and the distances between each satellite will be controlled from 10 to 1,000 km by a high-end formation-flying algorithm. One of the possible science targets of the SNIPE mission is observing electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC waves. In this paper, we report on examples of observations, showing the limitations of previous EMIC observations in low earth orbit, and suggest possibilities to overcome those limitations through a new mission.
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2
Fraser, B. J.; Samson, J. C.; Hu, Y. D.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.
1992-01-01
The first results of observations of ion cyclotron waves by the elliptically orbiting ISEE 1 and 2 pair of spacecraft are reported. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to the local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event is attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time.
Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey
2012-01-01
Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.
Vafin, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.
2016-05-01
The general electromagnetic fluctuation theory for magnetized plasmas is used to calculate the steady-state wave number spectra and total electromagnetic field strength of low-frequency collective weakly damped eigenmodes with parallel wavevectors in a Maxwellian electron-proton plasma. These result from the equilibrium of spontaneous emission and collisionless damping, and they represent the minimum electromagnetic fluctuations guaranteed in quiet thermal space plasmas, including the interstellar and interplanetary medium. Depending on the plasma beta, the ratio of |δB |/B0 can be as high as 10-12 .
Theory of reflection reflection and transmission of electromagnetic, particle and acoustic waves
Lekner, John
2016-01-01
This book deals with the reflection of electromagnetic and particle waves by interfaces. The interfaces can be sharp or diffuse. The topics of the book contain absorption, inverse problems, anisotropy, pulses and finite beams, rough surfaces, matrix methods, numerical methods, reflection of particle waves and neutron reflection. Exact general results are presented, followed by long wave reflection, variational theory, reflection amplitude equations of the Riccati type, and reflection of short waves. The Second Edition of the Theory of Reflection is an updated and much enlarged revision of the 1987 monograph. There are new chapters on periodically stratified media, ellipsometry, chiral media, neutron reflection and reflection of acoustic waves. The chapter on anisotropy is much extended, with a complete treatment of the reflection and transmission properties of arbitrarily oriented uniaxial crystals. The book gives a systematic and unified treatment reflection and transmission of electromagnetic and particle...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Se Yun
2009-01-01
This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.
Influence of Sea Surface Roughness on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Duct Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Zhao
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a study of the influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. The problem of electromagnetic wave propagation is modeled by using the parabolic equation method. The roughness of the sea surface is computed by modifying the smooth surface Fresnel reflection coefficient to account for the reduction in the specular reflection due to the roughness resulting from sea wind speed. The propagation model is solved by the mixed Fourier split-step algorithm. Numerical experiments indicate that wind-driven roughened sea surface has an impact on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment, and the strength is intensified along with the increment of sea wind speeds and/or the operating frequencies. In a fixed duct environment, however, proper disposition of the transmitter could reduce these impacts.
Parametric study of electromagnetic waves propagating in absorbing curved S ducts
Baumeister, Kenneth J.
1989-01-01
A finite-element Galerkin formulation has been developed to study attenuation of transverse magnetic (TM) waves propagating in two-dimensional S-curved ducts with absorbing walls. In the frequency range where the duct diameter and electromagnetic wave length are nearly equal, the effect of duct length, curvature (duct offset), and absorber wall thickness was examined. For a given offset in the curved duct, the length of the S-duct was found to significantly affect both the absorptive and reflective characteristics of the duct. For a straight and a curved duct with perfect electric conductor terminations, power attenuation contours were examined to determine electromagnetic wall properties associated with maximum input signal absorption. Offset of the S-duct was found to significantly affect the value of the wall permittivity associated with the optimal attenuation of the incident electromagnetic wave.
Nonstationary self-action of electromagnetic wave beams in the beat accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramyan, L.A.; Litvak, A.G.; Mironov, V.A.
1990-01-01
The resonance excitation of a plasma wave in a modified accelerator using the beats of two electromagnetic waves permits to increase considerably the intensity of the accelerating field and, consequently, the rate of the accumulation of the energy by charged particles. The efficiency of the electromagnetic radiation conversion to the longitudinal wave is defined by nonlinear processes. The saturation of the accelerating field is considered which is due to the appearance of multiflux motion of electrons oscillating in the wave field with overturn of waves, due to the development of parametric instabilities and due to the change of natural frequency of plasma oscillations caused by the relativistic increase of electron mass. The effects of self-action which change the form of the electromagnetic radiation pulse and the wave beam structure play a significant role in the most promising laser plasma beat accelerator. We consider dynamics of space distribution of the plasma wave in a self-consistent field of the wave beam. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs
On the generation of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namiot, V.A.; Shchurova, L.Yu.
2011-01-01
It is shown that a thin dielectric plate, which can act as an open dielectric waveguide, it is possible to produce amplification and generation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the terahertz range. For this purpose, we propose using a dielectric plate with a corrugated surface, in which case the electric field of the transverse electromagnetic wave in the waveguide has a periodic spatial structure in the local area near to the corrugation. Terahertz electromagnetic waves are excited by a beam of electrons moving in vacuum along the dielectric plate at a small distance from its corrugated surface. Corrugation period is chosen in order to ensure the most effective interaction of the electron beam with the first harmonic of the electric field induced by the corrugation. Amplification and generation of electromagnetic waves propagating in a dielectric waveguide is realized as a result of deceleration of the electron beam by a wave electric field induced by a corrugated dielectric surface in the zone near the corrugation. We discuss possible ways to create electron beams with the desired characteristics. We offer a way to stabilize the beam position above the plate, avoiding the bombardment of the plate by electrons. It is shown that it is possible to significantly increase the efficiency of the device through the recovery of energy that remains in the electrons after their interaction with the wave. -- Highlights: → We propose a scheme of a generator of radio waves in the terahertz range. → This scheme includes a corrugated dielectric plate, which can act as an open waveguide. → A strip electron beam is in vacuum near the dielectric corrugated surface. → Generation is achieved by converting electrons' energy into electromagnetic energy. → The waveguide wave extends perpendicularly to electron motion.
Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Bin Wang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.
Artemyev, A V; Neishtadt, A I; Zelenyi, L M; Vainchtein, D L
2010-12-01
We present an analytical and numerical study of the surfatron acceleration of nonrelativistic charged particles by electromagnetic waves. The acceleration is caused by capture of particles into resonance with one of the waves. We investigate capture for systems with one or two waves and provide conditions under which the obtained results can be applied to systems with more than two waves. In the case of a single wave, the once captured particles never leave the resonance and their velocity grows linearly with time. However, if there are two waves in the system, the upper bound of the energy gain may exist and we find the analytical value of that bound. We discuss several generalizations including the relativistic limit, different wave amplitudes, and a wide range of the waves' wavenumbers. The obtained results are used for qualitative description of some phenomena observed in the Earth's magnetosphere. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
influence of electromagnetic waves produced by an amplitude
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF EKWUEME
m. 10 . The magnetotransport and continuity equations of excess minority carriers are solved with boundary conditions and led to new analytical expressions of minority carrier's density, photocurrent density, photovoltage and electric power depending on electromagnetic field intensity and wavelength λ. The dependence of.
Influence of electromagnetic waves produced by an amplitude ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The magnetotransport and continuity equations of excess minority carriers are solved with boundary conditions and led to new analytical expressions of minority carrier's density, photocurrent density, photovoltage and electric power depending on electromagnetic field intensity and wavelength λ. The dependence of the ...
Breathers in Josephson junction ladders: Resonances and electromagnetic wave spectroscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miroshnichenko, A. E.; Flach, S.; Fistul, M.
2001-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the resonant interaction between dynamical localized states (discrete breathers) and linear electromagnetic excitations (EE's) in Josephson junction ladders. By making use of direct numerical simulations we find that such an interaction manifests itself by resonant...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vertij, A.A.; Gavrilov, S.P.; Shestopalov, V.P.
1990-01-01
Interaction of incident nuclear particle beam with J = 1/2 (neutrons) spin and (J = 1/2) protons with the target substance is considered. It is shown that neutron polarization at the target exit and neutron transparency (G) of the target depend significantly on incident wave amplitude level and physical parameter values which characterize the target, such as target temperature, resonator mirror reflection factor, number of spins interacting with the field, etc. Under interaction of neutrons with a target resonator which features a high mirror reflection factor and low losses for absorption which is not related to magnetic dipole absorption, a bistable response of neutron polarization and G manifests itself. 1 ref
Statistical Study of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind at 1 AU
Zhao, G. Q.; Feng, H. Q.; Wu, D. J.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, A.; Huang, J.
2018-03-01
Electromagnetic cyclotron waves (ECWs) near the proton cyclotron frequency are common wave activities in the solar wind and have attracted much attention in recent years. This paper investigates 82,809 ECWs based on magnetic field data from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-A mission between 2007 and 2013. Results show that ECWs may last for just a few seconds or incessantly for several tens of minutes. The time fraction of ECW storms among all solar wind is about 0.9%; the storms are obtained with the duration threshold of 10 min, amplitude criterion of 0.032 nT, and time separation limit of 3 min for combination of intermittent ECWs. Most of ECWs have their amplitudes less than 1 nT, while some ECWs have large amplitudes comparable to the ambient magnetic field. The distributions of the durations and amplitudes of these ECWs are characterized by power law spectra, respectively, with spectrum indexes around 4. Statistically, there seems to be a tendency that ECWs with a longer duration will have a larger amplitude. Observed ECW properties are time dependent, and the median frequency of left-hand ECWs can be lower than that of right-hand ECWs in some months in the spacecraft frame. The percentage of left-hand ECWs varies in a large range with respect to months; it is much low (26%) in a month, though it frequently exceeds 50% in other months. Characteristics of ECWs with concurrent polarizations are also researched. The present study should be of importance for a more complete picture of ECWs in the solar wind.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapiro, B.Y.
1992-01-01
The behavior of a superconductor in time-independent electric field perpendicular to the surface and in the external electromagnetic wave is theoretically investigated. A new type of the resonance interaction between superconducting domains localized along the magnetic field (if the superconducting phase transition takes place in the external magnetic field perpendicular to the surface) and electromagnetic waves is predicted. The surface impedance of the superconductor with domains is calculated. It is shown that the real part of the impedance has a saturation if the skin length equals the domain size. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pogorel'tsev, A.I.; Bidlingmajer, E.R.
1992-01-01
A numeric model of electromagnetic field disturbances generated under the interaction of acoustic-gravitational waves with ionospheric plasma is elaborated and vertical structure of the above disturbances is calculated. The estimates shown that electromagnetic disturbances can penetrate into neutral atmosphere and can be recorded through measurements of the variation of magnetic field and electron field vertical component near the earth is surface. A conclusion is made on a feasibility of monitoring of acoustic-gravitational wave activity in the lower thermosphere through land measurements of magnetic and electric field variations
A theoretical study of hot plasma spheroids in the presence of low-frequency electromagnetic waves
Ahmadizadeh, Y.; Jazi, B.; Barjesteh, S.
2016-07-01
While taking into account thermal motion of electrons, scattering of electromagnetic waves with low frequency from hot plasma spheroids is investigated. In this theoretical research, ions are heavy to respond to electromagnetic fluctuations. The solution of scalar wave equation in spheroidal coordinates for electric potential inside the plasma spheroids are obtained. The variations of resonance frequencies vs. Debye length are studied and consistency between the obtained results in this paper and the results for the well-known plasma objects such as plasma column and spherical plasma have been proved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akoev, G.N.; Avelev, V.D.
1995-01-01
Low intensity millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation of less than 10 mW cm -2 power intensity has a nonthermal effect on the body and it is widely used in medical practice for treatment of various diseases. Nevertheless, the effect of EMR on biological tissues is not understood. The skin and its sensory receptors are considered to be responsible for EMR reception, but this has yet to be confirmed. The present experiments were designed to study the effect of millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation on the ampullae of Lorenzini in skates, which are very sensitive to weak electrical stimuli at low frequency. (author)
Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping
2015-08-24
Within the accuracy of the first-order Born approximation, sufficient conditions are derived for the invariance of spectrum of an electromagnetic wave, which is generated by the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from an anisotropic random media. We show that the following restrictions on properties of incident fields and the anisotropic media must be simultaneously satisfied: 1) the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media must obey the scaling law; 2) the spectral components of the incident field are proportional to each other; 3) the second moments of the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media are inversely proportional to the frequency.
Polarization waves in dielectric films with spatial dispersion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jardin, Jean-Pierre; Moch, Philippe; Dvorak, Vladimir
2002-01-01
The polarization waves propagating in a slab-shaped or in a semi-infinite dielectric medium with spatial dispersion characterized by a volume free-energy density and by a boundary-surface energy density are studied, taking into account Maxwell's equations, in the framework of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism. It is shown that two independent extrapolation lengths providing for the required additional boundary conditions need to be specified at each surface limiting the medium. Complete calculations are performed in the electrostatic approximation: they provide evidence of the differences between the transverse in-plane polarized modes (s modes) and the sagittal plane polarized modes (p modes). True surface modes exist only in the case of negative extrapolation lengths. A detailed analysis of the symmetry properties of the surface and of the guided bulk modes in a slab is developed. Finally, our results are compared with those from previous models describing the boundary conditions in media where spatial dispersion is present. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidovich, Mikhail V
2009-01-01
Some paradoxes are discussed concerning the interpretation of the passage of particles and electromagnetic waves (pulses) across potential barriers and through nonuniform media, in particular, those with frequency dispersion and therefore dissipation. It is emphasized that a rigorous nonstationary approach does not entail any supraluminal velocities for the transfer of physical substances, although supraluminal velocities are indeed possible for several kinematically defined velocities, e.g., for the group velocity. (letters to the editors)
Electromagnetic mode conversion: understanding waves that suddenly change their nature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batchelor, D B; Berry, L A; Bonoli, P T; Carter, M D; Choi, M; D'Azevedo, E; D'Ippolito, D A; Gorelenkov, N; Harvey, R W; Jaeger, E F; Myra, J R; Okuda, H; Phillips, C K; Smithe, D N; Wright, J C
2005-01-01
In a magnetized plasma, such as in fusion devices or the Earth's magnetosphere, several different kinds of waves can simultaneously exist, having very different physical properties. Under the right conditions one wave can quite suddenly convert to another type. Depending on the case, this can be either a great benefit or a problem for the use of waves to heat and control fusion plasmas. Understanding and accurately modeling such behavior is a major computational challenge
Mathieu functions describing particles evolving in electromagnetic waves
Mihu, Denisa-Andreea; Dariescu, Marina-Aura
2017-12-01
Solutions of Klein-Gordon equation for particles moving in a standing wave configuration bring into attention an intricate and complicated category of special functions, namely the Mathieu functions. The stability of the solutions governed by the intercorrelation between Mathieu equation' parameters is discussed. For specific intervals of the wave number, the instability regime installs, pointing out the tendency of exponential growth for the oscillatory wave functions, as a consequence of parametric resonance phenomenon. The expression of the wave function allows the computation of the four-dimensional conserved current density components.
Terahertz wave polarization beam splitter using a cascaded multimode interference structure.
Li, Jiu-sheng; Liu, Han; Zhang, Le
2014-08-01
A terahertz wave polarization beam splitter, based on two cascaded multimode interference structures with different widths, is designed and numerically demonstrated. The numerical calculation results show that the designed polarization beam splitter can split transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM)-polarized terahertz waves into different propagation directions with high efficiency over a frequency range from 6.40 to 6.50 THz. This polarization beam splitter shows more than a 22.06 dB extinction ratio for TE-polarization and a 31.65 dB extinction ratio for TM-polarization. Using such a polarization beam splitter, the whole length of the polarization beam splitter is reduced to about 1/12 that of a conventional design. This enables the polarization beam splitter to be used in terahertz wave integrated circuit fields.
Shear wave induced resonance elastography of spherical masses with polarized torsional waves
Hadj Henni, Anis; Schmitt, Cédric; Trop, Isabelle; Cloutier, Guy
2012-03-01
Shear wave induced resonance (SWIR) is a technique for dynamic ultrasound elastography of confined mechanical inclusions. It was developed for breast tumor imaging and tissue characterization. This method relies on the polarization of torsional shear waves modeled with the Helmholtz equation in spherical coordinates. To validate modeling, an invitro set-up was used to measure and image the first three eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a soft sphere. A preliminary invivo SWIR measurement on a breast fibroadenoma is also reported. Results revealed the potential of SWIR elastography to detect and mechanically characterize breast lesions for early cancer detection.
Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.
Anisotropic effects of background fields on Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiello, Matias; Bengochea, Gabriel R.; Ferraro, Rafael
2007-01-01
We show exact solutions of the Born-Infeld theory for electromagnetic plane waves propagating in the presence of static background fields. The non-linear character of the Born-Infeld equations generates an interaction between the background and the wave that changes the speed of propagation and adds a longitudinal component to the wave. As a consequence, in a magnetic background the ray direction differs from the propagation direction-a behavior resembling the one of a wave in an anisotropic medium. This feature could open up a way to experimental tests of the Born-Infeld theory
Anisotropic effects of background fields on Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aiello, Matias [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: aiello@iafe.uba.ar; Bengochea, Gabriel R. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar; Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.ar
2007-01-22
We show exact solutions of the Born-Infeld theory for electromagnetic plane waves propagating in the presence of static background fields. The non-linear character of the Born-Infeld equations generates an interaction between the background and the wave that changes the speed of propagation and adds a longitudinal component to the wave. As a consequence, in a magnetic background the ray direction differs from the propagation direction-a behavior resembling the one of a wave in an anisotropic medium. This feature could open up a way to experimental tests of the Born-Infeld theory.
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by anomalous fluctuations of a magnetized plasma
Pavlenko, V. N.; Panchenko, V. G.
1990-04-01
Fluctuations and scattering of transverse electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of parametric decay of the pump wave are investigated. The spectral density of electron-density fluctuations is calculated. It is shown that the differential scattering cross-section has sharp maxima at the ion-acoustic and lower-hybrid frequencies when parametric decay of the lower-hybrid pump wave occurs. We note that scattering at the ion-acoustic frequency is dominant. When the pump-wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field the scattering cross-section increases anomalously, i.e. there is critical opalescence.
Analysis of wave equation in electromagnetic field by Proca equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pamungkas, Oky Rio; Soeparmi; Cari
2017-01-01
This research is aimed to analyze wave equation for the electric and magnetic field, vector and scalar potential, and continuity equation using Proca equation. Then, also analyze comparison of the solution on Maxwell and Proca equation for scalar potential and electric field, both as a function of distance and constant wave number. (paper)
[INVITED] Coherent perfect absorption of electromagnetic wave in subwavelength structures
Yan, Chao; Pu, Mingbo; Luo, Jun; Huang, Yijia; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang
2018-05-01
Electromagnetic (EM) absorption is a common process by which the EM energy is transformed into other kinds of energy in the absorber, for example heat. Perfect absorption of EM with structures at subwavelength scale is important for many practical applications, such as stealth technology, thermal control and sensing. Coherent perfect absorption arises from the interplay of interference and absorption, which can be interpreted as a time-reversed process of lasing or EM emitting. It provides a promising way for complete absorption in both nanophotonics and electromagnetics. In this review, we discuss basic principles and properties of a coherent perfect absorber (CPA). Various subwavelength structures including thin films, metamaterials and waveguide-based structures to realize CPAs are compared. We also discuss the potential applications of CPAs.
Xiaoxing Zhang; Guozhi Zhang; Yalong Li; Jian Zhang; Rui Huang
2017-01-01
This study analyzed the transformer electromagnetic gap propagation characteristics. The influence of gap size is also analyzed, and the results experimentally verified. The obtained results indicated that the gap propagation characteristics of electromagnetic wave signals radiated by the partial discharge (PD) source in different directions are substantially different. The intensity of the electromagnetic wave in the gap reaches a maximum at a gap height of 1 cm; and inside the gap, the inte...
Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves Recorded by the Four CLUSTER Satellites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parrot, M.; Santolik, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Maksimovic, M.; Harvey, Ch.
2001-01-01
This paper will describe the methods we use to determine the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves observed by the four CLUSTER satellites. The data is recorded aboard CLUSTER by the STAFF (Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations) spectrum analyser. This instrument has several modes of operation, and can provide the spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric components. This spectral matrix is processed by a dedicated software (PRASSADCO: Propagation Analysis of STAFF-SA Data with Coherency Tests) in order to determine the wave normal directions with respect to the DC magnetic field. PRASSADCO also provides a number of alternative methods to estimate wave polarisation and propagation parameters, such as the Poynting vector, and the refractive index. It is therefore possible to detect the source extension of various electromagnetic waves using the 4 satellites. Results of this data processing will be shown here for one event observed by one satellite. (author)
Sinibaldi, Alberto; Descrovi, Emiliano; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Dominici, Lorenzo; Ballarini, Mirko; Mandracci, Pietro; Danz, Norbert; Michelotti, Francesco
2012-10-01
We exploit the properties of surface electromagnetic waves propagating at the surface of finite one dimensional photonic crystals to improve the performance of optical biosensors with respect to the standard surface plasmon resonance approach. We demonstrate that the hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride technology is a versatile platform for fabricating one dimensional photonic crystals with any desirable design and operating in a wide wavelength range, from the visible to the near infrared. We prepared sensors based on photonic crystals sustaining either guided modes or surface electromagnetic waves, also known as Bloch surface waves. We carried out for the first time a direct experimental comparison of their sensitivity and figure of merit with surface plasmon polaritons on metal layers, by making use of a commercial surface plasmon resonance instrument that was slightly adapted for the experiments. Our measurements demonstrate that the Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride photonic crystals outperform surface plasmon polaritons by a factor 1.3 in terms of figure of merit.
Numerical simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation using time domain meshless method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuno, Soichiro; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Taku; Nakata, Susumu; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Kamitani, Atsushi
2012-01-01
The electromagnetic wave propagation in various shaped wave guide is simulated by using meshless time domain method (MTDM). Generally, Finite Differential Time Domain (FDTD) method is applied for electromagnetic wave propagation simulation. However, the numerical domain should be divided into rectangle meshes if FDTD method is applied for the simulation. On the other hand, the node disposition of MTDM can easily describe the structure of arbitrary shaped wave guide. This is the large advantage of the meshless time domain method. The results of computations show that the damping rate is stably calculated in case with R < 0.03, where R denotes a support radius of the weight function for the shape function. And the results indicate that the support radius R of the weight functions should be selected small, and monomials must be used for calculating the shape functions. (author)
Huba, J. D.; Rowland, H. L.
1993-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic waves parallel to the magnetic field in the nightside Venus ionosphere is presented in a theoretical and numerical analysis. The model assumes a source of electromagnetic radiation in the Venus atmosphere, such as that produced by lightning. Specifically addressed is wave propagation in the altitude range z = 130-160 km at the four frequencies detectable by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Electric Field Detector: 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz. Parameterizations of the wave intensities, peak electron density, and Poynting flux as a function of magnetic field are presented. The waves are found to propagate most easily in conditions of low electron density and high magnetic field. The results of the model are consistent with observational data.
Electromagnetic Power Harvester Using Wide-Angle and Polarization-Insensitive Metasurfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuanming Zhang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A new wide-angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface (MS instead of traditional antenna is built as the primary ambient energy harvester in this paper. The MS is a two-dimensional energy harvesting array that is composed of subwavelength electrical small ring resonator that is working at 2.5 GHz (LTE/WiFi. In the case of different polarization and incidence angles, we demonstrate the metasurface can achieve high harvesting efficiency of 90%. The fabricated prototype of 9 × 9 MS energy harvesting array is measured, and the experimental results validate that the proposed MS has a good performance more than 80% of energy harvesting efficiency for arbitrary polarization and wide-angle incident waves. The good agreement of the simulation with the experiment results verifies the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed MS structure, which will provide a new source of supply in wireless sensor networks (WSN.
Dual-polarized feed antenna apparatus and method of use
Sarehraz, Mohammed (Inventor); Buckle, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Stefanakos, Elias (Inventor); Weller, Thomas (Inventor); Goswami, D. Yogi (Inventor)
2009-01-01
An antenna apparatus and method for the interception of randomly polarized electromagnetic waves utilizing a dual polarized antenna which is excited through a cross-slot aperture using two well-isolated orthogonal feeds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozyra, J.U.; Cravens, T.E.; Nagy, A.F.; Fontheim, E.G.; Ong, R.S.B.
1984-01-01
An expression for the linear electromagnetic ion cyclotron convective growth rate has been derived, considering multiple ions in the energetic anisotropic component of the plasma (which provides the free energy for the instability) as well as in the cold component of the plasma. This represents a modification of recent treatments investigating electromagnetic ion cyclotron growth rates which have considered only hydrogen ions in the energetic component. Four major effects on the growth and propagation characteristics result from inclusion of heavy ions in the energetic component. Some wave growth occurs at low frequencies below the corresponding marginally unstable wave mode for each heavy ion. Enhanced quasi-monochronomatic peaks in the convective growth rate appear just below the O + and He + gyrofrequency and can be quite pronounced for certain plasma conditions. Stop bands, decreased group velocity and other effects normally attributed to cold heavy ions can be produced or enhanced by heavy ions in the energetic plasma component. Partial or complete suppression of wave growth at frequencies above the marginally unstable wave mode for a particular energetic heavy ion can greatly alter the growth rates that would occur in the absence of this energetic heavy ion. The expression for the linear electromagnetic ion cyclotron convective growth rate along with appropriate plasma parameters was used to investigate the nature of linear wave growth in the plasmapause region. The frequencies of peaks in the convective growth rate given by this model compare favorably with wave measurements in this region. It is conceivable that through wave-particle interactions, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves could supply the energy source for various plasmapause region phenomena such as the O + torus, the plasma cloak and stable auroral red arcs
Excitation of the Uller-Zenneck electromagnetic surface waves in the prism-coupled configuration
Rasheed, Mehran; Faryad, Muhammad
2017-08-01
A configuration to excite the Uller-Zenneck surface electromagnetic waves at the planar interfaces of homogeneous and isotropic dielectric materials is proposed and theoretically analyzed. The Uller-Zenneck waves are surface waves that can exist at the planar interface of two dissimilar dielectric materials of which at least one is a lossy dielectric material. In this paper, a slab of a lossy dielectric material was taken with lossless dielectric materials on both sides. A canonical boundary-value problem was set up and solved to find the possible Uller-Zenneck waves and waveguide modes. The Uller-Zenneck waves guided by the slab of the lossy dielectric material were found to be either symmetric or antisymmetric and transmuted into waveguide modes when the thickness of that slab was increased. A prism-coupled configuration was then successfully devised to excite the Uller-Zenneck waves. The results showed that the Uller-Zenneck waves are excited at the same angle of incidence for any thickness of the slab of the lossy dielectric material, whereas the waveguide modes can be excited when the slab is sufficiently thick. The excitation of Uller-Zenneck waves at the planar interfaces with homogeneous and all-dielectric materials can usher in new avenues for the applications for electromagnetic surface waves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiozawa, Toshiyuki
2010-01-01
For the purpose of providing for a theoretical background for the study of electromagnetic fields generated by precursory effects of earthquakes, the problem of transmission and total reflection at the earth-atmosphere interface is investigated in detail for a subhertz plane electromagnetic wave incident from the earth's crust. The term ''subhertz'' means 'below 1 Hz'. First, for the special case of normal incidence, the overall power transmission coefficient at the earth-atmosphere interface is found to take a maximum value at a definite frequency f 0 which is inversely proportional to the square of the depth of a virtual hypocenter. A typical value of f 0 falls around 0.01 Hz. For oblique incidence as well, this feature of the overall power transmission coefficient is retained except in the vicinity of the critical angle of incidence for the H-wave. At the critical angle of incidence, the power flow carried by a surface wave along the interface becomes anomalously large for the H-wave. However, over a wide range of angles of incidence greater than the critical angle, the power flow carried by the E-wave exceeds that carried by the H-wave by orders of magnitude. Finally, the energy conservation relations for the incident, reflected, and transmitted waves at the earth-atmosphere interface are discussed. For an incident wave coming from the earth's crust, the interactive power between the incident and reflected waves plays a crucial role for the conservation of energy at the interface.
3-D Forward modeling of Induced Polarization Effects of Transient Electromagnetic Method
Wu, Y.; Ji, Y.; Guan, S.; Li, D.; Wang, A.
2017-12-01
In transient electromagnetic (TEM) detection, Induced polarization (IP) effects are so important that they cannot be ignored. The authors simulate the three-dimensional (3-D) induced polarization effects in time-domain directly by applying the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) based on Cole-Cole model. Due to the frequency dispersion characteristics of the electrical conductivity, the computations of convolution in the generalized Ohm's law of fractional order system makes the forward modeling particularly complicated. Firstly, we propose a method to approximate the fractional order function of Cole-Cole model using a lower order rational transfer function based on error minimum theory in the frequency domain. In this section, two auxiliary variables are introduced to transform nonlinear least square fitting problem of the fractional order system into a linear programming problem, thus avoiding having to solve a system of equations and nonlinear problems. Secondly, the time-domain expression of Cole-Cole model is obtained by using Inverse Laplace transform. Then, for the calculation of Ohm's law, we propose an e-index auxiliary equation of conductivity to transform the convolution to non-convolution integral; in this section, the trapezoid rule is applied to compute the integral. We then substitute the recursion equation into Maxwell's equations to derive the iterative equations of electromagnetic field using the FDTD method. Finally, we finish the stimulation of 3-D model and evaluate polarization parameters. The results are compared with those obtained from the digital filtering solution of the analytical equation in the homogeneous half space, as well as with the 3-D model results from the auxiliary ordinary differential equation method (ADE). Good agreements are obtained across the three methods. In terms of the 3-D model, the proposed method has higher efficiency and lower memory requirements as execution times and memory usage were reduced by 20
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Intrator, T.; Meassick, S.; Browning, J.; Majeski, R.; Ferron, J.R.; Hershkowitz, N.
1989-01-01
It is shown that the predictions of a numerical code (ANTENA) and the data of wave field measurements in the Phaedrus-B tandem mirror are consistent (±25%) for right-handed (B-vector - ) wave fields and less so (±40%) for left-handed (B-vector + ) wave fields in the plasma core, and that they disagree for B-vector + fields near the column edge. Shorting out or reduction of the wave azimuthal electric fields by limiters is the probable cause of this discrepancy. The ICRF fluctuating wave B-vector fields are shown as |B-vector| contour maps in the r-z plane, where the B-vector + data peak at a smaller radius than predicted. The waves are characterized by different dominant axial wave numbers for the left- and right-handed circularly polarized fields. (author). 28 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vojkan M. Radonjić
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Quality transmission of digital signals from a transmitting radio-relay device to a receiving one depends on the impact of environmental effects on the propagation of electromagnetic waves. In this paper some of the most important effects are explained and modeled, especially those characteristic for the frequency range within which the GRC 408E operates. The modeling resulted in the conclusions about the quality of transmission of digital signals in the GRC 408E radio-relay equipment. Propagation of electromagnetic waves A radio-relay link is achieved by direct electromagnetic waves, provided there is a line of sight between the transmitting and receiving antenna of a radio-relay device. Electromagnetic waves on the road are exposed to various environmental influences causing phenomena such as bending, reflection, refraction, absorption and multiple propagation. Due to these environmental effects, the quality of information transmission is not satisfactory and a radio-relay link is not reliable. The approach to the analysis of the quality of links in digital radiorelay devices is different from the one in analog radio-relay devices. Therefore, the quality is seen through errors in the received bit ( BER , the propagation conditions are taken into account, a reservation for the fading is determined by other means, etc.. Phenomena which accompany the propagation of electromagnetic waves in digital radio-relay links The propagation of direct EM waves is followed by the following phenomena: - attenuation due to propagation, - diffraction (changing table, - refraction (refraction, - reflection (refusing, - absorption (absorption and - multiple wave propagation. Each of these has a negative effect on the quality of the received signal at the receiving antenna of the radio-relay device. Attenuation due to propagation of electromagnetic waves The main parameter for evaluating the quality of radio-relay links is the level of the field at the reception
Electromagnetic effects on the self-modulation of nonlinear lower hybrid waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, P.; Kuehl, H.H.
1983-01-01
Electromagnetic effects on the self-modulation of nonlinear lower hybrid waves in an inhomogeneous plasma are studied for both broad and narrow spectrum excitations. For broad spectrum excitation, the complex modified Korteweg--de Vries equation is modified by two additional terms due to the electromagnetic correction and inhomogeneity. Numerical solutions of this equation for typical tokamak parameters show that these terms suppress soliton formation. For narrow spectrum excitation, the electromagnetic correction produces an additional dispersive term in the differential equation governing the wave envelope. This term opposes thermal dispersion, resulting in significant self-modulation. Numerical solutions show constriction and splitting of the envelope as well as spreading of the Fourier spectrum
Measurement of the environmental broadband electromagnetic waves in a mid-size European city.
Fernández-García, R; Gil, I
2017-10-01
In this paper, the level of exposure to broadband radiofrequency electromagnetic field in a mid-size European city was evaluated in accordance with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines from 1998. With the aim to analyse all the potential electromagnetic waves present in the city up to 18GHz, a total of 271 locations distributed along Terrassa (Spain) have been measured. To show the results in an easy-to-interpret way by the citizen, the results have been represented in a set of raster maps. The measurement results obtained showed that the electromagnetic wave measured in all broadband frequency range along the city is much lower than the safety level according to the international regulations for both public and occupational sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Success of electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter as monotherapy ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
K.S. Meitei
Objectives: To evaluate the success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as monotherapy for solitary .... history of previous renal surgery on the affected side were excluded .... energy. Twelve (63.2%) of the steinstrasse cases were managed con-.
Assessment methodology of counter-personnel high power electromagnetic millimeter wave effects
Valente, F.; Horst, M.J. van der; Paulissen, J.J.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Toet, A.
2013-01-01
The group of NLW that arguably offers the largest amount of useful applications are based on high power electromagnetic millimetre wave technology. This group is often referred to as ‘Active Denial Systems’ (ADS), since they are primarily aimed at deterring and dispersing people out of an area. The
Magnetization of a warm plasma by the nonstationary ponderomotive force of an electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.
2009-01-01
It is shown that magnetic fields can be generated in a warm plasma by the nonstationary ponderomotive force of a large-amplitude electromagnetic wave. In the present Brief Report, we derive simple and explicit results that can be useful for understanding the origin of the magnetic fields that are produced in intense laser-plasma interaction experiments.
Transversality of Electromagnetic Waves in the Calculus-Based Introductory Physics Course
Burko, Lior M.
2008-01-01
Introductory calculus-based physics textbooks state that electromagnetic waves are transverse and list many of their properties, but most such textbooks do not bring forth arguments why this is so. Both physical and theoretical arguments are at a level appropriate for students of courses based on such books, and could be readily used by…
FDTD-analyse of electromagnetic wave propagation through photonic band gap structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brendel', M.O.; Danilov, V.V.; Makarov, D.G.; Nechiporuk, O.Yu.
2007-01-01
FDTD-method for numerical solution of Maxwell's equation has used for investigation of electromagnetic wave transmission through the periodically inhomogeneous planar waveguide. The spectral dependence for transmission factor has obtained. This result compared with the previous one, obtained with approximate analytical calculations
NUMERICAL STUDY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES GENERATED BY A PROTOTYPE DIELECTRIC LOGGING TOOL
To understand the electromagnetic waves generated by a prototype dielectric logging tool, a numerical study was conducted using both the finite-difference, time-domain method and a frequency- wavenumber method. When the propagation velocity in the borehole was greater than th...
Resonant generation of electromagnetic surface wave by inhomogeneous relativistic electron stream
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cadez, V.M.; Vukovic, S. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Inst. za Fiziku); Frolov, V.V.; Kyrie, A.Y. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)
1981-12-01
Generation of electromagnetic surface waves by relativistic inhomogeneous particle flows is investigated for plane and cylindrical geometries. The basic excitation mechanisms are shown to be the induced anomalous Doppler effect and the hydrodynamic Cerenkov effect. The relevant maximal growth rates may differ significantly from those derived for monoenergetic beams.
Resonant generation of electromagnetic surface wave by inhomogeneous relativistic electron stream
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cadez, V.M.; Vukovic, S.; Frolov, V.V.; Kyrie, A.Y.
1981-01-01
Generation of electromagnetic surface waves by relativistic inhomogeneous particle flows is investigated for plane and cylindrical geometries. The basic excitation mechanisms are shown to be the induced anomalous Doppler effect and the hydrodynamic Cerenkov effect. The relevant maximal growth rates may differ significantly from those derived for monoenergetic beams. (author)
Detection of Metallic and Electronic Radar Targets by Acoustic Modulation of Electromagnetic Waves
2017-07-01
by Acoustic Modulation of Electromagnetic Waves 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory J... Program 13 List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms 18 Distribution List 19 Approved for public release; distribution is...4 Fig. 4 Flowchart of wireless experiment to receive acoustically modulated radar waveforms
Electromagnetic-wave absorption by inhomogeneous, collisional plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregoire, D.J.; Santoru, J.; Schumacher, R.W.
1990-01-01
Unmagnetized, collisional plasmas can be used as broadband EM-wave absorbers or refractors. In the absorption process, plasma electrons are first accelerated by the EM-wave fields and then collide with background-gas molecules, thereby transferring energy from the EM waves to the gas. A plasma absorber has several advantages compared to conventional materials. A plasma can be turned on and off very rapidly, thereby switching between absorbing and transparent conditions. Calculations indicate that plasma absorbers can also be tailored to provide broadband absorption (>40 dB) over multiple octaves. The authors have developed a one-dimensional model and a computer code to calculate the net power reflected from a plasma-enclosed EM-wave-reflecting target. They included three contributions to the reflected EM-wave power: reflections from the vacuum-plasma interface; reflections from the bulk plasma volume; and reflection of the attenuated EM wave that is transmitted through the plasma and reflected by the target
Modal Ring Method for the Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves
Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.
1993-01-01
The modal ring method for electromagnetic scattering from perfectly electric conducting (PEC) symmetrical bodies is presented. The scattering body is represented by a line of finite elements (triangular) on its outer surface. The infinite computational region surrounding the body is represented analytically by an eigenfunction expansion. The modal ring method effectively reduces the two dimensional scattering problem to a one-dimensional problem similar to the method of moments. The modal element method is capable of handling very high frequency scattering because it has a highly banded solution matrix.
Collective scattering of electromagnetic waves from a relativistic magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Quankang
1998-01-01
Recently, laser and microwave scattering has become one of the important diagnostic means for plasma. Laser and microwave correlative scattering spectrum is determined by particle-density fluctuations in a weak turbulent plasma. In a relativistic plasma, on the basis of complete electromagnetic-interaction between particles, a general expression for particle density fluctuations and spectrums of laser and microwave scattering from a magnetized plasma are derived. The laser and microwave scattering spectrums provide informations on electron density and temperature, ion temperature, resonance and nonresonance effects. (author)
Ions cross-B collisional diffusion and electromagnetic wave scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomchuk, B.P.; Gresillon, D.
2000-01-01
The calculation is presented of the averaged quadratic displacement of a collisional charged particle in a magnetic field. This calculation is used to obtain the statistical presentation of the electromagnetic field scattered by these particles. These results extend the previous calculations that were restricted to non-magnetized particles (Ornstein equation, Einstein diffusion, etc.). In addition this calculation foresees effects that are absent of the Ornstein equation: a modulation of the averaged quadratic displacement function at the cyclotron frequency and a maximum of the Cross-B diffusion coefficient when the cyclotron frequency is equal to the collision frequency (Bohm diffusion)
Ren, Hengxin; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Xiaofei
2018-03-01
We conduct numerical simulations and theoretical analyses to quantitatively study the amplitude decay characteristic of the evanescent electromagnetic (EM) waves, which has been neglected in previous studies on the seismoelectric conversion occurring at a porous-porous interface. Time slice snapshots of seismic and EM wave-fields generated by a vertical single force point source in a two-layer porous model show that evanescent EM waves can be induced at a porous-porous interface. The seismic and EM wave-fields computed for a receiver array located in a vertical line nearby the interface are investigated in detail. In addition to the direct and interface-response radiation EM waves, we identify three groups of coseismic EM fields and evanescent EM waves associated with the direct P, refracted SV-P and direct SV waves, respectively. Thereafter, we derive the mathematical expression of the amplitude decay factor of the evanescent EM waves. This mathematical expression is further validated by our numerical simulations. It turns out the amplitude decay of the evanescent EM waves generated by seismoelectric conversion is greatly dependent on the horizontal wavenumber of seismic waves. It is also found the evanescent EM waves have a higher detectability at a lower frequency range. This work provides a better understanding on the EM wave-fields generated by seismoelectric conversion, which probably will help improve the interpretation of the seismoelectric coupling phenomena associated with natural earthquakes or possibly will inspire some new ideas on the application of the seismoelectric coupling effect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Bin Peng [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Tianjin Binhai New Area Finance Bureau, Tianjin 300450 (China); Wang, Cheng Guo, E-mail: sduwangchg@gmail.com [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang, Wen [Norinco Group China North Material Science and Engineering Technology Group Corporation, Jinan 250031 (China); Yu, Mei Jie; Gao, Rui; Chen, Yang; Xiang Wang, Yan [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)
2014-09-01
Composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in amorphous carbon were fabricated conveniently and economically by carbonizing polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers mixed with micro-sized iron particles under different temperatures. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The electromagnetic (EM) properties were measured by a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz based on which analog computations of EM wave absorption properties were carried out. The influences of temperature on phase composition and EM wave absorption properties were also investigated, indicating that the composites had good electromagnetic absorption properties with both electrical loss and magnetic loss. Effective reflection loss (RL<−10 dB) was observed in a large frequency range of 7.5–18 GHz with the absorber thickness of 2.0–3.0 mm for the paraffin samples with composite powders heated up to 750 °C and the minimum absorption peak around −40 dB appeared at approximately 10 GHz with matching thickness of 2.0 mm for the paraffin sample with composite powders heated up to 800 °C. - Highlights: • High-performance electromagnetic wave absorption materials were fabricated conveniently and economically. • The materials are composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in porous amorphous carbon. • The influences of temperature on phase composition and electromagnetic wave absorption properties were investigated. • The composites heated up to 750 °C and 800 °C had good electromagnetic wave absorption property.
Modeling the propagation of electromagnetic waves over the surface of the human body
Vendik, I. B.; Vendik, O. G.; Kirillov, V. V.; Pleskachev, V. V.; Tural'chuk, P. A.
2016-12-01
The results of modeling and an experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in microwave range propagating along the surface of the human body have been presented. The parameters of wave propagation, such as the attenuation and phase velocity, have also been investigated. The calculation of the propagation of EM waves by the numerical method FDTD (finite difference time domain), as well as the use of the analytical model of the propagation of the EM wave along flat and curved surfaces has been fulfilled. An experimental study on a human body has been conducted. It has been shown that creeping waves are slow and exhibit a noticeable dispersion, while the surface waves are dispersionless and propagate at the speed of light in free space. A comparison of the results of numerical simulation, analytical calculation, and experimental investigations at a frequency of 2.55 GHz has been carried out.
The theory of electromagnetic wave scattering by density fluctuations in nonequilibrium plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlenko, V.N.; Panchenko, V.G.
1993-01-01
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of the external pump field is investigated. The spectral density of electron density fluctuations is calculated. The pump wave is supposed to decay into a lower hybrid wave and low frequency oscillations (ion-acoustic wave, modified convective cell and ion-cyclotron wave with ion-temperature anisotropy). When the pump wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field, the scattering cross section increases anomalously, i.e. there is the critical opalescence. The differential scattering cross section dependence on the pump amplitude and ion temperature anisotropy is obtained in the region above the parametric instability threshold. For characteristic parameters of fusion and space plasmas it is shown that the pump field terms considerably surmount the thermal noise contribution to the scattering cross section
75th Anniversary of `Existence of Electromagnetic-Hydrodynamic Waves'
Russell, Alexander J. B.
2018-05-01
We have recently passed the 75th anniversary of one of the most important results in solar and space physics: Hannes Alfvén's discovery of Alfvén waves and the Alfvén speed. To celebrate the anniversary, this article recounts some major episodes in the history of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. Following an initially cool reception, Alfvén's ideas were propelled into the spotlight by Fermi's work on cosmic rays, the new mystery of coronal heating, and, as scientific perception of interplanetary space shifted dramatically and the space race started, detection of Alfvén waves in the solar wind. From then on, interest in MHD waves boomed, laying the foundations for modern remote observations of MHD waves in the Sun, coronal seismology, and some of today's leading theories of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. In 1970, Alfvén received the Nobel Prize for his work in MHD, including these discoveries. The article concludes with some reflection about what the history implies about the way we do science, especially the advantages and pitfalls of idealised mathematical models.
Chen, Na; Jiang, Jian-Tang; Xu, Cheng-Yan; Yan, Shao-Jiu; Zhen, Liang
2018-02-16
Core-shell particles with integration of ferromagnetic core and dielectric shell are attracting extensive attention for promising microwave absorption applications. In this work, CoNi microspheres with conical bulges were synthesized by a simple and scalable liquid-phase reduction method. Subsequent coating of dielectric materials was conducted to acquire core-shell structured CoNi@TiO 2 composite particles, in which the thickness of TiO 2 is about 40 nm. The coating of TiO 2 enables the absorption band of CoNi to effectively shift from K u to S band, and endows CoNi@TiO 2 microspheres with outstanding electromagnetic wave absorption performance along with a maximum reflection loss of 76.6 dB at 3.3 GHz, much better than that of bare CoNi microspheres (54.4 dB at 17.8 GHz). The enhanced EMA performance is attributed to the unique core-shell structures, which can induce dipole polarization and interfacial polarization, and tune the dielectric properties to achieve good impedance matching. Impressively, TiO 2 coating endows the composites with better microwave absorption capability than CoNi@SiO 2 microspheres. Compared with SiO 2 , TiO 2 dielectric shells could protect CoNi microspheres from merger and agglomeration during annealed. These results indicate that CoNi@TiO 2 core-shell microspheres can serve as high-performance absorbers for electromagnetic wave absorbing application.
Resonant interactions between cometary ions and low frequency electromagnetic waves
Thorne, Richard M.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.
1987-01-01
The conditions for resonant wave amplification in a plasma with a ring-beam distribution which is intended to model pick-up ions in a cometary environment are investigated. The inclination between the interplanetary field and the solar wind is found to play a crucial role in governing both the resonant frequency and the growth rate of any unstable mode. It is suggested that the low-frequency MHD mode should experience the most rapid amplification for intermediate inclination. In the frame of the solar wind, such waves should propagate along the field in the direction upstream toward the sun with a phase speed lower than the beaming velocity of the pick-up ions. This mechanism may account for the presence of the interior MHD waves noted by satellites over a region surrounding comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley.
Preparation and electromagnetic wave absorption of RGO/Cu nanocomposite
Zhang, Hui; Tian, Xingyou; Zhang, Xian; Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian
2017-09-01
We use a facile pyrolysis method to prepare reduced graphene oxide and copper nanocomposite (RGO/Cu) based on it. The product shows an outstanding wave absorption properties. The maximum reflection loss is up to-50.7 dB at 3.8 GHz. The reflection loss of-10 dB (90% power absorption) corresponds to a bandwidth of 11.2 GHz (3.4-14.6 GHz range) for the layer thickness of 2-5 mm. Therefore, it is suggested that the RGO/Cu nanocomposite is also a new kind of lightweight and high-performance EM wave absorbing material.
Alfvénic waves in polar spicules
Tavabi, E.; Koutchmy, S.; Ajabshirizadeh, A.; Ahangarzadeh Maralani, A. R.; Zeighami, S.
2015-01-01
Context. For investigating spicules from the photosphere to coronal heights, the new Hinode/SOT long series of high-resolution observations from space taken in CaII H line emission offers an improved way to look at their remarkable dynamical behavior using images free of seeing effects. They should be put in the context of the huge amount of already accumulated material from ground-based instruments, including high- resolution spectra of off-limb spicules. Aims: Both the origin of the phenomenon and the significance of dynamical spicules for the heating above the top of the photosphere and the fuelling of the chromospheric and the transition region need more investigation, including of the possible role of the associated magnetic waves for the corona higher up. Methods: We analyze in great detail the proper transverse motions of mature and tall polar region spicules for different heights, assuming that there might be Helical-Kink waves or Alfvénic waves propagating inside their multicomponent substructure, by interpreting the quasi-coherent behavior of all visible components presumably confined by a surrounding magnetic envelop. We concentrate the analysis on the taller CaII spicules more relevant for coronal heights and easier to measure. Two-dimensional velocity maps of proper motion were computed for the first time using a correlation tracking technique based on FFTs and cross-correlation function with a 2nd-order-accuracy Taylor expansion. Highly processed images with the popular mad-max algorithm were first prepared to perform this analysis. The locations of the peak of the cross-correlation function were obtained with subpixel accuracy. Results: The surge-like behavior of solar polar region spicules supports the untwisting multicomponent interpretation of spicules exhibiting helical dynamics. Several tall spicules are found with (i) upward and downward flows that are similar at lower and middle levels, the rate of upward motion being slightly higher at high
Ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the Earth's crust and magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guglielmi, A V
2007-01-01
Research on natural intra- and extraterrestrially produced electromagnetic waves with periods ranging from 0.2 to 600 s is reviewed. The way in which the energy of rock movements transforms into the energy of an alternating magnetic field is analyzed. Methods for detecting seismomagnetic signals against a strong background are described. In discussing the physics of ultra-low-frequency waves in the magnetosphere, the 11-year activity modulation of 1-Hz waves and ponderomotive forces affecting plasma distribution are emphasized. (reviews of topical problems)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sakai, S.; Ustinov, A. V.; Kohlstedt, H.
1994-01-01
Characteristic velocities of the electromagnetic waves propagating in vertically stacked Josephson transmission are theoretically discussed. An equation for solving n velocities of the waves in an n Josephson-junction stack is derived. The solutions of two- and threefold stacks are especially...... focused on. Furthermore, under the assumption that all parameters of the layers are equal, analytic solutions for a generic N-fold stack are presented. The velocities of the waves in two- and three-junction stacks by Nb-Al-AlOx-Nb systems are experimentally obtained by measuring the cavity resonance...
Bogatskaya, A. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Tereshonok, M. V.; Adjemov, S. S.; Popov, A. M.
2018-05-01
We present an analysis of the possibility of penetrating electromagnetic waves through opaque media using an optical-mechanical analogy. As an example, we consider the plasma sheath surrounding the vehicle as a potential barrier and analyze the overcoming of radiocommunication blackout problem. The idea is to embed a «resonator» between the surface on the vehicle and plasma sheath which is supposed to provide an effective tunneling of the signal to the receiving antenna. We discuss the peculiarities of optical mechanical analogy applicability and analyze the radio frequency wave tunneling regime in detail. The cases of normal and oblique incidence of radiofrequency waves on the vehicle surface are studied.
A New Kind of Circular Polarization Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chong Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new kind of circular polarization leaky-wave antenna with N-shaped slots cut in the upper side of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW is investigated and presented. The radiation pattern and polarization axial ratio of the leaky-wave antenna are studied. The results show that the width of N-shaped slots has significant effect on the circular polarization property of the antenna. By properly choosing structural parameters, the SIW based leaky-wave antenna can realize circular polarization with excellent axial ratio in 8 GHz satellite band.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Viezzoli, Andrea; Kaminskiy, Vladislav; Fiandaca, Gianluca
2017-01-01
constrained multiparametric inversion was evaluated, including recovery of chargeability distributions from shallow and deep targets based on analysis of induced polarization (IP) effects, simulated in airborne TDEM data. Different scenarios were studied, including chargeable targets associated...... processing and the effect of constraints, and a priori information. We have used a 1D layered earth model approximation and lateral constraints. Synthetic simulations were performed for several models and the corresponding Cole-Cole parameters. The possibility to recover these models by means of laterally...... the airborne electromagnetic is most sensitive (e.g., approximately 1 ms), it is possible to recover deep chargeable targets (to depths more than 130 m) in association with high electrical conductivity and in resistive environments. Furthermore, it was found that the recovery of a deep conductor, masked...
On the effects of geometry on guided electromagnetic waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tucker Robin W.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The method of moving (Cartan coframes is used to analyze the influence of geometry on the behavior of electromagnetic fields in confining guides and the effect of such fields on their ultra-relativistic sources. Such issues are of relevance to a number of topical problems in accelerator science where the need to control the motion of high current-density micro-meter size bunches of relativistic radiating charge remains a technical and theoretical challenge. By dimensionally reducing the exterior equations for the sources and fields on spacetime using symmetries exhibited by the confining guides one achieves a unifying view that offers natural perturbative approaches for dealing with smooth non-uniform and curved guides. The issue of the back-reaction of radiation fields on the sources is approached in terms of a simple charged relativistic fluid model. .
Propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by the ionospheric irregularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, A.Y.; Kuo, S.P.; Lee, M.C.
1993-01-01
The problem of wave propagation and scattering in the ionosphere is particularly important in the areas of communications, remote-sensing and detection. The ionosphere is often perturbed with coherently structured (quasiperiodic) density irregularities. Experimental observations suggest that these irregularities could give rise to significant ionospheric effect on wave propagation such as causing spread-F of the probing HF sounding signals and scintillation of beacon satellite signals. It was show by the latter that scintillation index S 4 ∼ 0.5 and may be as high as 0.8. In this work a quasi-particle theory is developed to study the scintillation phenomenon. A Wigner distribution function for the wave intensity in the (k,r) space is introduced and its governing equation is derived with an effective collision term giving rise to the attenuation and scattering of the wave. This kinetic equation leads to a hierarchy of moment equations in r space. This systems of equations is then truncated to the second moment which is equivalent to assuming a cold quasi-particle distribution In this analysis, the irregularities are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on an uniform background plasma. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating, effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then contributes to the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals. Using the proper plasma parameters and equatorial measured data of irregularities, it is shown that the scintillation index defined by S4=( 2 >- 2 )/ 2 where stands for spatial average over an irregularity wavelength is in the range of the experimentally detected values
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, N.N.
1998-01-01
A systematic analysis of the stationary propagation of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma via the ponderomotive force is carried out. For small but finite amplitudes, the governing equations have a Hamiltonian structure, but with a kinetic energy term that is not positive definite. The Hamiltonian is similar to the well-known Hacute enon endash Heiles Hamiltonian of nonlinear dynamics, and is completely integrable in three regimes of the allowed parameter space. The corresponding second invariants of motion are also explicitly obtained. The integrable parameter regimes correspond to supersonic values of the Mach number, which characterizes the propagation speed of the coupled waves. On the other hand, in the sub- as well as near-sonic regimes, the coupled mode equations admit different types of exact analytical solutions, which represent nonlinear localized eigenstates of the electromagnetic field trapped in the density cavity due to the ponderomotive potential. While the density cavity has always a single-dip structure, for larger amplitudes it can support higher-order modes having a larger number of nodes in the electromagnetic field. In particular, we show the existence of a new type of localized electromagnetic wave whose field intensity has a triple-hump structure. For typical parameter values, the triple-hump solitons propagate with larger Mach numbers that are closer to the sonic limit than the single- as well as the double-hump solitons, but carry a lesser amount of the electromagnetic field energy. A comparison between the different types of solutions is carried out. The possibility of the existence of trapped electromagnetic modes having a larger number of humps is also discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Electromagnetic backscattering from freak waves in (1 + 1)-dimensional deep-water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tao, Xie; Tao, Shen; Wei, Chen; Hai-Lan, Kuang; Perrie, William
2010-01-01
To study the electromagnetic (EM) backscatter characteristics of freak waves at moderate incidence angles, we establish an EM backscattering model for freak waves in (1 + 1)-dimensional deep water. The nonlinear interaction between freak waves and Bragg short waves is considered to be the basic hydrodynamic spectra modulation mechanism in the model. Numerical results suggest that the EM backscattering intensities of freak waves are less than those from the background sea surface at moderate incidence angles. The normalised radar cross sections (NRCSs) from freak waves are highly polarisation dependent, even at low incidence angles, which is different from the situation for normal sea waves; moreover, the NRCS of freak waves is more polarisation dependent than the background sea surface. NRCS discrepancies between freak waves and the background sea surface with using horizontal transmitting horizomtal (HH) polarisation are larger than those using vertical transmitting vertical (VV) polarisation, at moderate incident angles. NRCS discrepancies between freak waves and background sea surface decreases with the increase of incidence angle, in both HH and VV polarisation radars. As an application, in the synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imaging of freak waves, we suggest that freak waves should have extremely low backscatter NRCSs for the freak wave facet with the strongest slope. Compared with the background sea surface, the freak waves should be darker in HH polarisation echo images than in VV echo images, in SAR images. Freak waves can be more easily detected from the background sea surface in HH polarisation images than in VV polarisation images. The possibility of detection of freak waves at low incidence angles is much higher than at high incidence angles. (classical areas of phenomenology)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aivazyan, Yu M; Mergelyan, O S; Poulatov, M P
1974-01-01
Aproblem for the diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave on a dielectric plate between two other dielectrics is solved. The dielectric constant of the plate depends periodically on three coordinates. From this solution it is possible to obtain the equations for fields and the angular distribution of diffracted waves for the particular cases of a crystal plate and a dielectric surface fluted in all directions. If the expansion is made in the variable of the electron density in crystals, the results will correspond to the problem for the X-ray diffraction on a crystal lattice, the values of the coefficient ..cap alpha -->..sub(tau) being determined by the lattice parameters.
Surface solitons of four-wave mixing in an electromagnetically induced lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Yanpeng; Yuan, Chenzhi; Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Wang, Zhiguo; Xiao, Min
2013-01-01
By creating lattice states with two-dimensional spatial periodic atomic coherence, we report an experimental demonstration of generating two-dimensional surface solitons of a four-wave mixing signal in an electromagnetically induced lattice composed of two electromagnetically induced gratings with different orientations in an atomic medium, each of which can support a one-dimensional surface soliton. The surface solitons can be well controlled by different experimental parameters, such as probe frequency, pump power, and beam incident angles, and can be affected by coherent induced defect states. (letter)
Adrian, M. L.; Wendel, D. E.
2011-01-01
We investigate observations of intense bursts of electromagnetic wave energy in association with the thin current layers of turbulent magnetosheath reconnection. These observed emissions form two distinct types: (i) broadband emissions that extend continuously to lOs of Hertz; and (ii) structured bursts of emitted energy that occur above 80-Hz, often displaying features reminiscent of absorption bands and are observed at local minima in the magnetic field. We present detailed analyses of these intense bursts of electromagnetic energy and quantify their proximity to X- and O-nulls, as well as their correlation to the amount of magnetic energy converted by the process of magnetic reconnection.
The SEM description of interaction of a transient electromagnetic wave with an object
Pearson, L. W.; Wilton, D. R.
1980-01-01
The singularity expansion method (SEM), proposed as a means for determining and representing the transient surface current density induced on a scatterer by a transient electromagnetic wave is described. The resulting mathematical description of the transient surface current on the object is discussed. The data required to represent the electromagnetic scattering properties of a given object are examined. Experimental methods which were developed for the determination of the SEM description are discussed. The feasibility of characterizing the surface current induced on aircraft flying in proximity to a lightning stroke by way of SEM is examined.
Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere
Wong, Alfred Y.
1999-09-01
The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO2 through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.
Some problems in generalized electromagnetic thermoelasticity and wave propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohamed, S.E.S.
2012-01-01
The first chapter contains a review of the classical theory of elasticity, the theory of thermodynamics, the theory of uncoupled thermoelasticity, the coupled theory of thermoelasticity, the generalized theory of thermoelasticity with one relaxation time, electromagneto thermoelasticity and an introduction to wave propagation in elastic media. Chapter two is devoted to the study of wave propagation for a problem of an infinitely long solid conducting circular cylinder whose lateral surface is traction free and subjected to a known surrounding temperatures in the presence of a uniform magnetic field in the direction of the axis of the cylinder. Laplace transform techniques are used to derive the solution in the Laplace transform domain. The inversion process is carried out using asymptotic expansions valid for short tines. Numerical results are computed for the temperature, displacement, stress,induced magnetic field and induced electric field distributions. The chapter contains also a study of the wave propagation in the elastic medium. In chapter three, we consider the two-dimensional problem of an infinitely long conducting solid cylinder. The lateral surface of the cylinder is taken to be traction free and is subjected to a known temperature distribution independent of z in the presence of a uniform magnetic field in the direction of the axis of the cylinder. Laplace transform techniques are used. The inversion process is carried out using a numerical method based on Fourier series expansions. Numerical results are computed and represented graphically. The chapter contains also a study of the wave propagation in the elastic medium. In chapter four, we consider a two-dimensional problem for an infinity long cylinder. The lateral surface of the cylinder is taken to be traction free and is subjected to a known temperature distribution independent of φ in the presence of a uniform electric field in the direction of the binomial of the cylinder axis. Laplace and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benova, E.; Ghanashev, I.; Zhelyazkov, I.
1992-01-01
The modelling of isotropic plasma columns sustained by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar mode (angular dependence exp imφ, m=±1) shows that the m=±1 modes have identical dispersion characteristics. In the presence of an external static magnetic field, however, the modes behave rather differently. This observation arose in studying the axial structures of magnetized plasma columns surrounded by vacuum and produced by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar modes. We examine the propagation of electromagnetic waves along a homogeneous cold plasma column of radius R and electron number density n immersed in an axial constant magnetic field. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs
Self-consistent adjoint analysis for topology optimization of electromagnetic waves
Deng, Yongbo; Korvink, Jan G.
2018-05-01
In topology optimization of electromagnetic waves, the Gâteaux differentiability of the conjugate operator to the complex field variable results in the complexity of the adjoint sensitivity, which evolves the original real-valued design variable to be complex during the iterative solution procedure. Therefore, the self-inconsistency of the adjoint sensitivity is presented. To enforce the self-consistency, the real part operator has been used to extract the real part of the sensitivity to keep the real-value property of the design variable. However, this enforced self-consistency can cause the problem that the derived structural topology has unreasonable dependence on the phase of the incident wave. To solve this problem, this article focuses on the self-consistent adjoint analysis of the topology optimization problems for electromagnetic waves. This self-consistent adjoint analysis is implemented by splitting the complex variables of the wave equations into the corresponding real parts and imaginary parts, sequentially substituting the split complex variables into the wave equations with deriving the coupled equations equivalent to the original wave equations, where the infinite free space is truncated by the perfectly matched layers. Then, the topology optimization problems of electromagnetic waves are transformed into the forms defined on real functional spaces instead of complex functional spaces; the adjoint analysis of the topology optimization problems is implemented on real functional spaces with removing the variational of the conjugate operator; the self-consistent adjoint sensitivity is derived, and the phase-dependence problem is avoided for the derived structural topology. Several numerical examples are implemented to demonstrate the robustness of the derived self-consistent adjoint analysis.
Nonstationary random acoustic and electromagnetic fields as wave diffusion processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnaut, L R
2007-01-01
We investigate the effects of relatively rapid variations of the boundaries of an overmoded cavity on the stochastic properties of its interior acoustic or electromagnetic field. For quasi-static variations, this field can be represented as an ideal incoherent and statistically homogeneous isotropic random scalar or vector field, respectively. A physical model is constructed showing that the field dynamics can be characterized as a generalized diffusion process. The Langevin-It o-hat and Fokker-Planck equations are derived and their associated statistics and distributions for the complex analytic field, its magnitude and energy density are computed. The energy diffusion parameter is found to be proportional to the square of the ratio of the standard deviation of the source field to the characteristic time constant of the dynamic process, but is independent of the initial energy density, to first order. The energy drift vanishes in the asymptotic limit. The time-energy probability distribution is in general not separable, as a result of nonstationarity. A general solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is obtained in integral form, together with explicit closed-form solutions for several asymptotic cases. The findings extend known results on statistics and distributions of quasi-stationary ideal random fields (pure diffusions), which are retrieved as special cases
Xuyang, CHEN; Fangfang, SHEN; Yanming, LIU; Wei, AI; Xiaoping, LI
2018-06-01
A plasma-based stable, ultra-wideband electromagnetic (EM) wave absorber structure is studied in this paper for stealth applications. The stability is maintained by a multi-layer structure with several plasma layers and dielectric layers distributed alternately. The plasma in each plasma layer is designed to be uniform, whereas it has a discrete nonuniform distribution from the overall view of the structure. The nonuniform distribution of the plasma is the key to obtaining ultra-wideband wave absorption. A discrete Epstein distribution model is put forward to constrain the nonuniform electron density of the plasma layers, by which the wave absorption range is extended to the ultra-wideband. Then, the scattering matrix method (SMM) is employed to analyze the electromagnetic reflection and absorption of the absorber structure. In the simulation, the validation of the proposed structure and model in ultra-wideband EM wave absorption is first illustrated by comparing the nonuniform plasma model with the uniform case. Then, the influence of various parameters on the EM wave reflection of the plasma are simulated and analyzed in detail, verifying the EM wave absorption performance of the absorber. The proposed structure and model are expected to be superior in some realistic applications, such as supersonic aircraft.
Merger of binary neutron stars: Gravitational waves and electromagnetic counterparts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shibata, Masaru
2016-12-15
Late inspiral and merger phases of binary neutron stars are the valuable new experimental fields for exploring nuclear physics because (i) gravitational waves from them will bring information for the neutron-star equation of state and (ii) the matter ejected after the onset of the merger could be the main site for the r-process nucleosynthesis. We will summarize these aspects of the binary neutron stars, describing the current understanding for the merger process of binary neutron stars that has been revealed by numerical-relativity simulations.